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Sample records for protein-3 luteinizing hormone

  1. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  3. Naloxone does not Affect the Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone-Induced Inhibition of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Naylor, A M; Porter, D W; Lincoln, D W

    1989-06-01

    Abstract Injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (21 pmol) into the third cerebral ventricle of long-term ovariectomized ewes caused a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly when compared with the control responses to saline (50 mul). A notable characteristic of the response was the delayed and sustained nature of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition. In the presence of the opioid antagonist naloxone (4 +/- 25 mg iv), the central administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone still produced a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Again, mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly. When naloxone was injected iv, there was a significant rise in mean luteinizing hormone levels as a consequence of an increase in pulse frequency (in four out of five ewes) and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone pulse amplitude. In conclusion, these data suggest that central opioid pathways sensitive to blockade by naloxone are not involved in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition of luteinizing hormone release. Furthermore, in the long-term ovariectomized ewe, endogenous opioid peptides exert a tonic inhibitory influence on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion. PMID:19210459

  4. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  9. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-05-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes.

  10. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  14. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion by hypothalamic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Donoso, A O; Seltzer, A M; Navarro, C E; Cabrera, R J; López, F J; Negro-Vilar, A

    1994-04-01

    1. The present review discusses the proposed roles of the amino acids glutamate and GABA in the central regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. 2. Descriptions of the mechanisms of action of these neurotransmitters have focused on two diencephalic areas, namely, the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area where the cell bodies of LHRH neurons are located, and the medial basal hypothalamus which contains the nerve endings of the LHRH system. Increasing endogenous GABA concentration by drugs, GABA agonists, or blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission by selective antagonists in rats and non-human primates prevents ovulation and pulsatile LH release, and blunts the LH surges induced by estrogen or an estrogen-progesterone combination. In contrast, glutamate and different glutamate agonists such as NMDA, AMPA and kainate, can increase LHRH/LH secretion. 3. The simultaneous enhancement of glutamatergic activity and a decrease of GABAergic tone may positively influence the maturation of the pituitary-gonadal system in rats and non-human primates. Administration of glutamate receptor agonists has been shown to significantly advance the onset of puberty. Conversely, glutamate antagonists or increased endogenous GABA levels may delay the onset of puberty. The physiological regulation of LHRH/LH secretion may thus involve a GABA-glutamate interaction and a cooperative action of the various types of ionotropic glutamate receptors. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA on LH release and ovulation may be exerted at the level of afferent nerve terminals that regulate LHRH secretion. A likely candidate is noradrenaline, as suggested by the synaptic connections between noradrenergic nerve terminals and GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area. Recent experiments have provided complementary evidence for the physiological balance between inhibitory and excitatory transmission resulting in modulation of the action of

  15. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone powder for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone powder for injection... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone powder for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug... milligrams of standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of...

  16. Luteinizing hormone release and androgen production of avian hybrids in response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Burke, W H; McDougald, L R

    1983-04-01

    The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens were measured in sterile avian hybrids. Guinea fowl-chicken and peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids were bled before and after injection with LH- releasing hormone (LHRH). The preinjection LH levels for the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids were below or at the very lower limit of the assay sensitivity and the peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids averaged 1.3 ng/ml. Within 10 min after LHRH injection, LH had increased dramatically in both hybrids and then began to slowly decline. Androgen levels in the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids increased from 16.2 pg/ml to 95.2 pg/ml and continued to increase, reaching 287 pg/ml at the last bleeding 60 min after injection. PMID:6346309

  17. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  18. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in human and bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Amarant, T; Fridkin, M; Koch, Y

    1982-10-01

    Two hypothalamic peptide hormones, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), have been isolated from human milk and bovine colostrum. Acidified methanolic extracts, prepared from human milk, bovine colostrum and rat hypothalami, as well as synthetic LHRH and TRH markers were subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The eluates were tested for the presence of LHRH and TRH by specific radioimmunoassays. It was found that milk extracts contain significant amounts of LHRH (3.9 - 11.8 ng/ml) and TRH (0.16 - 0.34 ng/ml), which comigrate with the corresponding marker hormones and with those of hypothalamic origin. The HPLC-purified LHRH from both human and bovine milk was bioactive in a dose-response manner similar to synthetic LHRH. PMID:6816590

  19. Genetic Models for the Study of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Prema

    2015-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is essential for fertility in men and women. LHCGR binds luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as the highly homologous chorionic gonadotropin. Signaling from LHCGR is required for steroidogenesis and gametogenesis in males and females and for sexual differentiation in the male. The importance of LHCGR in reproductive physiology is underscored by the large number of naturally occurring inactivating and activating mutations in the receptor that result in reproductive disorders. Consequently, several genetically modified mouse models have been developed for the study of LHCGR function. They include targeted deletion of LH and LHCGR that mimic inactivating mutations in hormone and receptor, expression of a constitutively active mutant in LHCGR that mimics activating mutations associated with familial male-limited precocious puberty and transgenic models of LH and hCG overexpression. This review summarizes the salient findings from these models and their utility in understanding the physiological and pathological consequences of loss and gain of function in LHCGR signaling. PMID:26483755

  20. Active immunization to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone to inhibit the induction of mammary tumors in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ravdin, P.M.; Jordan, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of female rats with a bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate results in suppression of dimethylbenzanthracene mammary tumor incidence. Tumor incidence was 1.3, and 1.29 tumors per rat in bovine serum albumin alone (n = 10) and unimmunized (n = 18) control groups, but no tumors were found in the bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate immunized animals (n = 10). In a second experiment immunization with bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugates reduced tumor incidence to 0.3 tumors per rat (n = 10) from the 1.2 tumors per animal seen in the control animals (n = 10) immunized with bovine serum albumin alone. Bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone immunization caused the production of anti-LHRH antibodies, an interruption of estrous cycles, lowered serum estradiol and progesterone levels, and atrophy of the ovaries and uteri. Immunization BSA-hormone conjugates is a novel anti-tumor strategy.

  1. Clinical studies with d-Trp 6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in anovulatory women.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, C J; Charro-Salgado, A; Peréz-Infante, V; del Campo, G L; Botella-Llusiá, J; Coy, D H; Schally, A V

    1978-04-01

    Nine anovulatory patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction were treated with d-Trp6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, an analog with far greater gonadotropin-releasing activity than luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Four of eight patients, who were formerly unsuccessfully treated with clomiphene, human chorionic gonadotropin, and human menopausal gonadotropin, ovulated after treatment with the peptide alone or with peptide preceded by clomiphene, and three became pregnant. The ninth patient, who had amenorrhea and anovulation due to excessive loss of weight caused by anorexia nervosa, also ovulated after treatment with the analog. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of this potent analog for induction of ovulation and pregnancy and point favorably toward clinical applications. PMID:348500

  2. Lutein

    MedlinePlus

    ... including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, and retinitis pigmentosa. Some people also use it for preventing colon ... risk of respiratory infections An eye disease called retinitis pigmentosa. Some early evidence suggests that lutein might be ...

  3. Lutein

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, and retinitis pigmentosa. Some people also use it ... lutein together with other ingredients shows conflicting results. Cataracts. Some studies suggest that eating higher amounts of ...

  4. Metabolic clearance of biologically active luteinizing hormone in man.

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, J D; Fraioli, F; Rogol, A D; Dufau, M L

    1986-01-01

    The plasma metabolic clearance of biologically active luteinizing hormone (bioactive LH) was studied using the rat interstitial cell testosterone (RICT) bioassay in six hypogonadotropic men after single bolus injection of highly purified human LH and during continuous steady-state infusions of three graded doses of LH. The LH bolus disappearance curves provided estimates of metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of 24.1 +/- 4.7 (+/- SD) ml/min for bioactive LH vs. 56.2 +/- 12 ml/min for immunoactive LH in the same men (P = 0.03). A lower MCR of bioactive LH compared with immunoactive LH was also observed during continuous infusions of physiological doses of LH; for example, the mean steady-state MCRs for bioactive and immunoactive LH were, respectively, 26.1 +/- 3.1 and 34.2 +/- 3.2 ml/min (P = 0.02). Moreover, the stepped-dose infusion regimens permitted us to demonstrate that increasing doses of pure human LH resulted in progressive and parallel decreases in the apparent MCRs of both bioactive and immunoactive LH. Based on the respective steady-state MCRs calculated at physiological plasma concentrations of immunoactive and bioactive LH, we estimate a mean endogenous production rate for bioactive hormone of 1,937 IU/24 h, and for immunoactive LH of 589 IU/24 h in normal men. These results indicate that previous estimates of LH production rates from immunoassay data alone markedly underestimate the quantity of biologically active hormone secreted in man. PMID:3958184

  5. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  6. Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G; Charnaux, N; Loosfelt, H; Jolivet, A; Spyratos, F; Brailly, S; Milgrom, E

    1997-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that human choriogonadotropin (hCG), in addition to its function in regulating steroidogenesis, may also play a role as a growth factor. Immunocytochemistry using two different monoclonal antibodies (LHR29 and LHR1055) raised against the human luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptor allowed us to detect this receptor in breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, and ZR75) in individual cancer biopsies and in benign breast lesions. The receptor was also present in epithelial cells of normal human and sow breast. In the latter, its concentration increased after ovulation. The presence of LH/hCG receptor mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR using primers extending over exons 2-4, 5-11, and 9-11. The proportion of LH/hCG-receptor positive cells and the intensity of the immunolabeling varied in individual biopsies, but there was no obvious correlation with the histological type of the cancer. These results are compatible with previous studies suggesting that during pregnancy, hCG is involved in the differentiation of breast glandular epithelium and that this hormone may play an inhibitory role in mammary carcinogenesis and in the growth of breast tumors. PMID:9041186

  7. Role of luteinizing hormone in luteotropic complex of pregnant hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, H.; Greenwald, G.S.

    1987-04-01

    Hamsters were hypophysectomized on day 4 of pregnancy and injected subcutaneously on days 4-7 with various combinations of 200 ..mu..g prolactin (Prl), 10 ..mu..g follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 20 ..mu..g luteinizing hormone (LH) in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to decrease its rate of absorption or in saline. End points for luteal function on day 8 were maintenance of pregnancy, serum progesterone (P/sub 4/), luteal weight, and luteal binding for human chorionic gonadotropin, FSH, and Prl. After hypophysectomy, a drastic decline occurred in all parameters including an 89% decrease in luteal weight. Injection of Prl did not maintain pregnancy nor serum P/sub 4/ but partially maintained luteal weight and human chorionic gonadotropin binding sites per corpus luteum. The minimal luteotropic complex of Prl and FSH was effective in maintaining pregnancy and significantly increased serum P/sub 4/ and Prl and FSH receptors but not to control levels. Thus, the luteotropic activity of LH was only demonstrable when it was injected in a long-acting form; when delivered as a bolus, LH (saline) was luteolytic. P/sub 4/ and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay. Radioiodinated gonadotropins were prepared. The percentage of tracer reacting with an excess of receptor were 51% of /sup 125/I-FSH and 45.9% of /sup 125/I-hCG using whole homogenates of hamster ovaries.

  8. Regional differences in the pituitary distribution of luteinizing hormone in the gonadectomized and proestrous female rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous data have shown regional differences in the presence of anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) that generally correlate with comparable disparities in the distribution of gonadotropes throughout the gland. In female rats, the differences are apparent over the estro...

  9. Inactivating mutations of luteinizing hormone beta-subunit or luteinizing hormone receptor cause oligo-amenorrhea and infertility in women.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, Ivo Jorge; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Women harbouring inactivating mutations in luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit (LHB) or LH receptor (LHCGR) genes have similar clinical manifestations characterized by female external genitalia, spontaneous breast and pubic hair development at puberty, and normal or late menarche followed by oligo-amenorrhea and infertility. Oestradiol and progesterone levels are normal for the early to midfollicular phase, but do not reach ovulatory or luteal phase levels, confirming lack of ovulation. Notably, serum LH levels are low in patients with LHB mutations and high in those with LHCGR mutations, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone levels are normal or only slightly increased. Pelvic ultrasound has demonstrated a small or normal uterus and normal or enlarged ovaries with cysts. Women with LHB mutations may be treated with hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) or LH, whereas those with mutations in LHCGR are resistant. Lhb and Lhcgr knockout female mice are close phenocopies of the respective human mutations, and confirm that early follicular development, low levels of oestrogen production and theca cell development are independent of LH action, which is necessary for ovulation. Although inactivating mutations in LHB and LHCGR are rare in comparison to other genetic and non-genetic causes of hypogonadism, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oligo-amenorrhea and infertility. PMID:19129711

  10. Highly potent antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone free of edematogenic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Bajusz, S; Kovacs, M; Gazdag, M; Bokser, L; Karashima, T; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Guoth, J; Schally, A V

    1988-01-01

    To eliminate the undesirable edematogenic effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonists containing basic D amino acids at position 6, exemplified by [Ac-D-Phe(pCl)1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Phe(pCl) indicates 4-chlorophenylalanine], analogs with D-ureidoalkyl amino acids such as D-citrulline (D-Cit) or D-homocitrulline (D-Hci) at position 6 were synthesized and tested in several systems in vitro and in vivo. HPLC analysis revealed that the overall hydrophobicity of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogs was similar to that of the basic D-Arg6 antagonists. In vitro, most of the analogs completely inhibited LH-RH-mediated luteinizing hormone release in perfused rat pituitary cell systems at an antagonist to LH-RH molar ratio of 5:1. In vivo, the most active peptides, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Trp3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Nal(2) indicates 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine] and its D-Hci6 analog, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation in cycling rats in doses of 3 micrograms and suppressed the luteinizing hormone level in ovariectomized female rats for 47 hr when administered at doses of 25 micrograms. Characteristically, these peptides did not exert any edematogenic effects even at 1.5 mg/kg. These properties of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 antagonists may make them useful clinically. PMID:3278323

  11. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, S.; Makino, T.; Iizuka, R.

    1985-04-01

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICANT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE CONTROL OF OVULATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the female rat, the large surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary into the general circulation that takes place on the afternoon of the day of vaginal proestrus is both a measurable and functional hormonal event. ince its occurrence is necessary for the expression...

  13. Different follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone ratios for ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Duijkers, I J; Vemer, H M; Hollanders, J M; Willemsen, W N; Bastiaans, L A; Hamilton, C J; Thomas, C M; Borm, G F

    1993-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether reducing the amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) in gonadotrophic preparations impairs follicular growth in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles during suppression of endogenous LH levels. A selected group of 20 IVF patients was randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with Org 31338 [follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/LH 3:1], the other group with Metrodin (purified FSH), both during pituitary down-regulation with buserelin. A fixed daily dose of 150 IU FSH i.m. was given. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, oestradiol and progesterone were determined frequently and serial ultrasound examinations were performed. Multiple follicular growth with concomitant rise of oestradiol levels was observed in all cycles. The duration of the stimulation phase was shorter in the group treated with Org 31338 than in the group treated with Metrodin. The number of follicles and oocytes and the fertilization rate was larger and the mean embryo quality was higher in the Org 31338 group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. No significant differences were found in hormonal values. In women with normal endocrine profiles, lowering of the LH activity in gonadotrophic preparations during gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist treatment results in adequate ovarian stimulation. However, a preparation with some LH needed a shorter stimulation than a purified FSH preparation. Whether the other beneficial effects of Org 31338 also occur in a larger population needs further investigation. PMID:8253923

  14. SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE BY CHLORDIMEFORM IN OVARIECTOMIZED, STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary provides the physiological trigger in the mammalian female for the process of ovulation. ccordingly, any agent that compromises the LH surge could function as a reproductive toxicant. ince ovariectomized (OVX) rats...

  15. Luteinizing hormone secretion as influenced by age and estradiol in the prepubertal gilt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine if there is an age related reduction in the sensitivity of the negative feedback action of estradiol on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the prepubertal gilt. Ovariectomized gilts at 90 (n = 12), 150 (n = 11) or 210 (n = 12) days of age received estradiol ...

  16. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS
    Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  17. Glucose-regulated protein, 78-kilodalton is a modulator of luteinizing hormone receptor expression in luteinizing granulosa cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Kayoko; Nakamura, Kazuto; Ikeda, Sadatomo; Kitahara, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Toshio; Iwamune, Masayuki; Minegishi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein, 78-kilodalton (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone that exists in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in the assembly, transportation, and folding of proteins. Previously, GRP78 was reported to associate with gonadotropin receptors. However, little is known about how GRP78 is involved in the regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). Thus, in this study, we investigated the significance of GRP78 for the induction of LHR in rat luteinizing granulosa cells. Western blot analysis of rat LHR expressed in HEK293 cells revealed that the protein levels of LHR were increased, depending on the increment of GRP78 protein. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the GRP78 mRNA level peaked while LHR mRNA was down-regulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). To examine the time-dependent localization of GRP78 in vivo, immunohistochemistry was performed. GRP78 was expressed mainly in granulosa cells, and the GRP78 protein peaked 18 h after the ovulatory dose of hCG injection in equine chorionic gonadotropin-primed immature rats. To ascertain the role of GRP78 in LHR after down-regulation, small interfering GRP78 was transfected to cultured rat granulosa cells, demonstrating that knockdown of the GRP78 protein level impaired the recovery of cell surface LHR from down-regulation that negatively affected progesterone synthesis. Moreover, luciferase assays showed that CRE mediated the hCG-induced promoter activity of GRP78 in rat luteinizing granulosa cells. These results reveal a novel mechanism of LHR by GRP78 in the early stage of corpus lustrum formation, which may be an important factor in the recovery of LHR after the down-regulation. PMID:23175774

  18. Correlation of protein kinase activation and testosterone production after stimulation of Leydig cells with luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, B A; Lindh, M L; Janszen, F H

    1976-01-01

    The effect of different doses of luteinizing hormone on activation of protein kinases, cyclic AMP and testosterone production was studied in purified rat testis Leydig-cell preparations in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). In addition, the nature of the protein kinases present in these cells and other tissues was investigated. The following results were obtained. 1. With all the amounts of luteinizing hormone used (0.1-1000 ng/ml), both activation of protein kinase and stimulation of testosterone production were demonstrated. With the lowest amount of luteinizing hormone (0.1 ng/ml), an 8.4+/-0.9% (S.E.M.,n=6) stimulation of protein kinase activation occurred, increasing to 100% with 1000 ng/ml, compared with 3.2+/-1.0%(S.E.M.,n=7) and 100% stimulation of testosterone production with 0.1 and 100 ng/ml respectively. 2. With amounts of luteinizing hormone up to 1 ng/ml (which gave half-maximal stimulation of testosterone production) no detectable increases in net cyclic AMP production were obtained. With higher amounts of luteinizing hormone, cyclic AMP production increased, but maximal production was not reached with 1000 ng/ml. 3. Two isoenzymic forms of protein kinase were present in Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; type I was eluted with 0.075 M-and type II with 0.22-0.25 m-NaCl from DEAE-cellulose columns. 4. The protein kinase activity was not affected by the presence of erythrocytes in the Leydig-cell preparation, but varied depending on the type of histone used as substrate (histone F2b greater than mixed greater than histone F1). PMID:189752

  19. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  20. Substantial expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor type I in human uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L; Dezso, Balazs; Olah, Gabor; Rozsa, Bernadett; Fodor, Klara; Buglyo, Armin; Gardi, Janos; Berta, Andras; Halmos, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with a very high mortality rate due to frequent liver metastases. Consequently, the therapy of uveal melanoma remains a major clinical challenge and new treatment approaches are needed. For improving diagnosis and designing a rational and effective therapy, it is essential to elucidate molecular characteristics of this malignancy. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate as a potential therapeutic target the expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor in human uveal melanoma. The expression of LHRH ligand and LHRH receptor transcript forms was studied in 39 human uveal melanoma specimens by RT-PCR using gene specific primers. The binding charachteristics of receptors for LHRH on 10 samples were determined by ligand competition assays. The presence of LHRH receptor protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for type I LHRH receptor was detected in 18 of 39 (46%) of tissue specimens. mRNA for LHRH-I ligand could be detected in 27 of 39 (69%) of the samples. Seven of 10 samples investigated showed high affinity LHRH-I receptors. The specific presence of full length LHRH receptor protein was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A high percentage of uveal melanomas express mRNA and protein for type-I LHRH receptors. Our results support the merit of further investigation of LHRH receptors in human ophthalmological tumors. Since diverse analogs of LHRH are in clinical trials or are already used for the treatment of various cancers, these analogs could be considered for the LHRH receptor-based treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:24077773

  1. Specific protein synthesis in isolated rat testis leydig cells. Influence of luteinizing hormone and cycloheximide.

    PubMed Central

    Janszen, F H; Cooke, B A; van der Molen, H J

    1977-01-01

    The effect of luteinizing hormone (luteotropin) and cycloheximide on specific protein synthesis in rat testis Leydig cells has been investigated. Proteins were labelled with either I114C]leucine, [3H]leucine or [35S]methionine during incubation with Leydig-cell suspensions in vitro. Total protein was extracted from the cells and separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. No detectable increase in the synthesis of specific proteins could be observed after incubation of Leydig cells with luteinizing hormone for up to 1 h. However, after a 2h incubation period, an increase in [35S]methionine incorporation was observed in a protein with an apparent mol.wt. of 21000 (referred to as 'protein 21"). When, after labelling of this protein with [35S]-methionine, Leydig cells were incubated for another 30min with cycloheximide, no decrease in radioactivity of this protein band was observed, indicating that it does not have a short half-life. However, another protein band was detected, which after incubation with cycloheximide disappeared rapidly, the reaction following first-order kinetics, with a half-life of about 11 min. This protein, with an apparent mol.wt. of 33000 (referred to as "protein 33"), was found to be located in the particulate fraction of the Leydig cell, and could not be demonstrated in other rat testis-cell types or blood cells. No effect of luteinizing hormone on molecular weight, subcellular localization or half-life of protein 33 was observed. A possible role for protein 33 and protein 21 in the mechanism of action of luteinizing hormone on testosterone production of Leydig cells is discussed. Images PLATE 4 PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:849289

  2. Responses of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin to prolonged administration of the dopamine antagonist in normal women and women with low-weight amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1981-06-01

    The responses of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin to prolonged administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist metoclopramide (5 mg twice daily) were investigated in six normal women and six women with low-weight amenorrhea (LWA). In contrast to the normal group, the LWA group showed no significant changes in the mean basal prolactin level or the mean prolactin response to stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone, but there was an significant elevation of the mean net increase in luteinizing hormone after stimulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. On the basis of these data, the possibility of increased central dopaminergic activity in women with LWA is discussed. PMID:6788608

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone potentiates the steroidogenic activity of chorionic gonadotropin and the anti-apoptotic activity of luteinizing hormone in human granulosa-lutein cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Nicoli, Alessia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-02-15

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating ovarian function and pregnancy, respectively. Since these molecules act on the same receptor (LHCGR), they were traditionally assumed as equivalent in assisted reproduction techniques (ART), although differences between LH and hCG were demonstrated at molecular and physiological level. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that co-treatment with a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose in the ART therapeutic range potentiates different LH- and hCG-dependent responses in vitro, measured in terms of cAMP, phospho-CREB, -ERK1/2 and -AKT activation, gene expression, progesterone and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLC). We show that in the presence of FSH, hCG biopotency is about 5-fold increased, in the presence of FSH, in terms of cAMP activation. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation and steroid production is increased under hCG and FSH co-treatment. LH effects, evaluated as steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway activation, do not change in the presence of FSH, which, however, increases LH-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT, but not CREB phosphorylation, resulting in anti-apoptotic effects. The different modulatory activity of FSH on LH and hCG action in vitro corresponds to their different physiological functions, reflecting proliferative effects exerted by LH during the follicular phase and before trophoblast development, and the high steroidogenic potential of hCG requested to sustain pregnancy from the luteal phase onwards. PMID:26690776

  4. Plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in mares treated with gondotropin-releasing hormone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M C; Ginther, O J

    1975-11-01

    Three experiments were performed to study the luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulatory responses to various doses and methods of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in estrous pony mares and the influence of estradiol-17beta (E2-17beta) on LH response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, single injections of synthetic GnRH were subcutaneously given to 5 groups of estrous (day 2) mares (3 mares/group) on a body weight basis as follows: group A--isotonic saline solution; group B--GnRH, 0.14 mug/kg; group C--GnRH, 0.28 mug/kg; group D--KGnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group E--GnRH, 2.37 mug/kg. Significant increase of plasma LH concentration lasting for approximately 2 hours occurred only in mares of group E given the largest dose of GnRH (2.37 mug/kg). Plasma LH concentration increase at 1 hour after treatment approached significane (P less than 0.10) in mares of group D given the next smaller dose. In experiment 2, GnRH (2.37 mug/kg) was intravenously infused for 24 hours to a group of 6 mares (group F); 6 other mares (group G) were given saline solution infusion. Mean plasma LH concentration was increased at 3 hours, continued to increase until 6 hours, and remained at approximately the 6-hour concentration throughout the period of GnRH infusion. In the 3rd experiment, 3 groups of mares (4 mares/group) were subcutaneously given the following treatments on days 2 and 3 of estrus, respectively: group H--corn oil and saline solution; group I--corn oil and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group J--estradiol-17beta, 0.5 mg, and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg. Plasma LH response was not seen in group H mares given corn oil and saline solution. Mean plasma LH concentration at 1 hour after administration of GnRH approached significance (P less than 0.10) in group I mares given corn oil and GnRH. For the mares in group J given E2-17beta and GnRH, E2-17beta pretreatment increased plasma LH after 24 horus; significnat increases of plasma LH concentration were seen from 1 to 6 hours after

  5. Metabolism of testosterone by human granulosa cells in culture: influence of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Y.S.; Duleba, A.; Leung, P.C.; Gomel, V.

    1982-03-15

    Human granulosa cells were isolated from follicles (8 to 15 mm) and cultivated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (NIH-FSH-HS-1, 1 microgram/ml) and luteinizing hormone (NIAMDD-hLH-1, 1 microgram/ml). Testosterone -4-14C was added subsequently to all cultures for 4-, 6-, and 24-hour periods. Of the seven metabolites of testosterone studied, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were the major products. In all patients, levels of E2 were three to ten times higher than those of E1. Production of E2, but not E1, was stimulated by either follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH). The cells of the largest follicle (15 mm) showed greater response to LH than to FSH. Production of the other C19 and C18 metabolites was very low or negligible. These results further suggest that FSH regulates the aromatization of testosterone in human granulosa cells, and that LH may have the same effect on the matured follicle during the preovulatory period.

  6. Synthesis and in vitro anti-cancer evaluation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-conjugated peptide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a decapeptide hormone released from the hypothalamus and shows high affinity binding to the LHRH receptors. It is reported that several cancer cells also express LHRH receptors such as breast, ovarian, prostatic, bladder and others. In this study, we linked B1, an anti-cancer peptide, to LHRH and its analogs to improve the activity against cancer cells with LHRH receptor. Biological evaluation revealed that TB1, the peptide contains triptorelin sequence, present favorable anti-cancer activity as well as plasma stability. Further investigations disclosed that TB1 trigger apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-cytochrome c-caspase apoptotic pathway, it also exhibited the anti-migratory effect on cancer cells. PMID:26058357

  7. Organophosphorus insecticide induced decrease in plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in white-footed mice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Michael, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Oral intubation of 50 and 100 mg/kg acephate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 45% and 56%, and reduced basal luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration by 29% and 25% after 4 h in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis). Dietary exposure to 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for 5 days substantially inhibited brain AChE activity, but did not affect plasma LH concentration. These preliminary findings suggest that acute exposure to organophosphorus insecticides may affect LH secretion and possibly reproductive function.

  8. Effect of a combination of norethynodrel and mestranol on plasma luteinizing hormone in normal women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G E; Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D

    1969-08-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 6 normal nulliparous women (ages 21-25) during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. Cycle 1 served as the control, while a combination of 5 mg norethynodrel and .075 mg mestranol (Enovid) was administered daily during the second cycle. Midcycle LH peaks observed in all subjects during the control cycle were completely suppressed in the treated cycle. Basal LH levels during the treated cycle were significantly lower than during the follicular phase of control cycles. Mechanisms by which Enovid could affect plasma LH include decreased synthesis or release of LH and different sites of drug action with different dosages. PMID:5794834

  9. Leap of Faith: Does serum luteinizing hormone always accurately reflect central reproductive neuroendocrine activity?

    PubMed Central

    Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Function of the central aspects of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has been assessed in a number of ways including direct measurements of hypothalamic output and indirect measures using gonadotropin release from the pituitary as a bioassay for reproductive neuroendocrine activity. Here, methods for monitoring these various parameters are briefly reviewed and then examples presented of both concordance and discrepancy between central and peripheral measurements, with a focus on situations in which elevated GnRH neurosecretion is not reflected accurately by pituitary luteinizing hormone release. Implications for interpretation of gonadotropin data are discussed. PMID:26278916

  10. AGE-RELATED ALTERATIONS IN THE STIMULATED RELEASE IN VITRO OF CATECHOLAMINES AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE FROM THE MALE RAT HYPOTHALAMUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using an in vitro perifusion system, the present study investigated the possibility that alterations in catecholamine and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion from the male rat mediobasal hypothalamus are present during the period of middle-age. The results indi...

  11. The effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog regime and stage of oocyte maturity for induced ovulation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effective LHRHa (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog) dose based on the gonadal maturity of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus to optimize channel x blue hybrid catfish production was evaluated in 4 trials (twice in early part of the season and twice in the peak spawning season) in a ...

  12. Effect of carp pituitary extract and luteinizing hormone releasing analog hormone on reproductive indices and spawning of 3-year-old channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of carp pituitary extract (CPE) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRHa) treatments to induce spawning in young-adult channel catfish undergoing first oogenesis just prior to the spawning season was evaluated in four commercial strains of channel catfish. Prior to injection of ...

  13. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone synergy: A review of role in controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Gottumukkala Achyuta Rama; Chavan, Rahul; Deenadayal, Mamata; Gunasheela, Devika; Gutgutia, Rohit; Haripriya, Geetha; Govindarajan, Mirudhubashini; Patel, Nayana Hitesh; Patki, Ameet Shashikant

    2013-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) in synergy with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates normal follicular growth and ovulation. FSH is frequently used in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Recent studies have facilitated better understanding on the complementary role of the LH to FSH in regulation of the follicle; however, role of LH in stimulation of follicle, optimal dosage of LH in stimulation and its importance in advanced aged patients has been a topic of discussion among medical fraternity. Though the administration of exogenous LH with FSH is obligatory for controlled ovarian stimulation in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, there is still a paucity of information of its usage in other patient population. In this review we looked in to the multiple roles that LH plays complementary to FSH to better understand the LH requirement in patients undergoing ART. PMID:24672160

  14. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) as a diagnostic and research tool in gynecologic endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Taymor, M L; Thompson, I E; Berger, M J; Patton, W

    1974-11-15

    A study is reported on the effects of 150 mcg. of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), administered iv to 48 women with 5 types of secondary oligoamenorrhea, on the serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) Levels. At Time 0, patients with pituitary disease showed a markedly diminished LH response and patients with polycystic ovarian disease with enlarged ovaries showed a brisk, elevated LH response. FSH levels in patients with pituitary disease and polycystic ovarian disease showed a negligible rise at Time 0. 9 of 10 patients with pituitary disease and 5 of 9 patients with dietary amenorrhea had a low LH response 30 minutes after LH-RH administration. FSH response 60 minutes after injection in patients with pituitary disease and polycystic ovarian disease seemed to be lowered though too much overlap prevented a complete diagnosis. The conclusion of this initial study is that through baseline determinations of FSH and LH, along with a LH-RH stimulation test, useful data are provided for determining whether amenorrhea is due to ovarian or pituitary failure. A 2nd study evaluated the effects of 150 mcg of LH-RH administered iv before and after the im administration of various dosages of estrogen and progesterone to anovulatory women. A vigorous response in pituitary gonadotropin, particularly LH, was observed with LH-RH administered only. The effect with estrogen and progesterone was diminished pituitary response in terms of LH production. It is concluded that estrogen and progesterone exert a negative feedback effect on gonadotropin secretion at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels. PMID:4611213

  15. The problem of anti-doping control of luteinizing hormone in boxing.

    PubMed

    Llouquet, Jean Louis; Crepin, Nathalie; Lasne, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is physiologically produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Male athletes may use pharmaceutical LH for doping since it increases the production of testosterone by testes. This hormone is thus on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances prohibited for males. Anti-doping laboratories perform the assay of this hormone in urine and report abnormally elevated results. We observed a highly significant prevalence of abnormal results in samples taken after a boxing match. Comparison of the descriptive statistics for 426 LH values observed in boxing and other sports showed significant differences. An experimental study comparing urinary LH levels in 17 boxers before and after a match demonstrated a clear increase after the match. The same observation was made for urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in all of the eight boxers tested for this other pituitary gonadotropin. These observations have consequences for anti-doping controls, as the reference range for urinary LH levels must take into account the specificities of boxers. They also suggest consequences for the health of boxers. Although to our knowledge such observations have never been described, other pituitary disorders have been reported. Our results deserve further investigation from a medical point of view. PMID:23315937

  16. Effect of naloxone treatment on luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations in boars with high and low libido

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of naloxone, an opioid peptide receptor antagonist on circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in boars characterized as having high (n = 8) or low libido (n = 8) based on the willingness to mount an artificial sow and allow s...

  17. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  18. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  19. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in male workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Tomao, Enrico; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Caciari, Tiziana; Danese, Daniele; Gamberale, Daniele; Vacca, Daniele; Palermo, Paola; Anzelmo, Vincenza; Tomei, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate if occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in luteinizing hormone (LH) plasma levels in male traffic policemen vs. administrative staff of Municipal Police.After excluding the subjects with the main confounding factors, male traffic police and administrative staff of Municipal Police were matched by age, working life, body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking habit, cigarette smoking habit and habitual consumption of Italian coffee.In 166 male traffic police mean LH values were significantly higher compared to 166 male administrative employees. The distribution of LH values in traffic police and in administrative employees was statistically significant.Our results suggest that recent exposure to urban stressors (chemical, physical and psycho-social) can alter the plasma concentration of LH. In agreement with our previous research, levels of plasma LH may be used as early biological markers, valuable for the group, used in occupational set before the appearance of the disease. PMID:19477485

  20. Association of luteinizing hormone receptor gene expression with cell cycle progression in granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jennifer D.; Seekallu, Srinivas V.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.; Chaffin, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    During hormonally induced ovarian follicle growth, granulosa cell proliferation increases and returns to baseline prior to the administration of an ovulatory stimulus. Several key genes appear to follow a similar pattern, including the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), suggesting an association between cell cycle progression and gene expression. The expression of LHCGR mRNA in granulosa cells isolated from immature rats and treated in culture with FSH increased in a time-dependent manner, whereas administration of the cell cycle inhibitor mimosine completely suppressed expression. Although forskolin was able to induce luteinization in cells treated with mimosine, human chorionic gonadotropin had no effect, indicating the functional loss of LHCGR. The effects of mimosine on cell cycle progression and LHCGR mRNA expression were reversible within 24 h of mimosine removal. Cell cycle inhibition did not alter the stability of LHCGR mRNA, indicating that the primary effect was at the transcriptional level. To determine whether the relationship between LHCGR expression and cell cycle were relevant in vivo, immature rats were given a bolus of PMSG, followed by a second injection of either saline or PMSG 24 h later to augment levels of proliferation. The expression of LHCGR mRNA was elevated in the ovaries of animals receiving a supplement of PMSG. Mimosine also blocked cell cycle progression and LHCGR mRNA expression in macaque granulosa cells isolated following controlled ovarian stimulation cycles and in two different mouse Leydig tumor lines. These data collectively indicate that LHCGR mRNA is expressed as a function of the passage of cells across the G1-S phase boundary. PMID:19293332

  1. Evaluation of an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) using automated system for determination of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, E; Mason, M; Galván, R E; Pascoe, D; Ochoa, R; Hernández, M; Zárate, A

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that automated systems for immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) may substitute traditional radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in blood due to the advantage of being more rapid, higher sensitivity, lower cost and not requiring radioactive reagents. The study was designed to evaluate both systems using serum samples to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. The automatic system (ES-300) for IEMA utilized two monoclonal antibodies, one of them on the solid phase was the specific extractant for the antigen, and the other was a peroxidase labeled antibody which recognizes a different epitope in the antigen molecule, specifically bound in linear proportion to the antigen concentration. Blood samples were obtained from patients who were treated at the hospital for various clinical problems ("problem group") as well as blood samples from patients in whom FSH and LH concentrations were already known ("high", "medium" and "low" levels) by previous RIA ("control group"). IEMA showed a higher sensitivity, 0.42 and 0.96 mIU/ml for FSH and LH, respectively, whereas RIA was 1.95 mIU/ml for both hormones. Intra- and interassay coefficient of variation were below 10% within the range of 15-150 mIU/ml for FSH and 5-100 mIU/ml for LH; however, the coefficient of variation was 15-25% at lower concentrations of FSH and LH. Accuracy of IEMA was evaluated by recovery percentage, thus when high and medium concentrations of FSH and LH were analyzed the recovery was between 99-104%. On the other hand, the recovery was 110% when low levels of FSH and LH were used. In conclusion, IEMA resulted reliable when FSH and LH concentrations are in the middle and high range; likewise, the detection limit of IEMA was lower than RIA, particularly for FSH. On the bases of these results, IEMA showed several advantages over RIA, but its reliability diminishes when serum

  2. Hypothalamic multiunit activity and pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in the castrated male rat.

    PubMed

    Goubillon, M L; Kaufman, J M; Thalabard, J C

    1995-11-01

    Using chronically implanted microelectrodes, multiunit electrical activity (MUA) was recorded from the arcuate nucleus of freely moving gonadectomized male rats. Intermittent increases in MUA activity (MUA volleys) closely associated with luteinizing hormone pulses measured in the peripheral circulation were observed, which confirms that this experimental approach can be used for monitoring the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-associated hypothalamic pulse generator in the male rat. The mean MUA volley frequency was 22.2 min (range 13-38 min), whereas the mean MUA volley duration was 2.7 +/- 0.8 min (standard deviation). In addition to a large inter-individual variability. MUA volley intervals also showed an important intra-individual variability. This observation suggests that, beside the mean frequency of pulse generator activation, the degree of variability in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-associated pulse generator activity might be an additional relevant parameter in the characterization of the reproductive function in the male rat. PMID:7581989

  3. Plasma and urinary luteinizing hormone levels in the diagnosis of endocrine disease.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, R; Keenan, J R; Spathis, G S; Nabarro, J D; Leonard, P J; Gallagher, M J

    1972-03-25

    The diagnostic value of measurements of plasma and urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) has been studied in 209 patients with endocrine disease. In 44 patients puberty was either delayed or had failed to occur. In those with chromosomal abnormalities the LH levels were often within the normal range, whereas those with a pituitary cause usually had low levels. In boys with delayed puberty plasma LH levels rose before physical changes occurred and had prognostic value. In patients with later gonadal failure, men with impotence or infertility, and women with secondary amenorrhoea LH assays proved of little value, although in one case a premature menopause was suspected and six patients with anorexia nervosa had low LH levels.Sixty patients with disorders of the hypothalamicpituitary area were studied. Levels of LH were measured and considered in relation to the other anterior pituitary hormones. Impairment of LH secretion was one of the first effects on hormone production of disease affecting this area, and this was, of course, most readily detected in postmenopausal women.The normal ranges of both plasma and urine LH are wide and there seems to be considerable day-to-day variation, especially of urinary output. Several samples should, therefore, be measured if therapeutic decisions are involved. PMID:5014251

  4. Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone and ovarian steroids in women with recurrent early miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Watson, H; Kiddy, D S; Hamilton-Fairley, D; Scanlon, M J; Barnard, C; Collins, W P; Bonney, R C; Franks, S

    1993-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) which has been implicated in the aetiology of early pregnancy loss. Although 82% of women with recurrent early loss have polycystic ovaries on ultrasound imaging, random serum LH concentrations are normal. In the present study, we have obtained further information from serial samples concerning the cyclical patterns of gonadotrophin and sex steroid secretion in these women. Twenty-one women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and 10 multiparous controls were investigated; 81% of them and one of ten control subjects had polycystic ovaries. Mean mid-follicular and mid-luteal serum LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were similar in both groups. Seventeen women with pregnancy loss had either raised urinary LH excretion or a premature LH surge; one control subject had a premature LH surge. Total LH excretion during the cycle and mean follicular phase serum testosterone was significantly greater with early pregnancy loss than in the control group, the difference in LH being greatest in the early luteal phase. Urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide excretion was raised in the early luteal phase of the cycle in the group with early pregnancy loss; there was no difference between the groups in pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide excretion. These data demonstrate abnormalities in LH secretion in 81% of women with recurrent fetal loss. Inappropriately raised LH levels may have adverse effects on the developing oocyte or endometrium either directly, or indirectly by causing an elevation in testosterone and oestrogen levels. PMID:8345070

  5. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes blocks the positive feedback release of luteinizing hormone in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Kienast, S G; Fadden, C; Steger, R W

    1993-01-01

    The effects of streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes on the release of gonadotropins was studied in female rats. In the first experiment, rats were ovariectomized and 2 days later were injected with STZ. Three weeks later rats were treated with estrogen and progesterone and blood samples were taken via intraatrial cannulae for luteinizing hormone (LH) assay. Afternoon surges of LH were seen in 4/5 control but 0/8 STZ rats. Pituitary responses to LH-releasing hormone in vitro did not differ. In the 2nd experiment, ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats were killed prior to and during a progesterone-induced LH surge. As in Experiment 1, STZ-treatment inhibited the LH surge but did not effect the afternoon rise in median eminence norepinephrine turnover which has previously been shown to be important in stimulating LH release. Turnover of norepinephrine in the anterior hypothalamus was depressed in the diabetic rats both prior to and during the expected time of the LH surge. Dopamine turnover was depressed in all three brain regions studied. It can be concluded that the positive feedback control of LH release is severely attenuated in diabetic rats but the mechanism explaining the loss is not clear. Diabetes-induced alterations in hypothalamic catecholamine metabolism may be involved but further work is needed to more carefully define these relationships. PMID:8221130

  6. Thecal cell sensitivity to luteinizing hormone and insulin in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cadagan, David; Khan, Raheela; Amer, Saad

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a defect of steroid synthesis in ovarian theca cells may lead to the development of PCOS, through contributions to excess androgen secretion. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the leading causes of infertility worldwide affecting around 1 in 10 of women of a reproductive age. One of the fundamental abnormalities in this syndrome is the presence of hormonal irregularities, including hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Studies suggest that insulin treatment increases progesterone and androstenedione secretion in PCOS theca cells when compared to insulin treated normal theca cells. Furthermore the augmented effects of LH and insulin have been seen to increase ovarian androgen synthesis in non-PCOS theca cultures whilst also increasing the expression of steroidogenic enzymes specific to the PI3-K pathway. Our examination of primary thecal cultures showed an increase in both the expression of the steroidogenic enzyme CYP17 and androgen secretion in PCOS theca cells under basal conditions, when compared to non-PCOS cells. This was increased significantly under treatments of LH and insulin combined. Our results support the previous reported hypothesis that a dysfunction may exist within the PI3-K pathway. Specifically, that sensitivity exists to physiological symptoms including hyperinsulinemia and hyper secretion of LH found in PCOS through co-stimulation. The impact of these findings may allow the development of a therapeutic target in PCOS. PMID:26952754

  7. Targeted overexpression of luteinizing hormone in transgenic mice leads to infertility, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Risma, K A; Clay, C M; Nett, T M; Wagner, T; Yun, J; Nilson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) is implicated in infertility and miscarriages in women. A lack of animal models has limited progress in determining the mechanisms of LH toxicity. We have recently generated transgenic mice expressing a chimeric LH beta subunit (LH beta) in gonadotropes. The LH beta chimera contains the C-terminal peptide of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit. Addition of this peptide to bovine LH beta resulted in a hormone with a longer half-life. Furthermore, targeted expression of the LH beta chimera led to elevated LH levels and infertility in female transgenics. These mice ovulated infrequently, maintained a prolonged luteal phase, and developed pathologic ovarian changes such as cyst formation, marked enlargement of ovaries, and granulosa cell tumors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were increased compared to nontransgenic littermates. An unusual extragonadal phenotype was also observed: transgenic females developed hydronephropathy and pyelonephritis. The pathology observed demonstrates a direct association between abnormal secretion of LH and infertility and underscores the utility of the transgenic model for studying how excess LH leads to cyst formation, ovarian tumorigenesis, and infertility. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7877975

  8. Exogenous action of 5-lipoxygenase by its metabolites on luteinizing hormone release in rat pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Przylipiak, A; Kiesel, L; Habenicht, A J; Przylipiak, M; Runnebaum, B

    1990-02-12

    The stimulatory effect of exogenously administered potato 5-lipoxygenase (0.1-0.3 U/2 ml) on luteinizing hormone (LH) release was demonstrated in rat anterior pituitary cells in a superfusion system. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, abolished the effect of the enzyme on LH secretion. The secretory effect on LH after 5-lipoxygenase administration was biphasic and dependent on Ca2+ indicating that 5-lipoxygenase affects LH release through its oxygenation reaction. Another series of experiments demonstrated that activation of 5-lipoxygenase, expressed as production of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 (728 +/- 127 pg/10(6) cells and 178 +/- 23 pg/10(6) cells, respectively) occurs in rat pituitary cells after addition of Ca2+ ionophore A23187. However, LTB4 and LTC4 were not formed by pituitary cells that had previously been desensitized by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the physiological ligand of LH release. These results are consistent with a role of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites in the mechanism of GnRH-induced LH secretion. PMID:2157615

  9. The goldfish nervus terminalis: a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide immunoreactive olfactoretinal pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Stell, W K; Walker, S E; Chohan, K S; Ball, A K

    1984-01-01

    Antisera to two putative neurotransmitters, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and molluscan cardioexcitatory tetrapeptide (H-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2; FMRF-amide), bind specifically to neurites in the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers of the goldfish retina. Retrograde labeling showed that intraocular axon terminals originate from the nervus terminalis, whose cell bodies are located in the olfactory nerves. Double immunocytochemical and retrograde labeling showed that some terminalis neurons project to the retina; others may project only within the brain. All terminalis neurons having proven retinal projections were both LHRH- and FMRF-amide-immunoreactive. The activity of retinal ganglion cells was recorded with microelectrodes in isolated superfused goldfish retinas. In ON- and OFF-center double-color-opponent cells, micromolar FMRF-amide and salmon brain gonadotropin-releasing factor ( [Trp7, Leu8] LHRH) caused increased spontaneous activity in the dark, loss of light-induced inhibition, and increased incidence of light-entrained pulsatile response. The nervus terminalis is therefore a putatively peptidergic retinopetal projection. Sex-related olfactory stimuli may act through it, thereby modulating the output of ganglion cells responsive to color contrast. Images PMID:6199789

  10. Inhibition of progesterone secretion during the luteal phase by two luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J P; Mary, I; Moguilewsky, M; Mouren, M; Labrie, F

    1980-12-01

    The administration of 200 microgram of the potent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist [D-Leu6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide on day 6 following the plasma estradiol peak to 11 female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during two consecutive menstrual cycles decreased plasma progesterone levels by 40.0% +/- 3.9% as compared with previous control cycles. The plasma estradiol profile and the cycle length were not affected significantly by the treatment. Similar results were obtained with 25 microgram of [D-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide administered to one monkey at the same period of the cycle, such treatment leading to a 41% inhibition of circulating progesterone levels. Although plasma progesterone levels were still reduced in the two post-treatment cycles in monkeys treated with the high dose (200 microgram) of [D-Leu6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide, the recovery cycle was normal after the administration of a lower dose (25 microgram) of [D-Ser(TBU)6, des-Gly-NH2(10)] LHRH ethylamide. The M. fascicularis monkey thus appears as a valid model with which to study the inhibitory effects of LHRH agonists on luteal function. PMID:6778718

  11. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E{sub 2}) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E{sub 2} dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E{sub 2} increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Cadmium affects the episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats: possible age-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Piquero, S; Esquifino, A I

    1999-01-11

    Cadmium affects luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through unknown mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to assess whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may affect the episodic secretion of LH and if these effects are age-dependent. Male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life. Age-matched rats with access to cadmium-free water were used as controls. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected every 7 min for 3 h, from 10:30 to 13.30 in conscious, freely moving rats. In control animals, mean serum LH levels and pulse duration increased with age (P < or = 0.001), and pulse frequency and the relative amplitude of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.001). Cadmium administration, from day 30 to 60 of life, decreased the pulse frequency and mean half-life of the hormone (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01, respectively). However, no changes in any other parameters studied were observed as compared to the control group. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90, mean serum LH levels and the duration of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.05), whereas the pulse frequency increased (P < or = 0.05). The absolute and relative amplitude of the LH peaks and the mean half-life of the hormone were not changed after cadmium administration from day 60 to 90. These results indicate that low doses of cadmium change the pulsatile secretion of LH in male rats and that the effect of cadmium on episodic LH release was age-dependent. PMID:10048746

  13. Luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin receptors in various epidermal structures.

    PubMed

    Venencie, P Y; Méduri, G; Pissard, S; Jolivet, A; Loosfelt, H; Milgrom, E; Misrahi, M

    1999-09-01

    Two different monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes were used to study the localization of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin (LH/hCG) receptors in human skin. Immunolabelling was observed only in the epidermis and derived structures but not in the dermis. The basal, spinal and granular layers were stained, whereas no receptors were detected in the non-nucleated horny cells. In the growing (anagen) hair, immunostaining was found in the inner root sheath below the level of the sebaceous glands and in the outer root sheath above this level. In the resting (telogen) hair, only the latter staining was observed. In the sebaceous glands, only the thin cells close to the walls of the ducts were immunolabelled. In the eccrine sweat glands, the external clear cells were stained in the secretory portion of the gland, whereas only the cells close to the lumen were labelled in the ducts. The distribution of LH/hCG receptors was compared with that of steroidogenic enzymes (side chain cleavage cytochrome P450, adrenodoxin, 3-beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroid dehydrogenase Delta5-Delta4 isomerase, 17-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 aromatase). Only partial overlaps were observed. The presence of LH receptor mRNA in the skin was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Monoclonal antibodies raised against the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor failed to detect the latter in the epidermal structures and in the dermis. The role of LH and hCG in skin modifications occurring during pregnancy and after the menopause is unknown. These hormones may possibly act by regulating steroidogenic enzymes or by modulating cell growth and differentiation. PMID:10583046

  14. Effects of external radiation therapy for cancer of the prostate on the serum concentrations of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Tomic, R.; Bergman, B.; Damber, J.E.; Littbrand, B.; Loefroth, P.O.

    1983-08-01

    Testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin were analyzed in serum from 31 patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated primarily with megavoltage radiation therapy. The total tumor dose varied between 58 and 71 gray (mean 63.5 gray). Absorbed doses to the testes were measured at approximately 1 to more than 10 gray. We investigated retrospectively 17 patients 3 to 60 months (mean 20 months) after therapy and found significantly lower serum testosterone concentrations and significantly higher luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations than in age-matched controls. Of the patients, 14 were followed before and after radiation treatment. Testosterone concentrations were reduced significantly 1 week as well as 3 months after treatment but pre-treatment values were found on analysis 6 and 12 months after treatment. The values for luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones were significantly higher 3, 6 and 12 months after radiation treatment compared to pre-treatment values. The follicle-stimulating hormone value already increased after 1 week. The greatest observed testosterone alteration occurred 1 week after treatment in patients who received more than 10 gray over the gonads. The use of lead shields protecting the testes reduced the dose absorbed to the gonads by approximately 50 percent.

  15. Differential thermal stability of human, bovine and ovine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) quaternary structures.

