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Sample records for proteins goat a-lactalbumin

  1. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693

  2. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693

  3. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  4. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Reiten, Malin R.; Bakkebø, Maren K.; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M.; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A.; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrPC in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrPC knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrPC. Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrPC (PRNPTer/Ter) compared to heterozygous (PRNP+/Ter) and normal (PRNP+/+) kids. Levels of cell surface PrPC and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNPTer/Ter, intermediate in PRNP+/Ter and high in PRNP+/+ kids. The PRNPTer/Ter animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrPC has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrPC in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrPC-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrPC. PMID:26217662

  5. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. PMID:26874417

  6. Synthesis of milk specific fatty acids and proteins by dispersed goat mammary-gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H O; Tornehave, D; Knudsen, J

    1986-01-01

    The method now described for preparation of dispersed lactating goat mammary-gland cells gives a high yield of morphologically and functionally normal mammary cells. The cells synthesize specific goat milk fatty acids in the right proportions, and they respond to hormones by increased protein synthesis. The cells can be frozen and thawed without losing the above properties, which makes them an excellent tool for metabolic and hormonal studies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3800930

  7. Genes regulating lipid and protein metabolism are highly expressed in mammary gland of lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Luo, Jun; Cao, Wenting; Shi, Huaiping; Yao, Dawei; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Xu, Huifen; Yu, Kang; Loor, Juan J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy goats serve as an important source of milk and also fulfill agricultural and economic roles in developing countries. Understanding the genetic background of goat mammary gland is important for research on the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue function and the synthesis of milk components. We collected tissue at four different stages of goat mammary gland development and generated approximately 25 GB of data from Illumina de novo RNA sequencing. The combined reads were assembled into 51,361 unigenes, and approximately 60.07 % of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database (NR). Functional classification through eukaryotic Ortholog Groups of Protein (KOG), gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that the unigenes from goat mammary glands are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism and lactose metabolism. The results of qPCR revealed that genes encoding FABP3, FASN, SCD, PLIN2, whey proteins (LALBA and BLG), and caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2 and CSN3) at 100 and 310 days postpartum increased significantly compared with the non-lactating period. In addition to their role in lipid and protein synthesis, the higher expression at 310 days postpartum could contribute to mammary cell turnover during pregnancy. In conclusion, this is the first study to characterize the complete transcriptome of goat mammary glands and constitutes a comprehensive genomic resource available for further studies of ruminant lactation. PMID:25433708

  8. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-01

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

  9. Metagenome Analysis of Protein Domain Collocation within Cellulase Genes of Goat Rumen Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, SooYeon; Seo, Jaehyun; Choi, Hyunbong; Yoon, Duhak; Nam, Jungrye; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Chang, Jongsoo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, protein domains with cellulase activity in goat rumen microbes were investigated using metagenomic and bioinformatic analyses. After the complete genome of goat rumen microbes was obtained using a shotgun sequencing method, 217,892,109 pair reads were filtered, including only those with 70% identity, 100-bp matches, and thresholds below E−10 using METAIDBA. These filtered contigs were assembled and annotated using blastN against the NCBI nucleotide database. As a result, a microbial community structure with 1431 species was analyzed, among which Prevotella ruminicola 23 bacteria and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316 were the dominant groups. In parallel, 201 sequences related with cellulase activities (EC.3.2.1.4) were obtained through blast searches using the enzyme.dat file provided by the NCBI database. After translating the nucleotide sequence into a protein sequence using Interproscan, 28 protein domains with cellulase activity were identified using the HMMER package with threshold E values below 10−5. Cellulase activity protein domain profiling showed that the major protein domains such as lipase GDSL, cellulase, and Glyco hydro 10 were present in bacterial species with strong cellulase activities. Furthermore, correlation plots clearly displayed the strong positive correlation between some protein domain groups, which was indicative of microbial adaption in the goat rumen based on feeding habits. This is the first metagenomic analysis of cellulase activity protein domains using bioinformatics from the goat rumen. PMID:25049895

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF PRION PROTEIN IN A GOAT WITH NATURAL SCRAPIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from a 3-year-old female Angora goat suffering from clinical scrapie were immunostained using a monoclonal antibody (mAb, F99/97.6.1; IgG1) specific for a conserved epitope on the prion protein. Widespread and prominent deposition of the scrapie iso...

  11. Immunohistochemical detection and distribution of prion protein in a goat with natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Reginald A; Rock, Matthew J; Anderson, Anne K; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2003-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from a 3-year-old female Angora goat suffering from clinical scrapie were immunostained after hydrated autoclaving using a monoclonal antibody (mAb, F99/97.6.1; IgG1) specific for a conserved epitope on the prion protein. Widespread and prominent deposition of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) was observed in the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, retina, postganglionic neurons associated with parasympathetic ganglia of myenteric and submucosal plexuses, Peyer's patches, peripheral lymph nodes, and pharyngeal and palatine tonsils. The goat was homozygous for PrP alleles encoding 5 octapeptide repeat sequences in the N-terminal region of the prion protein and isoleucine at codon 142, a genotype associated with high susceptibility and short incubation times in goats. The results of this study indicate that mAb F99/97.6.1 is useful for detection of PrPSc deposition, and this is a specific and reliable immunohistochemical adjunct to histopathology for diagnosis of natural caprine scrapie, although precise determination of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay as a diagnostic test for scrapie in goats will require examination of a sufficiently large sample size. As with ovine scrapie, prion protein is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, gastrointestinal tract, and lymphoid tissues in natural caprine scrapie. PMID:12661726

  12. One seed juniper intake by sheep and goats supplemented with degradable or by-pass protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful prescribed grazing of one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) with sheep and goats may depend on identifying times of the year when juniper terpenoid levels are less likely to deter herbivory and could be contingent on the use of protein supplements to help animals detoxify ...

  13. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1]. PMID:27508219

  14. Polymorphism analysis of prion protein gene in 11 Pakistani goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Khan, Sher Hayat; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Yang, Lifeng; Ali, Tariq; Khan, Jamal Muhammad; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Zhou, Xiangmei; Hussain, Tanveer; Zhu, Ting; Hussain, Tariq; Zhao, Deming

    2016-07-01

    The association between caprine PrP gene polymorphisms and its susceptibility to scrapie has been investigated in current years. As the ORF of the PrP gene is extremely erratic in different breeds of goats, we studied the PrP gene polymorphisms in 80 goats which belong to 11 Pakistani indigenous goat breeds from all provinces of Pakistan. A total of 6 distinct polymorphic sites (one novel) with amino acid substitutions were identified in the PrP gene which includes 126 (A -> G), 304 (G -> T), 379 (A -> G), 414 (C -> T), 428 (A -> G) and 718 (C -> T). The locus c.428 was found highly polymorphic in all breeds as compare to other loci. On the basis of these PrP variants NJ phylogenetic tree was constructed through MEGA6.1 which showed that all goat breeds along with domestic sheep and Mauflon sheep appeared as in one clade and sharing its most recent common ancestors (MRCA) with deer species while Protein analysis has shown that these polymorphisms can lead to varied primary, secondary and tertiary structure of protein. Based on these polymorphic variants, genetic distance, multidimensional scaling plot and principal component analyses revealed the clear picture regarding greater number of substitutions in cattle PrP regions as compared to the small ruminant species. In particular these findings may pinpoint the fundamental control over the scrapie in Capra hircus on genetic basis. PMID:27388702

  15. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  16. Characterization and polymorphism of keratin associated protein 1.4 gene in goats.

    PubMed

    Shah, R M; Ganai, T A S; Sheikh, F D; Shanaz, S; Shabir, M; Khan, H M

    2013-04-15

    Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are among the main structural components of the animal fibers and form semi-rigid matrix wherein the keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) are embedded. Variation in the KAP genes has been reported to affect the structure of KAPs and hence fiber characteristics. As no information is available on this gene in Capra hircus therefore, present work was undertaken to characterize and explore the different polymorphic variants of KAP1.4 gene at DNA level in different breeds/genetic groups of goats of Kashmir. Cashmere (Changthangi, 30 animals) and non-Cashmere (Bakerwal and Kargil goats, 20 animals each) goats formed the experimental animals for the study. Single strand conformation polymorphism technique was employed for exploring variability at gene level. On exploring the size variability in KAP1.4 gene between Ovine and Caprine, it was concluded that sheep KAP1.4 gene has a deletion of 30 nucleotides. In comparison to published nucleotide sequences of sheep, goat sequences explored are differing at positions 174, 462 and 568 and at these positions "G", "T" and "T" nucleotides are present in sheep, but are replaced by "A", "C" and "C" respectively, in goats. By SSC studies, two genotypes were observed in each genetic group and in Bakerwal goats the genotypes were designated as A1A1 (0.40) and A1A2 (0.60) and were formed by two alleles A1 (0.70) andA2 (0.30). The different SSC patterns observed in Kargil goats were designated as B1B1 (0.35) and B1B2 (0.65) genotypes with frequencies of B1 and B2 alleles as 0.675 and 0.325, respectively. Similarly, two genotypes C1C1 (0.60) and C1C2 (0.40) were observed in Changthangi goats and the frequencies of C1 and C2 alleles were 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. These alleles were later confirmed by sequencing. The sequences of these alleles are available in NCBI under Acc. No's. JN012101.1, JN012102.1, JN000317.1, JN000318.1, JQ436929 and JQ627657. It was concluded that all the alleles observed in a

  17. No major role for binding by salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins in Mediterranean goats.

    PubMed

    Hanovice-Ziony, Michal; Gollop, Nathan; Landau, Serge Yan; Ungar, Eugene David; Muklada, Hussein; Glasser, Tzach Aharon; Perevolotsky, Avi; Walker, John Withers

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether Mediterranean goats use salivary tannin-binding proteins to cope with tannin-rich forages by determining the affinity of salivary or parotid gland proteins for tannic acid or quebracho tannin. Mixed saliva, sampled from the oral cavity, or parotid gland contents were compared to the intermediate affinity protein bovine serum albumin with a competitive binding assay. Goats that consume tannin-rich browse (Damascus) and goats that tend to avoid tannins (Mamber) were sequentially fed high (Pistacia lentiscus L.), low (vetch hay), or zero (wheat hay) tannin forages. Affinity of salivary proteins for tannins did not differ between goat breeds and did not respond to presence or absence of tannins in the diet. Proteins in mixed saliva had slightly higher affinity for tannins than those in parotid saliva, but neither source contained proteins with higher affinity for tannins than bovine serum albumin. Similarly, 3 months of browsing in a tannin-rich environment had little effect on the affinity of salivary proteins for tannin in adult goats of either breed. We sampled mixed saliva from young kids before they consumed forage and after 3 months of foraging in a tannin-rich environment. Before foraging, the saliva of Mamber kids had higher affinity for tannic acid (but not quebracho tannin) than the saliva of Damascus kids, but there was no difference after 3 months of exposure to tannin-rich browse, and the affinity of the proteins was always similar to the affinity of bovine serum albumin. Our results suggest there is not a major role for salivary tannin-binding proteins in goats. Different tendencies of goat breeds to consume tannin-rich browse does not appear be related to differences in salivary tannin-binding proteins. PMID:20559693

  18. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats. PMID:22296670

  19. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-01-01

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity. PMID:26505344

  20. Technical note: comparing calibration methods for determination of protein in goat milk by ultraviolet spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rukke, E O; Olsen, E F; Devold, T; Vegarud, G; Isaksson, T

    2010-07-01

    A rapid spectroscopic method to determine total protein in bovine and buffalo milk using UV spectra of guanidine-hydrochloride mixed milk has previously been reported and validated. The method was based on mixed calibration samples and univariate calibrations of fourth derivative (4D) spectra. In this study the same method was compared and tested for determination of total protein in goat milk. Calculations based on multivariate calibration (partial least squares regression) on full spectra of goat milk were used. The method was tested on 2 UV instruments. The comparison resulted in a significantly more robust (i.e., better) transferability between UV instruments for the partial least squares regression method on full spectra compared with previous univariate calibration of 4D spectra. Local (1 instrument) calibrations gave similar, significantly not different (chi-squared test) cross-validated prediction error results for the 2 methods. It can be concluded that there is no need for fourth derivation. Partial least squares regression on full spectra was equal or superior to using the 4D spectra. PMID:20630209

  1. Use of green fluorescent protein to monitor Lactobacillus plantarum in the gastrointestinal tract of goats.

    PubMed

    Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum. PMID:26413069

  2. Use of green fluorescent protein to monitor Lactobacillus plantarum in the gastrointestinal tract of goats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum. PMID:26413069

  3. Interaction between high protein supplement and copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in growing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the interaction between high protein supplementation and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in growing female goats. Haemonchus contortus is the primary GIN during summer months on this farm. In early August 2006, Boer an...

  4. Comparative Protein Composition Analysis of Goat Milk Produced by the Alpine and Saanen Breeds in Northeastern Brazil and Related Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Whyara Karoline Almeida; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Beltrão-Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; Vasconcelos, Gracy Kelly Vieira; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Magnani, Marciane

    2014-01-01

    The protein composition of goat milk differs between goat breeds and could present regional trends. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the protein composition of goat milk produced by the Alpine and Saanen breeds in northeastern Brazil and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of its protein fractions. SDS-PAGE, 2-DE electrophoresis and RP-HPLC analyses revealed the absence of αs1-casein in the milk of both breeds and no differences between the αs2-casein, β-casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin profiles. The amounts of soluble proteins and β-casein hydrolysis residues were higher in Saanen milk. Only the protein fraction containing the largest amounts of casein (F60–90%) inhibited bacterial growth, with MIC values between 50 and 100 mg/mL. This study describe for the first time three important points about the goat milk protein of two Brazilian goat breeders: absence of α-s1 casein in the protein profile, differences between the milk protein composition produced by goats of Alpine and Saanen breeders and antibacterial activity of unbroken proteins (casein-rich fraction) present in these milk. PMID:24675996

  5. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis

    PubMed Central

    Konwar, Priyanka; Tiwari, S. P.; Gohain, M.; Kumari, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. Materials and Methods: 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. Results: In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05) effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dl) after 45 days; total leukocyte count (103/mm3) and total erythrocyte count (106/mm3) after 30 days; packed cell volume (%), lymphocyte (%), and eosinophil (%) after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (%) and neutrophil (%) values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl) were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (pg) after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl) was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. Conclusion: The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids. PMID:27047042

  6. Consuming Transgenic Goats' Milk Containing the Antimicrobial Protein Lysozyme Helps Resolve Diarrhea in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Caitlin A.; Garas Klobas, Lydia C.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Murray, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea. PMID:23516474

  7. Domestication Process of the Goat Revealed by an Analysis of the Nearly Complete Mitochondrial Protein-Encoding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Koh; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Mano, Shuhei; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Shedlock, Andrew M.; Hasegawa, Masami; Amano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest domesticated species, and they are kept all over the world as an essential resource for meat, milk, and fiber. Although recent archeological and molecular biological studies suggested that they originated in West Asia, their domestication processes such as the timing of population expansion and the dynamics of their selection pressures are little known. With the aim of addressing these issues, the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes were determined from East, Southeast, and South Asian populations. Our coalescent time estimations suggest that the timing of their major population expansions was in the Late Pleistocene and significantly predates the beginning of their domestication in the Neolithic era (≈10,000 years ago). The ω (ratio of non-synonymous rate/synonymous substitution rate) for each lineage was also estimated. We found that the ω of the globally distributed haplogroup A which is inherited by more than 90% of goats examined, turned out to be extremely low, suggesting that they are under severe selection pressure probably due to their large population size. Conversely, the ω of the Asian-specific haplogroup B inherited by about 5% of goats was relatively high. Although recent molecular studies suggest that domestication of animals may tend to relax selective constraints, the opposite pattern observed in our goat mitochondrial genome data indicates the process of domestication is more complex than may be presently appreciated and cannot be explained only by a simple relaxation model. PMID:23936295

  8. Total RNA and protein content, Cyclin B1 expression and developmental competence of prepubertal goat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Anguita, Begoña; Paramio, Maria-Teresa; Jiménez-Macedo, Ana R; Morató, Roser; Mogas, Teresa; Izquierdo, Dolors

    2008-01-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the developmental competence of oocytes and their total RNA and protein contents, and the level of Cyclin B1 transcription. Ovaries from prepubertal goats were collected from a slaughterhouse. Oocytes were recovered by slicing and those with two or more layers of cumulus cells and homogenous cytoplasm were matured in vitro (20-25 oocytes per drop) for 27 h. Both before and after IVM, samples of oocytes were denuded and categorised into four group treatments by diameter (<110 microm, 110-125 microm, 125-135 microm; >135 microm), separated into sub-groups of 10 oocytes per treatment-replicate and stored in liquid nitrogen until total RNA content analysis by spectophotometry, total protein content analysis by a colorimetric assay and Cyclin B1 transcription analysis by RT-PCR. For the study of developmental competence, the rest of the matured oocytes were fertilised in vitro in groups of 20-25 for 24 h. Presumptive zygotes were denuded, sorted into the four categories of diameter noted above, and placed into culture drops in groups of 18-25 for in vitro culture. Cleavage rate was evaluated at 48 hpi and embryo development at 8 d post-insemination. There were four replicates of each treatment for each assay or evaluation point of the experiment. There were no significant differences between the size categories of oocytes at collection in total RNA content, total protein content and Cyclin B1 mRNA. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the expression of Cyclin B1 before IVM with oocytes in the >135 mm diameter category having the highest value for this variant. There were no significant differences in these characteristics between the categories of oocyte diameter after IVM except in respect of total RNA content, which was lower for the largest size of oocytes (>135 microm; mean+/-S.D.=12.3+/-1.84 ng/oocyte) than the other three size groups (19.2+/-1.38-22.1+/-4.44 ng/oocyte; P<0.05). Significant

  9. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein promotes lipid accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, H B; Yu, K; Luo, J; Li, J; Tian, H B; Zhu, J J; Sun, Y T; Yao, D W; Xu, H F; Shi, H P; Loor, J J

    2015-10-01

    Milk fat originates from the secretion of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) synthesized within mammary epithelial cells. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP; gene symbol PLIN2) is a CLD-binding protein that is crucial for synthesis of mature CLD. Our hypothesis was that ADRP regulates CLD production and metabolism in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) and thus plays a role in determining milk fat content. To understand the role of ADRP in ruminant milk fat metabolism, ADRP (PLIN2) was overexpressed or knocked down in GMEC using an adenovirus system. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of CLD. Supplementation with oleic acid (OA) enhanced its colocalization with CLD surface and enhanced lipid accumulation. Overexpression of ADRP increased lipid accumulation and the concentration of triacylglycerol in GMEC. In contrast, morphological examination revealed that knockdown of ADRP decreased lipid accumulation even when OA was supplemented. This response was confirmed by the reduction in mass of cellular TG when ADRP was knocked down. The fact that knockdown of ADRP did not completely eliminate lipid accumulation at a morphological level in GMEC without OA suggests that some other compensatory factors may also aid in the process of CLD formation. The ADRP reversed the decrease of CLD accumulation induced by adipose triglyceride lipase. This is highly suggestive of ADRP promoting triacylglycerol stability within CLD by preventing access to adipose triglyceride lipase. Collectively, these data provide direct in vitro evidence that ADRP plays a key role in CLD formation and stability in GMEC. PMID:26298750

  10. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. PMID:26342988

  11. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. PMID:26890722

  12. Whey protein gel composites in the diet of goats increased the omega-3 and omega-6 content of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J A; Taylor, S J; Rosenberg, M; DePeters, E J

    2016-08-01

    Previously, feeding whey protein gels containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduced their rumen biohydrogenation and increased their concentration in milk fat of Holstein cows. Our objective was to test the efficacy of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels produced in a steam tunnel as a method to alter the fatty acid (FA) composition of the milk lipids. Four primiparous Lamancha goats in midlactation were fed three diets in a 3 × 4 Latin square design. The WPI gels were added to a basal concentrate mix that contained one of three lipid sources: (i) 100% soya bean oil (S) to create (WPI/S), (ii) a 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture of S and linseed (L) oil to create (WPI/SL), or (iii) 100% L to create (WPI/L). Periods were 22 days with the first 10 days used as an adjustment phase followed by a 12-day experimental phase. During the adjustment phase, all goats received a rumen available source of lipid, yellow grease, to provide a baseline for milk FA composition. During the experimental phase, each goat received its assigned WPI. Milk FA concentration of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 reached 9.3 and 1.64 g/100 g FA, respectively, when goats were fed WPI/S. Feeding WPI/SL increased the C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 concentration to 6.22 and 4.36 g/100 g FA, and WPI/L increased C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 to 3.96 and 6.13 g/100 g FA respectively. The adjusted transfer efficiency (%) of C18:3 n-3 to milk FA decreased significantly as dietary C18:3 n-3 intake increased. Adjusted transfer efficiency for C18:2 n-6 did not change with increasing intake of C18:2 n-6. The WPI gels were effective at reducing rumen biohydrogenation of PUFA; however, we observed a change in the proportion increase of C18:3 n-3 in milk FA suggesting possible regulation of n-3 FA to the lactating caprine mammary gland. PMID:26249647

  13. Proteomic Analysis of the Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Haemonchus contortus (HcESP) Binding to Goat PBMCs In Vivo Revealed Stage-Specific Binding Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Wang, Shuai; Bo, Gao; Ehsan, Muhammad; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai; Xu, LiXin; Li, XiangRui

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode, and its excretory and secretory products (HcESPs) interact extensively with the host cells. In this study, we report the interaction of proteins from HcESPs at different developmental stages to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vivo using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 407 HcESPs that interacted with goat PBMCs at different time points were identified from a H. contortus protein database using SEQUEST searches. The L4 and L5 stages of H. contortus represented a higher proportion of the identified proteins compared with the early and late adult stages. Both stage-specific interacting proteins and proteins that were common to multiple stages were identified. Forty-seven interacting proteins were shared among all stages. The gene ontology (GO) distributions of the identified goat PBMC-interacting proteins were nearly identical among all developmental stages, with high representation of binding and catalytic activity. Cellular, metabolic and single-organism processes were also annotated as major biological processes, but interestingly, more proteins were annotated as localization processes at the L5 stage than at the L4 and adult stages. Based on the clustering of homologous proteins, we improved the functional annotations of un-annotated proteins identified at different developmental stages. Some unnamed H. contortus ATP-binding cassette proteins, including ADP-ribosylation factor and P-glycoprotein-9, were identified by STRING protein clustering analysis. PMID:27467391

  14. Combining different functions to describe milk, fat, and protein yield in goats using Bayesian multiple-trait random regression models.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, H R; Silva, F F; Siqueira, O H G B D; Souza, N O; Junqueira, V S; Resende, M D V; Borquis, R R A; Rodrigues, M T

    2016-05-01

    We proposed multiple-trait random regression models (MTRRM) combining different functions to describe milk yield (MY) and fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentage in dairy goat genetic evaluation by using Bayesian inference. A total of 3,856 MY, FP, and PP test-day records, measured between 2000 and 2014, from 535 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats, including their cross, were used in this study. The initial analyses were performed using the following single-trait random regression models (STRRM): third- and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (Leg3 and Leg5), linear B-splines with 3 and 5 knots, the Ali and Schaeffer function (Ali), and Wilmink function. Heterogeneity of residual variances was modeled considering 3 classes. After the selection of the best STRRM to describe each trait on the basis of the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior model probabilities (PMP), the functions were combined to compose the MTRRM. All combined MTRRM presented lower DIC values and higher PMP, showing the superiority of these models when compared to other MTRRM based only on the same function assumed for all traits. Among the combined MTRRM, those considering Ali to describe MY and PP and Leg5 to describe FP (Ali_Leg5_Ali model) presented the best fit. From the Ali_Leg5_Ali model, heritability estimates over time for MY, FP. and PP ranged from 0.25 to 0.54, 0.27 to 0.48, and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and FP, MY and PP, and FP and PP ranged from -0.58 to 0.03, -0.46 to 0.12, and 0.37 to 0.64, respectively. We concluded that combining different functions under a MTRRM approach can be a plausible alternative for joint genetic evaluation of milk yield and milk constituents in goats. PMID:27285684

  15. Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Kristin; Marr, Isabell; Wilkens, Mirja R; Breves, Gerhard; Langeheine, Marion; Brehm, Ralph; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability. PMID:27120348

  16. Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Mirja R.; Breves, Gerhard; Langeheine, Marion; Brehm, Ralph; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability. PMID:27120348

  17. The effect of long-term under- and overfeeding on the expression of six major milk proteins' genes in the mammary tissue of goats.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, E; Flemetakis, E; Kouri, E-D; Karalias, G; Sotirakoglou, K; Zervas, G

    2016-06-01

    Milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland involves expression of six major milk proteins' genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. In this study, the effect of long-term under- and overfeeding on the expression of as1-casein: CSN1S1, as2-casein: CSN1S2, β-casein: CSN2, κ-casein: CSN3, α-lactalbumin: LALBA and β-lactoglobulin: BLG gene in goat mammary tissue (MT) was examined. Twenty-four lactating dairy goat, at 90-98 days in milk, were divided into three homogenous subgroups and fed the same ration, for 60 days, in quantities which met 70% (underfeeding), 100% (control) and 130% (overfeeding) of their energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed a significant decrease in mRNA of CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA genes in the MT of underfed goats compared with the overfed and on the CSN1S1 and BLG gene expressions in the MT of underfed goats compared with the respective control and overfed. CSN2 was the most abundant transcript in goat MT relative to the other milk proteins' genes. Significantly positive correlations were observed between the mRNA levels of caseins' and BLG genes with the milk yield. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between the mRNA levels of CSN1S2 with the milk protein, lactose content and lactose yield and also between the LALBA gene expression with the lactose content and lactose yield respectively. In conclusion, the feeding level and consequently the nutrients availability affected the milk lactose content, protein and lactose yield as well as the milk volume by altering the CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3, LALBA and BLG gene expression involved in their metabolic pathways. PMID:26613803

  18. Serum levels of nitric oxide and protein oxidation in goats seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Tonin, A A; Weber, A; Ribeiro, A; Camillo, G; Vogel, F F; Moura, A B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Da Silva, A S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in serum of goats naturally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. Thus, it was measured NOx and AOPP levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for T. gondii and N. caninum [negative control group (A)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositive for N. caninum [group B]; eighteen (n=18) positive for T. gondii [group C]; and thirteen (n=13) seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii [group D]. As results, it was observed that animals seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii (Groups B to D) showed higher serum levels of NOx (P<0.001; F=9.5), when compared with seronegative animals. Additionally, it was observed a positive correlation between NOx levels and antibodies titrations for N. caninum (P<0.01; r=0.68) and T. gondii (P<0.05; r=0.56). AOPP levels were increase in groups C and D (P>0.05). Interestingly, group B did not show increase in AOPP, what led us to hypothesize that the major protein damage is linked to T. gondii infection. Therefore, our results showed an increased in NOx levels, which was probably related to the immune response, since it is an important inflammatory mediator; and AOPP were increased in groups where there was seropositivity for T. gondii, but not for the group composed only by animals seropositive for N. caninum, allowing us to suggest higher protein damage in toxoplasmosis. PMID:26031474

  19. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.01) than any of the other yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P < 0.01). Viscosity and pH of all the yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. PMID:25808084

  20. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A

    2016-02-13

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. PMID:26755614

  1. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, W.; Stewart, P.; Konold, T.; Street, S.; Langeveld, J.; Windl, O.; Ortiz-Pelaez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. PMID:26755614

  2. Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets. PMID:26073222

  3. Vaccination of goats with 31 kDa and 32 kDa Schistosoma japonicum antigens by DNA priming and protein boosting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lianfei; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Yuxiao; Luo, Yonghui; Wang, Linqian; Chen, Liyu; Huang, Fushen; Zeng, Xianfang; Yi, Xinyuan

    2007-04-01

    Two Schistosoma japonicum vaccine candidate antigens Sj 31 and Sj 32, which have shown particular promise to induce protective immunity in mice, were used to immunize goats by using a DNA priming-protein boosting strategy in present work. DNA vaccine formulations of the two antigens (VRSj31 and VRSj32) were produced and injected intramuscularly twice at a 2-week interval and then recombinant proteins (rSj31 and rSj32) together with Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA) were used to boost the goats. The experiment was repeated in different batche cercariae. A strong anamnestic antibody response was induced after boost. A significant reduction of liver egg counts and miracidial hatching was showed in both experiments. Significant protections against challenge infection were elicited with 31.6% of percentage reduction for worm recovery in the second experiment and 20.9% in the first experiment, respectively. PMID:17571462

  4. Glycosylated a-lactalbumin-based nanocomplex for curcumin: physicochemical stability and DPPH-scavenging activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low stability at high salt concentrations, iso-electric point, and high temperature restricted the application of proteins as stabilizers in nutraceutical encapsulation. Protein-polysaccharide conjugates made with Maillard reaction may be better alternatives. In this study, the characteristics of cu...

  5. Short communication: Altered expression of specificity protein 1 impairs milk fat synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Luo, J; Xu, H F; Wang, H; Loor, J J

    2016-06-01

    Specificity protein 1 (encoded by SP1) is a novel transcription factor important for the regulation of lipid metabolism and the normal function of various hormones in model organisms. Its potential role, if any, on ruminant milk fat is unknown. Despite the lower expression of the lipolysis-related gene ATGL (by 44 and 37% respectively), both the adenoviral overexpression and the silencing of SP1 [via short interfering (si)RNA] markedly reduced cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content (by 28 and 25%, respectively), at least in part by decreasing the expression of DGAT1 (-36% in adenovirus treatment) and DGAT2 (-81 and -87%, respectively) that are involved in TAG synthesis. Consistent with the markedly lower expression of genes related to lipid droplet formation and secretion (TIP47 by 19 and 32%, and ADFP by 25 and 25%, respectively), cellular lipid droplet content was also decreased sharply, by 9 and 8.5%, respectively, after adenoviral overexpression of SP1 or its silencing via siRNA. Overall, the results underscored a potentially important role of SP1 in maintaining milk-fat droplet synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26995134

  6. Dietary protein reduction in sheep and goats: different effects on L-alanine and L-leucine transport across the brush-border membrane of jejunal enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Schröder, B; Schöneberger, M; Rodehutscord, M; Pfeffer, E; Breves, G

    2003-08-01

    It was the aim of this study to examine the potential regulatory effects of a long-term low dietary protein supply on the transport capacity of the jejunal brush-border membrane for amino acids. For this purpose, we used the neutral amino acids L-alanine (representative for nonessential amino acids) and L-leucine (representative for essential amino acids) as model substances. Ten sheep lambs, 8 weeks of age and 19-27 kg body weight, were allotted to two dietary regimes with either adequate or reduced protein supply which was achieved by 17.9% and 9.7% of crude protein in the concentrated feed, respectively. The feeding periods were 4-6 weeks in length. Similarly, eight goat kids of 5-7 weeks of age and 8-14 kg body weight were allotted to either adequate (crude protein 20.1%, feeding period 9-12 weeks) or reduced protein supply (10.1%, feeding period 17-18 weeks). Dietary protein reduction in lambs caused a significant body weight loss of 0.6 +/- 0.7 kg, whereas the body weight in control animals increased by 1.9 +/- 0.7 kg (P<0.05). Plasma urea concentrations decreased significantly by 60% (low protein 2.3 +/- 0.1 versus control 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol l(-1), P<0.001). In kids, reduction of dietary protein intake led to significant decreases of the daily weight gain by 48% from 181 +/- 8 g to 94 +/- 3 g (P<0.001) and daily dry matter intake by 27% from 568 +/- 13 g to 417 +/- 6 g (P<0.01). Respective urea concentrations in plasma were reduced by 77% from 5.2 +/- 0.4 to 1.2 +/- 0.2 mmol l(-1) (P<0.01). Kinetic analyses of the initial rates of alanine uptake into isolated jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles from sheep and goats as affected by low dietary protein supply yielded that the apparent Km was neither significantly different between the species nor significantly affected by the feeding regime thus ranging between 0.12 and 0.16 mmol.l(-1). Reduction of dietary protein, however, resulted in significantly decreased Vmax values of the transport system by 25

  7. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)c promoter: Characterization and transcriptional regulation by mature SREBP-1 and liver X receptor α in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, H F; Luo, J; Wang, H P; Wang, H; Zhang, T Y; Tian, H B; Yao, D W; Loor, J J

    2016-02-01

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is a key transcription factor that regulates lipogenesis in rodent liver. Two isoforms (SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c) of SREBP-1 are transcribed by an alternative promoter on the same gene (SREBF1), and the isoforms differ only in their first exon. Although the regulatory effects of SREBP-1 on lipid and milk fat synthesis have received much attention in ruminants, SREBP-1c promoter and its regulatory mechanisms have not been characterized in the goat. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced a 2,012-bp fragment of the SREBP-1c 5'-flanking region from goat genomic DNA. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that SREBP-1c is transcriptionally activated by the liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist T0901317, and is decreased by SREBP-1 small interfering (si)RNA. A 5' deletion analysis revealed a core promoter region located -395 to +1 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (TSS). Site-directed mutagenesis of LXRα binding elements (LXRE1 and LXRE2) and sterol regulatory elements (SRE1 and SRE2) revealed that the full effects of T 4506585 require the presence of both LXRE and SRE. We also characterized a new SRE (SRE1) and demonstrated a direct role of SREBP-1 (auto-loop regulation) in maintaining its basal transcription activity. Results suggest that goat SREBP-1c gene is transcriptionally regulated by mature SREBP-1 (auto-loop circuit regulation) and LXRα in goat mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26709176

  8. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  9. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  10. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  11. First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.