    PubMed

    Haj Hassan, Maya; Cahoreau, Claire; Jégot, Gwenhael; Jouanny, Camille; Mariot, Julie; Lecompte, François; Klett, Danièle; Combarnous, Yves

    2015-02-01

    Quaternary structure of human, bovine and ovine Follicle-Stimulating Hormones (hFSH, bFSH and oFSH) and Luteinizing Hormone was assessed in sandwich ELISAs using monoclonal anti-oFSHβ or anti-oLHβ antibodies, respectively, for capture and a biotinylated anti-hFSHα (α4 epitope) for detection. Neither free subunit gave any signal in this assay so that it was possible to measure the residual heterodimeric fraction after thermal treatment of the gonadotropins under study. The hormones were subjected to 5-min heating between 37 and 90 °C before rapid cooling in melting ice before ELISA. The data show half-dissociation of natural and recombinant human and ovine FSH preparations between 68 and 74 °C whereas bovine FSH preparations exhibited lower stability in these conditions with half-dissociation between 61 and 64 °C. Moreover, whereas all human and bovine as well as most ovine FSH preparations were fully dissociated at temperatures above 80 °C, one natural oFSH and one recombinant hLH preparations contained an important fraction that resisted dissociation even at 93 °C and retained in vitro bioactivity. This suggests the existence of gonadotropin αβ heterodimer with covalently linked subunits. Similarly, about 20% of the recombinant hLH preparation was also found withstand heat denaturation and also probably to have cross-linked subunits. The origin and chemical nature of these inter-subunit bonds remain to be determined. PMID:24732063

  16. Ovine luteinizing hormone heterogeneity: androgens increase the percentage of less basic isohormones.

    PubMed

    Christianson, S L; Zalesky, D D; Grotjan, H E

    1998-03-01

    The heterogeneity of luteinizing (LH) is hormonally regulated with androgens having been reported to increase the percentage of extremely basic LH isohormones in the ovine pituitary. This study re-examined the effects of androgens on the heterogeneity of LH in the ovine pituitary because the extremely basic isoforms of LH reported previously were subsequently demonstrated to be artifacts resulting from the conditions used for chromatofocusing. Pituitary extracts from wethers, rams, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-implanted wethers were desalted by flow dialysis and chromatofocused on pH 10.5 to 7.0 gradients. LH was quantitated by radioimmunoassays. When compared with rams, wethers had increased percentages of LH isoforms eluting between pH 9.6 and 10. Patterns of intrapituitary LH isohormones were comparable in rams and DHT-implanted wethers except that rams had a higher percentage of LH eluting at pH 9.2 (20.9 +/- 2.1% vs. 13.3 +/- 1.3%). In contrast to what was previously reported, rams and DHT-implanted wethers had higher percentages of ovine LH isoforms eluting at pH's 9.4 or lower. Thus, androgens alter LH heterogeneity yielding increased percentages of isohormones eluting at pH's of 9.4 or lower. PMID:9532422

  17. Mutational analysis of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene in two individuals with Leydig cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Canto, Patricia; Söderlund, Daniela; Ramón, Guillermo; Nishimura, Elisa; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2002-03-01

    Inactivating mutations of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene in males induce Leydig cell agenesis or hypoplasia, while activating mutations cause testotoxicosis. Recently, it was demonstrated that a somatic heterozygous activating mutation of the LHR gene (Asp578His), limited to the tumor, was the cause of Leydig cell adenomas in three unrelated patients. We describe the molecular study of two unrelated boys with gonadotropin-independent hypersecretion of testosterone due to Leydig cell adenomas. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tumor, the adjacent normal testis tissue, and blood leukocytes. Both individuals exhibited an heterozygous missense mutation, limited only to the tumor, consisting of a guanine (G) to cytosine (C) substitution at codon 578 (GAT to CAT), turning aspartic acid into histidine. The presence of the same mutation in different ethnic groups demonstrates the existence of a mutational hot spot in the LHR gene. Indeed, this mutation occurs at the conserved aspartic acid residue at amino acid 578, where a substitution by glycine is the most common mutation observed in testotoxicosis and where a substitution by tyrosine has been linked to a more severe clinical phenotype where diffuse Leydig cell hyperplasia is found. Our results confirm the fact that somatic activating mutations of gonadotropin receptors are involved in gonadal tumorigenesis. PMID:11857565

  18. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH. PMID:26443858

  19. Effect of supplemental light on growth, prolactin, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K. S.; Gwazdauskas, F. C.; Akers, R. M.; McGilliard, M. L.

    1989-06-01

    Fifty non-pregnant Surti buffalo heifers aged between 17 and 42 months ( n=24, <24 months; n=26, >24 months) were randomly assigned to groups subject to either natural daylight +4h supplemental light ( n=25) or natural day light ( n=25), to study changes in growth, serum prolactin (Prl), progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to supplemental lighting. Ambient temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) generally were >27° C and <70% during the day-time, respectively. Light-supplemented heifers had 16.2 kg net body weight (BW) gain at 9 weeks compared to 20.8 kg for controls, but higher mean Prl after 6.5 weeks ( P<0.01), and higher P4 (0.41 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.06) than control heifers. Older heifers had 39.7% greater BW ( P<0.01), but a net 4.3% BW gain compared to a 10.1% gain for younger heifers at 10 weeks. Older, light-supplemented heifers had higher mean P4 (0.63 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.07) than the other groups. These weight and hormonal changes suggest that 4 h supplemental light can alter growth and endocrine function in buffaloes under similar planes of nutrition. While light supplementation did not have a positive effect on body wieght during the 10 week study, body weight and endocrine changes due to supplemental light may be important factors for initiation of reproductive cyclicity.

  20. Central estrogen action sites involved in prepubertal restraint of pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in female rats

    PubMed Central

    UENOYAMA, Yoshihisa; TANAKA, Akira; TAKASE, Kenji; YAMADA, Shunji; PHENG, Vutha; INOUE, Naoko; MAEDA, Kei-ichiro; TSUKAMURA, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine estrogen feedback action sites to mediate prepubertal restraint of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release in female rats. Wistar-Imamichi strain rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and received a local estradiol-17β (estradiol) or cholesterol microimplant in several brain areas, such as the medial preoptic area (mPOA), paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus (ARC), at 20 or 35 days of age. Six days after receiving the estradiol microimplant, animals were bled to detect LH pulses at 26 or 41 days of age, representing the pre- or postpubertal period, respectively. Estradiol microimplants in the mPOA or ARC, but not in other brain regions, suppressed LH pulses in prepubertal OVX rats. Apparent LH pulses were found in the postpubertal period in all animals bearing estradiol or cholesterol implants. It is unlikely that pubertal changes in responsiveness to estrogen are due to a change in estrogen receptor (ER) expression, because the number of ERα-immunoreactive cells and mRNA levels of Esr1, Esr2 and Gpr30 in the mPOA and ARC were comparable between the pre- and postpubertal periods. In addition, kisspeptin or GnRH injection overrode estradiol-dependent prepubertal LH suppression, suggesting that estrogen inhibits the kisspeptin-GnRH cascade during the prepubertal period. Thus, estrogen-responsive neurons located in the mPOA and ARC may play key roles in estrogen-dependent prepubertal restraint of GnRH/LH secretion in female rats. PMID:26004302

  1. Uncoupling clutch size, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone using experimental egg removal.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Calen P; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Williams, Tony D

    2015-03-01

    Clutch size is a key avian fitness and life history trait. A physiological model for clutch size determination (CSD), involving an anti-gonadal effect of prolactin (PRL) via suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH), was proposed over 20 years ago, but has received scant experimental attention since. The few studies looking at a PRL-based mechanistic hypothesis for CSD have been equivocal, but recent experiments utilizing a pharmacological agent to manipulate PRL in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) found no support for a role of this hormone in clutch size determination. Here, we take a complementary approach by manipulating clutch size through egg removal, examining co-variation in PRL and LH between two breeding attempts, as well as through experimentally-extended laying. Clutch size increased for egg removal females, but not controls, but this was not correlated with changes in PRL or LH. There were also no differences in PRL between egg removal females and controls, nor did PRL levels during early, mid- or late-laying of supra-normal clutches predict clutch size. By uncoupling PRL, LH and clutch size in our study, several key predictions of the PRL-based mechanistic model for CSD were not supported. However, a positive correlation between PRL levels late in laying and days relative to the last egg (clutch completion) provides an alternative explanation for the equivocal results surrounding the conventional PRL-based physiological model for CSD. We suggest that females coordinate PRL-mediated incubation onset with clutch completion to minimize hatching asynchrony and sibling hierarchy, a behavior that is amplified in females laying larger clutches. PMID:25687742

  2. Treatment of nitrosamine-induced pancreatic tumors in hamsters with analogs of somatostatin and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1987-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was induced in female Syrian golden hamsters by injecting N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) once a week at a dose of 10 mg per kg of body weight for 18 weeks. Hamsters were then treated with somatostatin analog (RC-160) or with (6-D-tryptophan)luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ((D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH) delayed delivery systems. After 18 weeks of BOP administration, the hamsters were divided into three groups of 10-20 animals each. Group I consisted of untreated controls, group II was injected with RC-160, and group III was injected with (D-Trp/sub 2/)LH-RH. A striking decrease in tumor weight and volume was obtained in animals treated with (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH or with the somatostatin analog RC-160. After 45 days of treatment with either analog, the survival rate was significantly higher in groups II and III (70%), as compared with the control group (35%). The studies, done by light microscopy, high-resolution microscopy, and electron microscopy, showed a decrease in the total number of cancer cells and changes in the epithelium, connective tissue, and cellular organelles in groups II and III treated with the hypothalamic analogs as compared to controls. These results in female hamsters with induced ductal pancreatic tumors confirm and extend the authors findings, obtained in male animals with transplanted tumors, that (D-Trp/sub 6/)LH-RH and somatostatin analogs inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancers.

  3. Effect of permeation enhancer pretreatment on the iontophoresis of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) through human epidermal membrane (HEM).

    PubMed

    Smyth, Hugh D C; Becket, Gordon; Mehta, Samir

    2002-05-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial design was performed to determine the effect of a permeation enhancer (oleic acid/propylene glycol), iontophoresis (2 V), and the combination of the two treatments on the permeation enhancement of a model peptide, LHRH (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone), through human epidermal membrane (HEM). In parallel studies, TEAB (tetraethylammonium bromide, a small ionic solute) and sucrose (an electroosmotic flow marker) were also investigated. Structural changes in the HEM were monitored via conductance measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy experiments. LHRH enhancement due to enhancer in combination with iontophoresis (I + E; 29.5 times passive permeability, P), was greater than during iontophoresis alone (I; 14.3) and enhancer treatment alone (E; 3.5). I + E had an additive effect of I and E, indicating the mechanisms of action of the individual enhancement strategies were likely to be located at different sites in the skin. Also, no synergistic enhancement was observed with I + E for either TEAB or sucrose. For TEAB, permeability enhancement due to I (approximately 1400) was much higher than that due to E (14.9), and no additive effect could be detected. For sucrose, E had no effect on either passive or iontophoretic permeability, eliminating the possibility that electroosmosis could explain increases in LHRH permeability. Evidence of synergy between E and I was found, with conductance measurements indicating that I + E synergistically increased the membrane permeability to conducting ions (Na+ and Cl-). It appears these pathways were not available for transport for the solutes used in the current study. DSC and IR investigations showed significant changes in stratum corneum lipid structure following E treatment but not following I. These findings probably arise from the localized action of iontophoresis compared with the bulk action of enhancer. In summary, increased LHRH delivery through HEM in

  4. Ability of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone-Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin 40 binding to LHRH receptor on human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shou-Liang; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Hong-Guang; Lü, Wen-Tian; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Ping

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the ability of recombinant toxin luteinizing hormone releasing hormone-Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin 40 (LHRH-PE40) and LHRH binding to LHRH receptor (LHRHR) on the membrane surface of human liver cancer HEPG cells. METHODS: LHRH was labeled by using 125I with enzymatic reaction. The affinity and receptor volume of LHRH-PE40 and LHRH binding to LHRHR on the membrane surface of human liver cancer cells were measured with radioligand receptor assay. RESULTS: The specific activity of LHRH labeled with 125I was 2.7 × 104 kBq/μL, and its radiochemical purity reached to 99.2%-99.7%. The binding of 125I to LHRH was maximal for 240 min in the warm cultivation, and this binding was stabilized. The inhibiting rates of 125I-LHRH and LHRH on the proliferation of human liver cancer HEPG cells were not significantly different. On the basis of the saturation curve of 125I-LHRH binding to the membrane LHRHR of HEPG cells, 125I-LHRH of 1 × 105 cpm was selected for radioligand receptor assay. The affinity constants (Kd) of LHRH-PE40 and LHRH binding to the membrane LHRHR of HEPG cells were 0.43 ± 0.12 nmol/L and 4.86 ± 1.47 nmol/L, respectively, and their receptor volumes were 0.37 ± 0.15 μmol/g and 0.42 ± 0.13 μmol/g, respectively. The binding of LHRH-PE40 to the membrane protein of normal liver cells was not observed. CONCLUSION: The recombinant toxin LHRH-PE40 binding to the membrane surface of LHRHR of human liver cancer HEPG cells was very strong, while the specific binding of it to normal liver cells was not observed. The results provide an important experimental basis for the clinical application of LHRH-PE. PMID:15334689

  5. Association of Luteinizing Hormone Chorionic Gonadotropin Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2293275) with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society–2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Materials and Methods: Genetic case–control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16–2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96–5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body–mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. Conclusions: This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-10-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance.

  7. Augmentation of Metastin/Kisspeptin mRNA Expression by the Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Granulosa Cells of Rats: Implications for Luteinization.

    PubMed

    Laoharatchatathanin, Titaree; Terashima, Ryota; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kurusu, Shiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2015-07-01

    Variations in mRNA levels and sources of metastin/kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), dynorphin, and kisspeptin receptor GPR54 were examined in the ovaries of cycling rats. Kisspeptin and dynorphin mRNAs dramatically increased at 2000 h of the proestrous day. NKB mRNA also increased, but the peak was delayed by 6 h. GPR54 mRNA declined inversely with kisspeptin. Whole-ovary expressions of kisspeptin and dynorphin mRNAs, but not of NKB mRNA, were augmented by the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). By means of laser-capture microdissection, kisspeptin mRNA was shown mostly in follicles at 2000 h of proestrus, whereas NKB and dynorphin were expressed mainly in interstitial tissues. GPR54 mRNA was detected equally in follicles, corpora lutea, and interstitial tissues. The hCG stimulated the follicular expression of kisspeptin and interstitial tissue expression of dynorphin mRNA. In primary cultures of granulosa cells prepared from equine chorionic gonadotropin-pretreated immature rats, hCG stimulated the expression of kisspeptin, dynorphin, and NKB mRNAs. Distortion of the corpus luteum and surrounding tissue borders was sometimes seen after intra-ovarian bursa administration of kisspeptin antagonist p234 for 3 days from proestrus. Progesterone production stimulated by hCG in granulosa cell culture was suppressed by p234. These data demonstrate that significant amounts of kisspeptin are synthesized in granulosa cells and dynorphin in interstitial tissues, in response to the proestrous luteinizing hormone surge, whereas granulosa cells also contain dynorphin and NKB, suggesting at least a role for kisspeptin in the luteinization of granulosa cells. PMID:25995272

  8. Kisspeptin receptor agonist (FTM080) increased plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone in anestrous ewes

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Joseph A.; Amelse, Lisa L.; Tanco, Valeria M.; Chameroy, Kelly A.; Schrick, F. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human Metastin 45-54; 500 pmol/kg BW), one of three dosages of FTM080 (500 (FTM080:500), 2500 (FTM080:2500), or 5000 (FTM080:5000) pmol/kg BW), or VEH intravenously. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (4 h) treatment. In experiment 1, FTM080:500 increased (P < 0.05) plasma LH concentrations when compared to VEH. The area under the curve (AUC) of LH following FTM080:500 treatment was also increased (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, plasma LH concentrations increased (P < 0.05) following treatment with KP-10 and FTM080:5000 when compared to VEH and FTM080:500. The AUC of LH following KP-10 was greater than (P < 0.05) all other treatments and the AUC of LH following FTM080:5000 was greater than (P < 0.05) all treatments except KP-10. These data provide evidence to suggest that FTM080 stimulates the gonadotropic axis of ruminants in vivo. Any increased half-life and comparable efficacy of FTM080 to KP-10 in vitro does not appear to translate to in vivo in sheep. PMID:26587345

  9. Noradrenaline concentrations in the hypothalamus of anoestrus ewes following the ram-induced luteinizing hormone release.

    PubMed

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-05-01

    Sheep are seasonal breeders, but exposure of anoestrus ewes to rams results in a rapid increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, eventually leading to surge in LH. Although LH secretion is known to be under the control of many neurotransmitters, noradrenaline (NA) is of particular importance for the LH surge in induced ovulators, although little is known about its role in LH secretion induced by males in spontaneous ovulators. To address this question, anoestrus ewes fitted with guide-tubes in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) or the ventromedial hypothalamus were subjected to microdialysis and blood sampling every 15 min for an hour before and 2 h after exposure to rams, and the concentrations of LH, monoamine and amino acid transmitters were measured. In ewes implanted in the posterior MPOA that responded to the ram by an increase in LH pulses, NA concentrations changed after exposure to the ram (P<0.018) and were higher at 15 (P<0.054) and 45 min (P<0.03) after male introduction than before. By contrast, no change in NA could be detected in ewes implanted in the same region, but not responding to the ram, or in those showing increased LH pulsatility, but implanted in the anterior MPOA or in the ventromedial hypothalamus. No changes were observed in other neurotransmitters or when the ewes were exposed to male odour alone. These results suggest that NA release in the posterior MPOA is selectively involved in the triggering of LH secretion by rams in anoestrus ewes. PMID:25839177

  10. Induction of the expressions of antioxidant enzymes by luteinizing hormone in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 μM) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 μM] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  11. MicroRNA Expression and Regulation in Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells by Luteinizing Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Juan; Eldredge, Joanna B.; Xu, Ying; Puett, David

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs have been widely-studied with regard to their aberrant expression and high correlation with tumorigenesis and progression in various solid tumors. With the major goal of assessing gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone, LH) contributions to LH receptor (LHR)-positive ovarian cancer cells, we have conducted a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on human epithelial ovarian cancer cells to identify the microRNA-associated cellular response to LH-mediated activation of LHR. Methods Human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) were chosen as negative control (LHR−) and stably transfected to express functional LHR (LHR+), followed by incubation with LH (0–20 h). At different times of LH-mediated activation of LHR the cancer cells were analyzed by a high-density Ovarian Cancer Disease-Specific-Array (DSA, ALMAC™), which profiled ∼100,000 transcripts with ∼400 non-coding microRNAs. Findings In total, 65 microRNAs were identified to exhibit differential expression in either LHR expressing SKOV3 cells or LH-treated cells, a few of which have been found in the genomic fragile regions that are associated with abnormal deletion or amplification in cancer, such as miR-21, miR-101-1, miR-210 and miR-301a. By incorporating the dramatic expression changes observed in mRNAs, strong microRNA/mRNA regulatory pairs were predicted through statistical analyses coupled with collective computational prediction. The role of each microRNA was then determined through a functional analysis based on the highly-confident microRNA/mRNA pairs. Conclusion The overall impact on the transcriptome-level expression indicates that LH may regulate apoptosis and cell growth of LHR+ SKOV3 cells, particularly by reducing cancer cell proliferation, with some microRNAs involved in regulatory roles. PMID:21765906

  12. Supression of the steroid-primed luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat by sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate: Relationship to hypothalamic catecholamines and GnRH neuronal activation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rodents, hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) has a role in stimulating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that triggers the ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). NE synthesis from dopamine requires the presence of dopamine--hydroxylase (DH) an...

  13. Pregnancy rates to timed artificial insemination in dairy cows treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone or porcine luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Colazo, M G; Gordon, M B; Rajamahendran, R; Mapletoft, R J; Ambrose, D J

    2009-07-15

    We compared the effects of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulatory response and pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in 605 lactating dairy cows. Cows (mean+/-SEM: 2.4+/-0.08 lactations, 109.0+/-2.5 d in milk, and 2.8+/-0.02 body condition score) at three locations were assigned to receive, in a 2x2 factorial design, either 100 microg GnRH or 25mg pLH im on Day 0, 500 microg cloprostenol (PGF) on Day 7, and GnRH or pLH on Day 9, with TAI 14 to 18h later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed in a subset of cows on Days 0, 7, 10, and 11 to determine ovulations, presence of corpus luteum, and follicle diameter and in all cows 32 d after TAI for pregnancy determination. In 35 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations were determined 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 12 d after ovulation. The proportion of noncyclic cows and cows with ovarian cysts on Day 0 were 12% and 6%, respectively. Ovulatory response to first treatment was 62% versus 44% for pLH and GnRH and 78% versus 50% for noncyclic and cyclic cows (P<0.01). Location, ovulatory response to first pLH or GnRH, cyclic status, presence of an ovarian cyst, and preovulatory follicle size did not affect pregnancy rate. Plasma progesterone concentrations after TAI did not differ among treatments. Pregnancy rate to TAI was greater (P<0.01) in the GnRH/PGF/pLH group (42%) than in the other three groups (28%, 30%, and 26% for GnRH/PGF/GnRH, pLH/PGF/GnRH, and pLH/PGF/pLH, respectively). Although only 3% of cows given pLH in lieu of GnRH on Day 9 lost their embryo versus 7% in those subjected to a conventional TAI using two GnRH treatments, the difference was not statistically significant. In summary, pLH treatment on Day 0 increased ovulatory response but not pregnancy rate. Cows treated with GnRH/PGF/pLH had the highest pregnancy rate to TAI, but progesterone concentrations after TAI were not increased. In addition, preovulatory follicle diameter did not

  14. Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone Beta Subunit (lhb) Gene in Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. In the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. The lhb full-length of cDNA sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) 447bp, ORF(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-UTR respectively. The coding region of lhb gene encoded a peptide of 148 amino acids. The coding sequence of lhb gene consist of a single N-linked glycosylation site (NET) and 12 cysteine knot residues. Phylogenetic analysis of C. catla Lhβ deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with Carassius auratus followed by Gobiocypris rarus. 3D structure Lhβ protein comprises of five β-sheets and six coils/loops. The qPCR results revealed lhb mRNA is mainly expressed in the pituitary, ovary while moderate expression was observed in brain and testis. To best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification, molecular characterization and structural information regarding luteinizing hormone in Indian major carp. PMID:26980432

  15. Inhibition of growth of a prolactin and growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor in rats by D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Aleman, I; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1985-01-01

    The effect of long-term administration of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) and somatostatin on the growth of the growth hormone (GH)- and prolactin (PRL)-secreting rat pituitary GH3 tumor was investigated. Daily administration of [D-Trp6]LH-RH (50 micrograms/day), early after inoculation of the GH3 tumor, inhibited tumor growth by more than 90% as compared to controls. Similarly, in two experiments, a single once-a-month injection of long-acting [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules (in a dose calculated to release about 25 micrograms/day for 30 days) inhibited the growth of GH3 pituitary tumor by more than 50% 6 or 13 wk after transplantation, when the tumors were fully developed. Serum GH and PRL levels also were reduced markedly by treatment with [D-Trp6]LH-RH. On the other hand, the administration of an antagonistic analog of LH-RH, N-Ac-[D-Phe(4Cl)1,2, D-Trp3, D-Arg6, D-Ala10]LH-RH, did not significantly reduce the growth of this tumor, and the treatment with two different analogs of somatostatin, cyclo(Pro-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe) and D-Phe-Cys-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Thr NH2, appeared to enhance it. These results are in agreement with previous findings of growth inhibition of 7315a pituitary tumors with different hormone-secreting characteristics by agonistic analogs of LH-RH. The collective data from experimental work with rat pituitary tumor models support the contention that the use of [D-Trp6]LH-RH might be considered for the treatment of some patients with pituitary tumors who failed to respond to conventional therapy. PMID:2858096

  16. Pubertal development in the male pig: effects of treatment with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on plasma luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone.

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, V L; Meijer, J C; Erkens, J H; van de Wiel, D F; Wensing, C J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, [D-Trp6]-GnRH (GnRH-A) on developmental profiles of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), and pituitary responsiveness to exogenous GnRH were studied in male Dutch Landrace x Large White crossbred pigs from 1 to 30 wk of age. Group 1 control animals (control; n = 12) were injected subcutaneously in the neck with vehicle at 1 and 16 wk of age. Group 2 animals (early treatment; n = 10) were injected with 600 micrograms [D-Trp6]-GnRH at 1 wk and with vehicle at 16 wk. Group 3 animals (late treatment; n = 8) were injected with vehicle and 3 mg GnRH-A at 1 and 16 wk, respectively. Group 4 animals (early plus late treatment; n = 9) were injected at both 1 and 16 wk with GnRH-A. Blood was collected by brachiocephalic puncture at weekly or biweekly intervals, and through brachiocephalic cannulae, to determine longitudinal profiles of LH, FSH and T, and plasma gonadotropin responses to intravenous injection of GnRH (0.1 microgram/kg), respectively. In control animals, LH and FSH declined over the first 5 wk of postnatal life and peaked again at 10-14 wk. Levels of both hormones were basal from 18 to 30 wk. Plasma T was high in the first week, declined progressively over the next few weeks and remained low until 24 wk when a transient increment was noted. The LH and FSH responses to acute GnRH stimulation were similar at 7 and 14 wk and declined significantly at 23 wk of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1534270

  17. Cloning and functional expression of the equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Foulon-Gauze, Florence; Lecompte, François; Combarnous, Yves; Chopineau, Maryse

    2004-12-01

    Pituitary equine luteinizing hormone (eLH) and fetal chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) have identical polypeptidic chains, but different linked carbohydrates. In equine tissues, eCG and eLH bind only to the LH/CG receptor (eLH/CG-R) and have no FSH activity. However, radio-receptor assays on equine luteal or testicular tissues have shown that eCG binds to the eLH/CG-R with only 2-4% of the binding activity of eLH. In order to study the structure-function relationship of eLH and eCG in a homologous system, we undertook the cloning and functional expression of the eLH/CG-R. Based on sequence homologies among mammalian sequences for the LH/CG-R, overlapping partial fragments of LH/CG-R cDNAs were obtained from mare luteal RNA using reverse transcription-PCR and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Ligations of the partial cDNA fragments encoded a part of the signal peptide followed by a putative 672 amino acid eLH/CG-R mature protein. The mature eLH/CG-R displayed 88.2-92.8% overall sequence homology with the other mammalian LH/CG-Rs and contained one unique seventh N-glycosylation site in its extracellular domain. COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with a cDNA construct encoding an engineered complete signal peptide and the mature eLH/CG-R. Membrane preparations from transfected COS-7 cells bound 125I-eLH with high affinity (Kd 3.8 x 10(-10) M). On a molar basis, eCG competed with 125I-eLH on membrane preparations with only 12.4% of the eLH binding activity. In transfected COS-7, both eLH and eCG increased the extracellular cAMP concentration in a dose-dependent manner, whereas eFSH did not. Furthermore, on a molar basis, eCG stimulated cAMP production with only 13.9% of the eLH stimulating activity. We conclude that the cloned cDNA encodes a The differences functional eLH/CG-R. between eLH and eCG activities towards this receptor will be useful in studies of the influence of carbohydrates on gonadotrophin receptor binding and activation. PMID:15590981

  18. Regulation of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells by luteinizing hormone receptor expression and activation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since a substantial percentage of ovarian cancers express gonadotropin receptors and are responsive to the relatively high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins during the postmenopausal years, it has been suggested that receptor activation may contribute to the etiology and/or progression of the neoplasm. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell model to determine the impact of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor (LHR) expression and LH-mediated LHR activation on gene expression and thus obtain insights into the mechanism of gonadotropin action on ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) carcinoma cells. Methods The human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, was stably transfected to express functional LHR and incubated with LH for various periods of time (0-20 hours). Transcriptomic profiling was performed on these cells to identify LHR expression/activation-dependent changes in gene expression levels and pathways by microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. Results Through comparative analysis on the LHR-transfected SKOV-3 cells exposed to LH, we observed the differential expression of 1,783 genes in response to LH treatment, among which five significant families were enriched, including those of growth factors, translation regulators, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors, and ligand-dependent nuclear receptors. The most highly induced early and intermediate responses were found to occupy a network impacting transcriptional regulation, cell growth, apoptosis, and multiple signaling transductions, giving indications of LH-induced apoptosis and cell growth inhibition through the significant changes in, for example, tumor necrosis factor, Jun and many others, supportive of the observed cell growth reduction in in vitro assays. However, other observations, e.g. the substantial up-regulation of the genes encoding the endothelin-1 subtype A receptor, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor II, all of which are potential therapeutic

  19. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone concentrations and LH-RH responsiveness in mature, male rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    PubMed

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1986-01-01

    Plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in immobilized or yarded rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) were investigated over a two-year period. Testosterone concentrations showed a minor elevation in autumn (May) and reached maximal levels in late winter-early spring (August) coinciding with the rut. Luteinizing hormone in plasma was only detectable from January to May. Maximal responsiveness of the pituitary-gonadal axis to LH-RH stimulation was recorded in August. The combination of Fentaz (fentanylcitrate and azaperone) and Rompun (xylazine hydrochloride) for immobilizing deer influences hypothalamic function. PMID:2869876

  20. Growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone regulation by neuropeptide Y in both sexes of the cichlid fish, Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Di Yorio, M P; Delgadin, T H; Pérez Sirkin, D I; Vissio, P G

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is considered the most potent orexigenic peptide, increasing before meal time and during fasting. In teleost, most studies on NPY action upon growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were conducted in females or group of animals without sex discrimination. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether NPY modulates the expression and release of GH and gonadotropins in both sexes of Cichlasoma dimerus. By double-label immunofluorescence, we first determined the association between NPY fibers and pituitary cells. In addition, we performed in vitro studies to evaluate the effect of NPY on GH and gonadotropins expression by real-time PCR, and release by Western blot, in males and females separately. Contacts between NPY fibers and GH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-producing cells were detected, indicating possible functional relationships. We observed an increase in GH release in the culture medium at 2 nM for males (p = 0.043) and 20 nM for females (p = 0.028). Pituitary FSH release was stimulated at 20 nM (p = 0.026) and 200 nM (p = 0.033) for males and females, respectively. Finally, NPY only increased β-LH mRNA expression at 20 nM in females (p = 0.028) and its release at 2 nM (p = 0.049) and 200 nM for males (p = 0.005) and 200 nM for females (p = 0.018). In conclusion, NPY acts as a GH-, LH- and FSH-releasing factor, in a dose- and sex-dependent way. PMID:25869217

  1. Control of gonadotrophin secretion by steroid hormones in castrated male transsexuals. I. Effects of oestradiol infusion on plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Goh, H H; Chew, P C; Karim, S M; Ratnam, S S

    1980-02-01

    Twenty-four infusions of oestradiol (E2) in graded doses ranging from 0--200 micrograms administered over a period of 7 hours were carried out in eleven healthy male transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment at least 3 months previously. Plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2 were analysed by radioimmunoassay, while sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was measured using 3H-testosterone as the saturating ligand. Infusion of 5--200 micrograms of E2 raised plasma E2 to levels ranging from 38.4--367.8 pg/ml which present 83%--800% of levels found in a control group of sixty-three normal males. SHBG capacity remained unchanged at all doses of E2 studied. No change in plasma levels of FSH and LH was observed in control infusions and infusion of 5 micrograms of E2. From 10 micrograms-200 micrograms, suppression of plasma levels of FSH was noted at the 5--7 hour period. The suppression increased up to 20 micrograms and thereafter the levels of FSH remained constant. On the other hand, the suppression of LH increased up to the highest E2 dose (200 micrograms) studied. Further, significant suppression of LH occurred earlier than the 5--7 hours as the dose of E2 increased. These observations are consistent with the conclusions that: (1) E2 plays a part in the regulation of secretion of FSH and LH in men; and (2) at doses higher than physiological, E2 exerts a differential effect on the secretion of FSH and LH. PMID:6772356

  2. Stimulation of cholesterol side-chain cleavage by a luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (luliberin) agonist (ICI 118630) in rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M H; Cooke, B A

    1983-01-01

    The action of a luliberin (luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone) agonist (ICI 118630) and lutropin (luteinizing hormone) on the activity of the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme in rat Leydig cells has been investigated. This has been carried out by studying the metabolism of exogenous (22R)-22- and 25-hydroxycholesterol to testosterone. It was found that both hydroxycholesterols increased testosterone production to higher levels than achieved by lutropin alone. Addition of luliberin agonist but not lutropin was found to increase further the metabolism of the hydroxycholesterol to testosterone; this occurred in the presence of saturating and subsaturating levels of the hydroxycholesterols. This effect of luliberin agonist was potentiated in the presence of lutropin. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited the luliberin agonist-induced stimulation of the hydroxycholesterol metabolism. At low calcium levels (1.1 microM), testosterone production was increased by addition of (22R)-22-hydroxycholesterol but the luliberin agonist effect was negated. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine inhibited (22R)-22-hydroxycholesterol-stimulated steroidogenesis and negated the luliberin agonist effect. These results indicate that luliberin agonist specifically increases the synthesis of the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme in rat testis Leydig cells. PMID:6230077

  3. First attempt to monitor luteinizing hormone and reproductive steroids in urine samples of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; Graham, Laura H; da Silva, Vera M F; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine samples of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia) and to monitor urinary LH and reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in this species. Urine samples were collected from two captive males following a hormonal challenge with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The urinary LH results from hormonal challenge were compared with urinary androgens for the purpose of EIA validation. Furthermore, urine samples were collected daily, over a 12-wk period, from two captive adult females, for 2 consecutive yr. The urinary LH pattern from females was compared with the patterns of urinary progestagens and estrogen conjugates throughout the ovarian cycle. An LH peak was observed in both male Amazonian manatees after the hormonal challenge, occurring prior to or together with peak androgen levels. In the females, the ovarian cycle ranged from 40 to 48 days (mean of 43.7 days). Two distinct peaks of estrogen conjugates were observed across all cycles analyzed, and the urinary LH peaks observed were accompanied by peaks of urinary estrogen conjugates. The EIA was validated as a method for the quantification of urinary LH from Amazonian manatees, as it was able to detect variations in the levels of LH in urine samples. These results suggest that T. inunguis exhibits a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle. Therefore, further studies are desirable and necessary to clarify the relationship between this hormonal pattern and morphological changes, as well as mating behavior, in Amazonian manatee. PMID:25632672

  4. Testosterone antagonist (flutamide) blocks ovulation and preovulatory surges of progesterone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rangel, P L; Sharp, P J; Gutierrez, C G

    2006-06-01

    The preovulatory release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the domestic hen occurs after the initiation of a preovulatory surge of testosterone. The objective of this study was to determine whether this testosterone surge has functional significance in the endocrine control of ovulation. Groups of laying hens (n = 10-22) were treated with the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, at 8 h intervals for 24 h at doses of 0, 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 mg. All doses reduced egg laying (P < 0.001), with the highest dose being the most effective. In a second study, laying hens (n = 9) were treated with 250 mg flutamide at 8 h intervals for 24 h with a control group being given placebo (n = 10). Blood samples were taken for hormone measurements at 2 h intervals for 18 h starting 4 h before the onset of darkness. The percentage of hens laying per day did not differ between groups before treatment (control, 88% vs flutamide, 86%). Ovulation was blocked in all hens treated with flutamide within 2 days while the control hens continued to lay at the pretreatment rate (80%). Preovulatory surges of plasma testosterone, progesterone, oestradiol and LH were observed in control hens but with the exception of testosterone, flutamide treatment blocked the progesterone, oestradiol and LH surges. LH concentrations declined progressively with time in the flutamide-treated hens. It is concluded that inhibition of testosterone action blocks egg laying and the preovulatory surges of progesterone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol demonstrating a key role for the preovulatory release of testosterone in the endocrine control of ovulation in the domestic hen. PMID:16735550

  5. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estradiol, and inhibin regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone surges: implications for follicle emergence and selection in heifers.

    PubMed

    Haughian, James M; Ginther, O J; Diaz, Francisco J; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2013-06-01

    Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin surges and gonadotropin requirements for follicle emergence and selection were studied in heifers. Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. Treatments included control (n = 6), steroid-depleted bovine follicular fluid (bFF) at Hour -4 (n = 6), and bFF at Hour 6 (n = 6). Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. Consistent with inhibin independence, bFF at Hour -4 did not impact the GnRH-induced preovulatory FSH surge, whereas treatment at Hour 6 delayed onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and impeded growth of a new follicular wave. Experiment 2 examined GnRH and estradiol (E2) regulation of the periovulatory FSH surge. Treatment groups were control (n = 8), GnRH-receptor antagonist (GnRHr-ant, n = 8), and E2 + GnRHr-ant (n = 4). GnRHr-ant (acyline) did not reduce the concentrations of FSH during the periovulatory surge and early follicle development (<7.0 mm) was unaffected, although subsequent growth of a dominant follicle (>8.0 mm) was prevented by GnRHr-ant. Addition of E2 delayed both the onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and emergence of a follicular wave. Failure to select a dominant follicle in the GnRHr-ant group was associated with reduced concentrations of LH but not FSH. Maximum diameter of F1 in controls (13.3 ± 0.5 mm) was greater than in both GnRHr-ant (7.7 ± 0.3 mm) and E2 + GnRHr-ant (6.7 ± 0.8 mm) groups. Results indicated that the periovulatory FSH surge stems from removal of negative stimuli (follicular E2 and inhibin), but is independent of GnRH stimulation. Emergence and early growth of follicles (until about 8 mm) requires the periovulatory FSH surge but not LH pulses. However, follicular deviation and late-stage growth of

  7. Heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits have different paracrine action in the modulation of luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, A.J.W.; Dahl, K.D.; Vaughan, J.; Tucker, E.; Rivier, J.; Bardin, C.W.; Vale, W.

    1987-07-01

    Inhibin, a gonadal hormone capable of preferential suppression of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion, has recently been purified. The major form of this protein is an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimer encoded by two separate genes. In contrast to the FSH-suppressing action of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimer, the ..beta beta.. homodimer stimulates FSH secretion. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-secreting pituitary cells and gonadal androgen-producing cells have long been shown to form a closed-loop feedback axis. Based on recent studies demonstrated the FSH stimulation of inhibin biosynthesis by ovarian granulosa and testis Sertoli cells, an additional closed-loop feedback axis exists between pituitary FSH- and gonadal inhibin-producing cells. Because uncharacterized Sertoli cell factors have been suggested to either stimulate or inhibit androgen production by testicular Leydig cells, the authors have tested the intragonadal paracrine actions of heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits. In primary cultures of testis cells, the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimer of inhibin enhances Leydig cell androgen biosynthesis stimulated by LH, whereas the ..beta beta.. homodimer suppresses androgen production. The data indicate that the inhibin-related gene products synthesized by Sertoli and granulosa cells may form heterodimers or homodimers to serve as intragonadal paracrine signals in the modulation of LH-stimulated androgen biosynthesis and allow cross-communication between the two feedback loops.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for (6-D-tryptophan)luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ((D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 ..mu..g of the peptide, serum (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection.

  9. Luteinizing hormone downregulation but not estrogen replacement improves ovariectomy-associated cognition and spine density loss independently of treatment onset timing.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jeffrey A; Palm, Russell; Chang, Jaewon; McGee, Henry; Zhu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xinglong; Casadesus, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    Age-related changes in reproductive hormone levels are a well-known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in women. We and others have shown an important contribution of gonadotropins in this process. Lowering serum gonadotropin levels is able to rescue cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease and menopause models, but whether this is time-dependent and the exact mechanism through which gonadotropins regulate cognitive function is unknown. We show that pharmacologically lowering serum levels of luteinizing hormone lead to cognitive improvement immediately after ovariectomy and with a 4month interval after ovariectomy, when the benefits of 17β-estradiol are known to disappear in rodents. Importantly, we show that these improvements are associated with spine density changes at both time points. These findings suggest a role of luteinizing hormone in learning and memory and neuroplasticity processes as well as provide an alternative therapeutic strategy of menopause associated cognitive loss. PMID:26497249

  10. Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Scott; Gao, Sisi; Valle, Shelley; Bittner, Stephanie; Hutton, Pierce; Meddle, Simone L.; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy deficiency can suppress reproductive function in vertebrates. As the orchestrator of reproductive function, endocrine activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis is potentially an important mechanism mediating such effects. Previous experiments in wild-caught birds found inconsistent relationships between energy deficiency and seasonal reproductive function, but these experiments focused on baseline HPG axis activity and none have investigated the responsiveness of this axis to endocrine stimulation. Here, we present data from an experiment in Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) challenges to investigate whether energy deficiency modulates the plasma testosterone responsiveness of the HPG axis. Wild-caught birds were either ad libitum fed or energetically constrained via chronic food restriction during photoinduced reproductive development. Energy deficiency did not significantly affect the development of reproductive morphology, the baseline endocrine activity of the HPG axis, or the plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Energy deficiency did, however, decrease the plasma testosterone responsiveness to LH challenge. Collectively, these observations suggest that energy deficiency has direct gonadal effects consisting of a decreased responsiveness to LH stimulation. Our study, therefore, reveals a mechanism by which energy deficiency modulates reproductive function in wild birds in the absence of detectable effects on baseline HPG axis activity. PMID:26333925

  11. CREB Binding Protein (CBP) Activation Is Required for Luteinizing Hormone Beta Expression and Normal Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ryan S.; Wolfe, Andrew; He, Ling; Radovick, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is dependent on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH)-stimulated synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gonadotroph. While the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP) is known to interact with Egr-1, the major mediator of GNRH action on the Lhb gene, the role of CBP in Lhb gene expression has yet to be characterized. We show that in the LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, overexpression of CBP augmented the response to GNRH and that knockdown of CBP eliminated GNRH responsiveness. While GNRH-mediated phosphorylation of CBP at Ser436 increased the interaction with Egr-1 on the Lhb promoter, loss of this phosphorylation site eliminated GNRH-mediated Lhb expression in LβT2 cells. In vivo, loss of CBP phosphorylation at Ser436 rendered female mice subfertile. S436A knock-in mice had disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced responsiveness to GNRH. Our results show that GNRH-mediated phosphorylation of CBP at Ser436 is required for Egr-1 to activate Lhb expression and is a requirement for normal fertility in female mice. As CBP can be phosphorylated by other factors, such as insulin, our studies suggest that CBP may act as a key regulator of Lhb expression in the gonadotroph by integrating homeostatic information with GNRH signaling. PMID:22508984

  12. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men.

  13. Interleukin 1. alpha. inhibits prostaglandin E sub 2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Rettori, V.; McCann, S.M. ); Gimeno, M.F. ); Karara, A. ); Gonzalez, M.C. )

    1991-04-01

    Interleukin 1{alpha} (IL-1{alpha}), a powerful endogenous pyrogen released from monocytes and macrophages by bacterial endotoxin, stimulates corticotropin, prolactin, and somatotropin release and inhibits thyrotropin release by hypothalamic action. The authors injected recombinant human IL-1{alpha} into the third cerebral ventricle, to study its effect on the pulsatile release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in conscious, freely moving, ovariectomized rats. Intraventricular injection of 0.25 pmol of IL-1{alpha} caused an almost immediate reduction of plasma LH concentration. To determine the mechanism of the suppression of LH release, mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were incubated in vitro with IL-1{alpha} (10 pM) and the release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} into the medium was measured by RIA in the presence or absence of nonrepinephrine. 1{alpha} reduced basal LHRH release and blocked LHRH release induced by nonrepinephrine. In conclusion, IL-1{alpha} suppresses LH but not FSH release by an almost complete cessation of pulsatile release of LH in the castrated rat. The mechanism of this effect appears to be by inhibition of prostaglandin E{sub 2}-mediated release of LHRH.

  14. Molecular and biological interaction between major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and luteinizing hormone receptors or beta-adrenergic receptors triggers cellular response in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Solano, A R; Cremaschi, G; Sánchez, M L; Borda, E; Sterin-Borda, L; Podestá, E J

    1988-01-01

    Purified IgG from BALB/c mouse anti-C3H serum exerts positive inotropic and chronotropic effects in C3H mouse atria and induces testosterone synthesis in C3H mouse Leydig cells. The effect depends on IgG concentration and can be abolished by beta-adrenergic-receptor and luteinizing hormone-receptor antagonists. IgG interferes with the binding of dihydroalprenolol and luteinizing hormone. Monoclonal antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class I antigens were active on the Leydig cells of C3H and BALB/c mice. There was a parallelism between the effect of each individual monoclonal antibody with specificity for a particular haplotype and the response of the target cell from the strains carrying such haplotypes. These antibodies could precipitate the soluble luteinizing hormone-receptor complex. The results suggested that bound hormone triggers the association of major histocompatibility class I antigen with the receptor, thereby activating the respective target cells. PMID:2839829

  15. Pituitary self-priming actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Kinetics of estradiol's potentiating effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-facilitated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Evans, W S; Rogol, A D; Kolp, L; Thorner, M O; Stumpf, P

    1986-06-01

    We examined the kinetically distinct characteristics of estradiol's effects upon pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to pulses of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy postmenopausal individuals. The putative self-priming actions of GnRH on LH and FSH release were tested by intravenous injections of equal paired doses of GnRH (10 micrograms) before and after 1, 5, 10, and 30 d of pure estradiol-17 beta delivery via an intravaginal silastic ring. Self-priming actions of GnRH, as defined by heightened gonadotropin release in response to the second pulse of GnRH compared with the first, were completely absent in the hypoestrogenemic state. However, estradiol administration unmasked GnRH self-priming in a time-dependent fashion, with maximal expression after 5 and 10 d of steroid replacement, followed by attenuation by 30 d. Since estradiol's modulation of GnRH action was expressed differentially on LH and FSH release, we suggest that such facilitation of GnRH-stimulated pituitary LH and FSH release may provide an additional mechanism for dissociated secretion of gonadotropic hormones in health or disease. PMID:3086382

  16. Age-Related Mercury Contamination and Relationship with Luteinizing Hormone in a Long-Lived Antarctic Bird

    PubMed Central

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bustamante, Paco; Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds, as long-lived top predators, accumulate contaminants such as mercury (Hg), an established endocrine disruptor. In long lived species hormonal secretion varies with age; therefore, Hg-induced endocrine disruption may be exacerbated in some age classes. Here we investigated relationships between blood total Hg and luteinizing hormone (LH, a key pituitary hormone for the onset of breeding), in pre-laying known-age (11–45 years old) snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) from Adélie Land, Antarctica. We predicted that 1) blood Hg would increase with advancing age as a consequence of bio-accumulation; and that 2) increasing blood Hg would be related to decreased concentrations of LH in the most Hg-contaminated individuals. Hg concentrations were higher in females than in males (p<0.001), and contrary to our prediction, decreased with advancing age in males (p = 0.009) and tended to do so in females (p = 0.06). The analysis of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) suggested that this unexpected pattern could originate from age and sex-related variations in trophic niche, and hence Hg exposure. Regarding LH, our prediction was only supported in young birds (≤23 years) where baseline LH was inversely correlated with Hg concentrations (p = 0.04). Hg burden did not predict baseline LH or GnRH-induced LH in birds that were more than 23 years old. These results show that age and contaminants may interfere with major endocrine mechanisms and, together with other recent studies, support the view that Hg could be connected to LH secretion and could then impair the fitness of long-lived birds. PMID:25072936

  17. Heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits have different paracrine action in the modulation of luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, A J; Dahl, K D; Vaughan, J; Tucker, E; Rivier, J; Bardin, C W; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    Inhibin, a gonadal hormone capable of preferential suppression of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion, has recently been purified. The major form of this protein is an alpha beta heterodimer encoded by two separate genes. In contrast to the FSH-suppressing action of the alpha beta heterodimer, the beta beta homodimer stimulates FSH secretion. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-secreting pituitary cells and gonadal androgen-producing cells have long been shown to form a closed-loop feedback axis. Based on recent studies demonstrating the FSH stimulation of inhibin biosynthesis by ovarian granulosa and testis Sertoli cells, an additional closed-loop feedback axis exists between pituitary FSH- and gonadal inhibin-producing cells. Because uncharacterized Sertoli cell factors have been suggested to either stimulate or inhibit androgen production by testicular Leydig cells, we have tested the intragonadal paracrine actions of heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits. In primary cultures of testis cells, the alpha beta heterodimer of inhibin enhances Leydig cell androgen biosynthesis stimulated by LH, whereas the beta beta homodimer suppresses androgen production. Furthermore, similar modulatory actions of inhibin-related proteins were found in cultured ovarian theca-interstitial cells and theca explants treated with LH. In contrast, treatment with the inhibin-related proteins alone did not affect gonadal steroidogenesis. Our data indicate that the inhibin-related gene products synthesized by Sertoli and granulosa cells may form heterodimers or homodimers to serve as intragonadal paracrine signals in the modulation of LH-stimulated androgen biosynthesis and allow cross-communication between the two feedback loops. PMID:3474640

  18. Identification of major urinary metabolites of nafarelin acetate, a potent agonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.L.; Chaplin, M.D.

    1985-09-01

    Nafarelin acetate (less than Glu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-3-(2-naphthyl)-D-Ala-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2) is a potent agonistic analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. After a single iv administration of nafarelin acetate (with UC label at C-3 of 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-Ala) to female rhesus monkeys, about 80% of the radioactivity was eliminated in urine. Five major radioactive urinary metabolites were isolated and purified by reversed phase HPLC. Four of these metabolites, identified by amino acid analysis, were short peptides: the 5-10-hexapeptide amide, the 6-10-pentapeptide amide, the 5-7-tripeptide, and the 6-7-dipeptide. The fifth metabolite, which accounted for about 15% of the radioactivity administered, was shown by NMR and mass spectrometry to be 2-naphthylacetic acid. A possible pathway of its formation is by oxidative deamination of 3-(2-napthyl)-D-Ala to give the corresponding alpha-keto acid, followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the alpha-keto acid. These five metabolites together accounted for about 70% of the radioactivity recovered in the urine of rhesus monkeys, or more than half of the radioactivity in the administered dose. Nafarelin acetate was also present in small amounts. Several of these metabolites were also present in plasma of the rhesus monkey.

  19. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone targeted poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Ghazzavi, Jila

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a targeted anti-cancer drug delivery system for breast cancer. Therefore, doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Zn(2+) ions. To optimise the effect of DOX/polymer ratio, Zn/polymer ratio, and stirrer rate a full factorial design was used and their effects on particle size, zeta potential, loading efficiency (LE, %), and release efficiency in 72 h (RE72, %) were studied. Targeted NPs were prepared by chemical coating of tiptorelin/polyallylamin conjugate on the surface of NPs by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboiimid HCl as cross-linking agent. Conjugation efficiency was measured by Bradford assay. Conjugated triptorelin and targeted NPs were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxicity of DOX loaded in targeted NPs and non-targeted ones were studied on MCF-7 cells which overexpress luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors and SKOV3 cells as negative LHRH receptors using Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. The best results obtained from NPs prepared by DOX/polymer ratio of 5%, Zn/polymer ratio of 50%, and stirrer rate of 960 rpm. FTIR spectrum confirmed successful conjugation of triptorelin to NPs. The conjugation efficiency was about 70%. The targeted NPs showed significantly less IC50 for MCF-7 cells compared to free DOX and non-targeted NPs. PMID:27463791

  20. Profile of follitropin alpha/lutropin alpha combination for the stimulation of follicular development in women with severe luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Leonardo; Selman, Helmy

    2016-01-01

    A severe gonadotropin deficiency together with chronic estradiol deficiency leading to amenorrhea characterizes patients suffering from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Administration of both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to these patients has been shown to be essential in achieving successful stimulation of follicular development, ovulation, and rescue of fertility. In recent years, the availability of both recombinant FSH (rFSH) and recombinant LH (rLH) has provided a new therapeutic option for the stimulation of follicular growth in hypopituitary–hypogonadotropic women (World Health Organization Group I). In this article, we review the data reported in the literature to highlight the role and the efficacy of using recombinant gonadotropins, rFSH and rLH, in the treatment of women with severe LH/FSH deficiency. Although the studies on this issue are limited and the experiences available in the literature are few due to the small number of such patients, it is clearly evident that the recombinant gonadotropins rFSH and rLH are efficient in treating patients affected by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The results observed in the studies reported in this review suggest that recombinant gonadotropins are able to induce proper follicular growth, oocyte maturation, and eventually pregnancy in this group of women. Moreover, the clinical use of recombinant gonadotropins in this type of patients has given more insight into some endocrinological aspects of ovarian function that have not yet been fully understood. PMID:27307766

  1. Infertility in Female Mice with a Gain-of-Function Mutation in the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Is Due to Irregular Estrous Cyclicity, Anovulation, Hormonal Alterations, and Polycystic Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hai, Lan; McGee, Stacey R; Rabideau, Amanda C; Paquet, Marilène; Narayan, Prema

    2015-07-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor, LHCGR, is essential for fertility in males and females, and genetic mutations in the receptor have been identified that result in developmental and reproductive defects. We have previously generated and characterized a mouse model (KiLHR(D582G)) for familial male-limited precocious puberty caused by an activating mutation in the receptor. We demonstrated that the phenotype of the KiLHR(D582G) male mice is an accurate phenocopy of male patients with activating LHCGR mutations. In this study, we observed that unlike women with activating LHCGR mutations who are normal, female KiLHR(D582G) mice are infertile. Mice exhibit irregular estrous cyclicity, anovulation, and precocious puberty. A temporal study from 2-24 wk of age indicated elevated levels of progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol and upregulation of several steroidogenic enzyme genes. Ovaries of KiLHR(D582G) mice exhibited significant pathology with the development of large hemorrhagic cysts as early as 3 wk of age, extensive stromal cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with luteinization, numerous atretic follicles, and granulosa cell tumors. Ovulation could not be rescued by the addition of exogenous gonadotropins. The body weights of the KiLHR(D582G) mice were higher than wild-type counterparts, but there was no increase in the body fat composition or metabolic abnormalities such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. These studies demonstrate that activating LHCGR mutations do not produce the same phenotype in female mice as in humans and clearly illustrate species differences in the expression and regulation of LHCGR in the ovary, but not in the testis. PMID:26040673

  2. A controlled study of human chorionic gonadotrophin induced ovulation versus urinary luteinizing hormone surge for timing of intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Martinez, A R; Bernadus, R E; Voorhorst, F J; Vermeiden, J P; Schoemaker, J

    1991-10-01

    Forty-eight patients in a programme of intrauterine insemination (IUI) were randomized in a cross-over study. All were stimulated with clomiphene citrate (CC) and inseminated either after follicular rupture induced by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) or after a spontaneous urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The HCG was administered when follicles of 18-22 mm in diameter were observed on ultrasound and IUI was performed 37-40 h thereafter. The monitoring of a urinary LH peak was carried out using a rapid urinary LH test. IUI took place approximately 22 h after detection of the LH surge. Overall, the pregnancy rates were 9.3% (4/43) after HCG induced ovulation and 20.5% (9/44) after spontaneous ovulation (P = 0.12). Analysis of mid-cycle events showed that following sonographic criteria, the HCG injection was performed significantly earlier in the cycle compared with the spontaneous LH surge. In addition, the mean diameter of the preovulatory follicles was significantly smaller and insemination was substantially earlier in the HCG induced cycles. These findings suggest that a beneficial effect arises from allowing the natural process of final follicular maturation to occur. PMID:1752926

  3. Isolation and characterization of testis-specific cDNAs for luteinizing hormone beta-subunit in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F P; Rannikko, A; Huhtaniemi, I

    1995-05-25

    To study further the unexpected expression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit in the rat testis, we identified in a rat testicular cDNA library three LH beta clones with lengths of 3.2, 2.4 and 0.86 kb (TLH beta 1, TLH beta 2 and TLH beta 3). The clones were identified using a 32P-labeled cDNA probe complimentary to the known rat pituitary LH beta mRNA. Clone TLH beta 2 corresponds in size to the main LH beta mRNA species (2.7 kb) detected by Northern hybridization in the rat testis. Sequence analysis indicated that the different sizes of the three clones are due to alternative RNA splicing and differences at the 5' ends of transcripts. The sequence of one open reading frame deduced from TLH beta 1 is almost identical with the pituitary LH beta peptide, differing only in three amino acids in the putative signal peptide. It might encode a functional testis-specific LH beta peptide. Shorter transcripts from clones TLH beta 2 and TLH beta 3 may correspond to short testicular LH beta peptides. The present findings provide further evidence in the rat for expression of testis-specific mRNA variants of the LH beta gene. Their translation products may form a novel class of testicular para/autocrine factors. PMID:7763258

  4. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor overexpressed in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries is functionally active.

    PubMed

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Gordon, Uma D; López Bernal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR), which is critical for ovulation, has been suggested to be expressed prematurely in the ovarian follicles of women with PCOS. This study aimed to analyse the expression and activity of LHCGR in ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS patients and the involvement of ARF6 small GTPase in LHCGR internalization. Granulosa cells (GC) isolated from follicular fluid collected during oocyte retrieval from normal women (n = 19) and women with PCOS (n = 17) were used to study differences in LHCGR protein expression and activity between normal and PCOS patients. LHCGR expression is up-regulated in GC from PCOS women. LHCGR in PCOS GC is functionally active, as shown by increased cAMP production upon human gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulation. Moreover, ARF6 is highly expressed in GC from PCOS patients and HCG-stimulation increases the concentrations of active ARF6. The inhibition of ARF6 activation attenuates HCG-induced LHCGR internalization in both normal and PCOS GC, indicating that there are no alterations in LHCGR internalisation in GC from PCOS. In conclusion, the expression and activation of LHCGR and ARF6 are up-regulated in GC from PCOS women but the mechanism of agonist-induced LHCGR internalization is unaltered. PMID:27061682

  5. A new variant in signal peptide of the human luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) affects receptor biogenesis causing leydig cell hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Valeria; Duminuco, Paolo; Vottero, Alessandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Schülein, Ralf; Minari, Roberta; Bassi, Ivan; Bernasconi, Sergio; Persani, Luca; Bonomi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The human luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) plays a fundamental role in male and female reproduction. In males, loss-of-function mutations in LHCGR have been associated with distinct degrees of impairment in pre- and postnatal testosterone secretion resulting in a variable phenotypic spectrum, classified as Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) type 1 (complete LH resistance and disorder of sex differentiation) and type 2 (partial LH resistance with impaired masculinization and fertility). Here, we report the case of an adolescent who came to the pediatric endocrinologist at the age of 12 years old for micropenis and cryptorchidism. Testis biopsy showed profound LCH and absent germinal line elements (Sertoli-only syndrome). The sequence analysis of the LHCGR gene showed the presence of a compound heterozygosity, being one variation, c.1847C>A p.S616Y, already described in association to Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism, and the other, c.29 C>T p.L10P, a new identified variant in the putative signal peptide (SP) of LHCGR. Functional and structural studies provide first evidence that LHCGR have a functional and cleavable SP required for receptor biogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate the pathogenic role of the novel p.L10P allelic variant, which has to be considered a loss-of-function mutation significantly contributing, in compound heterozygosity with p.S616Y, to the LCH type 2 observed in our patient. PMID:26246498

  6. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function

    SciTech Connect

    Nagayama, Yuji; Wadsworth, H.L.; Chazenbalk, G.D.; Russo, D.; Seto, Pui; Rapoport, B. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1991-02-01

    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction the authors constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The data obtained suggest that the carboxyl region of the extracellular domain (amino acid residues 261-418) and particularly the middle region (residues 171-260) play a role in signal transduction. The possibility is also raised of an interaction between the amino and carboxyl regions of the extracellular domain in the process of signal transduction. In summary, these studies suggest that the middle region and carboxyl half of the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor are involved in signal transduction and that the TSH-binding region is likely to span the entire extracellular domain, with multiple discontinuous contact sites.

  7. Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Location of specifically modified methionine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K W

    1976-01-01

    Bovine lutropin (luteinizing hormone) was carboxymethylated at pH3.0 for 12 h at 37 degrees C with iodoacetic acid for specific modification of methionine residues. To facilitate the location of preferentially modified methionine residues, iodoE114C]acetic acid was added as tracer. The alpha and beta subunits of bovine lutropin were carboxymethylated with a 2- or 5-fold molar excess of iodoacetic acid either in the presence or absence of their counterpart subunits. The modified subunits were separated and isolated by counter-current distribution followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. To locate the modified methiones, the isolated alpha or beta chain was reduced. S-carboxymethylated and subjected to tryptic hydrolysis. The tryptic peptides were fractionated by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-10. From analyses of the purified 14C-labelled tryptic peptides, it was observed that methionine-8 and -33 in bovine lutropin alpha chain and methionine-52 in the beta chain were preferentially modified. Similar results were obtained when isolated alpha and beta subunits were individually carboxymethylated in the absence of their counterpart subunit under identical conditions. The fact that a recombinant of native human lutropin alpha chain, in which a valine residue is present in the position corresponding to methionine-8 of bovine lutropin alpha chain, and carboxymethylated bovine lutropin beta chain regenerated a substantial amount of receptor-site-binding activity indicated that methionine-8 in bovine alpha chain was biologically not essential. These studies showed clearly that both methionine-33 in the alpha chain and methionine-52 in the beta subunit were involved for optimum binding between bovine lutropin and its receptors for expression of hormonal activity. Images PLATE 1 PMID:999646

  8. Luteinizing hormone, a reproductive regulator that modulates the processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein and amyloid-beta deposition.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Richard L; Verdile, Giuseppe; Liu, Tianbing; Parlow, Albert F; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A; Martins, Ralph N; Atwood, Craig S

    2004-05-01

    Hormonal changes associated with the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis following menopause/andropause have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental support for this has come from studies demonstrating an increase in amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition following ovariectomy/castration. Because sex steroids and gonadotropins are both part of the HPG feedback loop, any loss in sex steroids results in a proportionate increase in gonadotropins. To assess whether Abeta generation was due to the loss of serum 17beta-estradiol or to the up-regulation of serum gonadotropins, we treated C57Bl/6J mice with the anti-gonadotropin leuprolide acetate, which suppresses both sex steroids and gonadotropins. Leuprolide acetate treatment resulted in a 3.5-fold (p < 0.0001) and a 1.5-fold (p < 0.024) reduction in total brain Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40 concentrations, respectively, after 8 weeks of treatment. To further explore the role of gonadotropins in promoting amyloidogenesis, M17 neuroblastoma cells were treated with the gonadotropin luteinizing hormone (LH) at concentrations equivalent to early adulthood (10 mIU/ml) or post-menopause/andropause (30 mIU/ml). LH did not alter amyloid-beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) expression but did alter AbetaPP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by increased secretion and insolubility of Abeta, decreased alphaAbetaPP secretion, and increased AbetaPP-C99 levels. These results suggest the marked increases in serum LH following menopause/andropause as a physiologically relevant signal that could promote Abeta secretion and deposition in the aging brain. Suppression of the age-related increase in serum gonadotropins using anti-gonadotropin agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:14871891

  9. Altered regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-treated male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bookstaff, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) severely decreases plasma androgen concentrations, yet plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations remain unchanged. The mechanism by which TCDD prevents the expected compensatory increase in plasma LH was investigated. No effect on the plasma disappearance rate of LH or on pituitary capacity to synthesize or secrete LH was detected. Rather, TCDD altered the regulation of LH secretion by substantially increasing the potency of both androgens and estrogens as feedback inhibitors of LH secretion. The mechanism by which TCDD alters androgen-regulated LH secretion was further investigated. Seven days after dosing, TCDD decreased plasma testosterone concentrations but prevented the expected compensatory increases in pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, and plasma LH concentrations as seen in similarly hypoandrogenic vehicle dosed rats. Furthermore, the TCDD dose-response relationships for preventing the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number and plasma LH concentration were similar. However, in the absence of gonadal steroids (7 days after castration) TCDD did not affect the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, or plasma LH concentration. All of these parameters increased substantially relative to intact TCDD treated rats, and to levels virtually identical to those seen in castrated control rats. Treatment of castrated rats with testosterone restored the ability of TCDD to prevent these compensatory increases. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the presence of androgens is required for TCDD to alter the regulation of pituitary GnRH receptors.

  10. A comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on the induction of spermiation and amplexus in the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Captive breeding programs for endangered amphibian species often utilize exogenous hormones for species that are difficult to breed. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of two different hormones at various concentrations on sperm production, quantity and quality over time in order to optimize assisted breeding. Methods Male American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) were divided into three separate treatment groups, with animals in each group rotated through different concentrations of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRH; 0.1, 1.0, 4.0 and 32 micrograms/toad), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 50, 100, 200, and 300 IU), or the control over 24 hours. We evaluated the number of males that respond by producing spermic urine, the sperm concentration, percent motility, and quality of forward progression. We also evaluated the effects of hCG and LHRH on reproductive behavior as assessed by amplexus. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equations incorporating repeated measures over time and including the main effects of treatment and time, and the treatment by time interaction. Results The hormone hCG was significantly more effective at stimulating spermiation in male Anaxyrus americanus than LHRH and showed a dose-dependent response in the number of animals producing sperm. At the most effective hCG dose (300 IU), 100% of the male toads produced sperm, compared to only 35% for the best LHRH dose tested (4.0 micrograms). In addition to having a greater number of responders (P < 0.05), the 300 IU hCG treatment group had a much higher average sperm concentration (P < 0.05) than the treatment group receiving 4.0 micrograms LHRH. In contrast, these two treatments did not result in significant differences in sperm motility or quality of forward progressive motility. However, more males went into amplexus when treated with LHRH vs. hCG (90% vs. 75%) by nine hours post-administration. Conclusion There is a clear

  11. New insights on the role of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists in premenopausal early breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Del Mastro, Lucia; Rossi, Giovanni; Lambertini, Matteo; Poggio, Francesca; Pronzato, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists (LH-RHa) are effective in the treatment of advanced endocrine-sensitive breast cancer in premenopausal patients, but their role in the adjuvant setting has remained controversial for a long time. Tamoxifen for 5 years has been traditionally considered the standard endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients and this is still valid for many patients. However, the recently reported SOFT trial has suggested that adding ovarian function suppression (OFS) to tamoxifen could improve DFS in women at sufficient risk to warrant adjuvant chemotherapy and who remained premenopausal after this therapy. The administration of an aromatase inhibitor plus OFS represents an additional therapeutic option for hormone-receptor positive premenopausal breast cancer patients, according to the combined analysis of the SOFT and TEXT trials. Temporary ovarian suppression induced by LH-RHa has been recognized as an effective strategy to preserve ovarian function from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and is now recommended in young breast cancer patients with endocrine-insensitive tumors. In this review, we discuss recent data on the role of LH-RHa in combination with tamoxifen or with an aromatase inhibitor, and we comment on its role as a strategy to preserve ovarian function in young patients candidates for adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26613834

  12. Total Androgen Blockade Versus a Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Alone in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Akash; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To assess whether short-course total androgen blockade vs. a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist alone affects the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in men with localized but high-risk disease treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 628 men with T1-T4, N0, M0 prostate cancer with high-risk disease (prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, Gleason score >=8, or clinical category >=T3) treated with 45 Gy of external beam radiotherapy followed by a brachytherapy boost in addition to receiving a median of 4.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.6-6.4) months of hormonal blockade with an LHRH agonist plus an antiandrogen or monotherapy with an LHRH agonist. Fine and Gray's multivariable regression analysis was used to determine whether combination androgen suppression therapy (AST) vs. monotherapy affected the risk of PCSM, adjusting for treatment year, duration of AST, age, and known prognostic factors. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.9 (IQR, 3.5-6.5) years, men receiving combination AST had a lower risk of PCSM than those treated with monotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.90; p = 0.04). An increasing prostate-specific antigen level (AHR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.64-4.45; p < 0.001) and clinical category T3/4 disease (AHR, 29.6; 95% CI, 2.88-303.5; p = 0.004) were also associated with an increased risk of PCSM. Conclusions: In men with localized but high-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, short-course AST with an LHRH agonist plus an antiandrogen is associated with a decreased risk of PCSM when compared with monotherapy with an LHRH agonist.

  13. INTERACTION BETWEEN GABA AND NOREPINEPHRINE IN INTERLEUKIN-1β-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE

    PubMed Central

    Sirivelu, Madhu P.; Burnett, Robert; Shin, Andrew C.; Kim, Charlotte; MohanKumar, P.S.; MohanKumar, Sheba M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a cytokine that is closely associated with inflammation and immune stress, is known to interfere with reproductive functions. Earlier studies have demonstrated that IL-1β inhibits the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge during the afternoon of proestrus in female rats. We have shown that this effect is most probably mediated through a reduction in norepinephrine (NE) levels in the medial preoptic area (MPA) of the hypothalamus. However, the mechanism by which IL-1β decreases NE levels in the MPA is unclear. We hypothesized that the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA could play a role in decreasing NE levels in the MPA. To test this, ovariectomized, steroid-primed rats were injected (i.p.) with either PBS-BSA (control) or 5 μg of IL-1β, alone or in combination with i.c.v. administration of GABA-A and GABA-B receptor antagonists, Bicuculline and CGP 35348 (CGP) respectively. Animals were subjected to push-pull perfusion of the MPA and perfusates collected at 30 min intervals were analyzed for both NE and GABA levels using HPLC-EC. Simultaneously, serial plasma samples were obtained through jugular catheters and were analyzed for LH levels using RIA. Compared to control rats, NE levels decreased significantly in the MPA in IL-1β-treated rats (p<0.05). Concurrently, there was a significant increase in GABA levels in the MPA (p<0.05). The GABA-A receptor antagonist, bicuculline, was able to reverse the effect of IL-1β on NE and LH, while the GABA-B receptor antagonist, CGP 35348 was without any effect. This leads us to conclude that the IL-1β-induced suppression of the LH surge is most probably mediated through an increase in GABA levels in the MPA which causes a reduction in NE levels. This is probably one of the mechanisms by which IL-1β inhibits reproductive functions. PMID:19014915

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin (a luteinizing hormone homologue) decreases spatial memory and increases brain amyloid-β levels in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Anne S.; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Ghiso, Jorge; Thornton, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that estradiol (E) improves spatial memory as female rats with E perform better than those without E. However there is an inverse relationship between E and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and LH could play a role. We examined whether treatment with the LH homologue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), would impair spatial memory of adult E-treated female rats. In the Object Location Memory Task, ovariectomized (ovxed) rats treated with E and either a single high dose (400IU/kg) or a lower repeated dose of hCG (75 IU/kg hourly for 8 hours) showed spatial memory disruption compared to ovxed rats treated with estradiol alone. Impairment was attributed to memory disruption as performance improved with shortened delay between task exposure and testing. Tests on another spatial memory task, the Barnes maze, confirmed that hCG (400IU/kg) can impair memory: although E + veh treated animals made significantly fewer hole errors across time, E + hCG treated did not. In humans, high LH levels have been correlated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Because brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) species have been implicated as a toxic factor thought to cause memory loss in AD, we analyzed whether hCG-treated animals had increased Aβ levels. Levels of Aβ from whole brains or hippocampi were assessed by Western Blot. hCG treatment to E-implanted females significantly increased soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels. These results indicate that high levels of LH/hCG can impair spatial memory, and an increase in brain Aβ species may account for the memory impairment in hCG-treated rats. PMID:18413150

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of activating mutations of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene in familial male-limited precocious puberty

    SciTech Connect

    Laue, L.; Chan, W.Y.; Wu, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevated serum levels of testosterone, low levels of gonadotropins, and Leydig cell hyperplasia. Recently, 3 mutations have been found in FMPP families which encode substitution of Gly for Asp 578, Ile for Met 571, and Ile for Thr 577 in transmembrane helix 6 (TM 6) of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). We have studied 28 additional unrelated FMPP families. Genomic DNA was isolated from affected males and PCR was performed to amplify a fragment of the LHR gene encoding amino acid residues 441 to 594. MspI restriction enzyme digests were positive for the Asp 578 to Gly mutation in 22 families. Four new mutations were found in the remaining 6 families: an A to C transition encoding substitution of Leu for Ile 542 in transmembrane helix 5 (TM 5), an A to G transition encoding substitution of Gly for Asp 564 in the third cytoplasmic loop, a G to T transition encoding substitution of Try for Asp 578 in TM 6, and a T to C transition encoding substitution of Arg for Cys 581 in TM 6 of the LHR. 293 cells transfected with cDNAs for each of the 4 mutant LHRs, created by site-directed mutagenesis of the wild-type LHR cDNA, exhibited markedly increased levels of basal cAMP production in the absence of agonist, indicating constitutive activation of the mutant LHRs. We conclude that substitution of residues at multiple sites with TM 5, TM 6, and the intervening third cytoplasmic loop of the LHR cause constitutive receptor activation resulting in FMPP. These findings allow future diagnosis of affected patients and provide the basis to study the receptor domains involved in G-protein activation.

  16. Luteinizing Hormone-Induced RUNX1 Regulates the Expression of Genes in Granulosa Cells of Rat Periovulatory Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Misung; Curry, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The LH surge induces specific transcription factors that regulate the expression of a myriad of genes in periovulatory follicles to bring about ovulation and luteinization. The present study determined 1) the localization of RUNX1, a nuclear transcription factor, 2) regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression, and 3) its potential function in rat ovaries. Up-regulation of mRNA and protein for RUNX1 is detected in preovulatory follicles after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection in gonadotropin-treated immature rats as well as after the LH surge in cycling animals by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. The regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression was investigated in vitro using granulosa cells from rat pre-ovulatory ovaries. Treatments with hCG, forskolin, or phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression. The effects of hCG were reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase, indicating that Runx1 expression is regulated by the LH-initiated activation of these signaling mediators. In addition, hCG-induced Runx1 mRNA expression was inhibited by a progesterone receptor antagonist and an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, whereas amphiregulin stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression, demonstrating that the expression is mediated by the activation of the progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Finally, knockdown of Runx1 mRNA by small interfering RNA decreased progesterone secretion and reduced levels of mRNA for Cyp11a1, Hapln1, Mt1a, and Rgc32. The hormonally regulated expression of Runx1 in periovulatory follicles, its involvement in progesterone production, and regulation of preovulatory gene expression suggest important roles of RUNX1 in the periovulatory process. PMID:16675540

  17. The Naturally Occurring Luteinizing Hormone Surge Is Diminished in Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Jayes, Friederike L.; Burns, Katherine A.; Rodriguez, Karina F.; Kissling, Grace E.; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Female ESR2-null mice (betaERKO) display defects in ovarian function and are subfertile. Follicular maturation is impaired and explains smaller litters, but betaERKO also produce fewer litters, which may be partially due to inadequate ovulatory signals. To test this, the amplitude and timing of the naturally occurring luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was measured in individual intact betaERKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Vaginal cytology was evaluated daily, and blood samples were taken from mice in proestrus. The amplitude of the LH surge was severely blunted in betaERKO mice compared to WT, but pituitary LH levels revealed no differences. The betaERKO mice did not produce a preovulatory estradiol surge. To determine if the smaller LH surges and the reduced number of litters in betaERKO were due to the lack of ESR2 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or due to the absence of ESR2 in the ovary, ovaries were transplanted from WT into betaERKO mice and vice versa. The size of the LH surge was reduced only in mice lacking ESR2 within the ovary, and these mice had fewer litters. Fertility and size of the LH surge were rescued in betaERKO mice receiving a WT ovary. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the LH surge is impaired in betaERKO females and may contribute to their reduced fertility. ESR2 is not necessary within the pituitary and hypothalamus for the generation of a normal LH surge and for normal fertility, but ESR2 is essential within the ovary to provide proper signals. PMID:24337314

  18. Evidence that cells expressing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the mouse are derived from progenitor cells in the olfactory placode

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, S.; Grant, P.; Gainer, H. )

    1989-10-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to study the prenatal expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) cells in the mouse. Cells expressing LHRH mRNA and peptide product were first detected on embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) in the olfactory pit. On E12.5, the majority of LHRH cells were located on tracks extending from the olfactory pit to the base of the telencephalon. From E12.5 to E15.5, LHRH cells were detected in a rostral-to-caudal gradient in forebrain areas. Prior to E12.5, cells expressing LHRH mRNA were not detected in forebrain areas known to contain LHRH cells in postnatal animals. Quantitation of cells expressing LHRH mRNA showed that the number of labeled cells on E12.5 (approximately 800) equaled the number of LHRH cells in postnatal animals, but more than 90% of these cells were located in nasal regions. Between E12.5 and E15.5, the location of LHRH cells shifted. The number of LHRH cells in the forebrain increased, while the number of LHRH cells in nasal regions decreased over this same period. These findings establish that cells first found in the olfactory pit and thereafter in forebrain areas express the LHRH gene and correspond to the position of LHRH immunopositive cells found at these developmental times. To further examine the ontogeny of the LHRH system, immunocytochemistry in combination with (3H)thymidine autoradiography was used to determine when LHRH cells left the mitotic cycle. We show that LHRH neurons exhibit a discrete time of birth, suggesting that they arise as a single neuronal population between E10.0 and E11.0. Postnatal LHRH neurons were birth-dated shortly after differentiation of the olfactory placode and before LHRH mRNA was expressed in cells in the olfactory pit.

  19. The effect of dietary monensin on th luteinizing hormone response of prepuberal heifers given a multiple gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Randel, R D; Rhodes, R C

    1980-10-01

    Ten prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers (average weight 208 +/- 4 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 2.7 kg/head/day of ground milo containing 0 mg monensin sodium (C) or 2.7 kg/head/day of ground milo containing 200 mg monensin sodium (M). Both groups of animals (n = 5) received Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum throughout the trial. On day 21 of the feeding period all heifers were fitted with jugular cannulas. Immediately after cannulation, the heifers were injected IM with 100 microgram of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and blood was collected every 10 min for 4 hours. Four hours after the first GnRH challenge, a second 100-microgram GnRH injection was administered, and blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for an additional 5 hours. Serum was stored at -20 C until radioimmunoassayed for luteinizing hormone (LH). The amount of LH released after each GnRH injection was greater in the heifers fed M than in the controls (P less than .05). Peak LH after the first GnRH challenge was greater (P less than .05) in heifers fed M than in controls. The area under th first GnRH induced LH curve tended (P less than .20) to be greater for the M group than for the controls. Peak LH concentration was greater in heifers fed M than in control heifers, as the duration (P less than .05) and area under the second GnRH-induced LH curve. In prepuberal heifers, dietary monensin appears to increase hypophyseal capability of releasing LH after a first and second GnRH challenge. PMID:7007307

  20. Cytoplasmic kinases downstream of GPR30 suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from bovine anterior pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    RUDOLF, Faidiban O.; KADOKAWA, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    GPR30 is known as a membrane receptor for picomolar concentrations of estradiol. The GPR30-specific agonist G1 causes a rapid, non-genomic suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells. A few studies have recently clarified that protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) might be involved in cytoplasmic signaling pathways of GPR30 in other cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PKA and ERK kinase (MEK) are important cytoplasmic mediators for GPR30-associated non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells. Bovine AP cells (n = 8) were cultured for 3 days under steroid-free conditions. The AP cells were previously treated for 30 min with one of the following: 5000 nM of PKA inhibitor (H89), 1000 nM of MEK inhibitor (U0126), or a combination of H89 and U0126. Next, the AP cells were treated with 0.01 nM estradiol for 5 min before GnRH stimulation. Estradiol treatment without inhibitor pretreatment significantly suppressed GnRH-induced LH secretion (P < 0.01). In contrast, estradiol treatment after pretreatment with H89, U0126 or their combination had no suppressive effect on GnRH-induced LH secretion. The inhibitors also inhibited the G1 suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion. Therefore, these data supported the hypothesis that PKA and MEK (thus, also pERK) are the intracellular mediators downstream of GPR30 that induce the non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells by estradiol or G1. PMID:26522383

  1. Intracerebroventricular infusion of neuropeptide Y up-regulates synthesis and accumulation of luteinizing hormone but not follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary cells of prepubertal female lambs.

    PubMed

    Wańkowska, Marta; Lerrant, Yannick; Wójcik-Gładysz, Anna; Starzec, Anna; Counis, Raymond; Polkowska, Jolanta

    2002-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a putative neuroregulator of the reproductive axis in the central nervous system. In this study we evaluated the effects of central infusion of exogenous NPY on the secretory activity of pituitary gonadotrophic cells in prepubertal lambs. Immature female Merino sheep (n=12) were infused of Ringer solution (control) or 50 microg of NPY to the third ventricle for 5 min and then slaughtered 3 h later. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) cells were localised by immunohistochemistry using antibody raised against LHbeta and FSHbeta. Messenger RNA analyses were performed by in situ hybridisation using sense and antisense riboprobes produced from beta subunits of LH and FSH cDNA clones. The results were generated by computer image analysis to determine the area fraction occupied by immunoreactive and/or hybridising cells and optical density for immunostaining and hybridisation signal. LH in the blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay. It was found, that in the lambs infused with NPY the area fraction and optical density for immunoreactive LH cells and mRNA LHbeta-expressing cells increased significantly (P<0.001), compared to the vehicle-infused animals. The concentration of LH in the blood plasma did not differ between control and treated groups. The NPY infusions had no effect on the immunoreactivity of FSH cells or on expression of mRNA for FSHbeta. In conclusion we suggest that NPY may be an important component of mechanisms stimulating the synthesis and storage but not the release of LH in the pituitary gonadotrophs from prepubertal female sheep. In addition, this effect is specific for LH, no such effect was apparent on FSH. PMID:11841917

  2. Alterations in RFamide-Related Peptide Expression Are Coordinated with the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Erin M.; Humber, Stephanie A.; Jain, Sachi; Williams, Wilbur P.; Zhao, Sheng; Bentley, George E.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2008-01-01

    The preovulatory LH surge is triggered when the circadian pacemaker, the bilateral suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), stimulates the GnRH system in the presence of high estrogen concentrations (positive feedback). Importantly, during the remainder of the estrous cycle, estradiol inhibits LH release via negative feedback. We have recently documented the presence of a novel mammalian RFamide-related peptide (RFRP), a putative gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), that presumably acts upstream of GnRH to modulate the negative feedback effects of estrogen. The present series of studies used female Syrian hamsters to examine the possibility that, in addition to driving the LH surge positively, the SCN concomitantly coordinates the removal of steroid-mediated RFRP inhibition of the gonadotropic axis to permit the surge. We found that the SCN forms close appositions with RFRP cells, suggesting the possibility for direct temporal control of RFRP activity. During the time of the LH surge, immediate-early gene expression is reduced in RFRP cells, and this temporal regulation is estrogen dependent. To determine whether projections from the SCN regulate the timed reduction in activation of the RFRP system, we exploited the phenomenon of splitting. In split animals in which the SCN are active in antiphase, activation of the RFRP system is asymmetrical. Importantly, this asymmetry is opposite to the state of the GnRH system. Together, these findings point to novel circadian control of the RFRP system and potential participation in the circuitry controlling ovulatory function. PMID:18566114

  3. Differential effects of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones on testosterone production by mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Dalterio, S L; Suter, D E; Schwartz, N B; Mayfield, D; Rettori, V B

    1986-07-01

    In adult mice, direct intratesticular injection of ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (o-FSH-13; AFP 2846-C, from NIAMDD, less than 1% LH contamination) at 10, 100 or 1000 ng significantly elevated concentrations of testosterone (T) within the testis. These effects were rapid, with peak values attained by 15 min, and transient, with return to values comparable to that in the contralateral, saline-injected testis within 90 min. Intratesticular injection of FSH (1 microgram) significantly increased testicular T levels in 15- and 60-day old mice. This contrasted with the effects of intratesticular administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which stimulated T production significantly at 30 days of age through adulthood. In adult mice, the equivalent LH to the possible contamination in the FSH preparation (1 ng) had no effect. Intratesticular injection of 10 ng LH produced comparable stimulation to that by 100 ng FSH (approximately 7-fold). Systemic pre-treatment with a charcoal-treated porcine follicular fluid (PFF) extract for 2 days reduced plasma FSH levels [86 +/- 17 (5) vs 700 +/- 8 (6); P less than 0.05], but had no effect on plasma LH. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the response to intratesticular injection of hCG (2.5 mIU), FSH (100 ng) or LH (10 ng) was also significantly attenuated in these mice. Intratesticular injection of PFF had no direct effect on testicular T levels. In vitro T production in the presence of hCG, LH or FSH were differentially affected by the concentrations of calcium (Ca2+) or magnesium (Mg2+) in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of FSH were apparent at significantly lower levels of Ca2+ or Mg2+, than were those of LH or hCG. The results of these studies indicate that FSH is capable of stimulating testicular T production. Furthermore, the responsiveness to FSH is qualitatively different than that to LH/hCG in terms of the age pattern, as well as the dependence on Ca2+ or Mg2+. In addition, plasma FSH

  4. Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against x-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schally, A.V.; Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Schlosser, J.V.; Karashima, T.; Debeljuk, L.; Gandle, B.; Sampson, M.

    1987-02-01

    Possible protective effects of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH and antagonist N-Ac(D-Phe(pCl)/sup 1,2/,D-Trp/sup 3/,D-Arg/sup 6/,D-Ala/sup 10/)LH-RH against testicular damage caused by x-radiation were investigated in rats. Three months after being subjected to x-irradiation of the testes with 415 or 622 rads, control rats showed marked reduction in the weights of the testes and elevated levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), indicating tubular damage. Histological studies demonstrated that, in testes of rats given 415 rads, most seminiferous tubules had only Sertoli cells and no germinal cells, and, in the group give 622 rads, the depression of spermatogenesis was even more marked. Rats pretreated for 50 days with LH-RH antagonist showed a complete recovery of testicular weights and spermatogenesis 3 months after 415 rads and showed partial recovery after 622 rads, and LH and FSH levels returned to normal in both of these groups. Three experiments were also carried out in which the rats were pretreated for 1-2 months with long-acting microcapsules of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH. Some rats were then subjected to gonadal irradiation with 415 or 622 rads and allowed a recovery period of 2-4 months. On the basis of testicular weights, histology, and gonadotropin levels, it could be concluded that the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH did not protect the rat testes exposed to 622 rads and, at most, only partially protected against 415 rads. These results suggest that pretreatment with LH-RH antagonists and possibly agonists, might decrease the testicular damage caused by radiation and accelerate the recovery of reproductive functions.

  5. Acute regulation of plasma insulin-like peptide 3 concentrations by luteinizing hormone in male goats.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Kawate, N; Fukami, Y; Pathirana, I N; Büllesbach, E E; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2016-08-01

    Recently, it was reported that in bulls secretion of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in blood occurred in a pulsatile manner and was acutely regulated by LH. In the present study, the acute regulation of plasma INSL3 and its temporal relationships with LH and testosterone were examined in six sexually matured male goats using the following experimental design. (1) After stimulating LH release by administering a GnRH analogue, blood levels of LH, INSL3, and testosterone were monitored at 15-minute intervals for 2 hours followed by hourly intervals up to 8 hours. (2) After activation of the LH receptor by hCG blood levels of INSL3 and testosterone were determine at 15-minute intervals for 2 hours, followed by hourly intervals up to 8 hours, daily intervals up to Day 8, and finally on Day 12. (3) The release of LH, INSL3, and testosterone in normal physiology was established at 15-minute intervals for an 8-hour session. Concentrations of LH, INSL3, and testosterone in plasma were measured by enzyme-immunoassays. After GnRH treatment, mean plasma concentrations of all three hormones increased (P < 0.05) dramatically from 30 minutes and remained high until 120 minutes (LH), 75 minutes (INSL3), and 4 hours (testosterone) after treatment. After hCG treatment, mean plasma INSL3 concentrations increased (P < 0.05) from 30 minutes and remained elevated until the end of sampling on Day 12. An increase (P < 0.05) in mean plasma testosterone concentrations occurred from 15 minutes and remained high until Day 6. The mean increase (maximum per pretreatment concentration) of INSL3 concentrations after administration of GnRH and hCG was lower (P < 0.01) than that of testosterone. The secretory pattern of LH, INSL3, and testosterone in the general circulation was pulsatile with a frequency of 5.5 ± 0.6, 4.7 ± 0.5, and 2.2 ± 0.5, respectively, during the 8-hour period. Twenty out of 28 (71%) of these INSL3 pulses peaked within 1 hour after a peak of an LH

  6. Profiling of urinary testosterone and luteinizing hormone in exercise-stressed male athletes, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and enzyme immunoassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Yap, B K; Kazlauskas, R; Elghazi, K; Johnston, G A; Weatherby, R P

    1996-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of episodic or short-term exercise-stress on endogenous testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels still remains fragmentary and inconclusive. In this study, an approach based on the absolute concentrations of urinary total testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and the T/LH concentration ratios, was used to profile short-term exercise-stress responses in healthy drug-free male athletes. Testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) techniques, respectively. Stress profiles derived from exercise-stress at VO2max, 68.1% VO2max and 51.6% VO2max were plotted using the concentrations of T, LH and the ratios of T/LH found under non-stressed and stressed conditions. Significant changes in LH concentrations (p < 0.005) and T/LH ratios (p < 0.005) levels were observed between the pre-stress and post-exercise conditions during acute exercise-stress at VO2max but the T concentration did not show any marked change relative to the non-stressed condition. Whilst exercise-stress appeared to reduce the change in T concentrations between the pre- and post-exercise states compared to that in the non-stressed control condition, the change in LH concentrations showed a moderate increase at submaximal oxygen uptake values. The stress profiles derived from this study facilitated an assessment of the relationship between the endogenous T, LH and T/LH ratio stress-responses over a short period of applied exercise-stress. PMID:9001959

  7. Effect of priming injections of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on spermiation and ovulation in Gϋnther's Toadlet, Pseudophryne guentheri

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the majority of vertebrates, gametogenesis and gamete-release depend on the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) from the hypothalamus. Studies attempting to artificially stimulate ovulation and spermiation may benefit from mimicking the naturally episodic secretion of LHRH by administering priming injections of a synthetic analogue (LHRHa). This study investigated the impact of low-dose priming injections of LHRHa on gamete-release in the Australian toadlet Pseudophryne guentheri. Methods Toadlets were administered a single dose of two micrograms per. gram LHRHa without a priming injection (no priming), or preceded by one (one priming) or two (two priming) injections of 0.4 micrograms per. gram LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7 and 12 hrs post hormone administration (PA), and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Oocyte yields were evaluated by stripping females at 10-11 hrs PA. A sub-sample of twenty eggs per female was then fertilised (with sperm obtained from testis macerates) and fertilisation success determined. Results No priming induced the release of the highest number of spermatozoa, with a step-wise decrease in the number of spermatozoa released in the one and two priming treatments respectively. Peak sperm-release occurred at 12 hrs PA for all priming treatments and there was no significant difference in sperm viability. Females in the control treatment failed to release oocytes, while those administered an ovulatory dose without priming exhibited a poor ovulatory response. The remaining two priming treatments (one and two priming) successfully induced 100% of females to expel an entire clutch. Oocytes obtained from the no, or two priming treatments all failed to fertilise, however oocytes obtained from the one priming treatment displayed an average fertilisation success of 97%. Conclusion Spermiation was most effectively induced in male P. guentheri by

  8. Association between genes encoding components of the Leutinizing hormone/Luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotrophin receptor pathway and polycystic ovary syndrome in Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    El-Shal, Amal S; Zidan, Haidy E; Rashad, Nearmeen M; Abdelaziz, Ahmed M; Harira, Mervat M

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders; however, its pathophysiology is still unclear. Certain polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHβ) and LH/choriogonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR) genes may lead to changes in the bioactivity of this hormone. We aimed to investigate possible associations between polymorphisms in the LHβ and LHCGR genes and PCOS among Egyptian women. We also aimed to shed light on the impact of these polymorphisms on LH level, hormonal, and metabolic features of PCOS. A case-control study included unrelated 210 patients with PCOS and 200 healthy controls, and they were stratified according to their body mass index into two subgroups: lean and obese. Polymorphisms of LHβ G1502A and LHCGR [G935A, and ins18LQ] genes were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results revealed that LHβ G1052A GA genotype and A allele, LHCGR G935A GA, AA genotypes, or A allele were significantly associated with PCOS risk, while the LHCGR ins18LQ polymorphism was not. Additionally, there is a synergism between LHβ G1052A minor A and minor A allele of LHCGR G935A or minor ins allele of LHCGR ins18LQ and susceptibility to PCOS. When we stratified PCOS women or controls into obese and lean subjects, we found that LHβ G1502A GA genotype and A allele being more frequent in the obese group when compared with lean patients with PCOS [The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were 5.6 (1.30-24.56) and 5.15 (1.21-21.90), respectively, P = 0.01, for each group.] These results suggested that LHβ G1052A and LHCGR G935A genes polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of PCOS in Egyptian women especially in obese cases. There was a synergism between LHβ G1052A minor A allele and of LHCGR G935A minor A or minor ins alleles of LHCGR ins18LQ and PCOS risk. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):23-36, 2016. PMID:26662070

  9. Combination of long-acting microcapsules of the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone with chemotherapy: investigation in the rat prostate cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Redding, T W

    1985-01-01

    The effect of combining hormonal treatment consisting of long-acting microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH (the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) with the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide was investigated in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH formulated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and calculated to release a controlled dose of 25 micrograms/day were injected intramuscularly once a month. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) (5 mg/kg of body weight) was injected intraperitoneally twice a week. When the therapy was started 90 days after tumor transplantation--at the time that the cancers were well developed-and was continued for 2 months, tumor volume was significantly reduced by the microcapsules or Cytoxan given alone. The combination of these two agents similarly inhibited tumor growth but did not show a synergistic effect. In another study, the treatment was started 2 months after transplantation, when the developing tumors measured 60-70 mm3. Throughout the treatment period of 100 days, the microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH reduced tumor volume more than Cytoxan did, and the combination of the two drugs appeared to completely arrest tumor growth. Tumor weights also were diminished significantly in all experimental groups, the decrease in weight being smaller in the Cytoxan-treated group than in rats that received the microcapsules. The combination of Cytoxan plus the microcapsules was 10-100 times more effective than the single agents in reducing tumor weights. In both experiments, testes and ventral prostate weights were significantly diminished, serum testosterone was suppressed to undetectable levels, and prolactin values were reduced by administration of microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH alone or in combination with Cytoxan. These results in rats suggest that combined administration of long acting microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH with a chemotherapeutic agent, started soon after the

  10. Degarelix monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists plus anti-androgen flare protection in advanced prostate cancer: an analysis of two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Peter; Damber, Jan-Erik; Malmberg, Anders; Persson, Bo-Eric; Klotz, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess differences in efficacy outcomes between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus antiandrogen (AA) flare protection and monotherapy with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist degarelix in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: Data from 1455 patients were pooled from two prospective, phase III randomized 1-year clinical trials of degarelix versus LHRH agonist with or without AA. The AA bicalutamide was administered at the investigator’s discretion. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model and a conditional logistic regression model was used for a case-control analysis of odds ratios (ORs). Results: Patients received degarelix monotherapy (n = 972) or LHRH agonist (n = 483) of whom 57 also received AA. Overall, prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA PFS) was improved with degarelix versus LHRH agonist + AA (Cox proportional hazards regression model-adjusted HR for PSA PFS failure was 0.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.97, p = 0.038]). To compensate for a higher proportion of patients with metastases, Gleason score 7–10, and PSA >20 ng/ml in the LHRH agonist + AA group, a case-control analysis using a conditional logistic regression model was utilized. This resulted in an OR for PSA PFS of 0.42 (95% CI 0.20–0.89; p = 0.023) in the overall population, and 0.35 (95% CI 0.13–0.96; p = 0.042) in patients with PSA >50 ng/ml at baseline, when treated with degarelix versus LHRH agonists + AA. There were a small number of deaths, 1.9% with degarelix and 7% with LHRH agonists + AA (case-control analysis OR = 0.37; p = 0.085). Conclusions: Degarelix monotherapy produced a more favorable effect on PSA PFS outcomes than a LHRH agonist + AA flare protection therapy in patients with prostate cancer when a case-control analysis was used to compensate for differences between treatment groups. PMID:27034720

  11. The effects of 3 gonadorelin products on luteinizing hormone release, ovulation, and follicular wave emergence in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Marcelo F.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.; Kastelic, John P.; Carruthers, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and follicular dynamics in cattle following administration of 3 gonadorelin formulations that are commercially available in Canada. In experiment 1, nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 4 per group) were randomly assigned to receive 100 μg gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate, intramuscularly (C; Cystorelin, or FE; Fertagyl). Blood samples (for LH analysis) were collected 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours after treatment. In experiment 2, nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 10 per group) were randomly allocated to receive 100 μg gonadorelin, intramuscularly as follows: 2 mL of C; 1 mL of FE; or 2 mL of Factrel (FA, gonadorelin hydrochloride). Gonadorelin treatment was done on days 6 or 7 after ovulation and blood samples for LH analysis were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after treatment. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography, twice daily, to detect ovulation. A replicate was conducted using only C (n = 10) or FE (n = 10); blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. In experiment 3, beef heifers (n = 10 per group) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 GnRH gonadorelin treatments (as in the first phase of experiment 2) on days 6 or 7 after ovulation and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 hours. In experiments 2 and 3, both mean and mean peak plasma LH concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cattle treated with C. The proportion of dominant follicles that ovulated was higher (P < 0.02) in Holstein cows treated with C than in those treated with FE or FA (18/19, 11/19, and 4/7, respectively), but there was no significant difference among the products in beef heifers (6/10, 6/10, and 4/10, respectively). No significant differences were found in the interval from treatment to the emergence of the next follicular wave. In summary, C induced a greater LH release and this resulted in a higher ovulatory rate in Holstein cows but not in beef heifers. PMID:12650040

  12. Lead (Pb) alters the norepinephrine-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone from the median eminence of adult male rats in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, G.R.; Hiney, J.K.; Dees, W.L. )

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the in vitro effects of lead (Pb) on basal and stimulated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and Prostaglandin E[sub 2] (PGE[sub 2]) secretion. Median eminences (ME) were removed from brains of adult male rats and preincubated for 15 minutes in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate glucose buffer in an atmosphere of 95% O[sub 2]-5% CO[sub 2]. These media were discarded and all MEs were subjected to one of the following experiments. In Experiment 1, all MEs were incubated for 30 minutes in medium only. These media were collected and replaced with medium only (controls) or with medium containing Pb doses ranging from 5 to 20 [mu]M. After this 60-minute incubation, media were collected, then replaced with new medium containing 60 [mu]M norepinephrine (NE), or NE plus each dose of Pb, then incubated for a final 30-minute period. Experiment 2 was conducted as above, except PGE[sub 2] (2.8 [mu]M) replaced the NE. In both experiments, the amounts of LHRH released was measured by RIA. In experiment 3, NE was again used for the challenge; however, this time, the amount of PGE[sub 2] released was measured by RIA. Results indicate that Pb did not alter basal LHRH release, but compared with controls, significantly blocked NE-induced LHRH release in a dose-related manner. Conversely, Pb had no effect on the PGE[sub 2]-induced release of LHRH. Additionally, Pb did not alter basal PGE[sub 2] release; however, it significantly blocked the NE-induced release of PGE[sub 2]. Since NE-induced LHRH release is mediated by PGE[sub 2], these results support the hypothesis that Pb is capable of altering the hypothalamus and suggest that this effect is due, at least in part, to the diminished PGE[sub 2] synthesis/release within the ME, resulting in diminished LHRH secretion.

  13. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... LH and FSH may be ordered when a boy or girl does not appear to be entering puberty at ... pubic hair Growth of testicles and penis in boys Beginning of menstruation in girls ^ Back to top What does the test result ...

  14. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kunath, Frank; Grobe, Henrik R; Rücker, Gerta; Motschall, Edith; Antes, Gerd; Dahm, Philipp; Wullich, Bernd; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effects of non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for treating advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. We searched the Cochrane Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Cancers Group Specialized Register (PROSTATE), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, three trial registries and abstracts from three major conferences to 23 December 2013, together with reference lists, and contacted selected experts in the field and manufacturers. We included randomized controlled trials comparing non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy with medical or surgical castration monotherapy for men in advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. Two review authors independently examined full-text reports, identified relevant studies, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias as well as quality of evidence according to the GRADE working group guidelines. We used Review Manager 5.2 for data synthesis and the fixed-effect model as primary analysis (when heterogeneity was low with I(2) < 50%); we used a random-effects model when confronted with substantial or considerable heterogeneity (when I(2) ≥50%). A total of 11 studies involving 3060 randomly assigned participants were included in the present review. Use of non-steroidal antiandrogens resulted in lower overall survival times (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.48, six studies, 2712 participants) and greater clinical progression (1 year: risk ratio [RR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, five studies, 2067 participants; 70 weeks: RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, six studies, 2373 participants; 2 years: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25, three studies, 1336 participants), as well as treatment failure (1 year: RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, four studies, 1539 participants; 70 weeks: RR 1

  15. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight gain and oviduct weight was recorded during the phase of sexual maturation. Smaller follicles revealed higher insulin-like growth factor-1 and survivin gene expression, whereas the reverse result was manifested in both the luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors. In biochemical study, the gonadal steroids (estrogen and progesterone) were recorded higher at the first half of the experiment when a gradual decrease in corticosterone concentration was confirmed from the very beginning of this study. This result substantiated that sexual maturation in Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation

  16. The Luteinizing Hormone-Testosterone Pathway Regulates Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Self-Renewal by Suppressing WNT5A Expression in Sertoli Cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi; Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Lei, Zhenmin; Rao, C V; Shinohara, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Spermatogenesis originates from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Previous studies have reported conflicting roles of gonadotropic pituitary hormones in SSC self-renewal. Here, we explored the role of hormonal regulation of SSCs using Fshb and Lhcgr knockout (KO) mice. Although follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is thought to promote self-renewal by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), no abnormalities were found in SSCs and their microenvironment. In contrast, SSCs were enriched in Lhcgr-deficient mice. Moreover, wild-type SSCs transplanted into Lhcgr-deficient mice showed enhanced self-renewal. Microarray analysis revealed that Lhcgr-deficient testes have enhanced WNT5A expression in Sertoli cells, which showed an immature phenotype. Since WNT5A was upregulated by anti-androgen treatment, testosterone produced by luteinizing hormone (LH) is required for Sertoli cell maturation. WNT5A promoted SSC activity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, FSH is not responsible for GDNF regulation, while LH negatively regulates SSC self-renewal by suppressing WNT5A via testosterone. PMID:27509137

  17. MAPK3/1 is conducive to luteinizing hormone-mediated C-type natriuretic peptide decrease in bovine granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Lei; WEI, Qiang; GE, Junbang; ZHAO, Xiaoe; MA, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) plays a role as an oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) in many species, including the bovine. However, the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) on CNP expression and its potential mechanisms have not reported in the bovine. In the present study, we aimed to study the effects of LH on CNP expression and to illuminate the potential molecular mechanism in this process. Our results showed that LH induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, mitogen-activated protein kinase3/1 (MAPK3/1) activation and CNP mRNA decrease in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Further study revealed that LH suppressed CNP expression via the MAPK3/1 signaling pathway, which was activated by the EGFR pathway. In conclusion, our research suggested that MAPK3/1 is involved in LH-mediated decrease of CNP and that this process is related to the EGFR and MAPK3/1 signal pathways. PMID:26655567

  18. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  19. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors and their transcribed genes (mRNA) are present in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Scaramuzzi, R J; Khalid, M

    2007-01-15

    In dogs, one of the side effects of neutering is the development of urinary incontinence. The relationship between neutering and urinary incontinence caused by acquired urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) has been reported. Recently, GnRH analogue treatment that suppresses elevated plasma gonadotrophin concentrations post-spaying has been successfully used in incontinent bitches. These data and the fact that non-gonadal tissues may contain receptors for LH (LHR) and FSH (FSHR) suggest that there might be a functional relationship between gonadotrophins and the lower urinary tract in dogs. This study aimed to investigate the presence of LHR and FSHR in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs. Four regions of the lower urinary tract, i.e. (i) body of the bladder, (ii) neck of the bladder, (iii) proximal urethra and (iv) distal urethra were collected from 10 healthy dogs (5 males and 5 anoestrous females). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterise the presence of receptor mRNA and receptor protein. Staining was rated semi-quantitatively, incorporating both the distribution and intensity of specific staining. The distribution of receptor expression in different tissue layers (epithelium, subepithelial stroma and muscle) in each region was statistically analyzed. Luteinizing hormone receptor and FSHR mRNA and protein were present in all four regions and in three tissue layers of males and females. Irrespective of region and layer, female dogs expressed significantly higher expression for LHR mRNA (P<0.001), LHR protein (P<0.05) and FSHR protein (P<0.001). The expression of LHR and FSHR mRNA and protein was not uniform and depended on region, tissue layer and gender. The expression of LHR mRNA was higher in the bladder, compared to the urethra (P<0.05). The FSHR mRNA significantly increased from the bladder to the urethra. Protein expression for LHR and FSHR was highest in the proximal urethra (P<0.05). The

  20. Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding activity with receptor sites and interactions between subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K W

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of iodoacetic acid with bovine lutropin (luteinizing hormone) at pH 3.0 was specific for methionine residues; it was slow and reached its equilibrium after 12 h at 37 degrees C. The number of modified methionine residues increased proportionately with the amount of the alkylating reagent in the reaction mixture. In the presence of a 20-fold molar excess of iodoacetic acid with respect to methionine, essentially all methionine residues in both subunits of bovine lutropin were carboxymethylated. Studies of various recombinations of modified and native alpha and beta subunits showed that methionine residues in bovine lutropin were not essential for interactions between subunits. Various recombinants were characterized by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of Sephadex G-100. Immunological cross-reactivity by radioimmunoassay of the recombinants of modified alpha and beta subunits was relatively similar to that of the native subunits. However, the biological activity measured by receptor-site binding of the recombinants of alpha and beta chains with a total of three alkylated methionine residues was less than 5% of the activity of native lutropin. It is noteworthy that recombinants of a modified subunit and a native counterpart subunit regenerated 20-30 % of biological activity. These findings suggested that at least 1-2 methionine residues in each subunit are involved in the hormone-receptor interaction for bovine lutropin. Images PLATE 1 PMID:187169

  1. Effect of a calcium channel blocker on pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion in intact and castrated male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, V.N.; Sidneva, L.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the effect of a calcium channel blocker on leuteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through experiments on rats. LH was determined by radioimmunoassay in two or three parallel tests and in two dilutions. The effect of verapamil on the LH level in rat blood serum and the pituitary gland is shown.

  2. Ontogeny of gene expression in the hypothalamic-pitutitary axis and luteinizing hormone secretion during pubertal development in the gilt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of puberty in the female is due to the interplay of central and peripheral mechanisms in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis regulates growth, gonadal function, as well as, adipocyte hormone secretion. Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression did not change. Concomitant with the ag...

  3. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  4. Luteinizing hormone causes MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation and closure of connexin 43 gap junctions in mouse ovarian follicles: one of two paths to meiotic resumption

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Rachael P.; Freudzon, Marina; Mehlmann, Lisa M.; Cowan, Ann E.; Simon, Alexander M.; Paul, David L.; Lampe, Paul D.; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Luteinizing hormone (LH) acts on ovarian follicles to reinitiate meiosis in prophase-arrested mammalian oocytes, and this has been proposed to occur by interruption of a meioisis-inhibitory signal that is transmitted through gap junctions into the oocyte from the somatic cells that surround it. To investigate this idea, we microinjected fluorescent tracers into live antral follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes, and demonstrate for the first time that LH causes a decrease in the gap junction permeability between the somatic cells, prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). The decreased permeability results from MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation of connexin 43 on serines 255, 262, and 279/282. We then tested whether inhibition of gap junction communication is sufficient and necessary for the reinitiation of meiosis. Inhibitors that reduced gap junction permeability caused NEBD, but an inhibitor of MAP kinase activation that blocked gap junction closure in response to LH did not prevent NEBD. Thus both MAP kinase-dependent gap junction closure and another redundant pathway function in parallel to ensure that meiosis resumes in response to LH. PMID:18776144

  5. The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Cecily V.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9–11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix™ rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis. PMID:19168862

  6. Luteinizing Hormone Reduces the Activity of the NPR2 Guanylyl Cyclase in Mouse Ovarian Follicles, Contributing to the Cyclic GMP Decrease that Promotes Resumption of Meiosis in Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jerid W.; Zhang, Meijia; Shuhaibar, Leia C.; Norris, Rachael P.; Geerts, Andreas; Wunder, Frank; Eppig, John J.; Potter, Lincoln R.; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2012-01-01

    In preovulatory ovarian follicles of mice, meiotic prophase arrest in the oocyte is maintained by cyclic GMP from the surrounding granulosa cells that diffuses into the oocyte through gap junctions. The cGMP is synthesized in the granulosa cells by the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) in response to the agonist C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). In response to luteinizing hormone (LH), cGMP in the granulosa cells decreases, and as a consequence, oocyte cGMP decreases and meiosis resumes. Here we report that within 20 minutes, LH treatment results in decreased guanylyl cyclase activity of NPR2, as determined in the presence of a maximally activating concentration of CNP. This occurs by a process that does not reduce the amount of NPR2 protein. We also show that by a slower process, first detected at 2 hours, LH decreases the amount of CNP available to bind to the receptor. Both of these LH actions contribute to decreasing cGMP in the follicle, thus signaling meiotic resumption in the oocyte. PMID:22546688

  7. The expression of the urinary forms of human luteinizing hormone beta fragment in various populations as assessed by a specific immunoradiometric assay.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J F; Kovalevskaya, G; Birken, S; Schlatterer, J P; Schechter, D; McMahon, D J; Canfield, R E

    1998-04-01

    Human gonadotrophins undergo metabolic transformations which result in the presence of several smaller, structurally and immunologically related forms of gonadotrophins in the urine. For luteinizing hormone (LH), a beta core fragment (LHbeta cf) has been isolated from the pituitary and characterized. The corresponding urinary fragment is inferred from mass spectral and immunochemical analysis of chromatographically separated urinary forms. Physicochemical characteristics, primarily mass spectral and chromatographic, indicate that the pituitary and urinary forms of LHbeta cf have a different structure, probably in the carbohydrate moieties. This communication characterizes the expression of LHbeta cf in the urine of both reproductive and post-reproductive age women and in men, employing assays highly specific for the pituitary form of the fragment. It was found that LHbeta cf is the predominant LH associated molecular form in the urine during peri-ovulatory period, peaking 1-3 days later than intact LH and reaching a concentration of approximately 600 fmol/mg creatinine, 7-fold higher than either LH or LH free beta subunit. Corresponding concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) beta cf were <1% that of LHbeta cf. LHbeta cf cross-reaction with some LH or LHbeta monoclonal antibodies may well interfere with the accurate estimation of the day of the LH surge when urinary tests are utilized. PMID:9619532

  8. Evidence for a daily rhythmicity in the acute release of luteinizing hormone in response to electrical stimulation in the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Konishi, H; Foster, R G; Follett, B K

    1987-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus at different times of day on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in male castrated quail on short days (8L:16D). The posterior hypothalamus was stimulated with square-wave pulses of 80 microA for 2 min through chronically-implanted platinum microelectrodes. Stimulation was carried out on each quail at 4 (treatment A), 10 (B), or 14 h (C) after dawn. Plasma LH levels were increased markedly within 2 min of ending the stimulation but reached basal levels again over the next 20 min or so. The absolute increase was significantly greater in treatment B (10 h after lights on) than at the other times tested. This is consistent with a rhythm in hypothalamic responsivity. The results are discussed in the context of the rhythm of photoinducibility which occurs early in the night and which is used by quail as a photoperiodic clock to regulate seasonal reproduction. PMID:3625579

  9. Luteinizing hormone induces ovulation via tumor necrosis factor α-dependent increases in prostaglandin F2α in a nonmammalian vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Diego; Goetz, Frederick W.; Planas, Josep V.