    PubMed

    Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase

  12. Lysine at position 222 of the goat prion protein inhibits the binding of monoclonal antibody F99/97.6.1.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Maria; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Pagano, Marianna; Sciuto, Simona; Ingravalle, Francesco; Martucci, Francesca; Caramelli, Maria; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2012-09-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is encoded by the PRNP gene, which is highly polymorphic in goats, with polymorphisms encoding amino acid substitutions at the protein level. In the current study, the reactivity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) F99/97.6.1 in binding PrP from goats polymorphic at PRNP codon 222 was investigated. Nervous tissue from 30 scrapie-negative goats with 3 different genotypes (222Q/Q, 222Q/K, and 222K/K) was analyzed by Western blot using mAbs P4 and F99/97.6.1. Although PrP was detected in all 30 samples by mAb P4, detection of PrP by mAb F99/97.6.1 was limited to 222Q/Q (12/12). No PrP was detected by mAb F99/97.6.1 in the 222K/K samples (n = 6), and the signal intensity of mAb F99/97.6.1 for PrP was lower for the 222Q/K samples (12/12 samples). To further investigate these results, additional Western blot analyses were performed, and the PrP signals detected by mAbs F99/97.6.1 and SAF84 were then quantified. The mean F99/SAF84 ratio (± standard deviation) calculated for the 222Q/Q group was 0.73 ± 1.26, and the mean for the 222Q/K group was 0.27 ± 1.31. Statistical analysis of these values evidenced statistically significant differences between the 222Q/Q and 222Q/K samples. The results of the study thus revealed an inhibition by lysine at position 222 on the binding of mAb F99/97.6.1 to goat PrP. This has implications for the use of mAb F99/97.6.1 for diagnostic purposes. Because the 222K allele could be a target for genetic selection in goats, the differential reactivity of mAb F99/97.6.1 could be exploited with a genotyping test setup. PMID:22914824

  13. [Establishment of goat limbal stem cell strain expressing Venus fluorescent protein and construction of limbal epithelial sheets].

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiqing; Liu, Wenqiang; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Guimin; Zhang, Yihua; Liu, Weishuai; Hua, Jinlian; Dou, Zhongying; Lei, Anmin

    2010-12-01

    The integrity and transparency of cornea plays a key role in vision. Limbal Stem Cells (LSCs) are precursors of cornea, which are responsible for self-renewal and replenishing corneal epithelium. Though it is successful to cell replacement therapy for impairing ocular surface by Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation (LSCT), the mechanism of renew is unclear after LSCT. To real time follow-up the migration and differentiation of corneal transplanted epithelial cells after transplanting, we transfected venus (a fluorescent protein gene) into goat LSCs, selected with G418 and established a stable transfected cell line, named GLSC-V. These cells showed green fluorescence, and which could maintain for at least 3 months. GLSC-V also were positive for anti-P63 and anti-Integrinbeta1 antibody by immunofluorescent staining. We founded neither GLSC-V nor GLSCs expressed keratin3 (k3) and keratinl2 (k12). However, GLSC-V had higher levels in expression of p63, pcna and venus compared with GLSCs. Further, we cultivated the cells on denude amniotic membrane to construct tissue engineered fluorescent corneal epithelial sheets. Histology and HE staining showed that the constructed fluorescent corneal epithelial sheets consisted of 5-6 layers of epithelium. Only the lowest basal cells of fluorescent corneal epithelial sheets expressed P63 analyzed by immunofluorescence, but not superficial epithelial cells. These results showed that our constructed fluorescent corneal epithelial sheets were similar to the normal corneal epithelium in structure and morphology. This demonstrated that they could be transplanted for patents with corneal impair, also may provide a foundation for the study on the mechanisms of corneal epithelial cell regeneration after LSCT. PMID:21387825

  14. Seasonal changes in one seed juniper intake by sheep and goats in relation to dietary protein and plant secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal variation in plant secondary metabolites (PSM) can influence voluntary intake levels of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) of sheep and goats. Supplemental nutrients could mitigate the deterrent effects of juniper PSM. We determined the concentration of mono-and sesqui- t...

  15. Vaccination with rMAP Proteins Induces Protection in a Goat Model Against Infection by Oral Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four recombinant antigens (85A, 85B, Superoxide dismutase [SOD] and a fusion polypeptide [74F] of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) were used along with adjuvant dimethydioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) to assess the differential immune responses and protective efficacy in goat again...

  16. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naı¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  17. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  18. Inhibition on JAK-STAT3 Signaling Transduction Cascade Is Taken by Bioactive Peptide Alpha-S2 Casein Protein from Goat Ethawah Breed Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rohmah, Rista Nikmatu; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2015-01-01

    Background: RA is a systemic inflammatory disease that causes developing comorbidity conditions. This condition can cause by overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In a previous study, we have found bioactive peptide CSN1S2 from Ethawah goat milk for anti-inflammatory for repair the ileum destruction. However, the signaling transduction cascade of bioactive peptides inhibits inflammation still not clear yet. Therefore, we analyzed the signaling transduction cascade via JAK-STAT3 pathway by in vivo and in silico. Methods: The ileum was isolated DNA and amplification with specific primer. The sequence was analyzed using the Sanger sequencing method. Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL and virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: This study showed that STAT3 has target gene 480bp. The normal group and normal treating- CSN1S2 of goat milk have similarity from gene bank. Whereas, RA group had transversion mutation that the purine change into pyrimidine even cause frameshift mutation. Interestingly, after treating with the CSN1S2 protein of goat milk shows reverse to the normal acid sequence group. Based on in silico study, from eight peptides, only three peptides of CSN1S2 protein, which carried by PePT1 to enter the small intestine. The fragments are PepT1-41-NMAIHPR-47; PepT1-182-KISQYYQK-189 and PepT1-214-TNAIPYVR-221. We have found just one bioactive peptide of f182-KISQYYQK-189 is able bind to STAT3. The energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RA-STAT3 amino acid, it was Σ = -402.43 kJ/mol and the energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RAS-STAT3 amino acid is decreasing into Σ = -407.09 kJ/mol. Conclusion: This study suggested that the fragment 182-KISQYYQK-189 peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an anti-inflammatory agent via JAK-STAT3 signal transduction cascade at the cellular level. PMID:26483598

  19. Glutamate supply positively affects serum cholesterol concentrations without increases in total protein and urea around the onset of puberty in goats.

    PubMed

    Meza-Herrera, C A; Calderón-Leyva, G; Soto-Sanchez, M J; Serradilla, J M; García-Martinez, A; Mellado, M; Veliz-Deras, F G

    2014-06-30

    Different neurotransmitter and neuromodulatory systems regulate synthesis and secretion of GnRH. Whereas the endocrine and neural systems are activated in response to the metabolic status and the circulating levels of specific blood metabolites, glutamate receptors have been reported at hepatic level. This study evaluated the possible effect of glutamate supplementation upon changes in serum concentrations across time for total protein (TP), urea (UR) and cholesterol (CL) around the onset of puberty in goats. Prepuberal female goats (n=18) were randomly assigned to: (1) excitatory amino acids group, GLUT, n=10; 16.52±1.04kg live weight (LW), 3.4±0.12 body condition score (BCS) receiving an i.v. infusion of 7mgkg(-1) LW of l-glutamate, and (2) Control group, CONT, n=8; 16.1±1.04kg LW, 3.1±0.12 BCS. General averages for LW (23.2±0.72kg), BCS (3.37±0.10 units), serum TP (65.28±2.46mgdL(-1)), UR (23.42±0.95mgdL(-1)), CL (77.89±1.10mgdL(-1)) as well as the serum levels for TP and UR across time did not differ (P>0.05) between treatments. However, while GLUT positively affected (P<0.05) both the onset (207±9 vs. 225±12 d) and the percentage (70 vs. 25%) of females showing puberty, a treatment×time interaction effect (P<0.05) was observed in the GLUT group, with increases in serum cholesterol, coincident with the onset of puberty. Therefore, in peripuberal glutamate supplemented goats, serum cholesterol profile could act as a metabolic modulator for the establishment of puberty, denoting also a potential role of glutamate as modulator of lipid metabolism. PMID:24811839

  20. Parathyroid hormone-related protein overexpression protects goat mammary gland epithelial cells from calcium-sensing receptor activation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Sun, Yongsen; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Yu, Qian; Yao, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Normal mammary gland epithelial cells and breast cancer cells express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which is the master regulator of systemic calcium metabolism. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells downregulates parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels in milk and in the circulation, and increases calcium transport into milk. However, very little information is available on the role of CaSR in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs) apoptosis. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of CaSR from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame of 3,258 bp encoding 1,085 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 121.0 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.65. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with sheep, and the goat CaSR gene is mapped to chromosome 1. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that CaSR was predominantly expressed in the heart, kidney and mammary gland. Then, we found the stimulation of CaSR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) contributed to increase CaSR mRNA levels in GMECs and simultaneously promoted cell apoptosis, and these effects were abrogated partially by NPS2390 which is an inhibitor of CaSR. We also demonstrated that Ca(2+) increased CaSR mRNA levels and induced GMECs apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, these results suggest that PTHrP overexpression protects GMECs from CaSR activation-induced apoptosis. PMID:25266236

  1. Humoral immune responses of Brucella-infected cattle, sheep, and goats to eight purified recombinant Brucella proteins in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Letesson, J J; Tibor, A; van Eynde, G; Wansard, V; Weynants, V; Denoel, P; Saman, E

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis research is currently focused on the identification of nonlipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens which could potentially be useful for the specific serologic diagnosis of brucellosis as well as for vaccinal prophylaxis. On the basis of previous reports, we selected eight Brucella proteins (OMP36, OMP25, OMP19, OMP16, OMP10, p17, p15, and p39) as candidate antigens to be further evaluated. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified with a polyhistidine tag and metal chelate affinity chromatography and evaluated in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The specificity of the iELISA was determined with sera from healthy cattle, sheep, and goats and ranged from 95 to 99%, depending on the recombinant antigen and the species tested. Sera from experimentally infected, and from naturally infected, animals were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the iELISA. The antiprotein antibody response was often delayed when compared to the anti-smooth LPS (S-LPS) response and was limited to animals which developed an active brucellosis infection (experimentally infected pregnant animals and sheep and goats from areas where brucellosis is still endemic). Among the recombinant antigens, the three cytoplasmic proteins (p17, p15, and p39) gave the most useful results. More than 80% of the animals positive in S-LPS serology were also positive with one of these cytoplasmic proteins alone or a combination of two of them. None of the recombinant antigens detected experimentally infected nonpregnant cows and sheep or naturally infected cattle. This study is a first step towards the development of a multiprotein diagnostic reagent for brucellosis. PMID:9302205

  2. Horny Goat Weed

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid using. Bleeding disorders: Horny goat weed slows blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding. However, ... risk of fainting. Surgery: Horny goat weed slows blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding during ...

  3. Differential expression pattern of heat shock protein 70 gene in tissues and heat stress phenotypes in goats during peak heat stress period.

    PubMed

    Rout, P K; Kaushik, R; Ramachandran, N

    2016-07-01

    It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5

  4. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  5. Overexpression of SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1) promotes de novo fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, H F; Luo, J; Zhao, W S; Yang, Y C; Tian, H B; Shi, H B; Bionaz, M

    2016-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1; gene name SREBF1) is known to be the master regulator of lipid homeostasis in mammals, including milk fat synthesis. The major role of SREBP1 in controlling milk fat synthesis has been demonstrated in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Except for a demonstrated role in controlling the expression of FASN, a regulatory role of SREBP1 on milk fat synthesis is very likely, but has not yet been demonstrated in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). To explore the regulatory function of SREBP1 on de novo fatty acids and triacylglycerol synthesis in GMEC, we overexpressed the mature form of SREBP1 (active NH2-terminal fragment) in GMEC using a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-nSREBP1), with Ad-GFP (recombinant adenovirus of green fluorescent protein) as control, and infected the GMEC for 48 h. In infected cells, we assessed the expression of 20 genes related to milk fat synthesis using real time-quantitative PCR, the protein abundance of SREBP1 and FASN by Western blot, the production of triacylglycerol, and the fatty acid profile. Expression of SREBF1 was modest in mammary compared with the other tissues in dairy goats but its expression increased approximately 30-fold from pregnancy to lactation. The overexpression of the mature form of SREBP1 was confirmed by >200-fold higher expression of SREBF1 in Ad-nSREBP1 compared with Ad-GFP. We observed no changes in amount of the precursor form of SREBP1 protein but a >10-fold increase of the mature form of SREBP1 protein with Ad-nSREBP1. Compared with Ad-GFP cells (control), Ad-nSREBP1 cells had a significant increase in expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid activation (ACSL1), transport (FABP3), desaturation (SCD1), de novo synthesis of fatty acids (ACSS2, ACLY, IDH1, ACACA, FASN, and ELOVL6), and transcriptional factors (NR1H3 and PPARG). We observed a >10-fold increase in expression of INSIG1 but SCAP was downregulated by Ad-nSREBP1. Among genes related to

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation of whey protein isolate for new food-grade ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new, environmentally benign whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCO2) as an acid aggregating agent to separate a-lactalbumin (a-LA) aggregates from soluble beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) protein in concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions. The process e...

  7. The effects of protein supplement on leptin concentrations in lambs and meat goat kids grazing Bermudagrass pastures in Central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lambs and kids weaned and pastured on bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon) may not receive enough protein to reach maximal growth during mid to late summer when protein in BG pastures declines. As an indicator of physiological status, leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases as body cond...

  8. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05) concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05) concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05) concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05) the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  9. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05) concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05) concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05) concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05) the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  10. The effects of free choice protein supplementation on growth of lambs and meat goat kids grazing warm season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing provides most nutrients for growth in ruminants, however; there are times when nutritional needs of the animal exceed the nutritional quality of forages. Forages common to pastures in the South and Midwest may be insufficient in crude protein to meet the demands of growing lambs and meat goa...

  11. Novel SNPs in heat shock protein 70 gene and their association with sperm quality traits of Boer goats and Boer crosses.

    PubMed

    Nikbin, S; Panandam, J M; Yaakub, H; Murugaiyah, M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-05-01

    The semen quality of bucks affects the reproduction performance of the herd and is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is considered as an important gene affecting semen quality traits. The objectives of this study are to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP70 coding region and their association with semen quality traits on Boer and Boer cross bucks. DNA isolated from 53 goats (36 pure South African Boer and 17 Boer crosses) was subjected to PCR amplification of the exon 1 region of the caprine HSP70 gene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect polymorphisms and the variant DNA fragments were sequenced. Two synonymous SNPs (74A>C (ss836187517) and 191C>G (ss836187518)) were detected. Qualities of fresh and post-thaw semen were evaluated for sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility and velocity traits, live sperm percentage, and abnormal sperm rate. The C allele of ss836187517 and G allele of ss836187518 were at higher frequencies in both the breeds. The C allele of ss836187517 appeared to be the favorable allele for semen concentration, progressive motility of fresh semen, and motility and sperm lateral head displacement of post-thaw semen. A negative overdominance was observed for ss836187517 alleles on velocity traits of post-thaw semen. The C allele of ss836187518 was favorable for sperm concentration and progressive motility. Results herein suggest that the SNPs in HSP70 may affect on semen quality in tropical regions and specially on the potential of semen for freezing. PMID:24674824

  12. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  13. Selection for nutrients by pregnant goats on a microphyll desert scrub.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Aguilar, C N; Arévalo, J R; Rodríguez, A; García, J E; Mellado, J

    2011-05-01

    The behavioral consequences of pregnancy in goats were studied to test the hypothesis that pregnant females on rangeland select a diet richer in nutrients once the demands of gestation increase, and that nutrient content in goat diets changes with the grazing season. A total of 12 mature mixed breed goats either pregnant (n = 6) or non-pregnant (n = 6) were used during the dry period (February to May). Dietary samples obtained from the oral cavity of grazing goats (restrained with a short light rope permanently tightened around their neck) were used for chemical analyses. Across months, pregnant goats selected diets higher (P < 0.01) in crude protein (CP) than non-pregnant goats; this nutrient did not meet the requirements of late gestating goats. Pregnant goats made use of less (P < 0.01) fibrous feeds than non-pregnant goats. In order to cope with changing nutrient demands for pregnancy, goats adjusted their diet by increasing the selection of plants with 32% higher calcium content compared to forages selected by non-pregnant goats. The physiological state of goats did not alter the levels of phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in their diets; these minerals were adequate to meet the demands of pregnancy. There were no effects of physiological state on concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in the goat diets during the dry season, with levels adequate for sustainability of pregnancy. Pregnant goats did not seek forages lower in tannins, alkaloids, saponins and terpenes. It was concluded that to cope with increasing pregnancy costs, goats adjusted their diets increasing selection of forages or plant parts with high nutritional value to maximize their net nutrient budget. PMID:22440037

  14. Enterotoxaemia in goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R

    1996-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia of sheep and goats occurs worldwide, but the condition in goats is poorly understood. The disease in goats is mostly caused by Clostridium perfringens type D, although the role of the toxins of this microorganism in the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. The disease occurs in three forms, peracute, acute and chronic, the cardinal clinical sign of the acute and chronic forms being diarrhoea. The main biochemical alterations are hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, while at necropsy the disease is often characterized by haemorrhagic colitis. The typical histological changes observed in the brain of sheep with enterotoxaemia are not considered to be a common feature of enterotoxaemia in goats. Although the pathogenesis of caprine enterotoxaemia has not yet been properly defined, it is usually accepted that the presence of C. perfringens type D in the small bowel, together with a sudden change to a diet rich in carbohydrates, is the main predisposing factor for the disease. Vaccination seems to be poorly effective in preventing caprine enterotoxaemia, which might be due to the fact that the enteric form of the disease is partially independent of circulating C. perfringens toxin. More studies are needed on caprine enterotoxaemia, especially of its pathogenesis and immunity, in order to develop more efficient control measures for this disease. PMID:8950829

  15. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  16. Characteristics of the mitochondrial genome of four native goats in China (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; He, Jian-Ning; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Qiu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Chang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Ya

    2016-09-01

    Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Jining Gray goat, Fushun black goat, Youzhou black-skin goat, and Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome of those four goats consisted of 16,640 nt, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The complete mitogenome of these four local breeds of Chinese native goats could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China. PMID:25693713

  17. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat. PMID:12778586

  18. Mammogenesis and induced lactation with or without reserpine in nulliparous dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X

    2007-08-01

    Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation

  19. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    PubMed

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats. PMID:18457178

  20. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  1. Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for the repair of tibial bone defects in goat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Yang, Zhouyuan; Xie, Xiaowei; Kang, Pengde; Tan, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone has good performances of porous network structures and mechanics with antigen extracted. To develop a bioactive scaffold for enhancing bone repair and evaluate its biological property, rhBMP-2 loaded with antigen-free bovine cancellous bone was used to treat tibial bone defect. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to establish goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with rhBMP-2/antigen-free bovine cancellous bone scaffolds (group A), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group B), porous tricalciumphosphate scaffolds (group C) and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The gray value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects, which revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group C at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively (p < 0.05), while the difference between groups A and B was without significance at each time (p > 0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections, and the results indicated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group C (p < 0.05) but was similar to that in group B (p > 0.05) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. In addition, the expression of collagen I and vascular endothelial growth factor by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group C (p = 0.034, p = 0.032, respectively), but no significant differences were found when compared with that in group B (p = 0.36, p = 0.54, respectively). At the same time, group C presented better results than group D on bone defects healing. Therefore, the composites of antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with rhBMP-2 have a good osteoinductive activity and capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. PMID:26801475

  2. Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat.

    PubMed

    Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y

    2010-03-01

    Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (P<0.05) affected meat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (P<0.05) desirable fatty acid (DFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratios and greater (C18:0+C18:1/C16:0) ratios (P<0.01) than those of the other genotypes. Furthermore, the muscles of hybrid goats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (P<0.01), muscle color became redder (P<0.05) and tenderness decreased (P<0.05) with increasing age. The low level of lipids and cholesterol, good meat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. PMID:20374792

  3. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  4. Cutaneous pythiosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; Silva, T R; Oliveira-Filho, J C; Riet-Correa, F

    2015-01-01

    Pythiosis is reported for the first time in a goat. The affected goat had daily access to an aquatic environment and had developed an ulcerative lesion on the skin of the left hindlimb. Microscopically, there were dermal pyogranulomas with 'negatively stained' hyphae, which were identified immunohistochemically as Pythium insidiosum. PMID:25555632

  5. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  6. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination. PMID:27349114

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome of Youzhou black-skin goat.

    PubMed

    E, Guangxin; Chen, Li-Peng; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Youzhou black-skin goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous breed of Chinese southwest. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China. PMID:26702472

  8. A complete mitochondrial genome of Dazu Black goat.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Narisu; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Dazu Black goat is an indigenous goat genetic resource in Southwest of China. Here, we describe its complete mitochondrial genome sequence. The mitogenome is 16,641 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the indigenous goat could provide important data to further explore the taxonomic status of the subspecies and also provide a starting point for further phylogenetic studies. PMID:25731719

  9. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  10. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  11. GOATS Image Projection Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  12. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  13. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    PubMed Central

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  14. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  15. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  16. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in goat colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Jia, Zhenhu; Ma, Changlu; Zhao, Lili; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-10-15

    As an important nutrient source in large area of world, the composition and nutritional value of goat milk are not well deliberated. Detailed annotation of protein composition is essential to address the physiological and nutritional value of goat milk. In the present study, 423 colostrum and mature goat milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were identified. The abundance of 189 proteins was significantly different between colostrums and mature milk MFGM. The acute phase proteins were higher in colostrums MFGM than those in mature milk MFGM which protected newborns at the beginning of life. Proteins related to synthesis and secretion were conserved through lactation to ensure the milk production. Of note, long term depression (LTD) proteins were observed in colostrum and mature milk MFGM. Milk LTD proteins could be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lactation related depressive syndromes and should be taken into considerations of their effects on newborns. PMID:27173528

  17. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  18. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  19. Zeus, Aesculapius, Amalthea and the proteome of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-10-14

    The goat whey proteome has been explored in depth via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) at three different pH values. A total of 452 unique species have been tabulated, a proteome discovery so far unmatched in any single other investigation of milk from any mammalian species. This massive discovery is probably related to: i) the extraordinary load of proteins onto the CPLL beads (i.e. 2 g for each different pH captures) vs. barely 100 μL of beads; ii) the high resolution/high mass accuracy of mass spectral data; and iii) the use of two complementary tools, Mascot and PEAKS, each one contributing to a set of unique protein IDs. Due to the relative paucity of available protein annotations for goat, only 10% of the identified proteins belong to the capra, whereas 52% are specific of sheep and 37% are homologous to that of bovine milk. This work reports the largest description so far of the goat milk proteome, which has been compared with cow's milk proteome and would thus help to understand the importance of low-abundance proteins with respect to the unique biological properties of this nutrient. PMID:26193489

  20. White liver disease in goats.

    PubMed

    Black, H; Hutton, J B; Sutherland, R J; James, M P

    1988-03-01

    Three field cases of ill-thrift, hepatic lipodystrophy and low tissue levels of vitamin B12 in young angora cross goats are reported. The cases meet the criteria for the diagnosis of white liver disease (WLD) described for sheep. The hypothesis that WLD is a metabolic consequence of cobalt/vit B12 deficiency in sheep and goats on a diet rich in propionate is developed, together with possible reasons for its occurrence in these species but not in cattle or red deer. PMID:16031425

  1. Influence of diet and rennet on the composition of goats' milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Fresno Baquero, María; Álvarez Ríos, Sergio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Darias Martín, Jacinto

    2011-05-01

    Dry matter, protein, fat, pH, mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) concentrations were determined in samples of goats' milk and in fresh, semi-hard and hard cheeses to study the effect of the goats' diet and the type of rennet used for the cheese processing of the Palmero Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Two groups of 20 Palmero goats were fed 2 different diets: a Palmero diet (PD supplied by native forages adapted to subhumid areas, which had a high ratio of long fibre to concentrates (65:35), and an actual diet (AD), the most commonly used by goat farmers, with a low ratio of long fibre to concentrates (35:65). In general, the cheese samples from goats fed with PD had higher mean Ca, Zn, Cu and Se concentrations than the samples obtained from AD fed goats. The diet exhibited a greater influence on the chemical composition of the cheeses than the rennet used in their production. Applying a stepwise linear discriminant analysis a complete percentage of correct classifications of the three types of cheeses according to the diet of the goats was observed. PMID:24725675

  2. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  3. Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and tissue expression of the TNNT3 gene in Guizhou black goat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haolin; Zhang, Jinhua; Yu, Bo; Li, Liang; Shang, Yishun

    2015-11-15

    The vertebrate fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) protein is an important regulatory and structural component of thin filaments in skeletal muscle, which improves meat quality traits of livestock and poultry. In this study, the troponin T isoforms from adult goat (skeletal muscle mRNA) were identified. We isolated the full-length coding sequence of the goat TNNT3 gene (GenBank: KM042888), analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different tissues from different aged goats (10, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days old). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Guizhou black goat TNNT3 was highly expressed in the biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, and longissimus dorsi muscle (P<0.01), and lowly expressed in the cardiac muscle, masseter muscle, and rumen tissue (P>0.05). Western blotting confirmed that the TNNT3 protein was expressed in the muscle tissues listed above, with the highest level found in the longissimus dorsi muscle, and the lowest level in the masseter muscle. In the 10 to 360day study period the TNNT3 protein expression level was the highest when the goats were 30 days old. A peptide, ASPPPAEVPEVHEEVH that may contribute to improved goat meat tenderness was identified. This study provides an insight into the molecular structure of the vertebrate TNNT3 gene. PMID:26187066

  4. Effects of adding protein, condensed tannins, and polyethylene glycol to diets of sheep and goats fed one-seed juniper and low quality roughage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by browsing ruminants are not well understood. Twelve Rambouillet ewes (78 ± 2.3 kg BW) and 12 Boer-Spanish does (54 ± 1.4 kg BW) were used in a split-plot sequence design to investigate the effects of adding protein, quebrac...

  5. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  6. Clinical fascioliasis in domestic goats in Montana.

    PubMed

    Leathers, C W; Foreyt, W J; Fetcher, A; Foreyt, K M

    1982-06-15

    Fascioliasis (Fasciola hepatica infection) was diagnosed in a herd of domestic goats in Montana. Twenty-eight goats died after a month-long clinical course of anorexia, weight loss, depression, lethargy, and decreased milk production. Clinical laboratory findings included anemia, low hemoglobin content, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilia, and high hepatic enzyme activity. The livers of affected goats had extensive parenchymal necrosis, fibrosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Albendazole oral suspension (20 mg/kg) was used to treat 45 of the remaining goats twice, 30 days apart; 15 goats were untreated controls. Egg counts for the untreated group averaged 171 fluke eggs per gram of feces, which compared with less than 1 epg per gram for the treated group. Fifteen percent of the treated goats died, whereas 73% of the untreated goats died. On the basis of necropsy findings, albendazole treatment was regarded as greater than 99% effective against adult F hepatica. PMID:7096186

  7. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  8. Differential distribution of ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) immunoreactive cells in the mouse and rat gastric oxyntic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette; Sachs, George; Lambrecht, Nils W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme that acylates ghrelin was recently identified in mice as the fourth member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferases superfamily (MBOAT4) and named ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT). Only one report showed GOAT mRNA expression in ghrelin-expressing cells of the mouse stomach. We investigated the distribution of GOAT protein in peripheral tissues and co-expression with endocrine markers in the gastric mucosa using a custom-made anti-GOAT antibody. Tissues were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice. Western blot revealed two immunoreactive bands in rat and mouse gastric corpus mucosal proteins, a 50 kDa band corresponding to the GOAT protein and a 100 kDa band likely corresponding to a dimer. Western blot also detected GOAT in the plasma and levels were strongly increased after 24-h fasting in mice and slightly in rats. GOAT-immunoreactive cells were located in the gastric corpus mucosa and the anterior pituitary gland, whereas other peripheral tissues of rats and mice examined were negative. In mice, GOAT-immunoreactive cells were mainly distributed throughout the middle portion of the oxyntic glands, whereas in rats they were localized mainly in the lower portion of the glands. Double labeling showed that 95±1% of GOAT-immunoreactive cells in mice co-labeled with ghrelin, whereas in rats only 56±4% of GOAT-positive cells showed co-expression of ghrelin. The remainder of the GOAT-immunopositive cells in rats co-expressed histidine decarboxylase (44±3%). No co-localization was observed with somatostatin in rats or mice. These data suggest species differences between rats and mice in gastric GOAT expression perhaps resulting in a different role of the MBOAT4 enzyme in the rat stomach. Detection of GOAT in the plasma raises the possibility that ghrelin octanoylation may occur in the circulation and the fasting-induced increase in GOAT may contribute to the increase of acylated ghrelin after fasting. PMID:20059966

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hechuan white goat in China (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    E, Guangxin; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Chen, Li-Peng; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Hechuan white goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous of China. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further explore the breed improvement in Chinese goat. PMID:26704695

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xinong Saanen dairy goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Cunling; Wei, Zehui

    2016-09-01

    Xinong Saanen dairy goat (Capra hircus), a breed distributed widely and adapted highly in China, has the characteristics of high milk production and high litter size. Our research revealed that the complete mitochondrial genome of Xinong Saanen dairy goat was 16,639 bp in length. The contents of A, C, G and T in the mitochondrial genome were 33.6%, 26.0%, 13.1% and 27.3%, respectively. It had a typical mitogenome structure, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Most of the PCGs have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. These results provide essential information for phylogeographic history and population genetic structure, genetic diversity of domestic goats and mitochondrial genome editing based on the goat model. PMID:25630737

  11. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food. PMID:26869113

  12. Swainsonine Induces Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway and Caspase Activation in Goat Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Zhang, Hongling; Luo, Xiaomao; Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) has been reported to impair placentae and ultimately cause abortion in pregnant goats. Up to now, however, the precise effects of SW on goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) are still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity effects of SW on GTCs were detected and evaluated by MTT assay, AO/EB double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that SW treatment significantly suppressed GTCs viability and induced typical apoptotic features in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SW treatment increased Bax protein levels, reduced Bcl-2 protein levels, induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, resulting in GTCs apoptosis. However, caspase-8 activity and the level of Bid did not exhibit significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. In addition, TUNEL assay suggested that SW induced GTCs apoptosis but not other cells in goat placenta cotyledons. Taken together, these data suggest that SW selectively induces GTCs apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in goat placenta cotyledons, which might contribute to placentae impairment and abortion in pregnant goats fed with SW-containing plants. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in SW-caused goat's abortion. PMID:25076855

  13. Genetic and Pathological Follow-Up Study of Goats Experimentally and Naturally Exposed to a Sheep Scrapie Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Maestrale, Caterina; Cancedda, Maria G.; Pintus, Davide; Masia, Mariangela; Nonno, Romolo; Ru, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonello; Demontis, Francesca; Santucciu, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thirty-seven goats carrying different prion protein genotypes (PRNP) were orally infected with a classical scrapie brain homogenate from wild-type (ARQ/ARQ) sheep and then mated to obtain 2 additional generations of offspring, which were kept in the same environment and allowed to be naturally exposed to scrapie. Occurrence of clinical or subclinical scrapie was observed in the experimentally infected goats (F0) and in only one (F1b) of the naturally exposed offspring groups. In both groups (F0 and F1b), goats carrying the R154H, H154H, R211Q, and P168Q-P240P dimorphisms died of scrapie after a longer incubation period than wild-type, G37V, Q168Q-P240P, and S240P goats. In contrast, D145D and Q222K goats were resistant to infection. The immunobiochemical signature of the scrapie isolate and its pathological aspects observed in the sheep donors were substantially maintained over 2 goat generations, i.e., after experimental and natural transmission. This demonstrates that the prion protein gene sequence, which is shared by sheep and goats, is more powerful than any possible but unknown species-related factors in determining scrapie phenotypes. With regard to genetics, our study confirms that the K222 mutation protects goats even against ovine scrapie isolates, and for the first time, a possible association of D145 mutation with scrapie resistance is shown. In addition, it is possible that the sole diverse frequencies of these genetic variants might, at least in part, shape the prevalence of scrapie among naturally exposed progenies in affected herds. IMPORTANCE This study was aimed at investigating the genetic and pathological features characterizing sheep-to-goat transmission of scrapie. We show that in goats with different prion protein gene mutations, the K222 genetic variant is associated with scrapie resistance after natural and experimental exposure to ovine prion infectivity. In addition, we observed for the first time a protective effect of the D145

  14. Differential immunoreactivity of goat derived scrapie following in vitro misfolding versus mouse bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay allows for detection of the disease associated isoform of the prion protein in tissues and fluids of sheep where it was previously undetected by conventional western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Studies of goats with scrapie have yet ...