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is induced by the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) that acts on the ovary and triggers the rupture of the preovulatory ovarian follicle by stimulating proteolysis and apoptosis in the follicle wall, causing the release of the mature oocyte. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and prostaglandin (PG) F2α (PGF2α) are involved in the control of ovulation but their role mediating the pro-ovulatory actions of LH is not well established. Here we show that Lh induces PGF2α synthesis through its stimulation of Tnfα production in trout, a primitive teleost fish. Recombinant trout Tnfα (rTnfα) and PGF2α recapitulate the stimulatory in vitro effects of salmon Lh (sLh) on contraction, proteolysis and loss of cell viability in the preovulatory follicle wall and, finally, ovulation. Furthermore, all pro-ovulatory actions of sLh are blocked by inhibition of Tnfα secretion or PG synthesis and all actions of rTnfα are blocked by PG synthesis inhibitors. Therefore, we provide evidence that the Tnfα–dependent increase in PGF2α production is necessary for the pro-ovulatory actions of Lh. The results from this study shed light onto the mechanisms underlying the pro-ovulatory actions of LH in vertebrates and may prove important in clinical assessments of female infertility. PMID:26374476

  10. Studies on the metabolic clearance rate and production rate of human luteinizing hormone and on the initial half-time of its subunits in man.

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, R J; Kretser, D M; Burger, H G

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of human luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been determined in 10 normal men, 3 normal women, and in 12 women with ovulatory disorders resulting in oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. The MCR was determined by the constant infusion technique using either iodinated or unlabeled highly purified hLH, and these results were compared to MCR determined by using crude pituitary preparations containing both follicle-stimulating hormone and hLH. Both preparations produced essentially similar results for the MCR of hLH and virtually identical results were obtained when complete or incomplete immunoprecipitation of the infused material was achieved. The MCR/body surface area of hLH was significantly greater in normal men (25.6 plus or minus 3.6 ml/min-m-2) than in normal premenopausal (19.2 plus or minus 0.9 ml/min-m-2) or postmenopausal women (17.4 plus or minus 1.9 ml/min-m-2). No difference was noted in the MCR of hLH in women with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. Production rates (PRs) were calculated by using a pituitary standard, the values being 85.1 plus or minus 21.5 IU/24 h in normal men, 39.9 plus or minus 12.6 IU/24 h in normal premenopausal women, and 294.6 plus or minus 61.9 IU/24 h in normal postmenopausal women. The initial half-times of disappearance of the alpha- and beta-subunits of hLH were measured in two normal men and found to be 15-18 min, respectively. The half-time of intact hLH was twice as great. PMID:1170215

  11. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in postnatal development of rat testis: gene expression, localization and regulation by luteinizing hormone and androgens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xin-Xin; Lin, Han; Fei, Ai-Li; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2014-01-01

    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2) are expressed in rat testis, where they regulate the local concentrations of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of 11β-HSD in rat testis during postnatal development, and the regulation of these genes by luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens. mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in testes collected from rats at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14, 21, 35, and 90, and from rats treated with LH, 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and testosterone at PND 21 and PND 90. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the localization of the 11β-HSD in rat testis at PND 7, 14, and 90. We found that 11β-HSD1 expression was restricted to the interstitial areas, and that its levels increased during rat testis development. In contrast, whereas 11β-HSD2 was expressed in both the interstitial areas and seminiferous tubules at PND 7, it was present only in the interstitial areas at PND 90, and its levels declined during testicular development. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 mRNA was induced by LH in both the PND 21 and 90 testes and by MENT at PND 21, whereas 11β-HSD2 mRNA was induced by testosterone and MENT in the PND 21 testis and by LH in the PND 90 testis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 genes have distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation during postnatal development of the rat testis. PMID:25038180

  12. Antibodies against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone can decrease the clearance of human chorionic gonadotropin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Gunsalus, G L; Sundaram, K; Thau, R B

    1984-06-01

    Contraceptive vaccines based on active immunization against gonadotropic hormones are being investigated in humans and other primates. Immunization against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH beta) reduces fertility in rhesus monkeys by inducing inadequate luteal phases and preventing corpus luteum rescue by rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG). These effects result from the cross-reactions of the oLH beta-antibodies with rhCG and rhLH. We used human CG (hCG), which also cross-reacts strongly with anti-oLH beta to examine how the circulating oLH beta-antibodies affect the metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of hCG in rhesus monkeys. 125I-hCG was injected into four nonimmunized and seven immunized monkeys and blood was collected at frequent intervals over 7 days. Total and immunoprecipitable radioactivity did not differ significantly, suggesting that the radioactivity in the plasma consisted almost entirely of 125I-hCG. This was confirmed by column chromatography. The MCR (mean +/- SE) was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in six immunized monkeys (0.35 +/- 0.06 liters/day) as compared to controls (1.19 +/- 0.09 liters/day). The hCG disappearance curve in control monkeys was best described by a two-compartmental system (slow and fast) while an additional third (intermediate) compartment of distribution was typical for immunized animals. The half-lives of hCG for the two exponentials corresponding to the slow and fast components of distribution were not significantly different between the two groups. One immunized monkey had a MCR (1.44 liters/day) that was much greater than the MCR of the other six.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6507705

  13. Plasma levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones during the reproductive cycle of wild and cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Chauvigné, François; Fatsini, Elvira; Duncan, Neil; Ollé, Judith; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana; Cerdà, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The intensive culture of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is hampered by the low or null fertilization rates exhibited by the first generation (F1) of reared males. To investigate the regulation of the reproductive processes in this species by the pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones (Fsh and Lh, respectively), we developed a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Lh measurements. Quantification of the Fsh and Lh plasma levels in cultured sole using the Lh ELISA developed here, and a previously developed ELISA for Fsh, indicated that in both males and females circulating Fsh steadily increased during autumn and winter and prior to the major spawning in spring, whereas an Lh surge occurred specifically during spawning. The increase in Fsh was associated with a rise of plasma levels of the steroid hormones testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and estradiol-17β (E2), but that of Lh was concomitant with a strong decline of the levels of E2 in females and of 11-KT in males, possibly reflecting a rapid steroidogenic shift promoting the final maturation of gametes. Comparison of the plasma levels of gonadotropins and steroids between wild and F1 fish during autumn and spring revealed that F1 males showed significantly lower plasma Lh titres compared to wild males, whereas the levels of T and 11-KT were similar or more elevated in the F1 fish. These data suggest that an impaired Lh secretion during spawning, and perhaps altered Lh-mediated mechanisms in the testis, may be underlying causes for the low reproductive performance of Senegalese sole F1 males. PMID:26419696

  14. Editing of the Luteinizing Hormone Gene to Sterilize Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Using a Modified Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology with Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Su, Baofeng; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Zhi; Perera, Dayan A; Fobes, Michael; Shang, Mei; Dunham, Rex A

    2016-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most important freshwater aquaculture species in the USA. Genetically enhanced fish that are sterile could both profit the catfish industry and reduce potential environmental and ecological risks. As the first step to generate sterile channel catfish, three sets of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids targeting the luteinizing hormone (LH) gene were designed and electroporated into one-cell embryos, different concentrations were introduced, and the Cel-I assay was conducted to detect mutations. Channel catfish carrying the mutated LH gene were sterile, as confirmed by DNA sequencing and mating experiments. The overall mutation rate was 19.7 % for 66 channel catfish, and the best treatment was ZFN set 1 at the concentration 25 μg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of gene editing of fish via plasmid introduction instead of mRNA microinjection. The introduction of the ZFN plasmids may have reduced mosaicism, as mutated individuals were gene edited in every tissue evaluated. Apparently, the plasmids were eventually degraded without integration, as they were not detectable in mutated individuals using PCR. Carp pituitary extract failed to induce spawning and restoration of fertility, indicating the need for developing other hormone therapies to achieve reversal of sterility upon demand. This is the first sterilization achieved using ZFN technology in an aquaculture species and the first successful gene editing of channel catfish. Our results will help understand the roles of the LH gene, purposeful sterilization of teleost fishes, and is a step towards control of domestic, hybrid, exotic, invasive, and transgenic fishes. PMID:26846523

  15. Hyposmolar stimulation of in vitro pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone: a potential clue to the secretory process.

    PubMed

    Greer, M A; Greer, S E; Opsahl, Z; McCafferty, L; Maruta, S

    1983-10-01

    Diluting the perifusion medium with water caused a striking prompt increase in LH secretion from perifused, acutely dispersed adenohypophseal cells. The minimum effective proportion of water was 4%; the quantity of hormone secreted was proportional to the dilution of the medium up to greater than 50% water. Secretion was not induced if the dilution was made with 5% aqueous mannitol to maintain isotonicity. The LH secretory responses to hyposmolarity or to LHRH were qualitatively indistinguishable. We suggest that expansion of the outer cell membrane may be an important initial component of the mechanism of secretion from adenohypophyseal cells. PMID:6413197

  16. In vitro effect of. Delta. sup 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. ); Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M. )

    1990-12-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that {Delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE{sub 2} suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE{sub 2} synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release.

  17. Occurrence of D-aspartic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in rat neuroendocrine tissues and their role in the modulation of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone release.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, A; Di Fiore, M M; Fisher, G H; Milone, A; Seleni, A; D'Aniello, S; Perna, A F; Ingrosso, D

    2000-04-01

    Using two specific and sensitive fluorometric/HPLC methods and a GC-MS method, alone and in combination with D-aspartate oxidase, we have demonstrated for the first time that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), in addition to D-aspartate (D-Asp), is endogenously present as a natural molecule in rat nervous system and endocrine glands. Both of these amino acids are mostly concentrated at nmol/g levels in the adenohypophysis, hypothalamus, brain, and testis. The adenohypophysis maximally showed the ability to accumulate D-Asp when the latter is exogenously administered. In vivo experiments, consisting of the i.p. injection of D-Asp, showed that D-Asp induced both growth hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) release. However, in vitro experiments showed that D-Asp was able to induce LH release from adenohypophysis only when this gland was co-incubated with the hypothalamus. This is because D-Asp also induces the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, which in turn is directly responsible for the D-Asp-induced LH secretion from the pituitary gland. Compared to D-Asp, NMDA elicits its hormone release action at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than D-Asp. D-AP5, a specific NMDA receptor antagonist, inhibited D-Asp and NMDA hormonal activity, demonstrating that these actions are mediated by NMDA receptors. NMDA is biosynthesized from D-Asp by an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent enzyme, which we tentatively denominated as NMDA synthase. PMID:10744627

  18. Infertility in Female Mice with a Gain-of-Function Mutation in the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Is Due to Irregular Estrous Cyclicity, Anovulation, Hormonal Alterations, and Polycystic Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Lan; McGee, Stacey R.; Rabideau, Amanda C.; Paquet, Marilène; Narayan, Prema

    2015-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor, LHCGR, is essential for fertility in males and females, and genetic mutations in the receptor have been identified that result in developmental and reproductive defects. We have previously generated and characterized a mouse model (KiLHRD582G) for familial male-limited precocious puberty caused by an activating mutation in the receptor. We demonstrated that the phenotype of the KiLHRD582G male mice is an accurate phenocopy of male patients with activating LHCGR mutations. In this study, we observed that unlike women with activating LHCGR mutations who are normal, female KiLHRD582G mice are infertile. Mice exhibit irregular estrous cyclicity, anovulation, and precocious puberty. A temporal study from 2–24 wk of age indicated elevated levels of progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol and upregulation of several steroidogenic enzyme genes. Ovaries of KiLHRD582G mice exhibited significant pathology with the development of large hemorrhagic cysts as early as 3 wk of age, extensive stromal cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with luteinization, numerous atretic follicles, and granulosa cell tumors. Ovulation could not be rescued by the addition of exogenous gonadotropins. The body weights of the KiLHRD582G mice were higher than wild-type counterparts, but there was no increase in the body fat composition or metabolic abnormalities such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. These studies demonstrate that activating LHCGR mutations do not produce the same phenotype in female mice as in humans and clearly illustrate species differences in the expression and regulation of LHCGR in the ovary, but not in the testis. PMID:26040673

  19. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  20. Effects of Ghrelin on Sexual Behavior and Luteinizing Hormone Beta-subunit Gene Expression in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Babaei-Balderlou, Farrin; Khazali, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have facilitative effects on reproductive behavior in mammals. Ghrelin as a starvation hormone has an inhibitory effect on HPG axis’ function. Hence, it is postulated that ghrelin may reduce the sexual behavior through inhibiting of HPG axis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin and its antagonist, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6, on sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 128 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Each group was further subdivided into eight subgroups (n=8 rats/subgroup) including the animals that received saline, ghrelin (2, 4 or 8 nmol), [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) or co-administration of ghrelin (4 nmol) and [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) through the stereotaxically implanted cannula into the third cerebral ventricle. The sexual behavior of male rats encountering with females and the hypo-physeal LH beta-subunit gene expression were evaluated at two different groups. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) significantly (p<0.01) increased the latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation as well as the post-ejaculatory interval. Also, 4 and 8 nmol ghrelin significantly (p<0.05) increased the number of mount and decreased the number of ejaculation. In co-administrated groups, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonized the effects of ghrelin. Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) reduced the LH beta-subunit gene expression while pretreatment with [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 improved the gene expression. Conclusion: Ghrelin decreased the sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats, whereas [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonizes these effects. PMID:27141463

  1. Primary and secondary structural determinants in the receptor binding sequence. beta. -(38-57) from human luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Keutmann, H.T.; Charlesworth, M.C.; Kitzmann, K.; Mason, K.A.; Johnson, L.; Ryan, R.J.

    1988-12-13

    The intercysteine loop sequence 38-57 in the ..beta.. subunit has been shown to be a determinant for expression of biological activity in human lutropin (hLH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG). Together with other sequences, the 38-57 region may contribute to a multicomponent receptor binding domain in hLH/hCG. Because the structural features influencing activity in this important region are not easy to evaluate in the full-length subunit, the authors have used analogues of hLH..beta..-(38-57) prepared by solid-phase synthesis. The peptides were tested for inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled hCG binding to rat ovarian membrane receptors. Secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and by reactivity with antibodies to the native 38-57 peptide. An analogue lacking the 38-57 disulfide linkage retained 20% receptor binding and full immunoreactivity. Far-ultraviolet CD profiles were essentially identical with those of the disulfide-intact peptide; a transition from 10% to 30% ..cap alpha..-helix in 90% trifluoroethanol was characteristic of both. The peptide thus appears not to require the disulfide bridge to retain a looped conformation with amphipathic secondary structure. An essential positive charge at position 43 was shown by complete loss of activity upon substitution of Asp or Ala for the Arg found in all known species of LH. These results indicate that the 38-57 sequence is a relatively rigid and structurally autonomous region, not merely a series of residues constrained passively into a loop by a disulfide linkage. It includes segments of ordered structure, probably including both amphipathic helical and turn sequences. Evidence from studies of other hormones suggests that this region may be important to binding and specificity in the glycoprotein hormones as a group.

  2. PPARγ co-activator-1α co-activates steroidogenic factor 1 to stimulate the synthesis of luteinizing hormone and aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liuluan; Ke, Yaojun; Shao, Di; Cui, Ying; Qiao, Aijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Fang, Fude; Chang, Yongsheng

    2010-12-15

    The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 (steroidogenic factor 1) is highly expressed in the pituitary, gonad and adrenal glands and plays key roles at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-steroidogenic tissue axis. In the present study, we show that PGC-1α [PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) co-activator 1α] interacts with and co-activates SF-1 to induce LHβ (luteinizing hormone β) and αGSU (α-glycoprotein subunit) gene expression, subsequently leading to the increased secretion of LH in pituitary gonadotrope-derived αT3-1 cells. PGC-1α co-activation of LHβ expression requires an SF-1-binding element [GSE (gonadotrope-specific element)] mapped to the promoter region of LHβ. Mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays, as well as GST (glutathione transferase) pull-down experiments demonstrated that PGC-1α interacts with SF-1 in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, PGC-1α stimulates the expression of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase gene), Cyp11b1 (steroid 11β-hydroxylase gene) and P450scc (cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme), and the synthesis of aldosterone in adrenal-cortex-derived Y-1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that endogenous PGC-1α co-localizes with SF-1 in the LHβ and Cyp11b2 promoter region. Knockdown of endogenous SF-1 by siRNA (small interfering RNA) abolished the PGC-1α induction of LHβ and Cyp11b2 gene expression in αT3-1 and Y-1 cells respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that PGC-1α induces SF-1 gene expression in both αT3-1 and Y-1 cells. Taken together, our findings reveal the potential role of PGC-1α and suggest that it may play important roles in steroidogenesis, gonad development and sex differentiation through SF-1. PMID:21108604

  3. Dephosphorylation of juxtamembrane serines and threonines of the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase is required for rapid resumption of oocyte meiosis in response to luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Shuhaibar, Leia C; Egbert, Jeremy R; Edmund, Aaron B; Uliasz, Tracy F; Dickey, Deborah M; Yee, Siu-Pok; Potter, Lincoln R; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2016-01-01

    The meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes starts during embryogenesis and then pauses until luteinizing hormone (LH) acts on the granulosa cells of the follicle surrounding the oocyte to restart the cell cycle. An essential event in this process is a decrease in cyclic GMP in the granulosa cells, and part of the cGMP decrease results from dephosphorylation and inactivation of the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) guanylyl cyclase, also known as guanylyl cyclase B. However, it is unknown whether NPR2 dephosphorylation is essential for LH-induced meiotic resumption. Here, we prevented NPR2 dephosphorylation by generating a mouse line in which the seven regulatory serines and threonines of NPR2 were changed to the phosphomimetic amino acid glutamate (Npr2-7E). Npr2-7E/7E follicles failed to show a decrease in enzyme activity in response to LH, and the cGMP decrease was attenuated; correspondingly, LH-induced meiotic resumption was delayed. Meiotic resumption in response to EGF receptor activation was likewise delayed, indicating that NPR2 dephosphorylation is a component of the pathway by which EGF receptor activation mediates LH signaling. We also found that most of the NPR2 protein in the follicle was present in the mural granulosa cells. These findings indicate that NPR2 dephosphorylation in the mural granulosa cells is essential for the normal progression of meiosis in response to LH and EGF receptor activation. In addition, these studies provide the first demonstration that a change in phosphorylation of a transmembrane guanylyl cyclase regulates a physiological process, a mechanism that may also control other developmental events. PMID:26522847

  4. Novel C617Y mutation in the 7th transmembrane segment of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor in a Japanese boy with peripheral precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Keisuke; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Yohei; Kikuchi, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Testotoxicosis, also known as familial male-limited precocious puberty, is an autosomal dominant form of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty caused by heterozygous constitutively activating mutations of the LHCGR gene encoding the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR). The patient is an 8-year-old boy who started to develop pubic hair and penile enlargement at 6 years of age. The patient had elevated serum testosterone levels, but initially exhibited a prepubertal response of gonadotropins to GnRH, which was followed by central activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The father reported having experienced precocious puberty, and is 158 cm tall. There is no history of short stature and precocious puberty in the family except for the father. The LHCGR gene was analyzed by direct DNA sequencing of amplified PCR products from the patient and his parents. The wild-type and mutant LH/CGRs were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and cAMP levels in the cells were determined with or without hCG stimulation. Genetic analysis revealed a novel C617Y mutation of the LHCGR gene in the patient and his mother, while his father had no mutations. Functional expression study demonstrated around 15% increase in the basal intracellular cAMP level in cells expressing the mutant LH/CGR compared with that in cells expressing the wild-type receptor. We have reported the first missense C617Y mutation located in the 7th transmembrane segment of LH/CGR causing testotoxicosis. The modest phenotype of our patient may be explained, at least in part, by the modest increase in the intracellular cAMP level caused by the C617Y mutation. PMID:21060208

  5. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  6. Concentrations of progesterone, a metabolite of PGF2α, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Castro, T; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    In experiment 1, daily blood samples were available from Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) in mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI, n = 5) and in mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL, n = 5). The PCL was confirmed by maintenance of progesterone (P4) concentration until end of the experiment (Day 20). Significant interactions of group and day revealed the novel findings that luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than that in the IOI group on Days 0 to 4, and prolactin was lower (P < 0.05) on Days 1, 4, 6, and 7. In experiment 2, treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (n = 6) significantly reduced LH on Days 1 to 6 compared with the controls (n = 6) but did not support the hypothesis that low LH during the postovulatory period increases the frequency of PCL. In experiment 3, P4, PGFM (a PGF2α metabolite), and prolactin concentrations on Days 12 to 20 from 2 reported experiments were combined to increase the number of mares with an IOI (n = 11) or a PCL (n = 11). An abrupt and complete decrease in P4 (luteolysis) began on Day 13 in the IOI group compared with a gradual and partial P4 decline after Day 12 in the PCL group. Concentrations of PGFM and prolactin were lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than those in the IOI group on the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4. The PCL mares were subgrouped into those with an abrupt but incomplete P4 decrease (partial luteolysis; n = 5) at the expected time and those without partial luteolysis (n = 6). There were no significant differences between the 2 subgroups in concentrations of PGFM and prolactin, but on a tentative basis (P < 0.10), the concentration of PGFM seemed more focused on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4 in the subgroup with partial luteolysis. Results for PCL compared with IOI indicated (1) postovulatory LH and prolactin were lower, (2) treatment to reduce postovulatory LH did not increase the incidence

  7. Blunted Sleep-Related Luteinizing Hormone Rise in Healthy Premenarcheal Pubertal Girls with Elevated Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, Brian; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Rosenfield, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine whether excessive adiposity is associated with alteration of the normal hormonal changes of early pubertal girls. Design and Participants: Healthy 6.4- to 9.5-yr-old, prepubertal (PRE, n = 20) and 9.4- to 13.0-yr-old pubertal premenarcheal volunteers (PUB, n = 20) were divided into excessive-weight (EW) or normal-weight (NW) groups according to the 85th percentile body mass index. Interventions and Setting: Overnight blood sampling; GnRH agonist (GnRHag), low-dose ACTH, oral glucose tolerance tests, and pelvic ultrasonograms were performed in our Clinical Research Center. Results: EW girls were similar in age and baseline and ACTH- and GnRHag-stimulated androgen levels to stage-matched NW girls. However, the sleep-related LH rise was blunted in EW-PUB girls compared with NW-PUB girls. The sleep-related rise of mean LH in EW-PUB [0.68 ± 0.35 (sem) U/liter] was insignificant, less than that of NW-PUB (2.1 ± 0.45, P < 0.05) and not significantly different from that of PRE girls (0.08±0.03). EW-PUB had slower LH pulse frequency and a lower rise in LH pulse amplitude during sleep than NW-PUB girls (both P < 0.05). Overnight FSH patterns paralleled LH patterns, whereas estradiol levels were similar in stage-matched NW and EW groups, differing between stages as expected. Early morning and peak LH, FSH, and estradiol responses to GnRHag were similar in EW-PUB and NW-PUB and significantly greater than those of PRE girls. Conclusions: Healthy EW-PUB girls have significantly blunted sleep-related LH production. These data suggest that excess adiposity, in the absence of sex steroid excess, may subtly suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in premenarcheal pubertal girls. PMID:19190110

  8. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, G.E.; Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  9. Stability of cytotoxic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone conjugate (AN-152) containing doxorubicin 14-O-hemiglutarate in mouse and human serum in vitro: implications for the design of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Plonowski, A; Schally, A V

    2000-01-18

    Recently, we developed a series of cytotoxic peptide conjugates containing 14-O-glutaryl esters of doxorubicin (DOX) or 2-pyrrolino-DOX (AN-201). Serum carboxylesterase enzymes (CE) can partially hydrolyze these conjugates in the circulation, releasing the cytotoxic radical, before the targeting is complete. CE activity in serum of nude mice is about 10 times higher than in human serum. Thus, we found that the t(1/2) of AN-152, an analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) containing DOX, at 0.3 mg/ml is 19. 49 +/- 0.74 min in mouse serum and 126.06 +/- 3.03 min in human serum in vitro. The addition of a CE inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), to mouse serum in vitro significantly (P < 0. 01) prolongs the t(1/2) of AN-152 to 69.63 +/- 4.44 min. When DFP is used in vivo, 400 nmol/kg cytotoxic somatostatin analog AN-238 containing AN-201 is well tolerated by mice, whereas all animals die after the same dose without DFP. In contrast, DFP has no effect on the tolerance of AN-201. A better tolerance to AN-238 after DFP treatment is due to the selective uptake of AN-238 by somatostatin receptor-positive tissues. Our results demonstrate that the suppression of the CE activity in nude mice greatly decreases the toxicity of cytotoxic hybrids containing 2-pyrrolino-DOX 14-O-hemiglutarate and brings this animal model closer to the conditions that exist in humans. The use of DFP together with these peptide conjugates in nude mice permits a better understanding of their mechanism of action and improves the clinical predictability of the oncological and toxicological results. PMID:10639165

  10. Relationships between Serum Luteinizing Hormone Level, Endometrial Thickness and Body Mass Index in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with and without Endometrial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanali, Fariba; Khalili, Gholamreza; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges; Moini, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background The endometrial hyperplasia measured by ultrasound in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women is strongly related to pathologic endometrial thickness, but there is no consensus on the relation between serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and either of these factors: pathologic endometrial hyperplasia and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods In this observational cross-sectional study, three hundred fifty infertile PCOS women were involved in this research. An endometrial biopsy was taken by using a pipelle instrument, regardless of menstrual cycle’s day and all samples were reported by the same pathologist. Basal serum LH level was compared between two subgroups (hyperplasia and non-hyperplasia). The intended population was divided into three groups according to BMI and basal serum LH, later on the comparison was made in three groups. Chi-square test was applied to compare nominal variables between groups. Mann-Whitney U, and one way ANOVA tests were used to compare means on the basis of the result of normality test. Results The frequency of endometrial hyperplasia was 2.6%. Endometrial thickness in the patients with endometrial hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of a normal endometrium (10.78 ± 3.70 vs. 7.90 ± 2.86 respectively, P=0.020). There was no relation between endometrial hyperplasia and serum LH (P=0.600). The ANOVA test showed serum LH levels were not the same among three BMI groups (P=0.007). Post hoc test was also performed. It showed that the LH level in normal BMI group was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.005 and P=0.004), but there was no statistical difference between overweight and obese groups (P=0.8). We found no relationship between BMI and endometrial thickness in PCOS patients (P=0.6). Conclusion Sonographic endometrial stripe thickness is predictive for endometrial hyperplasia in PCOS women. We could not find out any relationship between serum LH level and BMI with endometrial thickness in

  11. Utrogestan as an effective oral alternative for preventing premature luteinizing hormone surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuxian; Zhang, Xiaole; Fu, Yonglun

    2015-05-01

    A major cause of cycle cancellation during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the occurrence of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Steroidal preparations can modulate the secretion of gonadotropins (Gn); however, few studies using progesterone to inhibit the premature LH surges in COH have been published. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral delivery of progesterone soft capsules (Utrogestan) to prevent LH surges from the follicular phase and to compare cycle characteristics as well as to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A total of 374 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, among which 187 patients were simultaneously administered Utrogestan and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) from cycle day 3 until the trigger day. A short protocol including 187 controls with comparable age, body mass index (BMI), infertility duration, and antral follicle count was also used. GnRH agonist (0.1 mg) or hCG (3000 IU) was used for a trigger when the dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both groups. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes retrieved. The secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FET cycles. Consistent LH suppression was achieved during COH, with a range of 0.07 to 8.9 IU/L, and no premature LH surge was detected. The number of oocytes retrieved in the Utrogestan and hMG protocol was comparable with that in the short protocol (10.92 ± 5.74 vs 10.6 ± 6.22, P > 0.05), and the dose of hMG was higher than that used in the short protocol (1884.22 ± 439.47 IU vs 1446.26 ± 550.48 IU, P < 0.05). No significant between-group difference was observed in the mature oocyte rate (88.88% vs 90.12%), cleavage rate (96.58% vs 96.58%), clinical pregnancy rate (54.27% vs

  12. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  13. Time dependent impact of perinatal hypoxia on growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ömer; Aydınöz, Seçil; Kartal, Ayşe Tuğba; Kelestemur, Taha; Caglayan, Ahmet Burak; Beker, Mustafa Caglar; Karademir, Ferhan; Süleymanoğlu, Selami; Kul, Mustafa; Yulug, Burak; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a widely used animal model to mimic the preterm or perinatal sublethal hypoxia, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It causes diffuse neurodegeneration in the brain and results in mental retardation, hyperactivity, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and neuroendocrine disturbances. Herein, we examined acute and subacute correlations between neuronal degeneration and serum growth factor changes, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in neonatal rats. In the acute phase of hypoxia, brain volume was increased significantly as compared with control animals, which was associated with reduced GH and IGF-1 secretions. Reduced neuronal survival and increased DNA fragmentation were also noticed in these animals. However, in the subacute phase of hypoxia, neuronal survival and brain volume were significantly decreased, accompanied by increased apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus and cortex. Serum GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly reduced in the subacute phase of HI. Significant retardation in the brain and body development were noted in the subacute phase of hypoxia. Here, we provide evidence that serum levels of growth-hormone and factors were decreased in the acute and subacute phase of hypoxia, which was associated with increased DNA fragmentation and decreased neuronal survival. PMID:26943480

  14. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (P<0.01), and OOS ewes were intermediate to, and tended to differ from (P<0.10), the other two breeds. We conclude that OOS ewes developed by selection for fertility in spring matings had an abbreviated seasonal anestrus that is one of the shortest ever reported for temperate breeds, and that tropical St. Croix sheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. PMID:23528712

  15. The non-steroidal mycoestrogen zeranol suppresses luteinizing hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary of cattle via the estradiol receptor GPR30 in a rapid, non-genomic manner.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Urara; Rudolf, Faidiban O; Pandey, Kiran; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2015-05-01

    Picomolar concentrations of estradiol produce rapid suppression of GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the anterior pituitary (AP) of cattle via G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Zeranol is a strong estrogenic metabolite derived from zearalenone, a non-steroidal mycoestrogen produced by Fusarium that induces reproductive disorders in domestic animals. The hypothesis was tested that zeranol suppresses GnRH-induced LH release from the AP of cattle via GPR30 in a rapid, non-genomic manner. The AP cells (n=15) were cultured for 3 days in steroid-free conditions and then treated them with estradiol (0.001-10nM) or zeranol (0.001-100nM) for 5min before GnRH stimulation. Pre-treatment with 0.001-0.1nM estradiol suppressed GnRH-stimulated LH secretion. Pre-treatment with zeranol at concentrations of 0.001nM (P<0.01), 0.01nM (P<0.01), 0.1nM (P<0.05), and 1nM (P<0.05), but not at concentrations of 10 and 100nM, also inhibited GnRH-stimulated LH secretion from AP cells. Pre-treatment for 5min with a GPR30-specific antagonist, G36, inhibited estradiol or zeranol suppression of LH secretion from cultured AP cells. Cyclic AMP measurements and quantitative PCR analyses revealed that pre-treatment with small amounts of estradiol (P<0.05) or zeranol (P<0.01) decreased cAMP, but not gene expressions of the LHα, LHβ, or FSHβ subunits in the AP cells. Hence, zeranol may suppress luteinizing hormone secretion from the AP of cattle via GPR30 in a rapid, non-genomic manner. PMID:25824341

  16. Changes in brain mRNA levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, and somatostatin during ovulatory luteinizing hormone and growth hormone surges in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Canosa, Luis Fabián; Stacey, Norm; Peter, Richard Ector

    2008-12-01

    In goldfish, circulating LH and growth hormone (GH) levels surge at the time of ovulation. In the present study, changes in gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), somatostatin (SS) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) were analyzed during temperature- and spawning substrate-induced ovulation in goldfish. The results demonstrated that increases in PACAP gene expression during ovulation are best correlated with the GH secretion profile. These results suggest that PACAP, instead of GnRH, is involved in the control of GH secretion during ovulation. Increases of two of the SS transcripts during ovulation are interpreted as the activation of a negative feedback mechanism triggered by high GH levels. The results showed a differential regulation of sGnRH and cGnRH-II gene expression during ovulation, suggesting that sGnRH controls LH secretion, whereas cGnRH-II correlates best with spawning behavior. This conclusion is further supported by the finding that nonovulated fish induced to perform spawning behavior by prostaglandin F2alpha treatment increased cGnRH-II expression in both forebrain and midbrain, but decreased sGnRH expression in the forebrain. PMID:18815210

  17. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor-Stimulated Progesterone Production by Preovulatory Granulosa Cells Requires Protein Kinase A-Dependent Activation/Dephosphorylation of the Actin Dynamizing Protein Cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Amelia B.; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Flynn, Maxfield P.; Jones, Jonathan C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Bamburg, James R.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the LH receptor (LHR) on preovulatory granulosa cells stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway to regulate expression of genes required for ovulation and luteinization. LHR signaling also initiates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Because disruption of the actin cytoskeleton has been causally linked to steroidogenesis in various cell models, we sought to identify the cellular mechanisms that may modulate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and to determine whether cytoskeletal reorganization is required for steroidogenesis. Herein we report that LHR signaling in preovulatory granulosa cells promotes rapid dephosphorylation of the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin at Ser3 that is dependent on PKA. The LHR-stimulated dephosphorylation of cofilin(Ser3) switches on cofilin activity to bind actin filaments and enhance their dynamics. Basal phosphorylation of cofilin(Ser3) is mediated by active/GTP-bound Rho and downstream protein kinases; LHR signaling promotes a decrease in active/GTP-bound Rho by a PKA-dependent mechanism. LHR-dependent Rho inactivation and subsequent activation of cofilin does not involve ERK, epidermal growth factor receptor, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways downstream of PKA. To understand the biological significance of cofilin activation, preovulatory granulosa cells were transduced with a mutant cofilin adenoviral vector in which Ser3 was mutated to Glu (S-E cofilin). Inactive S-E cofilin abolished LHR-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and caused a 70% decrease in LHR-stimulated progesterone that is obligatory for ovulation. Taken together, these results show that LHR signaling via PKA activates a cofilin-regulated rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and that active cofilin is required to initiate progesterone secretion by preovulatory granulosa cells. PMID:20610540

  18. A high response to controlled ovarian stimulation induces premature luteinization with a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycle

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hwa Seon; Cha, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hye Ok; Song, In Ok; Min, Eung Gi; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum progesterone (P4) levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and the pregnancy rate among women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) using a flexible antagonist protocol. Methods This prospective study included 200 IVF and ICSI-ET cycles in which a flexible antagonist protocol was used. The patients were divided into five distinct groups according to their serum P4 levels at the time of hCG administration (0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, and 1.00 ng/mL). The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was calculated for each P4 interval. Statistically significant differences were observed at a serum P4 level of 0.9 ng/mL. These data suggest that a serum P4 concentration of 0.9 ng/mL may represent the optimal threshold level for defining premature luteinization (PL) based on the presence of a significant negative impact on the CPR. Results The CPR for each round of ET was significantly lower in the PL group defined using this threshold (25.8% vs. 41.8%; p=0.019), and the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly higher than in the non-PL group (17.3±7.2 vs. 11.0±7.2; p=0.001). Elevated serum P4 levels on the day of hCG administration were associated with a reduced CPR, despite the retrieval of many oocytes. Conclusion Measuring serum P4 values at the time of hCG administration is necessary in order to determine the optimal strategy for embryo transfer. PMID:26816874

  19. MicroRNA miR-513a-3p acts as a co-regulator of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, B; Kossack, N; Nordhoff, V; Schüring, A N; Gromoll, J

    2014-06-01

    The luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is essential for normal male and female reproductive processes. The spatial and temporal LHCGR gene expression is controlled by a complex system of regulatory mechanisms which are crucial for normal physiological function, especially during the female cycle. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether microRNAs are involved in this network and play a role in regulating LHCGR expression. Computational analysis predicted that miR-513a-3p interacts with the LHCGR mRNA via three binding sites located in the 3'UTR region, enabling a synergistic action. Moreover, using a luciferase-based reporter assay we found that miR-513a-3p targets the LHCGR, resulting in a significant down-regulation of its expression. In human primary granulosa cell cultures we detected a dynamic, inversely associated expression pattern of miR-513a-3p and the LHCGR. In addition, transfection with miR-513a-3p or its specific inhibitor led to a down- or up-regulation at the LHCGR mRNA level, respectively. An increased amount of miR-513a-3p resulted in the down-regulation of the LHCGR mRNA, reflected by the attenuation of cAMP synthesis after hormonal stimulation. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that miR-513a-3p is involved in the control of the LHCGR expression by an inversely regulated mechanism at the post-transcriptional level and show for the first time that this kind of post-transcriptional process contributes to the multifaceted system of the human LHCGR regulation. PMID:24747085

  20. Stability of lutein in wholegrain bakery products naturally high in lutein or fortified with free lutein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J Christopher; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona

    2010-09-22

    Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods. PMID:20734986

  1. Lutein and brain function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated in macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Rece...

  2. Relationships Between the Appearances and Changes of Estrous Signs and the Estradiol-17β Peak, Luteinizing Hormone Surge and Ovulation During the Periovulatory Period in Lactating Dairy Cows Kept in Tie-stalls

    PubMed Central

    SUMIYOSHI, Toshiaki; TANAKA, Tomomi; KAMOMAE, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Lactating Holstein-Friesian cows kept in tie-stall barn were used as subjects in this study. Rectal examination, ultrasonography and blood sampling were conducted every other day and then daily after the day on which diameter of the corpus luteum decreased. After the luteal diameter decreased for 2 consecutive days, rectal and ultrasound examinations, blood sampling, and observation of estrous signs were conducted at 6-h intervals. Most of the estrous signs became obvious with the increase in estradiol-17β (E2) and became most remarkable 24 to 30 hours before ovulation, at which point the E2 peak and luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were achieved, and then weakened which progression to ovulation. The correlation between the intensity of four estrous signs (hyperemia and swelling of the intravaginal part of the uterus, opening of the external uterine orifice and viscosity of the cervical mucus) and the plasma E2 concentration was higher than that of three estrous signs (swelling of the vulva, contraction of the uterus, diameter of uterine horn) and the plasma E2 concentration. The relaxation of the intravaginal part of the uterus showed a unique change compared with the other estrous signs, and it became most obvious 6, 12 and 18 h before ovulation; this obviously relaxed period was consistent with the generally accepted theoretical optimal time for artificial insemination (AI), i.e., 6 to 24 h after initiation of estrus. These results suggest that observation of estrous signs by vaginoscopic examination gave useful information for detection of the optimal timing of AI in the periovulatory period in lactating dairy cows kept in a tie-stall barn. PMID:24492642

  3. Luteinizing Hormone Causes Phosphorylation and Activation of the cGMP Phosphodiesterase PDE5 in Rat Ovarian Follicles, Contributing, Together with PDE1 Activity, to the Resumption of Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Jeremy R; Uliasz, Tracy F; Shuhaibar, Leia C; Geerts, Andreas; Wunder, Frank; Kleiman, Robin J; Humphrey, John M; Lampe, Paul D; Artemyev, Nikolai O; Rybalkin, Sergei D; Beavo, Joseph A; Movsesian, Matthew A; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2016-05-01

    The meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes in preovulatory follicles is held in prophase arrest by diffusion of cGMP from the surrounding granulosa cells into the oocyte. Luteinizing hormone (LH) then releases meiotic arrest by lowering cGMP in the granulosa cells. The LH-induced reduction of cGMP is caused in part by a decrease in guanylyl cyclase activity, but the observation that the cGMP phosphodiesterase PDE5 is phosphorylated during LH signaling suggests that an increase in PDE5 activity could also contribute. To investigate this idea, we measured cGMP-hydrolytic activity in rat ovarian follicles. Basal activity was due primarily to PDE1A and PDE5, and LH increased PDE5 activity. The increase in PDE5 activity was accompanied by phosphorylation of PDE5 at serine 92, a protein kinase A/G consensus site. Both the phosphorylation and the increase in activity were promoted by elevating cAMP and opposed by inhibiting protein kinase A, supporting the hypothesis that LH activates PDE5 by stimulating its phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Inhibition of PDE5 activity partially suppressed LH-induced meiotic resumption as indicated by nuclear envelope breakdown, but inhibition of both PDE5 and PDE1 activities was needed to completely inhibit this response. These results show that activities of both PDE5 and PDE1 contribute to the LH-induced resumption of meiosis in rat oocytes, and that phosphorylation and activation of PDE5 is a regulatory mechanism. PMID:27009040

  4. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility. PMID:22951117

  5. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  6. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  7. Luteal expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in late pregnant rats: effect of luteinizing hormone and RU486.

    PubMed

    Stocco, C O; Chedrese, J; Deis, R P

    2001-10-01

    A decrease in serum progesterone at the end of pregnancy is essential for the induction of parturition in rats. We have previously demonstrated that LH participates in this process through: 1) inhibiting 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity and 2) stimulating progesterone catabolism by inducing 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) activity. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of LH and progesterone on the luteal expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450(scc)), 3beta-HSD, and 20alpha-HSD genes. Gene expression was analyzed by Northern blot analysis 24 and 48 h after administration of LH or vehicle on Day 19 of pregnancy. StAR and 3beta-HSD mRNA levels were lower in LH-treated rats than in rats administered with vehicle at both time points studied. P450(scc) mRNA levels were unaffected by LH. The 20alpha-HSD mRNA levels were not different between LH and control rats 24 h after treatment; however, greater expression of 20alpha-HSD, with respect to controls, was observed in LH-treated rats 48 h after treatment. Luteal progesterone content dropped in LH-treated rats at both time points studied, whereas serum progesterone decreased after 48 h only. In a second set of experiments, the anti-progesterone RU486 was injected intrabursally on Day 20 of pregnancy. RU486 had no effect on 3beta-HSD or P450(scc) expression but increased 20alpha-HSD mRNA levels after 8 h treatment. In conclusion, the luteolytic effect of LH is mediated by a drop in StAR and 3beta-HSD expression without effect on P450(scc) expression. We also provide the first in vivo evidence indicating that a decrease in luteal progesterone content may be an essential step toward the induction of 20alpha-HSD expression at the end of pregnancy in rats. PMID:11566732

  8. Ovarian hemangioma associated with concomitant stromal luteinization and ascites.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, T; Hirai, Y; Takeshima, N; Hasumi, K

    1996-06-01

    A 62-year-old female presented with a pelvic mass and ascites. The Papanicolaou vaginal smear showed an unusual maturation, maturation index being 0/80/20. The serum level of estradiol was 48.7 pg/ml. The preoperative checkup suggested a pelvic malignancy with a differential diagnosis of hormone-secreting ovarian tumor. On surgical exploration, she had a hemangioma of the ovary without malignant cytology in the ascitic fluid. Histologically, this tumor was associated with stromal luteinization. This is the first case, reported in the literature, possessing ovarian hemangioma with stromal luteinization accompanying massive ascites. It should be noted that an ovarian hemangioma can be associated with stromal luteinization and ascites, and that MR imaging is sometimes of value for making a preoperative diagnosis of ovarian hemangioma. PMID:8641629

  9. Bioavailability and biodistribution of nanodelivered lutein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to enhance lutein bioavailability. The bioavailability of free lutein and PLGA-NP lutein in rats was assessed by determining plasma pharmacokinetics and deposition in selected tissues. Lutein ...

  10. Long [R3] insulin-like growth factor-I reduces growth, plasma growth hormone, IGF binding protein-3 and endogenous IGF-I concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dunaiski, V; Dunshea, F R; Walton, P E; Goddard, C

    1997-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) improves growth performance in the pig. Analogues of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) that bind poorly to IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) stimulate growth in the rat but, in contrast, inhibit growth in the pig. This study was designed to determine the effect of IGF peptides alone or in combination with porcine GH (pGH) on growth characteristics and plasma hormone concentrations in finisher pigs. A four-day infusion of Long [R3] IGF-I (LR3IGF-I; 180 micrograms/kg/day) decreased the average daily gain, food intake, and plasma IGFBP-3, IGF-I and insulin concentrations. The mean plasma GH concentration was decreased by 23% and the area under the GH peaks was reduced by 60%. Co-administration of pGH (30 micrograms/kg/day) with LR3IGF-I had no interactive effect on growth performance, and plasma insulin, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I concentrations remained suppressed. The area under the GH peaks was not restored with this combination treatment although mean plasma GH concentrations were elevated in all animals receiving pGH. Infusion of IGF-I (180 micrograms/kg/day) decreased plasma insulin and mean GH concentrations but had no significant effect on IGFBP-3 concentrations. Average daily gain and feed intake were not changed by IGF-I treatment. A combination of IGF-I and pGH injection (30 micrograms/kg/day) increased plasma IGFBP-3 concentrations but plasma insulin levels remained suppressed. Plasma glucose levels were unaffected by any treatment. The study demonstrates that both IGF-I and LR3IGF-I suppress plasma GH concentrations in finisher pigs. This, in turn, may be responsible for the reduction in the plasma concentration of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and insulin seen in LR3IGF-I-treated animals. The decrease in these parameters may contribute to the inhibitory effect of LR3IGF-I on growth performance in the pig. PMID:9488001

  11. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal ...

  12. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... agonists , which are sometimes called LHRH analogs, are synthetic proteins that are structurally similar to LHRH and ... gland to stop producing luteinizing hormone, which prevents testosterone from being produced. Treatment with an LHRH agonist ...

  13. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-rong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG administration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cells, but not follicular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were immunolocalized specifically in luteinized follicles. Our experiments together indicate that eCG administration can induce follicular luteinization but not superovulation in guinea pigs. The eCG in cyclic guinea pigs functions similar to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), but not follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). PMID:26642181

  14. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  15. Effect of Chlorotriazine Pesticides on Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone in the Neuronal GT1-7 Cell Line and Hypothalamic Explants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the release of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone. These pituitary hormones are necessary for normal reproductive function in both males and females. It is well recognized that disruption of nor...

  16. Bioavailability and biodistribution of nanodelivered lutein.

    PubMed

    Kamil, Alison; Smith, Donald E; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Oliver Chen, C-Y

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to enhance lutein bioavailability. The bioavailability of free lutein and PLGA-NP lutein in rats was assessed by determining plasma pharmacokinetics and deposition in selected tissues. Lutein uptake and secretion was also assessed in Caco-2 cells. Compared to free lutein, PLGA-NP increased the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the time-concentration curve in rats by 54.5- and 77.6-fold, respectively, while promoting tissue accumulation in the mesenteric fat and spleen. In comparison with micellized lutein, PLGA-NP lutein improved the Cmax in rat plasma by 15.6-fold and in selected tissues by ⩾ 3.8-fold. In contrast, PLGA-NP lutein had a lower uptake and secretion of lutein in Caco-2 cells by 10.0- and 50.5-fold, respectively, compared to micellized lutein. In conclusion, delivery of lutein with polymeric NP may be an approach to improve the bioavailability of lutein in vivo. PMID:26304429

  17. Characterization of milk proteins-lutein complexes and the impact on lutein chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the interaction of WPI (whey protein isolate) and SC (sodium caseinate) with hydrophobic lutein was investigated through UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) as well as fluorescence. The effects on lutein's chemical stability were also examined. The decrease of turbidity of lutein suggested that lutein's aqueous solubility was improved after binding with milk proteins. CD analysis indicated lutein had little impact on the secondary structures of both proteins. Different preparation methods have significant impacts on the binding constant. Fluorescence results indicated that WPI and SC interact with lutein by hydrophobic contacts. Milk proteins have protective effects on lutein against oxidation and decomposition, and SC showed better capability in protecting lutein from oxidation than WPI during 16 days storage. The lutein's chemical stability was increased with increasing of proteins concentration. The results indicated that milk proteins may act as effective carriers for lipophilic nutraceuticals. PMID:26830565

  18. Low reversibility of intracellular cAMP accumulation in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1) stimulated by human Luteinizing Hormone (hLH) and Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG).

    PubMed

    Klett, Danièle; Meslin, Philippine; Relav, Lauriane; Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Mariot, Julie; Jégot, Gwenhaël; Cahoreau, Claire; Combarnous, Yves

    2016-10-15

    In order to study the intracellular cAMP response kinetics of Leydig cells to hormones with LH activity, we used MLTC-1 cells transiently expressing a chimeric cAMP-responsive luciferase so that real-time variations of intracellular cAMP concentration could be followed using oxiluciferin luminescence produced from catalyzed luciferin oxidation. The potencies of the different LHs and CGs were evaluated using areas under the curves (AUC) of their kinetics over 60 min stimulation. All mammalian LHs and CGs tested were found to stimulate cAMP accumulation in these cells. The reversibility of this stimulation was studied by removing the hormone from the culture medium after 10 min of incubation. The ratios of kinetics AUC after removing or not the hormone were used to evaluate the stimulation reversibility of each hormone. Natural and recombinant hLHs and hCGs were found to exhibit slowly reversible activation compared to pituitary rat, ovine, porcine, camel and equine LHs, serum-derived eCG (PMSG) and recombinant eLH/CGs. Carbohydrate side chains are not involved in this phenomenon since natural and recombinant homologous hormones exhibit the same reversibility rates. It is still unknown whether only one human subunit, α or β, is responsible for this behaviour or whether it is due to a particular feature of the hLH and hCG quaternary structure. PMID:27373440

  19. Environmental Effects on Lutein Concent and Relationship of Lutein and Other Seed Components in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein is a major carotenoid in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. ] seed, and has been shown to be beneficial for eye health in humans. Development of soybeans high in lutein is a goal of some breeding programs. Little is known about how different growing environments affect lutein concentration. Obje...

  20. The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Jeon, Jin-Young; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jin-Man; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens. In Exp 1, a total of one hundred and fifty, 70 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were divided into three groups with five replicates and fed with each experiment diet (control diet, diet with 1% conventional chlorella or lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production in groups fed diets containing both chlorella powders were higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). With chlorella supplementations, the yolk color significantly increased, although there were no significant differences in the eggshell qualities. The lutein contents of serum, liver and growing oocytes were greatly increased by feeding conventional or lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of ninety 60 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were assigned into three groups with three replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). The birds were fed with one of three experimental diets (0, 0.1 or 0.2% lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production was not affected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in the group fed with diet containing 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the dietary chlorella levels increased, the daily egg mass linearly increased, although not significantly. The yolk colors in groups fed diets containing lutein fortified chlorella were dramatically increased as compared to the control (p<0.001). The lutein in chicken eggs significantly increased when fed with 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). These results suggested that the dietary lutein derived from chlorella was readily absorbed into the serum and absorbed by the liver with growing oocyte for commercial laying hens. Particularly, the lutein fortified chlorella was a valuable natural source for the

  1. Absorption and ocular deposition of dietary lutein in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Schmitt, Todd; Colitz, Carmen M H; Mazzaro, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Cataracts and ocular disease are common lesions of marine mammals in zoological collections. Lutein, an oxygenated carotenoid, may have therapeutic or prophylactic effects on ocular disorder. Therefore, this study examined the ability of marine mammals to absorb dietary lutein. Two preliminary trials examined lutein in two forms (beadlet or ester) in a small sample size of marine mammals representing pinnipeds and cetaceans. Lutein was fed daily in tablets providing 0.89-3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15 days to 2 years. A third study was conducted using lutein beadlet fed at 3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15-21 days. Blood was analyzed for lutein pre- and postsupplementation. In the preliminary trials, lutein beadlet was observed to result in greater blood lutein levels than lutein esters, and cetaceans had more noticeable responses than pinnipeds. In Study 3, serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased postsupplementation in beluga whales (P < 0.05), and serum lutein tended to increase postsupplementation in dolphins (P < 0.10), but little change was seen in serum lutein in pinnipeds or manatee. Opportunistic retinal samples demonstrated some detectable lutein in the retina of a dolphin and several harp seals. The lutein levels in dolphins after supplementation are similar to those reported in free-ranging animals. Ocular lutein in harp seals demonstrates that ocular deposition occurs despite low circulating lutein levels. PMID:22753123

  2. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Martin P.; George, Evan W.; Tran, Quang T.; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ∊-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings. PMID:27487925

  3. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Martin P; George, Evan W; Tran, Quang T; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ℇ-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings. PMID:27487925

  4. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  5. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations and blood flow of the ovarian structures of the female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) during growth, dominance, spontaneous ovulation, luteinization and regression of the follicular wave.

    PubMed

    Rawy, M S; Derar, R I; El-Sherry, T M; Megahed, G A

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the ovarian follicular waves and their corresponding hormonal changes in she-camels and to elucidate blood perfusion of the ovarian structures. Three reproductively sound, non-pregnant female camels were examined daily using B-mode and color Doppler to detect changes in their ovarian structures and blood vasculature for 22 follicular waves. Blood area (BA) and percentage (BA%) were determined for the ovarian structures. Three phases of follicular development, those of growth, maturation, and regression, were observed during each follicular wave. Deviation occurred on Day 6.1±1.08. Estradiol increased from basal levels of 27.4±0.4pg/ml to peak concentrations of 134.4±47.5pg/ml as the follicle reached a diameter of 13.2mm. Peripheral progesterone concentrations remained low (<0.4ng/ml) throughout the follicular waves. The blood flow to the dominant follicles increased gradually with follicular growth. The BA and BA% reached the maximum values of 18.4±11.6mm(2) and 6.04±2.03%, respectively, when the diameter of the dominant follicle was 17.5±3.4mm. The blood flow to the corpus luteum rose markedly after ovulation to reach a maximum BA% and BA at Days 5 and 7, respectively, post ovulation. In conclusion, the follicular wave pattern in dromedaries consists of individually variable periods of growth, maturation and regression. Deviation occurs 6.1±1.08d from emergence. Transrectal color-Doppler sonography is a useful technique for noninvasive evaluation of follicular vascularity in camels during various stages of the follicular wave. It provides additional information to assess the developmental stage and activity of the ovarian structures. PMID:24957969

  6. Functional lutein cyst in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M L; Plotka, E D

    1977-07-01

    A postmenopausal woman presented with enlarged breasts, increased vaginal mucus, and elevated serum estrogen and normal progesterone levels. A laparotomy was performed and revealed a cystic right ovary. Histologic examination of the ovary demonstrated a cyst lined by stratified lutein cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The endometrium showed cystic and adenomatous hyperplasia. The diagnosis was functional lutein cyst. Removal of the cystic ovary reduced the estrogen levels, and the clinical picture reverted to that of a normal postmenopausal state. PMID:876536

  7. Lutein and cataract: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Manayi, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Raman, Thiagarajan; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Cataract is one of the most important leading causes of blindness in the world. Extensive research showed that oxidative stress may play an important role in the initiation and progression of a cataract and other age-related eye diseases. Extra-generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the eye tissue has been shown as one of the most important risk factors for cataracts and other age-related eye diseases. With respect to this, it can be hypothesized that dietary antioxidants may be useful in the prevention and/or mitigation of cataract. Lutein is an important xanthophyll which is widely found in different vegetables such as spinach, kale and carrots as well as some other foods such as eggs. Lutein is concentrated in the macula and suppresses the oxidative stress in the eye tissues. A plethora of literature has shown that increased lutein consumption has a close correlation with reduction in the incidence of cataract. Despite this general information, there is a negligible number of review articles considering the beneficial effects of lutein on cataracts and age-related eye diseases. The present review is aimed at discussing the role of oxidative stress in the initiation and progression of a cataract and the possible beneficial effects of lutein in maintaining retinal health and fighting cataract. We also provide a perspective on the chemistry, sources, bioavailability and safety of lutein. PMID:26042352

  8. Lutein bioavailability from lutein ester-fortified fermented milk: in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmer; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of lutein from lutein-fortified fermented milk using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Twenty-four volunteers were randomized to take lutein-fortified fermented milk at two levels of fortification. Single-dose bioavailability study (2x100 ml, ca. 8 or 16 mg of lutein) was performed using a three-point approach (baseline, 3.5 and 6.5 h). Multiple-dose study consisted of consuming one serving/day (ca. 4 or 8 mg/100 ml) for 14 days. Blood samples for biochemical, hematological and lutein analysis were drawn at baseline, Day 7 and Day 14. In vitro bioaccessibility was assessed by a static gastrointestinal digestion model. Lutein content, in vitro ester hydrolysis and micellarization, and lutein concentrations achieved in serum were analyzed by HPLC. In vivo, post-prandial response was higher using the high content fermented milk, but the percentage of absorption was not different according to the dose consumed. Net increments at Day 7 and Day 14 were significantly higher on consuming the high-dose milk as well. In vitro, lutein ester hydrolysis was incomplete regardless of the amount initially present. Free lutein released was higher using the high-dose fermented milk, but the percentage of hydrolysis was similar at both levels of fortification. In the micellar phase, the percentage of free and total lutein was not different according to the dose. Our results support the suitability of the fermented milk as a carrier of lutein esters and an in vivo dose-dependent effect upon regular consumption and suggest the usefulness of in vitro models to provide relevant information to predict in vivo responses. PMID:19201183

  9. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xanthophyll pigments lutein and zeaxanthin cross the blood-retina barrier to preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the neural retina. There they form macular pigment, protecting the retina from blue light damage and oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin also accumulate in brain t...

  10. Nonparallel changes of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and GH-binding protein, after craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nivot, S.; Adan, L.; Souberbielle, J.; Rappaport, R.; Brauner, R.; Benelli, C.; Clot, J.P.; Saucet, C.; Zucker, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    The authors studied the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis serially over 24-36 months in six patients with medulloblastoma who underwent surgical removal of the tumor followed by craniospinal irradiation therapy for 6 weeks and then chemotherapy for 42 weeks. Eighteen and 24 months after beginning irradiation there was a decline in the peak GH secretory response to acute stimulation with arginine/insulin hypoglycemia. Six months after irradiation and during chemotherapy there was a transient decline in IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and GH-BP values (respective mean values of 56.1 {+-} 9.0 ng/mL, 1.1 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g/mL, and 7.6 {+-} 3.3% of radioactivity as compared to time 0 values: 139 {+-} 15 ng/mL, 2.2 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g/mL, and 20.0 {+-} 4.0%, P < 0.001), although provoked GH secretion was normal at this time. The IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and GH-BP returned to pretreatment ranges by 12-36 months after initiation of the study. There was also a decline in body mass index and serum protein values at 6 months after irradiation in ligand and immunoblot analysis there was a decline in IGFBP-3 and an abnormal electrophoretic mobility of IGFBP-2 that were both normalized at 36 months. In one patient they observed a high level of IGFBP-3 proteolysis at this time. This study demonstrates that before the decrease of GH secretion in patients receiving cranial irradiation there is a transient phase of GH insensitivity that may be characteristic of the acute therapeutic phase including the chemotherapy. This partial insensitivity may explain the early growth retardation observed in these patients. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Homeostasis, thymic hormones and aging.

    PubMed

    Goya, R G; Bolognani, F

    1999-01-01

    The thymic-pituitary axis constitutes a bidirectional circuit where the ascending feedback loop is effected by thymic factors of epithelial origin. The aim of the present article is, first, to introduce the idea of an immune-neuroendocrine homeostatic network in higher animals. Next, the relevance of the thymus in this network and the possible role of this gland in the neuroendocrine imbalances associated with aging are discussed. A number of studies are next reviewed which show that the endocrine thymus produces several bioactive molecules, generally called thymic hormones, which in addition to possessing immunoregulatory properties are also active on nervous and endocrine circuits. In particular, the reported activities of thymosin fraction five, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 on beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in different animal and cell models are reviewed. The known hypophysiotropic actions of other thymic hormones like thymulin, homeostatic thymus hormone and thymus factor are also summarized, and the impact of aging on pituitary responsiveness to thymic hormones is discussed. As a conclusion, it is proposed that in addition to its central role in the regulation of the immune function, the thymus gland may extend its influence to nonimmunologic components of the body, including the neuroendocrine system. The early onset of thymus involution might, therefore, act as a triggering event which would initiate the gradual decline in homeostatic potential that characterizes the aging process. PMID:10202264

  12. The Impact of Polymeric Nanoencapsulation on the Bioavailability of Lutein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil, Alison

    Lutein, a fat-soluble xanthophyll, contributes partially to the health benefits from consuming plant foods. Like all dietary carotenoids, lutein has a low bioavailability. In addition to increasing the intake of lutein-rich foods to enhance lutein status, delivery of lutein in polymeric nanoparticles (NP) presents a novel approach to enhancing lutein bioavailability. The overall research objective of this project was to investigate, in rats, the impact of nanoencapsulation using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on the pharmacokinetics of lutein. We also used an in vitro cell culture approach utilizing human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells grown in both conventional (CONV) and permeable support (PS) systems to investigate the impact of PLGA-NP on the absorption of lutein in intestinal cells. In chapter one, we compared the efficacy of lutein absorption in vitro using Caco-2 cells grown in both CONV and PS systems. We further examined the role of the micelle, the physiological vehicle for lutein within the small intestine, on its intestinal absorption in vitro compared to an organic solvent, ethanol, which is safe and consumed by humans. The finding from this study demonstrated that the CONV system displayed a larger efficacy of lutein uptake by Caco-2 cells. Further, in the PS system, micelle components appeared to facilitate more effective intestinal secretion of lutein. These findings suggest that lutein uptake by Caco-2 cells is subject to the influence of culturing system (CONV vs. PS) and delivery vehicle (ethanol vs. micelle). Chapter two examined the impact of PLGA-NP in rats on lutein pharmacokinetics in plasma and distribution in selected tissues as compared to free lutein. We also investigated the effect of nanoencapsulation on the absorption of lutein in intestinal cells compared to a more physiological vehicle, the micelle, using the PS method. In addition, we explored the need of additional micelles for the ultimate absorption of

  13. Electronic spectra of structurally deformed lutein.

    PubMed

    Macernis, Mindaugas; Sulskus, Juozas; Duffy, Christopher D P; Ruban, Alexander V; Valkunas, Leonas

    2012-10-11

    Quantum chemical calculations have been employed for the investigation of the lowest excited electronic states of lutein, with particular reference to its function within light harvesting antenna complexes of higher plants. Through comparative analysis obtained by using different methods based on gas-phase calculations of the spectra, it was determined that variations in the lengths of the long C-C valence bonds and the dihedral angles of the polyene chain are the dominant factors in determining the spectral properties of Lut 1 and Lut 2 corresponding to the deformed lutein molecules taken from crystallographic data of the major pigment-protein complex of photosystem II. By MNDO-CAS-CI method, it was determined that the two singlet B(u) states of lutein (nominally 1B(u)(-)* and 1B(u)(+)) arise as a result of mixing of the canonical 1B(u)(-) and 1B(u)(+) states of the all-trans polyene due to the presence of the ending rings in lutein. The 1B(u)(-)* state of lutein is optically allowed, while the 1B(u)(-) of a pure all-trans polyene chain is optically forbidden. As demonstrated, the B(u) states are much more sensitive to minor distortions of the conjugated chain due to mixing of the canonical states, resulting in states of poorly defined particle-hole symmetry. Conversely, the A(g) states are relatively robust with respect to geometric distortion, and their respective inversion and particle-hole symmetries remain relatively well-defined. PMID:22974387

  14. Breeding success and lutein availability in great tit ( Parus major)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2009-11-01

    The relationship among temporal variation in the availability of carotenoid-rich food, tissue carotenoid levels and breeding success are poorly known. We studied how diet quality and quantity affect the carotenoid profile and fledging success of great tit ( Parus major) nestlings along a pollution gradient. We found declining seasonal trend in lutein concentration of caterpillars, which may be the explanation for the declining trend in nestlings' lutein concentration of plasma with season, despite the increase in caterpillar biomass. This may be because the biomass of most lutein-rich caterpillars (autumnal moths) decreased and less lutein-rich caterpillars (sawflies) increased during the breeding season. The temporal difference in occurrence of different caterpillar species means that peak lutein availability does not coincide with peak caterpillar abundance. However the positive association between total larval biomass and the number of great tit fledglings may suggest that fledging success depends more on total caterpillar availability than on lutein concentration of caterpillars.

  15. hCG-dependent regulation of angiogenic factors in human granulosa lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Phan, B; Rakenius, A; Pietrowski, D; Bettendorf, H; Keck, C; Herr, D

    2006-07-01

    As prerequisite for development and maintenance of many diseases angiogenesis is of particular interest in medicine. Pathologic angiogenesis takes place in chronic arthritis, collagen diseases, arteriosclerosis, retinopathy associated with diabetes, and particularly in cancers. However, angiogenesis as a physiological process regularly occurs in the ovary. After ovulation the corpus luteum is formed by rapid vascularization of initially avascular granulosa lutein cell tissue. This process is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. In order to gain further insights in the regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis in the ovary, we investigated these mechanisms in cell culture of human granulosa lutein cells. In particular, we determined the expression and production of several angiogenic factors including tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), Leptin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), meningioma-associated complimentary DNA (Mac25), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Midkine. In addition, we showed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has distinct effects on their expression and production. hCG enhances the expression and production of TIMP-1, whereas it downregulates the expression of CTGF and Mac25. Furthermore it decreases the expression of Leptin. Our results provide evidence that hCG determines growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating angiogenic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Hence we describe a further approach to understand the regulation of angiogenesis in the ovary. PMID:16596638

  16. Novel Lutein Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles on Porcine Corneal Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chiu, Hao-Che; Wu, Wei-Chi; Sahoo, Soubhagya Laxmi; Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Topical delivery has the advantages including being user friendly and cost effective. Development of topical delivery carriers for lutein is becoming an important issue for the ocular drug delivery. Quantification of the partition coefficient of drug in the ocular tissue is the first step for the evaluation of delivery efficacy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of lipid nanoparticles and cyclodextrin (CD) on the corneal lutein accumulation and to measure the partition coefficients in the porcine cornea. Lipid nanoparticles combined with 2% HPβCD could enhance lutein accumulation up to 209.2 ± 18 (μg/g) which is 4.9-fold higher than that of the nanoparticles. CD combined nanoparticles have 68% of drug loading efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in the bovine cornea cells. From the confocal images, this improvement is due to the increased partitioning of lutein to the corneal epithelium by CD in the lipid nanoparticles. The novel lipid nanoparticles could not only improve the stability and entrapment efficacy of lutein but also enhance the lutein accumulation and partition in the cornea. Additionally the corneal accumulation of lutein was further enhanced by increasing the lutein payload in the vehicles. PMID:25101172

  17. Is Lutein a Physiologically Important Ligand for Transthyretin in Humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Liwei Chen

    2003-05-31

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids accumulated in the macula of the human retina and are known as the macular pigments (MP). These pigments account for the yellow color of the macula and appear to play an important role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin in human eyes is remarkably specific. It is likely that specific transport or binding proteins are involved. The objective is to determine whether transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in human plasma and could thus deliver lutein from the blood to the retina. In this study, they used a biosynthetic {sup 13}C-lutein tracer and gas chromatography-combustion interfaced-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) to gain the requisite sensitivity to detect the minute amounts of lutein expected as a physiological ligand for human transthyretin. The biosynthetic {sup 13}C-labeled lutein tracer was purified from algae. Healthy women (n = 4) each ingested 1 mg of {sup 13}C-labeled lutein daily for 3 days and a blood sample was collected 24 hours after the final dose. Plasma TTR was isolated by retinol-binding protein (RBP)-sepharose affinity chromatography and extracted with chloroform. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio in the TTR extract was measured by GCC-IRMS. There was no {sup 13}C-lutein enrichment in the pure TTR extract. This result indicated that lutein is not associated with TTR in human plasma after ingestion in physiological amounts. Some hydrophobic compounds with yellow color may bind to human TTR in the plasma. However, this association needs to be further proved by showing specificity. The study provides a new approach for carotenoid-binding protein studies using a stable isotope tracer method combined with the high precision of GCC-IRMS. The mechanism of selective transport, uptake, and accumulation of lutein in human macula remain to be determined.

  18. Changes in Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Lutein Concentration in Japanese Subjects Taking Two Different Lutein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum concentration changes of lutein in Japanese subjects participating in a clinical trial in which two formulations of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements with different physiochemical properties are used. Methods Thirty-six healthy volunteers were recruited into this prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked comparative study at a single institute. Two products were used, FloraGLO® (Kemin Japan) and XanMax® (Katra Phytochem). The lutein particle size and zeaxanthin concentrations differed between the formulations. The subjects consumed one of the two supplements for a duration of up to 6 months. MPOD levels were measured by resonance Raman spectrometry at baseline and once a month until the end of the study. Serum lutein concentration was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The subjects were also tested for contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, visual acuity, and in addition had a focal electroretinogram measured. Results The mean serum lutein concentrations increased significantly after the first three months, but the mean MPOD levels in either supplement group did not show any statistically significant increase. A detailed analysis, however, revealed three response patterns in both groups for the increase of MPOD levels and serum lutein concentration, i.e. “retinal responders”, who had an increase of both MPOD levels and serum lutein concentrations (n = 13), “retinal non-responders”, who had only increased serum concentrations and no change in MPOD levels (n = 20), and “retinal and serum non-responders”, who had neither MPOD level nor plasma concentration increases (n = 3). The subjects with low MPOD levels at baseline appeared to show increased MPOD levels at the 6 month time point upon lutein supplementation (r = -0.4090, p = 0.0133). Glare sensitivity improved in retinal responders in both supplement groups, while there were no remarkable changes in

  19. Possible degradation/biotransformation of lutein in vitro and in vivo: isolation and structural elucidation of lutein metabolites by HPLC and LC-MS (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization).

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, Rangaswamy; Aruna, Gorusupudi; Sangeetha, Ravi Kumar; Bhaskar, Narayan; Divakar, Sounder; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2008-10-01

    Metabolites of lutein are highly concentrated in the human macula and are known to provide protection against age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the in vitro oxidation products of lutein obtained through photo-oxidation and to compare them with biologically transformed dietary lutein in intestine, plasma, liver, and eyes of rats. In vivo studies involved feeding rats a diet devoid of lutein for 2 weeks to induce deficiency. Rats were divided into two equal groups (n=6/group) and received either micellar lutein by gavage for 10 days or diet supplemented with fenugreek leaves as a lutein source for 4 weeks. Lutein metabolites/oxidation products obtained from in vivo and in vitro studies were characterized by HPLC and LC-MS (APCI) techniques to elucidate their structure. The characteristic fragmented ions resulting from photo-oxidation of lutein were identified as 523 (M(+)+H(+)-3CH(3)), 476 (M(+)+H(+)-6CH(3)), and 551 (M(+)+H(+)-H(2)O). In the eyes, the fragmented molecules resulting from lutein were 13-Z lutein, 13'-Z lutein, 13-Z zeaxanthin, all-E zeaxanthin, 9-Z lutein, 9'-Z lutein, and 3'-oxolutein. Epoxycarotenoids were identified in liver and plasma, whereas anhydrolutein was identified in intestine. This study emphasizes the essentiality of dietary lutein to maintain its status in the retina. PMID:18640265

  20. Hormones in Synergy: Regulation of the Pituitary Gonadotropin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Varykina G.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Coss, Djurdjica

    2009-01-01

    The precise interplay of hormonal influences that governs gonadotropin hormone production by the pituitary includes endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activin and steroids. However, most studies of hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gonadotrope have been limited to analyses of the isolated actions of individual hormones. LHβ and FSHβ subunits have distinct patterns of expression during the menstrual/estrous cycle as a result of the integration of activin, GnRH, and steroid hormone action. In this review, we focus on studies that delineate the interplay among these hormones in the regulation of LHβ and FSHβ gene expression in gonadotrope cells and discuss how signaling cross-talk contributes to differential expression. We also discuss how recent technological advances will help identify additional factors involved in the differential hormonal regulation of LH and FSH. PMID:19747958

  1. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  2. Lutein and lutein esters in whole grain flours made from 75 genotypes of 5 triticum species grown at multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Wahl, Sabine; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-05-27

    Concentrations of lutein and lutein esters were determined in an ample collection of 75 wheat genotypes comprising bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt (Triticum spelta L.), emmer (Triticum dicoccum Schrank), and einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) grown in five different environments. Einkorn genotypes showed the highest total amounts of lutein (4.5-7.8 μg/g dry matter), followed by durum (2.0-4.6 μg/g), spelt (0.9-2.0 μg/g), emmer (0.8-1.9 μg/g), and bread wheat (0.7-2.0 μg/g). Due to the observed highly significant genetic variance and high heritability, lutein contents of wheat genotypes may be increased by future plant breeding. Detailed HPLC-DAD-APCI(±)-MS(n) data allowing the identification of six lutein monoesters and nine diesters are presented. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in both the lutein esters and total free lipid fractions. Lutein esters were virtually absent in the tetraploid durum and emmer species, whereas their concentrations considerably differed among the genotypes belonging to the other species. PMID:25946219

  3. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fusion protein vaccines block estrous cycle activity in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J D; Sosa, J M; deAvila, D M; Oatley, J M; Bertrand, K P; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J

    2005-01-01

    Two LHRH fusion proteins, thioredoxin and ovalbumin, each containing seven LHRH inserts were tested for their ability to inhibit estrous cycle activity. The objective was to evaluate immune and biological responses from alternating the two fusion proteins in an immunization schedule. One hundred ten heifers were divided equally into 11 groups. Two control groups consisted of either spayed or intact, untreated heifers. Heifers in the other nine groups were immunized on wk 0, 4, and 9. Treatments were immunizations of the same protein throughout or alternating the proteins in different booster sequences. Blood was collected weekly for 22 wk, and serum was assayed for concentrations of progesterone and titers of anti-LHRH. At slaughter, reproductive tracts were removed from each heifer and weighed. Heifers with >or=1 ng/mL of progesterone were considered to have a functional corpus luteum and thus to have estrous cycle activity. All LHRH-immunized groups of heifers had a smaller (P < 0.05) proportion of heifers showing estrous cycle activity after 6 wk than the intact, untreated control group. There was no difference in number of heifers cycling between the immunized groups and the spayed heifers during wk 9 to 22. Anti-LHRH did not differ among immunized groups during wk 1 to 9. Starting at wk 10 and continuing through the conclusion of the study, there was an overall difference among treatment groups for anti-LHRH (P < 0.05). Uterine weights differed among treatments (P < 0.05), with intact control animals having heavier uteri than all other groups (P < 0.05). Uterine weights were negatively correlated with maximum LHRH antibody binding (r = -0.44). In summary, the LHRH fusion proteins were as effective as surgical spaying in suppression of estrous cycle activity, but alternating the two proteins in an immunization schedule did not enhance the immunological or biological effectiveness of the vaccine. PMID:15583055

  4. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) induced luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from perifused equine pituitaries.

    PubMed

    Pinaud, M A; Roser, J F; Dybdal, N

    1991-07-01

    In vitro responsiveness of the horse anterior pituitary (AP) gonadotropes to single and multiple GnRH challenges was examined. The pituitaries were collected from reproductively sound mares in estrus (n = 5) and diestrus (n = 5). Uniform 0.5 mm AP slices were subdivided using a 3 mm biopsy punch and then bisected for use in the perifusion chamber. Four bisected sections per chamber were perifused at 0.5 ml/min at 37 C for 560 min in Medium 199 saturated with 95% 0(2)/5% CO2. Ten minute fractions were collected after an initial 2 hr equilibration period. Four different treatment regimes of GnRH (10(-10) M) were evaluated: (A) three consecutive 10 min GnRH pulses separated by 80 and 100 min, respectively; (B) a single 120 min GnRH infusion; (C) a 10 min GnRH pulse followed 80 min later by a 120 min GnRH infusion and (D) two 10 min GnRH pulses separated by 60 min followed 80 min later by a 120 min GnRH infusion. Estimated total pituitary LH content was higher in estrous than diestrus mares (p less than 0.05). The total amount of LH released in response to GnRH tended to be greater in estrus than diestrus (p less than 0.1), whereas the percentage of LH released in estrus and diestrus was similar. An increase in the area under the LH response curve was noted with each successive 10 min pulse of GnRH during both estrus and diestrus (p less than 0.05), demonstrating a self-priming effect of GnRH. In addition, a significant increase in the peak LH amplitude (p less than 0.05) and the slope to peak amplitude (p less than 0.05) were observed for the 120 min GnRH pulse in regime C and D indicating that prior exposure to short-term pulses of GnRH increased the acute LH secretory response. These results suggest that in the cycling mare (1) the responsiveness of the pituitary (amount of LH released as percent of total LH) is similar in both estrus and diestrus, however, the magnitude of the LH response (total microgram amount of LH released) differs with the stage of the estrous cycle, being highest in estrus, and appears to be related, in part, to pituitary LH content and (2) GnRH self-priming occurs independently of the stage of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the pulsatile mode of GnRH can act directly on the anterior pituitary to dictate the pulsatile release pattern of LH in the cycling mare. PMID:1747998

  5. Luteinizing hormone-releasing immunization alters pituitary hormone synthesis and storage in bulls and steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine if trenbolone acetate (TBA) co-administered with LHRH immunization would suppress reproductive function in beef bulls and (2) to examine the effects of LHRH immunization and TBA treatment on pituitary function. To address these objectives 44 Angus x He...

  6. A FEEDBACK MODEL FOR TESTICULAR-PITUITARY AXIS HORMONE KINETICS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE REGULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular-hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulates male reproductive system functions. A model describing the kinetics and dynamics of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) was developed based on a model by Barton and Anderson (1997). The mode...

  7. EFFECTS OF METAL CATIONS ON PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION IN VITRO (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine, in vitro, the effects of nickel, cadmium, and zinc (50 microM) on both baseline and potassium chloride (KCl)-stimulated pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (Prl), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release. Baseline and stim...

  8. Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health.

    PubMed

    Granado, F; Olmedilla, B; Blanco, I

    2003-09-01

    Lutein is one of the most widely found carotenoids distributed in fruits and vegetables frequently consumed. Its presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Distribution of lutein among tissues is similar to other carotenoids but, along with zeaxanthin, they are found selectively at the centre of the retina, being usually referred to as macular pigments. Lutein has no provitamin A activity in man but it displays biological activities that have attracted great attention in relation to human health. Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent associations between high intake or serum levels of lutein and lower risk for developing cardiovascular disease, several types of cancer, cataracts and age-related maculopathy. Also, lutein supplementation has provided both null and positive results on different biomarkers of oxidative stress although it is effective in increasing macular pigment concentration and in improving visual function in some, but not all, subjects with different eye pathologies. Overall, data suggest that whereas serum levels of lutein have, at present, no predictive, diagnostic or prognostic value in clinical practice, its determination may be very helpful in assessing compliance and efficacy of intervention as well as potential toxicity. In addition, available evidence suggests that a serum lutein concentration between 0.6 and 1.05 micromol/l seems to be a safe, dietary achievable and desirable target potentially associated with beneficial impact on visual function and, possibly, on the development of other chronic diseases. The use of lutein as a biomarker of exposure in clinical practice may provide some rationale for assessing its relationship with human health as well as its potential use within the context of evidence-based medicine. PMID:14513828

  9. Human Ovarian Cancer Stroma Contains Luteinized Theca Cells Harboring Tumor Suppressor Gene GT198 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jaafar, Lahcen; Risinger, John I.; Huang, Shuang; Mivechi, Nahid F.; Ko, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal gynecological cancer, and its causes remain to be understood. Using a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, GT198 (PSMC3IP), as a unique marker, we searched for the identity of GT198 mutant cells in ovarian cancer. GT198 has germ line mutations in familial and early onset breast and ovarian cancers and recurrent somatic mutations in sporadic fallopian tube cancers. GT198 protein has been shown as a steroid hormone receptor coregulator and also as a crucial factor in DNA repair. In this study, using GT198 as a marker for microdissection, we find that ovarian tumor stromal cells harboring GT198 mutations are present in various types of ovarian cancer including high and low grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and granulosa cell carcinomas and in precursor lesions such as inclusion cysts. The mutant stromal cells consist of a luteinized theca cell lineage at various differentiation stages including CD133+, CD44+, and CD34+ cells, although the vast majority of them are differentiated overexpressing steroidogenic enzyme CYP17, a theca cell-specific marker. In addition, wild type GT198 suppresses whereas mutant GT198 protein stimulates CYP17 expression. The chromatin-bound GT198 on the human CYP17 promoter is decreased by overexpressing mutant GT198 protein, implicating the loss of wild type suppression in mutant cells. Together, our results suggest that GT198 mutant luteinized theca cells overexpressing CYP17 are common in ovarian cancer stroma. Because first hit cancer gene mutations would specifically mark cancer-inducing cells, the identification of mutant luteinized theca cells may add crucial evidence in understanding the cause of human ovarian cancer. PMID:24097974

  10. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability. PMID:26496496

  11. Binding of progesterone to cell surfaces of human granulosa-lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Younglai, Edward V; Wu, Yanjing; Foster, Warren G; Lobb, Derek K; Price, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    Progesterone is produced by granulosa cells under the influence of luteinizing hormone. Nuclear progesterone receptors have been found in rat granulosa cells. Human granulosa-lutein cells rapidly respond to progesterone with an increase in intracellular calcium suggesting the existence of a nongenomic mechanism. This study was conducted to determine whether binding of progesterone to granulosa cells could occur at the membrane. Granulosa cells were obtained from an in vitro fertilization program and examined immunohistochemically with an antiserum to membrane progesterone receptors. Approximately 14-70% of freshly harvested or cultured granulosa cells of six patients showed a positive reaction to the antiserum, limited to the cell membrane. Western blot analysis of homogenates of granulosa cells and a granulosa cell tumour confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors A, B and C and low amounts of a putative membrane receptor. These results demonstrate that the plasma membranes of human granulosa cells possess binding components for progesterone which may be involved in its nongenomic mechanism of action. PMID:16905308

  12. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  13. Hormonal therapy for stage D cancer of the prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Gudziak, M R; Smith, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the most common malignant neoplasm occurring in men. About half of patients present with metastatic disease. The mainstay of the treatment of stage D cancer of the prostate is hormonal therapy. Bilateral simple orchiectomy remains the gold standard with which other therapies must be compared. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues and antiandrogens are now most commonly used but are costly. Initiating hormonal therapy immediately on diagnosing metastatic disease appears to have some advantage over delaying therapy until a patient is symptomatic. Total androgen blockade also appears to be beneficial in terms of survival but at high cost. PMID:8023485

  14. Lutein derived fragments exhibit higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties than lutein in lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nidhi, Bhatiwada; Sharavana, Gurunathan; Ramaprasad, Talahalli R; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we appraise the anti-inflammatory efficacy of lutein oxidative degradation derivatives mediated through UV-irradiation over lutein in counteracting the inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats (n = 5 per group). UV-irradiated lutein fragments were identified as anhydrolutein (B, C40H54O), 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexa-1,4-dienylium (M1, C9H13), (2E,4E,6E,8E)-9-(4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-1en-1-yl)-3,7-dimethylnona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ylium (M2, C20H29O), 4-[(1E,3E,5E,7E)-3,7,-dimethyldeca-1,3,5,7-tetraen-1-yl]-3,5,5-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol (M3, C21H30O) and zeaxanthin (M4, C40H56O) and its isomers as 13'-Z zeaxanthin, 13'-Z lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, and 9-Z lutein. Induction of inflammation by LPS significantly increased the production of nitrites (3.3 fold in the serum and 2.6 fold in the liver), prostaglandin E2 (26 fold in the serum), and pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (6.6 fold in the serum), and interleukin-6 (4.8 fold in the serum). Oxidative derivatives of lutein, especially M1, M2 and M3, ameliorated acute inflammation in rats by inhibiting the production of nitrites, malondialdehyde (MDA), PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokines more efficiently than lutein in rats. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of derivatives might be related to the decrease of inflammatory cytokines and the increase of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase), which would result in the reduction of iNOS, COX-2 and MDA and subsequently inflammatory responses. PMID:25469663

  15. The Role of Lutein in Eye-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koushan, Keyvan; Rusovici, Raluca; Li, Wenhua; Ferguson, Lee R.; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2013-01-01

    The lens and retina of the human eye are exposed constantly to light and oxygen. In situ phototransduction and oxidative phosphorylation within photoreceptors produces a high level of phototoxic and oxidative related stress. Within the eye, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are present in high concentrations in contrast to other human tissues. We discuss the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in ameliorating light and oxygen damage, and preventing age-related cellular and tissue deterioration in the eye. Epidemiologic research shows an inverse association between levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in eye tissues and age related degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. We examine the role of these carotenoids as blockers of blue-light damage and quenchers of oxygen free radicals. This article provides a review of possible mechanisms of lutein action at a cellular and molecular level. Our review offers insight into current clinical trials and experimental animal studies involving lutein, and possible role of nutritional intervention in common ocular diseases that cause blindness. PMID:23698168

  16. Role of lutein and zeaxanthin in visual and cognitive function throughout the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin and visual and cognitive health throughout the lifespan is compelling. There is a variety of evidence to support a role for lutein and zeaxanthin in vision. Lutein's role in cognition has only recently been considered. Lutein and its isomer, zeaxanthin, are taken up selectively into eye tissue. Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in human brain tissue. Lutein and zeaxanthin in neural tissue may have biological effects that include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and structural actions. In addition, lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective against eye disease because they absorb damaging blue light that enters the eye. In pediatric brains, the relative contribution of lutein to the total carotenoids is twice that found in adults, accounting for more than half the concentration of total carotenoids. The greater proportion of lutein in the pediatric brain suggests a need for lutein during neural development as well. In adults, higher lutein status is related to better cognitive performance, and lutein supplementation improves cognition. The evidence to date warrants further investigation into the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in visual and cognitive health throughout the lifespan. PMID:25109868

  17. The Photobiology of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Joan E.; Dennison, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are antioxidants found in the human retina and macula. Recent clinical trials have determined that age- and diet-related loss of lutein and zeaxanthin enhances phototoxic damage to the human eye and that supplementation of these carotenoids has a protective effect against photoinduced damage to the lens and the retina. Two of the major mechanisms of protection offered by lutein and zeaxanthin against age-related blue light damage are the quenching of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species and the absorption of blue light. Determining the specific reactive intermediate(s) produced by a particular phototoxic ocular chromophore not only defines the mechanism of toxicity but can also later be used as a tool to prevent damage. PMID:26798505

  18. The Photobiology of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joan E; Dennison, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are antioxidants found in the human retina and macula. Recent clinical trials have determined that age- and diet-related loss of lutein and zeaxanthin enhances phototoxic damage to the human eye and that supplementation of these carotenoids has a protective effect against photoinduced damage to the lens and the retina. Two of the major mechanisms of protection offered by lutein and zeaxanthin against age-related blue light damage are the quenching of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species and the absorption of blue light. Determining the specific reactive intermediate(s) produced by a particular phototoxic ocular chromophore not only defines the mechanism of toxicity but can also later be used as a tool to prevent damage. PMID:26798505

  19. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin). PMID:24844356

  20. Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Mares, Julie

    2016-07-17

    Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources. The prevalence of lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin in supplements is increasing. Setting optimal and safe ranges of intake requires additional research, particularly in pregnant and lactating women. Accumulating evidence about variable interindividual response to dietary intake of these carotenoids, based on genetic or metabolic influences, suggests that there may be subgroups that benefit from higher levels of intake and/or alternate strategies to improve lutein and zeaxanthin status. PMID:27431371

  1. Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Newborn Infants after Lutein Administration

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, S.; Tei, M.; Longini, M.; Santacroce, A.; Turrisi, G.; Proietti, F.; Felici, C.; Picardi, A.; Bazzini, F.; Vasarri, P.; Buonocore, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To test the hypothesis that neonatal supplementation with lutein in the first hours of life reduces neonatal oxidative stress (OS) in the immediate postpartum period. Methods. A randomized controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted among 150 newborns divided into control group, not supplemented (n = 47), and test group, supplemented with lutein on the first day postpartum (n = 103). Blood Samples were collected at birth from cord and at 48 hrs postpartum while routine neonatal metabolic screenings were taking place. Total hydroperoxide (TH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) were measured by spectrophotometry and data were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. Before lutein supplementation, the mean blood concentrations of AOPP, TH, and BAP were 36.10 umol/L, 156.75 mmol/H2O2, and 2361.04 umol/L in the test group. After lutein supplementation, significantly higher BAP increment (0.17 ± 0.22 versus 0.06 versus ± 0.46) and lower TH increment (0.46 ± 0.54 versus 0.34 ± 0.52) were observed in the test group compared to controls. Conclusion. Neonatal supplementation with lutein in the first hours of life increases BAP and reduces TH in supplemented babies compared to those untreated. The generation of free radical-induced damage at birth is reduced by lutein. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02068807. PMID:24876916

  2. Developmental changes in hypothalamic Kiss1 expression during activation of the pulsatile release of luteinising hormone in maturing ewe lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onset of puberty is characterized by a marked increase in the frequency of release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The KISS1 gene plays a critical role in pubertal development and its product, kisspeptin, stimulates GnRH and LH release. In the study reported h...

  3. Cognitive Findings of an Exploratory Trial of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lutein in Older Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and low intake of foods rich in lutein may negatively affect cognitive function. DHA and lutein are concentrated in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine effects of supplemental DHA (800 mg/d) and/or lutein (12 mg/d) on cognitive function in...

  4. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  5. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p<0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. PMID:27612832

  6. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the stability of all-trans lutein and its degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Da-Jing; Pang, Hui-Li; Liu, Chun-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound treatment has been widely applied in the extraction of biologically active compounds including carotenoids. However, there are few reports on their effects on the stability of these compounds. In the present study, the stability of all-trans lutein, one of the carotenoids, was investigated under the action of ultrasound. Results showed that ultrasound induced the isomerization of all-trans lutein to its isomers, namely to 13-cis lutein, 13'-cis lutein, 9-cis lutein and 9'-cis lutein as analyzed by HPLC coupled with DAD and LC-MS; and the percentage of the isomerization increased with increasing both ultrasonic frequency and power. The stability of all-trans lutein in dichloromethane was worst among multiple kinds of solvents. Interestingly, the retention rate of all-trans lutein improved as the temperature increased, which runs counter to the Arrhenius law. Under ultrasound irradiation, the degradation mechanism might be different with various temperatures, the degradation of all-trans lutein followed first-order kinetics at 20°C, while second-order kinetics was followed at 30-50°C. As the ultrasonic reaction time prolonged, lutein epoxidation nearly occurred. Those results presented here emphasized that UAE techniques should be carefully used in the extraction of all-trans lutein. PMID:25934130

  7. Incorporation of lutein and docosahexaenoic acid from dietary microalgae into the retina in quail.

    PubMed

    Schnebelen-Berthier, Coralie; Acar, Niyazi; Pouillart, Philippe; Thabuis, Clementine; Rodriguez, Bertrand; Depeint, Flore; Clerc, Elise; Mathiaud, Adeline; Bourdillon, Anne; Baert, Blandine; Bretillon, Lionel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since microalgae are potent natural sources of these nutrients, their nutritional value should be evaluated based on the bioavailability of lutein and DHA for the retina via the plasmatic compartment. In this study, quail were fed for 5 months either with a diet supplemented or deprived with microalgae rich in lutein and DHA. In the microalgae-fed group, the retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin gradually increased whereas in plasma, these compounds started to increase from the first month of supplementation. We also observed a significant increase in retinal and plasmatic levels of DHA in the microalgae-fed group. In conclusion, the plasmatic and retinal contents of lutein and DHA were significantly increased in quail fed with lutein- and DHA-rich microalgae. Food fortification with microalgae may be an innovative way to increase lutein and DHA consumption in humans. PMID:25657100

  8. Lack of association of acute phase response proteins with hormone levels and antidepressant medication in perimenopausal depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depression is associated with higher plasma levels of positive acute-phase proteins, as well as with lower plasma levels of negative acute-phase proteins. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of acute-phase response proteins and whether these levels are influenced by reproductive hormones and antidepressant medication in the perimenopausal depression. Methods Sixty-five women (age range: 40–58 years old) participated in this study. All women were in the perimenopausal phase. The diagnosis of depression was made through a psychiatric interview and with the aid of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 (HAM-D 17). The acute-phase response proteins, such as haptoglobin (HP), transferrine (TRf), α1-antitrypsin, complement protein 3 (C3), complement protein 4 (C4) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and the reproductive hormones, for example follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Pearson’s correlations were applied to evaluate the relationship between acute-phase proteins and hormones. Results Perimenopausal women were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of normal controls, the second one involved depressed perimenopausal women, who were taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the third one included depressed women that were not treated with SSRIs. Depressed women in perimenopause, when being compared to non-depressed women, did not differ as to serum levels of acute-phase proteins. There was a positive correlation between HP and E2 in depressed perimenopausal women, who were not taking SSRIs. Conclusions The lack of association between acute-phase proteins and depressive mood mentioned in this study does not support previous findings in patients with major depression. This negative finding in perimenopausal depression indicates either the absence or a more complex nature of the interactions between acute-phase proteins

  9. In vitro bioaccessibility and monolayer uptake of lutein from wholegrain baked foods.

    PubMed

    Read, Andrew; Wright, Amanda; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2015-05-01

    Lutein-enriched foods would contribute towards promoting the consumption of this important carotenoid. In the current study cookies, muffins, and flatbreads were produced at three enrichment levels (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg lutein per serving) to investigate lutein bioavailability in vitro. Foods were subjected to in vitro simulation of human upper gastrointestinal digestion coupled with a Caco-2 monolayer absorption assay. Digestive conditions representative of the fed state conditions associated with significantly higher lutein bioaccessibility compared with the fasted state (p < 0.001). Lutein bioaccessibility of cookies and muffins was higher than flatbreads due to their elevated fat content, measured under either fed or fasted conditions. Lutein concentration in the aqueous phase was the most important factor in determining apical cell uptake of lutein, with cookies and muffins exhibiting a higher lutein uptake than flatbreads (p < 0.05). As commonly consumed foods, lutein-enriched cookies, muffins, and flatbreads have the potential to improve lutein intake. PMID:25529679

  10. Expression of the putative gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor, NPFFR1, in the anterior pituitary gland of the gilt is affected by age and sexual maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) purportedly suppresses secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by acting through a G-protein coupled receptor (NPFFR1) in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus. The objective of these studies was to determine if expression of mRNA for NPFFR1 in the reprod...

  11. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. PMID:26540023

  12. Treatment with anticancer agents induces dysregulation of specific Wnt signaling pathways in human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Giorgione, Veronica; Viganò, Paola; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo; Mangili, Giorgia; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2013-11-01

    Chemotherapy has been associated with premature ovarian failure and infertility in women with cancer. It is well known that anticancer drugs reduce the primordial follicle pool and harm the ovarian blood vascularization leading to ovarian atrophy. However, their mechanism of injury still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs belonging to different classes on human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs). Treatment with doxorubicin (DXR), paclitaxel (PC), and cisplatin (CP) affected LGCs viability by inducing apoptosis and downregulating both estrogen receptor β and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Several members of the WNT signaling pathway are expressed in granulosa cells where they regulate follicle development, ovulation, and luteinization. Here we show that treatment with DXR, PC, and CP induced upregulation of WNT4 expression, whereas WNT3 expression was downregulated by DXR and PC and upregulated by CP. Analysis of the WNT3 downstream signaling pathway showed that total β-catenin protein levels were reduced upon treatment with DXR and PC. Additionally, restoration of β-catenin signaling by lithium chloride protected LGCs from the injury induced by chemotherapy. The in vitro LGC toxicity model described might represent a tool to identify components of specific signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway, that can be targeted in order to limit the follicular damage caused by chemotherapy. PMID:23956100

  13. Lutein acts via multiple antioxidant pathways in the photo-stressed retina.

    PubMed

    Kamoshita, Mamoru; Toda, Eriko; Osada, Hideto; Narimatsu, Toshio; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Lutein slows the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in ageing societies. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we evaluated lutein's effects on light-induced AMD-related pathological events. Balb/c mice exposed to light (2000 lux, 3 h) showed tight junction disruption in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at 12 h, as detected by zona occludens-1 immunostaining. Substantial disruption remained 48 h after light exposure in the vehicle-treated group; however, this was ameliorated in the mice treated with intraperitoneal lutein at 12 h, suggesting that lutein promoted tight junction repair. In the photo-stressed RPE and the neighbouring choroid tissue, lutein suppressed reactive oxygen species and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at 24 h, and produced sustained increases in sod1 and sod2 mRNA levels at 48 h. SOD activity was induced by lutein in an RPE cell line, ARPE19. We also found that lutein suppressed upregulation of macrophage-related markers, f4/80 and mcp-1, in the RPE-choroid tissue at 18 h. In ARPE19, lutein reduced mcp-1 mRNA levels. These findings indicated that lutein promoted tight junction repair and suppressed inflammation in photo-stressed mice, reducing local oxidative stress by direct scavenging and most likely by induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27444056

  14. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in content of milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P < 0.01). These results imply that conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein. PMID:27386352

  15. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Seiji; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina.

  16. Differentiation between lutein monoester regioisomers and detection of lutein diesters from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L.) and several fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Wirt, Ursula; Bamedi, Ameneh

    2002-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCIMS) was employed for the identification of eight lutein monoesters, formed by incomplete enzymatic saponification of lutein diesters of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) by Candida rugosa lipase. Additionally, the main lutein diesters naturally occurring in marigold oleoresin were chromatographically separated and identified. The LC-MS method allows for characterization of lutein diesters occurring as minor components in several fruits; this was demonstrated by analysis of extracts of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The assignment of the regioisomers of lutein monoesters is based on the characteristic fragmentation pattern: the most intense daughter ion generally results from the loss of the substituent (fatty acid or hydroxyl group) bound to the epsilon-ionone ring, yielding an allylic cation. The limit of detection was estimated at 0.5 microg/mL with lutein dimyristate as reference compound. This method provides a useful tool to obtain further insight into the biochemical reactions leading to lutein ester formation in plants. PMID:11754543

  17. Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Atassi, M.Z.; Manshouri, T. ); Sakata, Shigeki )

    1991-05-01

    Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind {sup 125}I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated {alpha} and {beta} subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-stimulating hormone. The human TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 exhibited remarkable binding activity to human, bovine, and ovine TSH and to the {beta} chain of hTSH. Lower binding activity resided in the adjacent overlapping peptides, probably due to the contribution of the shared overlap to the binding. The specificity of TSH binding to these peptides was confirmed by their inability to bind human luteinizing hormone, human follicle-stimulating hormone, and the {alpha} chain of hTSH. Thyrotropins did not bind to bovine serum albumin or to peptide controls unrelated to the TSHR system. It is concluded that the binding of TSH to its receptor involves extensive contacts and that the TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 contain specific binding regions for TSH that might be either independent sites or two faces (subsites) within a large binding site.

  18. Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study (MAHCOS) and the Association to Brain Electrophysiology (P300) in a Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Karikh, Tatiana; Truesdell, Courtney; Dushaj, Kristina; Kreuk, Florian; Li, Mona; Stratton, Danielle; Blum, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that increased leptin levels and obesity are inversely related to cognitive decline in menopausal women. It is hypothesized that adiposity is inversely correlated with cognitive decline, as women with increased weight are less vulnerable to diminishing cognition. However, it is increasingly observed that menopausal women, even with increased adiposity, experience significant cognitive decline. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to analyze cognitive function and processing in menopausal women. Evoked potentials (P300) and neurophysiologic tests have validated brain metabolism in cognitively impaired patients. Post-hoc analyses of 796 female patients entering PATH Medical Clinic, between January 4, 2009 and February 24, 2013, were performed as part of the “Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study” (MAHCOS). Patient age range was 39–76 years (46.7±0.2). P300 latency and amplitude correlated with a number of hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, estrone, estriol, DHEA, pregnenolone, progesterone, free and total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Vitamins D 1.25 and D 25OH, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3). Corrected statistics did not reveal significant associations with P300 latency or amplitude for these hormones except for leptin plasma levels. However, factor analysis showed that FSH and LH clustered together with Vitamin D1.25 and Vitamin D25OH, P300 latency (not amplitude), and log leptin were found to be associated in the same cluster. Utilizing regression analysis, once age adjusted, leptin was the only significant predictor for latency or speed (p = 0.03) with an effect size of 0.23. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with abnormal P300 speed (OR = 0.98). Our findings show a significant relationship of higher plasma leptin levels, potentially due to leptin resistance, and prolonged P

  19. Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study (MAHCOS) and the association to brain electrophysiology (P300) in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Karikh, Tatiana; Truesdell, Courtney; Dushaj, Kristina; Kreuk, Florian; Li, Mona; Stratton, Danielle; Blum, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that increased leptin levels and obesity are inversely related to cognitive decline in menopausal women. It is hypothesized that adiposity is inversely correlated with cognitive decline, as women with increased weight are less vulnerable to diminishing cognition. However, it is increasingly observed that menopausal women, even with increased adiposity, experience significant cognitive decline. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to analyze cognitive function and processing in menopausal women. Evoked potentials (P300) and neurophysiologic tests have validated brain metabolism in cognitively impaired patients. Post-hoc analyses of 796 female patients entering PATH Medical Clinic, between January 4, 2009 and February 24, 2013, were performed as part of the "Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study" (MAHCOS). Patient age range was 39-76 years (46.7 ± 0.2). P300 latency and amplitude correlated with a number of hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, estrone, estriol, DHEA, pregnenolone, progesterone, free and total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Vitamins D 1.25 and D 25OH, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3). Corrected statistics did not reveal significant associations with P300 latency or amplitude for these hormones except for leptin plasma levels. However, factor analysis showed that FSH and LH clustered together with Vitamin D1.25 and Vitamin D25OH, P300 latency (not amplitude), and log leptin were found to be associated in the same cluster. Utilizing regression analysis, once age adjusted, leptin was the only significant predictor for latency or speed (p = 0.03) with an effect size of 0.23. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with abnormal P300 speed (OR = 0.98). Our findings show a significant relationship of higher plasma leptin levels, potentially due to leptin resistance, and prolonged P300 latency

  20. Lutein acts via multiple antioxidant pathways in the photo-stressed retina

    PubMed Central

    Kamoshita, Mamoru; Toda, Eriko; Osada, Hideto; Narimatsu, Toshio; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Lutein slows the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in ageing societies. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we evaluated lutein’s effects on light-induced AMD-related pathological events. Balb/c mice exposed to light (2000 lux, 3 h) showed tight junction disruption in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at 12 h, as detected by zona occludens-1 immunostaining. Substantial disruption remained 48 h after light exposure in the vehicle-treated group; however, this was ameliorated in the mice treated with intraperitoneal lutein at 12 h, suggesting that lutein promoted tight junction repair. In the photo-stressed RPE and the neighbouring choroid tissue, lutein suppressed reactive oxygen species and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at 24 h, and produced sustained increases in sod1 and sod2 mRNA levels at 48 h. SOD activity was induced by lutein in an RPE cell line, ARPE19. We also found that lutein suppressed upregulation of macrophage-related markers, f4/80 and mcp-1, in the RPE-choroid tissue at 18 h. In ARPE19, lutein reduced mcp-1 mRNA levels. These findings indicated that lutein promoted tight junction repair and suppressed inflammation in photo-stressed mice, reducing local oxidative stress by direct scavenging and most likely by induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27444056

  1. Distribution of lutein, zeaxanthin, and related geometrical isomers in fruit, vegetables, wheat, and pasta products.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Julia M; Khachik, Frederick

    2003-02-26

    Quantitative data with regard to dietary (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein, (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin, and their (E/Z)-geometrical isomers are scarce, and in most cases, only the combined concentrations of these two carotenoids in foods are reported. Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the human macula and have been implicated in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The qualitative and quantitative distributions of lutein, zeaxanthin, and their (E/Z)-isomers in the extracts from some of the most commonly consumed fruits, vegetables, and pasta products were determined by HPLC employing a silica-based nitrile-bonded column. Green vegetables had the highest concentration of lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and the ratios of these carotenoids (L/Z) were in the range 12-63. The yellow-orange fruits and vegetables, with the exception of squash (butternut variety), had much lower levels of lutein in comparison to greens but contained a higher concentration of zeaxanthin. The ratio of lutein to zeaxanthin (L/Z) in two North American bread varieties of wheat (Pioneer, Catoctin) was 11 and 7.6, respectively, while in a green-harvested wheat (Freekeh) imported from Australia, the ratio was 2.5. Between the two pasta products examined, lasagne and egg noodles, the latter had a much higher concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin. The levels of the (E/Z)-geometrical isomers of lutein and zeaxanthin in these foods were also determined. PMID:12590476

  2. Antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100 mg per mouse) into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500 mg/kg/d for five days) before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process. PMID:22040935

  3. Lutein and Age-Related Ocular Disorders in the Older Adult: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein, a carotenoid found in dark green, leafy vegetables, has been implicated as being protective against the acquired ocular diseases, such as cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. In the eye, lutein may act as an antioxidant and as a blue light filter to protect the underlying tissues ...

  4. Production, extraction and stabilization of lutein from microalga Chlorella sorokiniana MB-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Jesisca; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    The efficiencies of extraction and preservation of lutein from microalgae are critical for the success of its commercialization. In this study, lutein was produced by Chlorella sorokiniana MB-1 via semi-batch mixotrophic cultivation. The microalgal biomass with a lutein content of 5.21mg/g was pretreated by bead-beating and high pressure cell disruption methods, and the lutein content was harvested by a reduced pressure extraction method. The effect of pretreatment, pressure, solvent type, extraction time and temperature on lutein recovery was investigated. Using high pressure pretreatment followed by extraction with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvent resulted in high lutein recovery efficiencies of 87.0% (20min) and 99.5% (40min) at 850mbar and 25°C. In contrast, using ethanol as the solvent, 86.2% lutein recovery was achieved under 450mbar, 35°C and 40min extraction. The extracted lutein was stabilized in olive oil or sunflower oil with half-lives of 53.1 and 63.8days, respectively. PMID:26519703

  5. A possible role for lutein and zeaxanthin in cognitive function in the elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin may be of benefit in maintaining cognitive health. Among the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, are the only two that cross the blood-retina barrier to form macular pigment (MP) in the eye. They also preferentially accumulate in hum...