  15. Staphylococci isolated from healthy goats.

    PubMed

    Valle, J; Piriz, S; de la Fuente, R; Vadillo, S

    1991-03-01

    A study was made of the staphylococcal population on the skin and on the nasal mucosa and in the milk of 133 healthy goats. Of a total of 346 strains isolated and characterised as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, 74 (21.4%) were coagulase-positive (68 S. aureus and 6 S. hyicus), and 272 (78.6%) coagulase-negative. The novobiocin-sensitive species S. haemolyticus (23.5%), S. warneri (16.5%), S. epidermidis (11.8%), S. chromogenes (8.5%), S. caprae (6.6%) and S. hyicus (2.6%), and the novobiocin-resistant species S. xylosus (8.5%), S. sciuri (7.4%), S. saprophyticus (4.8%), S. cohnii (2.2%), S. lentus (1.1%), S. equorum (1.1%) and S. kloosii (1.1%) were identified. Twelve (4.4%) of coagulase-negative strains remained unidentified. Strains isolated in the skin of the udder and teats of the 133 goats were mainly novobiocin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci, the most prevalent species being S. haemolyticus, S. warneri and S. epidermidis. Staphylococci indicative of subclinical infection were determined in the milk of 47 (35.3%) of the 133 goats sampled. PMID:1853672

  16. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

    1997-12-01

    One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants. PMID:9436106

  17. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control. PMID:3154301

  18. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  19. Lactation curve and milk quality of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of increase of peak milk production, rate of decrease of milk production after the peak, day of peak milk production, and maximum peak milk production compared with that of the control group. Trypanosomiasis also affected the persistency of lactation, which was significantly reduced in goats in the infected group. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the

  20. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human α-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human α-lactalbumin (hα-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat β-lactoglobulin (βLG) promoter, the hα-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of hα-LA was investigated. Both the hα-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ≈60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these hα-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried hα-LA and the hα-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins. PMID:25139669

  1. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein. PMID:26304408

  2. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  3. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  4. Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

  5. Goat milk allergenicity as a function of αs₁-casein genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ballabio, C; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Gigliotti, C; Pagnacco, G; Terracciano, L; Fiocchi, A; Restani, P; Caroli, A M

    2011-02-01

    Cow milk allergy is the most frequent allergy in the first years of life. Milk from other mammalian species has been suggested as a possible nutritional alternative to cow milk, but in several cases, the clinical studies showed a high risk of cross-reactivity with cow milk. In the goat species, αS₁-casein (αS₁-CN), coded by the CSN1S1 gene, is characterized by extensive qualitative and quantitative polymorphisms. Some alleles are associated with null (i.e., CSN1S1 0(1)) or reduced (i.e., CSN1S1 F) expression of the specific protein. The aim of this work was to obtain new information on goat milk and to evaluate its suitability for allergic subjects, depending on the genetic variation at αs₁-CN. Individual milk samples from 25 goats with different CSN1S1 genotypes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and immunoblotting, using monoclonal antibodies specific for bovine α-CN and sera from children allergic to cow milk. A lower reaction was observed to 2 goat milk samples characterized by the CSN1S1 0(1)0(1) and 0(1)F genotypes. Moreover, a fresh food skin prick test, carried out on 6 allergic children, showed the lack of positive reaction to the 0(1)0(1) milk sample and only one weak reactivity to the 0(1)F sample. The risk of cross-reactivity between cow and goat milk proteins suggests the need for caution before using goat milk for infant formulas. However, we hypothesize that it can be used successfully in the preparation of modified formulas for selected groups of allergic patients. The importance of taking the individual goat CN genetic variation into account in further experimental studies is evident from the results of the present work. PMID:21257068

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Liuyang black goat and its phylogenetic relationship with other Caprinae.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Ma, H M; Chen, G S; Wang, L Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Liuyang black goat was investigated, and phylogenetic relationships between the Liuyang black goat and other species of Caprinae were analyzed. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,715 bp, which consisted of 33.50% A, 27.27% T, 25.98% C, and 13.25% G. The mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-loop region), two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Caprinae constructed using 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that the Liuyang black goat is phylogenetically closest to Hemitragus jemlahicus (the Himalayan tahr) and Blue sheep to form clade A. Tibetan antelopes clustered separately in clade B and so did sheep in clade C. PMID:27421009

  7. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  8. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  9. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  10. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  11. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  12. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    PubMed

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs. PMID:10386009

  13. Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively. PMID:23543924

  14. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

  15. Diet choice by goats as effect of milk production level during late lactation.

    PubMed

    Avondo, M; Pagano, R I; De Angelis, A; Pennisi, P

    2013-07-01

    The diet self-regulation ability of goats during late lactation has been studied with regard to their production level. Two groups of seven Girgentana goats producing 1100 ± 157 g/day (H group) and 613 ± 138 g/day (L group) were housed in individual pens and were given alfalfa pelleted hay (1.5 kg), whole grains of maize (0.5 kg), barley (0.5 kg), faba bean (0.5 kg) and pelleted sunflower cake (0.5 kg) on a daily basis. During a 7-day pre-experimental period, goats received a mixed ration based on the same feeds used during the experimental period (1.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of each concentrate). Individual choice of feeds was continuously recorded for 7 days using a 24-h IR video surveillance system equipped with four video cameras. The nutrient intake in both groups was much higher than needed. Goats in the H group ate more (2016.3 v. 1744.3 g dry matter (DM)/day) and selected less hay (26.9% v. 34.6% DM), more high-protein feeds (faba bean and sunflower cake: 14.0% and 15.9% v. 8.8% and 7.9% DM, respectively) and less maize (21.5% v. 25.0% DM), reaching a higher CP concentration in the diet (17.3% v. 15.0% DM) compared with the goats in the L group. During the 24-h trial period, hay was more constantly selected (on average never reaching <20% of the total hourly basis feeding time, apart from the first hour after feed administration) compared with concentrate feeds. This feeding behaviour has probably exercised a 'curative' effect that enabled the goats to continue to take in very high levels of starch and protein, without manifesting any symptom of metabolic disease. Shifting goats from the pre-experimental diet, based on a mixture of the same feeds used during the experimental period, to the free-choice feeding caused more than 20% increase in milk production in both groups. From the results of the intake, we are unable to conclude that the goats can select their diet to meet their requirements, as goats consumed much more than needed. However, when free to

  16. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  17. Using goats and sheep to control juniper saplings: what we've learned

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary findings and conclusions were synthesized from a series of papers published between 2006-2014 from studies conducted at CRLRC and the NMSU Campus Farm seeking to determine the feasibility of using sheep and goats to suppress oneseed juniper sapling encroachment. We found that protein sup...

  18. Gene organization and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Hainan black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiangtao; Zhao, Wei; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hainan black goat was determined for the first time by the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,641 bp, including 33.54% A, 26.04% C, 27.31% T, 13.11% G. The genome structure contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). These results have extended more detail information of mitochondrial genome, thus being useful for further study on the genetic divergence and phylogenetic resolution of global goats. PMID:25211090

  19. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  20. Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis (Linneo, 1761) infestation in goats in Spain.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, M; Reina, D; Frontera, E; Navarrete, I

    2005-06-30

    This survey was conducted to determine the chronobiology and seroprevalence of nasal bot infestation (Oestrus ovis) in Spain and to identify the risk factors associated with this disease in caprine herds. A total of 1590 sera from adult goats were collected at random on 175 farms in southwestern Spain. Sera were tested by ELISA, using crude protein from second stage larvae as antigen. The mean seroprevalence was 46.04% and mean percentage of optical densities was 41.83. These data indicate a high prevalence of this parasite in the investigated areas. The serological survey revealed that goats managed at higher altitudes, at meridians latitudes and on farms with small herds had a smaller probability of infestation. Eighty goat heads, obtained from abattoirs in the central region of Spain, were collected and examined for nasal botflies from February to October 2002. O. ovis larval stages were recovered from the nasal-sinus cavities of 23 goats, reaching a prevalence of 34.94%. The mean larval burden was 3.9 larvae per infested head. No first instars were found during February and March, when the second instar reached its larger count. The third instar was observed in very small number during the whole period of study, with one peak occurring in July--August. These data show the existence of a favourable period for the development of larval instars of O. ovis in goats that starts in February and finishes in September. PMID:15899552

  1. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  2. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes. PMID:18551378

  3. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  4. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  5. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

  6. Novel Nucleotide Variations, Haplotypes Structure and Associations with Growth Related Traits of Goat AT Motif-Binding Factor (ATBF1) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xianfeng; Jia, Wenchao; Pan, Chuanying; Li, Xiangcheng; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    The AT motif-binding factor (ATBF1) not only interacts with protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (PIAS3) to suppress STAT3 signaling regulating embryo early development and cell differentiation, but is required for early activation of the pituitary specific transcription factor 1 (Pit1) gene (also known as POU1F1) critically affecting mammalian growth and development. The goal of this study was to detect novel nucleotide variations and haplotypes structure of the ATBF1 gene, as well as to test their associations with growth-related traits in goats. Herein, a total of seven novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (SNP 1-7) within this gene were found in two well-known Chinese native goat breeds. Haplotypes structure analysis demonstrated that there were four haplotypes in Hainan black goat while seventeen haplotypes in Xinong Saanen dairy goat, and both breeds only shared one haplotype (hap1). Association testing revealed that the SNP2, SNP5, SNP6, and SNP7 loci were also found to significantly associate with growth-related traits in goats, respectively. Moreover, one diplotype in Xinong Saanen dairy goats significantly linked to growth related traits. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variations of the goat ATBF1 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection in genetics and breeding in goats. PMID:26323396

  7. Once-daily milking effects in high-yielding Alpine dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Komara, M; Boutinaud, M; Ben Chedly, H; Guinard-Flament, J; Marnet, P G

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the milk loss of high-yielding Alpine goats resulting from once-daily milking (ODM) and its relationship to udder cisternal size. We investigated the effects of application of this management strategy on milk yield, composition, and technological parameters: lipolysis, fat globule size, and cheese yield. In a second experiment, we investigated the effect of repeated periods of ODM management during lactation. Goats at the beginning of both experiments were at 25 d in milk on average and were previously milked twice daily (twice-daily milking; TDM). In experiment 1, which was conducted for 2 periods (P) of 9 wk (P1, P2), 48 goats were grouped (1, 2, 3, and 4) according to milk yield, parity, and somatic cell count (SCC). Over the 2 periods, goats from group 1 were managed with TDM and those from group 2 were managed with ODM. In group 3, goats were assigned to TDM during P1 and ODM during P2, conversely, those in group 4 were assigned to ODM in P1 and TDM in P2. During P1, the 12 goats from group 3 underwent 2 distinct morning machine milkings to measure milk repartition (cisternal and alveolar) in the udder based on the "atosiban method." On P1 plus the P2 period of 18 wk, milk loss caused by ODM (compared with TDM) was 16%. In our condition of 24-h milk accumulation, there was no correlation between milk loss and udder cisternal size. Milk fat content, fat globule size, or apparent laboratory cheese yield was not modified by ODM, but milk protein content (+2.7 g/kg), casein (+1.8 g/kg), milk soluble protein concentration (+1.0 g/kg), and SCC increased, whereas lipolysis decreased (-0.3 mEq/100 g of oleic acid). In experiment 2, which was conducted for 4 periods (P1, P2, P3, P4) of 5 wk each, 8 goats, blocked into 2 homogenous groups (5 and 6), were used to study the effects of a double inversion of milking frequency (TDM or ODM) for 20 wk of lactation. Milk loss was 17% and ODM did not modify milk fat or protein contents

  8. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of FGF5 in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Bao, W L; Yao, R Y; He, Q; Guo, Z X; Bao, C; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that belongs to the FGF family, and was found to be associated with hair growth in humans and other animals. The Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) is a goat breed that provides superior cashmere; this breed was formed by spontaneous mutation in China. Here, we report the cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of the Cashmere goat FGF5. The cloned FGF5 cDNA was 813 base pairs (KM596772), including an open reading frame encoding a 270-amino-acid polypeptide. The nucleotide sequence shared 99% homology with Ovis aries FGF5 (NM_001246263.1). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that FGF5 contained a signal peptide, an FGF domain, and a heparin-binding growth factor/FGF family signature. There was 1 cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 11 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 4 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 1 amidation site, 1 N-glycosylation site, and 1 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site in FGF5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that FGF5 mRNA levels were higher in testis than in the pancreas and liver. These data suggest that FGF5 may play a crucial role in Cashmere goat hair growth. PMID:26400346

  9. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected minerals content

    PubMed Central

    Kapadiya, Dhartiben B.; Prajapati, Darshna B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected mineral content in Surti goat milk, and its comparison was made between cow and buffalo milk. Materials and Methods: Goat milk samples of Surti breed and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Cow milk samples of Kankrej breed were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for gross composition such as total solids (TS), fat, solid not fat (SNF), protein, lactose, and ash. Samples were also analyzed for nitrogen distribution such as total nitrogen (TN), non-casein nitrogen (NCN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), and selected minerals content such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and chloride. Total five replications were carried out. Results: Goat milk had the lowest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content among all three types of milk studied in the present investigation. On the other hand, the highest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content were found in buffalo milk. Buffalo milk had the highest SNF, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content, which was followed by goat milk and lowest in cow milk. The SNF, protein, TN, and calcium content of goat milk were statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk. The lactose content of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the cow milk as well as buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest ash and NCN content, which were followed by buffalo milk and lowest in cow milk. However, the differences in ash, NPN, and phosphorous content of three types of milk studied, viz., goat milk, cow milk, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The NCN content of buffalo milk was statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk as well as goat milk. The NCN and magnesium content of goat milk were significantly higher (p>0.05) than

  10. FTIR Examination Of Thermal Denaturation And Gel-Formation In Whey Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byler, D. M.; Purcell, James M.

    1989-12-01

    Second derivative Fourier-transform infrared [DR2-FTIR] spectra of β-lactoglobulin [RIG], serum albumin [BSA], and a-lactalbumin [aLA], three proteins found in bovine whey, are markedly different before and after thermal denaturation. In no case, however, do the heat-treated proteins unfold as completely as does alkaline-denatured RLG [1]. The spectra also suggest that, for RLG and BSA, formation of intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded (β-strands precedes the onset of heat-induced gelation.

  11. Effect of condensed tannin ingestion in sheep and goat parotid saliva proteome.

    PubMed

    Lamy, E; da Costa, G; Santos, R; Capela e Silva, F; Potes, J; Pereira, A; Coelho, A V; Baptista, E Sales

    2011-06-01

    Saliva appears as a defence mechanism, against potential negative effects of tannins, in some species of animals which have to deal with these plant secondary metabolites in their regular diets. This study was carried out to investigate changes in parotid saliva protein profiles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus), induced by condensed tannin ingestion. Five Merino sheep and five Serpentina goats were maintained on a quebracho tannin enriched diet for 10 days. Saliva was collected through catheters inserted on parotid ducts and salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted Laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the proteins whose expression levels changed after tannin consumption. Although no new proteins appeared, quebracho tannin consumption increased saliva total protein concentration and produced changes in the proteome of both species. While some proteins were similarly altered in both species parotid salivary protein profile, sheep and goats also presented species-specific differences in response to tannin consumption. PMID:20880287

  12. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage. PMID:26662041

  13. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  14. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  15. Lipopolysaccharide differentially decreases plasma acyl and desacyl ghrelin levels in rats: potential role of the circulating ghrelin acylating enzyme GOAT

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Reeve, Joseph R.; Taché, Yvette; Lambrecht, Nils W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rodents is an established model for studying innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria and mimicking symptoms of infections including reduced food intake associated with decreased circulating total ghrelin levels. The ghrelin-acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) involved in the formation of acyl ghrelin (AG) was recently identified. We investigated changes in circulating AG, desacyl ghrelin (DG) and GOAT induced by intraperitoneal LPS (100μg/kg) and associated changes in food intake. Plasma AG and total ghrelin were assessed by radioimmunoassay, GOAT protein by Western blot and mRNA by RT-qPCR. DG was derived from total minus AG. Plasma AG and DG were decreased at 2h, 5h and 7h (p<0.01) post injection compared to vehicle and recovered at 24h. At 2h there was a significantly greater decrease of AG (-53%) than DG (-28%) resulting in a decreased AG/DG ratio (1:5, p <0.01), which thereafter returned to pre-injection values (1:3). This altered ratio was associated with a 38% decrease in plasma GOAT protein compared to vehicle (p <0.001), whereas gastric GOAT protein was slightly increased by 10% (p<0.05). GOAT mRNA expression was unchanged. Food intake was reduced by 58% measured during the 1.5-2h period post LPS injection. Decreased plasma AG and DG preceded the rise in rectal temperature and blood glucose that peaked at 7h. These data indicate that LPS induces a long-lasting reduction of AG and DG levels that may have a bearing with the decrease in food intake. The faster drop in AG than DG within 2h is associated with reduced circulating GOAT. PMID:20599577

  16. Activating the Expression of Human K-rasG12D Stimulates Oncogenic Transformation in Transgenic Goat Fetal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongde; Polejaeva, Irina; Salgia, Ravi; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu; Chen, Guangchun; Chen, Liaohai

    2014-01-01

    Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D) was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency), hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established. PMID:24594684

  17. Chitotriosidase activity in goat blood and colostrum.

    PubMed

    Argüello, A; Castro, N; Batista, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sanchez-Macias, D; Quesada, E; Capote, J

    2008-05-01

    Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investigated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this activity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking at partum and 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Goat kid blood was collected at birth and every 7 d thereafter until goats kids were 56 d old. The ChT activity ranged from 2,368 to 3,350 nmol/ mL per hour in goat blood serum, and no statistical differences were detected through time. However, activity tended to decrease from 3 d prepartum to 2 d post-partum. Colostrum ChT activity was 3,912 nmol/mL per hour and 465 nmol/mL per hour on the day of delivery and 4 d postpartum, respectively. Colostrum ChT activity was significantly higher at partum than at any other time. The ChT activity in colostrum was significantly greater at 1 d postpartum than at 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity did not differ in colostrum collected on d 2, 3, and 4 postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity in goat kid blood serum ranged from 2,664 to 9,231 nmol/mL per hour at birth and 49 d of life, respectively. Chitotriosidase activity in the blood serum increased with age: at birth, activity was significantly less than at 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 d postpartum. The maximum ChT activity in blood serum was observed at 49 d postpartum. Activity in 49-d-old kids was significantly greater than that observed in kids at 0, 7, and 14 d postpartum. PMID:18420635

  18. 6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  19. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  20. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S.; El-Tarabany, Akram A.; Atta, Mostafa A.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  1. Physical characteristic and palatability of biscuit bio-supplement for dairy goat.

    PubMed

    Retnani, Yuli; Permana, Idat Galih; Purba, Lia Christin

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the physical characteristic and palatability of biscuit bio-supplement for dairy goat. This research was conducted at Laboratory of Feed Industry, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia and the palatability test was conducted on the dairy goat farm at Leuwiliang, Bogor, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Twenty heads of dairy goat were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments (four heads of goat/treatment). Experimental design used Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments were biscuit bio-supplement composition i.e., R1 = biscuit bio-supplement of Indigofera sp., R2 = biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf, R3 biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf, R4 = biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf and Indigofera sp., R5 = biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera sp. The variables measured were moisture, water activity, water absorption, density and palatability of dairy goat. The results of this research indicated that the treatments of biscuit bio-supplement gave significant effect (p<0.05) on water content, water absorption, density and palatability, but had not significant effect on water activity. Palatability of R1 was 76.38±7.92, R2 was 23.81±6.08, R3 was 40.25±3.54, R4 was 29.56±4.77 and R5 was 95.63±7.36 g/head. Biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera sp., (R5) had the best value of palatability for dairy goat and had the best crude protein (36.65%), also had lowest water activity, highest density than the other biscuits. PMID:26031008

  2. Modulation of aquaporin 2 expression in the kidney of young goats by changes in nitrogen intake.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Kristin; Breves, Gerhard; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2014-10-01

    In ruminants, a decrease of dietary nitrogen (N) is an appropriate feeding concept to reduce environmental pollution and costs. In our previous study, when goats were kept on an N-reduced diet, a decrease of plasma urea concentration and an increase of renal urea transporters were demonstrated. Renal urea absorption plays a crucial role for renal water absorption and urine concentration. Renal collecting duct water absorption is mainly mediated by the water channel aquaporin 1 and 2 (AQP1 and AQP2). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a dietary N reduction on expression of renal AQP1 and AQP2 in young goats. Twenty male White Saanen goats, 3 months old, were divided equally into two feeding groups, receiving either a diet with an adequate or a reduced-N supply. Goats fed a reduced-N diet showed significantly higher amounts of AQP1 mRNA in cortical tissue, and the expression of AQP2 mRNA and protein were highly elevated in renal outer medulla. An increase of vasopressin concentrations in plasma were detected for the N-reduced fed goats. Therefore, a stimulation of renal water absorption can be assumed. This might be an advantage for ruminants in times of N reduction due to higher urea concentrations in the tubular fluid and which might result in higher absorption of urea by renal urea transporters. Therefore, interplay of aquaporin water channels and urea transporters in the kidney may occur to maintain urea metabolism in times of N scarcity in young goats. PMID:25095973

  3. Reaction of goats to infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Wafula, J S; Mushi, E Z; Wamwayi, H

    1985-07-01

    Intranasal exposure of goats to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus resulted in mild respiratory disease and virus reisolation from nasal secretions. No disease was produced in goats exposed to the same virus by the genital or ocular routes. There was serological evidence of contact transmission of infection from infected goats to cattle. Virus recrudescence was not detected in goats treated with dexamethasone two months after virus inoculation. PMID:2994191

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and tissue-specific expression of Akirin2 gene in Tianfu goat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jisi; Xu, Gangyi; Wan, Lu; Wang, Nianlu

    2015-01-01

    The Akirin2 gene is a nuclear factor and is considered as a potential functional candidate gene for meat quality. To better understand the structures and functions of Akirin2 gene, the cDNA of the Tianfu goat Akirin2 gene was cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 cDNA full coding sequence (CDS) contains 579bp nucleotides that encode 192 amino acids. A phylogenic tree of the Akirin2 protein sequence from the Tianfu goat and other species revealed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 was closely related with cattle and sheep Akirin2. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Akirin2 was expressed in the myocardium, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and the longissimus dorsi muscle. Especially, high expression levels of Akirin2 were detected in the spleen, lung, and kidney whereas lower expression levels were seen in the liver, myocardium, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle. Temporal mRNA expression showed that Akirin2 expression levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle, first increased then decreased from day 1 to month 12. Western blotting results showed that the Akirin2 protein was only detected in the lung and three skeletal muscle tissues. PMID:25239665

  5. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition. PMID:22061547

  6. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  7. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  8. Admixture and linkage disequilibrium analysis of meat goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the population structure and variation within the genome will assist with efforts to make genetic gains for meat goat production. A recently developed Illumina Goat 50K SNP panel containing 52,295 SNP loci was created primarily from SNPs identified in European dairy goat breeds and Asi...

  9. Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation in United States goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 bree...

  10. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  11. GOAT GROWTH MODEL: GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted using three goat populations: the Boer (BR), the Spanish (SP), and the Tennessee Stiff-legged (TS) breeds, maintained at the International Goat Research Center. The goats were fed three levels: 100%, or (ad libitum) 85% and 70% of ad lib, of the same ration containing 18% CP ...

  12. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  13. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  14. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  15. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  16. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    PubMed

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  17. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  18. Effects of dehydration and rehydration on thermoregulatory sweating in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M A

    1989-01-01

    1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  20. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not

  1. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the

  2. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    PubMed

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  3. Postnatal development of the exocrine pancreas in suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Lopez, V; Martínez-Victoria, E; Yago, M D; Lupiani, M J; Mañas, M

    1997-04-01

    A total of 25 preruminant Granadina breed goats were used. They were bottle-fed goat milk ad libitum from postnatal day 3 to 28. Until the age of 3 d, kids were fed colostrum. Body weight, pancreas weight, total protein concentration, enzyme activities in pancreatic tissue and hormone concentrations (cortisol, gastrin, T3 and T4) were determined at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d of age. Our results show that the rates of pancreatic synthesis and secretion of chymotrypsin are well developed at birth in the kid, and may compensate for possible deficiencies in gastric and/or enterocytes intracellular proteolysis. In week 4, there was a marked increase in amylase activity, change that can be attributed to the beginning of the transitional period known as weaning. The significant increase in circulating concentration of cortisol during week 4 suggests the involvement of corticosteroid as a mediator of pancreatic development at weaning. Changes in blood levels of this hormone are believed to be important in the expression of amylase in the neonatal period. However, T3-T4 blood levels remained unchanged from d 3 to 28, suggesting that, in the kid, these hormones appear to have no clear influence upon the postnatal development of the exocrine pancreas. PMID:9255407

  4. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    PubMed Central

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Tabatabaee, Nooroldin; Khalkhali, Hossein; Amini, Imane

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pistachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD). Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed. Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization. Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds. PMID:27092220

  5. Production of transgenic goats expressing human coagulation factor IX in the mammary glands after nuclear transfer using transfected fetal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Amiri Yekta, Amir; Dalman, Azam; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Fakheri, Rahman; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Daneshzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Vojgani, Mahdi; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Fatemi, Nayeralsadat; Vahabi, Zeinab; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Ataei, Fariba; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Masoudi, Najmehsadat; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Gourabi, Hamid

    2013-02-01

    There are growing numbers of recombinant proteins that have been expressed in milk. Thus one can consider the placement of any gene of interest under the control of the regulatory elements of a milk protein gene in a dairy farm animal. Among the transgene introducing techniques, only nuclear transfer (NT) allows 100 % efficiency and bypasses the mosaicism associated with counterpart techniques. In this study, in an attempt to produce a transgenic goat carrying the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) transgene, goat fetal fibroblasts were electroporated with a linearized marker-free construct in which the transgene was juxtaposed to β-casein promoter designed to secret the recombinant protein in goat milk. Two different lines of transfected cells were used as donors for NT to enucleated oocytes. Two transgenic goats were liveborn. DNA sequencing of the corresponding transgene locus confirmed authenticity of the cloning procedure and the complementary experiments on the whey demonstrated expression of human factor IX in the milk of transgenic goats. In conclusion, our study has provided the groundwork for a prosperous and promising approach for large-scale production and therapeutic application of hFIX expressed in transgenic goats. PMID:22869287

  6. Chemical evaluation and digestibility of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) byproducts fed to goats.

    PubMed

    Aregheore, E M

    2002-07-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of the cocoa byproducts CPH (cocoa pod husk), CS (cocoa shell) and CD (cocoa dust), and to establish a rational use of CS and CD in the diets of growing goats. CD had a high crude protein (CP) content of 15.9%, while CS and CPH had 13.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The byproducts were high in crude fibre (CF) content. Among the byproducts, CD had the highest ether extract value (22.0%). Fifteen growing goats, 18-20 months of age, with pre-experimental body weights of 20.9 +/- 0.33 kg, were randomly allotted to three diets in growth studies. In diet 1, dried brewers' grain (DBG) served as the control, while the other two diets had CS or CD plus DBG. The dry matter intake (DMI) was 570, 530 and 486 g/head per day for the control, CS + DBG and CD + DBG diets, respectively. The growth rate differed significantly among the goats offered the diets (p < 0.05). Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) digestibility were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the goats on the control diet than in those on CS + DBG or CD + DBG. The DM, CP and OM in the CS + DBG diet were more digestible (p < 0.05) than those in the CD + DBG diet. The inclusion of DBG in the CS and CD diets improved their use by the goats. PMID:12166335

  7. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  8. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  9. Molecular characterization and different expression patterns of the FABP gene family during goat skeletal muscle development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Tao; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    The FABP (adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein) genes play an important role in intracellular fatty acid transport and considered to be candidate genes for fatness traits in domestic animal. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of goat FABP family genes and their expression patterns were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real time RT-PCR. Expression analysis showed that goat FABP1 gene was predominantly expressed in liver, kidney and large intestine. While FABP4 was widely expressed in many tissues with a high expression level was observed in the fat, skeletal muscle, stomach and lung. Notably, FABP2 gene was expressed specifically in small intestine. Moreover, goat FABP3 was expressed at 60 day with the highest level, then significantly (p < 0.01) decreased at the 90 day. No significant expression differences were observed in longissimus dorsi muscles among 3 day, 30 day and 60 day. Goat FABP4 was expressed at 3 day with the lowest level, then significantly (p < 0.01) increased to a peak at the 60 day. In addition, a significant relationship between FABP3 mRNA expression levels and intramuscular fat (IMF) content was observed. These results suggest that the FABP3 and FABP4 may be important genes for meat quality and provides useful information for further studies on their roles in skeletal muscle IMF deposit. PMID:25245957

  10. Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Alejandro, M; Romero, G; Moya, F; Peris, C

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-seven goats were included in an experiment designed to study the effect of lactation stage, parity number, and mammary gland health status on milk cortisol concentration as a method to assess the welfare of Murciano-Granadina goats. The relationships of milk cortisol concentration with different production parameters (milk yield, milk composition, and mechanical milking ability: milk fractioning during milking and milking time) were also studied. The experiment lasted 8 mo and monthly samplings were carried out to determine total milk yield (MY), fractioning during milking (machine milk, MM; machine stripping milk, MSM), and milking time (MT), and a sample was taken from the total milk yield to determine milk cortisol concentration, somatic cell count, and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose). To determine the infection status of the gland, an aseptic sample was taken for bacteriological analysis before each monthly sampling. Third-parity goats presented higher concentrations of milk cortisol than those of 1, 2, or ≥ 4 parities. Intramammary infection had no effect on milk cortisol concentration, and somatic cell count did not correlate with cortisol concentration. Cortisol presented a significant correlation with MY and MM, but showed no significant correlation with MSM, MT, or milk composition parameters. Variations in milk cortisol concentration in goats may be associated with different physiological factors in the animal (e.g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. PMID:23245963

  11. In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

    2014-02-01

    The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos. PMID:24210966

  12. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  13. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  14. Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

  15. Pasture management for sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

  16. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

  17. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  18. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

  19. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  20. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  1. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  2. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  3. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  4. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  5. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  6. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  7. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  8. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  9. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-09-01

    Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak. PMID:20807946

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics of goat milk with different polymorphism at the αS1-casein genotype locus.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Murgia, Antonio; Porcu, Alessandra; Demuru, Martina; Pulina, Giuseppe; Nudda, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate data analysis techniques were used to uncover milk metabolite differences in different αS1-casein genotypes of goats. By a discriminant GC-MS metabolomics approach, we characterized milk polar metabolites of 28 goats. Animals were selected on the basis of their genotypes as 7 goats classified heterozygous for weak or null alleles, 5 for the genotype EE, 9 for the genotypes AE and BE, and finally 7 for the strong genotype AA. Low molecular weight polar metabolite profile was tightly related to the different goat genotypes, milk production, and protein levels. Results of multivariate statistical analysis of GC-MS data demonstrate that different heterozygous and homozygous genotypes expressed different metabolites such as citric and aconitic acid for the strong allele class with different sugars and polyols for the weak class. PMID:27289154

  11. Cell surface expression of PrP-c and the presence of scrapie prions in the blood of goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal brain disease of goats and sheep which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent, and is accompanied by the accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Although collection of a blood...