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Lutein on NMDA-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury in Rat Retina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Jiayi; Li, Qin; Huang, Cuiqin; Zhu, Lihong; Lu, Daxiang

    2016-05-01

    Lutein injection is a possible therapeutic approach for retinal diseases, but the molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective effect remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate its protective effects in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal damage in vivo. Retinal damage was induced by intravitreal NMDA injection in rats. Each animal was given five daily intraperitoneal injections of Lutein or vehicle along with intravitreal NMDA injections. Electroretinograms were recorded. The number of viable RGCs was quantified using the retinal whole-mount method by immunofluorescence. Proteins were measured by Western blot assays. Lutein reduced the retinal damage and improved the response to light, as shown by an animal behavior assay (the black-and-white box method) in rats. Furthermore, Lutein treatment prevented the NMDA-induced reduction in phNR wave amplitude. Lutein increased RGC number after NMDA-induced retina damage. Most importantly, Bax, cytochrome c, p-p38 MAPK, and p-c-Jun were all upregulated in rats injected with NMDA, but these expression patterns were reversed by continuous Lutein uptake. Bcl-2, p-GSK-3β, and p-Akt in the Lutein-treated eyes were increased compared with the NMDA group. Lutein has neuroprotective effects against retinal damage, its protective effects may be partly mediated by its anti-excitability neurotoxicity, through MAPKs and PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting a potential approach for suppressing retinal neural damage. PMID:26119305

  7. Optimization of culture media for large-scale lutein production by heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Young; Kwon, Ji-Sue; Kang, Soon Tae; Kim, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yuchul; Han, Jae Gap; Park, Joon Hyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with a purported role in protecting eyes from oxidative stress, particularly the high-energy photons of blue light. Statistical optimization was performed to growth media that supports a higher production of lutein by heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella vulgaris. The effect of media composition of C. vulgaris on lutein was examined using fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the presence of magnesium sulfate, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution significantly affected lutein production. The optimum concentrations for lutein production were found to be 0.34 g/L, 0.06 g/L, and 0.4 mL/L for MgSO4 ·7H2 O, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution, respectively. These values were validated using a 5-L jar fermenter. Lutein concentration was increased by almost 80% (139.64 ± 12.88 mg/L to 252.75 ± 12.92 mg/L) after 4 days. Moreover, the lutein concentration was not reduced as the cultivation was scaled up to 25,000 L (260.55 ± 3.23 mg/L) and 240,000 L (263.13 ± 2.72 mg/L). These observations suggest C. vulgaris as a potential lutein source. PMID:24550199

  8. Chlorella is an effective dietary source of lutein for human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Nakashima, Yuya; Maruyama, Isao; Higuchi, Ohki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella contains a high amount of carotenoids, especially lutein, and has received attention as a possible dietary source for improving carotenoid levels in human blood. In the present study, we performed a 2-month single arm human study, and investigated the efficacy of Chlorella supplementation (9 g Chlorella/day; equivalent to 32 mg lutein/day) on lutein and other carotenoid concentrations in plasma as well as erythrocytes of 12 healthy subjects. Following Chlorella supplementation, lutein was the predominant carotenoid in erythrocytes, showing a 4-fold increase (from 14 to 54 pmol/mL packed cells). After the one month without Chlorella ingestion, erythrocyte lutein then decreased to a basal level (17 pmol/mL packed cells). Erythrocyte carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene) levels were proportional to plasma carotenoid levels. The results suggest the transfer of Chlorella carotenoids, especially lutein, from plasma lipoprotein particles to the erythrocyte membrane. Chlorella intake would be effective for improving and maintaining lutein concentrations in human erythrocytes. PMID:24088514

  9. Several insulin-like growth factor-I analogues and complexes of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 fail to mimic the effect of growth hormone upon lactation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Flint, D J; Tonner, E; Beattie, J; Gardner, M

    1994-02-01

    Lactation was suppressed in rats using a combined treatment of bromocriptine (to reduce prolactin concentrations) and a specific antiserum to rat GH administered twice daily for 2 days. When milk production had ceased, as determined by litter weight loss and the absence of milk in the stomachs of pups, attempts were made to reinitiate lactation using prolactin, GH, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) precomplexed to recombinant human IGF-binding protein-3 (hIGFBP-3) or IGF-I plus IGF-II precomplexed to hIGFBP-3. Despite the fact that all treatments except prolactin led to increases in serum IGFs and IGFBP-3, only prolactin and GH provoked the reinitiation of milk production as determined by increased litter weight gain, milk in the stomach of pups and a significant increase in the weight of the mammary glands. Since the mammary gland has been shown to produce IGFBPs which may inhibit IGF action we also tested three IGF-I analogues, R3-IGF-I, Long-IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I. R3-IGF-I has a single amino acid substitution (Glu to Arg) at position 3 whereas Long-IGF-I has a 13 amino acid N-terminal extension. These modifications dramatically reduce the ability of these analogues to bind to IGFBPs although they remain active at the IGF-I receptor. Such IGF analogues would therefore be expected to be active irrespective of the production of inhibitory IGFBPs. However, none was effective in reinitiating lactation, even at doses which have been shown to be biologically effective in terms of nitrogen retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7513341

  10. College Students' Dietary Practices Affect Lutein/Zeaxanthin Intake: A Two-Generation, Ethnic and Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osaseri, Uyi E.; Kwok, Shiu Y.; Kwok, Wendy; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are important anti-oxidant nutrients obtained only from foods that are essential for good eye health. The purpose of this study was to assess food choices rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and compare the amount of lutein/zeaxanthin intake amongst college students and their live-in parents. Three-day dietary records from 95…

  11. Exploratory metabolomic analyses reveal compounds correlated with lutein concentration in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex of human infant brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with...

  12. Effects of abiotic stressors on lutein production in the green microalga Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed a rising trend in exploring microalgae for valuable carotenoid products as the demand for lutein and many other carotenoids in global markets has increased significantly. In green microalgae lutein is a major carotenoid protecting cellular components from damage incurred by reactive oxygen species under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of abiotic stressors on lutein accumulation in a strain of the marine microalga D. salina which had been selected for growth under stress conditions of combined blue and red lights by adaptive laboratory evolution. Results Nitrate concentration, salinity and light quality were selected as three representative influencing factors and their impact on lutein production in batch cultures of D. salina was evaluated using response surface analysis. D. salina was found to be more tolerant to hyper-osmotic stress than to hypo-osmotic stress which caused serious cell damage and death in a high proportion of cells while hyper-osmotic stress increased the average cell size of D. salina only slightly. Two models were developed to explain how lutein productivity depends on the stress factors and for predicting the optimal conditions for lutein productivity. Among the three stress variables for lutein production, stronger interactions were found between nitrate concentration and salinity than between light quality and the other two. The predicted optimal conditions for lutein production were close to the original conditions used for adaptive evolution of D. salina. This suggests that the conditions imposed during adaptive evolution may have selected for the growth optima arrived at. Conclusions This study shows that systematic evaluation of the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis can help to decipher the key parameters in obtaining high levels of lutein productivity in D. salina. This study may benefit future stress-driven adaptive

  13. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of lutein microcapsules prepared with maltodextrins and sucrose by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Pengqun; Zhang, Hongchao; Bajaj, Poonam R; Yuan, Qipeng; Tang, Juming; Chen, Shulin; Sablani, Shyam S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of lutein microcapsules. Nine types of lutein microcapsules were prepared in order to determine their encapsulation efficiency and yield. Results show that lutein microcapsules with maltodextrin M040 and sucrose at the weight ratio of 3:1 (designated as M040:1) had the highest encapsulation efficiency (90.1%) among the lutein microcapsules, as well as a higher encapsulation yield (90.4%). The onset glass transition temperatures (Tgi ) and the surface dents of the lutein microcapsules decreased as the dextrose equivalent value of maltodextrin and the weight ratio of sucrose increased. Enthalpy relaxation experiments were conducted for the lutein microcapsules M040:1 at (Tgi - 5) , (Tgi - 10), and (Tgi - 15) °C, and the obtained data were fitted to the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model. Results show that the mean relaxation time (τ) (316 h) of M040:1 lutein microcapsules aged at (Tgi - 15) °C was greater than the τ (161 h) at (Tgi - 10) °C and τ (60.5 h) at (Tgi - 5) °C. Effects of temperature and oxygen transmission rates for package film on the storage stability of M040:1 lutein microcapsules were also investigated. Findings show that rates of lutein degradation and color change increased by an order of magnitude as storage temperature (4 to 97 °C) and oxygen transmission rate of the package film (0.018 to 62.8 cc/m(2) day) increased. These results suggest that lutein is highly unstable and susceptible to thermal and oxidative degradations. However, microencapsulation with appropriate wall materials of higher relaxation time and high oxygen barrier packaging can increase the storage life. PMID:25597919

  14. Pre-translational regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor in follicular somatic cells of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Marsters, P.; Kendall, N.R.; Campbell, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Differential regulation of LHR in theca cells (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) is important for normal follicular development. Unlike TC, GC only acquire LH-responsiveness during the later stages of antral follicle development. This study tested the hypothesis that differential LH-responsiveness in these two cell types may be due, in part, to shifts in cellular patterns of alternatively spliced LHR mRNA transcripts which may not be obvious from analysis of total LHR gene expression. It also further explored the role of translation inhibition by an LHR binding protein (LHBP), normally associated with the production of endogenous cholesterol. LHR mRNA variation arises as a result of the alternative splicing of two variable deletion sites (VDS) designated 5′ VDS and 3′ VDS, and it was proposed that differences in cell sensitivity to LH may be due in part to variations in the pattern of the mRNA expression of the receptor variants. The outcomes of the present study support a dynamic multi-facetted regulation of LHR during pre-translation. Not only did the ratio between variants change during antral follicle growth and in vitro cell differentiation but also between TC and GC. Regulation could also be linked to LH concentration feedback mechanisms as the absence of LH caused cultured TC to markedly up-regulate amounts of LHR mRNA. In both TC and GC, LHR mRNA was greatly reduced after treatment to block mevalonate production in the de novo cholesterol pathway, adding further support for a regulatory mechanism linked to enriched cellular amounts of mevalonate kinase. PMID:26507944

  15. Neuroendocrine mechanisms that control seasonal changes of luteinizing hormone secretion in sheep are sexually differentiated.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, L S; Jackson, G L

    1993-12-01

    The apparent earlier onset of seasonal breeding activity of adult male versus adult female sheep suggests that the neuroendocrine mechanisms that control onset of the breeding season may be sexually differentiated in this species. However, it is difficult to compare gradual onset of testicular growth to abrupt changes in ovarian activity. To determine the relative timing of seasonal transitions in neuroendocrine reproductive activity, we compared temporal changes of LH concentrations in adult, gonadectomized, estradiol (E)-treated (experiment 1), or testosterone (T)-treated (experiment 2) Suffolk male and female sheep held outdoors for 18 mo. In addition, we compared the rates at which E-treated males and females become photorefractory to a winter solstice hold (WSH) photoperiod. In all three experiments, blood samples were collected weekly. In addition, serial blood samples were collected every 12 min for 4 h at approximately 2-mo intervals for experiment 1 and at monthly intervals for experiment 2. Neither plasma E nor T concentrations differed (p > 0.05) between sexes. In E-treated animals, mean LH changed (p < 0.001) over time in both sexes, and there was a sex x time interaction (p < 0.001). LH pulse amplitude changed (p < 0.001) over time in both sexes, but there was no detectable (p > 0.05) sex x time interaction. LH pulse frequency varied significantly over time in E-treated females (p < 0.001) but not in males (p < 0.05). The amplitude of the annual oscillation of mean LH was greater (p < 0.01) in E-treated females than in males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8286619

  16. Luteinizing hormone induces mouse vas deferens protein expression in the murine ovary.

    PubMed

    Brockstedt, E; Peters-Kottig, M; Badock, V; Hegele-Hartung, C; Lessl, M

    2000-07-01

    The aim of our study was to isolate and identify novel proteins that are involved in the process of ovulation. To achieve this goal we used the technique of proteome analysis. Comparison of ovary protein patterns, obtained by high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from recombinant FSH (rFSH)- and rFSH + human CG (hCG)-treated mice, showed significant differences in protein spot positions and intensities. Subsequent analysis of one of these proteins was performed by mass spectrometry, resulting in the identification of the mouse vas deferens protein (MVDP). MVDP, which was absent in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein pattern of rFSH-primed mice and appeared 3 h after the hCG surge, is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily and was originally identified in the mouse vas deferens. This is the first study describing MVDP expression and regulation by LH in the ovary. Northern blot analysis of female mice tissues showed that mvdp messenger RNA (mRNA) was only present in adrenal glands and in hCG-treated ovaries. In situ hybridization studies localized the mvdp mRNA unequivocally to ovarian thecal and interstitial cells with an expression profile starting already 1.5 h, and decreasing 24 h, after LH treatment. In the adrenal glands, mvdp mRNA was not regulated by LH and localized in the cells of the zona fasciculata. In murine adrenocortical cells, a recent study proposed a detoxifying role of MVDP. MVDP might fulfill the same function in the ovary; however, because of its strong and early transcriptional induction by LH, it is also possible that MVDP catalyses another important step during the cascade of events occurring at the time of ovulation. PMID:10875260

  17. Evidence that a decrease in opioid tone may evoke preovulatory luteinizing hormone release in the rat.

    PubMed

    Allen, L G; Kalra, S P

    1986-06-01

    We have assessed the effects on LH release of prolonged naloxone (NAL) treatment before the critical period on proestrus. When LH secretion was monitored at 5-min intervals immediately after the start of continuous NAL infusion (2 mg/0.6 ml saline X h iv) at 1000 h, two types of responses were observed. In three of six rats, a small increase (1-2 ng rat LHRH-2/ml) during the first hour was followed by a sharp rise to 4-5 ng/ml in the second hour and a gradual return to baseline levels (0.5-1.00 ng/ml) in the third hour of infusion. In the remaining rats, LH responses were small with peak levels reaching 2 ng/ml range. When the effects were monitored 1 h after starting NAL infusion at 1000 h, the LH response was improved. Peak LH levels observed shortly before or after 1200 h varied between 4-14 ng/ml and in some rats the levels were comparable to those seen normally in the afternoon of proestrus (9-24 ng/ml). However, delaying the start of NAL infusion to 1200 h produced LH surges before 1400 h, with peak levels (27.5 +/- 5.5 ng/ml) in the range of normal preovulatory LH surges (peak levels 16.6 +/- 2.5 ng/ml), followed by a steady decrease in LH secretion. Additionally, sc NAL pellets implanted at 0930 h provoked premature LH hypersecretion with a temporal pattern (0930-1430 h) and magnitude (peak levels, 26.3 +/- 4.3 ng/ml between 1100-1200 h) comparable to the normal preovulatory LH surge observed after 1330 h. Since NAL is believed to antagonize the inhibitory effects of endogenous opioids on LH secretion, the results of this study imply that a sustained restraint on this inhibitory opioid tone can elicit the LH surge before the critical period on proestrus. These findings are in accord with our thesis that the neural clock that normally triggers the preovulatory LH surge may transiently decrease the inhibitory opioid tone to allow expression of crucial neural events which culminate in preovulatory LH secretion. PMID:3698918

  18. Effects of RFRP2 and RF9 on secretion of luteinizing hormone in prepubertal gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most mammals, the RF-amide related peptide (RFRP) pre-pro-protein contains cleavage sites for 2 peptides (RFRP1 and RFRP3). Our laboratory did not observe RFRP3-induced suppression of LH secretion in gilts. However, the porcine sequence encodes an additional peptide (RFRP2) with an amidated C-ter...

  19. Hypothalamic Prolactin Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in the Female Rat.

    PubMed

    Grachev, Pasha; Li, Xiao Feng; Goffin, Vincent; O'Byrne, Kevin T

    2015-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) levels increase in response to long-term antipsychotic treatment that disrupts reproductive function. Recent evidence suggests that activation of central PRL receptors (PRLR) inhibits LH secretion and in ovariectomized rats. However, the mechanisms involved, the mode of LH secretion affected and relevance to hyperprolactinemia remain unknown. We therefore investigated the contribution of central PRL/PRLR signaling to the control of estradiol-induced surges of LH and PRL and pulsatile LH secretion under basal and hyperprolactinemic conditions. First, by subjecting ovariectomized estradiol-primed rats intracerebroventricularly administered with PRL to frequent blood sampling, we demonstrated that acute activation of hypothalamic PRLR disrupts pulsatile LH secretion. Pretreatment (intracerebroventricularly) with the pure PRLR antagonist, Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, or the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A antagonist, bicuculline, blocked this effect. Next, we revealed that sustained blockade of hypothalamic PRLR using Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL augmented the magnitude of LH surges induced by estradiol benzoate and progesterone treatment and suppressed the concomitant surges of PRL. Finally, we determined that acute antagonism of central PRLR is insufficient to normalize the duration of the LH pulse interval prolonged as a result of hyperprolactinemia induced by chronic exposure to the atypical antipsychotic sulpiride. These data serve as the first evidence to suggest that PRL signaling through hypothalamic PRLR inhibits pulsatile secretion of LH in a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A-dependent fashion and tonically restrains the magnitude of the LH surge. Furthermore, our results indicate that transient blockade of hypothalamic PRL/PRLR signaling is not an effective strategy for restoring LH pulsatility perturbed by chronic hyperprolactinemia. PMID:25993525

  20. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5A Plays an Essential Role in Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Gulappa, Thippeswamy

    2014-01-01

    Down-regulation of LH receptor (LHR) in the ovary by its ligand is mediated by a specific RNA-binding protein, designated LH receptor mRNA–binding protein (LRBP), through translational suppression and mRNA degradation. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens, we previously identified eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) as one of the proteins that interacts with LRBP during LHR mRNA down-regulation. The present study examined the role of eIF5A and its hypusination in the context of LHR mRNA down-regulation. The association of eIF5A with LRBP or LHR mRNA was determined using immunoprecipitation and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. The results showed that the association of eIF5A with the LHR mRNA-LRBP complex increased significantly during down-regulation. Furthermore, gel fractionation and the hypusination activity assay both showed increased hypusination of eIF5A during LHR mRNA down-regulation. Abolishment of hypusination by pretreatment with the chemical inhibitor GC7 prevented the association of eIF5A with LHR mRNA and LRBP. Inhibition of hypusination also reduced the extent of ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA as well as the expression of functional LHRs assessed by real-time PCR and 125I-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) binding assays, respectively. The loss of human chorionic gonadotropin–mediated downstream signaling during LHR down-regulation was also restored by inhibition of hypusination of eIF5A. Thus, the present study, for the first time, reveals the crucial role of eIF5A and its hypusination in the regulation of LHR expression in the ovary. PMID:25216047

  1. In vivo dynamics of luteinizing hormone secretion and clearance in man: assessment by deconvolution mechanics.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Johnson, M L

    1988-06-01

    The dynamics of LH secretion and clearance were studied in vivo in eight healthy young men using a novel multiple parameter deconvolution procedure to resolve underlying secretion and clearance rates simultaneously from serial serum immunoactive LH concentrations. This deconvolution analysis disclosed random LH secretory bursts occurring at a mean (+/- SEM) interpulse interval of 72 +/- 5 min. The frequency of these secretory bursts was 6.9 +/- 0.6 episodes/8 h. Each resolved LH secretory event had an average half-duration of only 7.8 +/- 0.5 min, which was remarkably shorter than the LH concentration peak duration of 60 +/- 6 min. The maximal LH secretory rate achieved within a secretory burst averaged 0.40 +/- 0.05 mIU/min.mL (0.14 IU/min.L), which corresponded to a mass of LH released of 3.2 +/- 0.3 mIU/mL distribution vol (IU/L). By linear regression analysis, both the maximal rate and mass of LH released per secretory burst were positively correlated with the duration of the subsequent interpulse interval (P less than 0.001). In physiological experiments, the mass of LH released per secretory burst was increased by iv GnRH injections or primary gonadal failure, and decreased by sc administration of a selective GnRH antagonist (Nal,Glu-GnRH). The mean endogenous LH production rate calculated by deconvolution [180 +/- 40 mIU/min (0.18 IU/min)] was not different from a nominal value of 228 +/- 80 mIU/min (0.228 IU/min) extrapolated from earlier steady state LH infusions. Deconvolution estimated single phase half-times of endogenous LH disappearance of 87 +/- 8 min, were in general harmony with values of 44-106 min obtained previously in four LH-deficient men injected with purified LH. Moreover, creation of synthetic LH series using our deconvolution estimates yielded 24-h LH pulse profiles similar quantitatively and qualitatively to those in normal men. In summary, we applied a new multiple parameter deconvolution procedure to immunoactive LH pulse profiles to discern the nature of physiological LH secretory events and estimate endogenous LH disappearance rates. These studies in normal men have revealed that 1) LH secretory bursts occur every 72 min; their mean half-duration is 7.8 min; and 3.2 mIU/mL (3.2 IU/L) are released per secretory peak; 2) amplitudes of in vivo LH secretory bursts are augmented in primary gonadal failure and/or by exogenous GnRH injections and attenuated by a GnRH antagonist; 3) the duration of a postsecretory pause is proportional to the amplitude of the preceding LH secretory burst; and (4) 95% of total daily LH release occurs in only 5 h/day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3372689

  2. An evaluation of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) test in patients with secondary amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S R; Bonnar, J; Souka, A R; Bogie, W; MacKinnon, P; Mattock, J; Dutton, A

    1976-04-01

    An analysis of the gonadotrophin response to an intravenous injection of LH-RH (50 mug) has been undertaken in 41 patients with secondary amenorrhoea. Thirty-five of the patients were free of any recognizable pathology to account for their amenorrhoea and apparently had a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In these patients, the gonadotrophin response to LH-RH was highly variable. There was in general a correlation between baseline plasma LH or FSH levels and their respective increments. There was no correlation, however, between basal oestrogen levels and gonadotrophin increments except in the case of those patients whose basal levels of plasma FSH were higher than those of LH and in those patients whose body weight was less than the ideal for the population. It appears that the gonadotrophin response to a single injection of LH-RH in the majority of patients with secondary amenorrhoea of unknown origin is too variable to be of use either as a diagnostic or prognostic tool. PMID:773418

  3. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    SciTech Connect

    Winterer, J.; Barnes, K.M.; Lichter, A.S.; Deluca, A.M.; Loriaux, D.L.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion.

  4. Serum leptin concentrations, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion during feed and metabolic fuel restriction in the prepuberal gilt.

    PubMed

    Barb, C R; Barrett, J B; Kraeling, R R; Rampacek, G B

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) the effect of acute feed deprivation on leptin secretion and 2) if the effect of metabolic fuel restriction on LH and GH secretion is associated with changes in serum leptin concentrations. Experiment (EXP) I, seven crossbred prepuberal gilts, 66 +/- 1 kg body weight (BW) and 130 d of age were used. All pigs were fed ad libitum. On the day of the EXP, feed was removed from four of the pigs at 0800 (time = 0) and pigs remained without feed for 28 hr. Blood samples were collected every 10 min from zero to 4 hr = Period (P) 1, 12 to 16 hr = P 2, and 24 to 28 hr = P 3 after feed removal. At hr 28 fasted animals were presented with feed and blood samples collected for an additional 2 hr = P 4. EXP II, gilts, averaging 140 d of age (n = 15) and which had been ovariectomized, were individually penned in an environmentally controlled building and exposed to a constant ambient temperature of 22 C and 12:12 hr light: dark photoperiod. Pigs were fed daily at 0700 hr. Gilts were randomly assigned to the following treatments: saline (S, n = 7), 100 (n = 4), or 300 (n = 4) mg/kg BW of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), a competitive inhibitor of glycolysis, in saline iv. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 2 hr before and 5 hr after treatment. Blood samples from EXP I and II were assayed for LH, GH and leptin by RIA. Selected samples were quantified for glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). In EXP I, fasting reduced (P < 0.04) leptin pulse frequency by P 3. Plasma glucose concentrations were reduced (P < 0.02) throughout the fast compared to fed animals, where as serum insulin concentrations did not decrease (P < 0.02) until P 3. Serum FFA concentrations increased (P < 0.02) by P 2 and remained elevated. Subcutaneous back fat thickness was similar among pigs. Serum IGF-I concentration decreased (P < 0.01) by P 2 in fasted animals compared to fed animals and remained lower through periods 3 and 4. Serum LH and GH concentrations were not effected by fast. Realimentation resulted in a marked increase in serum glucose (P < 0.02), insulin (P < 0.02), serum GH (P < 0.01) concentrations and leptin pulse frequency (P < 0.01). EXP II treatment did not alter serum insulin levels but increased (P < 0.01) plasma glucose concentrations in the 300 mg 2DG group. Serum leptin concentrations were 4.0 +/- 0.1, 2.8 +/- 0.2, and 4.9 +/- 0.2 ng/ml for S, 100 and 300 mg 2DG pigs respectively, prior to treatment and remained unchanged following treatment. Serum IGF-I concentrations were not effected by treatment. The 300 mg dose of 2DG increased (P < 0.0001) mean GH concentrations (2.0 +/- 0.2 ng/ml) compared to S (0.8 +/- 0.2 ng/ml) and 100 mg 2DG (0.7 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). Frequency and amplitude of GH pulses were unaffected. However, number of LH pulses/5 hr were decreased (P < 0.01) by the 300 mg dose of 2DG (1.8 +/- 0.5) compared to S (4.0 +/- 0.4) and the 100 mg dose of 2DG (4.5 +/- 0.5). Mean serum LH concentrations and amplitude of LH pulses were unaffected. These results suggest that acute effects of energy deprivation on LH and GH secretion are independent of changes in serum leptin concentrations. PMID:11164333

  5. Leptin inhibits steroid biosynthesis by human granulosa-lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Ghizzoni, L; Barreca, A; Mastorakos, G; Furlini, M; Vottero, A; Ferrari, B; Chrousos, G P; Bernasconi, S

    2001-06-01

    Absence of leptin secretion compromises reproductive function and fertility in the ob/ob mouse which, when given leptin, shows a rise in serum LH levels and becomes fertile. Recently, the long and active isoform of the leptin receptor was detected in the ovary, indicating that leptin may also show direct gonad-related activity. To examine this, we studied the effect of graded doses of human leptin on estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations in the culture media of human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization. We also evaluated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), aromatase, and cytochrome P450 17alpha (CYP17) in these cells at baseline and after exposure to leptin. Estradiol levels were significantly decreased in the media 24 hours after incubation of the cells with increasing hLeptin concentrations (10(-11) - 10(-7) mol/l). The maximal 30% decrease in E2 production was caused by the 10(-9) mol/l hLeptin concentration; however, P4 levels in the media were not influenced by leptin. Exposure of granulosa-lutein cells to 10(-9) mol/l hLeptin did not produce any measurable changes on StAR, aromatase, or CYP17 mRNA expression. When hLeptin (10(-9) mol/l) was co-incubated with increasing concentrations of hCG (1.25 - 10 mlU/ml), IGF-II (15-60 ng/ml) or 1-6 desaminated IGF-II (deslGF-II; 15-60 ng/ml), it did not modify the elevation of E2 concentrations caused by each of the different stimuli. We conclude that leptin suppresses E2 secretion by human granulosa-lutein cells but does not impair the stimulatory effects of hCG and IGFs on these cells. Leptin may play a minor, but direct regulatory role on unstimulated human ovarian steroidogenesis by interfering with either the translational or post-translational steps of the baseline CYP17 and/or aromatase synthesis and/or the activation of the enzymes. PMID:11456279

  6. Climacteric in untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Menilson; Salvatori, Roberto; Oliveira, Carla R.P.; Pereira, Rossana M.C.; Souza, Anita H.O.; Nobrega, Luciana M.A.; Cruz, Edla do A.C.; Menezes, Marcos; Alves, Érica O.; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the time, intensity of symptoms, hormonal profile, and related morbidity of climacteric in women with untreated isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency (IGHD). Design Women belonging to a large Brazilian kindred with IGHD due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene were studied. None of them had ever received GH replacement therapy. A two-step protocol was performed. In the first case-control experiment, aimed to determine the age at climacteric, we compared eight women with IGHD and 32 normal women between 37 and 55 years of age. In the second cross-sectional experiment, aimed to determine the severity of climacteric symptoms, seven women with IGHD (aged 47-65 y) were compared with 13 controls (aged 44-65 y). The Kupperman Index scores, serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol levels were determined, and pelvic and mammary ultrasonography, mammography, and colpocytology were performed. Results The number of women with follicle-stimulating hormone above 20 mIU/mL was higher in women with IGHD than controls. Kupperman’s Index was not different between the two groups. Menarche had been delayed and parity was lower in women with IGHD. Hormonal profile was similar, but prolactin was lower in women with IGHD. Uterine volume was smaller in women with IGHD, and endometrial thickness and ovarian volume were similar in the two groups. No difference in breast images or in colpocytology was observed between the two groups. Conclusions Menarche was delayed and the beginning of climacteric is anticipated in untreated lifetime IGHD, but menopausal symptoms and hormonal profile resemble the normal climacteric. PMID:18223507

  7. Lutein absorption is facilitated with cosupplementation of ascorbic acid in young adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Li, Jialiang; Dosti, Mandy Porter

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of crystalline lutein supplements and compare lutein uptake and clearance in humans simultaneously supplemented with either vitamin C or E. The design was an intervention in which area under the curve (AUC) of lutein was compared with and without each of the supplements. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 60, 128, and 504 hours after the dose to measure serum lutein concentration. Four men and five women, aged 26.6+/-2.6 years, participated in this study. Treatments consisted of 18 mg lutein softgel supplements given either alone (L) or with 2 g vitamin C (LC) or 800 IU vitamin E (LE). Comparison of AUCs for the three treatments was examined using analysis of variance. Individual variations, both between and within subjects, 190- and 70-fold, respectively, were very high. AUC analyses for the first 128 hours postdosing; 2.93+/-1.93, 5.37+/-5.0, and 4.11+/-3.04 micromol . hr/L for L, LC, and LE treatments, respectively; were not significantly different. However, by fitting a multiple regression model of serum concentration over time, lutein is absorbed faster with simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C ( P lutein from supplements varies greatly both within and between subjects and therefore reformulation should be considered. Cosupplementation with another antioxidant may facilitate absorption. PMID:15635356

  8. Elevation of lutein content in tomato: a biochemical tug-of-war between lycopene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Giorio, Giovanni; Yildirim, Arzu; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; D'Ambrosio, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Lutein is becoming increasingly important in preventive medicine due to its possible role in maintaining good vision and in preventing age-related maculopathy. Average daily lutein intake in developed countries is often below suggested daily consumption levels, and lutein supplementation could be beneficial. Lutein is also valuable in the food and feed industries and is emerging in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets. Currently, lutein is obtained at high cost from marigold petals, and synthesis alternatives are thus desirable. Tomato constitutes a promising starting system for production as it naturally accumulates high levels of lycopene. To develop tomato for lutein synthesis, the tomato Red Setter cultivar was transformed with the tomato lycopene ε-cyclase-encoding gene under the control of a constitutive promoter, and the HighDelta (HD) line, characterised by elevated lutein and δ-carotene content in ripe fruits, was selected. HD was crossed to the transgenic HC line and to RS(B) with the aim of converting all residual fruit δ-carotene to lutein. Fruits of both crosses were enriched in lutein and presented unusual carotenoid profiles. The unique genetic background of the crosses used in this study permitted an unprecedented analysis of the role and regulation of the lycopene cyclase enzymes in tomato. A new defined biochemical index, the relative cyclase activity ratio, was used to discern post-transcriptional regulation of cyclases, and will help in the study of carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic plant species and particularly in those, like tomato, that have been domesticated for the production of food, feed or useful by-products. PMID:24141052

  9. The influence of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin on visual performance.

    PubMed

    Stringham, James M; Bovier, Emily R; Wong, Jennifer C; Hammond, Billy R

    2010-01-01

    The idea that normal constituents of the diet can influence visual function is not new. As early as 1782, Buzzi identified the yellow of the macula and Schulze (1866) specifically postulated that the yellow pigments led to improvements in human vision. These pigments were later found to be derived from dietary lutein and zeaxanthin that are known to be oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Walls and Judd (1933) postulated that these yellow intraocular pigments could improve visual performance by absorbing light scattered both within (for example, glare) and outside of the eye (increasing visual range by absorbing blue light scattered in the atmosphere), and by improving spatial vision through enhancing contrast and reducing chromatic blur. In this article, evidence for these ideas is reviewed with particular emphasis towards more recent data on glare effects. PMID:20492192

  10. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  11. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... based lubricants include petroleum jelly, baby oil, or mineral oil. Oil-based types should not be used ... caused by low levels of these hormones. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus. Menopause: The time in a ...

  12. Somatomedin-1 binding protein-3: insulin-like growth factor-1 binding protein-3, insulin-like growth factor-1 carrier protein.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    planned to move to Avecia's larger facility with a capacity of 10 000 litres. Somatomedin-1 binding protein-3 was originally licenced to Welfide for Japan. On October 1 2001, Welfide Corporation merged with Mitsubishi-Tokyo Pharmaceuticals to form Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation. The new company is a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical. In April 2003 Insmed initiated a named patient programme in Europe, that will make available somatomedin-1 binding protein-3 for the treatment of growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS)--Laron syndrome. The treatment of patients was initiated in Scandinavia, with authorisation pending in several other European countries. Somatomedin-1 binding protein-3 will be made available to those GHIS patients who, in the opinion of their doctor, may benefit from IGF-1 therapy. At precommercial scale quantities, the drug will be available on a limited basis. Safety data generated from the named patient programme will be used to support marketing applications in 2004. A phase II dose-ranging study in children with GHIS was completed at Saint Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine, London, UK. A single dose of somatomedin-1 binding protein-3 delivered the same amount of IGF-1 as two daily injections of unbound IGF-1. There were no adverse events reported. GHIS is a genetic condition in which patients do not produce adequate quantities of IGF because of a failure to respond to the growth hormone signal. This results in a slower growth rate and short stature. Insmed has acquired an exclusive licence to Pharmacia's regulatory filings concerning yeast-derived IGF-1. These filings were used by Pharmacia to receive marketing approvals in several European countries and also in the investigational New Drug Application with the US FDA. This licence will facilitate the development of SomatoKine for the treatment of children with GHIS. In January 2003, Insmed announced positive results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of

  13. Potential role of hCG in apoptosis of human luteinized granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Rei; Hojo, Takuo; Sano, Masahiro; Hayashi, Nobuyoshi; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) forms after ovulation and acts as a temporary endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P4), a hormone that is essential for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. In pregnant women, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the conceptus prevents luteolysis. hCG also increases the survival of cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs). To clarify the maintenance mechanism of the human CL, we investigated the effects of hCG and P4 receptor antagonists, onapristone (OP) and RU486, on the viability of hLGCs. With the patients' consent, hLGCs were isolated from follicular aspirates for in vitro fertilization. The cells were cultured with hCG (0.1, 1, 10, 100 IU/ml), OP (10, 25, 50, 100 μM), RU486 (100 μM), P4 (1, 10, 25, 50 μM) or some combination of the four for 24 h. Cell viability was significantly increased by hCG (100 IU/ml) and significantly decreased by OP (100 μM) compared with the control. Cells treated with hCG and OP together were significantly less viable than the control and OP-treated cells. The combined treatment also significantly increased CASP3 activity and cleaved CASP3 protein expression. Furthermore, P4 addition reversed the reduction in cell viability caused by the combination of hCG and OP treatment. The overall findings suggest that hCG cooperates with P4 to increase survival of hLGCs and to induce apoptosis when P4 action supported by hCG is attenuated in the human CL. PMID:25451535

  14. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    PubMed

    Xue, Chunyan; Rosen, Richard; Jordan, Adrienne; Hu, Dan-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons) against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases. PMID:26617995

  15. Restoration of hormonal action and muscle protein.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2007-09-01

    This review focuses on the effects of restoring hormonal levels and/or influence on muscle protein metabolism in the stressed state. We have highlighted our clinical experience in the administration of anabolic and anticatabolic agents in stressed clinical populations, primarily adult and pediatric burn injury, as well as patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. Our previous experience entails the administration of anabolic hormones, such as testosterone and its derivatives, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 combined with its binding protein 3, and insulin. Current efforts focus on the administration of anticatabolic agents to reduce the effects of hypercortisolemia. Muscle protein metabolism was determined by stable isotope methodology. Our results indicate that normalization of anabolic hormone concentrations or amelioration of hormonal resistance restores the effects of feeding on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Anabolic hormone administration results in a more favorable muscle protein balance in severely burned patients. Amelioration of hypercortisolemia in the stressed state leads to an improvement in protein kinetics. To summarize, alterations in hormonal influence that accompany stress states favor the loss of muscle protein. Restoration or normalization of hormonal influence improves muscle protein kinetics and ameliorates the loss of muscle nitrogen. To restore hormonal influence, clinicians should consider reestablishing anabolic stimuli and reducing catabolic stimuli. PMID:17713420

  16. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region—specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development. PMID:26317757

  17. Ultrasound-Enhanced Subcritical CO2 Extraction of Lutein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-Dan; Hou, Yan; Huang, Xing-Xin; Qiu, Tai-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-13

    Lutein is an important pigment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with many beneficial functions in human health. The main purpose of this study was to extract lutein from C. pyrenoidosa using ultrasound-enhanced subcritical CO2 extraction (USCCE). Effects of operating conditions on the extraction, including extraction pretreatment, temperature, pressure, time, CO2 flow rate, and ultrasonic power, were investigated, and an orthogonal experiment was designed to study the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, cosolvent amount, and time on the extraction yields. The USCCE method was compared with other extraction methods in terms of the yields of lutein and the microstructure of C. pyrenoidosa powder by scanning electron microscopy. A maximal extraction yield of 124.01 mg lutein/100 g crude material was achieved under optimal conditions of extraction temperature at 27 °C, extraction pressure at 21 MPa, cosolvent amount at 1.5 mL/g ethanol, and ultrasound power at 1000 W. Compared to other methods, USCCE could significantly increase the lutein extraction yield at lower extraction temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the kinetic models of USCCE and subcritical CO2 extraction (SCCE) of lutein from C. pyrenoidosa were set as E = 130.64 × (1 - e(-0.6599t)) and E = 101.82 × (1 - e(-0.5683t)), respectively. The differences of parameters in the kinetic models indicate that ultrasound was able to enhance the extraction process of SCCE. PMID:25837869

  18. Lutein Leads to a Decrease of Factor D Secretion by Cultured Mature Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Kijlstra, Aize; Renes, Johan; Wabitsch, Martin; Webers, Carroll A. B.; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Complement plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and trials are currently being conducted to investigate the effect of complement inhibition on AMD progression. We previously found that the plasma level of factor D (FD), which is the rate limiting enzyme of the complement alternative pathway, was significantly decreased following lutein supplementation. FD is synthesized by adipose tissue, which is also the main storage site of lutein. In view of these findings we tested the hypothesis whether lutein could affect FD synthesis by adipocytes. Methods. A cell line of mature human adipocytes was incubated with 50 μg/mL lutein for 24 and 48 h, whereafter FD mRNA and protein expression were measured. Results. Lutein significantly inhibited adipocyte FD mRNA expression and FD protein release into adipocyte culture supernatants. Conclusions. Our earlier observations showing that a daily lutein supplement in individuals with early signs of AMD lowered the level of circulating FD might be caused by blocking adipocyte FD production. PMID:26504594

  19. Morphogenetic reaggregation and luteinization of mouse preantral follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, S V; Tojo, R

    1979-11-01

    Small (60-90 micrometer) and large (100-130 micrometer) preantral follicles were isolated from adult mouse ovaries by a collagenase-dissection technique. These follicles were composed of resting oocytes surrounded either by granulosa cells, only, or by granulosa and undifferentiated theca cells. Further enzymatic dissociation of primary follicles yielded monodisperse cells characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, microfilament-rich pseudopodia and only scant lipid droplets. These cells reaggregated, when explanted in stationary culture, forming epithelial cords and structures macroscopically reminiscent of native ovarian follicles. Anticipated association of follicular cells in epithelial-like monolayers was rare (less than or equal to 10% of all cultured cells). Formation and growth of both follicle-like (FLS) and cord-like (CLS) structures occurred within 24 hours of culture, continued for 14 days, and was inhibited by cytochalasin B, but not by neuraminidase. FLS and CLS, as well as cell monolayers, underwent luteinization, as indicated by the presence in the culture medium of radioimmunoassayable progesterone and by frequent cytological features suggestive of active steroidogenesis. The present report indicates that (a) specific cell affinities exist among immature follicular cells which may play a role in folliculogenesis; and (b) follicular cells are endowed, from their early developmental stages with intrinsic steroidogenic capabilities which become phenotypically expressed after escape from the intraovarian environment. PMID:532792

  20. Can we prevent premature luteinization in IVF cycles?

    PubMed

    Manno, Massimo; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    From 1991 there is a long-lasting discussion on a possible detrimental effect of premature increase of progesterone levels during ovarian stimulation in IVF. A recent meta-analysis of more than 60,000 cycles states that premature progesterone increase reduces pregnancy rates starting from P4 values of 0.8 ng/ml. The detrimental effect seems to be related to endometrial receptivity impairment according to lack of detrimental effect on oocytes competence in ovodonation. Embryo freezing and deferred embryo transfer on artificial endometrium permits to avoid this detrimental effect but the cycle has to be segmented in two phases. Moreover embryo freezing is an extra burden for IVF lab and could induce embryo damage. So the implementation of an effective pharmacological treatment to prevent premature luteinization could be very interesting for our daily ART practice. On the basis of so far available literature data and our preliminary proof of concept experience we suggest that metformin (1000-1500 mg daily) from first monitoring until ovulation triggering could be suitable for this purpose irrespective of ovarian reserve of the patient. PMID:24290658

  1. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M. )

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from (1B-3H)androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures.

  2. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  3. Fluoride Exposure, Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian Axis Hormones in Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming Xu; Zhou, Guo Yu; Zhu, Jing Yuan; Gong, Biao; Hou, Jia Xiang; Zhou, Tong; Duan, Li Ju; Ding, Zhong; Cui, Liu Xin; Ba, Yue

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fluoride exposure on the functions of reproductive and endocrine systems have attracted widespread attention in academic circle nowadays. However, it is unclear whether the gene-environment interaction may modify the secretion and activity of hypothalamus-pituitary- ovarian (HPO) axis hormones. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of fluoride exposure and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism on reproductive hormones in Chinese women. A cross sectional study was conducted in seven villages of Henan Province, China during 2010-2011. A total of 679 women aged 18-48 years were recruited through cluster sampling and divided into three groups, i.e. endemic fluorosis group (EFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG), and control group (CG) based on the local fluoride concentration in drinking water. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were determined respectively and the FSHR polymorphism was detected by real time PCR assay. The results provided the preliminary evidence indicating the gene-environment interaction on HPO axis hormones in women. PMID:26464260

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Signaling: Integrating Cyclic Nucleotides into the Network

    PubMed Central

    Perrett, Rebecca M.; McArdle, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the primary regulator of mammalian reproductive function in both males and females. It acts via G-protein coupled receptors on gonadotropes to stimulate synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropin hormones luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. These receptors couple primarily via G-proteins of the Gq/ll family, driving activation of phospholipases C and mediating GnRH effects on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion. There is also good evidence that GnRH causes activation of other heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gs and Gi) with consequent effects on cyclic AMP production, as well as for effects on the soluble and particulate guanylyl cyclases that generate cGMP. Here we provide an overview of these pathways. We emphasize mechanisms underpinning pulsatile hormone signaling and the possible interplay of GnRH and autocrine or paracrine regulatory mechanisms in control of cyclic nucleotide signaling. PMID:24312080

  5. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  6. Dietary intake of lutein and diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Michelle W.; Mares, Julie A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Klein, Ronald; Brady, William E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Donahue, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of lutein is inversely associated with prevalence of diabetic retinopathy due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and its location within the retina. Methods We used logistic regression to examine the association between prevalent DR and energy-adjusted lutein intake [by quartile (Q)] using data collected from 1,430 ARIC study participants with diabetes (n=994 White and n=508 Black). DR was assessed using a 45-degree nonmydriatic retinal photograph from one randomly chosen eye taken at visit 3 (1993–95). Dietary lutein intake was estimated using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at visit 1(1987–89). Results The median estimated daily lutein intake was 1,370 μg/1000 kcals and the prevalence of DR was ~21%. We found a crude association between lutein and DR [OR (95% CI) for Q4 (high intake) vs. Q1 (low intake) =2.11 (1.45–3.09); p for trend<0.0001] which was attenuated after adjustment for race, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, field center and energy intake [1.41 (0.87–2.28); p for trend=0.01]. In analyses limited to persons with a short duration of diabetes (<6 years), the association no longer persisted [0.94 (0.31–2.16); p for trend=0.72] as compared to the association in those with a longer duration of diabetes (≥6 year) [1.58 (0.91–2.75); p for trend=0.01]. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the odds of higher lutein intake were greater among those with DR than those without DR. However, after adjusting for confounders, intake of lutein was not associated with DR. PMID:26949989

  7. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  8. Development and characterization of lutein-loaded SNEDDS for enhanced absorption in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Niamprem, Pattravee; Rujivipat, Soravoot; Tiyaboonchai, Waree

    2014-09-01

    A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) has been developed for enhanced oral bioavailability of lutein. Its permeation enhancement has been evaluated using monolayers of Caco-2 cells. SNEDDS is composed of a mixture of Lexol® and Emulmetik® 900, Labrasol®, and Tween 80 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Upon dilution of lutein-loaded SNEDDS with water, a nanoemulsion was obtained in <10 s with spherical droplets of 40-150 nm in diameter. The zeta potential was in the range of -19 to -32 mV. Increasing the ratio of surfactant to co-surfactant decreased the mean droplet size. Dissolution studies showed that lutein was released rapidly (<5 min) from SNEDDS into 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution without any aggregation. In vitro studies using Caco-2 cells revealed that lutein-loaded SNEDDS showed shorter lag time and greater (2-fold) cellular accumulation compared with the lutein dispersion. PMID:23985012

  9. Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M.; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida

    2013-01-01

    The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

  10. Aging-related premature luteinization of granulosa cells is avoided by early oocyte retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Guang; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Lazzaroni, Emanuela; Wang, Qi; Albertini, David F; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Why IVF pregnancy rates decline sharply after age 43 is unknown. In this study, we compared granulosa cell (GC) function in young oocyte donors (n=31, ages 21-29), middle-aged (n=64, ages 30-37) and older infertile patients (n=41, ages 43-47). Gene expressions related to gonadotropin activity, steroidogenesis, apoptosis and luteinization were examined by real-time PCR and western blot in GCs collected from follicular fluid. FSH receptor (FSHR), aromatase (CYP19A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B) expression were found down regulated with advancing age, while LH receptor (LHCGR), P450scc (CYP11A1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were up regulated. Upon in vitro culture, GCs were found to exhibit lower proliferation and increased apoptosis with aging. While FSH supplementation stimulated GCs growth and prevented luteinization in vitro. These observations demonstrate age-related functional declines in GCs, consistent with premature luteinization. To avoid premature luteinization in women above age 43, we advanced oocyte retrieval by administering human chorionic gonadotropin at maximal leading follicle size of 16  mm (routine 19-21  mm). Compared to normal cycles in women of similar age, earlier retrieved patients demonstrated only a marginal increase in oocyte prematurity, yet exhibited improved embryo numbers as well as quality and respectable clinical pregnancy rates. Premature follicular luteinization appears to contribute to rapidly declining IVF pregnancy chances after age 43, and can be avoided by earlier oocyte retrieval. PMID:26264981

  11. Biodegradable Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid)-Polyethylene Glycol Nanocapsules: An Efficient Carrier for Improved Solubility, Bioavailability, and Anticancer Property of Lutein.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ranganathan; Prashanth, Keelara Veerappa Harish; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2015-06-01

    Lutein bioavailability is limited because of its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, lutein-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocapsules were prepared to improve the solubility, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lutein. The scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering examination revealed that the nanocapsules are smooth and spherical with size ranging from 80 to 500 nm (mean = 200 nm). In vitro lutein release profile from nanocapsules showed controlled sustainable release (66%) up to 72 h. Aqueous solubility of lutein nanocapsules was much higher by 735-fold than the lutein. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses showed no chemical interaction among PLGA, PEG, and lutein, indicating possible weak intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction revealed lutein is distributed in a disordered amorphous state in nanocapsules. Postprandial plasma kinetics (area under the curve) of an oral dose of lutein from nanocapsules was higher by 5.4-fold compared with that of micellar lutein (control). The antiproliferative effect of lutein from nanocapsules (IC50 value, 10.9 μM) was higher (43.6%) than the lutein (IC50 value, 25 μM). Results suggest that PLGA-PEG nanocapsule is an efficient carrier for enhancing hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lipophilic molecules such as lutein. PMID:25824524

  12. Expression Levels of the Oxidative Stress Response Gene ALDH3A2 in Granulosa-Lutein Cells Are Related to Female Age and Infertility Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Rebeca; Hernández, Jairo; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo; Puopolo, Maria; Palumbo, Angela; Ávila, Julio

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in all physiological processes. The effect of OS on cellular processes is modulated by the ability of the cell to express genes implicated in the reversal of lipid, protein, and DNA injury. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3, member A2 (ALDH3A2) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in lipid detoxification. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression ofALDH3A2in human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its relationship with age, infertility diagnosis, and IVF outcome variables. Relative expression levels ofALDH3A2were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the effect of age onALDH3A2expression, 72 women between 18 and 44 years of age with no ovarian factor (NOF) were analyzed. To evaluate the effect of infertility diagnosis onALDH3A2expression, the following groups were analyzed: 22 oocyte donors (ODs), 24 women >40 years old (yo) with tubal or male factor and no ovarian pathology, 18 poor responders (PRs), 19 cases with endometriosis (EM), and 18 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In NOF,ALDH3A2expression correlated positively with age and with the doses of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone administered and negatively with the number of total and mature oocytes. When different groups were analyzed,ALDH3A2expression levels were higher in patients >40 yo and in PR compared to OD. On the contrary, EM and PCOS levels were lower than expected for age. These data suggest that GL cellALDH3A2expression levels correlate with age, cause of infertility, and ovarian response to stimulation. PMID:26449735

  13. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  14. Suppression in the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and ovarian follicle development in heifers continuously infused with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.

    PubMed

    Gong, J G; Campbell, B K; Bramley, T A; Gutierrez, C G; Peters, A R; Webb, R

    1996-07-01

    A novel experimental model was developed in cattle to investigate the requirement for FSH and LH during ovarian follicle growth and development. On Day 5 of the estrous cycle, 7 heifers were each implanted with an osmotic minipump containing a GnRH agonist (GnRHa), Buserelin (release rate, 2.5 micrograms/h). Another 7 heifers served as controls. Each minipump was replaced 28 days later with a second pump, which was left in place for a further 20 days. Blood samples were collected daily throughout the experimental period, and frequent samples were also collected on both days of minipump insertion and at 10 days after insertion of the second pump. The ovaries of all heifers were scanned daily by real-time ultrasonography to monitor follicular dynamics. All controls displayed 2 or 3 waves of FSH and follicular development per estrous cycle during the experiment. Insertion of the first minipump produced a large LH and FSH surge and induced ovulation in all 7 animals. Within 8 days of the start of treatment, serum LH concentrations fell to basal levels; they then remained constant at this level throughout the infusion period, only beginning to recover 4-5 days after the termination of infusion. After the initial increase, FSH returned to basal levels before showing a normal wave that was coincident with the emergence, growth, and regression of a dominant follicle. However, despite the peak levels of FSH, dominant follicles from the next wave failed to grow beyond 7-9 mm; they remained at this size for 3 wk until 3-4 days after insertion of the second minipump, when FSH fell precipitously to reach low levels that were maintained throughout the remainder of the infusion. After this fall in FSH concentrations, these follicles regressed rapidly, and no antral follicles > 4 mm were detected until after the termination of treatment. Thereafter, FSH concentrations increased significantly; the increase was accompanied by the emergence of a follicular wave and development of a dominant follicle, with estrus observed 8-11 days later. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated clearly that in cattle the early stages of follicle development (< or = 4 mm) are not dependent on acute support by gonadotropins. However, FSH is required for further growth of follicles up to 9 mm, while LH pulses are indispensable for follicle development beyond 9 mm in diameter. The model developed in this study should be valuable for studying the control of ovarian follicle development and atresia in vivo. PMID:8793060

  15. Gonads and the evolution of hormonal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, Kimberly A; Bergeon Burns, Christine M; Jayaratna, Sonya P; Dossey, Emma K; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2016-08-01

    Hormones are dynamic signaling molecules that influence gene activity and phenotype, and they are thus thought to play a central role in phenotypic evolution. In vertebrates, many fitness-related traits are mediated by the hormone testosterone (T), but the mechanisms by which T levels evolve are unclear. Here, we summarize a series of studies that advance our understanding of these mechanisms by comparing males from two subspecies of dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) that differ in aggression, body size, and ornamentation. We first review our research demonstrating population differences in the time-course of T production, as well as findings that point to the gonad as a major source of this variation. In a common garden, the subspecies do not differ in pituitary output of luteinizing hormone, but males from the more androgenized subspecies have greater gonadal gene expression for specific steroidogenic enzymes, and they may be less sensitive to feedback along the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Furthermore, we present new data from a common garden study demonstrating that the populations do not differ in gonadal sensitivity to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (i.e., GnIH receptor mRNA abundance), but the more androgenized subspecies expresses less gonadal mRNA for glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor, suggesting altered cross-talk between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes as another mechanism by which these subspecies have diverged in T production. These findings highlight the diversity of mechanisms that may generate functional variation in T and influence hormone-mediated phenotypic evolution. PMID:27252189

  16. Interfacial properties of Quillaja saponins and its use for micellisation of lutein esters.

    PubMed

    Tippel, Janine; Lehmann, Maren; von Klitzing, Regine; Drusch, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Natural food colourants, colouring foods and bioactive food ingredients need to be solubilised for their incorporation in food. Aim of the present study was to investigate the micelle-forming properties of saponins from Quillaja saponaria Mollina (QS) in order to solubilise a lutein ester extract for its incorporation in food matrices. QS showed a high surface activity and functionality with respect to micellisation as derived from interfacial tension measurements and subsequent data fitting to the classical Frumkin model. The composition of the aqueous phase affected the lutein ester incorporation as revealed by particle size, zeta potential and colour measurements. In terms of morphology of lutein ester loaded saponin micelles (LMS), cryo-TEM micrographs showed depending on the composition of the medium both, spherical and elongated branched micelles. PMID:27374503

  17. Modeling of fluorescence quenching by lutein in the plant light-harvesting complex LHCII.

    PubMed

    Duffy, C D P; Chmeliov, J; Macernis, M; Sulskus, J; Valkunas, L; Ruban, A V

    2013-09-26

    Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in higher plants is the result of the formation of energy quenching traps in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). It has been proposed that this quenching trap is a lutein molecule closely associated with the chlorophyll terminal emitter of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII. We have used a combination of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the semiempirical MNDO-CAS-CI method to model the chlorophyll-lutein energy transfer dynamics of the highly quenched crystal structure of LHCII. Our calculations reveal that the incoherent "hopping" of energy from Chla612 to the short-lived, dipole forbidden 2(1)A(g)(-) state of lutein620 accounts for the strong fluorescence quenching observed in these crystals. This adds weight to the argument that the same dissipative pathway is responsible for in vivo NPQ. PMID:23234311

  18. Random Centroid Optimization of Phyosphatidylglycerol Stablized Lutein-Enriched Oil-In-Water Emulsions at Acidic pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein has been identified by various studies as a dietary compound that may help delay the onset of macular degeneration. Random centroid optimization was applied to design, prepare, and characterize lutein-enriched oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing corn oil (15-25%), whey proteins (1.5-3.5%...

  19. Effects of nitrogen source availability and bioreactor operating strategies on lutein production with Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Xie, Youping; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the type and concentration of nitrogen sources on the cell growth and lutein content of an isolated microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 were investigated. With batch culture, the highest lutein content (4.61 mg/g) and lutein productivity (4.35 mg/L/day) were obtained when using 8.0 mM calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source. With this best nitrogen source condition, the microalgae cultivation was performed using two bioreactor strategies (namely, semi-continuous and two-stage operations) to further enhance the lutein content and productivity. Using semi-continuous operation with a 10% medium replacement ratio could obtain the highest biomass productivity (1304.8 mg/L/day) and lutein productivity (6.01 mg/L/day). This performance is better than most related studies. PMID:25453431

  20. Circulating hormone concentrations in hypothyroid rats with induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Adams, W C; Bruot, B C

    1991-11-01

    The induction of polycystic ovaries in hypothyroid rats by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been studied for many years. A complete understanding of this phenomenon requires information regarding the circulating levels of the hormones of the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. In this study, serum prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay at intervals during the 40-day period in which large ovarian cysts were induced in hypothyroid rats by daily injections of hCG. After 20 injections, ovaries increased in weight 10-fold, and well-developed ovarian cysts were present, accompanied by lutein tissue; cyst development continued for the subsequent 20 days of hCG. Both PRL and LH rose during the first 5 days of treatment and were maintained at high levels from day 20 on. The pattern of change of gonadal steroids showed greater increases with hCG in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. Levels of estradiol in hypothyroid, hCG-injected rats increased in parallel to ovarian hypertrophy, whereas progesterone was high in initial stages and then declined. Testosterone increased in both euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, with no clear pattern coincident with cyst formation. The data suggest that the formation of polycystic ovaries in the hypothyroid rat is associated with high levels of PRL and LH followed by elevations of estradiol, which may serve to maintain continuous PRL, as well as LH, stimulation of the ovary. PMID:1924408

  1. GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH) PARTIALLY REVERSES THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN ON OVULATION IN THE IMMATURE GONADOTROPIN-TREATED RAT. (R826132)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Several studies have shown that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has inhibitory effects on ovulation. This action may be the result of either direct effect(s) of TCDD on ovarian function or via altered secretion of pituitary luteinizing hormon...

  2. Insulin-like factor 3: a novel circulating hormone of testicular origin in humans.

    PubMed

    Ferlin, Alberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2005-05-01

    Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) affects testicular descent. Mutations in the INSL3 gene or its receptor, LGR8/GREAT, can cause cryptorchidism. Expression of LGR8/GREAT in different tissues and production of INSL3 by adult-type Leydig cells suggest additional roles for this hormonal system in adults. We used a novel radioimmunoassay kit to measure INSL3 concentrations in the serum of normal men and those with different testicular pathologies. We demonstrate that INSL3 circulates in adult men and is almost exclusively of testicular origin. Subjects with severe testicular damage (infertility) produce small amounts of INSL3, and concentrations of this hormone seem to reflect the functional status of the Leydig cells. Analysis of men treated with different combinations of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis suggests that the production of INSL3 is related to the luteinizing hormone. PMID:15956751

  3. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  4. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar. ... away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

  5. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  6. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  7. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  8. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog. PMID:26633041

  9. Clinical trial of lutein in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received ...

  10. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  11. Lutein, zeaxanthin, meso-zeaxanthin content in egg yolk and their absence in fish and seafood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they may protect against age-related macular degeneration. Meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) is also found in the macula, but is derived from L. It has been reported that MZ was found in certain fish and ...

  12. Xanthophyll (lutein, zeaxanthin) content in fruits, vegetables, and corn and egg products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration. Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their co...

  13. Xanthophyll (Lutein, Zeaxanthin) Content in Fruits, Vegetables and Corn & Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration. Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their co...

  14. Isolation of a novel lutein-protein complex from Chlorella vulgaris and its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xixi; Huang, Qimin; Wang, Shaoyun

    2015-06-01

    A novel kind of lutein-protein complex (LPC) was extracted from heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris through aqueous extraction. The purification procedure contained solubilization of thylakoid proteins by a zwitterionic detergent CHAPS, anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Both wavelength scanning and HPLC analysis confirmed that lutein was the major pigment of the protein-based complex, and the mass ratio of lutein and protein was determined to be 9.72 : 100. Besides showing lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in vitro, LPC exerted significant antioxidant effects against ABTS and DPPH radicals with IC50 of 2.90 and 97. 23 μg mL(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activity of the complex was evaluated using the mice hepatotoxicity model; LPC significantly suppressed the carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, and decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the hepatosomatic index. Moreover, LPC could effectively restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the treated mice livers. Our findings further the progress in the research of natural protein-based lutein complexes, suggesting that LPC has the potential in hepatoprotection against chemical induced toxicity and in increasing the antioxidant capacity of the defense system in the human body. PMID:25945783

  15. Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Horie, Sho; Okuda, Chiaki; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kuramochi, Kouji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Kakuda, Makiko; Miyashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    In the screening of DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitor, we isolated lutein, a carotenoid, from the crude (unrefined) pressed oil of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed, Brassica napus L.). Commercially prepared carotenoids such as lutein (1), zeaxanthin (2), beta-cryptoxanthin (3), astaxanthin (4), canthaxanthin (5), beta-carotene (6), lycopene (7), capsanthin (8), fucoxanthin (9) and fucoxanthinol (10), were investigated for the inhibitory activities of pols. Compounds 1, 2 and 8 exhibited strong inhibition of the activities of mammalian pols beta and lambda, which are DNA repair- and/or recombination-related pols. On the other hand, all carotenoids tested had no influence on the activity of a mammalian pol alpha, which is a DNA replicative pol. Lutein (1) was the strongest pol inhibitor of mammalian pols beta and lambda in the prepared ten carotenoids tested, but did not influence of the activities of mammalian pols alpha, gamma, delta and epsilon. The tendency for pols beta and lambda inhibition by these carotenoids showed a positive correlation with the suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation. These results suggest that cold pressed unrefined canola/rapeseed oil, or other oils with high levels of lutein and other carotenoids, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20669052

  16. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces H202-induced oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin is inversely related to the risk for senile cataract. The objectives of this work were to investigate the mechanisms by which these nutrients provide anti-cataract effects. We evaluated their modulation of oxid...

  17. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  18. Ameliorative effects of lutein on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiang; Gao, Dan-Hong; Xiang, Xiao; Xiong, Yu-Fang; Zhu, Teng-Shi; Liu, Lie-Gang; Sun, Xiu-Fa; Hao, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of lutein against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the related underlying mechanism. METHODS: After 9 d of acclimation to a constant temperature-controlled room (20 °C-22 °C) under 12 h light/dark cycles, male Sprague-Darley rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed a standard commercial diet (n = 8) or a high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 32) for 10 d. Animals receiving HFD were then randomly divided into 4 groups and administered with 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg (body weight) per day of lutein for the next 45 d. At the end of the experiment, the perinephric and abdominal adipose tissues of the rats were isolated and weighed. Additionally, serum and liver lipid metabolic condition parameters were measured, and liver function and insulin resistance state indexes were assessed. Liver samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin eosin and Oil Red O, and the expression of the key factors related to insulin signaling and lipid metabolism in the liver were detected using Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. RESULTS: Our data showed that after being fed a high-fat diet for 10 d, the rats showed a significant gain in body weight, energy efficiency, and serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Lutein supplementation induced fat loss in rats fed a high-fat diet, without influencing body weight or energy efficiency, and decreased serum TC and hepatic TC and TG levels. Moreover, lutein supplementation decreased hepatic levels of lipid accumulation and glutamic pyruvic transaminase content, and also improved insulin sensitivity. Lutein administration also increased the expression of key factors in hepatic insulin signaling, such as insulin receptor substrate-2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and glucose transporter-2 at the gene and protein levels. Furthermore, high-dose lutein increased the expression of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α and sirtuin 1

  19. Sex hormone receptors in the hypothalamus and their role in sexual differentiation of the male rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

    1986-09-01

    In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.

  20. Physicochemical, morphological and cellular uptake properties of lutein nanodispersions prepared by using surfactants with different stabilizing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tai Boon; Chu, Wern Cui; Yussof, Nor Shariffa; Abas, Faridah; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2016-04-20

    In this study, we prepared a series of lutein nanodispersions via the solvent displacement method, by using surfactants with different stabilizing mechanisms. The surfactants used include Tween 80 (steric stabilization), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; electrostatic stabilization), sodium caseinate (electrosteric stabilization) and SDS-Tween 80 (electrostatic-steric stabilization). We then characterized the resulting lutein nanodispersions in terms of their particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential, lutein content, flow behavior, apparent viscosity, transmittance, color, morphological properties and their effects on cell viability and cellular uptake. The type of surfactant used significantly (p < 0.05) affected the physical properties of the nanodispersions, but the chemical properties (lutein content) remained unaffected. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images obtained from this study demonstrated that the solvent displacement method was capable of producing lutein nanodispersions containing spherical particles with sizes ranging from 66.20-125.25 nm, depending on the type of surfactant used. SDS and SDS-Tween 80 surfactants negatively affected the viability of the HT-29 cells used in this study. Thus, for the cellular uptake determination, only Tween 80 and sodium caseinate surfactants were used. The cellular uptake of the lutein nanodispersion stabilized by sodium caseinate was higher than that which was stabilized by Tween 80. All things considered, the type of surfactant with different stabilizing mechanisms did produce lutein nanodispersions with different characteristics. These findings would aid in future selection of surfactants in order to produce nanodispersions with desirable properties. PMID:27010495

  1. Plasma and macular responses to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hui-Hiang; Murray, Ian J; Nolan, Daniel; Carden, Dave; Feather, Jim; Beatty, Stephen

    2004-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that macular pigment (MP), which is entirely of dietary origin, protects against age-related maculopathy. We evaluated the effect of a daily 20 mg lutein ester (equivalent of 10 mg/day free lutein) supplement in patients with early age-related maculopathy (ARM), in terms of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and plasma concentrations of lutein. MPOD was measured using a flicker photometric technique in seven ARM sufferers and six age-matched controls over a period of supplementation which lasted 18-20 weeks. Plasma lutein increased from a mean (SD) baseline concentration of 182 (127)ng ml(-1) to a peak of 1077 (165)ng ml(-1) in ARM patients, and from 152 (57) to 1110 (605)ng ml(-1) in control subjects. Mean MPOD had increased significantly from baseline of 0.24 to a peak of 0.31 in ARM sufferers. This mean increment of 0.07 was the same for the age-matched controls (baseline: 0.20; peak: 0.27). The augmentation of MP, and plasma concentrations of lutein, following supplementation in subjects with ARM provides the first evidence the disease is not associated with intestinal malabsorption of the relevant macular carotenoids, and that a diseased macula can accumulate and stabilise lutein and/or zeaxanthin. Furthermore, these results suggest that the beneficial effects of lutein supplementation, if any, may be extended to subjects with established ARM. PMID:15183097

  2. Effect of Supplemental Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Serum, Macular Pigmentation, and Visual Performance in Patients with Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Dou, Hong-Liang; Huang, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xian-Rong; Zou, Zhi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the 2-year effect of multiple doses of lutein/zeaxanthin on serum, macular pigmentation, and visual performance on patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. In this randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial, 112 early AMD patients randomly received either 10 mg lutein, 20 mg lutein, a combination of lutein (10 mg) and zeaxanthin (10 mg), or placebo daily for 2 years. Serum concentration of lutein/zeaxanthin, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), visual functions including best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), flash recovery time (FRT), and vision-related quality of life (VFQ25) was quantified. Results. Serum lutein concentration and MPOD significantly increased in all the active treatment groups. Supplementation with 20 mg lutein was the most effective in increasing MPOD and CS at 3 cycles/degree for the first 48 weeks. However, they both significantly increased to the same peak value following supplementation with either 10 mg or 20 mg lutein during the intervention. No statistical changes of BCVA or FRT were observed during the trial. Conclusions. Long-term lutein supplementation could increase serum lutein concentration, MPOD, and visual sensitivities of early AMD patients. 10 mg lutein daily might be an advisable long-term dosage for early AMD treatment. PMID:25815324

  3. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Constantinos C; Fostier, Alexis; Zanuy, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Control of reproductive function in captivity is essential for the sustainability of commercial aquaculture production, and in many fishes it can be achieved by manipulating photoperiod, water temperature or spawning substrate. The fish reproductive cycle is separated in the growth (gametogenesis) and maturation phase (oocyte maturation and spermiation), both controlled by the reproductive hormones of the brain, pituitary and gonad. Although the growth phase of reproductive development is concluded in captivity in most fishes-the major exemption being the freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.), oocyte maturation (OM) and ovulation in females, and spermiation in males may require exogenous hormonal therapies. In some fishes, these hormonal manipulations are used only as a management tool to enhance the efficiency of egg production and facilitate hatchery operations, but in others exogenous hormones are the only way to produce fertilized eggs reliably. Hormonal manipulations of reproductive function in cultured fishes have focused on the use of either exogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) preparations that act directly at the level of the gonad, or synthetic agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) that act at the level of the pituitary to induce release of the endogenous LH stores, which, in turn act at the level of the gonad to induce steroidogenesis and the process of OM and spermiation. After hormonal induction of maturation, broodstock should spawn spontaneously in their rearing enclosures, however, the natural breeding behavior followed by spontaneous spawning may be lost in aquaculture conditions. Therefore, for many species it is also necessary to employ artificial gamete collection and fertilization. Finally, a common question in regards to hormonal therapies is their effect on gamete quality, compared to naturally maturing or spawning broodfish. The main factors that may have significant consequences on gamete quality-mainly on eggs-and should be considered

  4. Production and characterization of antibodies to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Hazum, E; Schvartz, I; Popliker, M

    1987-01-15

    Antibodies to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor of bovine pituitary membranes have been raised in rabbits by immunization with affinity-purified receptor preparations. These antibodies did not compete with 125I-labeled GnRH analog (Buserelin) for binding to the receptors but did precipitate rat and bovine solubilized receptors labeled with 125I-Buserelin. Binding of the antibodies to the receptors was also demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled purified receptors and photoaffinity-labeled receptors. The antibodies did not have a GnRH-like activity but rather inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone release from cultured rat pituitary cells. In addition, the antibodies did not inhibit luteinizing hormone release stimulated by high K+ concentration. This suggests that the antibodies recognize domains of the receptor other than the binding site of the hormone and thereby inhibit the biological response. These GnRH receptor antibodies provide a useful tool for studying GnRH receptor structure, function, localization, and biosynthesis. PMID:3027055

  5. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global

  6. Acute serum hormone levels: characterization and prognosis after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy K; McCullough, Emily H; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L; Dobos, Julie A; Brett, Christopher A; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C Edward; Berga, Sarah L; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global outcome for

  7. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

  8. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as a potential inducer of ovulation in infertile women with luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takeo; Makinoda, Satoru; Waseda, Tomoo; Tomizawa, Hideki; Fujii, Ryota; Utsunomiya, Takafumi

    2016-05-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is one of the intractable ovulation disorders that are commonly observed during cycles of treatment with ovulation inducers, for which no effective therapy other than assisted reproductive technology is available. Here, we investigated whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) could prevent the onset of LUF syndrome. We analyzed the effects of G-CSF in 68 infertile women with LUF syndrome who received ovulation induction (clomiphene + human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] therapy or follicle-stimulating hormone + hCG therapy). G-CSF (lenograstim, 100 μg) was administered subcutaneously. Onsets of LUF syndrome were compared between the cycle during which G-CSF was given in combination with the ovulation inducer (ie, the G-CSF treatment cycle) and the subsequent cycle during which only the ovulation inducer was given (ie, the G-CSF nontreatment control cycle). The results showed that LUF syndrome recurred in only 3 cycles during the G-CSF treatment cycle (4.4% [3/68 cycles]), whereas LUF syndrome recurred in 13 cycles during the subsequent G-CSF nontreatment control cycle (19.1% [13/68 cycles]). The additional use of G-CSF significantly prevented the onset of LUF syndrome during ovulation induction (P = 0.013, McNemar test). No serious adverse reactions because of the administration of G-CSF were observed. In conclusion, our findings indicate that G-CSF may become a useful therapy for LUF syndrome. PMID:26518992

  9. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  10. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  11. Effects of lutein or lutein in combination with vitamin C on mRNA expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and status of the antioxidant system in SD rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Hae; Shin, Eu-Chul; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of lutein alone or in combination with vitamin C on the antioxidant defense system in rats. A total of 18 eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to three groups for 4 weeks: control (CON), lutein (LUT, 50 mg lutein/kg BW) and lutein plus vitamin C (LVC, 50 mg lutein/kg BW+1,000 mg vitamin C/kg BW). No differences in body weight, relative live weight or plasma biochemical profiles were observed among treatment groups. In the hepatic antioxidant defense systems, the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the LUT and LVC groups was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the CON group, whereas the mRNA level of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was not affected by the administration of antioxidants. SOD and GST activities in the LUT and LVC groups were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in the CON group, whereas GPX, CAT and lipid peroxidation did not differ among groups. In addition, the LVC group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in plasma and hepatic total antioxidant power (TAP) relative to the CON group. Overall, administration of lutein in combination with vitamin C improved the status of the total antioxidant defense system in SD rats. PMID:26472964

  12. Employing response surface methodology for the optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach.

    PubMed

    Altemimi, Ammar; Lightfoot, David A; Kinsel, Mary; Watson, Dennis G

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C), extraction power (%) and extraction time (min) were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v)) as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box-Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3) and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry. PMID:25875040

  13. The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  14. The effect of camphor on sex hormones levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn't received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  15. Hormonal characteristics of the human menstrual cycle throughout reproductive life.

    PubMed

    Sherman, B M; Korenman, S G

    1975-04-01

    The changes in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS), estradiol, and progesterone that occur both early and late in reproductive life were characterized and compared with findings in young, normal women and in patients with certain menstrual disorders. A total of 50 complete menstrual cycles in 37 were examined. Five distinct patterns of hormonal regulation were found, three of which are reported here: (a) A long follicular phase and delayed follicular maturation in young women with long, unpredictable intermenstrual intervals from menarche; (b) a short follicular phase with increasing age and in short cycles in perimenopausal women; and (c) true anovulatory vaginal bleeding in long cycles in perimenopausal women. The short cycles before and during the menopausal transition were found to have lower E2 levels and high FSH concentrations throughout, while LH remained in the normal range. During long cycles in perimenopausal women, concentrations of LH and FSH were in the menopausal range. However, follicular maturation was observed months after high levels of gonadotropins were attained. These studies permit the characterization of the menstrual history of the normal woman in terms of the hormonal changes that occur and provide a basis for the definition of several disorders of follicular maturation. PMID:1120778

  16. Hormonal correlates of dominance in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-08-01

    In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), individuals typically live in extended family groups in which the dominant male and female are the primary reproductives, while their offspring delay dispersal, seldom breed, and contribute to the care of subsequent litters. Here we investigate hormonal differences between dominants and subordinates by comparing plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and cortisol in females, and testosterone and cortisol in males, while controlling for potential confounding factors. In both sexes, hormone levels are correlated with age. In females, levels of sex hormone also vary with body weight and access to unrelated breeding partners in the same group: subordinates in groups containing unrelated males have higher levels of LH and estradiol than those in groups containing related males only. When these effects are controlled, there are no rank-related differences in circulating levels of LH among females or testosterone among males. However, dominant females show higher levels of circulating estradiol than subordinates. Dominant males and females also have significantly higher cortisol levels than subordinates. Hence, we found no evidence that the lower levels of plasma estradiol in subordinate females were associated with high levels of glucocorticoids. These results indicate that future studies need to control for the potentially confounding effects of age, body weight, and access to unrelated breeding partners before concluding that there are fundamental physiological differences between dominant and subordinate group members. PMID:15256303

  17. Discovery and Development of Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nataraja, Selvaraj G.; Yu, Henry N.; Palmer, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are heterodimeric proteins with a common α-subunit and hormone-specific β-subunit. These hormones are dominant regulators of reproduction and metabolic processes. Receptors for the glycoprotein hormones belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH receptor are primarily expressed in somatic cells in ovary and testis to promote egg and sperm production in women and men, respectively. TSH receptor is expressed in thyroid cells and regulates the secretion of T3 and T4. Glycoprotein hormones bind to the large extracellular domain of the receptor and cause a conformational change in the receptor that leads to activation of more than one intracellular signaling pathway. Several small molecules have been described to activate/inhibit glycoprotein hormone receptors through allosteric sites of the receptor. Small molecule allosteric modulators have the potential to be administered orally to patients, thus improving the convenience of treatment. It has been a challenge to develop a small molecule allosteric agonist for glycoprotein hormones that can mimic the agonistic effects of the large natural ligand to activate similar signaling pathways. However, in the past few years, there have been several promising reports describing distinct chemical series with improved potency in preclinical models. In parallel, proposal of new structural model for FSHR and in silico docking studies of small molecule ligands to glycoprotein hormone receptors provide a giant leap on the understanding of the mechanism of action of the natural ligands and new chemical entities on the receptors. This review will focus on the current status of small molecule allosteric modulators of glycoprotein hormone receptors, their effects on common signaling pathways in cells, their utility for clinical application as demonstrated in preclinical models

  18. Development and validation of a dissolution test for lutein tablets and evaluation of intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Carina de Souza; Mendes, Thamara de Carvalho; Honorio, Thiago da Silva; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with antioxidant activity that is present in various dosage forms. The bioavailability of carotenoid from oral dosage formulations depends on their release, dissolution and its permeability through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, a dissolution test was developed for evaluating formulations and the bioavailability was assessed. The test utilized a USP-apparatus II with rotations of 50, 75 and 100rpm in water with P80 at 1, 2 and 5% (w/v). A non-everted rat intestinal sac model was used in conjunction to assess the intestinal permeability. The most discriminative conditions were 100rpm in water with 2% polysorbate 80, which showed profile differences between two formulations. The intestinal permeation studies showed a lag-time and apparent permeability coefficient that were characteristic of highly permeable drugs. We suggest that a dissolution test can be an essential quality control tool for formulations containing compounds as lutein, although not mandatory by the regulation agencies. PMID:27211621

  19. Relationship between Concentrations of Lutein and StARD3 among Pediatric and Geriatric Human Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tanprasertsuk, Jirayu; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S.; Vishwanathan, Rohini; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard; Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Lutein, a dietary carotenoid, selectively accumulates in human retina and brain. While many epidemiological studies show evidence of a relationship between lutein status and cognitive health, lutein’s selective uptake in human brain tissue and its potential function in early neural development and cognitive health have been poorly evaluated at a molecular level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between concentrations of brain lutein and StARD3 (identified as its binding protein in retinal tissue) among three age groups: infants (1–4 months, n = 10), older adults (55–86 years, n = 8), and centenarians (98–105 years, n = 10). Brain lutein concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and StARD3 levels were analyzed by Western Blot analysis. The strong relationship in infant brains (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) suggests that lutein has a role in neural development. The relationship remained significant but weaker in older adults (r = 0.51, P < 0.05) and insignificant in centenarians (r = 0.08, P > 0.05), seven of whom had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. These exploratory findings suggest an age-related decrease or abnormality of StARD3 activity in human brain. Given that StARD3 is also involved in cholesterol transportation, a process that is aberrant in neurodegenerative diseases, the potential protective function of lutein against these diseases remains to be explored. PMID:27205891

  20. Regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA expression by a specific RNA binding protein in the ovary*

    PubMed Central

    Menon, K.M.J.; Nair, Anil K.; Wang, Lei; Peegel, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Summary The expression of LH receptor mRNA shows significant changes during different physiological states of the ovary. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified a post-transcriptional mechanism by which LH receptor mRNA is regulated following preovulatory LH surge or in response to hCG administration. A specific binding protein, identified as mevalonate kinase, binds to the open reading frame of LH receptor mRNA. The protein binding site is localized to nucleotides 203–220 of the LH receptor mRNA and exhibits a high degree of specificity. The expression levels of the protein show an inverse relationship to the LH receptor mRNA levels. The hCG-induced down-regulation of LH receptor mRNA can be mimicked by increasing the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. An in vitro mRNA decay assay showed that addition of the binding protein to the decay system caused accelerated LH receptor mRNA decay. Our results therefore show that LH receptor mRNA expression in the ovary is regulated post-transcriptionally by altering the rate of mRNA degradation by a specific mRNA binding protein. PMID:17055149

  1. Plasma luteinizing hormone and the development of ovarian follicles after loss of clutch in female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.; Dane, C.W.; Farner, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma level of LH and the extent of development of ovarian follicles were analyzed in incubating female Mallards. In both wild and game-farm stock, incubation was associated with a significant decline in plasma levels of LH from those of laying females. Within 1 day after removal of eggs, LH levels had increased to levels indistinguishable from those of laying females. The mean diameter of the largest follicle in wild females on the tenth day of incubation was 5.3 mm; it was 5.2 mm in game-farm stock at the same stage. Three days following removal of eggs, the mean of the largest follicles of wild-stock hens had increased to 14.0 mm and those of game-farm stock to 12.7 mm.

  2. Expression of angiogenic factors and luteinizing hormone receptors in the corpus luteum of mares induced to ovulate with deslorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Maia, Victor N; Batista, André M; Cunha Neto, Sylvio; Silva, Diogo M F; Adrião, Manoel; Wischral, Aurea

    2016-02-01

    The effects of deslorelin acetate use in inducing ovulation need to be clarified to improve the results of equine embryo transfer. The mRNA abundance for angiogenic factors and LH receptor (LHR) in corpus luteum (CL) was studied in mares with natural (control group [CG]) and induced ovulation with deslorelin acetate (treatment group [TG]; follicles: ≥ 35 mm). Transrectal ultrasonography was used to verify the ovulation day, and on Days 4, 8, and 12 after ovulation (Day 0), CL samples were obtained through ultrasound-guided biopsy. The messenger RNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and LHR genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A positive correlation was observed between VEGF and LHR (P < 0.00001, r = 0.78), and it was possible to detect higher LHR expression in the TG than in the CG on Day 4 (P < 0.05). Moreover, this expression was higher on Days 4 and 8 than on Day 12 in the TG. Basic fibroblast growth factor was also expressed in luteal tissue on all days for both groups; however, these differences were not significant. In conclusion, deslorelin acetate was effective for the induction of ovulation in mares, resulting in higher expression of LHR, especially on the fourth day after ovulation. In addition, VEGF expression was influenced by induced ovulation, with a lower level on Day 12, which is expected in nonpregnant mares. PMID:26476595

  3. The effect of non-steroidal antiandrogen flutamide on luteinizing hormone pulsatile secretion in male-to-female transsexual subjects.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Falivene, M R; Carraro, A; Cuttica, C M; Valenti, S; Giordano, G

    1995-06-01

    We evaluated LH pulsatile patterns before and 4 weeks after the oral administration of flutamide (750 mg/day) in 9 male-to-female transsexuals (age range 17-28 yr) requesting gender reassignment. Flutamide was given to explore the feedback role of androgens on the LHRH-LH unit in LH pulsatility in transsexuals. Seven normal age-matched men served as a control group, without receiving flutamide, due to ethical considerations. LH pulsatility was evaluated on samples collected every 15 min for 360 min. FSH, PRL, cortisol, SHBG and sex steroids were evaluated on pooled samples. LH pulses were analyzed by the Santen and Bardin algorithm, slightly modified. No differences in FSH, PRL, total- or free-testosterone, estradiol and SHBG levels were noted between transsexuals and controls. Normal circadian cortisol decline was observed in all subjects. Mean LH levels (p < 0.05) and LH pulses (p < 0.01) were significantly lower in transsexuals. Flutamide induced an increase in mean LH and testosterone levels (p < 0.01). After flutamide administration there was an increase in LH pulse frequency (P < 0.01) and the frequency and amplitude of LH pulses in transsexuals were restored to levels observed in controls. No differences in FSH, PRL or estradiol levels were found after flutamide. These data suggest that a decrease in LH pulse frequency could be an endocrine marker in male-to-female transsexuals. An increase in endogenous androgen negative feed-back could be speculated in these subjects. However, normal testosterone levels indirectly suggest that a normal that a normal qualitative LH secretion is maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7594235

  4. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor mRNA Down-Regulation Is Mediated through ERK-Dependent Induction of RNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Franzo-Romain, Megan; Damanpour, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    The ligand-induced down-regulation of LH receptor (LHR) expression in the ovaries, at least in part, is regulated by a posttranscriptional process mediated by a specific LH receptor mRNA binding protein (LRBP). The LH-mediated signaling pathways involved in this process were examined in primary cultures of human granulosa cells. Treatment with 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 12 h resulted in the down-regulation of LHR mRNA expression while producing an increase in LHR mRNA binding to LRBP as well as a 2-fold increase in LRBP levels. The activation of ERK½ pathway in LH-mediated LHR mRNA down-regulation was also established by demonstrating the translocation of ERK½ from the cytosol to the nucleus using confocal microcopy. Inhibition of protein kinase A using H-89 or ERK½ by U0126 abolished the LH-induced LHR mRNA down-regulation. These treatments also abrogated both the increases in LRBP levels as well as the LHR mRNA binding activity. The abolishment of the hCG-induced increase in LRBP levels and LHR mRNA binding activity was further confirmed by transfecting granulosa cells with ERK½ specific small interfering RNA. This treatment also reversed the hCG-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. These data show that LH-regulated ERK½ signaling is required for the LRBP-mediated down-regulation of LHR mRNA. PMID:21147848

  5. Activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway by luteinizing hormone in trout theca layers.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Eva; Maeland, Mari; Skålhegg, Bjørn S; Planas, Josep V

    2003-07-31

    In the fish ovary, LH is the main factor regulating the production of steroids during the periovulatory period and its effects are believed to be mediated, at least partially, through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway. However, there is no direct evidence for the presence of PKA in the fish ovary nor on the regulation of its activity by fish LH. Here, we show the identification of regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits of PKA in trout theca cells by immunoblotting. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of theca cell extracts indicated the presence of PKA type I and II and showed that trout theca cells display PKA-specific phosphotransferase and cAMP-binding activities. Salmon LH (sLH) stimulated PKA activity and increased the levels of immunoreactive RIIalpha, RIIbeta and C subunits in trout theca layers. These observations, coupled with the sLH-dependent decrease in the half-life of the C subunit, as shown by pulse-chase experiments, strongly suggest that sLH activates PKA in trout theca cells. Furthermore, our results suggest that ovarian PKA activity and its regulation by LH has been well conserved from fish to humans. PMID:12890563

  6. Arrestin-3 is essential for the activation of Fyn by the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in MA-10 cells*

    PubMed Central

    Galet, Colette; Ascoli, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies showed that Fyn is a mediator of the LHR-induced activation of the ERK1/2 cascade in MA-10 cells. Since the LHR is a G protein-coupled receptor and the Src family of kinases can be activated by some Gα subunits and by the non-visual arrestins we investigated the role of these signaling molecules in the LHR-provoked activation of Fyn. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target two Gα subunits that participate in LHR signaling (Gαs and Gα11) and one that targets arrestin-3 were co-transfected with the hLHR in MA-10 cells. We then determined the effects of these siRNAs on the LHR-provoked activation of Fyn, the phosphorylation of FAK (a prominent Fyn substrate) and the release of EGF-like growth factors (a Fyn-mediated process). Expression of the siRNA against Gαs decreased the level of Gαs and LHR-stimulated cAMP production by ~50% but did not affect LHR-stimulated Fyn activation or FAK phosphorylation. Likewise, expression of the siRNA against Gα11 decreased the level of Gα11 and LHR-stimulated inositol phosphate production by ~50% but did not affect LHR-stimulated Fyn activation or FAK phosphorylation. Expression of the siRNA against arrestin-3 decreased the level of arrestin-3 and the rate of internalization of hCG by ~50% and it also inhibited the LHR-provoked stimulation of Fyn, the phosphorylation of FAK and the release of EGF-like growth factors. These results show that, in MA-10 cells, the hLHR activates Fyn through and arrestin-3-dependent pathway and that this pathway is a mediator of the hLHR-provoked release of EGF-like growth factors. PMID:18647647

  7. ROLE OF LEPTIN IN MODULATING THE HYPOTHALAMUS-PITUITARY AXIS AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN THE PREPUBERAL GILT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In experiment I (EXP), prepuberal gilts received intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin (LEP) injections. Blood was collected 4h before and 3h after ICV inj. of .9% saline (S; n=3), 10 ug (n=4), 50 ug (n=4) or 100 ug (n=4) of LEP in S. EXP II, pituitary cells in culture were challenged with 0.1 nM, 1...

  8. Novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for enhanced solubility and dissolution of lutein.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeoung Hee; Shanmugam, Srinivasan; Thapa, Pritam; Lee, Eung-Seok; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Yoon, Sang-Kwon; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Yoo, Bong Kyu; Han, Kun

    2010-03-01

    Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing oil (Phosal 53 MCT), surfactant (Labrasol), and cosurfactant (Transcutol-HP or Lutrol-E400) was prepared to enhance solubility and dissolution of lutein. Ternary phase diagram of the SNEDDS was constructed to identify the self-emulsifying regions following which the percentage of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant in the SNEDDS were optimized in terms of emulsification time and mean emulsion droplet size. The optimized SNEDDS consists of 25% oil, 60% surfactant, and 15% cosurfactant. When measured using USP XXIII dissolution apparatus II, the emulsification time of the SNEDDS prepared with Transcutol-HP as cosurfactant was less than 20 sec, and it was 20-30 sec in the SNEDDS prepared with Lutrol-E400. Mean emulsion droplet size was slightly smaller when Transcutol-HP was used as cosurfactant (80 +/- 6 nm), compared to when Lutrol- E400 was used (93 +/- 6 nm). Dissolution of lutein from the solid SNEDDS (physical mixture of the optimized SNEDDS and Aerosil 200) took place immediately (less than 5 min) in distilled water, and, once dissolved, no precipitation or aggregation of the drug were observed. In contrast, no drug was released from lutein powder or from the commercial product (Eyelac(R)) until 3 h of the study duration. PMID:20361307

  9. Fatal case of luteinized thecoma with sclerosing peritonitis in a 40-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Burak; Hu, Zhihong; Szpaderska, Anna; Liotta, Margaret; Potkul, Ronald K; Smith, Donna; Erşahin, Çağatay

    2014-01-01

    We describe the pathologic and clinical presentation of a very rare, fatal case of luteinized thecoma with sclerosing peritonitis in a 40-year-old woman, who had a history of total abdominal hysterectomy and a left salpingo-oophorectomy in 2003. The patient presented with abdominal pain, and radiologic examinations revealed a 10-cm heterogenous right pelvic mass with partial necrosis. The patient eventually underwent an exploratory laparotomy, which revealed an ovarian tumor with multiple implants in the peritoneal cavity. The ovarian lesion was made up of spindle cells among clusters of luteinized stromal cells that expanded to the ovarian cortex. Tumor cells were positive for vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and CCD68 (focally) and negative for CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, β-catenin, and desmin by immunohistochemical studies. Luteinized cells were positive for α-inhibin and calretinin. Tumor cells exhibited low Ki-67 proliferation indices. The patient died because of the sclerosing peritonitis component of the disease. PMID:24300532

  10. Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin in the Clinical Management of Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scripsema, Nicole K.; Hu, Dan-Ning; Rosen, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids found within the retina and throughout the visual system. The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body. The highest concentration of xanthophylls is found within the retina, and this selective presence has generated many theories regarding their role in supporting retinal function. Subsequently, the effect of xanthophylls in the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases has been examined through epidemiological studies, animal studies, and clinical trials. This paper attempts to review the epidemiological studies and clinical trials investigating the effects of xanthophylls on the incidence and progression of various eye diseases. Observational studies have reported that increased dietary intake and higher serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), especially late AMD. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that xanthophyll supplementation increases macular pigment levels, improves visual function, and decreases the risk of progression to late AMD, especially neovascular AMD. Current publications on the preventive and therapeutic effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and retinopathy of prematurity have reported encouraging results. PMID:26819755

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing degarelix with leuprolide in hormonal therapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hatoum, Hind T; Crawford, E David; Nielsen, Sandy Kildegaard; Lin, Swu-Jane; Marshall, Dennis C

    2013-04-01

    Degarelix, approved in the USA in 2008, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, representing one of the latest additions to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). ADT is used as first-line therapy for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer with the aim to reduce testosterone to castrate levels. Like other gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonists, degarelix treatment results in rapid decrease in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone levels without the associated risk of flare. Using one registration trial for degarelix with leuprolide as the active control, a cost-effectiveness analysis with a Markov model and a 20-year time horizon found the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for degarelix to be US$245/quality-adjusted life years. Degarelix provides a cost-effective treatment for ADT among patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23570437

  12. Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Barui, Abhijit; Batabyal, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sarbaswarup; Saha, Debjani; Chattopadhyay, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the associated role of micro minerals and hormones in repeat breeding animals with the normal crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 10 normal cycling and 10 repeat breeding crossbred cows of Ramakrishna Mission Ashram, Narendrapur to study the plasma mineral profile and hormonal activities. Results: Zn was found to be highly significant (p<0.01) between the two groups. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone showed significant (p<0.05) difference in repeat breeding animal from the normal cyclic animal, whereas no significant differences were observed in Ca, P, Cu, Se, Co, luteinizing hormone and estradiol level. Conclusion: It may conclude that repeat breeding condition of crossbred cows in farm condition is mainly due to the low level of progesterone, FSH and zinc. PMID:27046994

  13. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Bharti Sona; Philip, Rajeev; Singh, Kumar Sanjeev; Bende, Sureshrao Anoop; Agroiya, Puspalata; Agrawal, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Objective was to evaluate reproductive hormones levels in hypothyroid women and impact of treatment on their levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 women with untreated primary hypothyroidism were included in this prospective study. Venous blood was taken at baseline and after euthyroidism was achieved for measuring serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and thyroid peroxidase antibody. Thirty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any hormonal disturbances served as controls. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 ([SPSS] IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On an average at diagnosis cases have more serum TSH (mean [M] = 77.85; standard error [SE] = 11.72), PRL (M = 39.65; SE = 4.13) and less serum E2 (M = 50.00; SE = 2.25) and T (M = 35.40; SE = 2.31) than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 1.74; SE = 0.73), (M = 16.04; SE = 0.84), (M = 76.25; SE = 2.60), and (M = 40.29; SE = 2.27), respectively. This difference was statistically significant t (58) = 6.48, P <0.05; t (58) = 6.49, P < 0.05; t (58) = 12.47; P < 0.05; and t (58) = 2.04, P < 0.05; respectively. Although average serum FSH (M = 12.14; SE = 0.40) and LH (M = 5.89; SE = 0.27) were lower in cases at diagnosis than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 12.70; SE = 0.40), (M = 6.22; SE = 0.25), respectively, but these differences were statistically insignificant t (58) = 1.61, P = 0.11; t (58) = 1.11, P = 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated low E2 and T levels in hypothyroid women which were increased after achieving euthyroidism. Although average serum FSH and LH were increased in hypothyroid women after achieving euthyroidism but this difference was statistically

  14. Effects of different calcineurin inhibitors on sex hormone levels in transplanted male patients.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, G; Sahin, S; Uras, A R; Ergin, H

    2004-01-01

    Hormonal abnormalities in male patients with end-stage renal diseases are primarily organic and related to uremia as well as the other comorbid factors that frequently contribute to chronic renal failure and concomitant drug administration. The restoration of hormonal profiles after successful renal transplantation is still controversial. Immunosuppressive drugs may influence hormonal profiles. Our cross-sectional study of 37 male kidney transplant recipients investigated two groups according to their calcineurin inhibitor therapy, namely 21 cyclosporine versus 16 tacrolimus patients. The two groups were matched for age, graft function, mean duration of dialysis before transplantation, and duration of follow-up after transplantation. There was no statistical significant difference in baseline circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (TTE), and prolactin (PRL) between the two groups. We found that calcineurin inhibitors have favorable effects on sexual hormone levels of male renal transplant patients and that there is no difference in baseline hormone levels between cyclosporine- and tacrolimus-treated male patients. PMID:15013339

  15. Large solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy and puerperium: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe two cases of large solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy and puerperium (LSLFCPP) with new clinicopathologic findings. The first case occurred in a 40-year old woman who was found to have a left ovarian mass during the third trimester of pregnancy. The patient delivered a full term healthy female infant via caesarean section. The ovarian mass was removed by oophorectomy. The specimen showed a unilocular, thin-walled, clear fluid filled cyst measuring 15 × 12 × 5 cm. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by single to multiple layers of luteinized cells with mainly small, round and regular nuclei and focally enlarged, bizarre, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Occasional mitotic figures were seen. The cyst wall showed marked edema and nests of luteinized cells that were morphologically similar to the cyst lining cells. Groups of lesional cells were surrounded by reticulin fibers. The patient has been healthy without disease after 7 years. The second patient was a 29-year old pregnant woman who was found to have a right ovarian cyst by ultrasound at 14-week gestation. She then presented with preterm labor at 33-week gestation and delivered a healthy female infant via caesarean section. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Gross inspection of the specimen revealed a unilocular, brown mucoid fluid filled cyst measuring 14 × 11 × 9 cm. The cyst surfaces were smooth, and the cyst wall exhibited marked edema. Microscopic examination showed features similar to the first case: cyst lined by luteinized cells with focal large nuclei, scattered nests of luteinized cells in the edematous fibrous wall, and reticulin fibers surrounding large nests of lesional cells. No mitoses, however, were identified in the second case. The patient has been well without disease 1 year after surgery. These two cases contribute to a better understanding of LSLFCPP. Our case in the 40-year old patient is the first to show mitotic figures in LSLFCPP and suggests that the

  16. Large solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy and puerperium: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lomme, Michele; Kostadinov, Stefan; Zhang, Cunxian

    2011-01-01

    We describe two cases of large solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy and puerperium (LSLFCPP) with new clinicopathologic findings. The first case occurred in a 40-year old woman who was found to have a left ovarian mass during the third trimester of pregnancy. The patient delivered a full term healthy female infant via caesarean section. The ovarian mass was removed by oophorectomy. The specimen showed a unilocular, thin-walled, clear fluid filled cyst measuring 15 × 12 × 5 cm. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by single to multiple layers of luteinized cells with mainly small, round and regular nuclei and focally enlarged, bizarre, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Occasional mitotic figures were seen. The cyst wall showed marked edema and nests of luteinized cells that were morphologically similar to the cyst lining cells. Groups of lesional cells were surrounded by reticulin fibers. The patient has been healthy without disease after 7 years. The second patient was a 29-year old pregnant woman who was found to have a right ovarian cyst by ultrasound at 14-week gestation. She then presented with preterm labor at 33-week gestation and delivered a healthy female infant via caesarean section. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Gross inspection of the specimen revealed a unilocular, brown mucoid fluid filled cyst measuring 14 × 11 × 9 cm. The cyst surfaces were smooth, and the cyst wall exhibited marked edema. Microscopic examination showed features similar to the first case: cyst lined by luteinized cells with focal large nuclei, scattered nests of luteinized cells in the edematous fibrous wall, and reticulin fibers surrounding large nests of lesional cells. No mitoses, however, were identified in the second case. The patient has been well without disease 1 year after surgery. These two cases contribute to a better understanding of LSLFCPP. Our case in the 40-year old patient is the first to show mitotic figures in LSLFCPP and suggests that the

  17. The Effect of Modified Eggs and an Egg-Yolk Based Beverage on Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elton R.; Plat, Jogchum; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Kijlstra, Aize; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%). A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%). No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553 PMID:24675775

  18. Exogenous leptin administered intramuscularly induces sex hormone disorder and Ca loss via downregulation of Gnrh and PI3K expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihong; Liu, Wen; Bayaer, Nashun; Gu, Weiwang; Song, Jieli

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that increases the risk of metabolic disease, infertility, and other chronic health problems. The present study aimed to develop a new rat model for sex hormone disorder with overweight and Ca loss by intramuscular injection of exogenous leptin (LEP). Thirty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (40 days old) were injected thrice intramuscularly with LEP or keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunogen. The following analyses were performed to determine the development of appetite, overweight, reproductive related-hormones, and calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (Pi) in SD rats: measurement of Lee's index, body weight, food intake; serum Ca, Pi, and hormone tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis; histological analysis of abdominal fat; real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) mRNA, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) mRNA expression; and western blotting analysis of enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Rats injected with LEP immunogen displayed significantly increased body weight, food intake, Lee's index, serum LEP, serum cortisol, fat deposition in the abdomen, and decreased hormones including follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, cholecystokinin, and Ca. Exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly also downregulate Gnrh and PI3K. In conclusion, exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly is a novel animal model for sex hormones disorder with overweight and Ca loss in SD rats. The downregulation of PI3K and Gnrh may be involved in the development of this animal model. PMID:25048263

  19. Exogenous Leptin Administered Intramuscularly Induces Sex Hormone Disorder and Ca Loss via Downregulation of Gnrh and PI3K Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lihong; Liu, Wen; Bayaer, Nashun; Gu, Weiwang; Song, Jieli

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that increases the risk of metabolic disease, infertility, and other chronic health problems. The present study aimed to develop a new rat model for sex hormone disorder with overweight and Ca loss by intramuscular injection of exogenous leptin (LEP). Thirty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (40 days old) were injected thrice intramuscularly with LEP or keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunogen. The following analyses were performed to determine the development of appetite, overweight, reproductive related-hormones, and calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (Pi) in SD rats: measurement of Lee’s index, body weight, food intake; serum Ca, Pi, and hormone tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis; histological analysis of abdominal fat; real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) mRNA, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) mRNA expression; and western blotting analysis of enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Rats injected with LEP immunogen displayed significantly increased body weight, food intake, Lee’s index, serum LEP, serum cortisol, fat deposition in the abdomen, and decreased hormones including follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, cholecystokinin, and Ca. Exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly also downregulate Gnrh and PI3K. In conclusion, exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly is a novel animal model for sex hormones disorder with overweight and Ca loss in SD rats. The downregulation of PI3K and Gnrh may be involved in the development of this animal model. PMID:25048263

  20. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  1. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  2. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  3. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  4. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  5. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  6. Combined effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol on reproductive hormone levels and receptor expression in females of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Shi, Dazhao

    2012-01-01

    The effects of treatment with a combination of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP-1; ratio of 2:1) on reproductive hormone levels and the expression of their receptors in female Mongolian gerbils were examined. We show that serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased, whereas serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) increased after EP-1 treatment. EP1 down-regulated mRNA expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) βin the ovary. EP-1 up-regulated the mRNA expression of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the ovary as well as ERα and PR in the uterus of Mongolian gerbils. The effects were time-dependent and dose-dependent. EP-1 had no obvious effects on ERα mRNA expression in the ovary. The current study demonstrates that the effect of EP-1 on the expression of ER subtypes is tissue-specific in Mongolian gerbils. EP-1 disrupted the reproductive endocrinology of the Mongolian gerbil. These findings suggest that the effects of EP-1 on reproductive hormone levels and their receptor expression in Mongolian gerbils may be the result of synergistic actions of levonorgestrel and quinestrol, with quinestrol playing the major role. PMID:22233494

  7. Novel hormone "receptors".

    PubMed

    Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry

    2008-02-01

    Our concepts of hormone receptors have, until recently, been narrowly defined. In the last few years, an increasing number of reports identify novel proteins, such as enzymes, acting as receptors. In this review we cover the novel receptors for the hormones atrial naturetic hormone, enterostatin, hepcidin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, progesterone, and the vitamin D metabolites 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:17546587

  8. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  9. Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F

    1999-01-01

    Readers of this review may feel that there is much more that we do not know about space endocrinology than what we know. Several reasons for this state of affairs have been given: 1. the complexity of the field of endocrinology with its still increasing number of known hormones, releasing factors and precursors, and of the interactions between them through various feedback mechanisms 2. the difficulty in separating the microgravity effects from the effects of stress from launch, isolation and confinement during flight, reentry, and postflight re-adaptation 3. the experimental limitations during flight, such as limited number of subjects, limited number of samples, impossibility of collecting triple samples for pulsatile hormones like growth hormone 4. the disturbing effects of countermeasures used by astronauts 5. the inadequacy of postflight samples for conclusions about inflight values 6. limitations of conclusions from animal experiments and space simulation studies The endocrinology field is divided in to nine systems or axes, which are successively reviewed: 1. Rapid bone demineralization in the early phase of spaceflight that, when unopposed, leads to catastrophic effects after three months but that slows down later. The endocrine mechanism, apart from the effect of exercise as a countermeasure, is not yet understood. 2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved in stress reactions, which complicate our understanding and makes postflight analysis dubious. 3. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, pulsatility poses a problem for obtaining representative values (e.g., for luteinizing hormone). Reproduction of rats in space is possible, but much more needs to be known about this aspect, particularly in women, before the advent of space colonies, but also in males because some evidence for reversible testicular dysfunction in space has been found. 4. The hypothalamic-pituitary-somato-mammotrophic axis involves prolactin and growth hormone. The

  10. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  11. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  12. Lutein from Deepoxidation of Lutein Epoxide Replaces Zeaxanthin to Sustain an Enhanced Capacity for Nonphotochemical Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching in Avocado Shade Leaves in the Dark1

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Britta; Pogson, Barry James; Osmond, Charles Barry

    2011-01-01

    Leaves of avocado (Persea americana) that develop and persist in deep shade canopies have very low rates of photosynthesis but contain high concentrations of lutein epoxide (Lx) that are partially deepoxidized to lutein (L) after 1 h of exposure to 120 to 350 μmol photons m−2 s−1, increasing the total L pool by 5% to 10% (ΔL). Deepoxidation of Lx to L was near stoichiometric and similar in kinetics to deepoxidation of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z). Although the V pool was restored by epoxidation of A and Z overnight, the Lx pool was not. Depending on leaf age and pretreatment, the pool of ΔL persisted for up to 72 h in the dark. Metabolism of ΔL did not involve epoxidation to Lx. These contrasting kinetics enabled us to differentiate three states of the capacity for nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) in attached and detached leaves: ΔpH dependent (NPQΔpH) before deepoxidation; after deepoxidation in the presence of ΔL, A, and Z (NPQΔLAZ); and after epoxidation of A+Z but with residual ΔL (NPQΔL). The capacity of both NPQΔLAZ and NPQΔL was similar and 45% larger than NPQΔpH, but dark relaxation of NPQΔLAZ was slower. The enhanced capacity for NPQ was lost after metabolism of ΔL. The near equivalence of NPQΔLAZ and NPQΔL provides compelling evidence that the small dynamic pool ΔL replaces A+Z in avocado to “lock in” enhanced NPQ. The results are discussed in relation to data obtained with other Lx-rich species and in mutants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with increased L pools. PMID:21427278

  13. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and lutein on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Santin, E; Klasing, K C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of lutein and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens were evaluated in the presence and absence of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge. Cobb chicks (360; 1 to 22 d of age) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of CLA (0, 1, and 2%) and lutein (0 and 50 mg/kg) dietary levels. At d 8 and 15, birds were injected with BSA to assess IgY production. At d 20, birds were injected with LPS. Samples of liver, spleen, and duodenum were collected at 3 and 16 h post-LPS challenge for RT-qPCR analysis of RXRα, RXRγ, PPARα, PPARγ, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 gene expression. CLA decreased BW, BW gain (BWG), and G:F from d 1 to 20, but these effects were reversed when lutein was included in the 1% CLA diet (P < 0.001). The production of IgY anti-BSA increased following a 2% CLA supplementation (P < 0.01). LPS increased the liver:BW ratio at 3 h post-injection (P < 0.001) and decreased BWG at 3, 16, and 40 h (P < 0.001). Lutein decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels (P < 0.01). LPS downregulated PPARα mRNA in the duodenum (P = 0.02) and liver (P = 0.04), and PPARγ (P = 0.01) and RXRα (P = 0.08) in the spleen; these effects were not reversed by CLA or lutein as initially hypothesized. Although LPS upregulated IL-1β (P = 0.02) and IL-12 (P = 0.07) expression, lutein downregulated these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver (P = 0.03 and P = 0.07, respectively). Lutein decreased splenic (P = 0.09) but increased hepatic (P = 0.06) TLR-4 mRNA. A dietary CLA supplementation of 2% increased hepatic RXRα (P = 0.10). In conclusion, CLA decreased broiler chicken growth performance, but lutein could prevent this negative effect (depending on CLA dose). Lutein had an anti-inflammatory effect, and a 2% CLA supplementation improved the humoral immune response. PMID:26527712

  14. Evidence that copper-amino acid complexes are potent stimulators of the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone from isolated hypothalamic granules.