  12. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk. PMID:26086219

  13. Targeting Human α-Lactalbumin Gene Insertion into the Goat β-Lactoglobulin Locus by TALEN-Mediated Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongmei; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Ge, Hengtao; Hu, Linyong; Li, Qian; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Special value of goat milk in human nutrition and well being is associated with medical problems of food allergies which are caused by milk proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Here, we employed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-assisted homologous recombination in goat fibroblasts to introduce human α-lactalbumin (hLA) genes into goat BLG locus. TALEN-mediated targeting enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and bi-allelic transgene integration in up to 10.1% and 1.1%, respectively, after selection. Specifically, BLG mRNA levels were gradually decreasing in both mo- and bi-allelic goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) while hLA demonstrated expression in GMECs in vitro. Gene-targeted fibroblast cells were efficiently used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in production of hLA knock-in goats directing down-regulated BLG expression and abundant hLA secretion in animal milk. Our findings provide valuable background for animal milk optimization and expedited development for agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:27258157

  14. Targeting Human α-Lactalbumin Gene Insertion into the Goat β-Lactoglobulin Locus by TALEN-Mediated Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Ge, Hengtao; Hu, Linyong; Li, Qian; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Special value of goat milk in human nutrition and well being is associated with medical problems of food allergies which are caused by milk proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Here, we employed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-assisted homologous recombination in goat fibroblasts to introduce human α-lactalbumin (hLA) genes into goat BLG locus. TALEN-mediated targeting enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and bi-allelic transgene integration in up to 10.1% and 1.1%, respectively, after selection. Specifically, BLG mRNA levels were gradually decreasing in both mo- and bi-allelic goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) while hLA demonstrated expression in GMECs in vitro. Gene-targeted fibroblast cells were efficiently used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in production of hLA knock-in goats directing down-regulated BLG expression and abundant hLA secretion in animal milk. Our findings provide valuable background for animal milk optimization and expedited development for agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:27258157

  15. Metabolic adaptations in goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Wilde, C J; Henderson, A J; Knight, C H

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic adaptations of goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation were monitored in serial biopsies of the tissue. Changes in the synthetic capacity of secretory cells were studied by combining measurements of enzyme activities with short-term culture of mammary explants to measure lactose, casein and total protein synthesis. By these criteria, the main phase of mammary differentiation began in late pregnancy and was essentially complete by Week 5 of lactation, coinciding with the achievement of peak milk yield. While milk yield declined after Week 5, the activities of key enzymes expressed per mg DNA and the rates of lactose and casein synthesis in mammary explants were maintained over a considerable period. The results suggest that changes in the synthetic capacity of epithelial cells may account for much of the rise in milk yield in early lactation, but are not responsible for the declining phase of milk production characteristic of lactation in ruminants. PMID:2868125

  16. Variation and expression of KAP9.2 gene affecting cashmere trait in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zhao, Z D; Xu, H R; Qu, L; Zhao, H B; Li, T; Zhang, Z Y

    2012-12-01

    Keratin-associated proteins 9.2 (KAP9.2) gene encodes one of the ultra high sulfur KAPs. Variation in KAP genes may affect the structure of KAPs and hence cashmere characteristics. In order to test the association between the polymorphism of KAP9.2 gene and cashmere trait, DNA sequencing was used to detect a novel C/T polymorphism of KAP9.2 gene from a genomic DNA pool. The mutation could be recognized by Pst I restriction enzyme. To Shanbei white cashmere goat, Inner Mongolia white cashmere goat and Guanzhong dairy goat, the genotypic frequencies of TT, TC and CC from total 1,236 animals were as follows: 0.047, 0.519 and 0.434; 0.180, 0.592 and 0.228; 0.431, 0.544 and 0.025. The allelic frequencies of T and C were 0.307 and 0.693; 0.476 and 0.524; 0.703 and 0.297, respectively, in breeds mentioned above. The frequency of C allele between cashmere and dairy goat was significant (P < 0.01). To provide support for the hypothesis that SNP 586 was responsible for KAP9.2 expression, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of KAP9.2 was reduced in individuals bearing genotype CC compared with TT individuals, suggesting that C was the nucleotide causing decreased expression of KAP9.2 or was in linkage disequilibrium with the causative SNP. The 586C/T SNP found in this study might control translation or stability of KAP9.2 mRNA, which would be beneficial for marker assistant selection in cashmere goat breeding. PMID:23053952

  17. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Jivka; Moncheva, Penka; Ivanova, Iskra

    2014-01-01

    We examined 62 strains and 21 trade starter cultures from the collection of LB Bulgaricum PLC for proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in goat milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of caseins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by LAB, using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteolysis targeted mainly caseins, especially β-casein. Whey proteins were proteolyzed, essentially β-lactoglobulin. The proteolytic activity of Lactococcus lactis l598, Streptococcus thermophilus t3D1, Dt1, Lactobacillus lactis 1043 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus b38, b122 and b24 was notably high. The proteolysis process gave rise to medium-sized peptide populations. Most of the examined strains showed antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholere enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and Enterobacter aerogenes. The most active producers of antimicrobial-active peptides were strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, which are of practical importance. The starter cultures containing the examined species showed high proteolytic and antimicrobial activity in skimmed goat milk. The greatest antimicrobial activity of the cultures was detected against E. aerogenes. The obtained results demonstrated the significant proteolytic potential of the examined strains in goat milk and their potential for application in the production of dairy products from goat's milk. The present results could be considered as the first data on the proteolytic capacity of strains and starter cultures in goat milk for the purposes of trade interest of LB Bulgaricum PLC. PMID:26019593

  18. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    PubMed

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods. PMID:20163465

  19. Sensitive and specific detection of classical scrapie prions in the brains of goats by real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Orrú, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; Caughey, Byron; Graça, Telmo; Zhuang, Dongyue; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Schneider, David A

    2016-03-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is a rapid, specific and highly sensitive prion seeding activity detection assay that uses recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen) to detect subinfectious levels of the abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrPSc). Although RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc in various tissues from humans and animals, including sheep, tissues from goats infected with classical scrapie have not yet been tested. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to (1) evaluate whether prion seeding activity could be detected in the brain tissues of goats with scrapie using RT-QuIC, (2) optimize reaction conditions to improve scrapie detection in goats, and (3) compare the performance of RT-QuIC for the detection of PrPSc with the more commonly used ELISA and Western blot assays. We further optimized RT-QuIC conditions for sensitive and specific detection of goat scrapie seeding activity in brain tissue from clinical animals. When used with 200  mM sodium chloride, both full-length sheep rPrPSen substrates (PrP genotypes A136R154Q171 and V136R154Q171) provided good discrimination between scrapie-infected and normal goat brain samples at 10(- )3 dilution within 15  h. Our findings indicate that RT-QuIC was at least 10,000-fold more sensitive than ELISA and Western blot assays for the detection of scrapie seeding activity in goat brain samples. In addition to PRNP WT samples, positive RT-QuIC reactions were also observed with three PRNP polymorphic goat brain samples (G/S127, I/M142 and H/R143) tested. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that RT-QuIC sensitively detects prion seeding activity in classical scrapie-infected goat brain samples. PMID:26653410

  20. Effect of supplementing crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goat castrates with Moringa oleifera leaves on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Busani; Masika, Patrick J; Muchenje, Voster

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats. A total of 24 castrated goats aged 8 months, with a mean initial weight of 15.1 ± 2.3 kg, were randomly divided into three diet groups with eight goats in each. The duration of the trial was 60 days. All goats received a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran (200 g/day each). The MOL and sunflower cake (SC) groups were fed additional 200 g of dried M. oleifera leaves and 170 g of SC, respectively. The third group (GH) did not receive any additional ration. The crude protein of MOL (23.75%) and SC (23.27%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH diet (14.08%). The attained average daily weight gain for goats fed MOL, SC and GH were 103.3, 101.3 and 43.3 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher (P < 0.05) feed intakes observed were in SC (491.5 g) and MOL (490.75 g) compared with GH (404.5 g). The hot carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) for SC (10.48 kg) and MOL (10.34 kg) than for the GH group (8.59 kg). The dressing percentage in SC (55.8%) and MOL (55.1%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH (52.9%). The growth performance and carcass characteristics of SC and MOL goats were not different. Feeding MOL or SC improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats in an almost similar way, which indicates that M. oleifera could be used as an alternative protein supplement in goats. PMID:21901302

  1. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  2. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  3. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

  4. Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

  5. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  6. By-product feeds for meat goats: effects on digestibility, ruminal environment, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A; Poore, M H; Luginbuhl, J M

    2002-07-01

    Crossbred wether goats (n = 24; 50% Boer, 6 per diet) initially averaging 27.4+/-0.4 kg were fed either wheat middlings (wheat midds), soybean hulls (soyhulls), or corn gluten feed at 1% BW (as-fed) along with orchardgrass hay (10.7% CP) offered to ad-libitum consumption for 72 d followed by 5 d total fecal collection. The Control (hay) diet was supplemented with 5.7% soybean meal to bring total dietary protein to 12.5%, by-products were brought to a higher Ca:P ratio with limestone or dicalcium phosphate to make total dietary Ca:P 1.5:1, and soybean meal was added to soyhulls to bring them up to 17% CP (wheat midds = 17% and corn gluten feed = 21% CP). Total DMI (916 g/d+/-57 or 3.2%+/-0.2 BW) did not differ (P > 0.92) among treatments. Initial BW (P = 0.25), final BW (P = 0.48), and ADG (P = 0.56) did not differ for the four treatments. Carcass weight was greater (P = 0.05) for goats fed soyhulls (16.0 kg) or wheat midds (15.6 kg) as compared with goats fed the hay diet (14.5 kg), with carcass weight from goats fed corn gluten feed being intermediate (15.3 kg, SEM = 0.3 kg). Carcass grade did not differ (P = 0.80) and averaged 5.42+/-0.4. Dressing percentage tended (P = 0.12) to be lower for goats fed the hay diet (46.4%) compared with soyhull (48.3%), corn gluten feed (48.3%), or wheat midd (48.8%) diets (SEM = 0.7). Ruminal pH was highest (P < 0.01) for goats fed the hay diet (6.52) and lowest for goats fed wheat midds (6.23) with soyhull (6.41) and corn gluten feed diets (6.35) being intermediate (SEM = 0.05). Digestibility of DM (70.1+/-2.5%), OM (70.3+/-2.6%,), CP (75.5+/-2.0%), GE (68.5+/-2.7%), NDF (68.1+/-3.0%), ADF (65.4+/-3.4%), cellulose (70.1+/-2.9%), and lignin (31.1+/-8.2%) did not differ (P > 0.15). Total ruminal VFA did not differ (86.0+/-6.1 mM, P = 0.59), but acetate:propionate ratio was higher (P < 0.01) for hay (3.1) and soyhull diets (3.3) than for corn gluten feed (2.4) and wheat midd diets (2.4, SEM = 0.11). Ruminal ammonia (mg/100 mL) was

  7. Changes on expected taste perception of probiotic and conventional yogurts made from goat milk after rapidly repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Costa, M P; Balthazar, C F; Franco, R M; Mársico, E T; Cruz, A G; Conte, C A

    2014-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt is an excellent source of fatty acids, protein, and minerals; however, it is not well accepted by many consumers, due to its typical flavor derived from caprylic, capric, and caproic acids present in this milk and dairy products. Recently, the repeated-exposure test has been used to increase the consumption of particular foods. This methodology has been used to increase children's willingness to eat food in some settings and has also been used to reduce sodium in soup. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposures may increase acceptance of both goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. In a pre-exposure session, a total of 45 panelists (28 females and 17 males) from southeastern Brazil, who were not used to consuming dairy goat milk, evaluated the expected taste perception and the perceived liking after tasting 3 yogurt preparations. Then, consumers were randomly divided into 3 groups and participated in rapidly repeated exposure sessions performed within 6 d. Each panelist consumed only the yogurt that he or she would be exposed to. The day after the exposure sessions, all panelists returned to participate in the postexposure session and were asked to evaluate acceptance, familiarity, and the "goaty taste" characteristic of each yogurt. Regarding the expected liking before tasting, results showed higher expectations for cow milk yogurt compared with goat milk yogurt, which proved that consumers were not familiar with the goat milk yogurt. Likewise, only cow milk yogurt presented high acceptance and familiarity rates, confirming that these panelists were used to consuming cow milk products. With respect to the rapidly repeated exposure, 6 d were enough to significantly increase the consumers' familiarity with goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. However, this method was not suitable to significantly increase the acceptance of such products. Nonetheless, a correlation existed

  8. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion

  9. Two Severe Cases of Tungiasis in Goat Kids in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tunga spp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases the Tunga species were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans in goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America. PMID:27012871

  10. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  12. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  13. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  14. The interbreeding of sheep and goats.

    PubMed Central

    Kelk, D A; Gartley, C J; Buckrell, B C; King, W A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the outcome of interbreeding sheep and goats, ewes and does were bred to rams and bucks, and their embryos recovered. Pregnancy was monitored in 2 does bred to a ram. Fertilization rates in ram X does, buck X does, ram X ewes, and buck X ewes were 72%, 96%, 90%, and 0%, respectively. Ram X doe fetuses died at 5 to 10 weeks. PMID:9105723

  15. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from goat cheese associated with a case of listeriosis in goat.

    PubMed

    Eilertz, I; Danielsson-Tham, M L; Hammarberg, K E; Reeves, M W; Rocourt, J; Seeliger, H P; Swaminathan, B; Tham, W

    1993-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain of a goat, which was euthanized due to listeriosis. A few weeks later a similar subtype of L. monocytogenes was isolated from an on-farm manufactured fresh cheese which did not contain any milk from the goat which had suffered from listeriosis. A similar subtype was also found on 1 of the shelves in the refrigerator where cheeses were stored. Prior to the onset of listeriosis, 1 fresh cheese had been made of milk from the actual goat, which may have excreted L. monocytogenes in her milk. Thus, the cheese made of this milk may have contaminated the shelves in the refrigerator which then has served as a Listeria reservoir for new cheeses during several weeks. PMID:8266892

  16. Goat herpesviruses: biological and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Engels, M; Gelderblom, H; Darai, G; Ludwig, H

    1983-10-01

    Two herpesvirus isolates from goats are known which cause afflictions of the digestive tract in kids and, in some cases, abortion. An antigenic relationship of these goat herpesviruses with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis virus (bovid herpesvirus 1, BHV-1) was reported and because of the species-specific pathogenicity, the goat isolates were named caprine herpesvirus 1. In this report the two isolates are further characterized and compared with BHV-1. Although the caprine herpesviruses share many biological and physicochemical properties with BHV-1, they can be differentiated from the bovine viruses with respect to growth cycle, one-way cross-neutralization and, most importantly, the restriction endonuclease fragments of their DNAs. The molecular weight of the caprine herpesvirus DNA, based on electron microscopic length measurement is 90 X 10(6), similar to that of BHV-1 (95 X 10(6]. On the basis of these genomic differences, we propose that DNA restriction endonuclease patterns of the caprine herpesviruses should be designated as prototypic of bovid herpesvirus 6 (BHV-6). PMID:6311953

  17. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) intake of SEP. In experiment II, 24 male growing goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P < 0.05) in the SPVD group (44 g/d and 8.4 kg, respectively), but similar between the SEP+SPV (19 and 6.8) and Control (21 and 6.9) groups. In conclusion, SPV can support goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed. PMID:19396623

  18. IGF1 mRNA splicing variants in Liaoning cashmere goat: identification, characterization, and transcriptional patterns in skin and visceral organs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen L; Yin, Rong H; Yin, Rong L; Wang, Jiao J; Jiang, Wu Q; Luo, Guang B; Zhao, Zhi H

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) is a member of the insulin superfamily. It performs important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of skin cell and control of hair cycles and is thought to be a potential candidate gene for goat cashmere traits. In this work, we isolated and characterized three kinds of IGF1 mRNA splicing variants from the liver of Liaoning Cashmere goat, and the expression characterization of the IGF1 mRNA splicing variants were investigated in skin and other tissues of Liaoning cashmere goat. The sequencing results indicated that the classes 1w, 1, and 2 of IGF1 cDNAs in Liaoning cashmere goat, each included an open reading frame encoding the IGF1 precursor protein. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three IGF1 precursor proteins differed only in their NH2-terminal leader peptides. Through removal of the signal peptide and extension peptide, the three IGF1 mRNA splicing variants (classes 1w, 1, and 2) resulted in the same mature IGF1 protein in Liaoning cashmere goat. In skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, class 1 and class 2 were detected in all stages of hair follicle cycling, and they had the highest transcription level at anagen, and then early anagen; whereas at telogen both classes 1 and 2 had the lowest expression in mRNA level, but the class 1 appears to be relatively more abundant than class 2 in skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat. However, the class 1w transcript was not detected in the skin tissues. Three classes of IGF1 mRNA were transcribed in a variety of tissues, including heart, brain, spleen, lung, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle, but class 1 IGF1 mRNA was more abundant than classes 1w and 2 in the investigated tissues. PMID:23534956

  19. Fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxin M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chuanzhong black goat in southwest of China (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Fu; Chen, Li-Peng; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Hao; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Jiang, Cao-De; Ma, Yue-Hui; Sun, Ya-Wang; E, Guang-Xin

    2016-09-01

    The Chuanzhong black goat (Capra hircus) is a breed native to southwest of China. Its complete mitochondrial genome is 16,641 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1%, and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the Chinese indigenous breed of goat could provide a basic data for further phylogenetics analysis. PMID:25740215

  1. Shelf life of cooked goat blood sausage prepared with the addition of heart and kidney.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance. PMID:24769873

  2. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial genome of Jianyang Daer goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiangtao; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Fan, Jingsheng; Xiong, Chaorui; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hongping

    2016-05-01

    This study has presented the complete mitogenome of Jianyang Daer goat (Capra hircus), a crossbreed known for its high growth rate and good-meat quality in China. The mitogenome was 16,643 bp in length, including 33.54% A, 26.07% C, 13.10% G and 27.29% T. It contained a non-coding control region, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. Two kinds of inititiation codon and four types of termination codon were identified. Moreover, most of the genes were encoded on H-strand. These information will be useful for further investigation on the genetic divergence among Chinese domestic goats. PMID:25391031

  3. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (p<0.05) on energy metabolites, fatty acid profile, and expression of certain proteins of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. To conclude, this study showed that the establishment of castor de-oiled cake diet for a long period to goats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. PMID:25866931

  4. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese. PMID:27407294

  5. The effect of myostatin silencing by lentiviral-mediated RNA interference on goat fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Wei, Caihong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Shifang; Liu, Jiasen; Cao, Jiaxue; Zhao, Fuping; Zhang, Li; Li, Bichun; Du, Lixin

    2013-06-01

    Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-β family member that acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. To identify possible myostatin inhibitors that may promote muscle growth, we used RNA interference mediated by a lentiviral vector to knockdown myostatin in goat fetal fibroblast cells. We also investigated the expression changes in relevant myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and adipogenic regulatory factors in the absence of myostatin in goat fetal fibroblasts. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that myostatin transcripts were significantly reduced by 75 % (P < 0.01). Western blot showed that myostatin protein expression was reduced by 95 % (P < 0.01). We also found that the mRNA expression of activin receptor IIB (ACVR2B) significantly increased by 350 % (P < 0.01), and p21 increased 172 % (P < 0.01). Furthermore, myostatin inhibition decreased Myf5 and increased MEF2C mRNA expression in goat fetal fibroblasts, suggesting that myostatin regulates MRFs differently in fibroblasts compared to muscle. In addition, the expression of adipocyte marker genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and leptin, but not CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP) α and C/EBPβ, were upregulated at the transcript level after myostatin silencing. These results suggest that we have generated a novel way to block myostatin in vitro, which could be used to improve livestock meat production and gene therapy of musculoskeletal diseases. This also suggests that myostatin plays a negative role in regulating the expression of adipogenesis related genes in goat fetal fibroblasts. PMID:23604693

  6. Effect of different fat level on microwave cooking properties of goat meat patties.

    PubMed

    Das, Arun K; Rajkumar, V

    2013-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various fat levels on the cooking and sensory properties of goat meat patties cooked by microwave energy. Goat meat patties were prepared with refined vegetable oil to get fat level of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Each patty was cooked in a microwave oven with full power (700 W) operating at 2450 MHz to an internal temperature of 75-80 °C. pH value of raw patties with 5% fat level were lower compared to patties with 10, 15 and 20% fat level. Fat level did not affect emulsion stability of batter but it decreased as fat level increased. Microwave cooking time decreased as fat levels increased. With an increase in fat contents, protein and moisture in raw patties decreased and in cooked meat patties with 5% fat had higher protein and moisture content than those with more fat. Patties with 5% level showed lower cooking loss than other fat level. Water activity of patties was affected by fat level and patties with 15 and 20% fat had lower water activity than patties with 5 and 10% fat. As fat level increased, shear force value decreased indicating soft texture. Subjective colour evaluation indicated that 5% patties were darker and redder than patties with more fat. Sensory analysis revealed that goat meat patties with 5 and 10% fat had less flavour and juicer than patties with 15 and 20% fat. Goat meat patties with 20% fat were the juiciest. Tenderness and oiliness increased significantly with an increase in fat level. Patties with 15% fat were rated higher overall palatability than others. PMID:24426036

  7. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and their effects on hemato-biochemical changes in fasciolosis of goats of South Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shrimali, R. G.; Patel, M. D.; Patel, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola spp. of the family Fasciolidae (trematodes) characterized by bottle jaw, anemia, progressive debility, and potbelly condition. There are many aspects of fasciolosis remaining unknown thus hemato-biochemical alterations in closantel, triclabendazole + ivermectin, and oxyclozanide + levamisole treated goats were studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7th, and 30th day of treatment. Results: During the study, values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, pack cell volume, and total protein were significantly elevated to their normal levels in anthelmintics treated groups. Whereas, values of total leukocyte count, aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly reduced to their normal level in anthelmintics treated groups. The efficacy of closantel (T1), triclabendazole + ivermectin (T2), and oxyclozanide + levamisole (T3) was 99.63%, 100%, and 94.74% and 100%, 100%, and 97.38% on 7th and 30th day of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: Fasciolosis in goats can be diagnosed on the basis of fecal sample examination, but alterations in important biomarkers such as AST, GGT, and LDH are also helpful for early diagnosis. The use of newer anthelmintic either alone or in combination showed a higher therapeutic response in fasciolosis of goats. PMID:27284231

  8. Chemical Composition and Meat Quality Attributes of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of 22.59±0.50 kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and chemically analysed. Meat quality attributes were measured based on Muscle longissimus thoracis et lumborum excised from right sides of carcasses. Goat carcasses had significant higher (p = 0.0302) moisture content (70.65% vs 66.96%) and lower (p = 0.0027) ether extract (2.49% vs 5.82%) than sheep but there was no significant species differences in protein and ash content. Sheep had lower (p = 0.0157) ultimate pH (5.74 vs 5.88) and higher (p = 0.0307) temperature (3.77°C vs 3.15°C) than goat carcasses. Sheep meat had lower (p = 0.0021) shear force values (29.83 N vs 34.07 N) than goat. Within species, at day 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 44.63% and 34.18% for sheep and goat. Pooled data showed that at d 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 39.25% (from 39.54 N to 24.02 N) compared to tenderness of meat which was not aged at day one of slaughter. The present study demonstrated the differences in chemical composition and quality attributes of meat existing between sheep and goats originated from East Africa. PMID:25049790

  9. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid. PMID:20608728

  10. MiR130b-Regulation of PPARγ Coactivator- 1α Suppresses Fat Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Ma, LiuAn; Wang, Hui; Cao, WenTing; Xu, HuiFei; Zhu, JiangJiang; Sun, YuTing; Li, Jun; Yao, DaWei; Kang, Kang; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes; including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly-(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in different periods, and found that miR-130b was abundantly and differentially expressed in goat mammary gland. Additionally, overexpressing miR-130b impaired adipogenesis while inhibiting miR-130b enhanced adipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Utilizing 3'-UTR assay and Western Blot analusis, the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of fat metabolism, was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-130b. Interestingly, miR-130b potently repressed PGC1α expression by targeting both the PGC1α mRNA coding and 3' untranslated regions. These findings have some insight of miR-130b in mediating adipocyte differentiation by repressing PGC1α expression and this contributes to further understanding about the functional significance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. PMID:26579707

  11. MiR130b-Regulation of PPARγ Coactivator- 1α Suppresses Fat Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Ma, LiuAn; Wang, Hui; Cao, WenTing; Xu, HuiFei; Zhu, JiangJiang; Sun, YuTing; Li, Jun; Yao, DaWei; Kang, Kang; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes; including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly-(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in different periods, and found that miR-130b was abundantly and differentially expressed in goat mammary gland. Additionally, overexpressing miR-130b impaired adipogenesis while inhibiting miR-130b enhanced adipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Utilizing 3’-UTR assay and Western Blot analusis, the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of fat metabolism, was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-130b. Interestingly, miR-130b potently repressed PGC1α expression by targeting both the PGC1α mRNA coding and 3’ untranslated regions. These findings have some insight of miR-130b in mediating adipocyte differentiation by repressing PGC1α expression and this contributes to further understanding about the functional significance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. PMID:26579707

  12. Improved protein labeling by stannous tartrate reduction of pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, W.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Bennett, S.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure has been developed whereby small amounts of protein - specifically human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G - can be labeled with Tc-99m. Artifactual problems associated with electrolytic and stannous chloride labeling procedures are virtually eliminated. The procedure is satisfactory for labeling human serum albumin, normal goat immunoglobulin G, and goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G.

  13. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  14. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  15. Milk production of West African Dwarf goats in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jaitner, J; Njie, M; Corr, N; Dempfle, L

    2006-04-01

    Goats are important in the low-input systems of West Africa and their main importance lies in their role for income and saving. In addition, it is known that milk offtake for home consumption is also important. In order to obtain information about the real importance of milk offtake, a recording scheme was operated in 27 villages in the Central River Division of The Gambia from July 1998 until January 2000. Detailed information was obtained from about 1500 kiddings. In the recording scheme, any sheep being milked as well as the goats of the International Trypanotolerance Centre nucleus flock were also recorded. In the villages, 36% of all lactations were used for milk offtake, but the fraction milked was lower for the first two lactations. The average length of lactation was 127 days and the average daily milk offtake was 0.18 L. Goats are milked once a day and the residual milk is left for the kids. Milking starts about one week after parturition and stops when the goat becomes pregnant or the kid(s) die or the goat is drying off. The repeatability of the 90-day milk offtake was 0.24 +/- 0.09. Sixty-five percent of goat owner were women and a large fraction of goat owners also owned cattle. Goat milk was used exclusively for home consumption. It is concluded that in breeding and extension work more attention should be given to aspects of milk production. PMID:16986773

  16. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

  17. INTRATRACHEAL INFUSION OF COMMON FEEDYARD FUNGI IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the pathology induced by four fungi compared to a saline control. Thirty weanling goats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, 6 goats per group. Four fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Montosporium lanuginosa ) isola...

  18. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM GOATS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...

  19. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

  20. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems analysis approach. (Author/RL)

  1. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  2. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...

  3. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  4. Quest for Nutritional and Medicinal Forages for Meat Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appalachian meat goat producers are encountering animal nutritional and health problems for which research-based solutions are limited. Goats prefer to eat weeds and browse, selecting the highest quality herbage available. Foraging on traditional pastures not only limits the variety of plant speci...

  5. Expression and regulative function of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 in the goat ovary and its role in cultured granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiayin; Xin, Haiyun; Han, Peng; Gao, Kexin; Gao, Teyang; Lei, Yingnan; Ji, Shengyue; An, Xiaopeng; Cao, Binyun

    2015-09-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) played a key role in female reproduction. However, its expression and function in goat are still unclear. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of goat TIMP3 was cloned from adult goat ovary; meanwhile, we demonstrated that putative TIMP3 protein shared a highly conserved amino acid sequence with known mammalian homologs. Real-time PCR results showed that TIMP3 was widely expressed in the tissues of adult goat. In the ovary, increasing expression of TIMP3 mRNA was discovered during the growth process of follicle and corpus luteum. Immunohistochemistry results suggested that TIMP3 protein existed in oocytes of all types of follicles, corpus luteum and granulosa and theca cells of primary, secondary, and antral but not primordial follicles. In vitro, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated the expression of TIMP3 in goat granulosa cells. hCG-induced TIMP3 mRNA expression was reduced by the inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase. Functionally, over-expression of TIMP3 significantly increased apoptosis and decreased the viability of cultured granulosa cells. Knockdown of TIMP3 could decrease hCG-induced progesterone secretion and the mRNA abundance of key steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, p450scc and HSD3B) as well as ECM proteins (DCN and FN). These findings provided evidence that the hCG induced expression of TIMP3 may play an important role in regulating goat granulosa cell survival and steroidogenesis. PMID:26054746

  6. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  7. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  8. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from sheep and cashmere goat reveal alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wan-Jin; Han, Bao-Da; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Li; Bao, Xiao-Hong; Bou, Shorgan

    2011-03-01

    We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly homologous to the orthologues in cattle, mouse, rat and human. Extensive cloning and analysis of Izumo1 cDNA revealed three (del 69, del 182 and del 217) and two (del 69 and ins 30) alternative splicing isoforms in goat and sheep, respectively. All of the isoforms are derived from splicing at typical GT-AG sites leading to partial or complete truncation of the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain. Bioinformatics analysis showed that caprine and ovine Izumo1 proteins share similar structure with their murine orthologue. There are a signal peptide at the N-terminus (1-22 aa), a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus (302-319 aa), and an extracellular Ig-like region in the middle (161-252 aa) with a putative N-linked glycosylation site (N(205)-N-S). Alignment of Izumo1 protein sequences among 15 mammalian species displayed several highly conserved regions, including LDC and YRC motifs with cysteine residues for potential disulfide bridge formation, CPNKCG motif upstream of the Ig-like domain, GLTDYSFYRVW motif upstream of the putative N-linked glycosylation site, and a number of scattered cysteine residues. These distinctive features are very informative to pinpoint the important gene motifs and functions. The C-terminal regions, however, are more variable across species. Izumo1 cDNA sequences of goat, sheep, and cow were found to be largely homologous, and the molecular phylogenetic analysis is consistent with their morphological taxonomy. This implies the Izumo1 gene evolves from the same ancestor, and the mechanism of sperm-egg fusion in mammals may be under the same principle in which Izumo1 plays an important role. PMID

  10. High Concentrate Diet Induced Mucosal Injuries by Enhancing Epithelial Apoptosis and Inflammatory Response in the Hindgut of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shiyu; Duanmu, Yongqian; Dong, Haibo; Ni, Yingdong; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more “leaky” for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks. Experimental Design Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC) for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts. Results Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01), and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05). Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05), and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05), and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07) in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon. Conclusions Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries

  11. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593

  12. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  13. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  14. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  15. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  16. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  17. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  18. Catalase addition to vitrification solutions maintains goat ovarian preantral follicles stability.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A A; Faustino, L R; Silva, C M G; Castro, S V; Lobo, C H; Santos, F W; Santos, R R; Campello, C C; Bordignon, V; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the addition of catalase (20 IU/mL) at different steps of goat ovarian tissue vitrification affects ROS levels, follicular morphology and viability, stromal cell density, apoptosis and the expression of proteins related to DNA-damage signaling (γH2AX) and repair (53BP1). Goat ovarian tissues were analyzed fresh (control) or after vitrification: without catalase (VS-/WS-), with catalase in vitrification solutions (VS+/WS-), with catalase in washing solutions (VS-/WS+) or with catalase in both solutions (VS+/WS+). The vitrification without catalase had higher ROS levels than the control. The catalase, regardless the step of addition, maintained ROS levels similar to the control. There were no difference between treatments regarding follicular viability, stromal cell density and detection of γH2AX and 53BP1. There was no difference in follicular morphology and DNA fragmentation between groups vitrified. In conclusion, catalase addition to vitrification solutions prevents ROS formation in cryopreserved goat ovarian tissues. PMID:24972862

  19. Effects of garlic supplementation on energy status of pre-partum Mahabadi goats

    PubMed Central

    Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Anassori, Ehsan; Zakeri, Zahra; Tahmouzi, Mortaza

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of garlic on some blood metabolites in pre-partum dairy goats, the ration was supplemented with raw garlic at the doses of 0, 30, 50 and 70 g kg-1 of Dry matter (DM) in eight pregnant Mahabadi breed goats (59 ± 1 kg initial live weight) in a replicated Latin square design during the last two months of pregnancy. Each experimental period lasted 14 days with the first 12 days used for diet adaptation and two days of data collection with a 3-days wash-out period between treatments. The results revealed a beneficial increasing effect of garlic (at the level of 70 g kg-1 of DM) on serum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). No effects of garlic supplementation on blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), total triglycerides, total protein, and albumin concentration were observed, except for serum cholesterol concentration, which was reduced (p < 0.05) with 70 g kg-1 of DM of garlic supplementation. Dry matter intake was the same between the different treatment groups and throughout the trial period. Concerning the blood indicators of negative energy balance, no significant effects were found for NEFA and BHB in pre-partum goats however, serum glucose was improved significantly, which showed that garlic supplementation may improve the efficiency of feed utilization. In conclusion, garlic, as feed additives in ruminant nutrition, holds promise for improving feed efficiency and controlling the negative energy balance. PMID:25568720

  20. Replacing commercial concentrate by Ficus thonningii improved productivity of goats in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Balehegn, Mulubrhan; Eik, Lars Olav; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2014-06-01

    Ficus thonningii (FT) is an important multipurpose fodder tree providing economic and ecological benefits across arid and semi-arid areas in Africa. Despite its availability in many Sub-Saharan African countries, there is lack of information on its effect on animal productivity. Twenty-four male weaned highland goats of age 7 ± 1.5 months were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized block design. All animals were fed wheat straw, water, and salt licks ad libitum. The control group (T1) was fed concentrate mixture at 2 % of their body weight, while in T2, T3, and T4, 25, 50, and 75 % of the weight of concentrate (DM basis), respectively, was replaced by sun dried FT leaf meal. FT leaf meal had acceptable levels crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and tannins and has resulted in increased body weight in all treatments. Goats fed T3 diet showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) values in terms of feed intake, body weight gain, some carcass attributes, and local meat quality indicators than the rest of the treatments. An increase in proportion of FT leaf meal beyond 50 %, however, resulted in decreased body weight gain, and other carcass parameters, despite increased feed intake. Therefore, F. thonningii can be used to replace commercial concentrate mixture up to 50 % to improve feed intake and productivity of Ethiopian highland goats. PMID:24715205

  1. Influence of flavor on goat feeding preferences.

    PubMed

    De, Rosa G; Moio, L; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Gubitosi, L; Bordi, A

    2002-02-01

    Goat feeding preferences for straw pellets flavored with ryegrass (Lolium perenne, cv. Belida) or white clover (Trifolium repens, cv. Huia) aromatic extracts, obtained by means of a cold aromatic extraction method, were assessed with cafeteria trials. Prior to the trials, odor differences between the two plant species, the two aromatic extracts, and the straw pellets sprayed with the two aromatic extracts were verified using sensory analysis performed by 30 human panelists. Since odor differences observed among fresh samples were still detectable in aromatic extracts and moistened pellets, the extraction method was considered effective in reproducing plant odors. Straw pellets sprayed with either distilled water (W) or ryegrass (R) or clover (C) aromatic extracts were used to assess flavor preferences of 12 female Rossa Mediterranea goats. Sprayed pellet preference was evaluated in two sessions conducted in two consecutive weeks. Each session consisted of three two-choice presentations performed on three consecutive days. In both sessions, food intake, proportion of food intake, time spent feeding, and proportion of time spent feeding were significantly affected by pellet type (0.05 > P > 0.001). In particular, straw pellets sprayed with ryegrass extract were highly selected compared to those sprayed with clover (0.01 > P > 0.001) or water (0.01 > P > 0.001). In addition, in the second session, the clover extract was preferred to distilled water (0.05 > P > 0.01). The results of this study gave two main indications: first, goat selectivity for rye-grass against clover was consistent even when straw pellets sprayed with odors of these plants were offered, and secondly, the addition of aromatic extracts to straw pellets increased the preference for pellets. PMID:11925067

  2. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (P<0.001) were found in Group A as compared to Groups B, C and D. Higher TRUMEN values (P<0.001) were found in Group A than in Groups B, C and D, and in Group B than in Groups C and D. Group A showed lower TRECTAL values (P<0.001) than Groups B, C and D. The Pearson's Correlation test was applied to assess significant relationship among studied parameters showing a statistically significant negative correlation between the values of TRECTAL and serum UCP1 in all studied Groups (P<0.001). These results indicate that goats have good control of body temperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring. PMID:27264887

  3. Hematobiochemical profile in Surti goats during post-partum period

    PubMed Central

    Manat, Tanvi D.; Chaudhary, Sandhya S.; Singh, Virendra Kumar; Patel, Sanjay B.; Puri, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the changes in hematobiochemical profile in post-partum Surti goats. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 Surti goats out of which 20 goats who had undergone recent parturition acted as treatment group and 20 non-pregnant animals comprised control group. Blood samples were collected from the treatment group on 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days post kidding and once from the control group. Blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, and urea. Results: Hb level was the highest on the 45th day and lowest on the day of parturition. Significantly low level of Hb, PCV, and lymphocyte was found on 0 day and significantly high level was found on the 45th day. TEC was also low on the 0 day and high on the 45th day post kidding, but the difference was non-significant. Mid-sized cells and granulocyte percentage decreased significantly from 0 to 45th day post-partum. TP, albumin, and urea were found to be lowest on 0 day and highest on 45th day post-partum. Urea concentration increased parallel to TP indicating an increase in urea production with catabolism of protein. The globulin concentration also increased from 0 to 45th day post-partum, but the difference was non-significant. TC, TG, and NEFA were the highest on 0 day and lowest on the 45th day post-partum. Decrease in TC and TG from 0 to 45th day post-partum indicates that the animals utilized the lipids for the supply of energy for milk production. High level of NEFA acts as an indicator of negative energy status but in the present study, the high glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. The glucose

  4. Identification of novel isoforms of dairy goat EEF1D and their mRNA expression characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sihuan; Wu, Xianfeng; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Chuzhao; Dang, Ruihua; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2016-04-25

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (EEF1D) gene encodes guanine nucleotide exchange protein eEF1Bδ, which participates in the eukaryotic protein synthesis, and plays important roles in regulating cell cycling and milk production. This study firstly focused on detecting the isoforms of dairy goat EEF1D gene and their mRNA expression characterization. Herein, two novel isoforms, EEF1Da and EEF1Dc, were identified in dairy goat. The entire coding sequences of EEF1Da and EEF1Dc isoforms were 843bp and 267bp in length, respectively. Goat EEF1Da had complete conserved domains of elongation factor 1 (EF1) family, and the evolution of goat EEF1Da isoform was agreed with the evolution of species. Expression pattern analysis of different isoforms revealed relatively ubiquitous expression of EEF1D and EEF1Da. While EEF1Dc only expressed in heart, lung, kidney, adipose and muscle. Combining with the analysis results of cloning, qRT-PCR and bioinformatics, EEF1Da is the major alternative splicing form of EEF1D gene. Interestingly, qRT-PCR result showed that the highest expression of EEF1D was in adipose, which is the major component of mammary. This result was consistent with the early research that EEF1D expressed highly in the mammary, which indicated that EEF1D played a potential key role in regulating adipose development and milk production. All these findings would provide a foundation for the further research of EEF1D gene and development of dairy goat industry. PMID:26794801

  5. Establishment and characterization of a dairy goat mammary epithelial cell line with human telomerase (hT-MECs).

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaiping; Shi, Hengbo; Luo, Jun; Wang, Wei; Haile, Abiel B; Xu, Huifen; Li, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Although research on dairy goat mammary gland have referred extensively to molecular mechanisms, research on lines of dairy goat mammary epithelial cells (MECs) are still rare. This paper sought to establish an immortal MEC line by stable transfection of human telomerase. MECs from a lactating (45 days post-parturition) Xinong Saanen dairy goat were cultured purely and subsequently transfected with a plasmid carrying the sequence of human telomerase. Immortalized MECs by human telomerase (hT-MECs) exhibited a typical cobblestone morphology and activity and expression levels of telomerase resembled that of MCF-7 cells. hT-MECs on passage 42 grew vigorously and 'S' sigmoid curves of growth were observed. Moreover, hT-MECs maintained a normal chromosome modal number of 2n=60, keratin 8 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were evidently expressed, and beta-casein protein was synthesized and secreted. Beta-casein expression was enhanced by prolactin (P<0.05). Lipid droplets were found in hT-MECs, and messenger RNA levels of PPARG, SREBP, FASN, ACC and SCD in hT-MECs (passage 40) were similar to MECs (passage 7). In conclusion, the obtained hT-MEC line retained a normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetics and secretory characteristics as primary MECs. Hence, it can be a representative model cell line, for molecular and functional analysis, of dairy goat MECs for an extended period of time. PMID:24889218

  6. Thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) promotes the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, D W; Luo, J; He, Q Y; Wu, M; Shi, H B; Wang, H; Wang, M; Xu, H F; Loor, J J

    2016-04-01

    In nonruminants, thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) is a crucial protein for cellular de novo lipogenesis. However, the role of THRSP in regulating the synthesis of milk fatty acid composition in goat mammary gland remains unknown. In the present study, we compared gene expression of THRSP among different goat tissues. Results revealed that THRSP had the highest expression in subcutaneous fat, and expression was higher during lactation compared with the dry period. Overexpression of THRSP upregulated the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM) in goat mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, overexpression of THRSP led to downregulation of thrombospondin receptor (CD36) and had no effect on the expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α (ACACA) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor1 (SREBF1). In addition, overexpressing THRSP in vitro resulted in a significant increase in triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration and the concentrations of C12:0 and C14:0. Taken together, these results highlight an important role of THRSP in regulating lipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26851858

  7. Detection of sheep and goat milk adulterations by direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of milk tryptic digests.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; De Ceglie, Cristina; Monopoli, Antonio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    In dairy field, one of the most common frauds is the adulteration of higher value types of milk (sheep's and goat's) with milk of lower value (cow's milk). This illegal practice has an economic advantage for milk producers and poses a threat for consumers' health because of the presence of hidden allergens as, for example, cow milk proteins, in particular, α(s1)-casein and β-lactoglobulin. The urgent need of sensitive techniques to detect this kind of fraud brought to the development of chromatographic, immunoenzymatic, electrophoretic and mass spectrometric assays. In the current work, we present a fast, reproducible and sensitive method based on the direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of milk tryptic digests for the detection of milk adulteration by evaluating specie-specific markers in the peptide profiles. Several pure raw and commercial milk samples and binary mixtures containing cows' and goats', cows' and sheep's and goats' and sheep's milk (concentrations of each milk varied from 0% to 100%) were prepared, and tryptic digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The use of the new MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid allowed to detect cow and goat milk peptide markers up to 5% level of adulteration. Finally, from preliminary data, it seems that the strategy could be successfully applied also to detect similar adulterations in cheese samples. PMID:22972782

  8. The identification of goat peroxiredoxin-5 and the evaluation and enhancement of its stability by nanoparticle formation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong

    2016-01-01

    An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications. PMID:27074889

  9. Almond hulls in diets for lactating goats: effects on yield and composition of milk, feed intake, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Reed, B A; Brown, D L

    1988-02-01

    Four cubed rations of similar chemical composition were fed ad libitum to 16 lactating yearling Alpine goats. The rations contained 0, 15, 25, and 35% almond hulls; 0, .5, 1, and 1% urea; and 58.4, 42.5, 32.0, and 22.0% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Chromic oxide was added as a digestibility marker. Average nutrient composition of diets was 91% DM, 20% CP, 32% NDF, 9% ash, and 4.39 Mcal gross energy/kg. Goats were randomly assigned to one of four diet orders in four replications of a 4 X 4 Latin square, blocked by goat and period. Data were collected in the 3rd wk of each period. Diets containing 25 and 35% almond hulls increased DM intake and reduced milk protein percent and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ash, and NDF. Dry matter intake and weight gain were highest for the diet containing 35% almond hulls and 1% urea. Results indicate that almond hulls and urea can be fed to lactating goats up to these amounts without adversely affecting lactation. PMID:3379180

  10. The identification of goat peroxiredoxin-5 and the evaluation and enhancement of its stability by nanoparticle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong

    2016-04-01

    An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications.

  11. The identification of goat peroxiredoxin-5 and the evaluation and enhancement of its stability by nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong

    2016-01-01

    An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications. PMID:27074889

  12. Effects of supplementation during late gestation on goat performance and behavior under rangeland conditions.

    PubMed

    Luna-Orozco, J R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Contreras-Villarreal, V; Hernández-Macías, N; Angel-Garcia, O; Carrillo, E; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of peripartum feed supplementation on doe and kid BW and BCS, milk yield and composition, serum metabolites, and maternal-neonatal behavior under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico. Adult does ( = 23) were randomly assigned to 3 nutritional plane groups: 1) goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum (G15; = 8), 2) the same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding (G35; = 8), and 3) nonsupplemented does (GC; = 7). Supplemented goats differed from GC goats in BW (48 ± 1.8, 46.1 ± 2.5, and 44.9 ± 2.3 kg; < 0.05), milk yield (1.8 ± 0.1, 1.9 ± 0.2, and 1.2 ± 0.1 kg at d 15 postpartum; < 0.01), kid birth weights (3.8 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.2, and 3.4 ± 0.2 kg; < 0.05), and kid BW at 15 d after birth (6.9 ± 0.2, 6.6 ± 0.2, and 5.6 ± 0.2 kg; < 0.05) for the G35, G15, and GC, respectively. Serum concentrations for total protein, glucose, and cholesterol were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Milk of GC goats showed increased ( < 0.05) percentages for fat, protein, lactose, and nonfat milk solids, whereas total quantities of these variables where higher ( < 0.05) in the G15 and G35 groups. Furthermore, GC dams spent more time seeking their offspring and emitted more low-pitched bleats 4 h postpartum ( < 0.05) in a 2-choice test compared with the G15 and G35 groups. In general, peripartum supplementation promoted a closer dam-kid relationship at 8 h postpartum. Goat performance may be improved in this semiarid region of Mexico with marginal production through supplementation in late gestation. PMID:26440195

  13. Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Female Goats

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Itsuki; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Okinawan Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice with black mold, yeast, and water. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. This research consisted of two experiments conducted to elucidate whether or not dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising female goats. In experiment 1, digestion trials were conducted to ascertain the nutritive values of dried Awamori-pressed lees and dried Tofu lees for goats. The digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees were 22.5%, 22.5% (DCP), and 87.2%, 94.4% (TDN) respectively. In experiment 2, 18 female goats (Japanese Saanen×Nubian, three months old, body weight 15.4±0.53 kg) were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG), Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG), Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG)). The CFG control used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG treatments used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight) twice a day (10:00, 16:00). The klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. The hay intake was measured at 08:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal. The DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight, withers height, chest depth, chest girth, and hip width over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. By contrast, cumulative growth in body length and hip height in the AMFG and TMFG tended to be larger than the CFG. Cumulative growth in chest width in the AMFG was significantly

  14. Response to dietary tannin challenges in view of the browser/grazer dichotomy in an Ethiopian setting: Bonga sheep versus Kaffa goats.

    PubMed

    Yisehak, Kechero; Kibreab, Yoseph; Taye, Tolemariam; Lourenço, Marta Ribeiro Alves; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that goats (typical browser) are better adapted to digest tannin-rich diets than sheep (typical grazer). To evaluate this, Bonga sheep and Kaffa goats were used in a 2 × 3 randomized crossover design with two species, three diets, and three periods (15-day adaptation + 7-day collection). The dietary treatments consisted of grass-based hay only (tannin-free diet = FT), a high-tannin diet (36% Albizia schimperiana (AS) + 9% Ficus elastica (FE) + 55% FT (HT)), and HT + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Animals were individually fed at 50 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) and had free access to clean drinking water and mineralized salt licks. Nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, nutrient conversion ratios, and live weight changes were determined. Condensed tannin concentrations in AS and FE were 110 and 191 g/kg DM, respectively. Both sheep and goats ate 47% more of HT than FT, and dry matter intake further increased by 9% when PEG was added, with clear difference in effect size between goats and sheep (P < 0.001). The effects of the tannin-rich diet and PEG addition were similarly positive for DM digestibility between sheep and goats, but crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher in HT + PEG-fed goats than in sheep fed the same diet. However, PEG addition induced a larger improvement in growth performance and feed efficiency ratio in sheep than in goat (P < 0.001). The addition of PEG as a tannin binder improved digestion and performance in both species, but with the highest effect size in sheep. PMID:26519145

  15. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ≥ 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:21295839

  16. Heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) as a cause of postrestocking mortality of goats in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bekker, C P; Vink, D; Lopes Pereira, C M; Wapenaar, W; Langa, A; Jongejan, F

    2001-07-01

    A serological survey in Mozambique to detect antibodies to Cowdria ruminantium, the etiologic agent of heartwater, revealed a seroprevalence of 8.1% (n = 332) for goats in the northern province of Tete and of 65.6% (n = 326) for goats in the southern provinces. Translocation of 10 serologically negative goats from Tete to farms in the south resulted in two clinical cases of heartwater that were fatal. In addition, four goats seroconverted within the study period of 5 weeks. One goat showed no symptoms. Two goats died of other causes, whereas the remaining goat went missing after 1 week. Experimental needle infections of goats and sheep were conducted to confirm results and to isolate different strains of C. ruminantium. These data indicate that translocation of goats from the north to the south of Mozambique bears a high risk of C. ruminantium infection, which can cause fatal disease. PMID:11427440

  17. Characterization of bovine herpesviruses isolated from six sheep and four goats by restriction endonuclease analysis and radioimmunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Whetstone, C A; Evermann, J F

    1988-06-01

    Viral DNA from 10 herpesviruses isolated from 6 sheep and 4 goats were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis with respect to their relatedness to one another; to bovine herpesvirus type 6 (BHV-6), also known as caprine herpesvirus; and to 2 strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis virus (IPVV). Viral proteins from the isolates were examined by radioimmunoprecipitation with anti-BHV-1/IBRV gnotobiotic calf (bovine) serum, anti-BHV-1/IBRV bovine hyperimmune serum, and anti-BHV-6 rabbit serum to evaluate their antigenic relatedness to each other. The goat isolates were obtained from animals with various disease conditions including respiratory tract disorders, vulvovaginitis, and wart-like lesions on the eyelid. The other isolates were from domestic sheep and came from aborted fetuses or from sheep with fatal pneumonia or proliferative lesions around lips and nose. All of the goats and 4 of the sheep from which the viral isolates were obtained had comingled with cattle. Purified DNA from each of the 10 field isolates and from BHV-1/IBRV, BHV-1/IPVV, and BHV-6 caprine herpesvirus was cleaved with restriction endonuclease Pst I. Five of 6 sheep isolates and 3 of 4 goat isolates yielded unique restriction patterns, ie, patterns that differed from each other by one or more bands. Sheep isolate DNA patterns were different from goat isolate patterns, and all restriction endonuclease analysis patterns were similar to the pattern for BHV-1/IBRV, but different from that for BHV-1/IPVV or for BHV-6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2840840

  18. Effect of extended storage on microbiological quality, somatic cell count, and composition of raw goat milk on a farm.

    PubMed

    Zeng, S S; Chen, S S; Bah, B; Tesfai, K

    2007-05-01

    Dairy goat herds in the United States generally are small, widely scattered, and distant from processing facilities. Unlike the situation for cow milk, it is not cost-effective to collect goat milk everyday or every other day. In some areas, goat milk is collected only once each week, which is in violation of regulations specified in the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk. This study was conducted to determine the effect of up to 7 days of refrigerated bulk tank storage on composition, somatic cell count (SCC), pH, and microbiological quality of goat milk. Duplicate farm bulk tank samples were taken daily after the morning milking for seven consecutive days each month during the lactation season. Samples were analyzed immediately for all variables except free fatty acids. There were no significant changes (P > 0.05) detected in milk fat, protein, lactose, nonfat solids, SCC, or pH during extended storage, although significant effects of stage of lactation (P < 0.05) were observed. The mean standard plate count (SPC) increased to 1.8 x 10(5) CFU/ml after 6 days of storage, exceeding the grade A limit (i.e., 1.0 x 10(5) CFU/ml). The mean psychrotrophic bacteria count increased steadily to 1.5 x 10(4) CFU/ml after 6 days of storage, whereas the mean coliform count was approximately 500 CFU/ml for the first 3 days and less than 2500 CFU/ml throughout the 7 days of storage. No significant changes (P > 0.05) in the concentrations of free fatty acids, except for butyric and caprylic acids, were observed during milk storage. When stored under refrigerated and sanitary conditions, goat milk in farm bulk tanks met the grade A criteria for both SPC and SCC during 5 days of storage but was of low quality thereafter because of the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. PMID:17536695

  19. Zeolite A effect on calcium homeostasis in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Schwaller, D; Wilkens, M R; Liesegang, A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 2 different concentrations of zeolite A on calcium homeostasis. Seventeen growing goats were divided into 3 groups. Whereas the control group (5 animals) received no supplementation, 2 treatment groups were supplemented with zeolite A at either 1.2 (6 animals) or 1.6 g/kg BW (6 animals), respectively. Blood and urine samples were continually drawn and bone mineral density was measured weekly by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After 3 wks, the animals were slaughtered and samples were taken from the rumen, duodenum, and kidneys. Plasma concentrations of phosphate ( < 0.001), magnesium ( < 0.001), and 1.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol ( < 0.01) as well as renal excretion of phosphate ( < 0.05) were significantly lower in the treatment groups compared with the control group. Although bone resorption was increased in both treatment groups ( < 0.05), no alterations in bone structure were detected. Determination of gastrointestinal absorption of calcium by Ussing chamber technique and quantification of RNA and protein expression of genes known to be involved in active calcium absorption did not reveal any stimulating effect of zeolite. Plasma calcium concentrations were not altered, probably because of the sufficient dietary calcium supply. However due to the effects of zeolite on 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, bone metabolism and serum concentrations of phosphate and magenesium shown in the present study, potential negative long-termin effects on the animals should be considered whenever rations with zeolite are designed. PMID:27136016

  20. Comparison of mineral and cholesterol composition of different commercial goat milk products manufactured in USA.

    PubMed

    Park

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of 12 major and trace minerals and cholesterol in commercial goat fluid milk, evaporated, powdered, yogurt, and cheese products manufactured in the US were evaluated for compositional differences. Minerals were determined by an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICAP), while cholesterol was analyzed using colorimetric and gas chromatographic (GC) methods. Mean total solids content (%) of fluid milk, evaporated milk, powdered milk, yogurt, plain soft and Monterey Jack cheeses were: 11.3, 20.9, 94.1, 11.5, 32.5, and 57.7, respectively. Mean calcium and phosphorus contents (ppm, dry basis) of the corresponding products were: 103, 125; 440, 393; 7715, 7471; 161, 144; 691, 1105; 3492, 3067, respectively. The respective iron and zinc contents (ppm) of the corresponding products were: 0.062, 0.349; 1.518, 1.635; 3.33, 30.21, 0.117, 0.338; 7.16, 3.64; 8.86, 3.81. The levels of potassium (K) in cheeses were lowest among all the products including fluid goat milk, suggesting that a significant amount of K was lost during cheese manufacturing processes. Levels of all trace minerals were higher in yogurt and cheeses than in fluid milk. The levels of trace minerals in cheeses were greater than those in yogurt products. Iron and aluminum contents of certain goat milk products were considerably higher than normal, possibly due to contamination of minerals from manufacturing utensils and product metal cans. Sulphur contents of fermented products were significantly greater than those of fluid milk, which may be accountable for the microbial synthesis of sulfur containing proteins during the manufacturing processes of the products. Cholesterol contents (mg/100g, wet basis) of fluid, evaporated, powdered goat milk and Monterey Jack cheese determined by GC method were: 11.0, 24.9, 119.5 and 91.7, respectively. Cholesterol contents of the goat milk products analyzed by colorimetric method were substantially greater than those by GC method. PMID

  1. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115....110, the name of the food is “goat's milk frozen custard” or, alternatively, “frozen custard made...

  2. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115....110, the name of the food is “goat's milk frozen custard” or, alternatively, “frozen custard made...

  3. [Parasitic diseases in sheep and goats in Germany].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented on the species spectrum, biology and epidemiology of endo- and ectoparasites of sheep and goats in Germany. Current therapeutic, prophylactic and metaphylactic measures are given and discussed. PMID:2198682

  4. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. Case presentation The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. Conclusions To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours. PMID:21929794

  5. Goat-associated Q fever: a new disease in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Hatchette, T. F.; Hudson, R. C.; Schlech, W. F.; Campbell, N. A.; Hatchette, J. E.; Ratnam, S.; Raoult, D.; Donovan, C.; Marrie, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 1999 in rural Newfoundland, abortions in goats were associated with illness in goat workers. An epidemiologic investigation and a serologic survey were conducted in April 1999 to determine the number of infections, nature of illness, and risk factors for infection. Thirty-seven percent of the outbreak cohort had antibody titers to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen >1:64, suggesting recent infection. The predominant clinical manifestation of Q fever was an acute febrile illness. Independent risk factors for infection included contact with goat placenta, smoking tobacco, and eating cheese made from pasteurized goat milk. This outbreak raises questions about management of such outbreaks, interprovincial sale and movement of domestic ungulates, and the need for discussion between public health practitioners and the dairy industry on control of this highly infectious organism. PMID:11384518

  6. The relationship between linear type traits and fertility traits in high-yielding dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Mellado, J; Valencia, M; Pittroff, W

    2008-10-01

    Reproductive data collected from 13 medium-size goat farms in central Mexico (582 goats), were used to investigate if linear type traits influenced reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy goats. Data were analysed using multiple stepwise forward logistic regressions. Goats with the higher scores for strength were 1.43 times more likely (p < 0.05) to have larger litters (1.49 vs 1.39) than goats with lower strength. Goats approaching level rump angles were 1.68 times more likely (p < 0.01) to have larger litters, compared with goats with extremely sloped rump angles (1.48 vs 1.37). Goats with rear legs nearly straight (posty) in hock tended (p < 0.08) to presented larger litters than goats with rear legs slightly angled (sickled) in hock (1.49 vs 1.38). Less pronounced rump angle was favourable associated (p < 0.05) with litter weight (4.88 vs 4.53 kg) compared with goats with low pin bones. Goats with poorer udder texture were 1.42 more likely (p < 0.05) to have heavier litters than goats with good udder texture. Goats with faulty mammary system tended (p < 0.07) to have heavier litters than goats with good mammary system. Increasing udder height was associated (p < 0.05) with increasing number of services per conception. Goats with good fore udder attachment and non-refined heads were at reduced risk (p < 0.05) for stillbirths. Goats with stronger median ligament were 65% less likely (p < 0.05) to lose their foetuses than those with looser udder support. Our findings indicate that a greater litter size and litter weight is expected in goats as rump angle becomes less sloped. This study showed that a relationship exists between strength of goats and litter size, and that some traits linked to high milk yield were antagonist to some reproductive traits. PMID:18507796

  7. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) during peak summer, and iNOS and eNOS expressions were also observed to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) during peak winter season as compared with moderate season. The iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were mainly localized in plasma membrane and cytoplasm of PBMCs. To conclude, data generated in the present study indicate the possible involvement of the NOS family genes in amelioration of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats. PMID:26205811

  8. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat ( Capra hircus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) during peak summer, and iNOS and eNOS expressions were also observed to be significantly higher ( P < 0.05) during peak winter season as compared with moderate season. The iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were mainly localized in plasma membrane and cytoplasm of PBMCs. To conclude, data generated in the present study indicate the possible involvement of the NOS family genes in amelioration of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats.

  9. Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, V; Valiakos, G

    2015-12-14

    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. It is also a zoonotic disease, affecting mainly people who come in direct or indirect contact with infected animals (e.g. farmers, veterinarians). The disease is usually benign and self-limiting, although in many cases, especially in young animals, it can be persistent and even fatal. Production losses caused by Orf virus are believed to be underestimated, as it is not a notifiable disease. This review of literature presents all latest information regarding the virus; considerations regarding treatment and prevention will be also discussed. PMID:26315771

  10. Surgical correction of urethral dilatation in an intersex goat.

    PubMed

    Karras, S; Modransky, P; Welker, B

    1992-11-15

    Multiple congenital urethral abnormalities were successfully corrected in a polled goat kid. Anatomic genito-urinary abnormalities identified were paired testes with associated epididymis, ductus deferens, and active endometrial tissue. Blood karyotyping revealed the female state--XX sex chromosomes. This case exemplifies the complex interactions in addition to Y dominant Mendelian genetics that determine reproductive tract development in goats. The resultant intersex state is clinically recognized with greater frequency in polled progeny. PMID:1289340

  11. Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang

    2014-12-01

    In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69 ± 0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P < 0.05) at 60 days but found not different (P > 0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P > 0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P < 0.05) in STRS groups at 30 and 60 days. The housing conditions had no effects (P > 0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats. PMID:25277493

  12. A serologic survey of Mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, T O; Adler, H E; Farver, T B; DaMassa, A J

    1981-10-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goat populations in Mendocino and Sonoma counties of northern California was studied, using the plate and tube agglutination tests. On a county basis, Mendocino had a higher antibody prevalence (13%) than Sonoma (10%). The overall antibody prevalence among the 377 goat serum samples tested was 11%. There was no statistical evidence to show any significant difference in prevalence on the basis of herd size. Of the common goat breeds in California, the American La Mancha had the lowest prevalence (4.7%), the Toggenberg, highest (10.8%). Angora goats shipped from Texas showed a much higher prevalence (67%) than any of the California breeds. The age-specific risk calculations indicate that all age groups were more susceptible to M putrefaciens than 4-year-old goats, with the lowest prevalence of 3.8%. The highest prevalence (21.3%) was observed in the Angora goats. Males had a lower prevalence (10.7%) than females (16.1%). A flock of sheep included in the survey showed a prevalence of 15%. PMID:7325445

  13. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ponazuril in weanling goats.

    PubMed

    Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M

    2016-06-01

    Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage. PMID:26542450

  14. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks. PMID:22974758

  15. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  16. [From the Scrapie syndrome of sheep and goat to the mad cow disease - the history of the discovery of prion].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Weng, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Since the discovery of Scrapie Syndrome in sheep and goats in 1730, there emerged a series of diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc. In the research of kuru disease, the American scientist D. Carlteton Gajdusek found a new virus without the characteristic of DNA and RNA, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1976. Since then another American scientist, Stanley B. Prusiner, found a new virus-prion, taking protein as the genetic medium, which was awarded the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine in 1997. The discovery of prion is a great landmark in the research of life science, which laid a theoretical foundation for people to conquer a series of diseases such as Scrapie syndrome in sheep and goats, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc. PMID:19930927

  17. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (P<0.05). Boer ground meat had more fat and less moisture than Kiko meat (P<0.05). Breed and feeding duration did not affect cook loss (P>0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (P<0.05). Boer and Kiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed. PMID:22417728

  18. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality

    PubMed Central

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R., Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats’ milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:20229357

  19. Establishment and evaluation of a stable steroidogenic goat Leydig cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhua; Dai, Rui; Lei, Lanjie; Lin, Pengfei; Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Tang, Keqiong; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    Leydig cells play a key role in synthesizing androgen and regulating spermatogenesis. The dysfunction of Leydig cells may lead to various male diseases. Although primary Leydig cell cultures have been used, their finite lifespan hinders the assessment of long-term effects. In the present study, primary goat Leydig cells (GLCs) were immortalized via the transfection of a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. The expressions of hTERT and telomerase activity were evaluated in transduced GLCs (hTERT-GLCs). These cells steadily expressed the hTERT gene and exhibited longer telomere lengths at passage 55 that were similar to those of HeLa cells. The hTERT-GLCs at passages 30 and 50 expressed genes that encoded key proteins, enzymes and receptors that are inherent to normal Leydig cells, for example, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and LH-receptor (LH-R). Additionally, the immortalized goat Leydig cells secreted detectable quantities of testosterone in response to hCG stimulation. Furthermore, this cell line appeared to proliferate more quickly than the control cells, although no neoplastic transformation occurred in vitro. We concluded that the GLCs immortalized with hTERT retained their original characteristics and might provide a useful model for the study of Leydig cell function. PMID:26462462

  20. Influence of Flunixin on the Disposition Kinetic of Cefepime in Goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Hewaity, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of cefepime (10 mg/kg b.w.) was studied following intravenous and intramuscular administration of cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin (2.2 mg/kg b.w.) in goats. Cefepime concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Escherichia coli (MTCC 443) as test organism. Following intravenous injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, there are no significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Following intramuscular injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, the maximum serum concentration was significantly increased in flunixin coadministered group compared with cefepime alone. However, no significant changes were reported in other pharmacokinetic parameters. The result of in vitro protein binding study indicated that 15.62% of cefepime was bound to goat's serum protein. The mean bioavailability was 92.66% and 95.27% in cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin, respectively. The results generated from the present study suggest that cefepime may be coadministered with flunixin without change in dose regimen. Cefepime may be given intramuscularly at 12 h intervals to combat susceptible bacterial infections. PMID:24883058

  1. Aspects of urea metabolism in ruminants with reference to the goat.

    PubMed

    Harmeyer, J; Martens, H

    1980-10-01

    In goats and other ruminants, urea functions as a source of nitrogen for protein biosynthesis in the digestive tract. Ammonia can be absorbed in the digestive system when formed in excessive quantitites and enhance formation of urea, or it can be derived from urea of blood plasma when its formation from feed sources is small. Entry rates of urea into plasma may vary from 4 to 80 mumol/min per kg.75 body weight depending on dietary conditions. Urea formation is related to nitrogen intake of which approximately 70% passes into the urea pool of plasma. Irreversible losses of urea of plasma into the digestive tract vary between 10 and 90% depending on the protein to energy ratios of the diet. Entry of urea from plasma into the rumen appears to be a passive process which is sensitive to short-term changes of urea concentrations in plasma. Permeability of ruminal epithelium to urea may be altered by fermentation products of rumen (ammonia, carbon dioxide, volatile fatty acids). The influx of nitrogen into the rumen is related to needs for nitrogen of microbial populations and is associated with changes of renal excretion and tubular reabsorption of urea. Combined gastrointestinal and renal responses exert a synergistic effect on improved utilization of urea of plasma when uptake of dietary nitrogen is limited in goats and other ruminants. PMID:7451710

  2. Electrophoretic pattern of Linguatula serrata larva isolated goat mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Rabeeh; Gerami, Abbas; Omrani, Vahid Fallah

    2016-06-01

    Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canid and felid respiratory system. The parasite is tongue-shaped, lightly convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Males measure 1.8-2 cm, while females measure 8-13 cm in length. Disease due to infection with this parasite in humans is more likely to cause pharyngitis, nausea and vomiting, sore and itchy throat, cough, phlegm and runny nose. Present study aimed to determine linguatula's larva somatic antigens in lymph nodes of infected goats and also reveal the major component of antigenic protein. To determine the electrophoretic pattern of L. serrata's larvae, 50 samples were taken from goat's referred to the slaughter house of Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. After performing SDS-PAGE on somatic antigens, 6 bands (19, 20, 36, 48, 75,100 KDa) were seen in which the 36, 48 and 75 KDa bands were more prominent. In conclusion, it is recommended to determine the most important antigenic protein of this parasite could be used an experimental model in infection up to determine the most significant component of this parasite's antigen and use of that in immunogenicity and detection of infection. PMID:27413296

  3. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. PMID:24183682

  4. Temporal changes in histomorphology and gene expression in goat testes during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Faucette, A N; Maher, V A; Gutierrez, M A; Jucker, J M; Yates, D C; Welsh, T H; Amstalden, M; Newton, G R; Nuti, L C; Forrest, D W; Ing, N H

    2014-10-01

    Testicular cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for development of normal testicular function and male reproductive maturity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate histoarchitecture and expression of genes marking specific cells and important functions as well as testosterone production of the developing goat testes. Testes were harvested from Alpine bucks at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo of age (n = 5/age group). Paired testes weight increased from 2 to 4 (P < 0.001) and 4 to 6 mo (P < 0.01). The greatest increases in seminiferous tubule and lumen diameters and height of the seminiferous epithelium occurred between 2 and 4 mo (P < 0.001). Genes expressed in haploid germ cells (Protamine1 [PRM1], Outer Dense Fiber protein 2 [ODF2], and Stimulated by Retinoic Acid gene 8 [STRA8]) increased dramatically at the same time (P < 0.001). Expression of other genes decreased (P < 0.05) during testicular maturation. These genes included P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9), Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), and Heat Shock Protein A8 (HSPA8). The Glutathione S-Transferase A3 (GSTA3) gene, whose product was recently recognized as a primary enzyme involved in isomerization of androstenedione in man and livestock species including goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses, uniquely peaked in expression at 2 mo (P < 0.05). Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) mRNA abundance tended to steadily decrease with age (P = 0.1), while Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (LHCGR) mRNA abundance in testes was not significantly different across the ages. Testosterone content per gram of testicular tissue varied among individuals. However, testosterone content per testis tended to increase at 6 mo (P = 0.06). In conclusion, major changes in cellular structure and gene expression in goat testes were observed at 4 mo of age, when spermatogenesis was initiated. Male goats mature rapidly and represent a good model species for the

  5. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Lussiana, Carola; Cornale, Paolo; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Fortina, Riccardo; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0.001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0.001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption. PMID:26869109

  6. Estrus induction in anestrous mixed-breed goats using the "female-to-female effect".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Ángel-García, Oscar; Guillén-Muñoz, Juan Manuel; Robles-Trillo, Pedro Antonio; De Santiago-Miramontes, Maria de Los Angeles; Meza-Herrera, Cesar Alberto; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    A trial was conducted during the anestrous period in female goats to determine: (a) whether estrus can be induced in anestrous goats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropic hormone (eCG) and PGF2α under pen conditions and (b) whether these sexually active female goats can elicit sexual arousal in sexually inactive bucks. One hundred and fifteen pluriparous, nonlactating mixed-breed female goats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) administration of a single dose of 240 IU of eCG, 50 μg PGF2α i.m., and 25 mg progesterone (P4) (eCG; n=30); (2) administration of P4 and exposure to female goats treated with eCG-PGF2α (P4; n=39); (3) administration of 0.5 ml saline and P4 (Sal; n=23); and (4) P4 plus exposure to female goats treated with saline (Con; n=23). After hormone administration, all goats were put together with adult sexually inactive bucks for 15 days. The percentage of goats in estrus during these 15 days was similar in eCG-treated animals and untreated animals exposed to the eCG animals (97 and 95%). Pregnancy rate was also similar (63 vs. 64%) between these two groups. eCG-treated goats exhibited estrus earlier (P<0.05) than the treated goats in contact with the eCG goats. Furthermore, eCG-treated goats had larger litters (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1, P<0.05) than the untreated goats in contact with the eCG goats. These results show that fertile estrus can be induced in anestrous female goats by exposing them to female goats induced to estrus with eCG. This female-female interaction triggers the stimulation cycle leading to the sexual arousal of bucks. PMID:23135982

  7. Morning versus afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affects feed intake, milk yield and composition in Girgentana goats.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Valenti, Bernardo; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella; Pennisi, Pietro

    2011-11-01

    Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (P<0·01) in the PM group (30·5 v. 25·3 g dry matter/kg body weight), associated with the different nutrient content of diets: lower crude protein but higher dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total fatty acids in the PM-harvested forage. Milk production, protein and casein content were higher (P<0·05) in the PM group (1415 g/d, 3·25% and 2·42% v. 1277 g/d, 3·15% and 2·33%, respectively), whereas no differences between groups were detected for milk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage. PMID:21939575

  8. Molecular characterization, expression and methylation status analysis of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat during hair follicle cycle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen L; Dang, Yun L; Wang, Jiao J; Yin, Rong H; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Cong, Yu Y; Xue, Hui L; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Yang, Shu H

    2016-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family (BMPs). It is involved in the development and cycle of hair follicle, as well as, is thought to be a potential candidate gene for cashmere traits in goats. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of BMP4 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, and investigated the transcriptional pattern and methylation status of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of this breed during different stages of hair follicle cycle. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolated cDNA was 1264-bp in length containing a complete ORF of 1230-bp. It encoded a precursor peptide of 409 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The structural analysis indicated that goat BMP4 contains typical TGF-β propeptide and TGF-β domains. In skin tissue, BMP4 is generally transcribed in an ascendant pattern from anagen to telogen. The methylation level of 5' flanking regulatory region of BMP4 gene might be involved in its mRNA expression in skin tissue: a higher BMP4 methylation level in skin coincides with a lower expression of BMP4 mRNA. These results from the present work provided a foundation for further insight into the functional and regulatory characteristics of BMP4 in the development and cycle of hair follicle in Liaoning Cashmere goat. PMID:27406581

  9. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gains (ADG) and better feed conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing DE levels. The tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and Semimembranosus muscle (SM) reduced with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). With increasing DE levels, tenderness was increased (P < 0.05). The heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) mRNA expression levels in LD and SM increased with increasing DE levels (P < 0.05), but decreased with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). The calpastatin (CAST) and μ-calpain mRNA expressions levels in LD and SM were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by CP and DE levels in the diet. Therefore, the nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. PMID:25039653

  10. Focal Adhesion Kinase Directly Interacts with TSC2 Through Its FAT Domain and Regulates Cell Proliferation in Cashmere Goat Fetal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xu; Bao, Wenlei; Yang, Jiaofu; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Dongsheng; Liang, Yan; Li, Shuyu; Wang, Yanfeng; Feng, Xue; Hao, Huifang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that senses a variety of extracellular signals, such as growth factors and integrins, to control the process of cell proliferation and metabolism. We cloned three goat FAK transcript variants (KM655805, KM658268, and KM658269) that encode 1052, 1006, and 962 amino-acid residue proteins. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the putative FAK protein contains an FERM domain, a PTK domain, two Proline-rich regions, and a focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) domain. All the three transcript variants of FAK were detected in seven different goat tissues, and variant 1 had the most accumulation whereas variant 2 and variant 3 had lower accumulation. Treatment of goat fetal fibroblasts (GFbs) with a specific FAK inhibitor, TAE226, inhibited cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and induced damage to the cell morphology in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further research demonstrated that FAK directly interacted with TSC2 (Tuberous sclerosis 2) tuberin domain through its C-terminus, which contains the complete FAT domain. In conclusion, our results indicated that FAK may be widely expressed in Cashmere goat tissues and its products participate in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and cell proliferation through a direct interaction with TSC2 in GFBs. PMID:27380318

  11. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  12. Microbial and chemical composition of liquid-associated bacteria in goats' rumen and fermenters.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality. PMID:24460876

  13. Low proviral small ruminant lentivirus load as biomarker of natural restriction in goats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Proffiti, Margherita; Cascio, Paolo; Cerruti, Fulvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi; de Andrés, Damián; Reina, Ramsés; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-08-30

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) globally affect welfare and production of sheep and goats and are mainly controlled through elimination of infected animals, independently of the viral kinetics within the single animal. Control programs are based on highly sensitive serological tests, however the existence of low antibody responders leads to the permanent presence of seronegative infected animals in the flock, thus perpetuating the infection. On the other hand, long-term non-progressors show a detectable antibody response not indicative of a shedding animal, suggesting immune contention of infection. In this study, we analyse two goat populations within the same herd, harbouring low or high proviral SRLV loads respectively, both showing a robust antibody response. In vivo findings were confirmed in vitro since fibroblastic cell lines obtained from one high and one low proviral load representative goats, showed respectively a high and a faint production of virus upon infection with reference and field circulating SRLV strains. Differences in virus production were relieved when strain CAEV-Co was used for experimental infection. We analysed LTR promoter activity, proviral load, entry step and production of virus and viral proteins. Intriguingly, proteasomal activity was higher in fibroblasts from low proviral load animals and proteasome inhibition increased viral production in both cell lines, suggesting the implication of active proteasome-dependent restriction factors. Among them, we analysed relative expression and sequences of TRIM5α, APOBEC3 (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) and BST-2 (Tetherin) and found a global antiviral status in low proviral carriers that may confer protection against viral shedding and disease onset. PMID:27527777

  14. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  15. Ultrastructural changes of goat corpus luteum during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Hsu, Meng-Chieh; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the ultrastructure of goat corpora lutea (CL, n=10) and structural changes as related to steroidogenic functions during the estrous cycle. The reproduction status of goats was estimated by analyzing serum progesterone concentrations. The CL at various stages was surgically collected. To characterize ultrastructural features associated with steroidogenesis, tissue and cellular structures were studied. Blood supplies were examined based on features of the endothelial cells and capillary structures in the CL. Activated endothelial cells and developing vessels were observed in the early stage, whereas mature endothelial cells, accumulating extracellular matrix fibers, and stabilized vessels were observed in the middle and late stages of assessment. In the late stage of assessment, shrunken goat luteal cells scattered around the capillaries were detected and formed circular regression areas. Features of autophagy and luteal cell apoptosis were noted. In large luteal cells, steroidogenic organelles were present, including microvillar channels, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Conformational changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and increased mitochondria with tubular cristae were observed in the early-middle CL transitions. In contrast, mitochondria swelled and the cristae transformed to the lamellar type in the late stage, suggesting that organelle plasticity could contribute to steroidogenesis in goat CL. In conclusion, results suggest angiogenesis occurs in early developing CL and programmed cell death occurred in the late stage of CL assessment in the present study. Structures and quantiles of steroidogenic organelles are correlated with the steroidogenic functions in goats. PMID:27102356

  16. Naturally acquired antibodies against Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in goats.

    PubMed

    Veschi, Josir Laine A; Bruzzone, Octavio A; Losada-Eaton, Daniela M; Dutra, Iveraldo S; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2008-09-15

    Clostridium perfringens type D-producing epsilon toxin is a common cause of death in sheep and goats worldwide. Although anti-epsilon toxin serum antibodies have been detected in healthy non-vaccinated sheep, the information regarding naturally acquired antibodies in ruminants is scanty. The objective of the present report was to characterize the development of naturally acquired antibodies against C. perfringens epsilon toxin in goats. The levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies in blood serum of goat kids from two different herds were examined continuously for 14 months. Goats were not vaccinated against any clostridial disease and received heterologous colostrums from cows that were not vaccinated against any clostridial disease. During the survey one of these flocks suffered an unexpectedly severe C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia outbreak. The results showed that natural acquired antibodies against C. perfringens epsilon toxin can appear as early as 6 weeks in young goats and increase with the age without evidence of clinical disease. The enterotoxemia outbreak was coincident with a significant increase in the level of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies. PMID:18538416

  17. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  18. [Juvenile goiter in a goat herd in northwest Germany].

    PubMed

    Simon, C; Bostedt, H; Adams, W

    2000-06-01

    A continuous increase in the circumference of the thyroid gland was observed in four goat kids (44.4%) of the breed of White German Goat between the third and fourth month in a herd comprising White German Goats and Coloured German Goats. Clinical, laboratory diagnostic and chemically analytical results have been obtained, illustrated and compared with the equivalent parameters from healthy control herds without pathological findings. The thyroidal secretion rate and the milk iodine content were highly significant reduced in the affected flock in comparison with the control group. The feed which was given to the affected group did not cover the nutritional requirement of pregnant, lactating and growing goats. At 40-50 mg/l, the nitrate content of the water was close to the tolerance of 50 mg/l. It can be deduced from the findings available that the case described above is a synergetic combination of a primary iodine deficiency, based on an inefficient iodine supply and of a secondary iodine deficiency resulting from a super elevated nitrate content of the drinking water. PMID:10892301

  19. Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US. PMID:24994554

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

  1. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits. PMID:26634455

  2. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  3. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  4. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  5. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  6. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  7. Efficacy of clorsulon for the treatment of experimentally induced infections of Fasciola hepatica in goats.

    PubMed

    Sundlof, S F; Bliss, E L; Greiner, E C; Tran, T Q; Wertenberger, M A

    1991-01-01

    A dose titration study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of clorsulon against the adult stage of Fasciola hepatica in goats. Thirty-nine goats were experimentally infected with metacercariae of F hepatica. At 14 weeks after infection, each goat was assigned randomly to 1 of 5 groups. Goats in groups 1 to 4 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 3.5, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The fifth group of goats (control group) was infected with F hepatica, but were not treated with clorsulon. Postmortem examination of goats at 3 weeks after treatment revealed mean reductions in numbers of flukes of 83, 98, 99, and 100% for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Mean percentage of reduction in eggs following treatment of groups was 82, 98, 100, and 100%, respectively. The clinical effects of clorsulon in 24 goats that were not infected with F hepatica were studied. Goats in groups 1 to 3 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 7, 21, and 35 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for a total of 3 doses/goat. Group-4 goats (control group) received a vehicle placebo. Goats in group 3 were subject to postmortem examination at 14 days after dosing. Abnormal signs or lesions that could be attributed to clorsulon were not found in any goat. PMID:2021237

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  9. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  10. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  11. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  12. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  13. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  14. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  15. Artificial long-day photoperiod in the subtropics increases milk production in goats giving birth in late autumn.

    PubMed

    Flores, M J; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Mejía, A; Delgadillo, J A; Hernández, H

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure to a photoperiod of artificial long days in autumn increased milk yield in subtropical goats milked once (Exp. I) or twice daily (Exp. II). In Exp. I, starting at d 10 of lactation, 1 group of does was kept under naturally decreasing photoperiod (DD1X; n = 8), whereas the other group was submitted to an artificial photoperiod of long days (LD1X; n = 8; 16 h light:8 h darkness). The kids were weaned 28 d after parturition, and dams were manually milked once daily. Milk yield and milk components (fat, protein, and lactose) were assessed up to 140 d of lactation. From d 0 to 28 of lactation (suckling phase), mean daily milk yield did not differ between DD1X and LD1X goats (2.3 ± 0.2 kg vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.717). However, between d 29 and 84 (early milking phase), mean daily milk yield was greater in LD1X does than in DD1X does (2.6 ± 0.1 kg vs. 2.1 ± 0.1 kg; P = 0.001). Finally, between d 85 and 140 (late milking phase), mean daily milk yield was greater in LD1X goats than in DD1X goats (P ≤ 0.05) only during the first 2 wk. In Exp. II, one group of goats was exposed to a photoperiod of naturally decreasing days (DD2X; n = 8) and another group was submitted to an artificial photoperiod of long days (LD2X; n = 7). In both groups, kids were weaned on d 28 of lactation and the dams were manually milked twice daily. During the nursing phase, mean daily milk yield did not differ between the DD2X and LD2X groups (2.5 ± 0.3 kg vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.767). In the early milking phase, mean daily milk yield was greater in LD2X than in DD2X goats (3.3 ± 0.2 kg vs. 2.8 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.022), whereas during the late milking phase, milk yield did not differ between the 2 groups (P = 0.946). In both experiments, milk composition was not significantly influenced by exposure to long-day photoperiod. We conclude that, in subtropical female goats that start lactation in late autumn, exposure to an artificial long

  16. Newly identified mutations at the CSN1S1 gene in Ethiopian goats affect casein content and coagulation properties of their milk.

    PubMed

    Mestawet, T A; Girma, A; Adnøy, T; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E

    2013-08-01

    Very high casein content and good coagulation properties previously observed in some Ethiopian goat breeds led to investigating the αs1-casein (CSN1S1) gene in these breeds. Selected regions of the CSN1S1 gene were sequenced in 115 goats from 5 breeds (2 indigenous: Arsi-Bale and Somali, 1 exotic: Boer, and 2 crossbreeds: Boer × Arsi-Bale and Boer × Somali). The DNA analysis resulted in 35 new mutations: 3 in exons, 3 in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 29 in the introns. The mutations in exons that resulted in an amino acid shift were then picked to evaluate their influence on individual casein content (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-CN), micellar size, and coagulation properties in the milk from the 5 goat breeds. A mutation at nucleotide 10657 (exon 10) involved a transversion: CAG→CCG, resulting in an amino acid exchange Gln77→Pro77. This mutation was associated with the indigenous breeds only. Two new mutations, at nucleotide 6072 (exon 4) and 12165 (exon 12), revealed synonymous transitions: GTC→GTT in Val15 and AGA→AGG in Arg100 of the mature protein. Transitions G→A and C→T at nucleotides 1374 and 1866, respectively, occurred in the 5' UTR, whereas the third mutation involved a transversion T→G at nucleotide location 1592. The goats were grouped into homozygote new (CC), homozygote reference (AA), and heterozygote (CA) based on the nucleotide that involved the transversion. The content of αs1-CN (15.32g/kg) in milk samples of goats homozygous (CC) for this newly identified mutation, Gln77→Pro77 was significantly higher than in milks of heterozygous (CA; 9.05g/kg) and reference (AA; 7.61g/kg) genotype animals. The αs2-, β-, and κ-CN contents showed a similar pattern. Milk from goats with a homozygous new mutation had significantly lower micellar size. Milk from both homozygote and heterozygote new-mutation goats had significantly shorter coagulation rate and stronger gel than the reference genotype. Except the transversion, the

  17. Effects of Condensed Tannins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) Seed Meal on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Utilization in Goats.

    PubMed

    Gunun, P; Wanapat, M; Gunun, N; Cherdthong, A; Sirilaophaisan, S; Kaewwongsa, W

    2016-08-01

    Mao seed is a by-product of the wine and juice industry, which could be used in animal nutrition. The current study was designed to determine the effect of supplementation of mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) seed meal (MOSM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on rumen fermentation, nitrogen (N) utilization and microbial protein synthesis in goats. Four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weight (BW) 20±2 kg were randomly assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were MOSM supplementation at 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% of total dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. During the experimental periods, all goats were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 at 3.0% BW/d and pangola grass hay was used as a roughage source. Results showed that supplementation with MOSM did not affect feed intake, nutrient intakes and apparent nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). In addition, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were not influenced by MOSM supplementation, whilst blood urea nitrogen was decreased quadraticly (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with MOSM at 2.4% of total DM intake. Propionate was increased linearly with MOSM supplementation, whereas acetate and butyrate were remained the same. Moreover, estimated ruminal methane (CH4) was decreased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Numbers of bacteria and protozoa were similar among treatments (p>0.05). There were linear decreases in urinary N (p<0.01) and total N excretion (p<0.01) by MOSM supplementation. Furthermore, N retention was increased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM supplementation at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Microbial protein synthesis were not significantly different among treatments (p>0.05). From the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of MOSM at 1.6% to 2.4% of total DM intake can be used to modify ruminal fermentation, especially propionate

  18. Actinomyces hyovaginalis-associated lymphadenitis in a Nubian goat.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Vanessa L; Hinckley, Lynn; Gilbert, Kelly; Risatti, Guillermo R; Londoño, Alfredo Sanchez; Smyth, Joan A

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old Nubian goat with a history of progressive weight loss and cough was presented for necropsy. The goat tested negative for antibodies to caseous lymphadenitis and caprine arthritis and encephalitis by hemagglutination inhibition assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Postmortem examination revealed marked enlargement and, with histopathology, a fibrinopurulent necrotizing lymphadenitis of a tracheobronchial lymph node, with an appearance similar to that reported in cases of caseous lymphadenitis. An organism characterized by molecular methods as Actinomyces hyovaginalis was isolated together with Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. from the lesion. No Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was recovered. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first isolation of A. hyovaginalis from a goat. Although the exact contribution of A. hyovaginalis to the lesion remains to be established, this case demonstrates that A. hyovaginalis should be considered in cases of caseous lymphadenitis-type lesions, especially when C. pseudotuberculosis has been excluded. PMID:19407095

  19. Genetic Diversity of Eight Domestic Goat Populations Raised in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Zafer; Kurar, Ercan; Ozsensoy, Yusuf; Altunok, Vahdettin; Nizamlioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the intra- and intergenetic diversities of eight different goat populations in Turkey including Hair, Angora, Kilis, Yayladag, Shami, Honamli, Saanen, and Alpine. A total of 244 DNA samples were genotyped using 11 microsatellites loci. The genetic differentiation between breeds was considerable as a result of the statistically significant (P < 0.001) pairwise FST values of each pair of breeds. Exceptionally, FST values calculated for Honamli and Hair breeds were statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.62 and 0.73. According to the structure and assignment test, Angora and Yayladag goats were assigned to the breed they belong to, while other breeds were assigned to two or more different groups. Because this study for the first time presented genetic data on the Yayladag goat, results of structure analysis and assigned test suggest that further analyses are needed using additional and different molecular markers. PMID:27092309

  20. Enterotoxin production by staphylococci isolated from healthy goats.

    PubMed Central

    Valle, J; Gomez-Lucia, E; Piriz, S; Goyache, J; Orden, J A; Vadillo, S

    1990-01-01

    The ability of 342 staphylococcal isolates from different anatomical sites in healthy goats to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) was investigated. SE were produced by 74.3% of the 70 coagulase-positive strains and by 22% of the coagulase-negative strains studied. Most enterotoxigenic strains were isolated from the skin of udders and teats and from milk. SEC was the SE type most frequently produced, either alone (67.9%) or in combination with others. Five coagulase-negative species not previously reported as SE producers were identified (Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. warneri, S. sciuri, S. saprophyticus, and S. lentus). SEA, SEB, and SEC were detected in the milk of 17 of the 133 healthy goats studied. These results suggest that the goat is an important reservoir of enterotoxigenic staphylococci, most of which produce SEC. PMID:2339886

  1. Heavy metals in livers and kidneys of goats in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Datiri, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    The popularity of goat farming is increasing in the southeastern region of the United States. Baseline values of Hg, Pb, and Cd are not available in goat tissues in the United States. These values are needed when monitoring food for heavy metal contamination which may be associated with urbanization and industrialization. Due to human activities or anthropogenic sources of metals in the environment, high concentrations of these metals have been observed in herbage and animal tissues. It has also been reported that toxic heavy metals are concentrated mostly in kidneys and livers of animals. The risk of exposure of humans to heavy metals contained in edible organs of animals has received widespread concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the levels of Hg,Pb, and Cd in livers and kidneys of goats; and (ii) determine whether accumulation of these metals is related to age and/or sex. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Mao-Liang, Ran; Chen, Bin; Ouyang, Xuxiang; Li, Zhi; Dong, Lian-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus) is a native breed of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiangdong black goat is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,641 bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 33.53% A, 13.12% G, 27.25% T and 26.09% C, in the order A > T > C > G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25423508

  3. Expression of pluripotency markers in Arbas Cashmere goat hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Nimantana; Dong, Zhenguo; Zhu, Bing; Nuo, Mingtu; Bou, Shorgan; Liu, Dongjun

    2016-08-01

    In our previous work, we found that the Inner Mongolia Arbas Cashmere goat hair follicle stem cells (gHFSCs) can be successfully differentiated into adipocyte, chondrocyte, and osteocyte lineages. In this study, we further examined the expression of the pluripotency and stemness markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, AKP, and TERT in gHFSCs by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and Western blot. Immunofluorescent staining showed that the gHFSCs were positive for all five markers. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) further analyzed the positive expression of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 in the gHFSCs. Compared with Arbas Cashmere goat adipose-derived stem cells (gADSCs) at the mRNA expression level, Oct4 was relatively highly expressed in gHFSCs, 41.36 times of the gADSCs, and Nanog was 5.61, AKP was 2.74, and TERT was 2.10 times, respectively (p < 0.01). Western blot indicated that all markers are expressed at the protein level in the gHFSCs. When compared with gADSCs, using α-tubulin as a reference protein, gray intensity analysis showed that the expression of Oct4, Nanog, AKP, and TERT were, respectively, 5.94, 10.78, 1.33, and 1.39 times of gADSCs. Additionally, mRNA and protein expression of Sox2 were detected in the gHFSCs but not in the gADSCs. The protein expression pattern of these markers was consistent with the mRNA results. PMID:27364919

  4. Nutritional requirements of sheep, goats and cattle in warm climates: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Salah, N; Sauvant, D; Archimède, H

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to update energy and protein requirements of growing sheep, goats and cattle in warm areas through a meta-analysis study of 590 publications. Requirements were expressed on metabolic live weight (MLW=LW0.75) and LW1 basis. The maintenance requirements for energy were 542.64 and 631.26 kJ ME/kg LW0.75 for small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The corresponding requirement for 1 g gain was 24.3 kJ ME without any significant effect of species. Relative to LW0.75, there was no difference among genotypes intra-species in terms of ME requirement for maintenance and gain. However, small ruminants of warm and tropical climate appeared to have higher ME requirements for maintenance relative to live weight (LW) compared with temperate climate ones and cattle. Maintenance requirements for protein were estimated via two approaches. For these two methods, the data in which retained nitrogen (RN) was used cover the same range of variability of observations. The regression of digestible CP intake (DCPI, g/kg LW0.75) against RN (g/kg LW0.75) indicated that DCP requirements are significantly higher in sheep (3.36 g/kg LW0.75) than in goats (2.38 g/kg LW0.75), with cattle intermediate (2.81 g/kg LW0.75), without any significant difference in the quantity of DCPI/g retained CP (RCP) (40.43). Regressing metabolisable protein (MP) or minimal digestible protein in the intestine (PDImin) against RCP showed that there was no difference between species and genotypes, neither for the intercept (maintenance=3.51 g/kg LW0.75 for sheep and goat v. 4.35 for cattle) nor for the slope (growth=0.60 g MP/g RCP). The regression of DCP against ADG showed that DCP requirements did not differ among species or genotypes. These new feeding standards are derived from a wider range of nutritional conditions compared with existing feeding standards as they are based on a larger database. The standards seem to be more appropriate

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics of Longissimus lumborum muscle in goats subjected to halal slaughter and anesthesia (halothane) pre-slaughter.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS. PMID:26208249

  6. Prevalence of sorbitol non-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Black Bengal goats on smallholdings.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M DAS; DAS, A; Islam, M Z; Biswas, P K

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bangladesh with the sampling of 514 Black Bengal goats on smallholdings to determine the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SNF) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swab samples collected from the recto-anal junction were plated onto cefixime and potassium tellurite added sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, a selective medium for STEC O157 serogroup, where this serogroup and other SNF STEC produce colourless colonies. The SNF E. coli (SNF EC) isolates obtained from the survey were investigated by PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing genes, stx1 and stx2, and two other virulence genes, eae and hlyA that code for adherence factor (intimin protein) and pore-forming cytolysin, respectively. The SNF EC isolates were also assessed for the presence of the rfbO157 gene to verify their identity to O157 serogroup. The results revealed that the proportions of goats carrying SNF EC isolates and stx1 and stx2 genes were 6·2% (32/514) [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-8·7)], 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6) and 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6), respectively. All the SNF STEC tested negative for rfbO157, hlyA and eae genes. The risk for transmission of STEC from Black Bengal goats to humans is low. PMID:27267779

  7. Transient Expression of Functional Glucocerebrosidase for Treatment of Gaucher's Disease in the Goat Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Kaio Cesar Simiano; Dias, Ana Christina de Oliveira; Lazzarotto, Cícera Regina; Gaudencio Neto, Saul; de Sá Carneiro, Igor; Ongaratto, Felipe Ledur; Pinto, Antônio Frederico Michel; de Aguiar, Luís Henrique; Calderón, Carlos Enrique Mendez; Toledo, Jorge Roberto; Castro, Fidel Ovidio; Santos, Diogenes Santiago; Chies, Jocelei Maria; Bertolini, Marcelo; Bertolini, Luciana Relly

    2016-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an orphan disease characterized by the lack or incapacity of glucocerebrosidase (hGCase) to properly process glucosylceramide, resulting in its accumulation in vital structures of the human body. Enzyme replacement therapy supplies hGCase to GD patients with a high-cost recombinant enzyme produced in vitro in mammalian or plant cell culture. In this study, we produced hGCase through the direct injection of recombinant adenovirus in the mammary gland of a non-transgenic goat. The enzyme was secreted in the milk during six days at a level up to 111.1 ± 8.1 mg/L, as identified by mass spectrometry, showing high in vitro activity. The milk-produced hGCase presented a mass correspondent to the intermediary high-mannose glycosylated protein, which could facilitate its delivery to macrophages through the macrophage mannose receptor. Further studies are underway to determine the in vivo delivery capacity of milk-hGCase, but results from this study paves the way toward the generation of transgenic goats constitutively expressing hGCase in the milk. PMID:26589705

  8. Hemodialysis Culture of Serratia marcescens in a Goat-Artificial Kidney-Fermentor System 1

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, John M.; Belding, Ralph C.; Beaman, Teofila Cabrera; Gerhardt, Philipp

    1974-01-01

    Hemodialysis was employed to simulate in vivo conditions for growth in mammalian blood, but without phagocytosis, by using the goat and Serratia marcescens as a host-parasite model. The blood stream was shunted surgically via prosthetic tubing from a carotid artery through the hollow-fiber membranes in an artificial kidney hemodialyzer and back into a jugular vein. The dialysate solution concurrently was pumped from a modular fermentor through the hemodialyzer jacket outside of the membranes and back into the fermentor. Hemodialysis between the two circuits was maintained continuously. When equilibrium was attained, bacteria inoculated into the dialysate circuit multiplied first exponentially at the maximal rate and then arithmetically at a lesser rate equally well under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. When a population of about 109 viable bacteria/ml was exceeded, the goat reacted acutely with signs of general toxemia, pyrexia, and leukopenia, apparently because of dialyzable toxic material produced by the culture. The maximal molecular size of the toxic material was defined relative to a rigid globular protein of 15,000 in molecular weight and 1.9 nm in hydrodynamic radius or to a flexible fibrous polyglycol of 5,500 in molecular weight and 2.6 nm in hydrodynamic radius, based on determinations of the membrane porosity threshold for dialysis. Images PMID:4593469

  9. Purification of goat beta-lactoglobulin from whey by an ultrafiltration membrane enzymic reactor.

    PubMed

    Sannier, F; Bordenave, S; Piot, J M

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a novel contribution to the purification of goat beta-lactoglobulin by using an ultrafiltration membrane enzymic reactor. The basis of the purification process was the enzymic hydrolysis of contaminating proteins, alpha-lactalbumin and traces of serum albumin, by pepsin at 40 degrees C and pH 2, conditions under which beta-lactoglobulin is resistant to peptic digestion. Simultaneously, beta-lactoglobulin and peptides were separated by ultrafiltration. beta-Lactoglobulin was retained in the reactor while peptides generated by hydrolysis from alpha-lactalbumin and serum albumin permeated through the membrane. The process was made continuous by the addition of fresh whey to replace the lost permeate. Three mineral membranes with 10, 30 and 50 kDa molecular mass cut-off were tested and the 30 kDa membrane was selected for the continuous process. The simultaneous purification and concentration of beta-lactoglobulin from clarified goats' whey was achieved in a single step. The ultrafiltration membrane enzymic reactor could treat eight reactor volumes of clarified whey. The recovery of beta-lactoglobulin was 74%, its purity was 84% and its concentration 6.6-fold that in the initial clarified whey. PMID:10717842

  10. Effects of citric acid, cucumis powder and pressure cooking on quality attributes of goat meat curry.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, comparative effects of marination in citric acid (1 %), spray of cucumis powder (2 %) and pressure cooking (at 15 psi) were observed on quality attributes of goat meat curry. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in pH of citric acid treated samples compared to other samples. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in protein and soluble collagen content of meat curry treated with pressure as compared to other treated samples including control. Cooking yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in control samples. The significant difference was observed in chewiness and gumminess at (p < 0.05) level and hardness at (p < 0.01) level within and between the various treatment groups. However, overall values were higher in control samples. Similarly, shear force value was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for control compared to treated samples. The significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in various sensory attributes of goat meat curry and pressure treated cooked meat curry was highly preferred followed by cucumis powder, citric acid and control samples. PMID:25745255

  11. [Evaluation of the efficacy of antihelmintics compounds on parasitics gastrointestinal nematodes (Strongyloidea) of goats].

    PubMed

    Silva, André Ricardo E; De Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio R; De Oliveira, Aécio Carlos; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araújo, Juliana M; Castejon, Fernanda V

    2008-09-01

    The present study was performed in order to evaluate the action of anthelmintics compounds on gastrointestinal parasite nematodes of 27 Alpine and Saanen adult goats. The animals were divided into three groups. The animals of groups 1 and 2 had been dealt with two different associations of antihelminthics in day zero. The goats in group 1 were treated with closantel (75 mg/mL), albendazol (38 mg/mL) and ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/ 10 Kg body weight); animals in group 2 were treated with closantel (100 mg/mL), albendazol (50 mg/mL), levamisol (64 mg/mL), ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL), selenium (1 mg/mL) and cobalt (4.4 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/10 Kg of body weight) and the animals in the group 3 (control) received distilled water. Eggs per gram counts on faeces (EPG) and coprocultures of all animals were made at intervals of days 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The haematocrit, global counting and differential white blood cells, total protein and the Famacha test were determined at intervals of days 0, 14 and 28. Six animals of each group had suffered euthanasia and slaughters on the 28th day. The results showed that only the combination used in the animals of group 2 was effective. PMID:20059830

  12. Measures of de novo synthesis of milk components from propionate in lactating goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    Possible direct contributions of propionate to de novo synthesis of milk components by the mammary gland of lactating goats fed a concentrate-roughage diet have been studied in vivo by primed constant infusion of (1-carbon-14)propionate into the right mammary artery. Specific radioactivities of milk galactose, fatty acids, and protein were higher in the infused than in the uninfused half of the mammary gland, suggesting de novo synthesis of these compounds in the udder. Specific radioactivities of milk glucose in both udder halves were identical, ruling out any possibility of mammary gland-derived glucose from propionate of blood plasma under the experimental conditions. Of milk galactose, .8% was derived from propionate of blood plasma, and of milk glucose, 98% was derived from glucose of blood plasma. After intraruminal infusion of unlabeled propionic acid at 11 g/h, concentration of propionate in blood plasma was doubled, its contribution to milk galactose was increased to 1.5%, and proportions of milk odd-numbered fatty acids were increased. Propionate was incorporated largely into milk odd-numbered fatty acids. The authors conclude that small amounts of propionate can be incorporated into principal components of milk in the mammary gland of lactating goats.

  13. The Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 on Dairy Goat Mastitis and Cell Survival of Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Shen, Xingai; Zang, Wenjuan; Sun, Yongsen

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a zinc-dependent enzyme, and plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, the relationship between MMP-9 and somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk and the role of MMP-9 in the regulation of mastitis are still unknown. In this study, we found MMP-9 was predominantly expressed in the spleen, intestine and mammary gland. The SCC in goat milk was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression, and staphylococcus aureus could markedly increase MMP-9 expression in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) in dosage and time dependent manner. We also demonstrated that SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in GMEC. Thus, MMP-9 may emerge as an easily measurable and sensitive parameter that reflects the number of somatic cells present in milk and a regulatory factor of apoptosis in GMEC. PMID:27518717

  14. The Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 on Dairy Goat Mastitis and Cell Survival of Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Shen, Xingai; Zang, Wenjuan; Sun, Yongsen

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a zinc-dependent enzyme, and plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, the relationship between MMP-9 and somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk and the role of MMP-9 in the regulation of mastitis are still unknown. In this study, we found MMP-9 was predominantly expressed in the spleen, intestine and mammary gland. The SCC in goat milk was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression, and staphylococcus aureus could markedly increase MMP-9 expression in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) in dosage and time dependent manner. We also demonstrated that SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in GMEC. Thus, MMP-9 may emerge as an easily measurable and sensitive parameter that reflects the number of somatic cells present in milk and a regulatory factor of apoptosis in GMEC. PMID:27518717

  15. Preparation of Glycerol-Enriched Yeast Culture and Its Effect on Blood Metabolites and Ruminal Fermentation in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Gengping; Zhu, Yongxing; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate a glycerol-producing yeast strain from nature to prepare glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY), and preliminarily evaluate the effects of GY on blood metabolites and ruminal fermentation in goats. During the trial, six isolates were isolated from unprocessed honey, and only two isolates with higher glycerol yield were identified by analysis of 26S ribosomal DNA sequences. One of the two isolates was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a direct-fed microbe permitted by the FDA. This isolate was used to prepare GY. The fermentation parameters were optimized through single-factor and orthogonal design methods to maximize the glycerol yield and biomass. The final GY contained 38.7±0.6 g/L glycerol and 12.6±0.5 g/L biomass. In vivo, eight castrated male goats with ruminal fistula were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experiment with four consecutive periods of 15 d. Treatments were as follows: control, LGY, MGY, and HGY with 0, 100, 200, and 300 mL GY per goat per day, respectively. The GY was added in two equal portions at 08∶00 and 17∶00 through ruminal fistula. Samples of blood and ruminal fluid were collected on the last one and two days of each period, respectively. Results showed that the plasma concentrations of triglyceride and total cholesterol were not affected by the supplemented GY. Compared with the control, goats supplemented with MGY and HGY had significantly higher (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma glucose and total protein, ruminal volatile fatty acid and molar proportion of propionate, and significantly lower (P<0.05) ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen. These parameters changed linearly with increasing GY supplementation level (P<0.05). In conclusion, GY has great potential to be developed as a feed additive with dual effects of glycerol and yeast for ruminants. PMID:24709881

  16. Prions: The Chemistry of Infectious Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prion is pathological protein that causes a set of rare fatal neurological diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). TSE diseases occur in humans, sheep, goats, deer, elk, mink, cows and other mammals. A prion and the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) have the same primar...

  17. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  18. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  19. Influence of fresh forage-based diets and αs₁-casein (CSN1S1) genotype on nutrient intake and productive, metabolic, and hormonal responses in milking goats.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M

    2013-04-01

    Polymorphism at the αS1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high αS1-casein (αS1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low αS1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for αS2-CN, β-CN, and κ-CN but a different genotype for αS1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF

  20. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Distribution of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 Expression along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Housing versus Grazing Kid Goats.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Li, Hengzhi; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; He, Zhixiong; Kang, Jinghe; Yan, Qiongxian; Tan, Zhiliang; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-03-23

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is reported as a long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor that elicits free fatty acid (FFA) regulation on metabolism homeostasis. The study aimed to clone the gpr120 gene of goats (g-GPR120) and subsequently investigate phylogenetic analysis and tissue distribution throughout the digestive tracts of kid goats, as well as the effect of housing versus grazing (H vs G) feeding systems on GPR120 expression. Partial coding sequence (CDS) of g-GPR120 was cloned and submitted to NCBI (accession no. KU161270 ). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that g-GPR120 shared higher homology in both mRNA and amino acid sequences for ruminants than nonruminants. Immunochemistry, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis showed that g-GPR120 was expressed throughout the digestive tracts of goats. The expression of g-GPR120 was affected by feeding system and age, with greater expression of g-GPR120 in the G group. It was concluded that the g-GPR120-mediated LCFA chemosensing mechanism is widely present in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract of goats and that its expression can be affected by feeding system and age. PMID:26914739

  1. Sequence-Based Appraisal of the Genes Encoding Neck and Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Conglutinin in Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Sasmita; Sidappa, Chandra Mohan; Saini, Mohini; Doreswamy, Ramesh; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K.; Gupta, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    Conglutinin, a collagenous C-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in recognition of pathogens. In the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD) of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The obtained 488 bp ORFs encoding NCRD were submitted to NCBI with accession numbers KC505182 and KC505183. Both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved from NCBI GenBank using DNAstar and Megalign5.2 software. Sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity of blackbuck sequence with wild ruminants like nilgai and buffalo, whereas goat sequence displayed maximum similarity with sheep sequence at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated clear divergence of wild ruminants from the domestic ruminants in separate clusters. The predicted secondary structures of NCRD protein in goat and blackbuck using SWISSMODEL ProtParam online software were found to possess 6 beta-sheets and 3 alpha-helices which are identical to the result obtained in case of sheep, cattle, buffalo, and nilgai. However, quaternary structure in goat, sheep, and cattle was found to differ from that of buffalo, nilgai, and blackbuck, suggesting a probable variation in the efficiency of antimicrobial activity among wild and domestic ruminants. PMID:25028649

  2. Growth and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian indigenous goats fed concentrate at different supplementation levels.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Dereje; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of genotypes and concentrate levels on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Bati, Hararghe highland (HH) and Short eared Somali (SS) goat types found in Ethiopia. A 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (3 genotype × 2 concentrate levels) was used to randomly allocate 36 goats (15.2 ± 0.30 kg initial weight); 12 goats from each genotype with age about 1 year were divided randomly into two groups for a feeding trial of 90 days. The two concentrate levels were L1 and L2, where L1 and L2 are levels fed to animals at the rate of 1 and 1.5 % BW, respectively. Hay was fed ad libitum with 20 % refusal rate. The mean daily dry matter intake of the goats was 520.5 g/day. The intake was about 67 g/day higher for L2 than L1 goats. Consequently, L2 goats had significantly (p < 0.05) higher average daily gain, dressing percentage, primal carcass cuts and total non-carcass fat than those fed L1. Among genotypes, HH goats were found to have higher (p < 0.05) carcass weight, heart girth, neck girth, and carcass cuts (legs and shoulders) than SS goats. However, they were not better in dressing percentage than SS goats. Compared to Bati goats, HH goats had significantly (p < 0.05) wider rib-eye area, heavier ribs/racks weights, and better dressing percentage. Despite smaller body size, the performance of SS goats was comparable to Bati goats. In conclusion, the study indicates the potential of Ethiopian indigenous goats to produce optimum amount of meat when supplemented with concentrate at the rate of 1.5 % body weight. PMID:27069834

  3. Nutritional evaluation of ammoniated ensiled threshed sorghum top as a feed for goats.

    PubMed

    Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Adebayo, Oluwatosin Folashade

    2016-04-01

    Eighteen intact Red Sokoto male goats (15.4 ± 0.68 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the inclusion of urea-treated ensiled threshed sorghum top (UTST) in their diets. The inclusion rates of UTST were 0, 350 and 700 g/kg, replacing dried brewers' grains (DBG) by 0 (control) 50 and 100 %, respectively. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, total carbohydrate, hemicellulose, digestible nutrients and energy, nutrient digestibility, digestible organic matter fermented in the rumen, digestible organic matter, digestible energy/digestible crude protein (DCP) ratio, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen retention and weight gain were lower (P < 0.05; 0.01) in 700 g/kg UTST than in 0 and 350 g/kg UTST. Intakes of crude protein, non-fibre carbohydrates and DCP, nitrogen balance and volatile fatty acid decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing level of UTST in the diets, but ruminal pH, NH3-N and total nitrogen increased (P < 0.01) with increasing rate of UTST. Feed/gain ratio and urinary nitrogen were higher (P < 0.01) for 700 g/kg UTST compared to 0 and 350 g/kg UTST. A dietary inclusion level of 350 g/kg UTST (replacing 50 % of DBG) in the diet was the most suitable level for goats under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26898693

  4. An ELISA using recombinant TmHSP70 for the diagnosis of Taenia multiceps infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Nie, Huaming; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-09-15

    Infections with the tapeworm Taenia multiceps are problematic for ruminant farming worldwide. Here we develop a novel and rapid method for serodiagnosis of T. multiceps infections via an indirect ELISA (iELISA) that uses a heat shock protein, namely, TmHSP70. We extracted the total RNA of T. multiceps from the protoscoleces of cysts dissected from the brains of infected goats. Subsequently, we successfully amplified, cloned and expressed the TmHSP70 gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein (∼34 kDa molecular weight) was recognized by the coenurosis positive serum. Given these initial, robust immunogenic properties for recombinant TmHSP protein, we assessed the ELISA-based serodiagnostic potential of this gene. The indirect ELISA was then optimized to 2.70 μg/well dilution for antigen and 1:80 dilution for serum,while the cut-off value is 0.446. We report that our novel TmHSP ELISA detected T. multiceps sera with a sensitivity of 1:10240 and a specificity of 83.3% (5/6). In a preliminary application, this assay correctly confirmed T. multiceps infection in 30 infected goats, consistent with the clinical examination. This study has revealed that our novel iELISA, which uses the rTmHSP protein, provides a rapid test for diagnosing coenurosis. PMID:26129973

  5. Identification of the secondary follicle cycle of Hexi cashmere goat.

    PubMed

    He, Yanyu; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu

    2012-09-01

    This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049

  6. Novel bluetongue virus in goats, Corsica, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zientara, Stéphan; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    During 2000-2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  7. Olfaction mediates the establishment of selective bonding in goats.

    PubMed

    Romeyer, A; Poindron, P; Orgeur, P

    1994-10-01

    Nine pregnant goats of the Creole breed were rendered anosmic 3 weeks before parturition by irrigating their olfactory mucosa with zinc sulfate, and nine additional pregnant goats were left intact. At parturition, interactions between all females and their young were observed for 1 h. No differences were found in mother-young relationships between intact and anosmic mothers during this time, except that kids from anosmic females were slower to suck than controls. After 4 h of uninterrupted mother-young, mothers underwent three successive 5-min tests in a predetermined order to study selective bonding: with their own kid, an alien kid of similar coat color and pattern, and an alien kid of dissimilar coat color and pattern. Intact goats readily discriminated between kids, and rejected the two aliens while accepting their own. By contrast, anosmic mothers showed no signs of discrimination and accepted the three types of kids. It is concluded that during the first postpartum hours of contact, mother goats memorize individual olfactory characteristics of their kid that serve as a basis for selective suckling and exclusive bonding. Furthermore, at this early stage, visual characteristics of the young do not appear able to compensate for the loss of olfactory cues. PMID:7800735

  8. Characterization of male goat odors: 6-trans nonenal.

    PubMed

    Smith, P W; Parks, O W; Schwartz, D P

    1984-04-01

    Solvent extraction and nitrogen degassing were employed to collect volatile odors from the lipid complex yielded by swabbing the sebaceous gland areas of the scalps of sexually active bucks from four breeds of goats. Gland tissue samples from freshly slaughtered bucks and does also were obtained for lipid analysis. Identified as the major compound responsible for one of the characteristic odors of the buck was 6-trans nonenal . Isolation of the compound as its 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone was achieved by column and thin-layer chromatography. Tentative identification was based on comparison with known compounds by argentation thin-layer chromatography, retardation factors for the 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone derivatives, and gas-liquid chromatography retention times of regenerated compounds. The presence of other nonenals suggests that the compound may be formed by oxidation of the gland lipids. The odor of the male goat in rut often is implicated as a source of the " goaty " flavor problem in fresh goat milk. When added to goat milk, 6-trans nonenal yielded a significant melon- musky flavor response from the flavor panel; the " goaty " flavor response was more significant for added 4-ethyl octanoic acid, 4-methyl octanoic acid, and 4-ethyl oct-2-enoic acid. PMID:6725723

  9. Energy requirements for growth of pubertal female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F O M; Berchielli, T T; Resende, K T; Gomes, H F B; Almeida, A K; Sakomura, N K; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-04-01

    Previous research on energy requirements of female Saanen goats, using the factorial approach, has not considered the specific requirements for maintenance and growth during the pubertal phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate energy requirements for maintenance (Trial 1) and growth (Trial 2) of non-pregnant and non-lactating female Saanen goats at the pubertal phase from 30 to 45 kg. In Trial 1, the net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats randomly assigned to three levels of intake: ad libitum, and 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. These animals were pair-fed in six slaughter groups, each consisting of one animal for each level of intake. In Trial 2, the net energy requirements for growth (NEg ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats, which were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW of 30, 38 and 45 kg. The NEm was 52 kcal/kg(0.75) of BW. The NEg increased from 3.5 to 4.7 Mcal/kg of BW gain as BW increased from 30 to 45 kg. Our results suggest that the guidelines of the major feeding systems for the entire growth phase may not be adequate for females at pubertal phase. PMID:26249003

  10. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  11. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  12. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  13. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  14. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  15. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  16. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  17. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  18. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  19. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  1. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds: Alpine, LaMancha, Nigerian Dwarf, Nubian, ...

  2. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  3. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds and this article is an overview of that wo...

  4. What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

  5. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  6. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  7. Fetotoxic Effects of Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in Pregnant Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has beena substantial amount of research in sheep given locoweed from 60 to 130 days of gestation. Even so, there has been no research on fetotoxic effects of locoweed during gestation days 30-60, and little has been done to describe the effect of poisoning in pregnant goats. Thus the purpos...

  8. Welfare effects of a disease eradication programme for dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S

    2016-02-01

    The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (P<0.001). Goats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious

  9. Volatiles and sensory evaluation of goat milk cheese Gokceada as affected by goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and starter culture systems during ripening.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, A A; Tolu, C; Yasar, K; Sahingil, D

    2013-05-01

    The effect of goat breed and starter culture on volatile composition and sensory scores in goat milk cheese was studied during 90d of ripening. Milk from 2 goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and different starter culture systems (no starter, mesophilic and thermophilic starters) were used in the manufacture of goat milk cheeses (called Gokceada goat cheese). Volatile composition was determined by a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method. Sixty compounds including esters (13), carboxylic acids (7), aldehydes (6), ketones (8), alcohols (14), and miscellaneous compounds (12) were identified. Esters, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were the main classes of volatile components in the cheeses. Both qualitatively and quantitatively, the use of different starter cultures and goat breeds significantly influenced the volatile fraction of goat milk cheese. Decanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic (commonly named capric, caproic, and caprylic) acids were indicator compounds to distinguish the goat breeds. Principal component analysis grouped the cheeses based on the use of starter culture and goat breed. Starter-free cheeses were separately located on the plot and age-related changes were present in all samples. Sensory evaluation of 90-d-old cheeses showed that the cheeses from the Gokceada breed received higher odor, flavor, and quality scores than those from the Turkish Saanen breed, and cheeses made using mesophilic starters resulted in the most satisfactory scores for flavor and quality attributes. In conclusion, goat milk cheeses made using milk from Gokceada goats and mesophilic starter culture had the best quality in terms of volatile composition and sensory attributes. PMID:23453516

  10. Modulation of intestinal calcium and phosphate transport in young goats fed a nitrogen- and/or calcium-reduced diet.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Kristin; Wilkens, Mirja R; Breves, Gerhard; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2015-12-28

    Feeding ruminants a reduced N diet is a common approach to reduce N output based on rumino-hepatic circulation. However, a reduction in N intake caused massive changes in Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi) homoeostasis in goats. Although a single dietary Ca reduction stimulated intestinal Ca absorption in a calcitriol-dependent manner, a concomitant reduction of Ca and N supply led to a decrease in calcitriol, and therefore a modulation of intestinal Ca and Pi absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the potential effects of dietary N or Ca reduction separately on intestinal Ca and Pi transport in young goats. Animals were allocated to a control, N-reduced, Ca-reduced or combined N- and Ca-reduced diet for about 6-8 weeks, whereby N content was reduced by 25 % compared with recommendations. In Ussing chamber experiments, intestinal Ca flux rates significantly decreased in goats fed a reduced N diet, whereas Pi flux rates were unaffected. In contrast, a dietary Ca reduction stimulated Ca flux rates and decreased Pi flux rates. The combined dietary N and Ca reduction withdrew the stimulating effect of dietary Ca reduction on Ca flux rates. The expression of Ca-transporting proteins decreased with a reduced N diet too, whereas Pi-transporting proteins were unaffected. In conclusion, a dietary N reduction decreased intestinal Ca transport by diminishing Ca-transporting proteins, which became clear during simultaneous N and Ca reduction. Therefore, N supply in young ruminant nutrition is of special concern for intestinal Ca transport. PMID:26443238

  11. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Sandmaier, Shelley E S; Nandal, Anjali; Powell, Anne; Garrett, Wesley; Blomberg, Leann; Donovan, David M; Talbot, Neil; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2015-09-01

    The creation of genetically modified goats provides a powerful approach for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and for ensuring food safety all of which are high-priority goals for animal agriculture. The availability of goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are characteristically immortal in culture would be of enormous benefit for developing genetically modified animals. As an alternative to long-sought goat ESCs, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by forced expression of bovine POU5F1, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, LIN-28, and NANOG reprogramming factors in combination with a MIR302/367 cluster, delivered by lentiviral vectors. In order to minimize integrations, the reprogramming factor coding sequences were assembled with porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A) self-cleaving peptides that allowed for tri-cistronic expression from each vector. The lentiviral-transduced cells were cultured on irradiated mouse feeder cells in a semi-defined, serum-free medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulting goat iPSC exhibit cell and colony morphology typical of human and mouse ESCs-that is, well-defined borders, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, a short cell-cycle interval, alkaline phosphatase expression, and the ability to generate teratomas in vivo. Additionally, these goat iPSC demonstrated the ability to differentiate into directed lineages in vitro. These results constitute the first steps in establishing integration and footprint-free iPSC from ruminants. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 709-721, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118622

  12. Microbial dynamics during the ripening of a mixed cow and goat milk cheese manufactured using frozen goat milk curd.

    PubMed

    Campos, G; Robles, L; Alonso, R; Nuñez, M; Picon, A

    2011-10-01

    To overcome the seasonal shortage of goat milk in mixed milk cheese manufacture, pasteurized goat milk curd and high-pressure-treated raw goat milk curd manufactured in the spring were held at -24 °C for 4 mo, thawed, and mixed with fresh cow milk curd for the manufacture of experimental cheeses. Control cheeses were made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and goat milk. The microbiota of experimental and control cheeses was studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Bacterial enumeration by classical methods showed lactic acid bacteria to be the dominant population in both control and experimental cheeses. In total, 681 isolates were grouped by partial amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) into 4 groups and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (563 isolates), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (72 isolates), Lactobacillus spp. (34 isolates), and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris (12 isolates). Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of cheese showed (1) the predominance of Lc. lactis in all cheeses; (2) the presence of Leu. pseudomesenteroides population in all cheeses from d 15 onward; (3) the presence of a Lactobacillus plantarum population in control cheese until d 15 and in experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period. Due to the most diverse and complete set of peptidases present in the genus Lactobacillus, the prevalence of this population in experimental cheeses could give rise to differences in cheese flavor between experimental and control cheeses. PMID:21943728

  13. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers. PMID:26959529

  14. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system. PMID:18975131

  15. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  16. Short communication: Polymorphism of casein cluster genes in Czech local goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Sztankóová, Z; Mátlová, V; Kysel'ová, J; Jandurová, O M; Ríha, J; Senese, C

    2009-12-01

    The 4 casein loci were evaluated as haplotypes in 2 dairy goat breeds kept in the Czech Republic. Analysis of 41 White Shorthaired (WSH) trio families and 44 Brown Shorthaired (BSH) trio families revealed 14 and 20 haplotypes, respectively. Various genomic techniques were used to type the casein loci. Twenty-two different combinations of these alleles (casein haplotypes, in the order CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) were found. Only 5 haplotypes in the WSH breed and 6 haplotypes in the BSH breed occurred at frequencies >0.05. For the WSH breed, the most common haplotype was FCFB (0.260), whereas for the BSH breed, the most common haplotype was FCFA (0.217). The information on the haplotype variability in both breeds could be used in breeding programs aimed at preserving biodiversity or selecting animals for specific protein production and cheesemaking. PMID:19923624

  17. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only. PMID:26563272

  18. Effects of supplementation of threshed sorghum top with selected browse plant foliage on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Oyekunle, Mufutau Atanda; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Makinde, Olayinka John

    2016-06-01

    The haematological and biochemical parameters of 24 growing Red Sokoto bucks (9.00 ± 0.25 kg body weight) fed threshed sorghum top (TST) with or without five different browse plant foliage Afzelia africana (AA), Daniellia oliveri (DO), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Pterocarpus erinaceus (PE) and Annona senegalensis (AS) supplements were studied using a completely randomized design. All haematological parameters were (P < 0.05) lower in TST-fed goats compared with TST-supplemented goats, except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes and monocytes which did not follow a particular pattern. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and monocytes were higher for AA-supplemented goats while MCHC was reduced relative to other supplements (P < 0.05). White blood cell counts were increased in DO lambs compared to other supplements (P < 0.05). Serum proteins, creatinine, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate were reduced in TST compared with the supplements (P < 0.05). Cholesterol was higher for PT and AA than other diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate transaminase was reduced in TST goats relative to the supplements (P < 0.05). Except for potassium which was reduced in AS (P < 0.05), all serum major minerals were similar among diets. Results indicate that the entire browse fodder are good supplements to low-quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better supplementary effect on haematological and biochemical parameters of the goats. PMID:27010715

  19. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  20. Assessment of the application of an automated electronic milk analyzer for the enumeration of total bacteria in raw goat milk.

    PubMed

    Ramsahoi, L; Gao, A; Fabri, M; Odumeru, J A

    2011-07-01

    Automated electronic milk analyzers for rapid enumeration of total bacteria counts (TBC) are widely used for raw milk testing by many analytical laboratories worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, Bactoscan flow cytometry (BsnFC; Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) is the official anchor method for TBC in raw cow milk. Penalties are levied at the BsnFC equivalent level of 50,000 cfu/mL, the standard plate count (SPC) regulatory limit. This study was conducted to assess the BsnFC for TBC in raw goat milk, to determine the mathematical relationship between the SPC and BsnFC methods, and to identify probable reasons for the difference in the SPC:BsnFC equivalents for goat and cow milks. Test procedures were conducted according to International Dairy Federation Bulletin guidelines. Approximately 115 farm bulk tank milk samples per month were tested for inhibitor residues, SPC, BsnFC, psychrotrophic bacteria count, composition (fat, protein, lactose, lactose and other solids, and freezing point), and somatic cell count from March 2009 to February 2010. Data analysis of the results for the samples tested indicated that the BsnFC method would be a good alternative to the SPC method, providing accurate and more precise results with a faster turnaround time. Although a linear regression model showed good correlation and prediction, tests for linearity indicated that the relationship was linear only beyond log 4.1 SPC. The logistic growth curve best modeled the relationship between the SPC and BsnFC for the entire sample population. The BsnFC equivalent to the SPC 50,000 cfu/mL regulatory limit was estimated to be 321,000 individual bacteria count (ibc)/mL. This estimate differs considerably from the BsnFC equivalent for cow milk (121,000 ibc/mL). Because of the low frequency of bulk tank milk pickups at goat farms, 78.5% of the samples had their oldest milking in the tank to be 6.5 to 9.0 d old when tested, compared with the cow milk samples, which had their oldest milking at 4 d

  1. Phenylephrine Decreases Vascular Tension in Goat Arteries in Specific Circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Renu R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenylephrine (PE) causes vasoconstriction through alpha adrenergic receptors. PE-induced vasodilatation has also been reported earlier in pre-constricted vessels. Here we demonstrate in spiral strips of goat arteries that addition of PE can decrease tone even from base-line levels (i.e. not pre-constricted) and show that this process requires nitric oxide (NO) and alpha adrenergic stimulation, but is cGMP-independent. Under control conditions, PE caused vasoconstriction, but under conditions where NO levels are higher, as with L-Arginine or sodium nitroprusside, PE decreased vessel tension. L-Arginine/PE combination was not able to decrease tension when alpha adrenoceptors were blocked with Phentolamine or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was blocked with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA). Propranolol, a beta blocker, was unable to prevent the reduction in tension by the L-Arginine/PE combination. Adrenaline and noradrenaline (and not isoproterenol) also reduced vessel tension in the presence of L-Arginine. Even when NO levels were not enhanced, relieving NO from having to stimulate the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) (either by using sGC blockers, namely ODQ or methylene blue, or by enhancing cGMP levels (with sildenafil) which by negative feedback probably inhibits sGC) led to PE-induced reduction of vascular tension. PMA—phorbol myristate acetate—an agonist which stimulates Protein Kinase C was able to prevent the ability of PE to reduce vascular tension in a high NO environment. Our conclusion is that PE reduces vascular tension through alpha adrenoceptors if there is excess NO availability to activate a putative pathway. Though the reduction of vessel tone by PE is dependent on NO, it is independent of cGMP. Prior treatment with PMA or PE itself can prevent further PE-induced reduction of tension in a high NO environment. The results here suggest, counter-intuitively, that alpha blockers may be of help in the treatment of septic shock where

  2. Postnatal ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors in JiNing Grey goats.

    PubMed

    Shi, YunZhi; Wang, ShuYing; Bai, Shu; Huang, LiBo; Hou, YanMeng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we examined the ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors levels and the precocious puberty in JiNing Gray goats by using optical microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. We found that in the ovaries of neonatal kids, high level of receptors for estrogen (ERα and ERβ) and progesterone (PR) and their mRNA were observed along with growing follicles. From 0 to 30 days of age, the weight and volume of ovaries increased significantly and the boundary between the inner and outer cortex disappeared, while the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA decreased sharply. When 60 days old, the animals began to ovulate; the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA significantly increased, and the animals reached puberty. On day 90, the animals manifested sexual maturity with biggest mature follicles 6.18mm in diameter, the expression of ERβ and PR protein and their mRNA was maintained at a high level, with decreased expression of ERα and its mRNA. Before puberty, the expression of ovarian ERα (prepubertal dominant receptor) and it's mRNA was significantly higher than that of ERβ (dominant receptor after sexual maturity). The results showed that JiNing Grey goats' ovaries had fast development and early maturation, and ERα, ERβ and PR protein and mRNA expression in the ovary had distinct specificity for time and space, which may be closely related to the strain's progenitive characteristics. PMID:25616699

  3. Engineering a cardosin B-derived rennet for sheep and goat cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carla Malaquias; Gomes, David; Faro, Carlos; Simões, Isaura

    2015-01-01

    Different sheep and goat cheeses with world-renowned excellence are produced using aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus flowers as coagulants. However, the use of this vegetable rennet is mostly limited to artisanal scale production, and no effective solutions to large-scale industrial applications have been reported so far. In this sense, the development of a synthetic rennet based on the most abundant cardoon milk-clotting enzymes (cardosins) would emerge as a solution for scalability of production and for application of these proteases as alternative rennets in dairy industry. In this work, we report the development of a new cardosin B-derived rennet produced in the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Using a stepwise optimization strategy-consisting of culture media screening, complemented with a protein engineering approach with removal of the plant-specific domain, and a codon optimization step-we successfully improved cardosin B production yield (35×) in K. lactis. We demonstrated that the secreted enzyme displays similar proteolytic properties, such as casein digestion profiles as well as optimum pH (pH 4.5) and temperature (40 °C), with those of native cardosin B. From this optimization process resulted the rennet preparation Vegetable Rennet (VRen), requiring no downstream protein purification steps. The effectiveness of VRen in cheese production was demonstrated by manufacturing sheep, goat, and cow cheeses. Interestingly, the use of VRen resulted in a higher cheese yield for all three types of cheese when compared with synthetic chymosin. Altogether, these results clearly position VRen as an alternative/innovative coagulant for the cheese-making industry. PMID:24986551

  4. Stable transfection and identification of a hair follicle-specific expression vector of IGFBP-5 in goat fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Su, H M; Liang, Y; Wang, Y F; Guo, X D; Wang, Z G; Liu, D J

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is one of the 6 members of the IGFBP family and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and other IGF-stimulated signaling pathways. To determine the significance of IGFBP-5 in the Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus), a hair follicle-specific expression vector of IGFBP-5, pCDsRed2-K-IGFBP5 (6.7 kb), was constructed by cloning IGFBP-5 downstream of the keratin-association protein (KAP)6-1 promoter and inserting this fragment into pCDsRed2, which contains a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) expression unit. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast (GFb) cells were transfected with the expression vector by using Lipofectamine(TM) 2000. Cell clones that stably expressed red fluorescence were obtained after selection with Geneticin (G418). The transgene in the cell clones was examined by polymerase chain reaction to verify that exogenous DNA (pKAP6-1 and IGFBP-5) had integrated stably into GFb cells. These data suggest that this method can be used for the construction of a hair follicle-specific expression vector for functional genetic analyses and for obtaining stable transfection donor cells for nuclear transfer. PMID:24668676

  5. The Role of Electrostatics in the Partitioning Behavior of Proteins into Polymer Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Upma; Carbeck, Jeffrey

    2000-03-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify the role of electrostatic interactions in the partitioning behavior of proteins into polymer hydrogels using charge ladders of proteins and capillary electrophoresis. Previous attempts to study electrostatic interactions between polyelectrolytes and proteins have been performed by conducting experiments in which the pH of the system is varied. This method does alter the charge of the protein; it also affects the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. The partitioning behavior will vary as a combination of these effects. Protein charge ladders offer a superior approach relative to changing solution pH as this approach allows for isolation of charge as the independent variable. Partitioning experiments conducted using neutral, anionic, and cationic gels show that partitioning behavior for proteins was independent of the molecular weight of the protein for myoglobin, a-lactalbumin, lysozyme, and bovine carbonic anhydrase. Partitioning varied with the protein charge in a way not expected from simple electrostatic arguments. For example, in gels with a low charge density, the partitioning behavior varied linearly with protein charge; in high charge density gels, the parititioning behavior was independent of the protein charge.

  6. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hollmann, Manfred; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Sabitzer, Sonja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants. PMID:24349094

  7. Blood parameters and electroencephalographic responses of goats to slaughter without stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Goh, Y M; Zulkifli, I; Sazili, A Q; Kaka, U; Kadi, M Z A Ab; Ebrahimi, M; Nakyinsige, K; Adeyemi, K D

    2016-11-01

    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats. PMID:27317849

  8. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for

  9. ΔFosB regulates Ca²⁺ release and proliferation of goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiling; Li, Hui; Li, Lihui; Ma, Shaoyang; Liu, Xuemei

    2014-07-25

    ΔFosB is a member of the family of transcription factor activating proteins-1 (AP-1) and is known to play important roles in Ca(2+) metabolism processes of osteoblast formation and differentiation in humans and rodents. The postpartum mammary gland is one of the significant organs for Ca(2+) metabolism processes. However, very little information is available on the role of ΔFosB in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of ΔFosB from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame (ORF) of 723 bp encoding 240 amino acids. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with cattle (99.17%). Quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR) and western blotting assays showed that ΔFosB was expressed in goat heart, liver, lung, and breast, but little in the hypophysis and spleen. The fluorescence signals revealed that the Ca(2+) was decreased in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) over-expressed ΔFosB at 72h. Consistently, intracellular Ca(2+) was increased in GMECs suppressing expressed ΔFosB at 72 h. QRT-PCR assay showed that ΔFosB positively regulated the mRNA expression of runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), SMAD family member 4 (Smad4), S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) and S100 calcium binding protein A13 (S100A13) genes in GMECs, which had been proven to be relative to calcium metabolism in humans and rodents. Ca(2+) could induce a dose-dependent increase of the ΔFosB mRNA expression and a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability when the GMECs were treated with CaCl2. Suppressing ΔFosB expression in GMECs also inhibited the cell viability. These discoveries suggest that ΔFosB plays important roles in regulating Ca(2+) release and proliferation of the GMECs, which may prove useful in regulation of milk production. PMID:24831832

  10. Influence of macronutrients and polyethylene glycol on intake of a quebracho tannin diet by sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Banner, R E

    2002-12-01

    We determined if supplemental macronutrients or polyethylene glycol (PEG) influenced intake of a tannin diet. Sheep (lambs 5 mo age, 36 kg) and goats (kids 7 mo age, 32 kg) were fed supplements high in either energy or protein or offered a choice between the two supplements before and after receiving a meal containing 15% quebracho tannin. The effect of PEG, a compound that attenuates the negative effects of tannins, was assessed by offering PEG while animals consumed the tannin diet for 4 h/d. Intake of the tannin diet was influenced by both macronutrients and PEG. Animals that chose their own supplements or that received the high-protein supplement, consumed more of the tannin diet than animals fed the high-energy supplement: 34 and 36 vs 31 g/kg(0.75) (lambs) and 41 and 39 vs 34 g/kg(0.75) (kids), respectively (P < 0.05). Animals supplemented with PEG ate much more of the tannin diet than unsupplemented animals: 70 vs 39 g/kg(0.75) (lambs) and 63 vs 34 g/kg(0.75) (kids), respectively (P < 0.001). Sheep and goats consumed more tannin food when given PEG than when supplemented with macronutrients (51 and 38 g/kg(0.75), P < 0.001). Sheep and goats offered a choice between supplements consumed more CP than animals fed the high-energy supplement and more ME than animals fed the high-protein supplement (P < 0.05). In so doing, they selected a combination of foods that yielded a more balanced intake of macronutrients, while achieving high levels of intake of the tannin food. Sheep and goats can be used as an environmentally safe and economically sound means to reduce the abundance of tannin-rich vegetation. Macronutrients and PEG enhance use of tannin-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of species in a plant community. PMID:12542156

  11. PLZF-Induced Upregulation of CXCR4 Promotes Dairy Goat Male Germline Stem Cell Proliferation by Targeting Mir146a.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hailong; Li, Na; Wu, Jiang; Zheng, Liming; Zhai, Yuanxin; Li, Bo; Song, Wencong; Wang, Jinglu; Zhu, Haijing; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and mir146a were associated with the self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); however, there is little information on their effects on the fate of livestock SSCs. Here, we have identified a regulatory pathway in dairy goat mGSCs, involving PLZF, mir146a and the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4. PLZF overexpression downregulated mir146a and simultaneously upregulated the expression of CXCR4 protein, whereas PLZF knockdown (siPLZF) induced the specifically opposite effects. The in vitro assays demonstrated that PLZF specifically interacts with and suppresses the mir146a promoter, and mir146a targets CXCR4 to impede its translation. The levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the mGSCs overexpressed CXCR4 and PLZF were upregulated, respectively, whereas mir146a expression was decreased and CXCR4 protein was increased. Mir146a overexpression and siPLZF impaired mGSC proliferation and differentiation, however, Mir146a knockdown induced the opposite effects. The effects of PLZF and mir146a were mediated regulation by mir146a and CXCR4, respectively. Overexpression of CXCR4 or addition of CXCL12 in cultures of dairy goat mGSCs resulted in the upregulation of their signaling, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased. Collectively, these findings indicate that PLZF is an important transcription factor in the regulation of the expression of CXCR4 to promote dairy goat mGSC proliferation by targeting mir146a. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 844-852, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26365432

  12. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as essential oils or in form of leaves supplementation on goat's production and metabolic statute.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Samir; Hajji, Hadhami; Bouzid, Kahena; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-02-01

    The effects of rosemary supply in form of essential oils (REO) or leaves (RL) on performances of goats were investigated. Thirty goats were allocated into three equal groups, which were fed oat-hay ad libitum and 400 g of concentrate during the two last weeks of pregnancy and 600 g during the first 8 weeks of lactation. Three-control diet (C) was a mixture of barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement. The experimental concentrates contained the same mixture of the control diet plus 0.6 g/kg of REO or its equivalent supply RL (60 g/kg). Rosemary supply did not affect dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. While urinary nitrogen loss was higher for experimental groups than the C (P = 0.03). Daily milk production was significantly higher (P = 0.007) for rosemary groups (694 and 582 ml for RL and REO, respectively) than C group (442 ml). Rosemary decreased numerically (P > 0.05) the fat content (23, 25 and 26.5 g/l for REO, RL and C groups, respectively) but significantly increased the fat (P = 0.003) and protein content (P = 0.008). The growth rate of kids was significantly higher (P = 0.008) for RL (111 g) than that for REO and C (97 and 83 g, respectively). However, rosemary has not shown significant effect on the plasma metabolite concentrations. Given the facility to obtain the rosemary leaves, this form of rosemary use is recommended as natural alternative to improve the performances of goats. PMID:25425356

  13. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies and its associated risk factors in indigenous goats of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs. PMID:26829905

  14. Prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in kids born from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Alauddin, Md; Hossain, K M Mozaffor; Islam, Md Hemayetul; Kitoh, Katsuya; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated goats intended for human consumption in a rural suburb of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 55.1% (80/145) of the goats tested in our sample. The seroprevalence among goats aged <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and ≥3 years were 36.7%, 66.0%, 59.1% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age. Among the seropositive goats, a subsample of eight free-ranging female goats with access to male goats was placed under continuous observation. During the observation period, these seropositive female goats delivered 11 kids, all of which were found to be seronegative before suckling colostrum. This finding strongly suggested that trans-placental infection rarely occurs in female goats that have acquired an infection before pregnancy. Our results indicate that infection via ingestion of oocysts plays a more important role than endogenous trans-placental infection in maintaining the endemicity of T. gondii among goats in Bangladesh. PMID:26028431

  15. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

  16. Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat

    PubMed Central

    Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E.; Terry, Linda A.; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M.; Beck, Katy E.; Simmons, Marion M.

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded. PMID:22172149

  17. Tuberculoid nodular thelitis in a dairy goat flock.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Christophe; Albaric, Olivier; Cesbron, Nora; Despres, Jérôme; Hoogveld, Charlotte; Michelet, Lorraine; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura

    2016-03-01

    An unusual outbreak of teat/udder skin lesions occurred in a dairy goat flock in France. Lesions first appeared as circular, indurated, erythematous areas of skin and progressed to form dark raised haemorrhagic crusts and ulcerative plaques. Histopathological examination revealed marked granulomatous dermatitis with multifocal ulceration. The granulomatous inflammation, with frequent Langhans type multinucleated cells and central caseous necrosis, was indicative of mycobacterial infection. The presence of non-cultivable mycobacteria was confirmed by sequencing PCR products from DNA extracted directly from the lesions and sequences matched a novel mycobacterial pathogen closely related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis and previously identified in cattle thelitis. The association of nodular gross lesions and tuberculoid granulomas on the teat and lower udder, and the presence of mycobacteria DNA support a diagnosis of tuberculoid nodular thelitis in goats due to mycobacterial infection. PMID:26831157

  18. Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; González, L; Dagleish, M; Pérez, V

    2015-12-14

    Post-mortem examination is a key step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases in sheep and goats. Diagnostic pathology deals with identification and study of lesions, at the same time providing also significant clues regarding pathogenesis of the diseases. This article reviews the salient pathological findings associated with the most significant infectious diseases of sheep and goats present in countries where small ruminants are a relevant agricultural industry. Lesions are reviewed according to the different organ systems where they occur. Emphasis has been given in the description of the salient lesional patterns than can be identified in each organ and which can be of help in the differential diagnosis of the lesions caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions. Finally, a review of the usefulness of ancillary tests that may be used on various tissue samples for performing an aetiological diagnosis, is included; the application of various techniques, from immunohistochemistry to molecular biology-based tests, is described. PMID:26275854

  19. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  20. Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Male Goats.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Itsuki; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kina, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. Research was conducted to test if dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising male goats. Eighteen male kids were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG), Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG), Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG)). The CFG used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight) and alfalfa hay cubes (2.0 kg/d) twice a day (10:00, 16:00). Klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. Hay intake was measured at 10:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal and the carcass characteristics, the physical and chemical characteristics of loin were analyzed. DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight and size over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. Blood parameter values were similar to those in normal goats. Dressing carcass weight and percentages, and total weight of meat in the AMFG were similar to that in the CFG, but smaller in the TMFG. The compressed meat juice ratio was higher in both the TMFG and AMFG than the CFG. While the fat in corn, Awamori-pressed lees, and Tofu lees contains more than 50% linoleic acid, the loin fat in both the AMFG and TMFG was very low in linoleic acid due to the increase in the content of oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. This indicates that feeding on AMF and TMF does not inhibit hydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms. As in

  1. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease. PMID:26255554

  2. Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

  3. Blindness in goats following ingestion of Stypandra glauca.

    PubMed

    Whittington, R J; Searson, J E; Whittaker, S J; Glastonbury, J R

    1988-06-01

    Twenty-seven of 427 Angora goats of mixed age became blind within a week of consuming large amounts of Stypandra glauca ("nodding blue lily"). A further 200 goats were depressed for several weeks, but most subsequently recovered. Blindness was associated with optic nerve neuropathy which is postulated to have followed compression of the optic nerves within the bony optic canals as a result of severe myelin oedema. Histologically, the intracanalicular portion of the optic nerve was sclerotic, while the intracranial portion of the optic nerve and the optic tracts were degenerating. The retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve was relatively unaffected. In addition, multifocal retinal photoreceptor degeneration was found ophthalmoscopically and histologically. The syndrome was not reproduced during a trial in which 2 goats were fed 4 and 20 kg of S. glauca harvested after it had finished flowering, more than 3 weeks after the first natural cases of blindness. Based on epidemiological and pathological data we propose that S. glauca is toxic to stock, but only for a short period while flowering in spring. PMID:3415616

  4. Fungal diversity in cow, goat and ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Delavenne, Emilie; Mounier, Jerome; Asmani, Katia; Jany, Jean-Luc; Barbier, Georges; Le Blay, Gwenaelle

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of fungal diversity in the environment is poor compared with bacterial biodiversity. In this study, we applied the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) technique, combined with the amplification of the ITS1 region from fungal rDNA, for the rapid identification of major fungal species in 9 raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat, collected at different periods of the year. A total of 27 fungal species were identified. Yeast species belonged to Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Geotrichum, Kluyveromyces, Malassezia, Pichia, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon genera; and mold species belonged to Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Engyodontium, Fusarium, Penicillium and Torrubiella genera. Cow milk samples harbored the highest fungal diversity with a maximum of 15 species in a single sample, whereas a maximum of 4 and 6 different species were recovered in goat and ewe milk respectively. Commonly encountered genera in cow and goat milk were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida spp. (C. catenulata and C. inconspicua); whereas Candida parapsilosis was frequently found in ewe milk samples. Most of detected species were previously described in literature data. A few species were uncultured fungi and others (Torrubiella and Malassezia) were described for the first time in milk. PMID:21944758

  5. Responses to exercise in the pregnant pygmy goat.

    PubMed

    Dhindsa, D S; Metcalfe, J; Hummels, D H

    1978-03-01

    Pregnant Pygmy goats were trained to walk on a treadmill up a 10 degree grade at a rate of 1.5 mile/hr for 10 min. Hemodynamic measurements were made in duplicate during late pregnancy and postpartum, at rest and after 3 min of exercise. All kids were weighed within 12 hr of delivery to assess the effect of exercise on fetal growth. Pulse rate, cardiac output and oxygen consumption were higher during pregnancy than postpartum, at rest and also during exercise. Stroke volume increased significantly with exercise. Peripheral vascular resistance (pvr) at rest was lower during pregnancy than postpartum, and decreased significantly during exercise, especially in pregnancy. Exercise was associated with a fall in arterial P(CO2) during pregnancy and postpartum. In goats, as in humans, the increased oxygen demands of pregnancy, during exercise and at rest, are met by an increased cardiac output rather than by increased peripheral oxygen extraction. The individual birth weights of twins, triplets and quadruplets from Pygmy goats who were exercised during late pregnancy were smaller than birth weights of matched newborns from control animals. PMID:663445

  6. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  7. [Foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M; Graunke, W D; Steng, G; Worbes, H

    2001-12-01

    Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology and transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). The main reasons therefore are: FMD is difficult to diagnose as infected sheep not always show typical clinical symptoms or as the cardinal signs mimicked other diseases. Sheep and goats may be carriers. Infected herds which practice transhumance or are nomadic can spread the infection to other herds long before diagnose of the disease is established. Shipping and trade with live sheep and goats is much more common world wide than in other FMD susceptible species. Lack of registration of all sheep and goat herds (especially of small hobby herds) and lack of individual identifications signs (ear tags) may result in incomplete control measurements under FMD conditions. Basing on published experiences with the actual FMD epidemic in the UK and basing on the own experiences with the restrictions to prevent from spreading of the FMD from the UK to Germany suggestions for future disease control are made. PMID:11822163

  8. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Songer, J Glenn

    2008-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens produces enteric diseases, generically called enterotoxemias, in sheep, goats, and other animals. This microorganism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species, including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates and produces potent toxins that act locally or are absorbed into the general circulation with usually devastating effects on the host. History, clinical signs, and gross postmortem findings are useful tools for establishing a presumptive diagnosis of clostridial enterotoxemia in sheep and goats. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation. Isolation of some types of C. perfringens (e.g., B and C) can be of diagnostic value, but other types (e.g., A) are so commonly found in the intestine of normal animals that isolation is meaningless from a diagnostic point of view. The most accepted criterion in establishing a definitive diagnosis of enterotoxemia is detection of C. perfringens toxins in intestinal contents. Also, histopathological examination of brain is very useful for diagnosis of type D disease, as lesions produced by epsilon toxin in the brains of sheep and goats are pathognomonic for type D enterotoxemia. Ancillary tests, such as measuring urine glucose or observing Gram-stained smears of intestinal mucosa, can be used. However, although such tests have a presumptive diagnostic value when positive, they cannot be used to rule out a diagnosis of enterotoxemia when negative. PMID:18460610

  9. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-γ Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Fermented Goat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goat placenta was fermented by Bacillus subtilis and the optimal fermentation parameters of strongest antioxidant capacity of peptides were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of fermentation time, initial pH value and glucose content on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of the goat peptides were well fitted to a quadric equation with high determination coefficients. According to the data analysis of design expert, the strongest DPPH radical scavenging capacity value was obtained with the following conditions: content of glucose was 2.23%, initial pH value was 7.00 and fermentation time was 32.15 h. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity commonly referring antioxidant activity showed a concentration dependency and increased with increasing peptide concentration. The effects of temperature and pH were assessed to determine the stability of antioxidant peptides prepared from goat placenta. Antioxidant peptides showed good stabilities when temperature was lower than 70℃. However, the antioxidant peptides lost antioxidant activities rapidly under alkaline and excessive acid condition. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate fermentation broth with different Mw (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of < 3 KDa mainly accounted for the antioxidant activities. PMID:26761673

  11. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, A. A.; Andeshi, R. A.; Yakubu, A. S.; Lawal, F. M.; Adamu, U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral). Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12 ± 2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4 ± 2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n = 5). Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P < 0.05) at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems. PMID:26464943

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, A A; Andeshi, R A; Yakubu, A S; Lawal, F M; Adamu, U

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral). Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12 ± 2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4 ± 2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n = 5). Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in erythema at 18-24 hours and 10-14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10-14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P < 0.05) at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems. PMID:26464943

  14. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    PubMed

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value. PMID:25863959

  15. Stable silencing of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene by lentivirus-mediated RNAi in goat fetal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shumin; Xiong, Kai; Xie, Zhourui; Nan, Wenting; Liu, Honglin; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a dominant allergen in goat milk, is difficult to remove by traditional biochemical methods. Its elimination from goat milk by genetic modification therefore poses a major challenge for modern goat breeders. A shRNA targeting BLG mRNA with high interference efficiency was identified, with which lentiviral vectors were used for mediating stable shRNA interference in goat-fetal fibroblast cells. Apart from high efficiency in the knockdown of BLG expression in these cells, lentivector-mediated RNAi manifested stable integration into the goat genome itself. Consequently, an in vitro model for goat BLG-content control was compiled, and a goat-cell line for accompanying transgenetic goat production created. PMID:23055809

  16. Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates lipid metabolism in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Luo, Jun; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Sun, Yuting; Yu, Kang; Yao, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the initial step in the lipid lipolysis process, hydrolyzing triglyceride (TG) to produce diacylglycerol (DG) and free fatty acids (FFA). In addition, ATGL regulates lipid storage and release in adipocyte cells. However, its role in mammary gland tissue remains unclear. To assess the role of the ATGL gene in the goat mammary gland, this study analyzed the tissue distribution and expression of key genes together with lipid accumulation after knockdown of the ATGL gene. The mRNA of ATGL was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue, the lung and the mammary gland with a significant increase in expression during the lactation period compared with the dry period of the mammary gland. Knockdown of the ATGL gene in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) using siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in both ATGL mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of the ATGL gene markedly increased lipid droplet accumulation and intracellular TG concentration (P<0.05), while it reduced FFA levels in GMECs (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of HSL for lipolysis, FABP3 for fatty acid transport, PPARα for fatty acid oxidation, ADFP, BTN1A1, and XDH for milk fat formation and secretion was down-regulated (P<0.05) after knockdown of the ATGL gene, with increased expression of CD36 for fatty acid uptake (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that the ATGL gene plays an important role in triglyceride lipolysis in GMECs and provides the first experimental evidence that ATGL may be involved in lipid metabolism during lactation. PMID:25307872

  17. Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase in neonatal goats: molecular cloning, expression, localization, and methylation signature.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Jin, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. It plays critical roles in fetal development and neonatal growth and is especially important for brain development in mammals. In the present study, we profiled the expression pattern and methylation signature of the DIO3 gene in goats. The complete coding sequence of caprine DIO3 encoded a protein of 301 amino acids and harbored an internal selenocysteine-encoding TGA codon. The DIO3 messenger RNA (mRNA) was predominantly expressed in the neonatal goat liver (P < 0.01), while expression in other tissues was quite low, with the lowest levels in the lung. In in situ hybridization, the DIO3 mRNA was predominantly localized in the liver and the lowest content was detected in the lung. The DIO3 transcript was widely localized in neurons and the neuropil. Methylation profiling of the DIO3 CpG island showed a significant difference between the 5' region (CpGs_1∼24) and the 3' region (CpG_25∼51) of the coding region. Furthermore, no significant difference in methylation status was observed among the six tested tissues with levels in the range of 29.11-33.12 %. The CpG islands in the intergenic-differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) showed significantly different methylated levels among tissues, and the highest methylated level was observed in lung (CpG island 1, 69.34 %) and longissimus dorsi (LD) (CpG island 2, 52.62 %) tissues. Our study lays a foundation for understanding DIO3 function and the diseases caused by altered methylation profiles of the DIO3 gene. PMID:27108114

  18. Birthdate, mass and survival in mountain goat kids: effects of maternal characteristics and forage quality.

    PubMed

    Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

    2001-04-01

    In temperate environments, early-born ungulates may enjoy a longer growth period before winter, and so attain a higher body mass and an increased probability of survival compared to late-born ones. We assessed the effects of maternal characteristics, forage quality and population density on kid birthdate, mass and survival in a population of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Alberta. The duration and timing of the birth season were similar in all years. Births were highly synchronised: 80% of kids were born within 2 weeks of the first birth. Maternal age, maternal social rank and density did not affect kid birthdate or mass. Previous breeding experience was not related to kid birthdate, but kids born to pluriparous mothers were heavier during summer than kids born to primiparous mothers. Male and female kids had similar mass and accumulated mass linearly during summer. Early-born kids were heavier than late-born kids. Faecal crude protein (FCP) in late spring and maternal mass were positively related to kid mass. Survival to weaning appeared higher for males (90%) than for females (78%), but survival to 1 year was 65% for both sexes. FCP in late spring, density, birthdate and mass did not affect kid survival to weaning in either sex. Survival to 1 year increased with FCP in late spring for females, but not for males. Survival to 1 year was independent of birthdate for both sexes, but heavy females survived better than light ones. Multiple logistic regression revealed a positive effect of mass on survival to 1 year when the sexes were pooled. Our results suggest that mountain goats are constrained to give birth in a short birth season synchronised with forage productivity. PMID:24577654

  19. Clorsulon pharmacokinetics in sheep and goats following oral and intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Sundlof, S F; Whitlock, T W

    1992-09-01

    Clorsulon was measured in plasma and urine of sheep and goats after administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) and after a single oral dose of 7 mg/kg. A three-compartment model with elimination occurring from the central compartment was determined to best describe the i.v. data, whereas a one-compartment model with a single exponential absorption phase best described the oral plasma data. The bioavailability of orally administered clorsulon was approximately 55% in goats and 60% in sheep. Peak plasma concentrations occurred at 14 h and 15 h after oral administration in goats and sheep, respectively. Absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract effectively prolonged the elimination of clorsulon by increasing the elimination half-life from 17 to 28 h in sheep and from 12 to 23 h in goats for the i.v. and oral routes, respectively. In both goats and sheep, approximately 50% of the i.v. dose was recovered in urine as parent drug at 48 h after administration, whereas 41% and 30% of the dose was recovered after oral administration for goats and sheep, respectively. The elimination rate constant (kel) in goats was nearly twice as large as the value determined in sheep, and the urea under the i.v. plasma curve in goats was only 63% of the value in sheep indicating that goats are more effective in their capacity to eliminate clorsulon than are sheep. These differences in drug disposition between sheep and goats may account for the reduced efficacy of clorsulon reported in goats. PMID:1433492

  20. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. PMID:26795364

  1. Ethanol extract of Moringa oliefera prevents in vitro glucose induced cataract on isolated goat eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Kurmi, Raghvendra; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dubey, Nazneen

    2014-01-01

    Aim of Study: The aim of current work was to evaluate in vitro anticataract potential of Moringa oliefera extract. Materials and Methods: Goat eye lenses were divided into 4 groups; Group served as control, Group II as toxic control, Group III and Group IV were incubated in extract (250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of extract of M. oliefera) Group II, III and IV were incubated in 55 mM glucose in artificial aqueous humor to induce lens opacification. Estimation of total, water soluble protein, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde along with photographic evaluation of lens was done. Results: Group II (toxic control) lenses showed high amount of MDA (Malondialdehyde), soluble, insoluble protein, decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with Moringa oliefera extract (Group III and Group IV) showed significant (* P < 0.05) reduction in MDA and increased level of catalase, glutathione, total and soluble protein. Conclusion: Results of present findings suggest protective effect of Moringa oliefera in prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract. PMID:24008789

  2. Isolation and characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase from a metagenomic library of goat rumen.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Huang, Shuai; Jiang, Haiqin; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Lvmu; Wang, Juhua; Fan, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    A cellulase gene (cel28a) was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome library of goat rumen microorganisms, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The gene has a length of 1596 bp obtained using a genome walking Kit and encodes a protein of 509 amino acids with a calculated MW of 55 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence was homologous with cellulases belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5). The expressed protein showed activity toward carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and xylan, suggesting non-specific endoglucanase activity. The optimal conditions for endoglucanase and xylanase activities were 50 °C and pH 5.0. The metal ions (Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+) and Co(2+)) stimulated the cellulase activity of cel28a, while the other metal ions and chemicals (Ni(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), SDS and EDTA) inhibited the cellulase activity. Further examination of substrate preference showed a higher activity with CMC, oat spelt xylan and birchwood xylan than with filter paper and microcrystalline cellulose, again suggesting that the protein was an endoglucanase with xylanase activity. PMID:26712627

  3. Effects of Different Levels of Concentrate in the Diet on Physicochemical Traits of Korean Native Black Goat Meats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woo; Park, Seong Bok; Kim, Myeong Jik; Kim, Dong Hun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding of diets based on roughage supplemented with concentrate on the carcass and meat quality attributes of Korean black goats were investigated. The 40 male goats at 5 mon age were divided into four treatment groups; T1 (1.5%), T2 (2.0%), T3 (2.5%) and T4 (ad libitum) feeding of concentrate with ad libitum rice straw. Forty bucks at the end of the feeding were fasted for 12 h before slaughter and were then slaughtered. For carcass measurement, cold buck carcasses were examined after 24 h of chilling at 5℃. The carcasses were chilled in refrigerator at 2±2℃ for 24 h, then the longissimus dorsi muscle was removed from the carcasses. The samples were separately vacuum packaged, frozen and stored at −20℃ for up to 1 mon, prior to physicochemical evaluations. Carcass yields were greatly affected by rate of concentrate feeding. T4 showed the heaviest live and carcass weights and the highest dressing and fat percentages (p<0.05). The moisture contents were lower in T4 compared with other treatments, while the crude protein and fat contents were higher (p<0.05). monounsaturated fatty acid in T4 was significantly higher than others, which showed the highest percentages of oleic acid (C18:1). For the sensory test, T4 was tenderer and produced better flavor scores than others. Increasing the level of concentrate in the diet resulted in an improvement in growth performance, and carcass and physicochemical characteristics of goat meats. PMID:26761283

  4. Effects of Different Levels of Concentrate in the Diet on Physicochemical Traits of Korean Native Black Goat Meats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Park, Seong Bok; Kim, Myeong Jik; Kim, Dong Hun; Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding of diets based on roughage supplemented with concentrate on the carcass and meat quality attributes of Korean black goats were investigated. The 40 male goats at 5 mon age were divided into four treatment groups; T1 (1.5%), T2 (2.0%), T3 (2.5%) and T4 (ad libitum) feeding of concentrate with ad libitum rice straw. Forty bucks at the end of the feeding were fasted for 12 h before slaughter and were then slaughtered. For carcass measurement, cold buck carcasses were examined after 24 h of chilling at 5℃. The carcasses were chilled in refrigerator at 2±2℃ for 24 h, then the longissimus dorsi muscle was removed from the carcasses. The samples were separately vacuum packaged, frozen and stored at -20℃ for up to 1 mon, prior to physicochemical evaluations. Carcass yields were greatly affected by rate of concentrate feeding. T4 showed the heaviest live and carcass weights and the highest dressing and fat percentages (p<0.05). The moisture contents were lower in T4 compared with other treatments, while the crude protein and fat contents were higher (p<0.05). monounsaturated fatty acid in T4 was significantly higher than others, which showed the highest percentages of oleic acid (C18:1). For the sensory test, T4 was tenderer and produced better flavor scores than others. Increasing the level of concentrate in the diet resulted in an improvement in growth performance, and carcass and physicochemical characteristics of goat meats. PMID:26761283

  5. Metal concentrations and histopathological changes in goats (Capra hircus) reared near an industrial area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, I; Mukhopadhayay, S K; Patra, A K; Pradhan, S

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation was performed to assess the concentrations of four heavy metals-lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co)-in goats reared in the vicinity of an industrial area of West Bengal, India, including soil, water, and feedstuffs; tissues of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, and muscle; and milk and faeces. In addition, histopathological changes in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and muscle samples were examined. Mejia block as an industrial polluted site and Vatar block as a reference site (without any industrial activities and 120 km away from the polluted site) were selected for this study. The results showed that concentrations of these heavy metals in soil, water feedstuffs, all tissues, milk, and faeces were greater (P < 0.05) in the polluted site than the reference site. The largest concentrations of Cd and Pb were found in kidney followed by liver, lung, spleen, and muscle. However, Co and Cu accumulations in the tissues were in following order: liver > kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Concentrations of heavy metals were greater in older animals than in young ones. Haemoglobin, total protein, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte counts, and total leucocytes counts were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in blood of goats in the polluted site compared with the reference site. Serum glucose, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, and alkanline phosphatase were significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) increased. Histological examination showed several pathological alterations including degeneration, vacuolation, and tubulitis in kidney; congestion, degeneration, periportal necrosis, and focal haemorrhages in liver; and congestion and diffuse haemorrhage in lungs. It was concluded that natural exposure to these environmental heavy metals significantly increases toxic heavy-metal concentrations in several visceral organs resulting in pathological changes in these tissues. Thus, consumption of the meat of goats

  6. Identification and pharmacological analyses of eight naturally occurring caprine melanocortin-1 receptor mutations in three different goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qi; Chai, Jin; Chen, Mingxin; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) belongs to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and plays a central role in animal coat color. We have sequenced the full coding region of 954bp of the MC1R gene in 72 goats of three breeds with different coat colors and identified five missense mutations (K226E, F250V, G255D, V265I, and C267W) and one silent mutation (A61A), among which two haplotypes with complete linkage disequilibrium (A61A and F250V, G255D and V265I) were found. We performed detailed functional studies on the six single and two double mutations in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. We found that none of the mutants had decreased cell surface expression. However, all the mutants except A61A had decreased constitutive activities in the cAMP pathway. Five mutations (F250V, G255D, G267W, A61A/F250V, G255D/V265I) exhibited significant defects in ligand binding and consequent agonist-induced cAMP signaling and ERK1/2 activation. Additionally, K226E, with normal ligand binding affinity and cAMP signaling, showed a significant defect in ERK1/2 activation, exhibiting biased signaling. Co-expression studies showed that the five defective mutants did not affect wild-type MC1R signaling, hence they were not dominant negative. In summary, we provided detailed data of these goat MC1R mutations leading to a better understanding of the role of MC1R mutation and coat color in goats. PMID:27229376

  7. Sheep and goats as tool to suppress juniper encroachment: Influence of stocking density and mixed grazing during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing trials were conducted to evaluate the use of prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) sapling reinvasion. A 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted with Goats (G) or Goats + Sheep (G+S) at high or low stocking densities (SD). Ten ...

  8. Feeding preferences of experienced and naïve goats and sheep for the toxic plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grazing goats and cattle may learn to ingest with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preferences of experienced and non-experienced (naïve) goats and sheep for I. carnea. The study used 3 groups of 5 goats (Group 1, experi...

  9. Comparative Proteomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of the Effects of a High-Grain Diet on the Hepatic Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xueyuan; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Shukun; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight on the impart of high-grain diets on liver metabolism in ruminants, we employed a comparative proteomic approach to investigate the proteome-wide effects of diet in lactating dairy goats by conducting a proteomic analysis of the liver extracts of 10 lactating goats fed either a control diet or a high-grain diet. More than 500 protein spots were detected per condition by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 52 differentially expressed spots (≥2.0-fold changed) were excised and analyzed using MALDI TOF/TOF. Fifty-one protein spots were successfully identified. Of these, 29 proteins were upregulated, while 22 were downregulated in the high-grain fed vs. control animals. Differential expressions of proteins including alpha enolase, elongation factor 2, calreticulin, cytochrome b5, apolipoprotein A-I, catalase, was verified by mRNA analysis and/or Western blotting. Database searches combined with Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the high-grain diet resulted in altered expression of proteins related to amino acids metabolism. These results suggest new candidate proteins that may contribute to a better understanding of the signaling pathways and mechanisms that mediate liver adaptation to high-grain diet. PMID:24260456

  10. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  11. Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

  12. Generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Domestic Goats - Capra hircus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...

  13. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genet...

  14. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  15. EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

  16. Effects of goats on Tamarix spp. and understory vegetation for riparian restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats were used to reduce Tamarix spp. along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Seventy 0.1-1.6 ha plots at two locations were either browsed by 400-630 goats for 1-3 days annually, or left unbrowsed. After two annual treatments, nearly every available Tamarix plant in mixed vegetation was browsed (100%)...

  17. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  18. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  19. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products. PMID:20438510

  20. Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

  1. Goat Urine and Limestone Affect Nitrogen and Cation Distributions in an Acidic Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...

  2. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

  3. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

  4. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for... and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis...

  5. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... and breeding swine. On September 17, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 56912-56914... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require...

  6. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

  7. Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

  8. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  9. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 recei...

  10. Organic and Grass Fed Sheep and Goat Production in the Southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for sheep and goat products in the U.S. is high and includes locally produced, grass fed and certified organic meat products. Sheep and goats can be incorporated in small farm systems taking advantage of brush forages, browse and challenging landscapes. Challenges that face small ruminant p...

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  12. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  13. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  15. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  16. Effects of CSN1S2 Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yue, X. P.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Mao, C. C.; Lan, X. Y.; Chen, H.; Lei, C. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268) and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440) breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats) and daily milk yield (202 goats) were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05). PMID:25049867

  17. Are head cues necessary for goats (Capra hircus) in recognising group members?

    PubMed

    Keil, Nina M; Imfeld-Mueller, Sabrina; Aschwanden, Janine; Wechsler, Beat

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether goats can distinguish a member of their own group from one belonging to a different group even when the head of the goat in question cannot be seen. In the experiment, a total of 45 adult female goats (walkers) were trained to walk along a passageway at the end of which they learnt to expect food (trial run). Walking down this corridor, they passed another adult female goat (stimulus goat) whose trunk and hind legs alone were visible. Using 19 individuals, ten pairs of stimulus goats consisting of one goat from the walker's group and one from a different group were matched in terms of body size, constitution, colour and coat length. In addition, the stimulus goat from the same group as the walker had to be higher ranking than the latter to avoid being attacked. The walkers completed two, four or six trial runs depending on the number of pairs suitable for a given walker. The walker's exploratory behaviour (observing and sniffing at the stimulus goat) was recorded. Data from 109 trial runs were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models with crossed random effects. On average, the walker spent a total of 8.7 s exploring the stimulus goat visually and olfactorily if the latter was from a different group and only about half as long (4.2 s) if it was from her own group. In particular, the time a walker spent observing a stimulus goat whilst approaching the latter was significantly longer if the stimulus goat belonged to a different group than to her own (2.5 s as opposed to 1.4 s). Moreover, a stimulus goat from a different group was sniffed at significantly longer (4.6 s) than one from the same group (1.9 s). Results suggest that goats can easily discriminate between members of their own group and those of a different group even when the latter's heads are hidden. Olfactory and visual cues are probably important for identifying group members. PMID:22644114

  18. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder. PMID:26761881

  19. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  20. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962