    PubMed

    Barnea, A; Cho, G

    1984-09-01

    Chelated copper has been previously shown to stimulate the release of LHRH from isolated hypothalamic granules. In this study, we evaluated the chelator specificity, the kinetic constants, and the characteristics of copper interaction with LHRH granules. LHRH granules were isolated from the median eminence area of adult male rats and then incubated in a buffered medium at 37 C. Release of LHRH into the incubation medium was assessed by RIA of LHRH remaining in the granules after incubation. It was found that CuHistidine (CuHis) as well as CuCysteine markedly stimulated LHRH release from the isolated granules, release being 56% and 63%, respectively, of the total LHRH content of granules incubated in buffer alone. In contrast, neither CuGly-His-Lys nor CuBSA stimulated LHRH release. The CuHis-stimulated release of LHRH was a saturable function of the concentration of CuHis. The Michaelis-Menten constants of this release process were estimated; the apparent Km for copper was found to be 4 microM, and the maximal velocity was 65% of the granule content of LHRH released in 5 min. In addition, we noted that CuHis-stimulated release of LHRH, assessed 6 min after CuHis, was completely abolished when dithiothreitol (DTT) was added immediately after CuHis, partially abolished when added 1 or 2 min after CuHis, and not affected at all when added 3 min after CuHis. This time course of DTT inhibition of LHRH release suggests that a period of 2-3 min of copper interaction with the granules is required for the 6-min manifestation of copper action. Furthermore, this DTT-inhibitable interaction of copper did not occur when granules were incubated at 4 C. In summary the findings that copper, chelated to putative circulating chelators, markedly stimulates LHRH release and that the apparent Km of 4 microM for copper in this process is within the concentration range for the physiological action of copper support the proposal that blood-borne copper can interact rapidly with the LHRH granule in an energy-requiring fashion and that, consequent to this interaction, LHRH release occurs. PMID:6378607

  15. Intracellular mechanism of the action of inhibin on the secretion of follicular stimulating hormone and of luteinizing hormone induced by LH-RH in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecomte-Yerna, M. J.; Hazee-Hagelstein, M. T.; Charlet-Renard, C.; Franchimont, P.

    1982-01-01

    The FSH secretion-inhibiting action of inhibin in vitro under basal conditions and also in the presence of LH-RH is suppressed by the addition of MIX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In the presence of LH-RH, inhibin reduces significantly the intracellular level of cAMP in isolated pituitary cells. In contrast, the simultaneous addition of MIX and inhibin raises the cAMP level, and this stimulation is comparable to the increase observed when MIX is added alone. These observations suggest that one mode of action of inhibin could be mediated by a reduction in cAMP within the pituitary gonadotropic cell.

  16. Treatment with recombinant equine follicle stimulating hormone (reFSH) followed by recombinant equine luteinizing hormone (reLH) increases embryo recovery in superovulated mares.

    PubMed

    Meyers-Brown, G; Bidstrup, L A; Famula, T R; Colgin, M; Roser, J F

    2011-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicular development depend on a timely interaction of gonadotropins and gonadal feedback in the mare. The development and efficacy of genetically cloned recombinant equine gonadotropins (reFSH and reLH) increase follicular activity and induce ovulation, respectively, but an optimum embryo recovery regimen in superovulated mares has not been established. The objective of this study was to determine if treatment with reFSH followed by reLH would increase the embryo per ovulation ratio and the number of embryos recovered after superovulation in mares. Sixteen estrous cycling mares of light horse breeds (4-12 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group 1; reFSH (0.65mg)/PBS (n=8) and Group 2; reFSH (0.65mg)/reLH (1.5mg) (n=8). On the day of a 22-25mm follicle post-ovulation mares were injected IV twice daily with reFSH for 3 days (PGF(2α) given IM on the second day of treatment) and once per day thereafter until a follicle or cohort of follicles reached 29mm after which either PBS or reLH was added and both groups injected IV twice daily until the presence of a 32mm follicles, when reFSH was discontinued. Thereafter, mares were injected three times daily IV with only PBS or reLH until a majority of follicles reached 35-38mm when treatment was discontinued. Mares were given hCG IV (2500IU) to induce ovulation and bred. Embryo recovery was performed on day 8 day post-treatment ovulation. Daily jugular blood samples were collected from the time of first ovulation until 8 days post-treatment ovulation. Blood samples were analyzed for LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone and inhibin by validated RIA. Duration of treatment to a ≥35mm follicle(s) and number of ovulatory size follicles were similar between reFSH/reLH and reFSH/PBS treated mares. The number of ovulations was greater (P<0.01) in the reFSH/reLH group, while the number of anovulatory follicles was less (P<0.05) compared to the reFSH/PBS group. Number of total embryos recovered were greater in reFSH/reLH mares than in the reFSH/PBS mares (P≤0.01). The embryo per ovulation ratio tended to be greater (P=0.07) in the reFSH/reLH mares. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, inhibin, LH and progesterone were not statistically different between groups. Plasma concentrations of FSH were less (P<0.01) in the reFSH/reLH treated mares on days 0, 1, 4, 6, 7 and 8 post-treatment ovulation. In summary, reFSH with the addition of reLH, which is critical for final follicular and oocyte maturation, was effective in increasing the number of ovulations and embryos recovered, as well as reduce the number of anovulatory follicles, making this a more viable option than treatment with reFSH alone. Further evaluation is needed to determine the dose and regimen of reFSH/reLH to significantly increase the embryo per ovulation ratio. PMID:22005252

  17. Feedback effects of estradiol and progesterone on ovulation and fertility of dairy cows after gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced release of luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Pulley, S L

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the effects of estradiol, progesterone, presence of a corpus luteum (CL), and size of a dominant follicle on the characteristics and patterns of GnRH-induced LH release and subsequent ovulation during a timed artificial insemination (TAI) program, or a combination of these. In 70 lactating dairy cows, a total of 163 blood collection periods resulting in a GnRH-induced LH release were analyzed. Concentrations of LH were measured in hourly samples (0 through 6 h after GnRH) during each of the blood collection periods, whereas concentrations of progesterone and estradiol were measured in the sample before GnRH treatment (0 h). Measures of LH included time to LH peak concentration during the 6-h blood collection period, the 2 largest concentrations of LH, mean, and variance of the 6 LH concentrations under each LH curve. Individual and combination effects of CL presence and a dominant follicle≤or >13.5mm, in addition to individual and combination effects of progesterone: low (<0.45 ng/mL; n=83), medium (0.53 to 2.41 ng/mL; n=25), and high (2.66 to 10.7 ng/mL; n=55), and estradiol: low (<4.0 pg/mL; n=89) and high (≥4.0 pg/mL; n=74) were independent variables in models to determine their influence on characteristics of LH and ovulation. Injections of GnRH induced LH release during 6 h after each of 163 injections. Measures of GnRH-induced LH concentration were inhibited at greater concentrations of progesterone and in the presence of a CL. In contrast, GnRH-induced LH concentrations were increased when estradiol was ≥4.0 pg/mL, but relatively unaffected by the size of the dominant follicle. Furthermore, resulting incidences of ovulation were decreased at greater progesterone concentrations and presence of a CL, and increased at greater estradiol concentrations and presence of follicles >13.5mm. In cows with or without a CL, the presence of a follicle >13.5mm did not increase mean LH concentration or incidence of ovulation. We conclude that when progesterone concentration exceeded 0.5 ng/mL at the time of GnRH treatment, subsequent LH concentrations and ovulation were suppressed. At that same concentration of progesterone or when concentrations of estradiol were ≥4 pg/mL, TAI pregnancy outcomes were improved in the face of similar incidences of ovulation suggesting greater progesterone or lesser estradiol at the time of AI may inhibit pregnancy establishment by other mechanisms. PMID:26898279

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-I feedback regulation of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in the pig: Evidence for a pituitary site of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ontogeny of IGF-I modulation of GH secretion from the anterior pituitary was studied. In EXP I, serial blood samples were collected from gilts at 90, 150 and 205 days of age, and 24 hr later anterior pituitary glands were collected for expression analysis of GH and pituitary-specific transcrip...

  19. Immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: histopathological and hormonal changes in the female rat.

    PubMed Central

    Okon, E.; Livni, N.; Koch, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Immunization of female rats against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) resulted in cessation of the oestrus cycles, undetectable serum gonadotrophin levels and a reduction of pituitary gonadotrophin stores and of hypothalamic content of GnRH. Immunization abolished the post-ovariectomy rise in serum levels and in pituitary content of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) without affecting prolactin levels. This suggests that GnRH is involved in the regulation of synthesis as well as the secretion of LH and FSH. Histopathological changes were found in the pituitary, ovaries and uterus of the immunized rats. A marked reduction in the number of gonadotrophs as well as a small decrease in the size of other cells was observed in the pituitaries of rats having high anti-GnRH titres. Rats immunized 5 weeks before castration showed a marked reduction in the number and in the size of castration cells. The ovaries exhibited various degrees of atrophy which were correlated with the anti-GnRH titres. Rats with high anti-GnRH titres revealed extensive atrophy of stromal cells with disappearance of large follicles and corpora lutea; ovaries of rats with low titres of antibodies exhibited small corpora lutea and larger follicles, some of which were cystic. Uteri of rats having high titres of anti-GnRH were severely atrophied with cystic glandular dilation. Uteri of rats with low anti-GnRH titres showed squamous-cell metaplasia and fibrosis of the endometrial stroma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7006665

  20. Hormonal therapies in acne.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James C

    2002-07-01

    Hormones, in particular androgen hormones, are the main cause of acne in men, women, children and adults, in both normal states and endocrine disorders. Therefore, the use of hormonal therapies in acne is rational in concept and gratifying in practice. Although non-hormonal therapies enjoy wide usage and continue to be developed, there is a solid place for hormonal approaches in women with acne, especially adult women with persistent acne. This review covers the physiological basis for hormonal influence in acne, the treatments that are in use today and those that show promise for the future. The main treatments to be discussed are oral contraceptives androgen receptor blockers like spironolactone and flutamide, inhibitors of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and topical hormonal treatments. PMID:12083987

  1. Clinical and hormonal status of infants with nonmosaic XXY karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Lahlou, Najiba; Fennoy, Ilene; Ross, Judith L; Bouvattier, Claire; Roger, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare our recent findings in a cohort of 77 nonmosaic XXY infants <2 years of age with clinical and biological features already reported. Results The majority of reported XXY neonates had normal external genitalia. Only undescended testes and/or micropenis were identified reasons for referral. Delayed ambulation and speech skills were also indications for postnatally karyotyping. All subjects from our cohort (73 prenatally detected subjects, five postnatal diagnoses) had height and weight within the normal range, and were not dysmorphic. Insulin-like-peptide-3 and testosterone secretion by Leydig cells appeared normally sensitive to luteinizing hormone. In reported studies, inhibin B levels were within normal range, anti-Mullerian hormone levels were normal or high and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were significantly higher than control values, data consistent with a relative resistance to FSH. Conclusion Early detection of Klinefelter syndrome is desirable for prospectively monitoring the apparition of developmental problems and the progressive decline in the tubular function of the testis, with the hope of designing future conservative interventions before germ cell degeneration is completed. PMID:21429009

  2. Increases in plasma lutein through supplementation are correlated with increases in physical activity and reductions in sedentary time in older adults.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m²; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = -0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term. PMID:24594505

  3. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Schneider, Gabriela; Sun, Wenyue; Abdelbaset-Ismail, Ahmed; Barr, Frederic G; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-05-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  4. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  5. Endocrine disrupting effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane analogues on gonadotropin hormones in pituitary gonadotrope cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinghua; Yang, Ye; Xiong, Kang; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) analogues leads to disharmony of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, the effects and mechanisms of DDT analogues on the expression of gonadotropin genes (FSHβ, LHβ and Cgα), which is the rate-limiting step of FSH and LH biosynthesis, remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and methoxychlor (MXC) on gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in gonadotrope cells. p,p'-DDT and MXC at test concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-7)mol/L, stimulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was required for the induction of gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis by p,p'-DDT or MXC exposure. This study showed for the first time that p,p'-DDT and MXC regulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis through ERK pathway in gonadotrope cells. PMID:24814263

  6. Functional role of the heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, and its receptor, LGR1: An invertebrate perspective.

    PubMed

    Rocco, David A; Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V

    2016-08-01

    In vertebrates, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are glycoprotein hormones that play central roles in metabolism, reproduction and development. Recently, a novel heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, called GPA2/GPB5, was discovered in humans; however, contrary to its vertebrate glycoprotein hormone relatives, the physiological role of GPA2/GPB5 has not yet been fully elucidated in any vertebrate or invertebrate. Moreover, it is unclear as to whether GPA2/GPB5 functions as a heterodimer or as individual GPA2 and GPB5 monomers in these organisms. GPA2- and GPB5-like subunits have been identified or predicted in a wide array of animal phyla including the nematodes, chordates, hemichordates, arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms and annelids. So far, molecular studies on transcript expression of the GPA2/GPB5 subunits and its putative receptor, the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 1 (LGR1), suggests this glycoprotein hormone system plays a developmental role and may also function in hydromineral balance in invertebrates. This mini-review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the physiological actions and activity of this evolutionarily ancient heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone with a particular focus on its known functions in the invertebrates. PMID:26704853

  7. Anti-mullerian hormon level and polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zadehmodarres, Shahrzad; Heidar, Zahra; Razzaghi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Leili; Soltanzadeh, Kaveh; Abed, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that accompanied with long term complications. The early diagnosis of this syndrome can prevent it. Objective: The aim was to determine the role of anti-mullerian hormon (AMH) in PCOS diagnosis and to find cut off level of it. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 117 women between 20-40 years old were participated in two groups: 60 PCOS women (based on Rotterdam criteria consensus) as the case group and 57 normal ovulatory women as the control group. In day 2-4 of cycle, transvaginal sonography was performed and serum hormonal level of AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, fasting blood sugar (FBS), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) were measured in all of participants. For all of them score of hirsutism (base on Freeman-Galloway scoring) was determined. Results: There were statistically significant in irregular pattern of menstruation, AMH and FSH level, and presence of hirsutism between two groups. But regarding mean of age, body mass index, plasma level of PRL, TSH, LH, Testosterone, FBS, and E2 differences were not significant. Construction by ROC curve present 3.15 ng/ml as AMH cut off with 70.37% sensitivity and 77.36% specificity in order to PCOS diagnosis. Conclusion: AMH with cut off level of 3.15 ng/ml with sensitivity 70.37% and specificity 77.36% could use for early diagnosis of PCOS patients. PMID:26131012

  8. Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

  9. Human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Strobl, J S; Thomas, M J

    1994-03-01

    The study of human growth hormone is a little more than 100 years old. Growth hormone, first identified for its dramatic effect on longitudinal growth, is now known to exert generalized effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additional roles for growth hormone in human physiology are likely to be discovered in the areas of sleep research and reproduction. Furthermore, there is some indication that growth hormone also may be involved in the regulation of immune function, mental well-being, and the aging process. Recombinant DNA technology has provided an abundant and safe, albeit expensive, supply of human growth hormone for human use, but the pharmacological properties of growth hormone are poor. Most growth hormone-deficient individuals exhibit a secretory defect rather than a primary defect in growth hormone production, however, and advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion have established the basis for the use of drugs to stimulate release of endogenously synthesized growth hormone. This promises to be an important area for future drug development. PMID:8190748

  10. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available. PMID:18786497

  11. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  12. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  13. Why has Nature Chosen Lutein and Zeaxanthin to Protect the Retina?

    PubMed Central

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a low level of macular carotenoids in the eye retina. Only two carotenoids, namely lutein and zeaxanthin are selectively accumulated in the human eye retina from blood plasma where more than twenty other carotenoids are available. The third carotenoid which is found in the human retina, meso-zeaxanthin is formed directly in the retina from lutein. All these carotenoids, named also macular xanthophylls, play key roles in eye health and retinal disease. Macular xanthophylls are thought to combat light-induced damage mediated by reactive oxygen species by absorbing the most damaging incoming wavelength of light prior to the formation of reactive oxygen species (a function expected of carotenoids in nerve fibers) and by chemically and physically quenching reactive oxygen species once they are formed (a function expected of carotenoids in photoreceptor outer segments). There are two major hypotheses about the precise location of macular xanthophylls in the nerve fiber layer of photoreceptor axons and in photoreceptor outer segments. According to the first, macular xanthophylls transversely incorporate in the lipid-bilayer portion of membranes of the human retina. According to the second, macular xanthophylls are protein-bound by membrane-associated, xanthophyll-binding proteins. In this review we indicate specific properties of macular xanthophylls that could help explain their selective accumulation in the primate retina with special attention paid to xanthophyll-membrane interactions. PMID:24883226

  14. Hormone signaling pathways as treatment targets in renal cell cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Niedzwiedzka, Magdalena; Porta, Camillo; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, biochemical and genetic research has revealed that renal cell cancer (RCC) etiology is hormone-related. It was shown that hormone receptors are abnormally expressed in RCC cells. Abnormal endocrine stimulation also plays a significant role in RCC pathophysiology. Cellular proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in RCC is modulated by para- and autocrine hormonal stimulation. In particular, RCC overexpression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor was reported. On the contrary, corticotropin releasing hormone was reported to inhibit RCC cell proliferation and regulate angiogenesis. Overexpression of luteinizing hormone also promotes RCC tumor angiogenesis. Estrogen receptor α overexpression increases the transcriptional factor activity of hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but estrogen receptor β has a cancer suppressive role. Glucocorticoid receptors and androgen receptor are markers of indolent RCC and assigned tumor suppressive activity. Proopiomelanocortin is upregulated in VHL-mutated renal cell carcinoma via Nur77 transcription factor signaling. In RCC, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor promotes angiogenesis and metastatic formation via VEGF release. Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression promotes cell survival and increases RCC cell proliferation. Vitamin D receptor expression is downregulated or absent in RCC and differentiate subtypes of renal cell tumors. RAR-β promotes tumorigenesis but retinoic acid receptor γ expression correlates negatively with the TNM stage at diagnosis. Finally, progesterone receptor expression is negatively correlated with the cancer stage. Molecular data analysis revealed the possibility of renal cancer cell proliferation induction via hormone activated pathways. Inhibition of hormonal signaling may thus play a putative role in supportive therapies against this cancer type. PMID:27035677

  15. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein. PMID:16242702

  16. Physiologic responses following gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization in intact male dogs.

    PubMed

    Donovan, C E; Greer, M; Kutzler, M A

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the use of a commercial gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine as a method of temporary and reversible immunocastration in intact male dogs. Four privately owned dogs were vaccinated twice at 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 12 and 20 weeks following the initial vaccination. These samples were analysed for GnRH antibody titres, luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations. Scrotal measurements were made at the time of sample collection, and testicular volume was calculated using the formula of an ellipsoid. As a result of vaccination, dogs displayed an elevated GnRH antibody titre, decreased LH and testosterone concentrations and decreased testicular volume, which reversed by the end of the study period. Therefore, these results suggest that immunizing against GnRH may be a possible choice for temporary and reversible immunocastration. PMID:23279550

  17. The role of sex and sex-related hormones in cognition, mood and well-being in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Teresa Costa; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Novais, Ashley; Costa, Patrício Soares; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine Correia

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in hormone levels during aging impact on cognition and mood. Serum concentration levels of testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and prolactin (PRL) were assessed in 120 community-dwellers (51+ years of age, males and females), in a cross-sectional approach. Performance clusters based on executive functioning (GENEXEC), memory (MEM), mood and well-being were obtained. In males, higher PRL levels associated with worse cognitive performance, lower well-being, and higher scores in depression scales, and lower E2 with poorer cognition and higher depressive mood. DHEAS positively associated with GENEXEC and MEM. Nutritional status significantly associated with PRL (positively) and with DHEAS (negatively). Findings indicate that besides the more exhaustively studied E2 and TT, variations in the levels of sex-related hormones such as PRL, FSH, LH and DHEAS are of interest for the mental health aging profile particularly in men. PMID:25196100

  18. Proteomic and functional profiles of a follicle-stimulating hormone positive human nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Guo, Tianyao; Peng, Fang; Long, Ying; Mu, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ye, Ningrong; Li, Xuejun; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-06-01

    Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is highly heterogeneous with different hormone-expressed subtypes in NFPA tissues including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) positive, luteinizing hormone-positive, FSH/luteinizing hormone-positive, and negative types. To analyze in-depth the variations in the proteomes among different NFPA subtypes for our long-term goal to clarify molecular mechanisms of NFPA and to detect tumor biomarker for personalized medicine practice, a reference map of proteome of a human FSH-expressed NFPA tissue was described here. 2DE and PDQuest image analysis were used to array each protein. MALDI-TOF PMF and human Swiss-Prot databases with MASCOT search were used to identify each protein. A good 2DE pattern with high level of between-gel reproducibility was attained with an average positional deviation 1.98 ± 0.75 mm in the IEF direction and 1.62 ± 0.68 mm in the SDS-PAGE direction. Approximately 1200 protein spots were 2DE-detected and 192 redundant proteins that were contained in 141 protein spots were PMF-identified, representing 107 nonredundant proteins. Those proteins were located in cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, extracellular space, and so on, and those functioned in transmembrane receptor, ion channel, transcription/translation regulator, transporter, enzyme, phosphatase, kinase, and so on. Several important pathway networks were characterized from those identified proteins with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis systems, including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle alteration, MAPKsignaling system, immune response, TP53-signaling, VEGF-signaling, and inflammation signaling pathways. Those resulting data contribute to a functional profile of the proteome of a human FSH-positive NFPA tissue, and will serve as a reference for the heterogeneity analysis of NFPA proteomes. PMID:25809007

  19. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  20. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  1. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, ... know that estrogen (the major female hormone) and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone, another female hormone) ...

  2. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  3. Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: Influence of pH and temperature on physical and chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Gumus, Cansu Ekin; McClements, David Julian

    2016-04-01

    Lutein may be utilized in foods as a natural pigment or nutraceutical ingredient to improve eye health. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its poor water-solubility and chemical instability. We evaluated the effect of storage temperature and pH on the physical and chemical stability of lutein-enriched emulsions prepared using caseinate. The emulsions (initial droplet diameter=232 nm) remained physically stable at all incubation temperatures (5-70 °C); however the chemical degradation of lutein increased with increasing temperature (activation energy=38 kJ/mol). Solution pH had a major impact on the physical stability of the emulsions, causing droplet aggregation at pH 4 and 5. Conversely, the chemical stability of lutein was largely independent of the pH, with only a slight decrease in degradation at pH 8. This work provides important information for the rational design of emulsion-based delivery systems for a lipophilic natural dye and nutraceutical. PMID:26593560

  4. Contribution of selected wild and cultivated leafy vegetables from South India to lutein and beta-carotene intake.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Julie; Balakrishna, Mungara; Latha, Putta; Katumalla, Shoba; Johns, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids, especially lutein and beta-carotene, offer benefits to human health in general and to eye health in particular. However, more data on the contribution of plant foods to carotenoid intake is of importance for developing strategies for promoting eye health in regions where cataract is highly prevalent such as in South India. The most frequently consumed 5 uncultivated and 5 commercially grown South Andhra Pradesh leafy vegetables were selected based on interviews with 100 local women. The lutein and beta-carotene contents of fresh and cooked samples were determined using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Lutein values ranged from 53 to 143 microg/g and 58 to 175 microg/g in fresh and cooked samples, respectively. beta-carotene contents were found to range from 45 to 119 microg/g in fresh samples and from 40 to 159 microg/g in cooked samples. No significant difference was observed between the carotenoid contents of wild and commercially grown species. According to their reported frequency of consumption, the 10 species considered in this study contribute 40% of the daily recommended intake of beta-carotene. This is the first report of lutein content in fresh samples of Celosia argentea L., Rumex vesicarius L., Digera muricata (L.) Mart., and Amaranthus cruentus L. as well as in cooked samples of all species included in this study. PMID:20805087

  5. Modulation of DNA-Induced Damage and Repair Capacity in Humans after Dietary Intervention with Lutein-Enriched Fermented Milk

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Soldevilla, Beatriz; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Herrera, Mercedes; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Domínguez, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers. PMID:24040187

  6. Modulation of DNA-induced damage and repair capacity in humans after dietary intervention with lutein-enriched fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Soldevilla, Beatriz; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Herrera, Mercedes; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Domínguez, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers. PMID:24040187

  7. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1988-01-05

    The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB(/sup 3/H)/sub 4/. The /sup 3/H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species.

  8. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    PubMed

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-01

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels. PMID:26506366

  9. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels. PMID:26506366

  10. Correlation between ovarian morphology and biochemical and hormonal parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Cihan; Karadag, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the biochemical and hormonal differences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology and to evaluate the outcomes resulting from those differences. Methods: The study included a total of 83 patients with PCOS; 43 of them had PCO morphology (Group-I) and 40 did not (Group-II). Serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), total testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17b-estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), glucose and insulin levels were determined. Homoeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to BMI. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of Group-I were significantly lower (p<0.01). Serum mean level of LH (p=0.026) and the mean LH/FSH (p=0.001) level of Group-I were significantly higher than Group-II. The total cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Group-I were significantly lower (p<0.05, p<0.01). The mean HOMA-IR level of Group-I was significantly lower than Group-II (p=0.004). Conclusions: The group without PCO morphology had a higher risk than the other group in terms of increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases due to effects of hyperandrogenism. PMID:27375725

  11. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. PMID:23267837

  12. [The level of pregnancy-associated alpha2-glycoprotein and the hormonal background during different options of hormonal replacement therapy in the menopausal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zorina, V N; Predeina, E M; Zorina, R M; Levchenko, V G; Bazhenova, L G; Zorin, N A

    2007-07-01

    The authors studied the concentration of pregnancy-associated alpha2-glycoprotein (PA alpha2GP), a sensitive marker of estrogen-dependent tumors, and the association of its level with the serum content of a number of hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E-2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DEAS-S), and testosterone in females receiving the groups of drugs containing: 1) estradiol valerate; 2) 17beta-estradiol, and 3) tibolone. The type of the active ingredient of a drug and the duration of its administration were shown to differently affect both the concentration of hypothalamopituitary hormones and steroid sex hormones and the level of PA alpha2GP). The latter increased significantly in Group 1 and insignificantly in Group 2 and did not differ from the normal values in Group 3, at the same time the concentration of E-2 elevated in Groups 1 and 2, rather than in Group 3; the level of DEAS-S increased in Groups 2 and 3 irrespective of the duration of use. Moreover, there were elevated levels of testosterone in Group 3 and those of DEAS-S in Group 1 only when the drugs were administered for 3-6 months. A number of correlations were found in the levels of PA alpha2GP with those of steroid hormones. The authors consider that individual monitoring of the level of PA alpha2GP in the females who need hormonal therapy in menopause provides a useful guide to choosing a drug, monitoring its use efficiency, and preventing malignant proliferation in proper time. PMID:17802803

  13. The Relationship of Bleeding Patterns to Daily Reproductive Hormones in Women Approaching Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhis, Bradley J.; Santoro, Nanette; Harlow, Sioban; Crawford, Sybil L.; Randolph, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discover early hormonal predictors of menopause and the stages of the menopausal transition, and to understand the hormonal basis behind the bleeding abnormalities common in the menopausal transition. Methods A cohort of 804 women aged 42–52 collected daily first void urine samples for one complete menstrual cycle or 50 days (whichever came first) once a year for 3 years. Urine was assayed for excreted levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen metabolites, and progesterone metabolites which were normalized for creatinine concentration. Anovulation was defined by an algorithm based on progesterone secretion. Menstrual bleeding parameters were derived from daily calendars. Correlations between bleeding characteristics, hormone concentrations, and other potential clinical predictors were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models. Results An ethnically diverse population of women (mean age of 47) with a majority in the early perimenopause was studied. Approximately 20% of all cycles were anovulatory. Short cycle intervals (fewer than 21 days) were common early in the menopause transition and were associated with anovulation (44%). Long cycle intervals (more than 36 days) also were associated with anovulatory cycles (65%). Both short (1–3 days) and long (more than 8 days) duration of menstrual bleeding were associated with anovulation, 18% and 23%, respectively. Women with anovulatory cycles were less likely to report heavy menstrual bleeding as compared to those with ovulatory cycles. Heavy bleeding was not associated with steroid hormone concentrations but was associated with obesity and with the self-reported presence of leiomyomata. Conclusion Among women in the early menopause transition, abnormalities in timing of menstrual bleeding (cycle intervals or bleeding duration) have a hormonal basis and are frequently associated with anovulation. In contrast, abnormally heavy periods do not appear to have a

  14. Radical Scavenging Activity-Based and AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lutein in Macrophage-Like and Skin Keratinocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jueun; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Jae Gwang; Yi, Young-Su; Park, Kye Won; Rho, Ho Sik; Lee, Min-Seuk; Yoo, Jae Won; Kang, Seung-Hyun; Hong, Yong Deog; Shin, Song Seok; Cho, Jae Youl

    2013-01-01

    Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL-) 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-) α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP-) 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin. PMID:23533312

  15. Effects of Lutein on Hyperosmoticity-Induced Upregulation of IL-6 in Cultured Corneal Epithelial Cells and Its Relevant Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shih-Chun; Nien, Chan-Wei; Iacob, Codrin; Hu, Dan-Ning; Huang, Sheng-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder characterized by deficiency of tear. Hyperosmoticity of tear stimulates inflammation and damage of ocular surface tissues and plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. Cultured human corneal epithelial (CE) cells were used for the study of effects of lutein and hyperosmoticity on the secretion of IL-6 by CE cells. Cell viability of CE cells was not affected by lutein at 1–10 μM as determined by MTT assay. Hyperosmoticity significantly elevated the secretion of IL-6 by CE cells as measured by ELISA analysis. The constitutive secretion of IL-6 was not affected by lutein. Lutein significantly and dose-dependently inhibited hyperosmoticity-induced secretion of IL-6. Phosphorylated- (p)- p38 MAPK, p-JNK levels in cell lysates and NF-κB levels in cell nuclear extracts were increased by being exposed to hyperosmotic medium. JNK, p38, and NF-κB inhibitors decreased hyperosmoticity-induced secretion of IL-6. Lutein significantly inhibited hyperosmoticity-induced elevation of NF-κB, p38, and p-JNK levels. We demonstrated that lutein inhibited hyperosmoticity-induced secretion of IL-6 in CE cells through the deactivation of p38, JNK, and NF-κB pathways. Lutein may be a promising agent to be explored for the treatment of dry eye. PMID:27047687

  16. Physicochemical stability, microrheological properties and microstructure of lutein emulsions stabilized by multilayer membranes consisting of whey protein isolate, flaxseed gum and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duoxia; Aihemaiti, Zulipiya; Cao, Yanping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting

    2016-07-01

    The impact of chitosan (CTS) on the physicochemical stability, microrheological property and microstructure of whey protein isolate (WPI)-flaxseed gum (FG) stabilized lutein emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered lutein emulsions. Droplet size, zeta-potential, instability index, microstructure and microrheological behavior of lutein emulsions were measured. The influences of interfacial layer, metal chelator and free radical scavenger on the chemical stability of lutein emulsions were also investigated. It was found that multilayer emulsions had better physical stability showing the pronounced effect of 1wt% CTS. The mean square displacement analysis demonstrated that CTS led to increases of macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index for WPI-FG stabilized lutein emulsions due to CTS embedding in the network. CTS also helped to chemically stabilize the lutein emulsions against degradation. The combination of interfacial membrane and prooxidative metal chelator or free radical scavenger was an effective method to control lutein degradation. PMID:26920280

  17. Association of HDL-Related Loci with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Plasma Lutein and Zeaxanthin: the Alienor Study

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Maubaret, Cécilia; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Malet, Florence; Le Goff, Mélanie; Dartigues, Jean-François; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Background Several genes implicated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism have been reported to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, HDL transport the two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, which are highly suspected to play a key-role in the protection against AMD. The objective is to confirm the associations of HDL-related loci with AMD and to assess their associations with plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Methods Alienor study is a prospective population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 elderly residents of Bordeaux, France. AMD was graded according to the international classification, from non-mydriatic colour retinal photographs. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin were determined by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The following polymorphisms were studied: rs493258 and rs10468017 (LIPC), rs3764261 (CETP), rs12678919 (LPL) and rs1883025 (ABCA1). Results After multivariate adjustment, the TT genotype of the LIPC rs493258 variant was significantly associated with a reduced risk for early and late AMD (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.41-0.99; p=0.049 and OR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.08-0.85; p=0.03, respectively), and with higher plasma zeaxanthin concentrations (p=0.03), while plasma lipids were not significantly different according to this SNP. Besides, the LPL variant was associated with early AMD (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.45-1.00; p=0.05) and both with plasma lipids and plasma lutein (p=0.047). Associations of LIPC rs10468017, CETP and ABCA1 polymorphisms with AMD did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion These findings suggest that LIPC and LPL genes could both modify the risk for AMD and the metabolism of lutein and zeaxanthin. PMID:24223199

  18. Rare recurrence of a rare ovarian stromal tumor with luteinized cells: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary are uncommon. They behave unpredictably and often have a late recurrence, making counseling, management, and prediction of prognosis challenging. Case presentation A 52-year-old Moroccan woman with an sex cord-stromal tumors underwent a bilateral oophorectomy. The histology was unusual but was likely to be a luteinized thecoma with suspicious features for invasion. Seven years later, after a gastrointestinal bleed, a metastasis within the small bowel mucosa was detected. This represents probable isolated hematogenous or lymphatic spread, which is highly unusual, especially in the absence of concurrent peritoneal disease. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an sex cord-stromal tumors recurring in small bowel mucosa and mimicking a primary colorectal tumor. This highlights the diverse nature and behavior of these tumors. PMID:21816048

  19. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

  20. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  1. Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-zeaxanthin Supplementation Associated with Macular Pigment Optical Density.

    PubMed

    Ma, Le; Liu, Rong; Du, Jun Hui; Liu, Tao; Wu, Shan Shan; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy subjects. Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was searched through May 2016. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted weighted mean differences (WMD) for intervention-versus-placebo group about the change of MPOD between baseline and terminal point. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the changes in MPOD and blood xanthophyll carotenoids or baseline MPOD levels. Twenty RCTs involving 938 AMD patients and 826 healthy subjects were identified. Xanthophyll carotenoids supplementation was associated with significant increase in MPOD in AMD patients (WMD, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) and healthy subjects (WMD, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14). Stratified analysis showed a greater increase in MPOD among trials supplemented and combined with meso-zeaxanthin. Additionally, the changes in MPOD were related with baseline MPOD levels (rAMD = -0.43, p = 0.06; rhealthy subjects = -0.71, p < 0.001) and blood xanthophyll carotenoids concentration (rAMD = 0.40, p = 0.07; rhealthy subjects = 0.33, p = 0.05). This meta-analysis revealed that lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin supplementation improved MPOD both in AMD patients and healthy subjects with a dose-response relationship. PMID:27420092

  2. Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-zeaxanthin Supplementation Associated with Macular Pigment Optical Density

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Le; Liu, Rong; Du, Jun Hui; Liu, Tao; Wu, Shan Shan; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy subjects. Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was searched through May 2016. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted weighted mean differences (WMD) for intervention-versus-placebo group about the change of MPOD between baseline and terminal point. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the changes in MPOD and blood xanthophyll carotenoids or baseline MPOD levels. Twenty RCTs involving 938 AMD patients and 826 healthy subjects were identified. Xanthophyll carotenoids supplementation was associated with significant increase in MPOD in AMD patients (WMD, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) and healthy subjects (WMD, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14). Stratified analysis showed a greater increase in MPOD among trials supplemented and combined with meso-zeaxanthin. Additionally, the changes in MPOD were related with baseline MPOD levels (rAMD = −0.43, p = 0.06; rhealthy subjects = −0.71, p < 0.001) and blood xanthophyll carotenoids concentration (rAMD = 0.40, p = 0.07; rhealthy subjects = 0.33, p = 0.05). This meta-analysis revealed that lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin supplementation improved MPOD both in AMD patients and healthy subjects with a dose-response relationship. PMID:27420092

  3. Serum sex hormone levels in different severity of male adult obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Qi; Chen, Xiong; Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Niu, Xun; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a serious health issue, which can impact the hormone secretion. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between serum sex hormone concentrations and different severity degree of OSAHS, and to evaluate the influence of OSAHS on sex hormone levels. We enrolled 116 subjects who were subjected to polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups: control group (n=10) [apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <5/h], mild-moderate OSAHS group (n=15) (5≤AHI<30/h), and severe OSAHS group (n=91) (AHI≥30/h). The patients in OSAHS group were subdivided into obesity and non-obesity subgroups. The parameters such as AHI, body mass index (BMI), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2), and mean oxygen saturation (MSaO2) were recorded. Serum levels of testosterone, polactin, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in the morning immediately after waking up. Mean levels of hormones were compared among groups. The correlation between hormone levels and sleep-breathing parameters was analyzed. No significant differences in serum sex hormone levels were found among control, mild-moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS groups (P>0.05). There was no correlation between AHI and sex hormone levels (P>0.05). Testosterone was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). These results suggested that BMI might have a direct effect on testosterone level, and it might be an important factor affecting testosterone level in male OSAHS patients, and there may be no correlation between severity of OSAHS and sex hormones levels. PMID:26223926

  4. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  5. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: Pharmaceutical products . These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  6. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  7. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  8. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  9. Autoimmunity against thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sakata, S

    1994-01-01

    The presence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) is a common phenomenon. More than 270 cases have been reported by the end of 1993 involving not only thyroidal but also nonthyroidal disorders. Clinically, THAA in a patient's serum produces variation in thyroid hormone metabolism and, in particular, may interfere with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) results of total or free thyroid hormone measurements, which can cause unusually high or low values of the hormones depending on the B/F separation method used. This in vitro interference can give clinicians confusing information about the patient's thyroid state. As a result, the patient may receive inappropriate treatment from physicians who are unaware of this disorder. The presence of THAA has been reported not only in humans but also in dogs, chickens, and rats. In this review article, clinical features of THAA and the mechanism of autoantibody production are discussed. PMID:7535535

  10. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken just before the period starts Women over age 40 and older may have the option to receive cyclic progestin or cyclic hormone therapy. A health care provider may recommend iron supplements for women with anemia. If you want ...

  11. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy comparison of recombinant and urinary HCG for inducing oocyte maturation and follicular luteinization in ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, G L; Tyler, J P; Hangan, J T; Fisher, P R; Birdsall, M A; Knight, D C

    2000-06-01

    A randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, phase III clinical trial was conducted in 84 women to compare the efficacy of a s.c. injection of 250 microg recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (rHCG; Ovidrel) to an i.m. injection of 5000 IU urinary HCG (uHCG; Profasi) in inducing folliculogenesis, resumption of oocyte meiosis and luteinization after ovulation induction with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (Gonal-F). The study primary endpoint was comparison of the number of oocytes retrieved per patient receiving either compound. Secondary comparisons included the number of oocytes retrieved per follicles aspirated; the number of mature oocytes; normally fertilized oocytes; and cleaved embryos. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the primary endpoint (mean +/- SD oocytes retrieved 10.8 +/- 4.5 for rHCG versus 10.3 +/- 5.1 for uHCG) or each of the secondary endpoints except for increased concentrations of progesterone 6-7 days after rHCG administration (353.2 +/- 215.1 versus 234.1 +/- 129.4 nmol/l; P < 0. 004) and for HCG during the luteal phase following rHCG (P < 0.02). There were also no significant side-effects for either drug. Since the confidence intervals for the difference of the number of oocytes retrieved between the two treatment groups were within the bounds defined by the multi-trial protocol equivalence between rHCG and uHCG could be declared. PMID:10831560

  12. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  13. Role of the Extracellular and Intracellular Loops of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor in Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Antara A.; Mahale, Smita D.

    2015-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) is a leucine-rich repeat containing class A G-protein coupled receptor belonging to the subfamily of glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHRs), which includes luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. Its cognate ligand, follicle-stimulating hormone binds to, and activates FSHR expressed on the surface of granulosa cells of the ovary, in females, and Sertoli cells of the testis, in males, to bring about folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis, respectively. FSHR contains a large extracellular domain (ECD) consisting of leucine-rich repeats at the N-terminal end and a hinge region at the C-terminus that connects the ECD to the membrane spanning transmembrane domain (TMD). The TMD consists of seven α-helices that are connected to each other by means of three extracellular loops (ELs) and three intracellular loops (ILs) and ends in a short-cytoplasmic tail. It is well established that the ECD is the primary hormone binding domain, whereas the TMD is the signal transducing domain. However, several studies on the ELs and ILs employing site directed mutagenesis, generation of chimeric receptors and in vitro characterization of naturally occurring mutations have proven their indispensable role in FSHR function. Their role in every phase of the life cycle of the receptor like post translational modifications, cell surface trafficking, hormone binding, activation of downstream signaling, receptor phosphorylation, hormone–receptor internalization, and recycling of hormone–receptor complex have been documented. Mutations in the loops causing dysregulation of these processes lead to pathophysiological conditions. In other GPHRs as well, the loops have been convincingly shown to contribute to various aspects of receptor function. This review article attempts to summarize the extensive contributions of FSHR loops and C-terminal tail to its function. PMID:26236283

  14. Hormonal state influences aspects of female mate choice in the Túngara Frog (Physalaemus pustulosus).

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Crews, David; Ryan, Michael J; Wilczynski, Walter

    2006-04-01

    Females alter their mate choices as they transition through different reproductive stages; however, the proximal mechanisms for such behavioral fluctuation are unclear. In many taxa, as females transition through different reproductive stages, there is an associated change in hormone levels; therefore, we examined whether fluctuation in hormone levels serves as a proximal mechanism for within-individual variation in mate choice in female túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus). We manipulated hormone levels of females by administering 0, 10, 100, 500 or 1,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which is a ligand for luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors and will therefore cause increased gonadal hormone production. Phonotaxis assays were conducted to measure three aspects of mate choice behavior before and after HCG administration; receptivity (response to a conspecific mate signal), permissiveness (response to a signal that is less attractive than conspecific signals) and discrimination (ability to discern signal differences). The probability of response to a conspecific and an artificial hybrid signal significantly increased at the highest HCG doses. The difference in mean response time between pre- and post-HCG tests was significantly different for both the receptivity and permissiveness tests among the five doses. Increased permissiveness, however, was not due to decreased discrimination because females could discriminate between calls even at the highest HCG doses. These hormonal manipulations caused the same behavioral pattern we reported in females as they transitioned through different reproductive stages (Lynch, K.S., Rand, A.S., Ryan, M.J., Wilczynski, W., 2005. Plasticity in female mate choice associated with changing reproductive states. Anim. Behav. 69, 689-699), suggesting that changes in hormone levels can influence the female's mate choice behavior. PMID:16277986

  15. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  16. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Qingning; Gao, Shasha; Zhou, Jilin; Qin, Jian; Taylor, Allen; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Tang, Guangwen; Sparrow, Janet R.; Gierhart, Dennis; Shang, Fu

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work is to test the protective effects of lutein and zeaxanthin against photo-oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of inflammation-related genes. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photo-oxidation in vivo, we used ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore and photosensitizer, as a model system to investigate the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. The data show that supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin in the medium resulted in accumulation of lutein or zeaxanthin in the RPE cells. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the cells were 2–14-fold of that detected in the medium, indicating that ARPE-19 cells actively take up lutein or zeaxanthin. As compared with untreated cells, exposure of A2E-containing RPE to blue light resulted in a 40–60% decrease in proteasome activity, a 50–80% decrease in expression of CFH and MCP-1, and an ~ 20-fold increase in expression of IL-8. The photo-oxidation-induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and CFH were similar to those caused by chemical inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting that inactivation of the proteasome is involved in the photo-oxidation-induced alteration in expression of these inflammation-related genes. Incubation of the A2E-containing RPE with lutein or zeaxanthin prior to blue light exposure significantly attenuated the photo-oxidation-induced inactivation of the proteasome and photo-oxidation induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and CFH. Together, these data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin modulates inflammatory responses in cultured RPE in response to photo-oxidation. Protecting the proteasome

  17. Assessment of the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal milieu has been hypothesized to play a role in a range of human diseases, and therefore has been a topic of much epidemiologic investigation. Hormones of particular interest include: sex steroids; growth hormones; insulin-like growth factors; stress hormones, such as cortisol; and hormones produced by the adipose tissue, termed adipokines. Depending on the hormone, levels may be measured in plasma or serum, urine, saliva, tissue, or by assessing genetic variation in the hormone or hormone metabolizing genes. Sample collection, processing, and storage requirements vary according to the type of sample collected (e.g. blood or urine) and the hormone of interest. Laboratory analysis of hormones is frequently complex, and the technology used to conduct the assays is constantly evolving. For example, direct or indirect radioimmunoassay, bioassay or mass spectrometry can be used to measure sex steroids, each having advantages and disadvantages. Careful attention to laboratory issues, including close collaboration with laboratory colleagues and ongoing quality control assessments, is critical. Whether a single hormone measurement, as is frequently collected in epidemiologic studies, is sufficient to characterize the hormonal environment of interest (e.g. long-term adult hormone exposure) is also an important issue. While the assessment of hormones in epidemiologic studies is complex, these efforts have, and will continue to, add importantly to our knowledge of the role of hormones in human health. PMID:22997864

  18. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health. PMID:26286042

  19. Pituitary-gonadal hormones during prolonged residency in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, R. C.; Malhotra, A. S.; Prasad, Rajendra; Pal, Karan; Kumar, Rajesh; Bajaj, A. C.

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone levels were measured in nine eugonadal men in New Delhi and during the 1st week of different months of their stay at Dakshin Gangotri in Antarctica. During their 12-month stay in Antarctica, they were exposed to a severely cold climate, long polar nights and polar days, high wind velocity, increased amounts of solar and ultraviolet radiation and geomagnetism, as well as physical and social isolation. Plasma testosterone tended to increase in March, but a significant increase (P<0.05) was not seen until April. The mean testosterone levels in May, June, September and November were also significantly higher than the March or New Delhi values. The absolute values of LH, FSH and PRL did not show any month-to-month changes in Antarctica. However, when the hormone levels were expressed as a percentage of the individual annual Antarctic mean, significant differences as a percentage of the individual annual Antarctic mean, significant differences were observed. The testosterone peak in April, May and June was associated with an increase in LH. The nadirs of testosterone, LH, FSH and PRL were seen in either July or August. FSH showed the highest values in March, whereas the highest PRL values were seen in November. These observations suggest the presence of circannual variations in gonadotropin, PRL and LH in Antarctica which are independent of polar days and polar nights. It appears that factors other than the duration of daylight might be involved in regulating these changes. The significance of maintenance of testosterone levels in the supra-physiological range in Antarctica remains unknown but may be important in acclimatization/habituation to the extreme polar cold by increasing basal metabolic rate, protein synthesis and erythropoiesis.

  20. Pituitary-gonadal hormones during prolonged residency in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, R C; Malhotra, A S; Prasad, R; Pal, K; Kumar, R; Bajaj, A C

    1998-08-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone levels were measured in nine eugonadal men in New Delhi and during the 1st week of different months of their stay at Dakshin Gangotri in Antarctica. During their 12-month stay in Antarctica, they were exposed to a severely cold climate, long polar nights and polar days, high wind velocity, increased amounts of solar and ultraviolet radiation and geomagnetism, as well as physical and social isolation. Plasma testosterone tended to increase in March, but a significant increase (P < 0.05) was not seen until April. The mean testosterone levels in May, June, September and November were also significantly higher than the March or New Delhi values. The absolute values of LH, FSH and PRL did not show any month-to-month changes in Antarctica. However, when the hormone levels were expressed as a percentage of the individual annual Antarctic mean, significant differences as a percentage of the individual annual Antarctic mean, significant differences were observed. The testosterone peak in April, May and June was associated with an increase in LH. The nadirs of testosterone, LH, FSH and PRL were seen in either July or August. FSH showed the highest values in March, whereas the highest PRL values were seen in November. These observations suggest the presence of circannual variations in gonadotropin, PRL and LH in Antarctica which are independent of polar days and polar nights. It appears that factors other than the duration of daylight might be involved in regulating these changes. The significance of maintenance of testosterone levels in the supra-physiological range in Antarctica remains unknown but may be important in acclimatization/habituation to the extreme polar cold by increasing basal metabolic rate, protein synthesis and erythropoiesis. PMID:9780846

  1. Rapid enlargement of an intracranial germ cell tumor after gonadotropin hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Yasuo; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakagawa, Athushi; Nakada, Satoko; Nojima, Takayuki; Koya, Daisuke; Iizuka, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of an intracranial germ cell tumor (iGCT) that showed rapid enlargement after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone therapy for pituitary hypogonadism. A 16-year-old boy presented with headache and was diagnosed with a suprasellar tumor. He was initially observed without surgery. Intranasal desmopressin therapy was started for central diabetes insipidus, but there was no change in the tumor size on MRI. The diagnosis of the tumor remained unknown for 4years. Levels of serum gonadotropin hormones (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone) and testosterone progressively decreased, and the patient developed pituitary hypogonadism and complained about his undeveloped beard, lack of underarm hair, and erectile dysfunction. Intramuscular gonadotropin injection (hCG 5000U×2/week) was started at age 20. Eight months after the first gonadotropin injection, the MRI showed tumor growth with vivid enhancement. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was partially resected. The histological diagnosis was immature teratoma. After surgery, the patient was treated with 5 cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. He also received radiation therapy of 50Gy (20Gy tumor bed and 30Gy whole ventricles) to the residual tumor, after which the tumor decreased in size. We postulate that iGCT may be at risk of progression during hCG hormone therapy. Thus, careful monitoring is required for a patient with iGCT who receives this therapy. PMID:27050912

  2. Review on mechanisms of dairy summer infertility and implications for hormonal intervention.

    PubMed

    Wakayo, B U; Brar, P S; Prabhakar, S

    2015-01-01

    In dairy cows and buffaloes, summer heat stress (HS) reduces milk yield and delays return to pregnancy leading to financial loss. Clues for effective interventions against summer infertility (SI) lie in understanding the underlying mechanisms. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of bovine SI and their implication for hormonal management. Under HS dairy animals encounter anestrous, silent cycles and repeat breeding which extend their open period. These effects are attributed mainly to HS induced disturbances in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, follicular dominance and estrogen secretion, ovulation and oocyte competence, luteal development and progesterone secretion, utero-placental function and embryo-fetal development. Hormonal timed artificial insemination protocols and LH support around estrous improved summer pregnancy rates by avoiding need for estrus detection, assisting follicular development and ovulation, enhancing quality oocytes and stimulating luteal function. Progesterone supplementation to enhance embryonic development did not produce significant improvement in summer pregnancy rates. There is need for evaluating integrated approaches combining hormones, metabolic modifier and cyto-protective agents. PMID:26623355

  3. Effects of α-zearalanol on spermatogenesis and sex hormone levels of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Cunxiang; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Qiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Sai, Linlin; Zhang, Fang; Du, Zhongjun; Yu, Gongchang; Xie, Lin; Zhang, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the mechanisms of α-zearalanol (Zeranol)-induced male reproductive toxicity, the effects of Zeranol on spermatogenesis and sex hormone levels of male mice were studied. Methods: Forty healthy sexually mature male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice were mock-treated or treated with Zeranol 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg via oral gavage for 35 days. The epididymal sperms were counted and their morphology and motility were analyzed. The testicles were examined by light and electron microscopy. The levels of serum/testicular testosterone (T), serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results: Zeranol decreased the epididymal sperm count and sperm motility in a dose depend manner. While there were not significant differences in the sperm malformation rates between the Zeranol treated groups and the control group. Furthermore, Zeranol could decrease the weight and the organ coefficient of the seminal vesicles and the testicles and lead to significant pathological changes of the testicles. Zeranol could also decrease the levels of serum T, FSH, LH as well as the levels of testicular T of male mice. Conclusions: Zeranol induced reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. It could damage spermatogenesis via its direct effects on the testicles and interfere with sex hormone levels of male mice through its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. PMID:26884912

  4. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-07-29

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood-brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  5. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn GA; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John RB

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7 879 351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), with minor allele frequencies of 1.3–23.9%. Novel signals included variants for progesterone (P=7.68 × 10−12), oestradiol (P=1.63 × 10−8) and FAI (P=1.50 × 10−8). A genetic variant near the FSHB gene was identified which influenced both FSH (P=1.74 × 10−8) and LH (P=3.94 × 10−9) levels. A separate locus on chromosome 7 was associated with both DHEAS (P=1.82 × 10−14) and progesterone (P=6.09 × 10−14). This study highlights loci that are relevant to reproductive function and suggests overlap in the genetic basis of hormone regulation. PMID:26014426

  6. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone