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Sample records for proteins inhibit hydrogen

  1. Tadalafil Integrates Nitric Oxide-Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling to Inhibit High Glucose-induced Matrix Protein Synthesis in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak Joo; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes-induced kidney cell injury involves an increase in matrix protein expression that is only partly alleviated by current treatment, prompting a search for new modalities. We have previously shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits high glucose-induced protein synthesis in kidney podocytes. We tested whether tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, ameliorates high glucose stimulation of matrix proteins by generating H2S in podocytes. Tadalafil abrogated high glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis and matrix protein laminin γ1. Tadalafil inhibited high glucose-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 and laminin γ1 accumulation in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. Tadalafil increased AMPK phosphorylation by stimulating calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase β. Tadalafil rapidly increased the expression and activity of the H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by promoting its translation. dl-Propargylglycine, a CSE inhibitor, and siRNA against CSE inhibited tadalafil-induced AMPK phosphorylation and abrogated the tadalafil effect on high glucose stimulation of laminin γ1. In tadalafil-treated podocytes, we examined the interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO). Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one, inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase, respectively, abolished tadalafil induction of H2S and AMPK phosphorylation. Tadalafil rapidly augmented inducible NOS (iNOS) expression by increasing its mRNA, and siRNA for iNOS and 1400W, an iNOS blocker, inhibited tadalafil stimulation of CSE expression and AMPK phosphorylation. We conclude that tadalafil amelioration of high glucose stimulation of synthesis of proteins including matrix proteins in podocytes requires integration of the NO-H2S-AMPK axis leading to the inhibition of high glucose-induced mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1

  2. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced nucleolar fragmentation via suppressing cleavage and down-regulation of nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangkai; Deng, Gonghua; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Meidong; Yi, Yuxin; Yang, Tubao; McMillan, Daniel R; Xiao, Xiangzhong

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that nucleolar fragmentation is a part of the overall apoptotic morphology, however, it is currently obscure whether and how nucleolar fragmentation can be induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) can prevent nucleolar fragmentation. To dissect these two questions, C(2)C(12) myogenic cells and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with heat shock transcriptional factor 1 (HSF1) null mutation were treated with heat shock response (HS) (42.5 ± 0.5°C for 1 h and recovery at 37°C for 24 h) and then were insulted with 0.5 mmol/L H(2)O(2). Morphological changes of nucleoli were observed under contrast microscope or electronic microscope. It was found that (1) stimulation with H(2)O(2)-induced nucleolar fragmentation by mediating cleavage and down-regulation of nucleolar protein, nucleolin in C(2)C(12) myocytes and MEFs; (2) HS suppressed nucleolar fragmentation by inducing the expression of Hsp70 in an HSF1-dependent manner as indicated by assays of transfection with Hsp70 antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ONs) or recombinant plasmids of full-length Hsp70 cDNA; (3) protection of Hsp70 against nucleolar fragmentation was related to its accumulation in nucleolus mediated by nuclear localization sequence and its inhibition against cleavage and down-regulation of nucleolin. These results suggested that H(2)O(2)-induced nucleolar fragmentation and HS or Hsp70 inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced nucleolar fragmentation through the translocation of Hsp70 into nucleolar and its protection against impairment of nucleolin. PMID:21960124

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of misfolded proteins, which are often associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and vascular dementia. The amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be significantly reduced in the brain tissue of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease relative to that of healthy individuals. These findings prompted us to investigate the effects of H2S on the formation of amyloids in vitro using a model fibrillogenic protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). HEWL forms typical β-sheet rich fibrils during the course of 70 min at low pH and high temperatures. The addition of H2S completely inhibits the formation of β-sheet and amyloid fibrils, as revealed by deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy and ThT fluorescence. Nonresonance Raman spectroscopy shows that disulfide bonds undergo significant rearrangements in the presence of H2S. Raman bands corresponding to disulfide (RSSR) vibrational modes in the 550–500 cm–1 spectral range decrease in intensity and are accompanied by the appearance of a new 490 cm–1 band assigned to the trisulfide group (RSSSR) based on the comparison with model compounds. The formation of RSSSR was proven further using a reaction with TCEP reduction agent and LC-MS analysis of the products. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence study shows a strong denaturation of HEWL containing trisulfide bonds. The presented evidence indicates that H2S causes the formation of trisulfide bridges, which destabilizes HEWL structure, preventing protein fibrillation. As a result, small spherical aggregates of unordered protein form, which exhibit no cytotoxicity by contrast with HEWL fibrils. PMID:25545790

  4. A bacterial hemerythrin-like protein MsmHr inhibits the SigF-dependent hydrogen peroxide response in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Tao, Jun; Hu, Xinling; Chan, John; Xiao, Jing; Mi, Kaixia

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by aerobic organisms. Host production of toxic H2O2 in response to pathogen infection is an important classical innate defense mechanism against invading microbes. Understanding the mechanisms by which pathogens, in response to oxidative stress, mediate defense against toxic ROS, can reveal anti-microbial targets and shed light on pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we provide evidence that a Mycobacterium smegmatis hemerythrin-like protein MSMEG_2415, designated MsmHr, is a H2O2-modulated repressor of the SigF-mediated response to H2O2. Circular dichroism and spectrophotometric analysis of MsmHr revealed properties characteristic of a typical hemerythrin-like protein. An msmHr knockout strain of M. smegmatis mc2155 (ΔmsmHr) was more resistant to H2O2 than its parental strain, and overexpression of MsmHr increased mycobacterial susceptibility to H2O2. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the hemerythrin domain of MsmHr is required for the regulation of the H2O2 response observed in the overexpression study. We show that MsmHr inhibits the expression of SigF (MSMEG_1804), an alternative sigma factor that plays an important role in bacterial oxidative stress responses, including those elicited by H2O2, thus providing a mechanistic link between ΔmsmHr and its enhanced resistance to H2O2. Together, these results strongly suggest that MsmHr is involved in the response of mycobacteria to H2O2 by negatively regulating a sigma factor, a function not previously described for hemerythrins. PMID:25642228

  5. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp. PMID:26686578

  6. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-{kappa}B in H1299 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Mi Ran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-04-03

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (G{alpha}i1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of G{alpha}i1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of G{alpha}i1QL. G{alpha}i1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-{kappa}B, which resulted from an increase in NF-{kappa}B p50 protein. We conclude that G{alpha}i1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation.

  7. Contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability.

    PubMed

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Lee Fryar, Katrina; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Schell, David; Thurlkill, Richard L; Imura, Satoshi; Scholtz, J Martin; Gajiwala, Ketan; Sevcik, Jozef; Urbanikova, Lubica; Myers, Jeffery K; Takano, Kazufumi; Hebert, Eric J; Shirley, Bret A; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2014-05-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(ΔG), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A, Y51F, and T95A. The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in all three mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions. (1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. (2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. (3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. (4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. (5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein. PMID:24591301

  8. Contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Schell, David; Thurlkill, Richard L; Imura, Satoshi; Scholtz, J Martin; Gajiwala, Ketan; Sevcik, Jozef; Urbanikova, Lubica; Myers, Jeffery K; Takano, Kazufumi; Hebert, Eric J; Shirley, Bret A; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(ΔG), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A, Y51F, and T95A. The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in all three mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions. (1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. (2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. (3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. (4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. (5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein. PMID:24591301

  9. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Protein Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Nick

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(Δ G), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A (1.1Å), Y51F(1.5Å), and T95A(1.3Å). The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners always form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in the mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions: 1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. 2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. 5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein.

  10. Flame inhibition by hydrogen halides - Some spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Cagliostro, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an air-propane diffusion flame inhibited with hydrogen halides has been studied. Plots of the absorption of light by hydrogen halides as a function of position in the flame and also as a function of the amount of hydrogen halide added to the flame have been obtained. The hydrogen halides are shown to be more stable on the fuel side of the reaction zone than they are on the air side. Thermal diffusion is seen to be important in determining the concentration distribution of the heavier hydrogen halides in diffusion flames. The relationship between the concentration distribution of the hydrogen halides in the flame and the flame inhibition mechanism is discussed.

  11. Protein hydrogen exchange: testing current models.

    PubMed

    Skinner, John J; Lim, Woon K; Bédard, Sabrina; Black, Ben E; Englander, S Walter

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of protein hydrogen exchange (HX), HX rates of most of the backbone amide hydrogens of Staphylococcal nuclease were measured by NMR methods. A modified analysis was used to improve accuracy for the faster hydrogens. HX rates of both near surface and well buried hydrogens are spread over more than 7 orders of magnitude. These results were compared with previous hypotheses for HX rate determination. Contrary to a common assumption, proximity to the surface of the native protein does not usually produce fast exchange. The slow HX rates for unprotected surface hydrogens are not well explained by local electrostatic field. The ability of buried hydrogens to exchange is not explained by a solvent penetration mechanism. The exchange rates of structurally protected hydrogens are not well predicted by algorithms that depend only on local interactions or only on transient unfolding reactions. These observations identify some of the present difficulties of HX rate prediction and suggest the need for returning to a detailed hydrogen by hydrogen analysis to examine the bases of structure-rate relationships, as described in the companion paper (Skinner et al., Protein Sci 2012;21:996-1005). PMID:22544567

  12. T-2 mycotoxin inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.G.; Watts, M.R.; Canterbury, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of T-2 toxin on rat liver mitochondrial protein synthesis. Isolated rat liver mitochondria were supplemented with an S-100 supernatant from rat liver and an external ATP-generating system. An in-vitro assay employing cycloheximide, and inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, and chloramphenicol, and inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, to distinguish mitochondrial protein synthesis from the cytoplasmic process. Amino acid incorporation into mitochondria was dependent on the concentration of mitochondria and was inhibited by chloramphenicol. The rate of uptake of tritium leucine into mitochondrial protein was unaffected by the addition of T-2 toxin and was not a rate-limiting step in incorporation. However, 0.02 micrograms/ml of T-2 toxin decreased the rate of protein synthesis inhibition correlated with the amount of T-2 toxin taken up by the mitochondria. While T-2 toxin is known to inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis, this is the first time T-2 was shown to inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  13. Phosphatidic acid inhibits blue light-induced stomatal opening via inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 [corrected].

    PubMed

    Takemiya, Atsushi; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2010-08-01

    Stomata open in response to blue light under a background of red light. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits blue light-dependent stomatal opening, an effect essential for promoting stomatal closure in the daytime to prevent water loss. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets of this inhibition in the blue light signaling pathway remain unknown. Here, we report that phosphatidic acid (PA), a phospholipid second messenger produced by ABA in guard cells, inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a positive regulator of blue light signaling, and PA plays a role in stimulating stomatal closure in Vicia faba. Biochemical analysis revealed that PA directly inhibited the phosphatase activity of the catalytic subunit of V. faba PP1 (PP1c) in vitro. PA inhibited blue light-dependent stomatal opening but did not affect red light- or fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening. PA also inhibited blue light-dependent H(+) pumping and phosphorylation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, PA did not inhibit the autophosphorylation of phototropins, blue light receptors for stomatal opening. Furthermore, 1-butanol, a selective inhibitor of phospholipase D, which produces PA via hydrolysis of phospholipids, diminished the ABA-induced inhibition of blue light-dependent stomatal opening and H(+) pumping. We also show that hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, which are intermediates in ABA signaling, inhibited the blue light responses of stomata and that 1-butanol diminished these inhibitions. From these results, we conclude that PA inhibits blue light signaling in guard cells by PP1c inhibition, accelerating stomatal closure, and that PP1 is a cross talk point between blue light and ABA signaling pathways in guard cells. PMID:20498335

  14. Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins

    PubMed Central

    te Welscher, Yvonne Maria; van Leeuwen, Martin Richard; de Kruijff, Ben; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Breukink, Eefjan

    2012-01-01

    The limited therapeutic arsenal and the increase in reports of fungal resistance to multiple antifungal agents have made fungal infections a major therapeutic challenge. The polyene antibiotics are the only group of antifungal antibiotics that directly target the plasma membrane via a specific interaction with the main fungal sterol, ergosterol, often resulting in membrane permeabilization. In contrast to other polyene antibiotics that form pores in the membrane, the mode of action of natamycin has remained obscure but is not related to membrane permeabilization. Here, we demonstrate that natamycin inhibits growth of yeasts and fungi via the immediate inhibition of amino acid and glucose transport across the plasma membrane. This is attributable to ergosterol-specific and reversible inhibition of membrane transport proteins. It is proposed that ergosterol-dependent inhibition of membrane proteins is a general mode of action of all the polyene antibiotics, of which some have been shown additionally to permeabilize the plasma membrane. Our results imply that sterol-protein interactions are fundamentally important for protein function even for those proteins that are not known to reside in sterol-rich domains. PMID:22733749

  15. Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins.

    PubMed

    te Welscher, Yvonne Maria; van Leeuwen, Martin Richard; de Kruijff, Ben; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Breukink, Eefjan

    2012-07-10

    The limited therapeutic arsenal and the increase in reports of fungal resistance to multiple antifungal agents have made fungal infections a major therapeutic challenge. The polyene antibiotics are the only group of antifungal antibiotics that directly target the plasma membrane via a specific interaction with the main fungal sterol, ergosterol, often resulting in membrane permeabilization. In contrast to other polyene antibiotics that form pores in the membrane, the mode of action of natamycin has remained obscure but is not related to membrane permeabilization. Here, we demonstrate that natamycin inhibits growth of yeasts and fungi via the immediate inhibition of amino acid and glucose transport across the plasma membrane. This is attributable to ergosterol-specific and reversible inhibition of membrane transport proteins. It is proposed that ergosterol-dependent inhibition of membrane proteins is a general mode of action of all the polyene antibiotics, of which some have been shown additionally to permeabilize the plasma membrane. Our results imply that sterol-protein interactions are fundamentally important for protein function even for those proteins that are not known to reside in sterol-rich domains. PMID:22733749

  16. Protein dynamics viewed by hydrogen exchange

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, John J; Lim, Woon K; Bédard, Sabrina; Black, Ben E; Englander, S Walter

    2012-01-01

    To examine the relationship between protein structural dynamics and measurable hydrogen exchange (HX) data, the detailed exchange behavior of most of the backbone amide hydrogens of Staphylococcal nuclease was compared with that of their neighbors, with their structural environment, and with other information. Results show that H-bonded hydrogens are protected from exchange, with HX rate effectively zero, even when they are directly adjacent to solvent. The transition to exchange competence requires a dynamic structural excursion that removes H-bond protection and allows exposure to solvent HX catalyst. The detailed data often make clear the nature of the dynamic excursion required. These range from whole molecule unfolding, through smaller cooperative unfolding reactions of secondary structural elements, and down to local fluctuations that involve as little as a single peptide group or side chain or water molecule. The particular motion that dominates the exchange of any hydrogen is the one that allows the fastest HX rate. The motion and the rate it produces are determined by surrounding structure and not by nearness to solvent or the strength of the protecting H-bond itself or its acceptor type (main chain, side chain, structurally bound water). Many of these motions occur over time scales that are appropriate for biochemical function. PMID:22544544

  17. Protein dynamics viewed by hydrogen exchange.

    PubMed

    Skinner, John J; Lim, Woon K; Bédard, Sabrina; Black, Ben E; Englander, S Walter

    2012-07-01

    To examine the relationship between protein structural dynamics and measurable hydrogen exchange (HX) data, the detailed exchange behavior of most of the backbone amide hydrogens of Staphylococcal nuclease was compared with that of their neighbors, with their structural environment, and with other information. Results show that H-bonded hydrogens are protected from exchange, with HX rate effectively zero, even when they are directly adjacent to solvent. The transition to exchange competence requires a dynamic structural excursion that removes H-bond protection and allows exposure to solvent HX catalyst. The detailed data often make clear the nature of the dynamic excursion required. These range from whole molecule unfolding, through smaller cooperative unfolding reactions of secondary structural elements, and down to local fluctuations that involve as little as a single peptide group or side chain or water molecule. The particular motion that dominates the exchange of any hydrogen is the one that allows the fastest HX rate. The motion and the rate it produces are determined by surrounding structure and not by nearness to solvent or the strength of the protecting H-bond itself or its acceptor type (main chain, side chain, structurally bound water). Many of these motions occur over time scales that are appropriate for biochemical function. PMID:22544544

  18. Simvastatin inhibits protein isoprenylation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephen M; Johnson, Kachael; Siefert, Matthew; Shank, Sam; Sironi, Luigi; Wolozin, Benjamin; Landreth, Gary E; Ziady, Assem G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Statin action in patients with AD, as in those with heart disease, is likely to be at least partly independent of the effects of statins on cholesterol. Statins can alter cellular signaling and protein trafficking through inhibition of isoprenylation of Rho, Cdc42, and Rab family GTPases. The effects of statins on protein isoprenylation in vivo, particularly in the central nervous system, are poorly studied. We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approaches to directly monitor the levels of isoprenylated and non-isoprenylated forms of Rho and Rab family GTPases. We report that simvastatin significantly inhibits RhoA and Rab4, and Rab6 isoprenylation at doses as low as 50nM in vitro. We also provide the first in vivo evidence that statins inhibit the isoprenylation of RhoA in the brains of rats and RhoA, Cdc42, and H-Ras in the brains of mice treated with clinically relevant doses of simvastatin. PMID:27180285

  19. Phytoferritin association induced by EGCG inhibits protein degradation by proteases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aidong; Zhou, Kai; Qi, Xin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-12-01

    Phytoferritin is a promising resource of non-heme iron supplementation, but it is not stable against degradation by proteases in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, how to improve the stability of ferritin in the presence of proteases is a challenge. Since (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is rich in phenolic-hydroxyl groups, it could interact with ferritin through hydrogen bonds, thereby preventing protein from degradation. To confirm this idea, we focus on the interaction between EGCG and phytoferritin, and the consequence of such interaction. Results demonstrated that EGCG did interact with ferritin, and such interaction induced the change in the tertiary/quaternary structure of protein but not in its secondary structure. Furthermore, stopped-flow and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results showed that EGCG could trigger ferritin association. Consequently, such protein association markedly inhibited protein digestion by pepsin at pH 4.0 and by trypsin at pH 7.5. These findings raise the possibility to improve the stability of phytoferritin in the presence of proteases. PMID:25384342

  20. Tempol inhibits neutrophil and hydrogen peroxide-mediated DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hahn, S M; Mitchell, J B; Shacter, E

    1997-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions characterized by neutrophil activation are associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Reactive oxygen species are produced by activated neutrophils and produce DNA damage which may lead to tissue damage. Previous studies have shown that activated murine neutrophils induce DNA strand breaks in a target plasmacytoma cell, RIMPC 2394. We studied the effect of a water soluble nitroxide anti-oxidant, Tempol, on murine neutrophil induction of DNA strand breaks in this system. Murine neutrophils were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/cAn mice after an i.p. injection of pristane oil. Neutrophils were activated by the phorbol ester PMA and co-incubated with RIMPC 2394 cells. Control alkaline elution studies revealed progressive DNA strand breaks in RIMPC cells with time. The addition of Tempol to the incubation mixture prevented DNA damage in a dose dependent fashion. Five mM Tempol provided complete protection. Tempol protection against DNA strand breaks was similar for both stimulated neutrophils and exogenously added hydrogen peroxide. Measurement of hydrogen peroxide produced by stimulated neutrophils demonstrated that Tempol did not decrease hydrogen peroxide concentration. Oxidation of reduced metals, thereby interfering with the production of hydroxyl radical, is the most likely mechanism of nitroxide protection, although superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity and scavenging of carbon-based free radicals may also account for a portion of the observed protection. The anti-oxidant activity of Tempol inhibited DNA damage by activated neutrophils. The nitroxides as a class of compounds may have a role in the investigation and modification of inflammatory conditions. PMID:9378367

  1. How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Filip; Halle, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics trajectory of the protein BPTI, we propose that the open (O) states for amides that exchange by subglobal fluctuations are locally distorted conformations with two water molecules directly coordinated to the N–H group. The HX protection factors computed from the relative O-state populations agree well with experiment. The O states of different amides show little or no temporal correlation, even if adjacent residues unfold cooperatively. The mean residence time of the O state is ∼100 ps for all examined amides, so the large variation in measured HX rate must be attributed to the opening frequency. A few amides gain solvent access via tunnels or pores penetrated by water chains including native internal water molecules, but most amides access solvent by more local structural distortions. In either case, we argue that an overcoordinated N–H group is necessary for efficient proton transfer by Grotthuss-type structural diffusion. PMID:26195754

  2. How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins.

    PubMed

    Persson, Filip; Halle, Bertil

    2015-08-18

    Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics trajectory of the protein BPTI, we propose that the open (O) states for amides that exchange by subglobal fluctuations are locally distorted conformations with two water molecules directly coordinated to the N-H group. The HX protection factors computed from the relative O-state populations agree well with experiment. The O states of different amides show little or no temporal correlation, even if adjacent residues unfold cooperatively. The mean residence time of the O state is ∼100 ps for all examined amides, so the large variation in measured HX rate must be attributed to the opening frequency. A few amides gain solvent access via tunnels or pores penetrated by water chains including native internal water molecules, but most amides access solvent by more local structural distortions. In either case, we argue that an overcoordinated N-H group is necessary for efficient proton transfer by Grotthuss-type structural diffusion. PMID:26195754

  3. Inhibition of hydrogen embrittlement of Ni-Ti superelastic alloy in acid fluoride solution by hydrogen peroxide addition.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Yazaki, Yushin; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2011-09-01

    Inhibition of the hydrogen embrittlement of Ni-Ti superelastic alloy in an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solution has been attempted by adding various amounts of H(2)O(2). In a 0.2% APF solution, hydrogen absorption is markedly inhibited by adding H(2)O(2), although corrosion is slightly enhanced by increasing the amount of added H(2)O(2). By adding a small amount of H(2)O(2) (0.001 M), in the early stage of immersion, hydrogen embrittlement is inhibited and corrosion is only slightly enhanced. Upon adding H(2)O(2), it appears that the dominant cathodic reactions change from hydrogen evolution to H(2)O(2) reduction reactions, or the surface conditions of the alloy are changed by H(2)O(2) with a high oxidation capability, thereby inhibiting hydrogen absorption. The present study clearly indicates that infinitesimal addition of H(2)O(2) into acid fluoride solutions is effective for the inhibition of the hydrogen embrittlement of the alloy. PMID:21630433

  4. Are aromatic carbon donor hydrogen bonds linear in proteins?

    PubMed

    Nanda, Vikas; Schmiedekamp, Ann

    2008-02-01

    Proteins fold and maintain structure through the collective contributions of a large number of weak, noncovalent interactions. The hydrogen bond is one important category of forces that acts on very short distances. As our knowledge of protein structure continues to expand, we are beginning to appreciate the role that weak carbon-donor hydrogen bonds play in structure and function. One property that differentiates hydrogen bonds from other packing forces is propensity for forming a linear donor-hydrogen-acceptor orientation. To ascertain if carbon-donor hydrogen bonds are able to direct acceptor linearity, we surveyed the geometry of interactions specifically involving aromatic sidechain ring carbons in a data set of high resolution protein structures. We found that while donor-acceptor distances for most carbon donor hydrogen bonds were tighter than expected for van der Waals packing, only the carbons of histidine showed a significant bias for linear geometry. By categorizing histidines in the data set into charged and neutral sidechains, we found only the charged subset of histidines participated in linear interactions. B3LYP/6-31G**++ level optimizations of imidazole and indole-water interactions at various fixed angles demonstrates a clear orientation dependence of hydrogen bonding capacity for both charged and neutral sidechains. We suggest that while all aromatic carbons can participate in hydrogen bonding, only charged histidines are able to overcome protein packing forces and enforce linear interactions. The implications for protein modeling and design are discussed. PMID:17705268

  5. Inhibition by calmodulin of calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, K A; Wu, W C; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P

    1984-01-01

    Calmodulin was previously found to inhibit the Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent phosphorylation of an endogenous substrate, called the 87-kilodalton protein, in a crude extract prepared from rat brain synaptosomal cytosol. We investigated the mechanism of this inhibition, using Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase and the 87-kilodalton protein, both of which had been purified to homogeneity from bovine brain. Rabbit brain calmodulin and some other Ca2+-binding proteins inhibited the phosphorylation of the 87-kilodalton protein by this kinase in the purified system. Calmodulin also inhibited the Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent phosphorylation of H1 histone, synapsin I, and the delta subunit of the acetylcholine receptor, with use of purified components. These results suggest that calmodulin may be a physiological regulator of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. Images PMID:6233611

  6. Shifts in metabolic hydrogen sinks in the methanogenesis-inhibited ruminal fermentation: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Emilio M.

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing the flow of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen away from CH4 and toward volatile fatty acids (VFA) would increase the efficiency of ruminant production and decrease its environmental impact. The objectives of this meta-analysis were: (i) To quantify shifts in metabolic hydrogen sinks when inhibiting ruminal methanogenesis in vitro; and (ii) To understand the variation in shifts of metabolic hydrogen sinks among experiments and between batch and continuous cultures systems when methanogenesis is inhibited. Batch (28 experiments, N = 193) and continuous (16 experiments, N = 79) culture databases of experiments with at least 50% inhibition in CH4 production were compiled. Inhibiting methanogenesis generally resulted in less fermentation and digestion in most batch culture, but not in most continuous culture, experiments. Inhibiting CH4 production in batch cultures resulted in redirection of metabolic hydrogen toward propionate and H2 but not butyrate. In continuous cultures, there was no overall metabolic hydrogen redirection toward propionate or butyrate, and H2 as a proportion of metabolic hydrogen spared from CH4 production was numerically smaller compared to batch cultures. Dihydrogen accumulation was affected by type of substrate and methanogenesis inhibitor, with highly fermentable substrates resulting in greater redirection of metabolic hydrogen toward H2 when inhibiting methanogenesis, and some oils causing small or no H2 accumulation. In both batch and continuous culture, there was a decrease in metabolic hydrogen recovered as the sum of propionate, butyrate, CH4 and H2 when inhibiting methanogenesis, and it is speculated that as CH4 production decreases metabolic hydrogen could be increasingly incorporated into formate, microbial biomass, and perhaps, reductive acetogenesis in continuous cultures. Energetic benefits of inhibiting methanogenesis depended on the inhibitor and its concentration and on the in vitro system. PMID:25699029

  7. Hydrogen Bond Fluctuations Control Photochromism in a Reversibly Photo-Switchable Fluorescent Protein.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Dmitry; Groenhof, Gerrit

    2016-01-11

    Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) are essential for high-resolution microscopy of biological samples, but the reason why these proteins are photochromic is still poorly understood. To address this problem, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the fast switching Met159Thr mutant of the RSFP Dronpa. Our simulations revealed a ground state structural heterogeneity in the chromophore pocket that consists of three populations with one, two, or three hydrogen bonds to the phenolate moiety of the chromophore. By means of non-adiabatic quantum mechanics/molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that the subpopulation with a single hydrogen bond is responsible for off-switching through photo-isomerization of the chromophore, whereas two or more hydrogen bonds inhibit the isomerization and promote fluorescence instead. While rational design of new RSFPs has so far focused on structure alone, our results suggest that structural heterogeneity must be considered as well. PMID:26612709

  8. Inhibition of the Fermentation of Propionate to Methane by Hydrogen, Acetate, and Propionate

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Shobayashi, Manabu; Nagai, Shiro

    1990-01-01

    Inhibition of the fermentation of propionate to methane and carbon dioxide by hydrogen, acetate, and propionate was analyzed with a mesophilic propionate-acclimatized sludge that consisted of numerous flocs (size, 150 to 300 μm). The acclimatized sludge could convert propionate to methane and carbon dioxide stoichiometrically without accumulating hydrogen and acetate in a propionate-minimal medium. Inhibition of propionate utilization by propionate could be analyzed by a second-order substrate inhibition model (shown below) given that the substrate saturation constant, Ks, was 15.9 μM; the substrate inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.79 mM; and the maximum specific rate of propionate utilization, qm, was 2.15 mmol/g of mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) per day: qs = qmS/[Ks + S + (S2/Ki)], where qs is the specific rate of propionate utilization and S is the initial concentration of undissociated propionic acid. For inhibition by hydrogen and acetate to propionate utilization, a noncompetitive product inhibition model was used: qs = qm/[1 + (P/Kp)n], where P is the initial concentration of hydrogen or undissociated acetic acid and Kp is the inhibition constant. Kinetic analysis gave, for hydrogen inhibition, Kp(H2) = 0.11 atm (= 11.1 kPa, 71.5 μM), qm = 2.40 mmol/g of MLVSS per day, and n = 1.51 and, for acetate inhibition, Kp(HAc) = 48.6 μM, qm = 1.85 mmol/g of MLVSS per day, and n = 0.96. It could be concluded that the increase in undissociated propionic acid concentration was a key factor in inhibition of propionate utilization and that hydrogen and acetate cooperatively inhibited propionate degradation, suggesting that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens might play an important role in enhancing propionate degradation to methane and carbon dioxide. PMID:16348146

  9. Inhibition of mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis by oxazolidinones.

    PubMed

    McKee, E E; Ferguson, M; Bentley, A T; Marks, T A

    2006-06-01

    The effects of a variety of oxazolidinones, with different antibacterial potencies, including linezolid, on mitochondrial protein synthesis were determined in intact mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and rabbit heart and bone marrow. The results demonstrate that a general feature of the oxazolidinone class of antibiotics is the inhibition of mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis. Inhibition was similar in mitochondria from all tissues studied. Further, oxazolidinones that were very potent as antibiotics were uniformly potent in inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis. These results were compared to the inhibitory profiles of other antibiotics that function by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Of these, chloramphenicol and tetracycline were significant inhibitors of mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis while the macrolides, lincosamides, and aminoglycosides were not. Development of future antibiotics from the oxazolidinone class will have to evaluate potential mitochondrial toxicity. PMID:16723564

  10. Engineered kinesin motor proteins amenable to small-molecule inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, Martin F.; Winding, Michael; Yue, Yang; Shastry, Shankar; Teloni, Federico; Reddy, Sanjay; Blasius, T. Lynne; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Hancock, William O.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Verhey, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    The human genome encodes 45 kinesin motor proteins that drive cell division, cell motility, intracellular trafficking and ciliary function. Determining the cellular function of each kinesin would benefit from specific small-molecule inhibitors. However, screens have yielded only a few specific inhibitors. Here we present a novel chemical-genetic approach to engineer kinesin motors that can carry out the function of the wild-type motor yet can also be efficiently inhibited by small, cell-permeable molecules. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we develop two independent strategies to generate inhibitable motors, and characterize the resulting inhibition in single-molecule assays and in cells. We further apply these two strategies to create analogously inhibitable kinesin-3 motors. These inhibitable motors will be of great utility to study the functions of specific kinesins in a dynamic manner in cells and animals. Furthermore, these strategies can be used to generate inhibitable versions of any motor protein of interest. PMID:27045608

  11. Engineered kinesin motor proteins amenable to small-molecule inhibition.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Martin F; Winding, Michael; Yue, Yang; Shastry, Shankar; Teloni, Federico; Reddy, Sanjay; Blasius, T Lynne; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Hancock, William O; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Verhey, Kristen J

    2016-01-01

    The human genome encodes 45 kinesin motor proteins that drive cell division, cell motility, intracellular trafficking and ciliary function. Determining the cellular function of each kinesin would benefit from specific small-molecule inhibitors. However, screens have yielded only a few specific inhibitors. Here we present a novel chemical-genetic approach to engineer kinesin motors that can carry out the function of the wild-type motor yet can also be efficiently inhibited by small, cell-permeable molecules. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we develop two independent strategies to generate inhibitable motors, and characterize the resulting inhibition in single-molecule assays and in cells. We further apply these two strategies to create analogously inhibitable kinesin-3 motors. These inhibitable motors will be of great utility to study the functions of specific kinesins in a dynamic manner in cells and animals. Furthermore, these strategies can be used to generate inhibitable versions of any motor protein of interest. PMID:27045608

  12. Acetaldehyde inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.P.; Haiman, M.J.; Zylbert, B.A.; Billy, H.T.; Vesenka, G.D.; Geokas, M.C.

    1986-03-30

    Exposure of isolated dispersed pancreatic acini to increasing concentrations of ethanol (5 to 500 mM) or acetaldehyde (0.5 to 100 mM) produced a progressive inhibition of (3H)leucine incorporation into both cellular (those remaining in the cell) and secretory (those released into the medium) proteins. Whereas 500 mM ethanol caused 90-95% inhibition in the synthesis of cellular and secretory proteins, the concentration of acetaldehyde needed to produce a similar inhibition was found to be 50 mM. All subsequent experiments were performed with 12.5 mM acetaldehyde, a concentration that consistently inhibited acinar protein synthesis by about 50%. The acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of acinar protein synthesis was partially normalized when this metabolite was removed after 30 min during a 90-min incubation period. In the presence of acetaldehyde, the secretion of 3H-pulse-labeled proteins, but not amylase, trypsinogen, or chymotrypsinogen, was greatly depressed. Acetaldehyde also caused a marked reduction in (3H)uridine incorporation into acinar RNA. The entry of (3H)uridine, (3H)leucine, and (3H)aminoisobutyric acid into isolated acini was found to be slightly (15-25%) decreased by acetaldehyde. It is concluded that acetaldehyde exerts a direct toxic effect on isolated dispersed pancreatic acini as evidenced by diminution of both protein and RNA synthesis and decreased secretion of the newly synthesized proteins. This inhibitory effect of acetaldehyde could be partially reversed.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the translational expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Guangdong; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is under the influence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which regulates hypoxia responses. The regulation of HIF-1α accumulation by H2S has been shown, but the mechanisms for this effect are largely elusive and controversial. This study aimed at addressing the controversial mechanisms for and the functional importance of the interaction of H2S and HIF-1α protein. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH HIF-1α protein levels and HIF-1α transcriptional activity were detected by Western blotting and luciferase assay. The mechanisms for H2S-regulated HIF-1α protein levels were determined using short interfering RNA transfection, co-immunoprecipitation and 7-methyl-GTP sepharose 4B pull-down assay. Angiogenic activity was evaluated using tube formation assay in EA.hy926 cells. KEY RESULTS The accumulation of HIF-1α protein under hypoxia (1% O2) or hypoxia-mimetic conditions was reversed by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). This effect of NaHS was not altered after blocking the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway for HIF-1α degradation; however, blockade of protein translation with cycloheximide abolished the effect of NaHS on the half-life of HIF-1α protein. Knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) suppressed the effect of NaHS on HIF-1α protein accumulation under hypoxia. NaHS inhibited the expression of VEGF under hypoxia. It also decreased in vitro capillary tube formation and cell proliferation of EA.hy926 cells under hypoxia, but stimulated the tube formation under normoxia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2S suppresses HIF-1α translation by enhancing eIF2α phosphorylation under hypoxia. The interaction of H2S and HIF-1α inhibits the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial cells under hypoxia through the down-regulation of VEGF. PMID:22831549

  14. Energetics of hydrogen bonding in proteins: a model compound study.

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, S. M.; Murphy, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the energetics of amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds in proteins have been explored from the effect of hydroxyl groups on the structure and dissolution energetics of a series of crystalline cyclic dipeptides. The calorimetrically determined energetics are interpreted in light of the crystal structures of the studied compounds. Our results indicate that the amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds both provide considerable enthalpic stability, but that the amide-amide hydrogen bond is about twice that of the amide-hydroxyl. Additionally, the interaction of the hydroxyl group with water is seen most readily in its contributions to entropy and heat capacity changes. Surprisingly, the hydroxyl group shows weakly hydrophobic behavior in terms of these contributions. These results can be used to understand the effects of mutations on the stability of globular proteins. PMID:8819156

  15. Inhibition of T-type Ca2+ Channels by Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Elies, Jacobo; Scragg, Jason L; Dallas, Mark L; Huang, Dongyang; Huang, Sha; Boyle, John P; Gamper, Nikita; Peers, Chris

    2015-01-01

    T-type Ca(2+) channels are a distinct family of low voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels which serve many roles in different tissues. Several studies have implicated them, for example, in the adaptive responses to chronic hypoxia in the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was more recently discovered as an important signalling molecule involved in many functions, including O(2) sensing. Since ion channels are emerging as an important family of target proteins for modulation by H(2)S, and both T-type Ca(2+) channels and H(2)S are involved in cellular responses to hypoxia, we have investigated whether recombinant and native T-type Ca(2+) channels are a target for modulation by H(2)S. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrate that the H(2)S donor, NaHS, selectively inhibits Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells, whilst Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 channels were unaffected. Sensitivity of Cav3.2 channels to H2S required the presence of the redox-sensitive extracellular residue H191, which is also required for tonic binding of Zn(2+) to this channel. Chelation of Zn(2+) using TPEN prevented channel inhibition by H(2)S. H2S also selectively inhibited native T-type channels (primarily Cav3.2) in sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons. Our data demonstrate a novel target for H(2)S regulation, the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.2. Results have important implications for the proposed pro-nociceptive effects of this gasotransmitter. Implications for the control of cellular responses to hypoxia await further study. PMID:26303500

  16. Matrix Gla protein inhibition of tooth mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kaipatur, N R; Murshed, M; McKee, M D

    2008-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization is regulated by mineral ion availability, proteins, and other molecular determinants. To investigate protein regulation of mineralization in tooth dentin and cementum, and in alveolar bone, we expressed matrix Gla protein (MGP) ectopically in bones and teeth in mice, using an osteoblast/odontoblast-specific 2.3-kb Col1a1 promoter. Mandibles were analyzed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, light microscopy, histomorphometry, and transmission electron microscopy. While bone and tooth ECMs were established in the Col1a1-Mgp mice, extensive hypomineralization was observed, with values of unmineralized ECM from four- to eight-fold higher in dentin and alveolar bone when compared with that in wild-type tissues. Mineralization was virtually absent in tooth root dentin and cellular cementum, while crown dentin showed "breakthrough" areas of mineralization. Acellular cementum was lacking in Col1a1-Mgp teeth, and unmineralized osteodentin formed within the pulp. These results strengthen the view that bone and tooth mineralization is critically regulated by mineralization inhibitors. PMID:18719210

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of haloperidol decanoate and its inhibition by proteins.

    PubMed

    Nambu, K; Miyazaki, H; Nakanishi, Y; Oh-e, Y; Matsunaga, Y; Hashimoto, M

    1987-05-15

    When [14C]haloperidol decanoate, a long-acting neuroleptic and an ester of haloperidol and decanoic acid, was incubated in human whole blood and plasma and in rat plasma and homogenates of rat brain, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas and muscle, no hydrolysis of the ester was seen. Although the decanoate was hydrolyzed by partially purified carboxylesterase, addition of rat plasma or liver homogenate to the enzymic reaction mixture resulted in marked inhibition of hydrolysis, whereas addition of the defatted residues of plasma or liver produced only partial inhibition. The enzymic hydrolysis was inhibited also by beta-lipoprotein and albumin, depending on their concentrations. The assumption that interaction between haloperidol decanoate and protein resulted in inhibition of the hydrolytic reaction mediated by the enzyme was validated by kinetic models and experimental data. The kinetics were apparently competitive. Based on the kinetic analysis, the interaction between the decanoate and albumin or beta-lipoprotein was investigated by measuring their equilibrium constants and extent of protein binding. Haloperidol decanoate appeared to interact with several proteins; this was exemplified by other measures of protein binding, an increasing effect of proteins on the solubility, and the partition ratio of the ester. The interaction between haloperidol decanoate and proteins caused marked stabilization of this ester against enzymatic hydrolysis and, thereby, influenced its metabolism. PMID:3593395

  18. Potent protein glycation inhibition of plantagoside in Plantago major seeds.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Aradate, Tadashi; Kurosaka, Chihiro; Ubukata, Makoto; Kittaka, Shiho; Nakaminami, Yuri; Gamo, Kanae; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Mitsuharu

    2014-01-01

    Plantagoside (5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-3'-O-glucoside) and its aglycone (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone), isolated from a 50% ethanol extract of Plantago major seeds (Plantaginaceae), were established to be potent inhibitors of the Maillard reaction. These compounds also inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products in proteins in physiological conditions and inhibited protein cross-linking glycation. These results indicate that P. major seeds have potential therapeutic applications in the prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:24895551

  19. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit α-glucosidase activity and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Yousof; Jannat, Susoma; Jung, Hyun Ah; Jeong, Hyong Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-05-25

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of six natural coumarins, 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (1), 4'-methoxy Pd-C-I (2), decursinol (3), decursidin (4), umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid (5), and 2'-isopropyl psoralene (6) isolated from Angelica decursiva and evaluated their inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase, and ONOO(-)-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. Coumarins 1-6 showed potent PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with ranges of IC50 values of 5.39-58.90 μM and 65.29-172.10 μM, respectively. In the kinetic study for PTP1B enzyme inhibition, compounds 1, 5, and 6 were competitive, whereas 2 and 4 showed mixed type, and 3 displayed noncompetitive type inhibition. For α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good mixed-type, while 2, 5, and 6 showed noncompetitive and 4 displayed competitive type inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins also effectively suppressed ONOO(-)-mediated tyrosine nitration in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate PTP1B inhibition, we generated a 3D structure of PTP1B using Autodock 4.2 and simulated the binding of compounds 1-6. Docking simulations showed that different residues of PTP1B interacted with different functional groups of compounds 1-6 through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, the binding energies of compounds 1-6 were negative, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may stabilize the open form of the enzyme and potentiate tight binding of the active site of PTP1B, thereby resulting in more effective PTP1B inhibition. These results demonstrate that the whole plant of A. decursiva and its coumarins are useful as potential functional food ingredients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27085377

  20. Hydrogen bonds in Zif268 proteins - a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Palanivel, Umadevi; Lakshmipathi, Senthilkumar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the work was to elucidate the presence of different hydrogen bond (H-bond) in five Zif268 proteins (1A1F, 1A1G, 1A1H, 1A1I and 1A1K). For this purpose, we have performed the QM/MM and molecular dynamics (MD) studies, the results of which reveal that H-bonds depend on the amino acid sequence and orientation of the H-bond donor atoms. Further, high specificity of Arg and Asn is observed for guanine and adenine, respectively. Furthermore, both conventional and non-conventional hydrogen bond also exists in the proteins, among them N-H⋯O H-bonds are the strongest. Besides, the non-conventional bonds play a role in the protein folding and DNA stacking. From the QSAR properties, amino acids such as asparagine and aspartic acids are the major reactive sites in the Zif268 protein. The electron affinities of Zif268 proteins are high, so the charge transfer occurs from the DNA to the protein molecules. NBO analysis indicates the majority of charge transfer occurs from DNA to the corresponding anti-bonding orbital of the peptides. Root mean square deviation and Rg (radius of gyration) show that 1A1F is more compact and in native state during MD simulation. The minimum Rg leads to the large number of hydrogen bonds formation in 1A1F. Higher solvent accessible surface area in 1A1I indicates that the cavity inside the protein is large. PMID:26300286

  1. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels by RGK Proteins.

    PubMed

    Buraei, Zafir; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Due to their essential biological roles, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are regulated by a myriad of molecules and mechanisms. Fifteen years ago, RGK proteins were discovered to bind the VGCC β subunit (Cavβ) and potently inhibit high-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels. RGKs (Rad, Rem, Rem2 and Gem/Kir) are a family of monomeric small GTPases belonging to the superfamily of Ras GTPases. They exert dual inhibitory effects on VGCCs, decreasing surface expression and suppressing surface channels through immobilization of the voltage sensor or reduction of channel open probability. While Cavβ is required for all forms of RGK inhibition, not all inhibition is mediated by the RGK-Cavβ interaction. Some RGK proteins also interact directly with the pore-forming α1 subunit of some types of VGCCs (Cavα1). Importantly, RGK proteins tonically inhibit VGCCs in native cells, regulating cardiac and neural functions. This minireview summarizes the mechanisms, molecular determinants, and physiological impact of RGK inhibition of VGCCs. PMID:25966691

  2. Light and hydrogen peroxide inhibit C. elegans Feeding through gustatory receptor orthologs and pharyngeal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Nikhil; Horvitz, H Robert

    2015-02-18

    While gustatory sensing of the five primary flavors (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory) has been extensively studied, pathways that detect non-canonical taste stimuli remain relatively unexplored. In particular, while reactive oxygen species cause generalized damage to biological systems, no gustatory mechanism to prevent ingestion of such material has been identified in any organism. We observed that light inhibits C. elegans feeding and used light as a tool to uncover molecular and neural mechanisms for gustation. Light can generate hydrogen peroxide, and we discovered that hydrogen peroxide similarly inhibits feeding. The gustatory receptor family members LITE-1 and GUR-3 are required for the inhibition of feeding by light and hydrogen peroxide. The I2 pharyngeal neurons increase calcium in response to light and hydrogen peroxide, and these responses require GUR-3 and a conserved antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin PRDX-2. Our results demonstrate a gustatory mechanism that mediates the detection and blocks ingestion of a non-canonical taste stimulus, hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25640076

  3. Light and hydrogen peroxide inhibit C. elegans feeding through gustatory receptor orthologs and pharyngeal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bhatla, Nikhil; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY While gustatory sensing of the five primary flavors (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory) has been extensively studied, pathways that detect non-canonical taste stimuli remain relatively unexplored. In particular, while reactive oxygen species cause generalized damage to biological systems, no gustatory mechanism to prevent ingestion of such material has been identified in any organism. We observed that light inhibits C. elegans feeding and used light as a tool to uncover molecular and neural mechanisms for gustation. Light can generate hydrogen peroxide, and we discovered that hydrogen peroxide similarly inhibits feeding. The gustatory receptor family members LITE-1 and GUR-3 are required for the inhibition of feeding by light and hydrogen peroxide. The I2 pharyngeal neurons increase calcium in response to light and hydrogen peroxide, and these responses require GUR-3 and a conserved antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin PRDX-2. Our results demonstrate a gustatory mechanism that mediates the detection and blocks ingestion of a non-canonical taste stimulus, hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25640076

  4. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Proteins at Langmuir Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pirrone, Gregory F; Vernon, Briana C; Kent, Michael S; Engen, John R

    2015-07-21

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) is valuable for providing conformational information for proteins/peptides that are very difficult to analyze with other methods such as peripheral membrane proteins and peptides that interact with membranes. We developed a new type of HX MS measurement that integrates Langmuir monolayers. A lipid monolayer was generated, a peptide or protein associated with it, and then the monolayer-associated peptide or protein was exposed to deuterium. The deuterated species was recovered from the monolayer, digested, and deuterium incorporation monitored by MS. Test peptides showed that deuterium recovery in an optimized protocol was equivalent to deuterium recovery in conventional solution HX MS. The reproducibility of the measurements was high, despite the requirement of generating a new monolayer for each deuterium labeling time. We validated that known conformational changes in the presence of a monolayer/membrane could be observed with the peptide melittin and the myristoylated protein Arf-1. Results in an accompanying paper show that the method can reveal details of conformational changes in a protein (HIV-1 Nef), which adopts a different conformation, depending on whether or not it is able to insert into the lipid layer. Overall, the HX MS Langmuir monolayer method provided new and meaningful conformational information for proteins that associate with lipid layers. The combination of HX MS results with neutron or X-ray reflection of the same proteins in Langmuir monolayers can be more informative than the isolated use of either method. PMID:26134943

  5. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, S; Adler, H S; Mischak, H; Janosch, P; Heidecker, G; Wolfman, A; Pippig, S; Lohse, M; Ueffing, M; Kolch, W

    1994-01-01

    The cytoplasmic Raf-1 kinase is essential for mitogenic signalling by growth factors, which couple to tyrosine kinases, and by tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activate protein kinase C (PKC). Signalling by the Raf-1 kinase can be blocked by activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The molecular mechanism of this inhibition is not precisely known but has been suggested to involve attenuation of Raf-1 binding to Ras. Using purified proteins, we show that in addition to weakening the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras, PKA can inhibit Raf-1 function directly via phosphorylation of the Raf-1 kinase domain. Phosphorylation by PKA interferes with the activation of Raf-1 by either PKC alpha or the tyrosine kinase Lck and even can downregulate the kinase activity of Raf-1 previously activated by PKC alpha or amino-terminal truncation. This type of inhibition can be dissociated from the ability of Raf-1 to associate with Ras, since (i) the isolated Raf-1 kinase domain, which lacks the Ras binding domain, is still susceptible to inhibition by PKA, (ii) phosphorylation of Raf-1 by PKC alpha alleviates the PKA-induced reduction of Ras binding but does not prevent the downregulation of Raf-1 kinase activity by PKA and (iii) cAMP agonists antagonize transformation by v-Raf, which is Ras independent. Images PMID:7935389

  6. Inhibition of receptor/G protein coupling by suramin analogues.

    PubMed

    Beindl, W; Mitterauer, T; Hohenegger, M; Ijzerman, A P; Nanoff, C; Freissmuth, M

    1996-08-01

    Suramin analogues act as direct antagonists of heterotrimeric G proteins because they block the rate-limiting step of G protein activation (i.e., the dissociation of GDP prebound to the G protein alpha subunit). We have used the human brain A1 adenosine receptor and the rat striatal D2 dopamine receptor, two prototypical Gi/G(o)-coupled receptors, as a model system to test whether the following analogues suppress the receptor-dependent activation of G proteins: 8-(3-nitrobenzamido)-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (NF007), 8-(3-(3-nitrobenzamido)-benzamido)-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (NF018); 8,8'-(carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylene))bis-(1,3,5-naphthalenetr isulfonic acid) (NF023); 8,8'-(carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino-(3,1- phenylene)) bis(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) (NF037); and suramin. Suramin and its analogues inhibit the formation of the agonist-specific ternary complex (agonist/receptor/G protein). This inhibition is (i) quasicompetitive with respect to agonist binding in that it can be overcome by increasing receptor occupancy but (ii) does not result from an interaction of the analogues with the ligand binding pocket of the receptors because the binding of antagonists or of agonists in the absence of functional receptor/G protein interaction is not affected. In addition to suppressing the spontaneous release of GDP from defined G protein alpha subunits, suramin and its analogues reduce receptor-catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange. The site, to which suramin analogues bind, overlaps with the docking site for the receptor on the G protein alpha subunit. The structure-activity relationships for inhibition of agonist binding to the A1 adenosine receptor (suramin > NF037 > NF023) and of agonist binding to the inhibition D2 dopamine receptor (suramin = NF037 > NF023 > NF018) differ. Thus, NF037 discriminates between the ternary complexes formed by the agonist-liganded D2 dopamine receptors and those formed by the A1 adenosine

  7. Iridovirus CARD Protein Inhibits Apoptosis through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Wu, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Jen; Lin, Pei-Wen; Shih, Chueh-Ju; Lin, Fu-Pang; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Grouper iridovirus (GIV) belongs to the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae; the genomes of such viruses contain an anti-apoptotic caspase recruitment domain (CARD) gene. The GIV-CARD gene encodes a protein of 91 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10,505 Daltons, and shows high similarity to other viral CARD genes and human ICEBERG. In this study, we used Northern blot to demonstrate that GIV-CARD transcription begins at 4 h post-infection; furthermore, we report that its transcription is completely inhibited by cycloheximide but not by aphidicolin, indicating that GIV-CARD is an early gene. GIV-CARD-EGFP and GIV-CARD-FLAG recombinant proteins were observed to translocate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, but no obvious nuclear localization sequence was observed within GIV-CARD. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GIV-CARD in GK cells infected with GIV inhibited expression of GIV-CARD and five other viral genes during the early stages of infection, and also reduced GIV infection ability. Immunostaining was performed to show that apoptosis was effectively inhibited in cells expressing GIV-CARD. HeLa cells irradiated with UV or treated with anti-Fas antibody will undergo apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, respectively. However, over-expression of recombinant GIV-CARD protein in HeLa cells inhibited apoptosis induced by mitochondrial and death receptor signaling. Finally, we report that expression of GIV-CARD in HeLa cells significantly reduced the activities of caspase-8 and -9 following apoptosis triggered by anti-Fas antibody. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GIV-CARD inhibits apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. PMID:26047333

  8. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  9. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  10. Benzimidazole analogs inhibit respiratory syncytial virus G protein function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Carrie W; Atkins, Colm; Pathak, Ashish; Gilbert, Brian E; Noah, James W

    2015-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a highly contagious Paramyxovirus that infects most children by age two, generating an estimated 75,000-125,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. annually. hRSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants and children under 1year of age, with significant mortality among high-risk groups. A regulatory agency-approved vaccine is not available, and existing prophylaxis and therapies are limited to use in high-risk pediatric patients; thus additional therapies are sorely needed. Here, we identify a series of benzimidazole analogs that inhibit hRSV infection in vitro with high potency, using a previously-reported high-throughput screening assay. The lead compound, SRI 29365 (1-[6-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-3-yl]methyl-1H-benzimidazole), has an EC50 of 66μM and a selectivity >50. We identified additional compounds with varying potencies by testing commercially-available chemical analogs. Time-of-addition experiments indicated that SRI 29365 effectively inhibits viral replication only if present during the early stages of viral infection. We isolated a virus with resistance to SRI 29365 and identified mutations in the transmembrane domain of the viral G protein genomic sequence that suggested that the compound inhibits G-protein mediated attachment of hRSV to cells. Additional experiments with multiple cell types indicated that SRI 29365 antiviral activity correlates with the binding of cell surface heparin by full-length G protein. Lastly, SRI 29365 did not reduce hRSV titers or morbidity/mortality in efficacy studies using a cotton rat model. Although SRI 29365 and analogs inhibit hRSV replication in vitro, this work suggests that the G-protein may not be a valid drug target in vivo. PMID:26116756

  11. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S.; Rennert, Paul D.; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C.; Freed, Eric O.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors. PMID:25136083

  12. Protein determinants of phage T4 lysis inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Samir H; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Tran, Tram Anh T; Sacchettini, James C; Young, Ry

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies have established that lysis inhibition in bacteriophage T4 infections occurs when the RI antiholin inhibits the lethal hole-forming function of the T holin. The T-holin is composed of a single N-terminal transmembrane domain and a ∼20 kDa periplasmic domain. It accumulates harmlessly throughout the bacteriophage infection cycle until suddenly causing permeabilization of the inner membrane, thereby initiating lysis. The RI antiholin has a SAR domain that directs its secretion to the periplasm, where it can either be inactivated and degraded or be activated as a specific inhibitor of T. Previously, it was shown that the interaction of the soluble domains of these two proteins within the periplasm was necessary for lysis inhibition. We have purified and characterized the periplasmic domains of both T and RI. Both proteins were purified in a modified host that allows disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm, due to the functional requirement of conserved disulfide bonds. Analytical centrifugation and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that RI was monomeric and exhibited ∼80% alpha-helical content. In contrast, T exhibited a propensity to oligomerize and precipitate at high concentrations. Incubation of RI with T inhibits this aggregation and results in a complex of equimolar T and RI content. Although gel filtration analysis indicated a complex mass of 45 kDa, intermediate between the predicted 30 kDa heterodimer and 60 kDa heterotetramer, sedimentation velocity analysis indicated that the predominant species is the former. These results suggest that RI binding to T is necessary and sufficient for lysis inhibition. PMID:22389108

  13. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    PubMed Central

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C A

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase lose their ability to enter cultured cells. In addition, a short-lived capacity to enter cells may be important during infection so that bacterial invasiveness is limited to certain times and host sites during pathogenesis. PMID:8454361

  14. Inhibition of protein synthesis may explain the bactericidal properties of hypochlorous acid produced by phagocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, S.M.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The authors find that hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) inhibit protein synthesis in E. coli: HOCl is similarly ordered 10x more efficient than H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This result may underlie the mechanism of bacterial killing by phagocytes, which use H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and myeloperoxidase (MPO) to oxidize Cl/sup -/ to HOCl. Protein synthesis (/sup 3/H-leu incorporation) was completely inhibited by 50..mu..M HOCl, whereas 50..mu..M H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ only gave similarly ordered 10% inhibition. Complete inhibition by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was only observed at concentrations < 0.5 mM. HOCl was also a more potent inhibitor of cell growth (cultured in M9 medium + glucose) than was H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. No growth occurred at 50..mu..M HOCl: in contrast 0.5 mM H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was required for similar results. During time-course experiments it was found that the inhibition of cell growth by both HOCl and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ reached a maximum within 30 min (at any concentration used). HOCl reacts avidly with amino groups to form N-chloroamines but H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is unreactive. Amino acids (ala, lys, met, trp) or taurine (all at 10 mM) prevented the effects of HOCl but did not affect H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ results. There was an excellent correlation between decreased protein synthesis and diminished cell growth. Inhibition of cell growth was not explained by proteolysis (release of acid-soluble counts), or by loss of membrane integrity. They propose that inhibition of protein synthesis may be a fundamental aspect of the bactericidal functions of phagocytes, and that the production of HOCl by MPO represents a quantitative advantage over H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  15. Neutron protein crystallography: A complementary tool for locating hydrogens in proteins.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, William B; Bodenheimer, Annette M; Meilleur, Flora

    2016-07-15

    Neutron protein crystallography is a powerful tool for investigating protein chemistry because it directly locates hydrogen atom positions in a protein structure. The visibility of hydrogen and deuterium atoms arises from the strong interaction of neutrons with the nuclei of these isotopes. Positions can be unambiguously assigned from diffraction at resolutions typical of protein crystals. Neutrons have the additional benefit to structural biology of not inducing radiation damage in protein crystals. The same crystal could be measured multiple times for parametric studies. Here, we review the basic principles of neutron protein crystallography. The information that can be gained from a neutron structure is presented in balance with practical considerations. Methods to produce isotopically-substituted proteins and to grow large crystals are provided in the context of neutron structures reported in the literature. Available instruments for data collection and software for data processing and structure refinement are described along with technique-specific strategies including joint X-ray/neutron structure refinement. Examples are given to illustrate, ultimately, the unique scientific value of neutron protein crystal structures. PMID:26592456

  16. Inhibition of Type III Interferon Activity by Orthopoxvirus Immunomodulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) family elicits an antiviral response that is nearly identical to that evoked by IFN-α/β. However, these cytokines (known as IFN-λ1, 2, and 3) signal through a distinct receptor, and thus may be resistant to the evasion strategies used by some viruses to avoid the IFN-α/β response. Orthopoxviruses are highly resistant to IFN-α/β because they encode well-characterized immunomodulatory proteins that inhibit IFN activity. These include a secreted receptor (B18R) that neutralizes IFN-α/β, and a cytoplasmic protein (E3L) that blocks IFN-α/β effector functions in infected cells. We therefore determined the ability of these immunomodulators to abrogate the IFN-λ–induced antiviral response. We found that (i) vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is resistant to IFN-λ antiviral activity; (ii) neither VACV B18R nor the variola virus homolog B20R neutralizes IFN-λ; (iii) VACV E3L inhibits the IFN-λ–mediated antiviral response through a PKR-dependent pathway; (iv) VACV infection inhibits IFN-λR–mediated signal transduction and gene expression. These results demonstrate differential sensitivity of IFN-λ to multiple distinct evasion mechanisms employed by a single virus. PMID:20038204

  17. Diamidine Compounds for Selective Inhibition of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification critical for a variety of biological processes. Misregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has been linked to many pathological conditions. Most current PRMT inhibitors display limited specificity and selectivity, indiscriminately targeting many methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a cofactor. Here we report diamidine compounds for specific inhibition of PRMT1, the primary type I enzyme. Docking, molecular dynamics, and MM/PBSA analysis together with biochemical assays were conducted to understand the binding modes of these inhibitors and the molecular basis of selective inhibition for PRMT1. Our data suggest that 2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl)furan (1, furamidine, DB75), one leading inhibitor, targets the enzyme active site and is primarily competitive with the substrate and noncompetitive toward the cofactor. Furthermore, cellular studies revealed that 1 is cell membrane permeable and effectively inhibits intracellular PRMT1 activity and blocks cell proliferation in leukemia cell lines with different genetic lesions. PMID:24564570

  18. Measles Virus Matrix Protein Inhibits Host Cell Transcription.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuelian; Shahriari, Shadi; Li, Hong-Mei; Ghildyal, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious virus that still causes annual epidemics in developing countries despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Additionally, importation from endemic countries causes frequent outbreaks in countries where it has been eliminated. The M protein of MeV plays a key role in virus assembly and cytopathogenesis; interestingly, M is localised in nucleus, cytoplasm and membranes of infected cells. We have used transient expression of M in transfected cells and in-cell transcription assays to show that only some MeV M localizes to the nucleus, in addition to cell membranes and the cytoplasm as previously described, and can inhibit cellular transcription via binding to nuclear factors. Additionally, MeV M was able to inhibit in vitro transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, a proportion of M is also localized to nucleus of MeV infected cells at early times in infection, correlating with inhibition of cellular transcription. Our data show, for the first time, that MeV M may play a role early in infection by inhibiting host cell transcription. PMID:27551716

  19. Measles Virus Matrix Protein Inhibits Host Cell Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuelian; Shahriari, Shadi; Li, Hong-Mei; Ghildyal, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious virus that still causes annual epidemics in developing countries despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Additionally, importation from endemic countries causes frequent outbreaks in countries where it has been eliminated. The M protein of MeV plays a key role in virus assembly and cytopathogenesis; interestingly, M is localised in nucleus, cytoplasm and membranes of infected cells. We have used transient expression of M in transfected cells and in-cell transcription assays to show that only some MeV M localizes to the nucleus, in addition to cell membranes and the cytoplasm as previously described, and can inhibit cellular transcription via binding to nuclear factors. Additionally, MeV M was able to inhibit in vitro transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, a proportion of M is also localized to nucleus of MeV infected cells at early times in infection, correlating with inhibition of cellular transcription. Our data show, for the first time, that MeV M may play a role early in infection by inhibiting host cell transcription. PMID:27551716

  20. Synthesis of Hydrogen-Bond Surrogate α-helices as Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen E.; Thomson, Paul F.; Arora, Paramjit S.

    2014-01-01

    The α-helix is a prevalent secondary structure in proteins and critical in mediating protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Peptide mimetics that adopt stable helices have become powerful tools for the modulation of PPIs in vitro and in vivo. Hydrogen-bond surrogate (HBS) α-helices utilize a covalent bond in place of an N-terminal i to i+4 hydrogen bond and have been used to target and disrupt PPIs that become dysregulated in disease states. These compounds have improved conformational stability and cellular uptake as compared to their linear peptide counterparts. The protocol presented here describes current methodology for the synthesis of HBS α-helical mimetics. The solid phase synthesis of HBS helices involves solid phase peptide synthesis with three key steps involving incorporation of N-allyl functionality within the backbone of the peptide, coupling of a secondary amine, and a ring-closing metathesis step. PMID:24903885

  1. Phosphatidylserine-binding protein lactadherin inhibits protein translocation across the ER membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-05-10

    Secretory and membrane proteins are translocated across and inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via translocon channels. To investigate the effect of the negatively-charged phospholipid phosphatidylserine on the translocation of nascent polypeptide chains through the translocon, we used the phosphatidylserine-binding protein lactadherin C2-domain. Lactadherin inhibited targeting of nascent chain to the translocon by signal sequence and the initiation of translocation. Moreover, lactadherin inhibited the movement of the translocating polypeptide chain regardless of the presence or absence of positively-charged residues. Phosphatidylserine might be critically involved in translocon function, but it is not a major determinant for translocation arrest of positively-charged residues. PMID:23583395

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23-mediated Inhibition of Renal Phosphate Transport in Mice Requires Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger Regulatory Factor-1 (NHERF-1) and Synergizes with Parathyroid Hormone*

    PubMed Central

    Weinman, Edward J.; Steplock, Deborah; Shenolikar, Shirish; Biswas, Rajatsubhra

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) inhibits sodium-dependent phosphate transport in brush border membrane vesicles derived from hormone-treated kidney slices of the mouse and in mouse proximal tubule cells by processes involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC). By contrast, phosphate transport in brush border membrane vesicles and proximal tubule cells from sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1)-null mice were resistant to the inhibitory effect of FGF-23 (10−9 m). Infection of NHERF-1-null proximal tubule cells with wild-type adenovirus-GFP-NHERF-1 increased basal phosphate transport and restored the inhibitory effect of FGF-23. Infection with adenovirus-GFP-NHERF-1 containing a S77A or T95D mutation also increased basal phosphate transport, but the cells remained resistant to FGF-23 (10−9 m). Low concentrations of FGF-23 (10−13 m) and PTH (10−11 m) individually did not inhibit phosphate transport or activate PKA, PKC, or MAPK. When combined, however, these hormones markedly inhibited phosphate transport associated with activation of PKC and PKA but not MAPK. These studies indicate that FGF-23 inhibits phosphate transport in the mouse kidney by processes that involve the scaffold protein NHERF-1. In addition, FGF-23 synergizes with PTH to inhibit phosphate transport by facilitating the activation of the PTH signal transduction pathway. PMID:21908609

  3. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats through inhibition of endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changyong; Hu, Min; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Huan; Deng, Jing; Yan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of myocardial damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signal molecule, has drawn considerable attention for its role in various pathophysiological processes. Multiple lines of evidence reveal the protective effects of H2S in various models of cardiac injury, however, the exact mechanism underlying this protective effect of H2S against myocardial I/R injury is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S preconditioning attenuates myocardial I/R injury in rats and whether the observed protection is associated with reduced endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress. We found that H2S preconditioning significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, preserved left ventricular function, and inhibited I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo. Furthermore, H2S preconditioning significantly attenuated I/R-induced ER/SR stress responses, including the increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and activate transcription factor in myocardium. Additionally, we demonstrate that H2S preconditioning attenuates ER/SR stress and inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis in an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation in rat H9c2 cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that H2S-attenuated ER/SR stress plays an important role in its protective effects against I/R-induced myocardial injury. PMID:26339339

  4. Brazilin inhibits amyloid β-protein fibrillogenesis, remodels amyloid fibrils and reduces amyloid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Jie; Guo, Jing-Jing; Gao, Ming-Tao; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Han, Yi-Fan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Jiang, Shaoyi; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Soluble amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers, the main neurotoxic species, are predominantly formed from monomers through a fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. Herein, we virtually screened an in-house library of natural compounds and discovered brazilin as a dual functional compound in both Aβ42 fibrillogenesis inhibition and mature fibril remodeling, leading to significant reduction in Aβ42 cytotoxicity. The potent inhibitory effect of brazilin was proven by an IC50 of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM, which was smaller than that of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in Phase III clinical trials and about one order of magnitude smaller than those of curcumin and resveratrol. Most importantly, it was found that brazilin redirected Aβ42 monomers and its mature fibrils into unstructured Aβ aggregates with some β-sheet structures, which could prevent both the primary nucleation and the fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. Molecular simulations demonstrated that brazilin inhibited Aβ42 fibrillogenesis by directly binding to Aβ42 species via hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding and remodeled mature fibrils by disrupting the intermolecular salt bridge Asp23-Lys28 via hydrogen bonding. Both experimental and computational studies revealed a different working mechanism of brazilin from that of known inhibitors. These findings indicate that brazilin is of great potential as a neuroprotective and therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25613018

  5. Brazilin inhibits amyloid β-protein fibrillogenesis, remodels amyloid fibrils and reduces amyloid cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Jie; Guo, Jing-Jing; Gao, Ming-Tao; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Han, Yi-Fan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Jiang, Shaoyi; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Soluble amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers, the main neurotoxic species, are predominantly formed from monomers through a fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. Herein, we virtually screened an in-house library of natural compounds and discovered brazilin as a dual functional compound in both Aβ42 fibrillogenesis inhibition and mature fibril remodeling, leading to significant reduction in Aβ42 cytotoxicity. The potent inhibitory effect of brazilin was proven by an IC50 of 1.5 +/- 0.3 μM, which was smaller than that of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in Phase III clinical trials and about one order of magnitude smaller than those of curcumin and resveratrol. Most importantly, it was found that brazilin redirected Aβ42 monomers and its mature fibrils into unstructured Aβ aggregates with some β-sheet structures, which could prevent both the primary nucleation and the fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. Molecular simulations demonstrated that brazilin inhibited Aβ42 fibrillogenesis by directly binding to Aβ42 species via hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding and remodeled mature fibrils by disrupting the intermolecular salt bridge Asp23-Lys28 via hydrogen bonding. Both experimental and computational studies revealed a different working mechanism of brazilin from that of known inhibitors. These findings indicate that brazilin is of great potential as a neuroprotective and therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Inhibition of virus DNA replication by artificial zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Sera, Takashi

    2005-02-01

    Prevention of virus infections is a major objective in agriculture and human health. One attractive approach to the prevention is inhibition of virus replication. To demonstrate this concept in vivo, an artificial zinc finger protein (AZP) targeting the replication origin of the Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), a model DNA virus, was created. In vitro DNA binding assays indicated that the AZP efficiently blocked binding of the viral replication protein (Rep), which initiates virus replication, to the replication origin. All of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the AZP showed phenotypes strongly resistant to virus infection, and 84% of the transgenic plants showed no symptom. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that BSCTV replication was completely suppressed in the transgenic plants. Since the mechanism of viral DNA replication is well conserved among plants and mammals, this approach could be applied not only to agricultural crop protection but also to the prevention of virus infections in humans. PMID:15681461

  7. Pharmacological Inhibition of Bromodomain-Containing Proteins in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with the activation of genes that contribute to immune defense and tissue repair. The bromodomain-containing proteins of the BET family, which recognize histone lysine acetylation, play a key role in the transcriptional control of inflammatory genes. Inhibition of BET proteins by the small-molecule inhibitor I-BET affects the expression of a particular subset of inflammatory genes—namely, ones that follow an “analog-like,” but not “digital-like” activation pattern. This ability of I-BET to target genes based on the dynamic pattern of their activation may facilitate the further development of anti-inflammatory treatment protocols that are tuned to the individual or to disease-specific patterns of gene expression. PMID:24890512

  8. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel

    2011-07-15

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H(2)S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H(2)S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na(2)MoO(4)), ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H(2)S generation, with Na(2)MoO(4) reducing H(2)S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH)(2) providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl(3) was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H(2)S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na(2)MoO(4) and FeCl(3) inhibited H(2)S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH)(2) decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H(2)S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration. PMID:21592650

  9. Strong Ionic Hydrogen Bonding Causes a Spectral Isotope Effect in Photoactive Yellow Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Hara, Miwa; Stalcup, T. Page; Xie, Aihua; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Standard hydrogen bonds are of great importance for protein structure and function. Ionic hydrogen bonds often are significantly stronger than standard hydrogen bonds and exhibit unique properties, but their role in proteins is not well understood. We report that hydrogen/deuterium exchange causes a redshift in the visible absorbance spectrum of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). We expand the range of interpretable isotope effects by assigning this spectral isotope effect (SIE) to a functionally important hydrogen bond at the active site of PYP. The inverted sign and extent of this SIE is explained by the ionic nature and strength of this hydrogen bond. These results show the relevance of ionic hydrogen bonding for protein active sites, and reveal that the inverted SIE is a novel, to our knowledge, tool to probe ionic hydrogen bonds. Our results support a classification of hydrogen bonds that distinguishes the properties of ionic hydrogen bonds from those of both standard and low barrier hydrogen bonds, and show how this classification helps resolve a recent debate regarding active site hydrogen bonding in PYP. PMID:24314088

  10. Inhibition of Protein-Protein Interactions and Signaling by Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the core of cell signaling pathways as well as many bacterial and viral infection processes. As such, they define critical targets for drug development against diseases such as cancer, arthritis, obesity, AIDS and many others. Until now, the clinical inhibition of protein-protein interactions and signaling has been accomplished with the use of antibodies or soluble versions of receptor molecules. Small molecule replacements of these therapeutic agents have been extremely difficult to develop; either the necessary potency has been hard to achieve or the expected biological effect has not been obtained. In this presentation, we show that a rigorous thermodynamic approach that combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides a unique platform for the identification and optimization of small molecular weight inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Recent advances in the development of cell entry inhibitors of HIV-1 using this approach will be discussed.

  11. Kinetic evaluation of the inhibition of protein glycation during heating.

    PubMed

    Akıllıoğlu, H Gül; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of early stage of the Maillard reaction by a reversible bimolecular reaction mechanism and also to evaluate the compatibility of enzyme inhibition kinetics for calculating the inhibitory activity of protein anti-glycation agents. Model systems composed of ovalbumin, glucose, and anti-glycation agents (tannic acid or calcium ion) at different molar ratios were heated at 90 °C for different times in dry state or in solution. Heated samples were analysed for furosine, acid derivative of N-ε-fructoselysine (FL), to monitor the progression of the early glycation stage. Compared to a control, presence of calcium ions and tannic acid decreased FL formation significantly (p<0.05) during heating in dry state. Evaluation of the kinetic data revealed that calcium inhibited glycation of ovalbumin by a mixed non-competitive mechanism in both dry and in solution conditions; while the mode of inhibition by tannic acid was found to be purely non-competitive in the dry state. PMID:26593596

  12. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen battery self-discharge mechanism and methods for its inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visintin, Arnaldo; Anani, Anaba; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, A. J.; Lim, Hong S.

    1992-01-01

    A review of our studies on the elucidation of the self-discharge mechanism of the Ni/H2 battery and methods to inhibit this phenomena is presented. The results show that (1) the rate of heat generation from nickel hydroxide powders and from electrodes increases with increase of hydrogen pressure, simultaneously, the open-circuit potential of the nickel hydroxide electrode is shifted in a negative direction more rapidly, indicating the transformation of NiOOH to Ni(OH)2; (2) heat generation rates measured in the microcalorimeter are considerably faster for electrolyte starved electrodes than for electrolyte-flooded electrodes; (3) there is a good correlation between the extent of self-discharge, as determined by heat generation in microcalorimetric measurement and capacity change; and (4) the self-discharge in Ni/H2 battery occurs via direct reduction of the active material by pressurized hydrogen. The addition of cadmium to the electrode reduces the self-discharge.

  14. Naringin protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ge; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Long-Fei; Zhang, Yuan-Min

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of osteoporosis. We show that naringin, a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, effectively protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Naringin increased viability of hAMDSCs and attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Naringin also reversed H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and mRNA expression levels of osteogenesis marker genes RUNX2 and OSX in hADMSCs. However, addition of naringin leads to a significant recovery, suggesting the protective effects of naringin against H2O2-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the H2O2-induced decrease of protein expressions of β-catenin and clyclin D1, two important transcriptional regulators of Wnt-signaling, was successfully rescued by naringin treatment. Also, in the presence of Wnt inhibitor DKK-1, naringin is no longer effective in stimulating ALP activity, increasing calcium content and mRNA expression levels of RUNX2 and OSX in H2O2-exposed hADMSCs. These data clearly demonstrates that naringin protects hADMSCs against oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, which may involve Wnt signaling pathway. Our work suggests that naringin may be a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for osteoporosis and activation of Wnt signaling may represent attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of degenerative disease of bone tissue. PMID:26482937

  15. Urea, but not guanidinium, destabilizes proteins by forming hydrogen bonds to the peptide group.

    PubMed

    Lim, Woon Ki; Rösgen, Jörg; Englander, S Walter

    2009-02-24

    The mechanism by which urea and guanidinium destabilize protein structure is controversial. We tested the possibility that these denaturants form hydrogen bonds with peptide groups by measuring their ability to block acid- and base-catalyzed peptide hydrogen exchange. The peptide hydrogen bonding found appears sufficient to explain the thermodynamic denaturing effect of urea. Results for guanidinium, however, are contrary to the expectation that it might H-bond. Evidently, urea and guanidinium, although structurally similar, denature proteins by different mechanisms. PMID:19196963

  16. Binding and inhibition of drug transport proteins by heparin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunliang; Scully, Michael; Petralia, Gloria; Kakkar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    A major problem in cancer treatment is the development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, multidrug resistance (MDR), associated with increased activity of transmembrane drug transporter proteins which impair cytotoxic treatment by rapidly removing the drugs from the targeted cells. Previously, it has been shown that heparin treatment of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy increases survival. In order to determine whether heparin is capable reducing MDR and increasing the potency of chemotherapeutic drugs, the cytoxicity of a number of agents toward four cancer cell lines (a human enriched breast cancer stem cell line, two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and a human lung cancer cell line A549) was tested in the presence or absence of heparin. Results demonstrated that heparin increased the cytotoxicity of a range of chemotherapeutic agents. This effect was associated with the ability of heparin to bind to several of the drug transport proteins of the ABC and non ABC transporter systems. Among the ABC system, heparin treatment caused significant inhibition of the ATPase activity of ABCG2 and ABCC1, and of the efflux function observed as enhanced intracellular accumulation of specific substrates. Doxorubicin cytoxicity, which was enhanced by heparin treatment of MCF-7 cells, was found to be under the control of one of the major non-ABC transporter proteins, lung resistance protein (LRP). LRP was also shown to be a heparin-binding protein. These findings indicate that heparin has a potential role in the clinic as a drug transporter modulator to reduce multidrug resistance in cancer patients. PMID:24253450

  17. Inhibition of the Unfolded Protein Response Mechanism Prevents Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joanna; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Agellon, Luis B.; Michalak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac fibrosis attributed to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins is a major cause of heart failure and death. Cardiac fibrosis is extremely difficult and challenging to treat in a clinical setting due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to cardiac fibrosis and effective anti-fibrotic therapies. The objective in this study was to examine whether unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway mediates cardiac fibrosis and whether a pharmacological intervention to modulate UPR can prevent cardiac fibrosis and preserve heart function. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate here that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse with increased expression of calreticulin, a model of heart failure, stems from impairment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, transient activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and stimulation of the TGFβ1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Remarkably, sustained pharmacologic inhibition of the UPR pathway by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is sufficient to prevent cardiac fibrosis, and improved exercise tolerance. Conclusions We show that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse model of heart failure stems from transient activation of UPR pathway leading to persistent remodelling of cardiac tissue. Blocking the activation of the transiently activated UPR pathway by TUDCA prevented cardiac fibrosis, and improved prognosis. These findings offer a window for additional interventions that can preserve heart function. PMID:27441395

  18. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by regulating phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Tao; Nie, Qixing; Zhang, Fengying; Zhu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    The effect of fumigation with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas on inhibiting enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices was investigated. Browning degree, changes in color, total phenol content, superoxide anion production rate (O2(-)), H2O2 content, antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging activity and the reducing power) and activities of the phenol metabolism-associated enzymes including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with 15 μl L(-1) H2S significantly inhibited the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices (P<0.05), reduced significantly O2(-) production rate and H2O2 content, and enhanced antioxidant capacities (P<0.05). PPO and POD activities in the fresh-cut lotus root slices were also significantly inhibited by treatment with H2S (P<0.05). This study suggested that treatment with exogenous H2S could inhibit the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by enhancing antioxidant capacities to alleviate the oxidative damage. PMID:25660900

  19. Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages by targeting the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Dong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Rui; Hao, Da-Peng; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular multi-protein complex controlling the maturation of cytokine interleukin-1β, plays an important role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cascades. Recently, the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in macrophages stimulated with LPS has been suggested to act as a trigger during the process of NLRP3 inflammasome activation that can be blocked by some mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. Known as a ROS scavenger, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on LPS-induced inflammatory damage in many animal experiments. Due to the unique molecular structure, H2 can easily target the mitochondria, suggesting that H2 is a potential antagonist of mtROS-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here we have showed that, in mouse macrophages, H2 exhibited substantial inhibitory activity against LPS-initiated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by scavenging mtROS. Moreover, the elimination of mtROS by H2 resultantly inhibited mtROS-mediated NLRP3 deubiquitination, a non-transcriptional priming signal of NLRP3 in response to the stimulation of LPS. Additionally, the removal of mtROS by H2 reduced the generation of oxidized mitochondrial DNA and consequently decreased its binding to NLRP3, thereby inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings have, for the first time, revealed the novel mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of molecular hydrogen on LPS-caused NLRP3 inflammasome activation, highlighting the promising application of this new antioxidant in the treatment of LPS-associated inflammatory pathological damage. PMID:26488087

  20. Characterization of a Beta Vulgaris polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein: a defense response gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall proteins that inhibit pathogen and pest polygalacturonases (PGs). PGIPs are members of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein family that play crucial roles in development, pathogen defense and recognition of beneficial microbes in pl...

  1. Selective inhibition of Biotin Protein Ligase from Staphylococcus aureus*

    PubMed Central

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P.; Tieu, William; Yap, Min Y.; Pendini, Nicole R.; Polyak, Steven W.; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel; Morona, Renato; Turnidge, John D.; Wallace, John C.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Booker, Grant W.; Abell, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a well documented need to replenish the antibiotic pipeline with new agents to combat the rise of drug resistant bacteria. One strategy to combat resistance is to discover new chemical classes immune to current resistance mechanisms that inhibit essential metabolic enzymes. Many of the obvious drug targets that have no homologous isozyme in the human host have now been investigated. Bacterial drug targets that have a closely related human homologue represent a new frontier in antibiotic discovery. However, to avoid potential toxicity to the host, these inhibitors must have very high selectivity for the bacterial enzyme over the human homolog. We have demonstrated that the essential enzyme biotin protein ligase (BPL) from the clinically important pathogen Staphylococcus aureus could be selectively inhibited. Linking biotin to adenosine via a 1,2,3 triazole yielded the first BPL inhibitor selective for S. aureus BPL over the human equivalent. The synthesis of new biotin 1,2,3-triazole analogues using click chemistry yielded our most potent structure (Ki 90 nm) with a >1100-fold selectivity for the S. aureus BPL over the human homologue. X-ray crystallography confirmed the mechanism of inhibitor binding. Importantly, the inhibitor showed cytotoxicity against S. aureus but not cultured mammalian cells. The biotin 1,2,3-triazole provides a novel pharmacophore for future medicinal chemistry programs to develop this new antibiotic class. PMID:22437830

  2. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuring on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuner; Guo, Ziye; Yang, Yayun; Geng, Zhonglei; Tang, Langlang; Zhao, Minglin; Qiu, Yuyan; Chen, Yifan; He, Peimin

    2016-10-01

    Ulva prolifera can protect human skin fibroblast from being injured by hydrogen peroxide. This work studied the composition of Ulva prolifera polysaccharide and identified its physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cell proliferation of 0.5mg/mL crude polysaccharide was 154.4% of that in negative control group. Moreover, ROS detection indices, including DCFH-DA, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT, indicated that crude polysaccharide could improve cellular ability to scavenge free radical and decrease the injury on human skin fibroblast by hydrogen peroxide. In purified polysaccharide, the activity of fraction P1-1 was the highest, with 174.6% of that in negative control group. The average molecular weight of P1-1 was 137kD with 18.0% of sulfate content. This work showed the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuries on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide, which may further evaluate the application of U. prolifera on cosmetics. PMID:27211299

  3. Inhibition of miR-134 Protects Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Qiong; Li, Cheng; Yang, Lu; Pei, Chong-Gang

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play an important role in neurological diseases. Particularly, miR-134 is reportedly involved in regulating neuron survival. However, the association between miR-134 and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival under adverse stimulus has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore the role and underlying mechanism of miR-134 in regulating RGC apoptosis in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Results showed that the expression of miR-134 dose- and time-dependently increased in RGC after H2O2 treatment. H2O2-induced RGC apoptosis was significantly attenuated by the inhibition of miR-134 expression by antagomiR-134 and was enhanced by miR-134 overexpression. Luciferase reporter assay revealed a direct interaction between miR-134 and the 3'-untranslated region of cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), a critical transcription factor for neuronal protection. In H2O2-treated RGCs, the inhibition of miR-134 significantly elevated the expression of CREB and its downstream genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Bcl-2. Furthermore, the inhibition of miR-134 also increased the expression of miR-132, a rapid response gene downstream of CREB. In addition, the target gene of miR-132, acetylcholinesterase was expectedly decreased by miR-134 inhibition. However, the overexpression of miR-134 exerted an opposite effect. The knockdown of CREB apparently abolished the protective effect of miR-134 inhibition against H2O2-induced RGC apoptosis. The increased expression of BDNF and Bcl-2 induced by miR-134 inhibition was also abrogated by CREB knockdown. Overall, our results suggested that the downregulation of miR-134 can effectively protect against H2O2-induced RGC apoptosis by negatively modulating CREB expression. PMID:25744098

  4. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits Ca2+ release through InsP3 receptors and relaxes airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Piedras, Isabel; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a signalling molecule that appears to regulate diverse cell physiological process in several organs and systems including vascular and airway smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Decreases in endogenous H2S synthesis have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and asthma. Here we investigated the mechanism of airway SMC relaxation induced by H2S in small intrapulmonary airways using mouse lung slices and confocal and phase-contrast video microscopy. Exogenous H2S donor Na2S (100 μm) reversibly inhibited Ca2+ release and airway contraction evoked by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) uncaging in airway SMCs. Similarly, InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release and contraction was inhibited by endogenous H2S precursor l-cysteine (10 mm) but not by l-serine (10 mm) or either amino acid in the presence of dl-propargylglycine (PPG). Consistent with the inhibition of Ca2+ release through InsP3 receptors (InsP3Rs), Na2S reversibly inhibited acetylcholine (ACh)-induced Ca2+ oscillations in airway SMCs. In addition, Na2S, the H2S donor GYY-4137, and l-cysteine caused relaxation of airways pre-contracted with either ACh or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Na2S-induced airway relaxation was resistant to a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) and a protein kinase G inhibitor (Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS). The effects of H2S on InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release and contraction as well as on the relaxation of agonist-contracted airways were mimicked by the thiol-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 10 mm) and inhibited by the oxidizing agent diamide (30 μm). These studies indicate that H2S causes airway SMC relaxation by inhibiting Ca2+ release through InsP3Rs and consequent reduction of agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in SMCs. The results suggest a novel role for endogenously produced H2S that involves the modulation of InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release – a cell-signalling system of critical importance for many physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID

  5. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits Ca2+ release through InsP3 receptors and relaxes airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Castro-Piedras, Isabel; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a signalling molecule that appears to regulate diverse cell physiological process in several organs and systems including vascular and airway smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Decreases in endogenous H2S synthesis have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and asthma. Here we investigated the mechanism of airway SMC relaxation induced by H2S in small intrapulmonary airways using mouse lung slices and confocal and phase-contrast video microscopy. Exogenous H2S donor Na2S (100 μm) reversibly inhibited Ca(2+) release and airway contraction evoked by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) uncaging in airway SMCs. Similarly, InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) release and contraction was inhibited by endogenous H2S precursor l-cysteine (10 mm) but not by l-serine (10 mm) or either amino acid in the presence of dl-propargylglycine (PPG). Consistent with the inhibition of Ca(2+) release through InsP3 receptors (InsP3Rs), Na2S reversibly inhibited acetylcholine (ACh)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in airway SMCs. In addition, Na2S, the H2S donor GYY-4137, and l-cysteine caused relaxation of airways pre-contracted with either ACh or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Na2S-induced airway relaxation was resistant to a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) and a protein kinase G inhibitor (Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS). The effects of H2S on InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) release and contraction as well as on the relaxation of agonist-contracted airways were mimicked by the thiol-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 10 mm) and inhibited by the oxidizing agent diamide (30 μm). These studies indicate that H2S causes airway SMC relaxation by inhibiting Ca(2+) release through InsP3Rs and consequent reduction of agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in SMCs. The results suggest a novel role for endogenously produced H2S that involves the modulation of InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) release - a cell-signalling system of critical importance for many physiological and pathophysiological processes

  6. Inhibition of CDC25B Phosphatase Through Disruption of Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, George; Dudkin, Sergii; Borkin, Dmitry; Ni, Wendi; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2015-04-29

    CDC25 phosphatases are key cell cycle regulators and represent very attractive but challenging targets for anticancer drug discovery. Here, we explored whether fragment-based screening represents a valid approach to identify inhibitors of CDC25B. This resulted in identification of 2-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzonitrile, which directly binds to the catalytic domain of CDC25B. Interestingly, NMR data and the crystal structure demonstrate that this compound binds to the pocket distant from the active site and adjacent to the protein–protein interaction interface with CDK2/Cyclin A substrate. Furthermore, we developed a more potent analogue that disrupts CDC25B interaction with CDK2/Cyclin A and inhibits dephosphorylation of CDK2. Based on these studies, we provide a proof of concept that targeting CDC25 phosphatases by inhibiting their protein–protein interactions with CDK2/Cyclin A substrate represents a novel, viable opportunity to target this important class of enzymes.

  7. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits carbachol-induced contractile responses in β-escin permeabilized guinea-pig taenia caecum.

    PubMed

    Denizalti, Merve; Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Bozkurt, T Emrah; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2011-05-11

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is an endogenous mediator producing a potent relaxation response in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles. While ATP-sensitive potassium channels are mainly involved in this relaxant effect in vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism in other smooth muscles has not been revealed yet. In the present study, we investigated how H(2)S relaxes non-vascular smooth muscle by using intact and β-escin permeabilized guinea-pig taenia caecum. In intact tissues, concentration-dependent relaxation response to H(2)S donor NaHS in carbachol-precontracted preparations did not change in the presence of a K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ, protein kinase A inhibitor KT-5720, protein kinase C inhibitor H-7, tetrodotoxin, apamin/charybdotoxin, NOS inhibitor L-NAME and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. We then studied how H(2)S affected carbachol- or Ca(2+)-induced contractions in permeabilized tissues. When Ca(2+) was clamped to a constant value (pCa6), a further contraction could be elicited by carbachol that was decreased by NaHS. This decrease in contraction was reversed by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase or N-acetyl cysteine. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid, also decreased the carbachol-induced contraction that was further inhibited by NaHS. Mitochondrial proton pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide p-trifluromethoxyphenylhydrazone also decreased the carbachol-induced contraction but this was not additionally changed by NaHS. The carbachol-induced Ca(2+) sensitization, calcium concentration-response curves, IP(3)- and caffeine-induced contractions were not affected by NaHS. In conclusion, we propose that hydrogen peroxide and mitochondria may have a role in H(2)S-induced relaxation response in taenia caecum. PMID:21371473

  8. Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Puertas, P; Rodríguez, F; Oviedo, J M; Ramiro-Ibáñez, F; Ruiz-Gonzalvo, F; Alonso, C; Escribano, J M

    1996-01-01

    African swine fever virus induces in convalescent pigs antibodies that neutralized the virus before and after binding to susceptible cells, inhibiting both virus attachment and internalization. A further analysis of the neutralization mechanisms mediated by the different viral proteins showed that antibodies to proteins p72 and p54 are involved in the inhibition of a first step of the replication cycle related to virus attachment, while antibodies to protein p30 are implicated in the inhibition of virus internalization. PMID:8764090

  9. Cotranslational Coat Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Potyviral RNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Besong-Ndika, Jane; Ivanov, Konstantin I.; Hafrèn, Anders; Michon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potato virus A (PVA) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and a member of the family Potyviridae. The PVA coat protein (CP) has an intrinsic capacity to self-assemble into filamentous virus-like particles, but the mechanism responsible for the initiation of viral RNA encapsidation in vivo remains unclear. Apart from virion assembly, PVA CP is also involved in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. In this study, we show that CP inhibits PVA RNA translation in a dose-dependent manner, through a mechanism involving the CP-encoding region. Analysis of this region, however, failed to identify any RNA secondary structure(s) preferentially recognized by CP, suggesting that the inhibition depends on CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions. In agreement with this possibility, insertion of an in-frame stop codon upstream of the CP sequence led to a marked decrease in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the cotranslational interactions between excess CP accumulating in trans and CP translated from viral RNA in cis are required to initiate the translational repression. This model suggests a mechanism for how viral RNA can be sequestered from translation and specifically selected for encapsidation at the late stages of viral infection. IMPORTANCE The main functions of the CP during potyvirus infection are to protect viral RNA from degradation and to transport it locally, systemically, and from host to host. Although virion assembly is a key step in the potyviral infectious cycle, little is known about how it is initiated and how viral RNA is selected for encapsidation. The results presented here suggest that CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions are predominantly involved in the sequestration of viral RNA away from translation. We propose that the cotranslational nature of these interactions may represent a mechanism for the selection of viral RNA for encapsidation. A better understanding of the

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Citrus unshiu immature peel and nobiletin inhibiting hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Woo; Jung, Su Young; Lee, Gyeong Hwan; Cho, Jung Hee; Choi, In Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress-induced cell damage is common in the etiology of several neurobiological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In a case study, nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peels could prevent the progression of cognitive impairment in donepezil-preadministered Alzheimer's disease patients. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of nobiletin and Citrus unshiu immature peel (CUIP) water extract, which contains nobiletin as a major compound, on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal neuronal model. Materials and Methods: HT22 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of various concentrations of CUIP and nobiletin. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic protein levels were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Western blotting. Results: Pretreatment with CUIP and nobiletin inhibited cell death due to hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide-induced the expression of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) and p-p38 proteins in HT22 cells; however CUIP and nobiletin suppressed p-JNK and p-p38 without changing JNK or p38. Regarding apoptosis, caspase 3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Bax protein expression was determined. CUIP and nobiletin suppressed caspase 3 and Bax expression, but they induced Bcl-2 expression in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results show that CUIP and nobiletin can protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in HT22 neurons via mitogen-activated protein kinases and apoptotic pathways. PMID:26664016

  11. Bcl-2 over-expression promotes genomic instability by inhibiting apoptosis of cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew G; Hampton, Mark B

    2007-10-01

    The anti-apoptotic oncogene bcl-2 is hypothesized to increase the antioxidant status of cells, thereby protecting them from oxidative stress. In this study, we examined hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative stress in Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Over-expression of Bcl-2 did not inhibit cytotoxicity at doses of H2O2 that caused necrosis (>200 microM), but it did block cell death at apoptotic doses (<200 microM). However, these cells exhibited the same initial level of protein and lipid oxidation following exposure to H2O2 as the parental cells, indicating that the anti-apoptotic activity is not associated with general antioxidant properties. Bcl-2 expression was able to protect against secondary protein carbonyl formation, which was linked to lysosome stabilization. Assessment of micronuclei formation in cells over-expressing Bcl-2 showed evidence of increased genomic instability, consistent with the impairment of apoptosis in damaged cells. We conclude that while Bcl-2 can block cytotoxicity associated with apoptosis-inducing levels of oxidative stress, it does not protect the cells from the stress itself. Bcl-2 may promote tumourigenesis by preventing the removal of oxidatively damaged cells. PMID:17434928

  12. Proteasome dysfunction inhibits surfactant protein gene expression in lung epithelial cells: mechanism of inhibition of SP-B gene expression.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita; Boggaram, Vijayakumar

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant proteins maintain lung function through their actions to reduce alveolar surface tension and control of innate immune responses in the lung. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is responsible for the degradation of majority of intracellular proteins in eukaryotic cells, and proteasome dysfunction has been linked to the development of neurodegenerative, cardiac, and other diseases. Proteasome function is impaired in interstitial lung diseases associated with surfactant protein C (SP-C) mutation mapping to the BRICHOS domain located in the proSP-C protein. In this study we determined the effects of proteasome inhibition on surfactant protein expression in H441 and MLE-12 lung epithelial cells to understand the relationship between proteasome dysfunction and surfactant protein gene expression. Proteasome inhibitors lactacystin and MG132 reduced the levels of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner in H441 and MLE-12 cells. In H441 cells, lactacystin and MG132 inhibition of SP-B mRNA was associated with similar decreases in SP-B protein, and the inhibition was due to inhibition of gene transcription. Proteasome inhibitors decreased thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)/Nkx2.1 DNA binding activity, and the reduced TTF-1 DNA binding activity was due to reduced expression levels of TTF-1 protein. These data indicated that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is essential for the maintenance of surfactant protein gene expression and that disruption of this pathway inhibits surfactant protein gene expression via reduced expression of TTF-1 protein. PMID:16905641

  13. Intra-protein hydrogen bonding is dynamically stabilized by electronic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Li L.; Mei, Ye; Zhang, Qing G.; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2009-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been carried out to study dynamical stability of intra-protein hydrogen bonds based on two set of atomic charges, the standard AMBER charge and the polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The latter is derived from quantum mechanical calculation for protein in solution using a recently developed molecular fractionation with conjugate caps-Poisson-Boltzmann (MFCC-PB) approach and therefore includes electronic polarization effect of the protein at native structure. MD simulations are performed for a number of benchmark proteins containing helix and/or beta sheet secondary structures. The computational result shows that occupancy percentage of hydrogen bonds averaged over simulation time, as well as the number of hydrogen bonds as a function of simulation time, is consistently higher under PPC than AMBER charge. In particular, some intra-protein hydrogen bonds are found broken during MD simulation using AMBER charge but they are stable using PPC. The breaking of some intra-protein hydrogen bonds in AMBER simulation is responsible for deformation or denaturing of some local structures of proteins during MD simulation. The current study provides strong evidence that hydrogen bonding is dynamically more stable using PPC than AMBER charge, highlighting the stabilizing effect of electronic polarization on protein structure.

  14. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  15. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  16. Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 90 Prevents HIV Rebound.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pheroze; Maidji, Ekaterina; Stoddart, Cheryl A

    2016-05-01

    HIV evades eradication because transcriptionally dormant proviral genomes persist in long-lived reservoirs of resting CD4(+) T cells and myeloid cells, which are the source of viral rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy. Dormant HIV genomes readily produce infectious virus upon cellular activation because host transcription factors activated specifically by cell stress and heat shock mediate full-length HIV transcription. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is overexpressed during heat shock and activates inducible cellular transcription factors. Here we show that heat shock accelerates HIV transcription through induction of Hsp90 activity, which activates essential HIV-specific cellular transcription factors (NF-κB, NFAT, and STAT5), and that inhibition of Hsp90 greatly reduces gene expression mediated by these factors. More importantly, we show that Hsp90 controls virus transcription in vivo by specific Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical development, tanespimycin (17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) and AUY922, which durably prevented viral rebound in HIV-infected humanized NOD scid IL-2Rγ(-/-) bone marrow-liver-thymus mice up to 11 weeks after treatment cessation. Despite the absence of rebound viremia, we were able to recover infectious HIV from PBMC with heat shock. Replication-competent virus was detected in spleen cells from these nonviremic Hsp90 inhibitor-treated mice, indicating the presence of a tissue reservoir of persistent infection. Our novel findings provide in vivo evidence that inhibition of Hsp90 activity prevents HIV gene expression in replication-competent cellular reservoirs that would typically cause rebound in plasma viremia after antiretroviral therapy cessation. Alternating or supplementing Hsp90 inhibitors with current antiretroviral therapy regimens could conceivably suppress rebound viremia from persistent HIV reservoirs. PMID:26957545

  17. Microsomal protein synthesis inhibition: an early manifestation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.M.; Mela-Riker, L.M.; Houghton, D.C.; Gilbert, D.N.; Buss, W.C.

    1988-08-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics achieve bacterial killing by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. To examine whether similar mechanisms could be present in renal tubular cells prior to the onset of overt proximal tubular necrosis due to these drugs, we isolated microsomes from Fischer rats given 20 mg/kg gentamicin every 12 h subcutaneously for 2 days and from vehicle-injected controls. Concomitant studies of renal structure, function, and mitochondrial respiration were carried out. (3H)leucine incorporation into renal microsomes of treated animals was reduced by 21.9% (P less than 0.01), whereas brain and liver microsomes from the same animals were unaffected. Gentamicin concentration in the renal microsomal preparation was 56 micrograms/ml, a value 7- to 10-fold above concentrations necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. Conventional renal function studies were normal (blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance). Treated animals showed only a mild reduction of inulin clearance, 0.71 compared with 0.93 ml.min-1.100 g-1 in controls (P less than 0.05), and an increase in urinary excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase of 20 compared with 14.8 units/l (P less than 0.05). Renal slice transport of p-aminohippuric acid, tetraethylammonium, and the fractional excretion of sodium were well preserved. There was no evidence, as seen by light microscopy, of proximal tubular necrosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome concentrations were normal and respiratory activities only slightly reduced. Processes similar to those responsible for bacterial killing could be involved in experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity before overt cellular necrosis.

  18. Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 90 Prevents HIV Rebound*

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pheroze; Maidji, Ekaterina; Stoddart, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    HIV evades eradication because transcriptionally dormant proviral genomes persist in long-lived reservoirs of resting CD4+ T cells and myeloid cells, which are the source of viral rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy. Dormant HIV genomes readily produce infectious virus upon cellular activation because host transcription factors activated specifically by cell stress and heat shock mediate full-length HIV transcription. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is overexpressed during heat shock and activates inducible cellular transcription factors. Here we show that heat shock accelerates HIV transcription through induction of Hsp90 activity, which activates essential HIV-specific cellular transcription factors (NF-κB, NFAT, and STAT5), and that inhibition of Hsp90 greatly reduces gene expression mediated by these factors. More importantly, we show that Hsp90 controls virus transcription in vivo by specific Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical development, tanespimycin (17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) and AUY922, which durably prevented viral rebound in HIV-infected humanized NOD scid IL-2Rγ−/− bone marrow-liver-thymus mice up to 11 weeks after treatment cessation. Despite the absence of rebound viremia, we were able to recover infectious HIV from PBMC with heat shock. Replication-competent virus was detected in spleen cells from these nonviremic Hsp90 inhibitor-treated mice, indicating the presence of a tissue reservoir of persistent infection. Our novel findings provide in vivo evidence that inhibition of Hsp90 activity prevents HIV gene expression in replication-competent cellular reservoirs that would typically cause rebound in plasma viremia after antiretroviral therapy cessation. Alternating or supplementing Hsp90 inhibitors with current antiretroviral therapy regimens could conceivably suppress rebound viremia from persistent HIV reservoirs. PMID:26957545

  19. NifI inhibits nitrogenase by competing with Fe protein for binding to the MoFe protein

    SciTech Connect

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Leigh, John A.

    2007-12-14

    Reduction of substrate by nitrogenase requires direct electron transfer from the Fe protein to the MoFe protein. Inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Methanococcus maripaludis occurs when the regulatory protein NifI{sub 1,2} binds the MoFe protein. This inhibition is relieved by 2-oxoglutarate. Here we present evidence that NifI{sub 1,2} binding prevents association of the two nitrogenase components. Increasing amounts of Fe protein competed with NifI{sub 1,2}, decreasing its inhibitory effect. NifI{sub 1,2} prevented the co-purification of MoFe protein with a mutant form of the Fe protein that forms a stable complex with the MoFe protein, and NifI{sub 1,2} was unable to bind to an AlF{sub 4}{sup -}-stabilized Fe protein:MoFe protein complex. NifI{sub 1,2} inhibited ATP- and MoFe protein-dependent oxidation of the Fe protein, and 2OG relieved this inhibition. These results support a model where NifI{sub 1,2} competes with the Fe protein for binding to MoFe protein and prevents electron transfer.

  20. Selective and Reversible Inhibition of Active CO2 Transport by Hydrogen Sulfide in a Cyanobacterium 1

    PubMed Central

    Espie, George S.; Miller, Anthony G.; Canvin, David T.

    1989-01-01

    The active transport of CO2 in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 was inhibited by H2S. Treatment of the cells with up to 150 micromolar H2S + HS− at pH 8.0 had little effect on Na+-dependent HCO3− transport or photosynthetic O2 evolution, but CO2 transport was inhibited by more than 90%. CO2 transport was restored when H2S was removed by flushing with N2. At constant total H2S + HS− concentrations, inhibition of CO2 transport increased as the ratio of H2S to HS− increased, suggesting a direct role for H2S in the inhibitory process. Hydrogen sulfide does not appear to serve as a substrate for transport. In the presence of H2S and Na+ -dependent HCO3− transport, the extracellular CO2 concentration rose considerably above its equilibrium level, but was maintained far below its equilibrium level in the absence of H2S. The inhibition of CO2 transport, therefore, revealed an ongoing leakage from the cells of CO2 which was derived from the intracellular dehydration of HCO3− which itself had been recently transported into the cells. Normally, leaked CO2 is efficiently transported back into the cell by the CO2 transport system, thus maintaining the extracellular CO2 concentration near zero. It is suggested that CO2 transport not only serves as a primary means of inorganic carbon acquisition for photosynthesis but also serves as a means of recovering CO2 lost from the cell. A schematic model describing the relationship between the CO2 and HCO3− transport systems is presented. Images Figure 7 PMID:16667030

  1. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein: Activity, Inhibition and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Domashevskiy, Artem V.; Goss, Dixie J.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses employ an array of elaborate strategies to overcome plant defense mechanisms and must adapt to the requirements of the host translational systems. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) and is an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is thought to play an important role in the plant’s defense mechanism against foreign pathogens. This review focuses on the structure, function, and the relationship of PAP to other RIPs, discusses molecular aspects of PAP antiviral activity, the novel inhibition of this plant toxin by a virus counteraction—a peptide linked to the viral genome (VPg), and possible applications of RIP-conjugated immunotoxins in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25635465

  2. Structural basis for UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) specificity and PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1) inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Komander, David; Kular, Gursant S; Bain, Jennifer; Elliott, Matthew; Alessi, Dario R; Van Aalten, Daan M F

    2003-01-01

    PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1) is a member of the AGC (cAMP-dependent, cGMP-dependent, protein kinase C) family of protein kinases, and has a key role in insulin and growth-factor signalling through phosphorylation and subsequent activation of a number of other AGC kinase family members, such as protein kinase B. The staurosporine derivative UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) has been reported to be a potent inhibitor for PDK1, and is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we report the crystal structures of staurosporine and UCN-01 in complex with the kinase domain of PDK1. We show that, although staurosporine and UCN-01 interact with the PDK1 active site in an overall similar manner, the UCN-01 7-hydroxy group, which is not present in staurosporine, generates direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonds with active-site residues. Inhibition data from UCN-01 tested against a panel of 29 different kinases show a different pattern of inhibition compared with staurosporine. We discuss how these differences in inhibition could be attributed to specific interactions with the additional 7-hydroxy group, as well as the size of the 7-hydroxy-group-binding pocket. This information could lead to opportunities for structure-based optimization of PDK1 inhibitors. PMID:12892559

  3. Macrocycles that inhibit the binding between heat shock protein 90 and TPR-containing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ardi, Veronica C.; Alexander, Leslie D.; Johnson, Victoria; McAlpine, Shelli R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) accounts for 1–2% of the total proteins in normal cells and functions as a molecular chaperone that folds, assembles, and stabilizes client proteins. Hsp90 is over-expressed (3–6-fold increase) in stressed cells, including cancer cells, and regulates over 200 client and co-chaperone proteins. Hsp90 client proteins are involved in a plethora of cellular signaling events including numerous growth and apoptotic pathways. Since pathway-specific inhibitors can be problematic in drug-resistant cancers, shutting down multiple pathways at once is a promising approach when developing new therapeutics. Hsp90’s ability to modulate many growth and signaling pathways simultaneously makes this protein an attractive target in the field of cancer therapeutics. Herein we present evidence that a small molecule modulates Hsp90 via binding between the N and middle domain and allosterically inhibiting the binding interaction between Hsp90 and four C-terminal binding client proteins: IP6K2, FKBP38, FKBP52, and HOP. These last three clients contain a tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) region, which is known to interact with the MEEVD sequence on the C-terminus of Hsp90. Thus, this small molecule modulates the activity between co-chaperones that contain TPR motifs and Hsp90’s MEEVD region. This mechanism of action is unique from that of all Hsp90 inhibitors currently in clinical trials where these molecules have no effect on proteins that bind to the C-terminus of Hsp90. Further, our small molecule induces a Caspase-3 dependent apoptotic event. Thus, we describe the mechanism of a novel scaffold that is a useful tool for studying cell-signaling events that result when blocking the MEEVD-TPR interaction between Hsp90 and co-chaperone proteins. PMID:21950602

  4. Antimyeloma activity of heat shock protein-90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mitsiades, Constantine S; Mitsiades, Nicholas S; McMullan, Ciaran J; Poulaki, Vassiliki; Kung, Andrew L; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth; Akiyama, Masaharu; Shringarpure, Reshma; Munshi, Nikhil C; Richardson, Paul G; Hideshima, Teru; Chauhan, Dharminder; Gu, Xuesong; Bailey, Charles; Joseph, Marie; Libermann, Towia A; Rosen, Neal S; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2006-02-01

    We show that multiple myeloma (MM), the second most commonly diagnosed hematologic malignancy, is responsive to hsp90 inhibitors in vitro and in a clinically relevant orthotopic in vivo model, even though this disease does not depend on HER2/neu, bcr/abl, androgen or estrogen receptors, or other hsp90 chaperoning clients which are hallmarks of tumor types traditionally viewed as attractive clinical settings for use of hsp90 inhibitors, such as the geldanamycin analog 17-AAG. This class of agents simultaneously suppresses in MM cells the expression and/or function of multiple levels of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling (eg, IKK/NF-kappaB, PI-3K/Akt, and Raf/MAPK) and downstream effectors (eg, proteasome, telomerase, and HIF-1alpha activities). These pleiotropic proapoptotic effects allow hsp90 inhibitors to abrogate bone marrow stromal cell-derived protection on MM tumor cells, and sensitize them to other anticancer agents, including cytotoxic chemotherapy and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. These results indicate that hsp90 can be targeted therapeutically in neoplasias that may not express or depend on molecules previously considered to be the main hsp90 client proteins. This suggests a more general role for hsp90 in chaperoning tumor- or tissue-type-specific constellations of client proteins with critical involvement in proliferative and antiapoptotic cellular responses, and paves the way for more extensive future therapeutic applications of hsp90 inhibition in diverse neoplasias, including MM. PMID:16234364

  5. Vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits host cell-directed transcription of target genes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Black, B L; Lyles, D S

    1992-01-01

    Infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) results in a rapid inhibition of host cell transcription and translation. To determine whether the viral matrix (M) protein was involved in this inhibition of host cell gene expression, an M protein expression vector was cotransfected with a target gene vector, encoding the target gene, encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). Expression of M protein caused a decrease in CAT activity in a gene dosage-dependent manner, and inhibition was apparent by 12 h posttransfection. The inhibitory effect of M protein was quite potent. The level of M protein required for a 10-fold inhibition of CAT activity was less than 1% of the level of M protein produced during the sixth hour of VSV infection. Northern (RNA) analysis of cotransfected cells showed that expression of M protein caused a reduction in the steady-state level of the vector-encoded mRNAs. Expression of both CAT and M mRNAs was reduced in cells cotransfected with a plasmid encoding M protein, indicating that expression of small amounts of M protein from plasmid DNA inhibits further expression of both M and CAT mRNAs. Nuclear runoff transcription analysis demonstrated that expression of M protein inhibited transcription of the target genes. This is the first report of a viral gene product which is capable of inhibiting transcription in vivo in the absence of any other viral component. Images PMID:1318397

  6. Coliphage HK022 Nun protein inhibits RNA polymerase translocation.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Christal L; Kireeva, Maria L; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kashlev, Mikhail; Gottesman, Max

    2014-06-10

    The Nun protein of coliphage HK022 arrests RNA polymerase (RNAP) in vivo and in vitro at pause sites distal to phage λ N-Utilization (nut) site RNA sequences. We tested the activity of Nun on ternary elongation complexes (TECs) assembled with templates lacking the λ nut sequence. We report that Nun stabilizes both translocation states of RNAP by restricting lateral movement of TEC along the DNA register. When Nun stabilized TEC in a pretranslocated register, immediately after NMP incorporation, it prevented binding of the next NTP and stimulated pyrophosphorolysis of the nascent transcript. In contrast, stabilization of TEC by Nun in a posttranslocated register allowed NTP binding and nucleotidyl transfer but inhibited pyrophosphorolysis and the next round of forward translocation. Nun binding to and action on the TEC requires a 9-bp RNA-DNA hybrid. We observed a Nun-dependent toe print upstream to the TEC. In addition, mutations in the RNAP β' subunit near the upstream end of the transcription bubble suppress Nun binding and arrest. These results suggest that Nun interacts with RNAP near the 5' edge of the RNA-DNA hybrid. By stabilizing translocation states through restriction of TEC lateral mobility, Nun represents a novel class of transcription arrest factors. PMID:24853501

  7. Primate lentiviruses are differentially inhibited by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Le Duff, Yann; Wang, Yimeng; Pan, Qinghua; Ding, Shilei; Zheng, Yi-Min; Liu, Shan-Lu; Liang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins inhibit the entry of a large number of viruses. Not surprisingly, many viruses are refractory to this inhibition. In this study, we report that different strains of HIV and SIV are inhibited by human IFITM proteins to various degrees, with SIV of African green monkeys (SIVAGM) being mostly restricted by human IFITM2. Interestingly, SIVAGM is as much inhibited by human IFITM2 as by IFITM3 of its own host African green monkeys. Our data further demonstrate that the entry of SIVAGM is impaired by human IFITM2 and that this inhibition is overcome by the cholesterol-binding compound amphotericin B that also overcomes IFITM inhibition of influenza A viruses. These results suggest that IFITM proteins exploit similar mechanisms to inhibit the entry of both pH-independent primate lentiviruses and the pH-dependent influenza A viruses. PMID:25463599

  8. Methane Inhibition Alters the Microbial Community, Hydrogen Flow, and Fermentation Response in the Rumen of Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Denman, Stuart E.; Yang, Chunlei; Cheung, Jane; Mitsumori, Makoto; McSweeney, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Management of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen has been identified as an important consideration when reducing ruminant CH4 emissions. However, little is known about hydrogen flux and microbial rumen population responses to CH4 inhibition when animals are fed with slowly degradable diets. The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, chloroform, on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, and H2/CH4 production were investigated in vivo. Eight rumen fistulated Brahman steers were fed a roughage hay diet (Rhode grass hay) or roughage hay:concentrate diet (60:40) with increasing levels (low, mid, and high) of chloroform in a cyclodextrin matrix. The increasing levels of chloroform resulted in an increase in H2 expelled as CH4 production decreased with no effect on dry matter intakes. The amount of expelled H2 per mole of decreased methane, was lower for the hay diet suggesting a more efficient redirection of hydrogen into other microbial products compared with hay:concentrate diet. A shift in rumen fermentation toward propionate and branched-chain fatty acids was observed for both diets. Animals fed with the hay:concentrate diet had both higher formate concentration and H2 expelled than those fed only roughage hay. Metabolomic analyses revealed an increase in the concentration of amino acids, organic, and nucleic acids in the fluid phase for both diets when methanogenesis was inhibited. These changes in the rumen metabolism were accompanied by a shift in the microbiota with an increase in Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and a decrease in Archaea and Synergistetes for both diets. Within the Bacteroidetes family, some OTUs assigned to Prevotella were promoted under chloroform treatment. These bacteria may be partly responsible for the increase in amino acids and propionate in the rumen. No significant changes were observed for abundance of fibrolytic bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which suggests that fiber degradation was not impaired. The observed 30% decrease in

  9. Methane Inhibition Alters the Microbial Community, Hydrogen Flow, and Fermentation Response in the Rumen of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Denman, Stuart E; Yang, Chunlei; Cheung, Jane; Mitsumori, Makoto; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Management of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen has been identified as an important consideration when reducing ruminant CH4 emissions. However, little is known about hydrogen flux and microbial rumen population responses to CH4 inhibition when animals are fed with slowly degradable diets. The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, chloroform, on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, and H2/CH4 production were investigated in vivo. Eight rumen fistulated Brahman steers were fed a roughage hay diet (Rhode grass hay) or roughage hay:concentrate diet (60:40) with increasing levels (low, mid, and high) of chloroform in a cyclodextrin matrix. The increasing levels of chloroform resulted in an increase in H2 expelled as CH4 production decreased with no effect on dry matter intakes. The amount of expelled H2 per mole of decreased methane, was lower for the hay diet suggesting a more efficient redirection of hydrogen into other microbial products compared with hay:concentrate diet. A shift in rumen fermentation toward propionate and branched-chain fatty acids was observed for both diets. Animals fed with the hay:concentrate diet had both higher formate concentration and H2 expelled than those fed only roughage hay. Metabolomic analyses revealed an increase in the concentration of amino acids, organic, and nucleic acids in the fluid phase for both diets when methanogenesis was inhibited. These changes in the rumen metabolism were accompanied by a shift in the microbiota with an increase in Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and a decrease in Archaea and Synergistetes for both diets. Within the Bacteroidetes family, some OTUs assigned to Prevotella were promoted under chloroform treatment. These bacteria may be partly responsible for the increase in amino acids and propionate in the rumen. No significant changes were observed for abundance of fibrolytic bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which suggests that fiber degradation was not impaired. The observed 30% decrease in

  10. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-09-01

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2 S: (i) H2 S accelerated the recovery of photosynthesis after prolonged exposure to darkness and anoxia. We suggest that this is possibly due to regulatory effects of H2 S on photosystem I components and/or on the Calvin cycle. (ii) H2 S concentrations of up to 210 μM temporarily enhanced the photosynthetic rates at low irradiance. Modelling showed that this enhancement is plausibly based on changes in the light-harvesting efficiency. (iii) Above a certain light-dependent concentration threshold H2 S also acted as an inhibitor. Intriguingly, this inhibition was not instant but occurred only after a specific time interval that decreased with increasing light intensity. That photosynthesis is most sensitive to inhibition at high light intensities suggests that H2 S inactivates an intermediate of the oxygen evolving complex that accumulates with increasing light intensity. We discuss the implications of these three effects of H2 S in the context of cyanobacterial photosynthesis under conditions with diurnally fluctuating light and H2 S concentrations, such as those occurring in microbial mats and biofilms. PMID:25630511

  11. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Attenuates Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Jin, Wei-Hua; Wu, Juan; Fan, Kai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces oxidative stress and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS), a well-known ROS scavenger, has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on AP in many animal experiments. Recent findings have indicated that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex required for the maturation of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, may probably be a potential target of HRS in the treatment of AP. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and meanwhile assessed the degree of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, as well as the histological alterations in mice suffering from cerulein-induced AP after the treatment of HRS. The results showed that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in AP mice was substantially inhibited following the administration of HRS, which was paralleled with the decreased NF-κB activity and cytokines production, attenuated oxidative stress and the amelioration of pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our study has, for the first time, revealed that inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome probably contributed to the therapeutic potential of HRS in AP. PMID:25214720

  12. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Elies, Jacobo; Scragg, Jason L; Huang, Sha; Dallas, Mark L; Huang, Dongyang; MacDougall, David; Boyle, John P; Gamper, Nikita; Peers, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The importance of H2S as a physiological signaling molecule continues to develop, and ion channels are emerging as a major family of target proteins through which H2S exerts many actions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate its effects on T-type Ca(2+) channels. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrate that the H2S donor, NaHS (10 μM-1 mM) selectively inhibits Cav3.2 T-type channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 channels were unaffected. The sensitivity of Cav3.2 channels to H2S required the presence of the redox-sensitive extracellular residue H191, which is also required for tonic binding of Zn(2+) to this channel. Chelation of Zn(2+) with N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-picolylethylenediamine prevented channel inhibition by H2S and also reversed H2S inhibition when applied after H2S exposure, suggesting that H2S may act via increasing the affinity of the channel for extracellular Zn(2+) binding. Inhibition of native T-type channels in 3 cell lines correlated with expression of Cav3.2 and not Cav3.1 channels. Notably, H2S also inhibited native T-type (primarily Cav3.2) channels in sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons. Our data demonstrate a novel target for H2S regulation, the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.2, and suggest that such modulation cannot account for the pronociceptive effects of this gasotransmitter. PMID:25183670

  13. Fast automated placement of polar hydrogen atoms in protein-ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydrogen bonds play a major role in the stabilization of protein-ligand complexes. The ability of a functional group to form them depends on the position of its hydrogen atoms. An accurate knowledge of the positions of hydrogen atoms in proteins is therefore important to correctly identify hydrogen bonds and their properties. The high mobility of hydrogen atoms introduces several degrees of freedom: Tautomeric states, where a hydrogen atom alters its binding partner, torsional changes where the position of the hydrogen atom is rotated around the last heavy-atom bond in a residue, and protonation states, where the number of hydrogen atoms at a functional group may change. Also, side-chain flips in glutamine and asparagine and histidine residues, which are common crystallographic ambiguities must be identified before structure-based calculations can be conducted. Results We have implemented a method to determine the most probable hydrogen atom positions in a given protein-ligand complex. Optimality of hydrogen bond geometries is determined by an empirical scoring function which is used in molecular docking. This allows to evaluate protein-ligand interactions with an established model. Also, our method allows to resolve common crystallographic ambiguities such as as flipped amide groups and histidine residues. To ensure high speed, we make use of a dynamic programming approach. Conclusion Our results were checked against selected high-resolution structures from an external dataset, for which the positions of the hydrogen atoms have been validated manually. The quality of our results is comparable to that of other programs, with the advantage of being fast enough to be applied on-the-fly for interactive usage or during score evaluation. PMID:20298519

  14. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by hydrogen peroxide transcriptionally inhibits NaV1.5 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Huo, Rong; Cai, Benzhi; Lu, Yan; Ye, Bo; Li, Xiang; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidants and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling have been shown to decrease cardiac Na(+) channel activity by suppressing NaV1.5 expression. Our aims are to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one oxidant of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes β-catenin nuclear activity, leading to suppression of NaV1.5 expression and if this suppression requires the interaction of β-catenin with its nuclear partner, TCF4 (also called TCF7L2) to decrease SCN5a promoter activity. The results demonstrated that H2O2 increased β-catenin, but not TCF4 nuclear localization determined by immunofluorescence without affecting total β-catenin protein level. Furthermore, H2O2 exerted a dose- and time-dependent suppressive effect on NaV1.5 expression. RT-PCR and/or Western blot analyses revealed that overexpressing active form of β-catenin or stabilizing β-catenin by GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and Bio, suppressed NaV1.5 expression in HL-1 cells. In contrast, destabilization of β-catenin by a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (S9A) upregulated NaV1.5 expression. Whole-cell recording showed that LiCl significantly inhibited Na(+) channel activity in these cells. Using immunoprecipitation (IP), we showed that β-catenin interacted with TCF4 indicating that β-catenin as a co-transfactor, regulates NaV1.5 expression through TCF4. Analyses of the SCN5a promoter sequences among different species by using VISTA tools indicated that SCN5a promoter harbors TCF4 binding sites. Chromatin IP assays demonstrated that both β-catenin and TCF4 were recruited in the SCN5a promoter, and regulated its activity. Luciferase promoter assays exhibited that β-catenin inhibited the SCN5a promoter activity at a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition required TCF4. Small interfering (Si) RNA targeting β-catenin significantly increased SCN5a promoter activity, leading to enhanced NaV1.5 expression. As expected, β-catenin SiRNA prevents H2O2 suppressive effects

  15. Synthesis and characterization of novel coatings for corrosion protection and hydrogen embrittlement inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durairajan, Anand

    The degradation of metallic materials under the effect of corrosion is a costly problem, which nearly every industry is confronted with. By using electrochemical plating, one can alter the characteristics of a surface so as to provide improved appearance, ability to withstand corrosive agents, resistance to abrasion, improved electrocatalytic properties or other desired properties or a combination of them. The primary goal of this dissertation is to use electrochemical deposition (electrolytic and electroless) as a surface modification technique to obtain corrosion resistant high performance electrode materials for different electrochemical applications. Metal hydride alloys, which reversibly absorb/desorb hydrogen, have been used in battery applications. The continuous decrease in the absorb/desorbing capacity of these alloys has been attributed to the corrosion of the alloy. Cobalt encapsulation (electroless) has been used as a surface modification method to obtain high performance AB5 type metal hydride alloy. The coated material has a higher capacity and longer cycle life compared to the bare alloy. Pulverization and alloy oxidation---two prime reasons for capacity fading of MH alloys have been studied in greater detail using unique electrochemical and physical characterization methods. The harmful effects of hydrogen permeation (ingress) and related stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can limit the use of metals and alloys in aqueous environments. In the present work, a new Zn-Ni-Cd plating process which offers a unique way of controlling and optimizing the Zn and Cd contents in the final deposit, has been developed. The Zn Ni-Cd alloy coatings has a more anodic corrosion potential than that of Cd but higher than the corrosion potential of iron. The coatings have superior corrosion resistance (10 times higher) and barrier properties than the conventional Cd coatings. Zn-Ni-Cd coatings also inhibit the hydrogen entry into the underlying steel. The kinetic

  16. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) α, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

  17. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates steroid-associated femoral head necrosis through inhibition of oxidative stress in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, SHENG-LI; JIAO, JIAN; YAN, HONG-WEI

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that hydrogen is a novel, selective antioxidant that exerts a protective effect against organ damage. The present study investigated the effect of hydrogen-rich saline on corticosteroid-induced necrosis of the femoral head in an animal model established using prednisolone. A total of 30 healthy, male, adult New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: Hydrogen-rich saline (treated with hydrogen-rich saline via intraperitoneal injection) and placebo (treated with normal saline). At the set time-points, the structure of the femoral head was examined using a microscope; the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (LPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombomodulin (TM) in the plasma were measured and the microvessel density was quantified. The results showed that hydrogen-rich saline significantly decreased the levels of VEGF, TM and LPO and increased the GSH level in steroid-associated necrosis of the femoral head in the rabbit model. A significant increase in the microvessel density was observed in the hydrogen-rich saline group. Histopathological staining confirmed the results of the biochemical analysis. The present study demonstrates that hydrogen treatment may alleviate steroid-associated osteonecrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline may provide an alternative treatment for steroid-associated necrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26889236

  18. Knockdown of IRF6 Attenuates Hydrogen Dioxide-Induced Oxidative Stress via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Min; Chen, Bo; Lv, Jian-Meng; Lei, Qi; Pan, Ya-Juan; Yang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cell damage is involved in many neurological diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, is required for the differentiation of skin, breast epithelium, and oral epithelium. However, the regulation and function of IRF6 in central nervous system remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRF6 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative neuronal injury in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. Treatment with H2O2 significantly increased the expression of IRF6 at both mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of IRF6 using specific small interfering RNA reduced H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis. Knockdown of IRF6 attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, and also preserved endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibitory effect of IRF6 knockdown on mitochondrial dysfunction was demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial oxidative level, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP generation, as well as attenuated mitochondrial swelling. In addition, down-regulation of IRF6 inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic factors, whereas IRF6 knockdown together with caspase inhibitors had no extra effect on cell viability and LDH release. These results suggest that knockdown of IRF6 has protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing ROS accumulation and apoptosis, and these protective effects are dependent on preservation of mitochondrial function. PMID:26620051

  19. Inhibition of α-helix-mediated protein-protein interactions using designed molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzarito, Valeria; Long, Kérya; Murphy, Natasha S.; Wilson, Andrew J.

    2013-03-01

    Inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represents a significant challenge because it is unclear how they can be effectively and selectively targeted using small molecules. Achieving this goal is critical given the defining role of these interactions in biological processes. A rational approach to inhibitor design based on the secondary structure at the interface is the focus of much research, and different classes of designed ligands have emerged, some of which effectively and selectively disrupt targeted PPIs. This Review discusses the relevance of PPIs and, in particular, the importance of α-helix-mediated PPIs to chemical biology and drug discovery with a focus on designing inhibitors, including constrained peptides, foldamers and proteomimetic-derived ligands. In doing so, key challenges and major advances in developing generic approaches for the elaboration of PPI inhibitors are highlighted. The challenges faced in developing such ligands as drug leads -- and how criteria applied to these may differ from conventional small-molecule drugs -- are summarized.

  20. HBNG: Graph theory based visualization of hydrogen bond networks in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Abhishek; Tiwari, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    HBNG is a graph theory based tool for visualization of hydrogen bond network in 2D. Digraphs generated by HBNG facilitate visualization of cooperativity and anticooperativity chains and rings in protein structures. HBNG takes hydrogen bonds list files (output from HBAT, HBEXPLORE, HBPLUS and STRIDE) as input and generates a DOT language script and constructs digraphs using freeware AT and T Graphviz tool. HBNG is useful in the enumeration of favorable topologies of hydrogen bond networks in protein structures and determining the effect of cooperativity and anticooperativity on protein stability and folding. HBNG can be applied to protein structure comparison and in the identification of secondary structural regions in protein structures. Availability Program is available from the authors for non-commercial purposes. PMID:18084648

  1. Differences in folate-protein interactions result in differing inhibition of native rat liver and recombinant glycine N-methyltransferase by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate

    SciTech Connect

    Luka, Zigmund; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Newcomer, Marcia E; Wagner, Conrad

    2012-06-27

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a key regulatory enzyme in methyl group metabolism. In mammalian liver it reduces S-adenosylmethionine levels by using it to methylate glycine, producing N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and S-adenosylhomocysteine. GNMT is inhibited by binding two molecules of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (mono- or polyglutamate forms) per tetramer of the active enzyme. Inhibition is sensitive to the status of the N-terminal valine of GNMT and to polyglutamation of the folate inhibitor. It is inhibited by pentaglutamate form more efficiently compared to monoglutamate form. The native rat liver GNMT contains an acetylated N-terminal valine and is inhibited much more efficiently compared to the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli where the N-terminus is not acetylated. In this work we used a protein crystallography approach to evaluate the structural basis for these differences. We show that in the folate-GNMT complexes with the native enzyme, two folate molecules establish three and four hydrogen bonds with the protein. In the folate-recombinant GNMT complex only one hydrogen bond is established. This difference results in more effective inhibition by folate of the native liver GNMT activity compared to the recombinant enzyme.

  2. Coordinate inhibition of expression of several genes for protein subunits of human nuclear RNase P

    PubMed Central

    Kovrigina, Elizaveta; Wesolowski, Donna; Altman, Sidney

    2003-01-01

    The deliberate inhibition of expression of one of the protein subunits (Rpp38) of human nuclear RNase P is achievable by using external guide sequence (EGS) technology. Both the protein product and the mRNA are greatly reduced 24 h after transient transfection with a gene coding for an appropriate EGS. Control experiments indicated that four other protein subunits of RNase P and their RNAs are also inhibited with no external manipulation. The remaining RNase P proteins, their mRNAs, and the RNA subunit of RNase P all are unchanged. Several short nucleotide sequences adjacent to the ORFs for the inhibited genes are similar and could be targets for transcriptional repression. The explanation of coordinate inhibition of the expression of the product of one particular gene by the transfection of an EGS (or RNA interference) requires some care in terms of interpreting phenotypic effects because, in our case, several gene products that are not targeted are also inhibited. PMID:12552092

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Formaldehyde-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC12 Cells by Upregulation of SIRT-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Li-Xun; Wang, Li; Xie, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA), a well-known environmental pollutant, has been classified as a neurotoxic molecule. Our recent data demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, has a protective effect on the neurotoxicity of FA. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of FA. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT-1), a histone deacetylases, has various biological activities, including the extension of lifespan, the modulation of ER stress, and the neuroprotective action. Objective We hypothesize that the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity involves in inhibiting ER stress by upregulation of SIRT-1. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of H2S on FA-induced ER stress in PC12 cells and the contribution of SIRT-1 to the protection of H2S against FA-induced injuries, including ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Principal Findings We found that exogenous application of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; an H2S donor) significantly attenuated FA-induced ER stress responses, including the upregulated levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 expression. We showed that NaHS upregulates the expression of SIRT-1 in PC12 cells. Moreover, the protective effects of H2S on FA-elicited ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were reversed by Sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT-1. Conclusion/Significance These data indicate that H2S exerts its protection against the neurotoxicity of FA through overcoming ER stress via upregulation of SIRT-1. Our findings provide novel insights into the protective mechanisms of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24587076

  4. Allosteric Inhibition of the Regulator of G Protein Signaling–Gα Protein–Protein Interaction by CCG-4986

    PubMed Central

    Blazer, Levi L.; Monroy, C. Aaron; Neubig, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins act to temporally modulate the activity of G protein subunits after G protein-coupled receptor activation. RGS proteins exert their effect by directly binding to the activated Gα subunit of the G protein, catalyzing the accelerated hydrolysis of GTP and returning the G protein to its inactive, heterotrimeric form. In previous studies, we have sought to inhibit this GTPase-accelerating protein activity of the RGS protein by using small molecules. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of CCG-4986 [methyl-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]-4-nitro-benzenesulfinimidoate], a previously reported small-molecule RGS inhibitor. Here, we find that CCG-4986 inhibits RGS4 function through the covalent modification of two spatially distinct cysteine residues on RGS4. We confirm that modification of Cys132, located near the RGS/Gα interaction surface, modestly inhibits Gα binding and GTPase acceleration. In addition, we report that modification of Cys148, a residue located on the opposite face of RGS4, can disrupt RGS/Gα interaction through an allosteric mechanism that almost completely inhibits the Gα–RGS protein–protein interaction. These findings demonstrate three important points: 1) the modification of the Cys148 allosteric site results in significant changes to the RGS interaction surface with Gα; 2) this identifies a “hot spot” on RGS4 for binding of small molecules and triggering an allosteric change that may be significantly more effective than targeting the actual protein-protein interaction surface; and 3) because of the modification of a positional equivalent of Cys148 in RGS8 by CCG-4986, lack of inhibition indicates that RGS proteins exhibit fundamental differences in their responses to small-molecule ligands. PMID:20530129

  5. Hydrogen bonding motifs of protein side chains: descriptions of binding of arginine and amide groups.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, L.; Glusker, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    The modes of hydrogen bonding of arginine, asparagine, and glutamine side chains and of urea have been examined in small-molecule crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database and in crystal structures of protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein complexes. Analysis of the hydrogen bonding patterns of each by graph-set theory shows three patterns of rings (R) with one or two hydrogen bond acceptors and two donors and with eight, nine, or six atoms in the ring, designated R2(2)(8), R2(2)(9), and R1(2)(6). These three patterns are found for arginine-like groups and for urea, whereas only the first two patterns R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(9) are found for asparagine- and glutamine-like groups. In each case, the entire system is planar within 0.7 A or less. On the other hand, in macromolecular crystal structures, the hydrogen bonding patterns in protein-nucleic acid complexes between the nucleic acid base and the protein are all R2(2)(9), whereas hydrogen bonding between Watson-Crick-like pairs of nucleic acid bases is R2(2)(8). These two hydrogen bonding arrangements [R2(2)(9)] and R2(2)(8)] are predetermined by the nature of the groups available for hydrogen bonding. The third motif identified, R1(2)(6), involves hydrogen bonds that are less linear than in the other two motifs and is found in proteins. PMID:7773178

  6. Rapid visualization of hydrogen positions in neutron protein crystallography structures

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeley, Matthew P.; Meilleur, Flora; Myles, Dean A A; Weiss, Kevin L; Munshi, Parthapratim; Shang-Lin, Chung

    2012-01-01

    Neutron crystallography is a powerful technique to visualize experimentally the position of light atoms, including hydrogen and its isotope deuterium. Over the last several years, structural biologists have shown an increasing interest for the technique as it uniquely complements X-ray crystallographic data by revealing the position of hydrogen/deuterium atoms in macromolecules. With this regained interest, access to macromolecule neutron crystallography beam lines is becoming a limiting step. In this report we show that rapid data collection could be a valuable alternative to long data collection time when appropriate. Comparison of perdeuterated Rubredoxin structures refined against neutron data sets collected over hours and up to five days shows that rapid neutron data collection in just 14 hours is sufficient to provide the position of 262 hydrogen positions atoms without ambiguity.

  7. The Therapeutic Potential of Cystathionine β-Synthetase/Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibition in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Mark R.; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cancer represents a major socioeconomic problem; there is a significant need for novel therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-specific pathways. Recent Advances: In colorectal and ovarian cancers, an increase in the intratumor production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) plays an important role in promoting the cellular bioenergetics, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. It also stimulates peritumor angiogenesis inhibition or genetic silencing of CBS exerts antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, and potentiates the antitumor efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Critical Issues: Recently published studies are reviewed, implicating CBS overexpression and H2S overproduction in tumor cells as a tumor-growth promoting “bioenergetic fuel” and “survival factor,” followed by an overview of the experimental evidence demonstrating the anticancer effect of CBS inhibition. Next, the current state of the art of pharmacological CBS inhibitors is reviewed, with special reference to the complex pharmacological actions of aminooxyacetic acid. Finally, new experimental evidence is presented to reconcile a controversy in the literature regarding the effects of H2S donor on cancer cell proliferation and survival. Future Directions: From a basic science standpoint, future directions in the field include the delineation of the molecular mechanism of CBS up-regulation of cancer cells and the delineation of the interactions of H2S with other intracellular pathways of cancer cell metabolism and proliferation. From the translational science standpoint, future directions include the translation of the recently emerging roles of H2S in cancer into human diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 424–448. PMID:24730679

  8. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide restores normal breathing stability and improves autonomic control during experimental heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Marcus, Noah J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic imbalance and breathing instability are major contributors to the progression of heart failure (CHF). Potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been shown to contribute to these effects. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently has been proposed to mediate CB hypoxic chemoreception. We hypothesized that H2S synthesis inhibition should decrease CB chemoreflex activation and improve breathing stability and autonomic function in CHF rats. Using the irreversible inhibitor of cystathione γ-lyase dl-propargylglycine (PAG), we tested the effects of H2S inhibition on resting breathing patterns, the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and the hypoxic sensitivity of CB chemoreceptor afferents in rats with CHF. In addition, heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) were calculated as an index of autonomic function. CHF rats, compared with sham rats, exhibited increased breath interval variability and number of apneas, enhanced CB afferent discharge and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, decreased HRV, and increased low-frequency SBPV. Remarkably, PAG treatment reduced the apnea index by 90%, reduced breath interval variability by 40–60%, and reversed the enhanced hypoxic CB afferent and chemoreflex responses observed in CHF rats. Furthermore, PAG treatment partially reversed the alterations in HRV and SBPV in CHF rats. Our results show that PAG treatment restores breathing stability and cardiac autonomic function and reduces the enhanced ventilatory and CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia in CHF rats. These results support the idea that PAG treatment could potentially represent a novel pathway to control sympathetic outflow and breathing instability in CHF. PMID:23449938

  9. Quantitative proteomic profiling identifies protein correlates to EGFR kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kani, Kian; Faca, Vitor M; Hughes, Lindsey D; Zhang, Wenxuan; Fang, Qiaojun; Shahbaba, Babak; Luethy, Roland; Erde, Jonathan; Schmidt, Joanna; Pitteri, Sharon J; Zhang, Qing; Katz, Jonathan E; Gross, Mitchell E; Plevritis, Sylvia K; McIntosh, Martin W; Jain, Anjali; Hanash, Samir; Agus, David B; Mallick, Parag

    2012-05-01

    Clinical oncology is hampered by lack of tools to accurately assess a patient's response to pathway-targeted therapies. Serum and tumor cell surface proteins whose abundance, or change in abundance in response to therapy, differentiates patients responding to a therapy from patients not responding to a therapy could be usefully incorporated into tools for monitoring response. Here, we posit and then verify that proteomic discovery in in vitro tissue culture models can identify proteins with concordant in vivo behavior and further, can be a valuable approach for identifying tumor-derived serum proteins. In this study, we use stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) with proteomic technologies to quantitatively analyze the gefitinib-related protein changes in a model system for sensitivity to EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We identified 3,707 intracellular proteins, 1,276 cell surface proteins, and 879 shed proteins. More than 75% of the proteins identified had quantitative information, and a subset consisting of 400 proteins showed a statistically significant change in abundance following gefitinib treatment. We validated the change in expression profile in vitro and screened our panel of response markers in an in vivo isogenic resistant model and showed that these were markers of gefitinib response and not simply markers of phospho-EGFR downregulation. In doing so, we also were able to identify which proteins might be useful as markers for monitoring response and which proteins might be useful as markers for a priori prediction of response. PMID:22411897

  10. Quantitative Proteomic profiling identifies protein correlates to EGFR kinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kani, Kian; Faca, Vitor M.; Hughes, Lindsey D.; Zhang, Wenxuan; Fang, Qiaojun; Shahbaba, Babak; Luethy, Roland; Erde, Jonathan; Schmidt, Joanna; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Zhang, Qing; Katz, Jonathan E.; Gross, Mitchell E.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; McIntosh, Martin W.; Jain, Anjali; Hanash, Sam; Agus, David B.; Mallick, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Clinical oncology is hampered by a lack of tools to accurately assess a patient’s response to pathway-targeted therapies. Serum and tumor cell surface proteins whose abundance, or change in abundance in response to therapy, differentiates patients responding to a therapy from patients not-responding to a therapy could be usefully incorporated into tools for monitoring response. Here we posit and then verify that proteomic discovery in in vitro tissue culture models can identify proteins with concordant in vivo behavior and further, can be a valuable approach for identifying tumor-derived serum proteins. In this study we use Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Culture (SILAC) with proteomic technologies to quantitatively analyze the gefitinib-related protein changes in a model system for sensitivity to EGFR targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We identified 3,707 intracellular proteins, 1,276 cell surface proteins, and 879 shed proteins. More than 75% of the proteins identified had quantitative information and a subset consisting of [400] proteins showed a statistically significant change in abundance following gefitinib treatment. We validated the change in expression profile in vitro and screened our panel of response markers in an in vivo isogenic resistant model and demonstrated that these were markers of gefitinib response and not simply markers of phospho-EGFR downregulation. In doing so, we also were able to identify which proteins might be useful as markers for monitoring response and which proteins might be useful as markers for a priori prediction of response. PMID:22411897

  11. Stabilization of tubulin mRNA by inhibition of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Z Y; Brandhorst, B P

    1988-01-01

    An increased level of unpolymerized tubulin caused by depolymerization of microtubules in sea urchin larvae resulted in a rapid loss of tubulin mRNA, which was prevented by nearly complete inhibition of protein synthesis. Results of an RNA run-on assay indicated that inhibition of protein synthesis does not alter tubulin gene transcription. Analysis of the decay of tubulin mRNA in embryos in which RNA synthesis was inhibited by actinomycin D indicated that inhibition of protein synthesis prevents the destabilization of tubulin mRNA. The effect was similar whether mRNA was maintained on polysomes in the presence of emetine or anisomycin or displaced from the polysomes in the presence of puromycin or pactamycin; thus, the stabilization of tubulin mRNA is not dependent on the state of the polysomes after inhibition of protein synthesis. Even after tubulin mRNA declined to a low level after depolymerization of microtubules, it could be rescued by treatment of embryos with inhibitors of protein synthesis. Tubulin mRNA could be induced to accumulate prematurely in gastrulae but not in plutei if protein synthesis was inhibited, an observation that is indicative of the importance of the autogenous regulation of tubulin mRNA stability during embryogenesis. Possible explanations for the role of protein synthesis in the control of mRNA stability are discussed. Images PMID:3211150

  12. Covalent immobilization of protein onto a functionalized hydrogenated diamond-like carbon substrate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Hari Shankar; Datta, Jagannath; Chowdhury, D P; Reddy, A V R; Ghosh, Uday Chand; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Ray, Nihar Ranjan

    2010-11-16

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (HDLC) has an atomically smooth surface that can be deposited on high-surface area substrata and functionalized with reactive chemical groups, providing an ideal substrate for protein immobilization. A synthetic sequence is described involving deposition and hydrogenation of DLC followed by chemical functionalization. These functional groups are reacted with amines on proteins causing covalent immobilization on contact. Raman measurements confirm the presence of these surface functional groups, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms covalent protein immobilization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of immobilized proteins is reproducible because proteins do not move as a result of interactions with the AFM probe-tip, thus providing an advantage over mica substrata typically used in AFM studies of protein. HDLC offers many of the same technical advantages as oxidized graphene but also allows for coating large surface areas of biomaterials relevant to the fabrication of medical/biosensor devices. PMID:20949913

  13. Hydrogen sulfide [corrected] increases survival during sepsis: protective effect of CHOP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, Marcella; Wang, Qihong; Fulton, William B; Colombani, Paul M; Marchionni, Luigi; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Paolocci, Nazareno; Steenbergen, Charles

    2014-02-15

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality, and dysregulation of the immune response plays a central role in this syndrome. H2S, a recently discovered gaso-transmitter, is endogenously generated by many cell types, regulating a number of physiologic processes and pathophysiologic conditions. We report that H2S increased survival after experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. Exogenous H2S decreased the systemic inflammatory response, reduced apoptosis in the spleen, and accelerated bacterial eradication. We found that C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP), a mediator of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, was elevated in several organs after CLP, and its expression was inhibited by H2S treatment. Using CHOP-knockout (KO) mice, we demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, that genetic deletion of Chop increased survival after LPS injection or CLP. CHOP-KO mice displayed diminished splenic caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, decreased cytokine production, and augmented bacterial clearance. Furthermore, septic CHOP-KO mice treated with H2S showed no additive survival benefit compared with septic CHOP-KO mice. Finally, we showed that H2S inhibited CHOP expression in macrophages by a mechanism involving Nrf2 activation. In conclusion, our findings show a protective effect of H2S treatment afforded, at least partially, by inhibition of CHOP expression. The data reveal a major negative role for the transcription factor CHOP in overall survival during sepsis and suggest a new target for clinical intervention, as well potential strategies for treatment. PMID:24403532

  14. Environmental contaminants perturb fragile protein assemblies and inhibit normal protein function

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Selwood, Trevor; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby small molecules that contaminate our environment cause physiological effects are largely unknown, in terms of both targets and mechanisms. The essential human enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (HsPBGS, a.k.a. 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, ALAD) functions in heme biosynthesis. HsPBGS catalytic activity is regulated allosterically via an equilibrium of inactive hexamers and active octamers, and we have shown that certain drugs and drug-like small molecules can inhibit HsPBGS in vitro by stabilizing the hexamer. Here we address whether components of the National Toxicology Program library of environmental contaminants can stabilize the HsPBGS hexamer and inhibit activity in vitro. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to screen the library (1,408 compounds) for components that alter the oligomeric distribution of HsPBGS. Freshly purchased samples of 37 preliminary hits were used to confirm the electrophoretic results and to determine the dose-dependence of the perturbation of oligomeric distribution. Seventeen compounds were identified which alter the oligomeric distribution toward the hexamer and also inhibit HsPBGS catalytic activity, including the most potent HsPBGS inhibitor yet characterized (Mutagen X, IC50 = 1.4 μM). PBGS dysfunction is associated with the inborn error of metabolism know as ALAD porphyria and with lead poisoning. The identified hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors could potentiate these diseases. Allosteric regulation of activity via an equilibrium of alternate oligomers has been proposed for many proteins. Based on the precedent set herein, perturbation of these oligomeric equilibria by small molecules (such as environmental contaminants) can be considered as a mechanism of toxicity. PMID:25045409

  15. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. Ryan; Vayalil, Praveen K.; Zhou, Fen; Benavides, Gloria A.; Beggs, Reena R.; Golzarian, Hafez; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Oliver, Patsy G.; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Landar, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP), decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231) breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24 h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10 µM) of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC) protein levels, although other protein levels were unaffected. This study

  16. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Ryan; Vayalil, Praveen K; Zhou, Fen; Benavides, Gloria A; Beggs, Reena R; Golzarian, Hafez; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Oliver, Patsy G; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P; Velu, Sadanandan E; Landar, Aimee

    2016-08-01

    Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP), decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231) breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10µM) of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC) protein levels, although other protein levels were unaffected. This study

  17. Isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibition disrupts monoclonal protein secretion and induces the unfolded protein response pathway in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Sarah A.; Hohl, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Myeloma is characterized by the overproduction and secretion of monoclonal protein. Inhibitors of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) have pleiotropic effects in myeloma cells. To investigate whether IBP inhibition interferes with monoclonal protein secretion, human myeloma cells were treated with specific inhibitors of the IBP or prenyltransferases. These studies demonstrate that agents that inhibit Rab geranylgeranylation disrupt light chain trafficking, lead to accumulation of light chain in the endoplasmic reticulum, activate the unfolded protein response pathway and induce apoptosis. These studies provide a novel mechanism of action for IBP inhibitors and suggest that further exploration of Rab-targeted agents in myeloma is warranted. PMID:20828814

  18. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Alga Mastigocladus laminosus: Effects of Nitrogen, Temperature, and Inhibition of Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Hallenbeck, Patrick C.; Benemann, John R.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by nitrogen-limited cultures of a thermophilic blue-green alga (cyanobacterium), Mastigocladus laminosus, was studied to develop the concept of a high-temperature biophotolysis system. Biophotolytic production of hydrogen by solar radiation was also demonstrated. Hydrogen consumption activity in these cultures was relatively high and is the present limiting factor on both the net rate and duration of hydrogen production. PMID:16345432

  19. Geometry of proteins: Hydrogen bonding, sterics, and marginally compact tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Jayanth R.; Cieplak, Marek; Flammini, Alessandro; Hoang, Trinh X.; Kamien, Randall D.; Lezon, Timothy; Marenduzzo, Davide; Maritan, Amos; Seno, Flavio; Snir, Yehuda; Trovato, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    The functionality of proteins is governed by their structure in the native state. Protein structures are made up of emergent building blocks of helices and almost planar sheets. A simple coarse-grained geometrical model of a flexible tube barely subject to compaction provides a unified framework for understanding the common character of globular proteins. We argue that a recent critique of the tube idea is not well founded.

  20. Inhibition of HIV replication by pokeweed antiviral protein targeted to CD4+ cells by monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarling, Joyce M.; Moran, Patricia A.; Haffar, Omar; Sias, Joan; Richman, Douglas D.; Spina, Celsa A.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Kuebelbeck, Virginia; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Uckun, Fatih M.

    1990-09-01

    FUNCTIONAL impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells1,2. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in patients' CD4+ cells which contain proviral DNA3,4. We report here that HIV-1 replication in normal primary CD4+ T cells can be inhibited by pokeweed antiviral protein, a plant protein of relative molecular mass 30,000 (ref. 5), which inhibits replication of certain plant RNA viruses6-8, and of herpes simplex virus, poliovirus and influenza virus9-11. Targeting pokeweed antiviral protein to CD4+ T cells by conjugating it to monoclonal antibodies reactive with CDS, CD7 or CD4 expressed on CD4+ cells, increased its anti-HIV potency up to 1,000-fold. HIV-1 replication is inhibited at picomolar concentrations of conjugates of pokeweed antiviral protein and monoclonal antibodies, which do not inhibit proliferation of normal CD4+ T cells or CD4-dependent responses. These conjugates inhibit HIV-1 protein synthesis and also strongly inhibit HIV-1 production in activated CD4+ T cells from infected patients.

  1. Role of Ebola Virus vp24 Protein in Inhibition of Interferonogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shelemba, A A; Lushnikova, E L; Kolesnikov, S I; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Chepurnov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of recombinant analog of natural Ebola virus protein vp24 in configurations virulent (vp24-ad) and avirulent (vp24-w) for guinea pigs on interferonogenesis were studied in vivo and in vitro. Amino acid differences were determined by His186 substitution in avirulent (nonlethal) configuration for Tyr in the virulent (lethal) one. Recombinant analogs vp24-w and vp24-ad inhibited interferonogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition by the two protein configurations was virtually the same. PMID:26750927

  2. Molecular crowding inhibits intramolecular breathing motions in proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Rodi, D. J.; Mandava, S.; Minh, D.; Gore, D. B.; Fischetti, R. F.; Biosciences Division; IIT

    2008-01-11

    In aqueous solution some proteins undergo large-scale movements of secondary structures, subunits or domains, referred to as protein 'breathing', that define a native-state ensemble of structures. These fluctuations are sensitive to the nature and concentration of solutes and other proteins and are thereby expected to be different in the crowded interior of a cell than in dilute solution. Here we use a combination of wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and computational modeling to derive a quantitative measure of the spatial scale of conformational fluctuations in a protein solution. Concentration-dependent changes in the observed scattering intensities are consistent with a model of structural fluctuations in which secondary structures undergo rigid-body motions relative to one another. This motion increases with decreasing protein concentration or increasing temperature. Analysis of a set of five structurally and functionally diverse proteins reveals a diversity of kinetic behaviors. Proteins with multiple disulfide bonds exhibit little or no increase in breathing in dilute solutions. The spatial extent of structural fluctuations appears highly dependent on both protein structure and concentration and is universally suppressed at very high protein concentrations.

  3. Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing and Signaling by Protein Kinases in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Oka, Shin-ichi; Ale-Agha, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidants were once principally considered perpetrators of injury and disease. However, this has become an antiquated view, with cumulative evidence showing that the oxidant hydrogen peroxide serves as a signaling molecule. Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress. Recent Advances: In this review, we examine the contemporary concepts for how hydrogen peroxide is sensed and transduced into a biological response by introducing post-translational oxidative modifications on select proteins. Oxidant sensing and signaling by kinases are of particular importance as they integrate oxidant signals into phospho-regulated pathways. We focus on CAMKII, PKA, and PKG, kinases whose redox regulation has notable impact on cardiovascular function. Critical Issues: In addition, we examine the mechanism for regulating intracellular hydrogen peroxide, considering the net concentrations that may accumulate. The effects of endogenously generated oxidants are often modeled by applying exogenous hydrogen peroxide to cells or tissues. Here we consider whether model systems exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide have relevance to systems where the oxidant is generated endogenously, and if so, what concentration can be justified in terms of relevance to health and disease. Future Directions: Improving our understanding of hydrogen peroxide signaling and the sensor proteins that it can modify will help us develop new strategies to regulate intracellular signaling to prevent disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1042–1052. PMID:22867279

  4. Inhibition of GDP/GTP exchange on G alpha subunits by proteins containing G-protein regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Natochin, M; Gasimov, K G; Artemyev, N O

    2001-05-01

    A novel Galpha binding consensus sequence, termed G-protein regulatory (GPR) or GoLoco motif, has been identified in a growing number of proteins, which are thought to modulate G-protein signaling. Alternative roles of GPR proteins as nucleotide exchange factors or as GDP dissociation inhibitors for Galpha have been proposed. We investigated the modulation of the GDP/GTP exchange of Gialpha(1), Goalpha, and Gsalpha by three proteins containing GPR motifs (GPR proteins), LGN-585-642, Pcp2, and RapIGAPII-23-131, to elucidate the mechanisms of GPR protein function. The GPR proteins displayed similar patterns of interaction with Gialpha(1) with the following order of affinities: Gialpha(1)GDP > Gialpha(1)GDPAlF(4)(-) > or = Gialpha(1)GTPgammaS. No detectable binding of the GPR proteins to Gsalpha was observed. LGN-585-642, Pcp2, and RapIGAPII-23-131 inhibited the rates of spontaneous GTPgammaS binding and blocked GDP release from Gialpha(1) and Goalpha. The inhibitory effects of the GPR proteins on Gialpha(1) were significantly more potent, indicating that Gi might be a preferred target for these modulators. Our results suggest that GPR proteins are potent GDP dissociation inhibitors for Gialpha-like Galpha subunits in vitro, and in this capacity they may inhibit GPCR/Gi protein signaling in vivo. PMID:11318657

  5. Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation wa...

  6. Modifications of boronic ester pro-chelators triggered by hydrogen peroxide tune reactivity to inhibit metal-promoted oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Charkoudian, Louise K; Pham, David M; Kwon, Ashley M; Vangeloff, Abbey D; Franz, Katherine J

    2007-11-21

    Several new analogs of salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) and salicylaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone (SBH) that contain an aryl boronic ester (BSIH, BSBH) or acid (BASIH) in place of an aryl hydroxide have been synthesized and characterized as masked metal ion chelators. These pro-chelators show negligible interaction with iron(III), although the boronic acid versions exhibit some interaction with copper(II), zinc(II) and nickel(II). Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the aryl boronate to phenol, thus converting the pro-chelators to tridentate ligands with high affinity metal binding properties. An X-ray crystal structure of a bis-ligated iron(III) complex, [Fe(SBH(m-OMe)(3))(2)]NO(3), confirms the meridonal binding mode of these ligands. Modifications of the aroyl ring of the chelators tune their iron affinity, whereas modifications on the boron-containing ring of the pro-chelators attenuate their reaction rates with hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the methoxy derivative pro-chelator (p-OMe)BASIH reacts with hydrogen peroxide nearly 5 times faster than the chloro derivative (m-Cl)BASIH. Both the rate of pro-chelator to chelator conversion as well as the metal binding affinity of the chelator influence the overall ability of these molecules to inhibit hydroxyl radical formation catalyzed by iron or copper in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. This pro-chelator strategy has the potential to improve the efficacy of medicinal chelators for inhibiting metal-promoted oxidative stress. PMID:17992288

  7. Analog sensitive chemical inhibition of the DEAD-box protein DDX3.

    PubMed

    Floor, Stephen N; Barkovich, Krister J; Condon, Kendall J; Shokat, Kevan M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-01

    Proper maintenance of RNA structure and dynamics is essential to maintain cellular health. Multiple families of RNA chaperones exist in cells to modulate RNA structure, RNA-protein complexes, and RNA granules. The largest of these families is the DEAD-box proteins, named after their catalytic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is implicated in diverse biological processes including translation initiation and is mutated in numerous cancers. Like many DEAD-box proteins, DDX3 is essential to cellular health and exhibits dosage sensitivity, such that both decreases and increases in protein levels can be lethal. Therefore, chemical inhibition would be an ideal tool to probe the function of DDX3. However, most DEAD-box protein active sites are extremely similar, complicating the design of specific inhibitors. Here, we show that a chemical genetic approach best characterized in protein kinases, known as analog-sensitive chemical inhibition, is viable for DDX3 and possibly other DEAD-box proteins. We present an expanded active-site mutant that is tolerated in vitro and in vivo, and is sensitive to chemical inhibition by a novel bulky inhibitor. Our results highlight a course towards analog sensitive chemical inhibition of DDX3 and potentially the entire DEAD-box protein family. PMID:26650549

  8. Hydrogen bonds of sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Yu, Yue; An, Qingda; Wang, Liyan; Li, Shenglin; Huang, Xuelin; Mu, Siyang; Qi, Shanwei

    2016-05-20

    Sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material (SA/AKP) was successfully obtained by blending method. The hydrogen bonds of SA/AKP composite material were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (HNMR). Experiment manifested the existence of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in SA/AKP system; strength of intermolecular hydrogen bond enhanced with the increase of AKP in the composite material and the interaction strength of hydrogen bonding followed the order: OH…Ether O>OH…π>OH…N. The percentage of intermolecular hydrogen bond decreased with increase of pH. At the same time, the effect of hydrogen bonds on properties of the composite material was discussed. The increase of intermolecular hydrogen bonding led to the decrease of crystallinity, increase of apparent viscosity and surface tension, as well as obvious decrease of heat resistance of SA/AKP composite material. SA/AKP fiber SEM images and energy spectrum showed that crystallized salt was separated from the fiber, which possibly led to the fibrillation of the composite fibers. PMID:26917400

  9. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo. PMID:26034199

  10. Pyridalyl inhibits cellular protein synthesis in insect, but not mammalian, cell lines.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Koko; Hirakura, Setsuko; Kobayashi, Jun; Ozoe, Yoshihisa; Saito, Shigeru; Utsumi, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of action and selectivity of the insecticidal activity of pyridalyl, the cytotoxicity of pyridalyl against various insect and mammalian cell lines was characterized by measuring the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis. When the effect of pyridalyl on the cellular protein synthesis in Sf9 cells was evaluated by measuring the incorporation of [(3)H]leucine, rapid and significant inhibition of protein synthesis was observed. However, pyridalyl did not inhibit protein synthesis in a cell-free protein synthesis system, indicating that pyridalyl does not directly inhibit protein synthesis. No obvious cytotoxicity was observed against any of the mammalian cell lines tested. In the case of insect cell lines, remarkable differences in the cytotoxicity of pyridalyl were observed: the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 mM) was found against Sf9 cells derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, whereas no obvious cytotoxicity was observed against BmN4 cells derived from Bombyx mori. Measurements of the insecticidal activity of pyridalyl against Spodoptera litura and B. mori revealed a correlation between the cytotoxicity against cultured cell lines and the insecticidal activity. From these observations, it was concluded that the selective inhibition of cellular protein synthesis by pyridalyl might contribute significantly to the insecticidal activity and the selectivity of this compound. PMID:18454491

  11. Hydrogen sulfide decreases adenosine triphosphate levels in aortic rings and leads to vasorelaxation via metabolic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Levente; Deitch, Edwin A; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Aims Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low concentrations serves as a physiological endogenous vasodilator molecule, while at higher concentrations it can trigger cytotoxic effects. The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential mechanisms responsible for the effects of H2S on vascular tone. Main methods We measured the vascular tone in vitro in precontracted rat thoracic aortic rings and we have tested the effect of different oxygen levels and a variety of inhibitors affecting known vasodilatory pathways. We have also compared the vascular effect of high concentrations of H2S to those of pharmacological inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, we measured adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-levels in the same vascular tissues. Key findings We have found that in rat aortic rings: (1) H2S decreases ATP levels; (2) relaxations to H2S depend on the ambient oxygen concentration; (3) prostaglandins do not take part in the H2S induced relaxations; (4) the 3':5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) – nitric oxide (NO) pathway does not have a role in the relaxations (5) the role of KATP channels is limited, while Cl−/HCO3− channels have a role in the relaxations. (6): We have observed that high concentrations of H2S relax the aortic rings in a fashion similar to sodium cyanide, and both agents reduce cellular ATP levels to a comparable degree. Significance H2S, a new gasotransmitter of emerging importance, leads to relaxation via Cl−/HCO3− channels and metabolic inhibition and the interactions of these two factors depend on the oxygen levels of the tissue. PMID:18790700

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced EMT via Wnt/Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jie; Lan, Zhen; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Pan, Wanma; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has anti-fibrotic potential in lung, kidney and other organs. The exogenous H2S is released from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and can influence the renal fibrosis by blocking the differentiation of quiescent renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. But whether H2S affects renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our study is aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of H2S on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) and the associated mechanisms. The induced EMT is assessed by Western blotting analysis on the expressions of α-SMA, E-cadherin and fibronectin. HK-2 cells were treated with NaHS before incubating with TGF-β1 to investigate its effect on EMT and the related molecular mechanism. Results demonstrated that NaHS decreased the expression of α-SMA and fibronectin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. NaHS reduced the expression of TGF-β receptor type I (TβR I) and TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II). In addition, NaHS attenuated TGF-β1-induced increase of β-catenin expression and ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, it inhibited the TGF-β1-induced nuclear translocation of ββ-catenin. These effects of NaHS on fibronectin, E-cadherin and TβR I were abolished by the ERK inhibitor U0126 or β-catenin inhibitor XAV939, or β-catenin siRNA interference. We get the conclusion that NaHS attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT in HK-2 cells through both ERK-dependent and β-catenin-dependent pathways. PMID:26760502

  13. Selenium Inhibits Root Elongation by Repressing the Generation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei-Yu; Xian, Ming; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Hu, Liang-Bin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been becoming an emerging pollutant causing severe phytotoxicity, which the biochemical mechanism is rarely known. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as an important exogenous regulator modulating plant physiological adaptions in response to heavy metal stress, whether and how the endogenous H2S regulates Se-induce phytotoxicity remains unclear. In this work, a self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in situ in the roots of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced root growth stunt was closely correlated with the inhibition of endogenous H2S generation in root tips. Se(IV) stress dampened the expression of most LCD and DCD homologues in the roots of B. rapa. By using various specific fluorescent probes for bio-imaging root tips in situ, we found that the increase in endogenous H2S by the application of H2S donor NaHS could significantly alleviate Se(IV)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation, oxidative impairment, and cell death in root tips, which further resulted in the recovery of root growth under Se(IV) stress. However, dampening the endogenous H2S could block the alleviated effect of NaHS on Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity. Finally, the increase in endogenous H2S resulted in the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) in Se(IV)-treated roots, which may share the similar molecular mechanism for the dominant role of H2S in removing ROS by activating GSH biosynthesis in mammals. Altogether, these data provide the first direct evidences confirming the pivotal role of endogenous H2S in modulating Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity in roots. PMID:25333279

  14. Fused protein domains inhibit DNA binding by LexA.

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, E A; Brent, R

    1992-01-01

    Many studies of transcription activation employ fusions of activation domains to DNA binding domains derived from the bacterial repressor LexA and the yeast activator GAL4. Such studies often implicitly assume that DNA binding by the chimeric proteins is equivalent to that of the protein donating the DNA binding moiety. To directly investigate this issue, we compared operator binding by a series of LexA-derivative proteins to operator binding by native LexA, by using both in vivo and in vitro assays. We show that operator binding by many proteins such as LexA-Myc, LexA-Fos, and LexA-Bicoid is severely impaired, while binding of other LexA-derivative proteins, such as those that carry bacterially encoded acidic sequences ("acid blobs"), is not. Our results also show that DNA binding by LexA derivatives that contain the LexA carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (amino acids 88 to 202) is considerably stronger than binding by fusions that lack it and that heterologous dimerization motifs cannot substitute for the LexA88-202 function. These results suggest the need to reevaluate some previous studies of activation that employed LexA derivatives and modifications to recent experimental approaches that use LexA and GAL4 derivatives to detect and study protein-protein interactions. Images PMID:1620111

  15. Intracellular coagulation inhibits the extraction of proteins from Prochloron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fall, R.; Lewin, R. A.; Fall, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Protein extraction from the prokaryotic alga Prochloron LP (isolated from the ascidian host Lissoclinum patella) was complicated by an irreversible loss of cell fragility in the isolated algae. Accompanying this phenomenon, which is termed intracellular coagulation, was a redistribution of thylakoids around the cell periphery, a loss of photosynthetic O2 production, and a drastic decrease in the extractability of cell proteins. Procedures are described for the successful preparation and transport of cell extracts yielding the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase as well as other soluble proteins.

  16. Protein kinase C inhibition by sphingoid long-chain bases: effects on secretion in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Arnold, R.R.; Merrill, A.H.; Lambeth, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Sphingoid long-chain bases (sphinganine and sphingosine(So)) have recently been shown to inhibit protein kinase C (PK-C) in vitro and to block activation of the oxidative burst in intact neutrophils (PMN) by inhibiting this enzyme. In the present study, the authors have used So to investigate the role of protein kinase C in stimulus-induced secretion of PMN granule contents. Secretion of the specific granule component lactoferrin (Lf) is completely inhibited by pretreatment with So when either PMA or fLMP is used as the secretogogue. Secretion of lysozyme, a component of both the azurophilic and specific granules, is completely inhibited by So when PMA is used, but only 40% inhibited with fMLP. The secretion of the azurophilic granule markers US -glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase was not affected by So regardless of the agonist used. Data indicate that both PK-C-dependent and -independent pathways participate in the neutrophil secretory response.

  17. Inhibition of host cell protein synthesis by UV-inactivated poliovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Helentjaris, T; Ehrenfeld, E

    1977-01-01

    The ability of poliovirus that was irradiated with UV light at energies up to 2,160 ergs/mm2 to subsequently inhibit host cell protein synthesis was measured. The inactivation of the host cell shutoff function followed one-hit kinetics. Increasing irradiation did not affect the rate of inhibition until the multiplicity of infection after irradiation was reduced to approximately 1 PFU/cell. At higher functional multiplicities, the rate was unchanged, but an increasing lag before the onset of inhibition was observed with increasing irradiation. The energy levels required to inactivate virus-induced inhibition of host cell protein synthesis suggest that damage to virus RNA rather than to virus capsid proteins is responsible for the loss of function. When the inactivation of host cell shutoff was compared with the inactivation of other viral functions by UV irradiation, it correlated exactly with the loss of infectivity but not with other viral functions measured. Guanidine treatment, which prevents detectable viral RNA and protein synthesis, completely inhibited host cell shutoff by low multiplicities of unirradiated virus infection but not higher multiplicities. When a high multiplicity of virus was first reduced to a low titer by irradiation, host cell shutoff was still evident in the presence of guanidine. The results demonstrate that the complete inhibition of host cell protein synthesis can be accomplished by one infectious viral genome per cell. Images PMID:189067

  18. Differential Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Activation and Protein Degradation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Findeisen, Hannes M; Jones, Karrie L; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) maintains telomeres and is rate limiting for replicative life span. While most somatic tissues silence TERT transcription resulting in telomere shortening, cells derived from cancer or cardiovascular diseases express TERT and activate telomerase. In the present study, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition induces TERT transcription and promoter activation. At the protein level in contrast, HDAC inhibition decreases TERT protein abundance through enhanced degradation, which decreases telomerase activity and induces senescence. Finally, we demonstrate that HDAC inhibition decreases TERT expression during vascular remodeling in vivo. These data illustrate a differential regulation of TERT transcription and protein stability by HDAC inhibition and suggest that TERT may constitute an important target for the anti-proliferative efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26505494

  19. Structural basis for hygromycin B inhibition of protein biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Borovinskaya, Maria A.; Shoji, Shinichiro; Fredrick, Kurt; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2008-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are one of the most widely used and clinically important classes of antibiotics that target the ribosome. Hygromycin B is an atypical aminoglycoside antibiotic with unique structural and functional properties. Here we describe the structure of the intact Escherichia coli 70S ribosome in complex with hygromycin B. The antibiotic binds to the mRNA decoding center in the small (30S) ribosomal subunit of the 70S ribosome and induces a localized conformational change, in contrast to its effects observed in the structure of the isolated 30S ribosomal subunit in complex with the drug. The conformational change in the ribosome caused by hygromycin B binding differs from that induced by other aminoglycosides. Also, in contrast to other aminoglycosides, hygromycin B potently inhibits spontaneous reverse translocation of tRNAs and mRNA on the ribosome in vitro. These structural and biochemical results help to explain the unique mode of translation inhibition by hygromycin B. PMID:18567815

  20. Improvement of Structure-Based Potentials for Protein Folding by Native and Nonnative Hydrogen Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Enciso, Marta; Rey, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Pure Gō models (where every native interaction equally stabilizes the folded state) have widely proved their convenience in the computational investigation of protein folding. However, a chemistry-based description of the real interactions also provides a desirable tune in the analysis of the folding process, and thus some hybrid Gō potentials that combine both aspects have been proposed. Among all the noncovalent interactions that contribute to protein folding, hydrogen bonds are the only ones with a partial covalent character. This feature makes them directional and, thus, more difficult to model as part of the coarse-grained descriptions that are typically employed in Gō models. Thanks to a simplified but rigorous representation of backbone hydrogen bonds that we have recently proposed, we present in this article a combined potential (Gō + backbone hydrogen bond) to study the thermodynamics of protein folding in the frame of very simple simulation models. We show that the explicit inclusion of hydrogen bonds leads to a systematic improvement in the description of protein folding. We discuss a representative set of examples (from two-state folders to downhill proteins, with different types of native structures) that reveal a relevant agreement with experimental data. PMID:21943429

  1. Monitoring Backbone Hydrogen-Bond Formation in β-Barrel Membrane Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Thomas; Rios Flores, Perla; Opitz, Christian; Müller, Daniel J; Hiller, Sebastian

    2016-05-10

    β-barrel membrane proteins are key components of the outer membrane of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Their three-dimensional structure is defined by a network of backbone hydrogen bonds between adjacent β-strands. Here, we employ hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange in combination with NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to monitor backbone hydrogen bond formation during folding of the outer membrane protein X (OmpX) from E. coli in detergent micelles. Residue-specific kinetics of interstrand hydrogen-bond formation were found to be uniform in the entire β-barrel and synchronized to formation of the tertiary structure. OmpX folding thus propagates via a long-lived conformational ensemble state in which all backbone amide protons exchange with the solvent and engage in hydrogen bonds only transiently. Stable formation of the entire OmpX hydrogen bond network occurs downhill of the rate-limiting transition state and thus appears cooperative on the overall folding time scale. PMID:27062600

  2. NMR-Based Detection of Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Liposome-Embedded Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuejun; Dürr, Ulrich H. N.; Gattin, Zrinka; Laukat, Yvonne; Narayanan, Rhagavendran L.; Brückner, Ann-Kathrin; Meisinger, Chris; Lange, Adam; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in biology. Determination of their structure in a membrane environment, however, is highly challenging. To address this challenge, we developed an approach that couples hydrogen/deuterium exchange of membrane proteins to rapid unfolding and detection by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. We show that the method allows analysis of the solvent protection of single residues in liposome-embedded proteins such as the 349-residue Tom40, the major protein translocation pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane, which has resisted structural analysis for many years. PMID:25375235

  3. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Natalia P.; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Salazar, Julio; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Nunez, Marco T.

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that

  4. Inhibition of protein translation as a novel mechanism for prostaglandin E2 regulation of cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Okunishi, Katsuhide; DeGraaf, Angela J.; Zasłona, Zbigniew; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates numerous biological processes by modulating transcriptional activation, epigenetic control, proteolysis, and secretion of various proteins. Scar formation depends on fibroblast elaboration of matrix proteins such as collagen, and this process is strongly suppressed by PGE2 through activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). However, the actual mechanism by which PGE2-PKA signaling inhibits collagen expression in fibroblasts has never been delineated, and that was the objective of this study. PGE2 unexpectedly induced a rapid reduction in procollagen I protein expression in adult lung fibroblasts, with a half-maximum effect at 1.5 h. This effect reflected its inhibition of translation rather than transcription. Global protein synthesis was also inhibited by PGE2. This action was mediated by PKA and involved both activation of ribosomal protein (rpS6) and suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Similar effects of PGE2 were demonstrated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMs). These findings identify inhibition of translation as a new mechanism by which PGE2 regulates cellular function and a novel example of translational inhibition mediated by opposing actions on two distinct translational control pathways. Translational inhibition would be expected to contribute to dynamic alterations in cell function that accompany the changing PGE2 levels observed in disease states and with various pharmacotherapies.—Okunishi K., DeGraaf, A. J., Zasłona, Z., Peters-Golden, M. Inhibition of protein translation as a novel mechanism for prostaglandin E2 regulation of cell functions. PMID:24072780

  5. Control of Carbon and Electron Flow in Clostridium acetobutylicum Fermentations: Utilization of Carbon Monoxide to Inhibit Hydrogen Production and to Enhance Butanol Yields

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Hong; Bellows, Para; Datta, Rathin; Zeikus, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts prepared from non-solvent-producing cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum contained methyl viologen-linked hydrogenase activity (20 U/mg of protein at 37°C) but did not display carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity. CO addition readily inhibited the hydrogenase activity of cell extracts or of viable metabolizing cells. Increasing the partial pressure of CO (2 to 10%) in unshaken anaerobic culture tube headspaces significantly inhibited (90% inhibition at 10% CO) both growth and hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum. Growth was not sensitive to low partial pressures of CO (i.e., up to 15%) in pH-controlled fermentors (pH 4.5) that were continuously gassed and mixed. CO addition dramatically altered the glucose fermentation balance of C. acetobutylicum by diverting carbon and electrons away from H2, CO2, acetate, and butyrate production and towards production of ethanol and butanol. The butanol concentration was increased from 65 to 106 mM and the butanol productivity (i.e., the ratio of butanol produced/total acids and solvents produced) was increased by 31% when glucose fermentations maintained at pH 4.5 were continuously gassed with 85% N2-15% CO versus N2 alone. The results are discussed in terms of metabolic regulation of C. acetobutylicum saccharide fermentations to achieve maximal butanol or solvent yield. PMID:16346643

  6. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells involved in the modulation of calcium sensing receptor in high homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwen; Wang, Xiyao; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Jichao; Dong, Shiyun; Li, Hongzhu; Jin, Meili; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Weihua; Zhong, Xin

    2016-09-10

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induces the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits the phenotype switch of VSMCs and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulated the production of endogenous H2S. However, whether CaSR inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs by regulating the endogenous cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, a major enzyme that produces H2S) pathway in high homocysteine (HHcy) has not been previously investigated. The intracellular calcium concentration, the concentration of H2S, the cell viability, the proliferation and the expression of proteins of cultured VSMCs from rat thoracic aortas were measured, respectively. The results showed that the [Ca(2+)]i and the expression of p-CaMK and CSE increased upon treatment with CaSR agonist. In HHcy, the H2S concentration decrease, the proliferation and migration rate increased, the expression of Cyclin D1, PCNA, Osteopontin and p-Erk1/2 increased while the α-SM actin, P21(Cip/WAK-1) and Calponin decreased. The CaSR agonist or exogenous H2S significantly reversed the changes of VSMCs caused by HHcy. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that CaSR regulate the endogenous CSE/H2S is related to the PLC-IP3 receptor and CaM signal pathways which inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs, and the latter is involved in the Erk1/2 dependent signal pathway in high homocysteine. PMID:27502588

  7. Protein-based nanobiosensor for direct detection of hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, Meisam; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Habibi-Rezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    The chemically modified cytochrome c from equine heart, EC (232-700-9), was immobilized onto gold nanoparticles in order to develop a specific biosensing system for monitoring hydrogen sulfide down to the micromolar level, by means of a localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The sensing mechanism is based on the cytochrome-c conformational changes in the presence of H2S which alter the dielectric properties of the gold nanoparticles and the surface plasmon resonance peak undergoes a redshift. According to the experiments, it is revealed that H2S can be detected at a concentration of 4.0 μ \\text{M} (1.3 \\text{ppb}) by the fabricated biosensor. This simple, quantitative and sensitive sensing platform provides a rapid and convenient detection for H2S at concentrations far below the hazardous limit.

  8. Understanding the role of hydrogen bonds in water dynamics and protein stability.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Valentino; Iskrov, Svilen; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of cold and pressure denaturation of proteins are a matter of debate, but it is commonly accepted that water plays a fundamental role in the process. It has been proposed that the denaturation process is related to an increase of hydrogen bonds among hydration water molecules. Other theories suggest that the causes of denaturation are the density fluctuations of surface water, or the destabilization of hydrophobic contacts as a consequence of water molecule inclusions inside the protein, especially at high pressures. We review some theories that have been proposed to give insight into this problem, and we describe a coarse-grained model of water that compares well with experiments for proteins' hydration water. We introduce its extension for a homopolymer in contact with the water monolayer and study it by Monte Carlo simulations in an attempt to understand how the interplay of water cooperativity and interfacial hydrogen bonds affects protein stability. PMID:23277668

  9. Cadmium inhibits the protein degradation of Sml1 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Sml1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, In-Joon; Kang, Hyun-Jun; Chang, Miwha; Choi, Il-Dong; Kang, Chang-Min; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd inhibits Sml1-p formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd affects cell cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd inhibits Sml1 ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal, and the mechanism of cadmium toxicity in living organisms has been well studied. Here, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to examine the detailed molecular mechanism of cell growth defects caused by cadmium. Using a plate assay of a yeast deletion mutant collection, we found that deletion of SML1, which encodes an inhibitor of Rnr1, resulted in cadmium resistance. Sml1 protein levels increased when cells were treated with cadmium, even though the mRNA levels of SML1 remained unchanged. Using northern and western blot analyses, we found that cadmium inhibited Sml1 degradation by inhibiting Sml1 phosphorylation. Sml1 protein levels increased when cells were treated with cadmium due to disruption of the dependent protein degradation pathway. Furthermore, cadmium promoted cell cycle progression into the G2 phase. The same result was obtained using cells in which SML1 was overexpressed. Deletion of SML1 delayed cell cycle progression. These results are consistent with Sml1 accumulation and with growth defects caused by cadmium stress. Interestingly, although cadmium treatment led to increase Sml1 levels, intracellular dNTP levels also increased because of Rnr3 upregulation due to cadmium stress. Taken together, these results suggest that cadmium specifically affects the phosphorylation of Sml1 and that Sml1 accumulates in cells.

  10. Bacterial Protein Synthesis as a Target for Antibiotic Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Stefan; Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis occurs on macromolecular machines, called ribosomes. Bacterial ribosomes and the translational machinery represent one of the major targets for antibiotics in the cell. Therefore, structural and biochemical investigations into ribosome-targeting antibiotics provide not only insight into the mechanism of action and resistance of antibiotics, but also insight into the fundamental process of protein synthesis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of protein synthesis, particularly with respect to X-ray and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of ribosome complexes, and highlights the different steps of translation that are targeted by the diverse array of known antibiotics. Such findings will be important for the ongoing development of novel and improved antimicrobial agents to combat the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27481773

  11. Anti-apoptotic Activity of Ginsenoside Rb1 in Hydrogen Peroxide-treated Chondrocytes: Stabilization of Mitochondria and the Inhibition of Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji-Young; Kim, Sokho; Song, Kibbeum; Lim, Kyu-Hee; Shin, Gee-Wook; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Young-Bae; Kwon, Jungkee

    2012-07-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which produces reactive oxygen species, reportedly induces apoptosis in chondrocytes. The ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is the principal component in ginseng and has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-arthritis, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumor activities. In this study, we evaluated the effects of G-Rb1 on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and caspase-3 activity of chondrocyte apoptosis induced by H2O2. Cultured rat articular chondrocytes were exposed to H2O2 with or without G-Rb1 and assessed for viability, MPT, Bcl-xL/Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis. The co-treatment with G-Rb1 showed an inhibition of MPT, caspase-3 activity, and cell death. Additionally, the levels of the apoptotic protein Bax were significantly lower and the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were higher compared with H2O2 treatment alone. The results of this study demonstrate that G-Rb1 protects chondrocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis, at least in part via the inhibition of MPT and caspase-3 activity. These results demonstrate that G-Rb1 is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of OA patients. PMID:23717124

  12. Heat shock disassembles the nucleolus and inhibits nuclear protein import and poly(A)+ RNA export.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Liang, S; Tartakoff, A M

    1996-01-01

    Heat shock causes major positive and negative changes in gene expression, drastically alters the appearance of the nucleolus and inhibits rRNA synthesis. We here show that it causes many yeast nucleolar proteins, including the fibrillarin homolog Nop1p, to relocate to the cytoplasm. Relocation depends on several proteins implicated in mRNA transport (Mtrps) and is reversible. Two observations indicate, surprisingly, that disassembly results from a reduction in Ssa protein (Hsp70) levels: (i) selective depletion of Ssa1p leads to disassembly of the nucleolus; (ii) preincubation at 37 degrees C protects the nucleolus against disassembly by heat shock, unless expression of Ssa proteins is specifically inhibited. We observed that heat shock or reduction of Ssa1p levels inhibits protein import into the nucleus and therefore we propose that inhibition of import leads to disassembly of the nucleolus. These observations provide a simple explanation of the effects of heat shock on the anatomy of the nucleolus and rRNA transcription. They also extend understanding of the path of nuclear export. Since a number of nucleoplasmic proteins also relocate upon heat shock, these observations can provide a general mechanism for regulation of gene expression. Relocation of the hnRNP-like protein Mtr13p (= Npl3p, Nop3p), explains the heat shock sensitivity of export of average poly(A)+ RNA. Strikingly, Hsp mRNA export appears not to be affected. Images PMID:8978700

  13. Annexin V inhibits protein kinase C activity via a mechanism of phospholipid sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, T; Mira, J P; Feliers, D; Solito, E; Russo-Marie, F; Oudinet, J P

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of annexin V, a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, as a regulator of protein kinase C (PKC) and characterized its mechanism of inhibition. Several mutants obtained by oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis were tested in vitro on PKC activity in cytosolic fractions from Jurkat cells and on purified PKCalpha. Annexin V inhibited phosphorylation of annexin II by endogenous PKC and phosphorylation of myelin basic protein by PKCalpha. In both systems, the use of single Ca2+-binding-site mutants of annexin V led to a partial reversal of inhibition, and the Ca2+-binding site located in the first domain of annexin V was found to have the most important role. An increase in the number of mutated Ca2+-binding sites led to a greater loss of inhibition. These results corroborated those showing the progressive loss of binding of these mutants to phospholipid liposomes. In conclusion, we show that PKC inhibition by annexin V is the consequence of a mechanism involving phospholipid sequestration by annexin V, and that the Ca2+-binding site located in domain 1 of annexin V plays a predominant role in this process. In addition, we show that the R122AIK site, which may act analogously to a PKC-inhibitory pseudosubstrate site, is not involved in PKC inhibition, and that a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal tail of annexin V inhibits PKC activity but to a lesser extent than annexin V itself. PMID:9494097

  14. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  15. Soy protein diet inhibits zymosan induced monocyte migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atherosclerosis has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, we showed reduced atherosclerotic lesions in a hyperlipidemic mouse model fed isoflavone-free soy protein diet (SPI) compared to casein (CAS)-fed mice, despite unchanged serum lipid levels. However, the molecular mechan...

  16. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. PMID:26254676

  17. Inhibited flammability and surface inactivation of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Mateum, Philip Edward R.; Orille, Ross William M.; Ramos, Rafael Julius U.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Ramos, Henry J.; Bo-ot, Luis Ma. T.

    2007-06-01

    Changes on the properties of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS) were examined. The experimental facility employed was an in-house constructed, compact gas discharge ion source with beam energies maintained approximately in the 1 keV range fixed at 1 mA discharge current, 3 mTorr gas filling pressure. Wood specimens used were of species endemic in the Philippines namely Shorea sp., Shorea polysperma and Cocos nucifera. Results showed the processed samples manifested characteristics of inhibited flammability, and became relatively hydrophobic after the treatment. In the fire resistance test, it was also observed during initial flaming that the processed surfaces accumulated less soot attesting to a much lower smoldering rate, i.e. lesser combustibility. To assess the increase in fire endurance time for the processed wood against the control substrates, a non-directional, two-tailed t-test was utilized. Significant at the 0.05 level, the t-statistic measured 9.164 as opposed to only 4.303 in its corresponding critical value at two degrees of freedom. Hence, the treatment appeared to show strong statistical evidence of being effective in enhancing fire resistance. The processed specimens also exhibited moisture absorptive inhibition time of more than 10 min versus an average absorption period of just 8 s for the unprocessed samples. Spectroscopy using a cast steel mass analyzer indicated a predominance of H+ with faint signals of H2+in the ion showers. It is hypothesized that the monatomic ion plays an essential participatory role in the surface modification process. Data from an earlier work using Narra wood (Pterocarpus indicus) [G.Q. Blantocas, H.J. Ramos, M. Wada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 8498] was extended in the current study to substantiate this hypothesis. The data is now presented as current density ratio H+ /H2+versus the change rate constant K of the wetting model equation. It is shown that wood affinity to water decreased as the

  18. In vitro expression of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein genes: autogenous inhibition of translation.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, J L; Arfsten, A E; Nomura, M

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L1 (0.5 micro M) was found to inhibit the synthesis of both proteins of the L11 operon, L11 and L1, but not the synthesis of other proteins directed by lambda rifd 18 DNA. Similarly, S4 (1 micro M) selectively inhibited the synthesis of three proteins of the alpha operon, S13, S11, and S4, directed by lambda spcI DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment obtained from this DNA. S8 (3.6 micro M) also showed preferential inhibitory effects on the synthesis of some proteins encoded in the spc operon, L24 and L5 (and probably S14 and S8), directed by lambda spcl DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment carrying the genes for these proteins. The inhibitory effect of L1 was observed only with L1 and not with other proteins examined, including S4 and S8. Similarly, the effect of S4 was not observed with L1 or S8, and that of S8 was not seen with L1 or S4. Inhibition was shown to take place at the level of translation rather than transcription. Thus, at least some ribosomal proteins (L1 S4, and S8) have the ability to cause selective translational inhibition of the synthesis of certain ribosomal proteins whose genes are in the same operon as their own. These results support the hypothesis that certain free ribosomal proteins not assembled into ribosomes act as "autogenous" feedback inhibitors to regulate the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:6445562

  19. Frequent Side Chain Methyl Carbon-Oxygen Hydrogen Bonding in Proteins Revealed by Computational and Stereochemical Analysis of Neutron Structures

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Charles L.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2016-01-01

    The propensity of backbone Cα atoms to engage in carbon-oxygen (CH···O) hydrogen bonding is well-appreciated in protein structure, but side chain CH···O hydrogen bonding remains largely uncharacterized. The extent to which side chain methyl groups in proteins participate in CH···O hydrogen bonding is examined through a survey of neutron crystal structures, quantum chemistry calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations. Using these approaches, methyl groups were observed to form stabilizing CH···O hydrogen bonds within protein structure that are maintained through protein dynamics and participate in correlated motion. Collectively, these findings illustrate that side chain methyl CH···O hydrogen bonding contributes to the energetics of protein structure and folding. PMID:25401519

  20. The protein arginine deiminases (PADs): Structure, Function, Inhibition, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bicker, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    The post translational modification of histones has significant effects on overall chromatin function. One such modification is citrullination, which is catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs), a unique family of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline on histones, fibrinogen, and other biologically relevant proteins. Overexpression and/or increased PAD activity is observed in several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer. This review discusses the important structural and mechanistic characteristics of the PADs, as well as recent investigations into the role of the PADs in increasing disease severity in RA and colitis and the importance of PAD activity in mediating neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation through chromatin decondensation. Lastly, efforts to develop PAD inhibitors with excellent potency, selectivity and in vivo efficacy are discussed, highlighting the most promising inhibitors. PMID:23175390

  1. Prion protein inhibits microtubule assembly by inducing tubulin oligomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Nieznanski, Krzysztof . E-mail: k.nieznanski@nencki.gov.pl; Podlubnaya, Zoya A.; Nieznanska, Hanna

    2006-10-13

    A growing body of evidence points to an association of prion protein (PrP) with microtubular cytoskeleton. Recently, direct binding of PrP to tubulin has also been found. In this work, using standard light scattering measurements, sedimentation experiments, and electron microscopy, we show for First time the effect of a direct interaction between these proteins on tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that full-length recombinant PrP induces a rapid increase in the turbidity of tubulin diluted below the critical concentration for microtubule assembly. This effect requires magnesium ions and is weakened by NaCl. Moreover, the PrP-induced light scattering structures of tubulin are cold-stable. In preparations of diluted tubulin incubated with PrP, electron microscopy revealed the presence of {approx}50 nm disc-shaped structures not reported so far. These unique tubulin oligomers may form large aggregates. The effect of PrP is more pronounced under the conditions promoting microtubule formation. In these tubulin samples, PrP induces formation of the above oligomers associated with short protofilaments and sheets of protofilaments into aggregates. Noticeably, this is accompanied by a significant reduction of the number and length of microtubules. Hence, we postulate that prion protein may act as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly by inducing formation of stable tubulin oligomers.

  2. Collective vibrational effects in hydrogen bonded liquid amides and proteins studied by isotopic substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, O. F.; Johansson, C.; Christensen, D. H.; Hvidt, S.; Flink, J.; Høime Hansen, S.; Poulsen, F.

    2000-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the fast dynamics of simple liquid amides and proteins. Raman spectra in the visible region of liquid amides are obtained with a triple additive scanning monochromator, whereas FT-Raman technique is used in the near-IR region in order to avoid fluorescence from impurities in the proteins. Raman spectra are shown in the amide-I region of HCONHCH 3 ( N-methylformamide with all isotopes in their natural abundance), H 13CONHCH 3, HC 18ONHCH 3, human growth hormone, frog tropomyosin and chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 including C-13 and N-15 enriched samples of the latter. Resonance energy transfer (RET) between amide molecules gives rise to a non-coincidence effect of the anisotropic and the isotropic components of the amide-I band. This effect influences the band position in mixtures of liquid amide isotopomers. A further spectral feature caused by collective vibrational modes in the hydrogen bonded liquid amides is named coalescence of bands in mixtures of isotopomers (CBMI). The result of this effect is that only one band is found in mixtures of isotopomers where bands at different frequencies are observed for each of the isotopomers. A similar effect may account for the observation of protein amide-I bands with frequencies dependent only on the secondary structure of the protein and not on the amino acid residues. RET and CBMI are due to a collectivity of vibrational modes in different amide molecules. This collectivity may be related to a cooperativity of hydrogen bonds. A low-frequency band around 100 cm -1 is observed in hydrogen bonded liquid amides and proteins. Isotopic substitution shows that the mode corresponding to this band involves displacements of atoms in hydrogen bonds. This mode may drive a breaking of the hydrogen bond.

  3. Inhibition of protein prenylation down-regulates signalling by inflammatory mediators in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Alaei, P; MacNulty, E E; Ryder, N S

    1996-05-01

    Several inflammatory mediators have been shown to activate phospholipase C in human keratinocytes via GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors. Since GTP-binding proteins are prenylated proteins, we have examined the role of prenylation in signal transduction in HaCaT keratinocytes. Indirect inhibition of prenylation with the HMG CoA reductase inhibitors fluvastatin or compactin decreased bradykinin-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate generation. This effect was abolished by mevalonic acid but not by serum, indicating a requirement for a non-sterol metabolite for signal generation. The BK response was also inhibited by zaragozic acids B and C, known inhibitors of prenyl protein transferases. These results suggest that protein prenylation may be a novel therapeutic target in dermatological conditions where an up-regulation of the inositol lipid pathway has been demonstrated. PMID:8630058

  4. Modified bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to study the inhibition of transcription complex formation by JAZ proteins.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2013-01-01

    The jasmonate (JA) ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana repress JA signaling and negatively regulate the JA responses. Recently, JAZ proteins have been found to inhibit the transcriptional function of several transcription factors, among which the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) (GLABRA3 [GL3], ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 [EGL3], and TRANSPARENT TESTA8 [TT8]) and R2R3-MYB (GL1 and MYB75) that can interact with each other to form bHLH-MYB complexes and further control gene expression. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay is a widely used technique to study protein-protein interactions in living cells. Here we describe a modified BiFC experimental procedure to study the inhibition of the formation of the bHLH (GL3)-MYB (GL1) complex by JAZ proteins. PMID:23615997

  5. Growth-inhibiting extracellular matrix proteins also inhibit electrical activity by reducing calcium and increasing potassium conductances.

    PubMed

    Vargas, J; De-Miguel, F F

    2009-01-23

    Inhibitionof neurite sprouting and electrical activity by extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins was studied during neurite regeneration by using anterior pagoda (AP) neurons of the leech. Adult isolated neurons were plated in culture inside ganglion capsules, which among many ECM proteins, contain a group of inhibitory peanut lectin- (PNA) binding glycoproteins. These proteins inhibit neurite production and contribute to the formation of a bipolar outgrowth pattern by AP neurons. Addition of PNA lectin to the culture medium to block the inhibitory effects of ECM glycoproteins induced an increase of neurite sprouting, the loss of the bipolar pattern, and also an increase in the amplitude and duration of action potentials evoked by intracellular current injection. PNA lectin had independent effects on neurite sprouting and electrical activity, since there was no correlation between the total neurite length and the amplitude of the action potentials. Moreover, action potentials were increased by the presence of PNA lectin even in neurons that did not grow. The changes induced by PNA lectin on the active conductances underlying the action potentials were estimated by quantitative model simulations. We predict that the increases in the amplitude and duration of the action potential induced by PNA lectin were due to an increase in a calcium conductance and a reduction in the delayed rectifier potassium conductance. Our results suggest that inhibitory ECM glycoproteins may use independent signaling pathways to inhibit neurite sprouting and electrical activity. These proteins affect the action potential by changing the proportion of inward and outward active conductances. PMID:18976697

  6. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. )

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  7. Antiviral Protein of Momordica charantia L. Inhibits Different Subtypes of Influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Pongthanapisith, Viroj; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Leelamanit, Wichet

    2013-01-01

    The new antiviral activity of the protein extracted from Momordica charantia was determined with different subtypes of influenza A. The protein was purified from the seed of M. charantia using an anion exchanger and a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. At the concentration of 1.401 mg/mL, the protein did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) but inhibited 1 × 105 FFU influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus at 56.50%, 65.72%, and 100% inhibition by the protein treated before the virus (pretreated), the protein treated alongside with the virus (simultaneously treated), and the protein treated after the virus (posttreated) during incubation, respectively. Using 5, 25, and 100 TCID50 of influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 H1N1, A/Fujian/411/01 H3N2 and A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 H5N1, the IC50 was calculated to be 100, 150, and 200; 75, 175, and 300; and 40, 75, and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Our present finding indicated that the plant protein inhibited not only H1N1 and H3N2 but also H5N1 subtype. As a result of the broad spectrum of its antiviral activity, this edible plant can be developed as an effective therapeutic agent against various and even new emerging subtypes of influenza A. PMID:23935676

  8. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kalunke, Raviraj M.; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  9. Changes in protein structure monitored by use of gas‐phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, Helen S.; Ault, James R.; Pringle, Steven D.; Brown, Jeffery M.

    2015-01-01

    The study of protein conformation by solution‐phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled to MS is well documented. This involves monitoring the exchange of backbone amide protons with deuterium and provides details concerning the protein's tertiary structure. However, undesired back‐exchange during post‐HDX analyses can be difficult to control. Here, gas‐phase HDX‐MS, during which labile hydrogens on amino acid side chains are exchanged in sub‐millisecond time scales, has been employed to probe changes within protein structures. Addition of the solvent 2,2,2‐trifluoroethanol to a protein in solution can affect the structure of the protein, resulting in an increase in secondary and/or tertiary structure which is detected using circular dichroism. Using a Synapt G2‐S ESI‐mass spectrometer modified to allow deuterated ammonia into the transfer ion guide (situated between the ion mobility cell and the TOF analyser), gas‐phase HDX‐MS is shown to reflect minor structural changes experienced by the proteins β‐lactoglobulin and ubiquitin, as observed by the reduction in the level of deuterium incorporation. Additionally, the use of gas‐phase HDX‐MS to distinguish between co‐populated proteins conformers within a solution is demonstrated with the disordered protein calmodulin; the gas‐phase HDX‐MS results correspond directly with complementary data obtained by use of ion mobility spectrometry‐MS. PMID:25603979

  10. Inhibition of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein inhibits ozone-induced airway neutrophilia and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Damera, Gautam; Jester, William F.; Jiang, Meiqi; Zhao, Hengjiang; Fogle, Homer W.; Mittelman, Michael; Haczku, Angela; Murphy, Edwin; Parikh, Indu; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests inhibition of leukocyte trafficking mitigates, in part, ozone-induced inflammation. In the present study, the authors postulated that inhibition of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), an 82-kDa protein with multiple biological roles, could inhibit ozone-induced leukocyte trafficking and cytokine secretions. BALB/c mice (n = 5/cohort) were exposed to ozone (100 ppb) or forced air (FA) for 4 hours. MARCKS-inhibiting peptides, MANS, BIO-11000, BIO-11006, or scrambled control peptide RNS, were intratracheally administered prior to ozone exposure. Ozone selectively enhanced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of killer cells (KCs; 6 ± 0.9-fold), interleukin-6 (IL-6; 12.7 ± 1.9-fold), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF; 2.1 ± 0.5-fold) as compared to cohorts exposed to FA. Additionally, ozone increased BAL neutrophils by 21% ± 2% with no significant (P > .05) changes in other cell types. MANS, BIO-11000, and BIO-11006 significantly reduced ozone-induced KC secretion by 66% ± 14%, 47% ± 15%, and 71.1% ± 14%, and IL-6 secretion by 69% ± 12%, 40% ± 7%, and 86.1% ± 11%, respectively. Ozone-mediated increases in BAL neutrophils were reduced by MANS (86% ± 7%) and BIO-11006 (84% ± 2.5%), but not BIO-11000. These studies identify for the first time the novel potential of MARCKS protein inhibitors in abrogating ozone-induced increases in neutrophils, cytokines, and chemokines in BAL fluid. BIO-11006 is being developed as a treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and is currently being evaluated in a phase 2 clinical study. PMID:20205598

  11. Elongation factor 2 kinase promotes cell survival by inhibiting protein synthesis without inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Claire E.J.; Wang, Xuemin; Xie, Jianling; Pickford, Jo; Barron, John; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Versele, Matthias; Proud, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) inhibits the elongation stage of protein synthesis by phosphorylating its only known substrate, eEF2. eEF2K is tightly regulated by nutrient-sensitive signalling pathways. For example, it is inhibited by signalling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). It is therefore activated under conditions of nutrient deficiency. Here we show that inhibiting eEF2K or knocking down its expression renders cancer cells sensitive to death under nutrient-starved conditions, and that this is rescued by compounds that block protein synthesis. This implies that eEF2K protects nutrient-deprived cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Cells in which signalling through mTORC1 is highly active are very sensitive to nutrient withdrawal. Inhibiting mTORC1 protects them. Our data reveal that eEF2K makes a substantial contribution to the cytoprotective effect of mTORC1 inhibition. eEF2K is also reported to promote another potentially cytoprotective process, autophagy. We have used several approaches to test whether inhibition or loss of eEF2K affects autophagy under a variety of conditions. We find no evidence that eEF2K is involved in the activation of autophagy in the cell types we have studied. We conclude that eEF2K protects cancer cells against nutrient starvation by inhibiting protein synthesis rather than by activating autophagy. PMID:26795954

  12. Inhibition of epithelial Na sup + transport by atriopeptin, protein kinase c, and pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A. )

    1987-08-01

    The authors have recently shown the selective inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive, conductive pathway for Na{sup +} by atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-bromoguanosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK{sub i}. Using {sup 22}Na{sup +} fluxes, they further investigated the modulation of Na{sup +} transport by atrial natriuretic peptide and by agents that increase cGMP production, activate protein kinase c, or modulate guanine nucleotide regulatory protein function. Sodium nitroprusside increases intracellular cGMP concentrations without affecting cAMP concentrations and completely inhibits amiloride-sensitive Na{sup +} uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, activators of protein kinase c, inhibit Na{sup +} uptake by 93 {plus minus} 13 and 51 {plus minus} 10%, respectively. Prolonged incubation with phorbol ester results in the downregulation of protein kinase c activity and reduces the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide, suggesting that the action of this peptide involves stimulation of protein kinase c. Pertussis toxin, which induces the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in LLC-PK{sub i} cells, inhibits {sup 22}Na{sup +} influx to the same extent as amiloride. Thus, increasing cGMP, activating protein kinase c, and ADP-ribosylating a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein all inhibit Na{sup +} uptake. These events may be sequentially involved in the action of atrial natriuretic peptide.

  13. Xnr2 and Xnr5 unprocessed proteins inhibit Wnt signaling upstream of dishevelled.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Yasuko; Takahashi, Shuji; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Tanegashima, Kousuke; Yokota, Chika; Whitman, Malcolm; Asashima, Makoto

    2005-12-01

    Nodal and Nodal-related proteins activate the Activin-like signal pathway and play a key role in the formation of mesoderm and endoderm in vertebrate development. Recent studies have shown additional activities of Nodal-related proteins apart from the canonical Activin-like signal pathway. Here we report a novel function of Nodal-related proteins using cleavage mutants of Xenopus nodal-related genes (cmXnr2 and cmXnr5), which are known to be dominant-negative inhibitors of nodal family signaling. cmXnr2 and cmXnr5 inhibited both BMP signaling and Wnt signaling without activating the Activin-like signal in animal cap assays. Pro region construct of Xnr2 and Xnr5 did not inhibit Xwnt8, and pro/mature region chimera mutant cmActivin-Xnr2 and cmActivin-Xnr5 also did not inhibit Xwnt8 activity. These results indicate that the pro domains of Xnr2 and Xnr5 are necessary, but not sufficient, for Wnt inhibition, by Xnr family proteins. In addition, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the unprocessed Xnr5 protein is stably produced and secreted as effectively as mature Xnr5 protein, and that the unprocessed Xnr5 protein diffused in the extracellular space. These results suggest that unprocessed Xnr2 and Xnr5 proteins may be involved in inhibiting both BMP and Wnt signaling and are able to be secreted to act on somewhat distant target cells, if these are highly produced. PMID:16193491

  14. Protein hydrogen exchange at residue resolution by proteolytic fragmentation mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Zhong-Yuan; Walters, Benjamin T; Mayne, Leland; Englander, S Walter

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen exchange technology provides a uniquely powerful instrument for measuring protein structural and biophysical properties, quantitatively and in a nonperturbing way, and determining how these properties are implemented to produce protein function. A developing hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry method (HX MS) is able to analyze large biologically important protein systems while requiring only minuscule amounts of experimental material. The major remaining deficiency of the HX MS method is the inability to deconvolve HX results to individual amino acid residue resolution. To pursue this goal we used an iterative optimization program (HDsite) that integrates recent progress in multiple peptide acquisition together with previously unexamined isotopic envelope-shape information and a site-resolved back-exchange correction. To test this approach, residue-resolved HX rates computed from HX MS data were compared with extensive HX NMR measurements, and analogous comparisons were made in simulation trials. These tests found excellent agreement and revealed the important computational determinants. PMID:24019478

  15. Protein hydrogen exchange at residue resolution by proteolytic fragmentation mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Zhong-Yuan; Walters, Benjamin T.; Mayne, Leland; Englander, S. Walter

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange technology provides a uniquely powerful instrument for measuring protein structural and biophysical properties, quantitatively and in a nonperturbing way, and determining how these properties are implemented to produce protein function. A developing hydrogen exchange–mass spectrometry method (HX MS) is able to analyze large biologically important protein systems while requiring only minuscule amounts of experimental material. The major remaining deficiency of the HX MS method is the inability to deconvolve HX results to individual amino acid residue resolution. To pursue this goal we used an iterative optimization program (HDsite) that integrates recent progress in multiple peptide acquisition together with previously unexamined isotopic envelope-shape information and a site-resolved back-exchange correction. To test this approach, residue-resolved HX rates computed from HX MS data were compared with extensive HX NMR measurements, and analogous comparisons were made in simulation trials. These tests found excellent agreement and revealed the important computational determinants. PMID:24019478

  16. Possible protein phosphatase inhibition by bis(hydroxyethyl) sulfide, a hydrolysis product of mustard gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brimfield, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, the natural vesicant cantharidin was shown to bind exclusively to and inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in mouse tissue extracts (Li and Casida (1992) Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 11867-11870). To explore the generality of this effect in vesicant action, we measured the protein serinelthreonine phosphatase activity in mouse liver cytosol (in the form of the okadaic acid inhibitable increment of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) phosphatase activity) in the presence of aqueous sulfur mustard or its hydrolysis product, bis(hydroxyethyl)sulfide (TDG). Sulfur mustard inhibited p-NPP hydrolysis. However, inhibition correlated with the time elapsed between thawing and the addition of mustard to the enzyme preparation, not with concentration. TDG exhibited a direct, concentration-related inhibition of p-NPP hydrolysis between 30 and 300 1LM. We conclude that sulfur mustard also has an inhibitory effect on protein serinelthreonine phosphatases. However, the inhibition is an effect of its non-alkykating hydrolysis product TDG, not of sulfur mustard itself.

  17. Probing the target-specific inhibition of sensitized protein tyrosine phosphatases with biarsenical probes

    PubMed Central

    Pomorski, Adam; Adamczyk, Justyna; Bishop, Anthony C.; Krężel, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Selective control of enzyme activity is critical for elucidating the roles of specific proteins in signaling pathways. One potential means for developing truly target-specific inhibitors involves the use of protein engineering to sensitize a target enzyme to inhibition by a small molecule that does not inhibit homologous wild-type enzymes. Previously, it has been shown that protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) can be sensitized to inhibition by a biarsenical probe, FlAsH-EDT2, which inhibits PTP activity by specifically binding to cysteine residues that have been introduced into catalytically important regions. In the present study, we developed an array of biarsenical probes, some newly synthesized and some previously reported, to investigate for the first time the structure-activity relationships for PTP inhibition by biarsenicals. Our data show that biarsenical probes which contain substitutions at the 2′ and 7′ positions are more effective than FlAsH-EDT2 at inhibiting sensitized PTPs. The increased potency of 2′,7′-substituted probes was observed when PTPs were assayed with both para-nitrophenylphosphate and phosphopeptide PTP substrates and at multiple probe concentrations. The data further indicate that the enhanced inhibitory properties are the result of increased binding affinity between the 2′,7′-substituted biarsenical probes and sensitized PTPs. In addition we provide previously unknown physicochemical and stability data for various biarsenical probes. PMID:25460004

  18. Plant uncoupling protein in mitochondria from aged-dehydrated slices of Jerusalem artichoke tubers becomes sensitive to superoxide and to hydrogen peroxide without increase in protein level.

    PubMed

    Paventi, Gianluca; Pastore, Donato; Bobba, Antonella; Pizzuto, Roberto; Di Pede, Sergio; Passarella, Salvatore

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the occurrence of the plant Uncoupling Protein (UCP) in mitochondria isolated from both fresh (f-JAM) and aged-dehydrated (a-d-JAM) slices of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.). The presence of UCP was shown by immunological analysis and its function was investigated by measuring the decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential due to linoleic acid (LA) and its inhibition by purine nucleotides under conditions in which the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) was inhibited by atractyloside (Atr). f-JAM and a-d-JAM had the same protein content, but differed from one another with respect to purine nucleotide inhibition, substrate specificity, and sensitivity to ROS. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, generated in situ by xanthine plus xanthine oxidase, caused a significant increase in the UCP function in a-d-JAM, but not in f-JAM. This occurred in a manner sensitive to ATP, but not to Atr, thus showing that ANT has no role in the process. The dependence of the rate of membrane potential decrease on increasing LA concentrations, either in the absence or the presence of ROS, showed a sigmoidal saturation both in f-JAM and a-d-JAM. However, addition of ROS in a-d-JAM resulted in about 40% increase of the Vmax value, with no change in the K0.5 (about 20 microM), whereas in f-JAM no effect on either the Vmax or K0.5 (about 28 microM) was found. Furthermore, a decreased ROS production as a result of LA addition was found in both f-JAM and a-d-JAM, the effect being more marked in a-d-JAM. PMID:16181725

  19. A structural role for arginine in proteins: multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens.

    PubMed

    Borders, C L; Broadwater, J A; Bekeny, P A; Salmon, J E; Lee, A S; Eldridge, A M; Pett, V B

    1994-04-01

    We propose that arginine side chains often play a previously unappreciated general structural role in the maintenance of tertiary structure in proteins, wherein the positively charged guanidinium group forms multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens. Using as a criterion for a "structural" arginine one that forms 4 or more hydrogen bonds to 3 or more backbone carbonyl oxygens, we have used molecular graphics to locate arginines of interest in 4 proteins: Arg 180 in Thermus thermophilus manganese superoxide dismutase, Arg 254 in human carbonic anhydrase II, Arg 31 in Streptomyces rubiginosus xylose isomerase, and Arg 313 in Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Arg 180 helps to mold the active site channel of superoxide dismutase, whereas in each of the other enzymes the structural arginine is buried in the "mantle" (i.e., inside, but near the surface) of the protein interior well removed from the active site, where it makes 5 hydrogen bonds to 4 backbone carbonyl oxygens. Using a more relaxed criterion of 3 or more hydrogen bonds to 2 or more backbone carbonyl oxygens, arginines that play a potentially important structural role were found in yeast enolase, Bacillus stearothermophilus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, bacteriophage T4 and human lysozymes, Enteromorpha prolifera plastocyanin, HIV-1 protease, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and yeast triosephosphate isomerases, and Escherichia coli trp aporepressor (but not trp repressor or the trp repressor/operator complex).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8003972

  20. Reduced Protein Synthesis Fidelity Inhibits Flagellar Biosynthesis and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R.; Ling, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate translation of the genetic information from DNA to protein is maintained by multiple quality control steps from bacteria to mammals. Genetic and environmental alterations have been shown to compromise translational quality control and reduce fidelity during protein synthesis. The physiological impact of increased translational errors is not fully understood. While generally considered harmful, translational errors have recently been shown to benefit cells under certain stress conditions. In this work, we describe a novel regulatory pathway in which reduced translational fidelity downregulates expression of flagellar genes and suppresses bacterial motility. Electron microscopy imaging shows that the error-prone Escherichia coli strain lacks mature flagella. Further genetic analyses reveal that translational errors upregulate expression of a small RNA DsrA through enhancing its transcription, and deleting DsrA from the error-prone strain restores motility. DsrA regulates expression of H-NS and RpoS, both of which regulate flagellar genes. We demonstrate that an increased level of DsrA in the error-prone strain suppresses motility through the H-NS pathway. Our work suggests that bacteria are capable of switching on and off the flagellar system by altering translational fidelity, which may serve as a previously unknown mechanism to improve fitness in response to environmental cues. PMID:27468805

  1. Energetics of short hydrogen bonds in photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keisuke; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent neutron diffraction studies of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) proposed that the H bond between protonated Glu46 and the chromophore [ionized p-coumaric acid (pCA)] was a low-barrier H bond (LBHB). Using the atomic coordinates of the high-resolution crystal structure, we analyzed the energetics of the short H bond by two independent methods: electrostatic pK(a) calculations and a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. (i) In the QM/MM optimized geometry, we reproduced the two short H-bond distances of the crystal structure: Tyr42-pCA (2.50 Å) and Glu46-pCA (2.57 Å). However, the H atoms obviously belonged to the Tyr or Glu moieties, and were not near the midpoint of the donor and acceptor atoms. (ii) The potential-energy curves of the two H bonds resembled those of standard asymmetric double-well potentials, which differ from those of LBHB. (iii) The calculated pK(a) values for Glu46 and pCA were 8.6 and 5.4, respectively. The pK(a) difference was unlikely to satisfy the prerequisite for LBHB. (iv) The LBHB in PYP was originally proposed to stabilize the ionized pCA because deprotonated Arg52 cannot stabilize it. However, the calculated pK(a) of Arg52 and QM/MM optimized geometry suggested that Arg52 was protonated on the protein surface. The short H bond between Glu46 and ionized pCA in the PYP ground state could be simply explained by electrostatic stabilization without invoking LBHB. PMID:22173632

  2. Quassinoid Inhibition of AP-1 Function Does Not Correlate with Cytotoxicity or Protein Synthesis Inhibition†

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, John A.; Kang, Moon-Il; Robert, Francis; Clement, Jason A.; Pelletier, Jerry; Colburn, Nancy H.; McKee, Tawnya C.; Goncharova, Ekaterina; McMahon, James B.; Henrich, Curtis J.

    2010-01-01

    Several quassinoids were identified in a high-throughput screening assay as inhibitors of the transcription factor AP-1. Further biological characterization revealed that while their effect was not specific to AP-1, protein synthesis inhibition and cell growth assays were inconsistent with a mechanism of simple protein synthesis inhibition. Numerous plant extracts from the plant family Simaroubaceae were also identified in the same screen; bioassay-guided fractionation of one extract (Ailanthus triphylla) yielded two known quassinoids, ailanthinone (3) and glaucarubinone (4), which were also identified in the pure compound screening procedure. PMID:19199792

  3. Boymaw, overexpressed in brains with major psychiatric disorders, may encode a small protein to inhibit mitochondrial function and protein translation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baohu; Kim, Minjung; Higa, Kerin K; Zhou, Xianjin

    2015-06-01

    The t(1,11) chromosome translocation co-segregates with major psychiatric disorders in a large Scottish family. The translocation disrupts the DISC1and Boymaw (DISC1FP1) genes on chromosomes 1 and 11, respectively. After translocation, two fusion genes are generated. Our recent studies found that the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein is localized in mitochondria and inhibits oxidoreductase activity, rRNA expression, and protein translation. Mice carrying the DISC1-Boymaw fusion genes display intermediate behavioral phenotypes related to major psychiatric disorders. Here, we report that the Boymaw gene may encode a small protein predominantly localized in mitochondria. The Boymaw protein inhibits oxidoreductase activity, rRNA expression, and protein translation in the same way as the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein. Interestingly, Boymaw expression is up-regulated by different stressors at RNA and/or protein translational levels. In addition, we found that Boymaw RNA expression is significantly increased in the postmortem brains of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Our studies therefore suggest that the Boymaw gene could potentially be a susceptibility gene for major psychiatric disorders in both the Scottish t(1,11) family and the general population of patients. PMID:25943690

  4. Multiple mechanisms for CRISPR-Cas inhibition by anti-CRISPR proteins.

    PubMed

    Bondy-Denomy, Joseph; Garcia, Bianca; Strum, Scott; Du, Mingjian; Rollins, MaryClare F; Hidalgo-Reyes, Yurima; Wiedenheft, Blake; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    The battle for survival between bacteria and the viruses that infect them (phages) has led to the evolution of many bacterial defence systems and phage-encoded antagonists of these systems. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated (cas) genes comprise an adaptive immune system that is one of the most widespread means by which bacteria defend themselves against phages. We identified the first examples of proteins produced by phages that inhibit a CRISPR-Cas system. Here we performed biochemical and in vivo investigations of three of these anti-CRISPR proteins, and show that each inhibits CRISPR-Cas activity through a distinct mechanism. Two block the DNA-binding activity of the CRISPR-Cas complex, yet do this by interacting with different protein subunits, and using steric or non-steric modes of inhibition. The third anti-CRISPR protein operates by binding to the Cas3 helicase-nuclease and preventing its recruitment to the DNA-bound CRISPR-Cas complex. In vivo, this anti-CRISPR can convert the CRISPR-Cas system into a transcriptional repressor, providing the first example-to our knowledge-of modulation of CRISPR-Cas activity by a protein interactor. The diverse sequences and mechanisms of action of these anti-CRISPR proteins imply an independent evolution, and foreshadow the existence of other means by which proteins may alter CRISPR-Cas function. PMID:26416740

  5. Influence of heterocyclic anils on corrosion inhibition and hydrogen permeation through mild steel in acid chloride environments

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A. Khan, M.A.W.; Ajmal, M.; Muralidharan, S.; Iyer, S.V.

    1997-06-01

    The heterocyclic anils 2-salicylideneaminobenzothiazole (SABT), 2-salicylideneamino-6-methoxybenzothiazole (SAMEOBT) were investigated to evaluate their efficiency as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel (MS) in 1 M hydrochloric acid at concentrations from 100 ppm to 500 ppm and temperatures from 35 C to 60 C. SACLBT performed best, giving an inhibition efficiency as high as 98% even at a very low concentration and higher temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed inhibition was under cathodic control. These compounds reduced hydrogen permeation through MS in 1 M HCl solution. Adsorption on the MS surface followed Temkin`s adsorption isotherms. Surface analysis of the MS surface exposed with SACLBT proved adsorption of this compound on the surface occurred through interaction of lone pairs of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine atoms with the metal surface.

  6. Nitric oxide-based protein modification: formation and site-specificity of protein S-nitrosylation: Could protein S-nitrosylation be the unifying oxidative modification to explain the cellular signaling activity of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide?

    PubMed

    Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) function as signaling molecules in physiological settings by acting as second messengers in response to external stimuli such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones. The nature of the ROS involved in cell signaling as well as the underlying mechanisms by which ROS modify protein function to influence cellular processes have been unfolding over the past decade. ROS and RNS influence various cellular processes by altering the function of critical proteins via reversible oxidation of "reactive cysteine" residues. Protein S-nitrosylation is a mechanism of nitric oxide-based signaling, however, while the presence of NO is sufficient and may be a prerequisite for the formation of cysteine-SNO, we reasoned that if protein-SNO formation is a critical cystein modification for redox driven signal transduction, an increase in intracellular ROS such as H2O2 and O2(-), shown to be independently involved in cell signaling, might both promote the formation of protein-SNO. In this respect, the present study shows that an increase in protein-SNO was detected not only upon an increase in the intracellular level of nitric oxide (NO), but also following exposure to low concentration of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or upon inhibition of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase that results in increased intracellular O2(-). PMID:26461291

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Protein Oxidation During Storage and Lyophilization Process.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Zheng, Xiaoyang; Yang, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Although the impact of hydrogen peroxide (HP) on proteins in liquid solutions has been studied extensively, the impact during lyophilization has been largely overlooked. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of HP on lyophilized proteins and HP removal by lyophilization. A protein formulation at 5 mg/mL and its placebo were spiked with HP up to 5.0 ppm and then lyophilized. HP concentration, protein oxidation, and aggregation were monitored before and after lyophilization, as well as during storage at 25°C. The lyophilization process removed on average 94.1% of HP from protein formulation, but only 72.5% from the placebo. There were also significant increases in protein oxidization and aggregation. The oxidation increment correlated with the decrease of HP concentration in both the protein formulation and placebo at all temperatures. Protein oxidation at different freezing temperatures was also studied in follow-up studies. Data from these studies suggest that (1) HP has a significant impact on oxidation and aggregation of protein during lyophilization; (2) significant oxidation can occur even when the protein formulation is frozen; (3) the oxidized protein is more prone to aggregation during lyophilization process. PMID:27238482

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Prolongs Postharvest Storage of Fresh-Cut Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) by Alleviation of Oxidative Damage and Inhibition of Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuai-Ping; Wu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Han, Yi; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (•O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide. PMID:24454881

  9. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B inhibits apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages through protein S cleavage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Yueh-Ying; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Han, Chia-Li; Wang, Shuying; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2016-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages plays an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Previous study indicated that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) reduces phagocytic activity in group A streptococcus (GAS) infection. Here, we demonstrate that SPE B causes an inhibitory effect on protein S-mediated phagocytosis. In the presence of SPE B, serum- and purified protein S-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells were significantly inhibited. The binding abilities of protein S to apoptotic cells were decreased by treatment with SPE B. Bacterial culture supernatants from GAS NZ131 strain also caused a reduction of protein S binding to apoptotic cells, but speB mutant strain did not. SPE B directly cleaved protein S in vitro and in vivo, whereas a lower level of cleavage occurred in mice infected with a speB isogenic mutant strain. SPE B-mediated initial cleavage of protein S caused a disruption of phagocytosis, and also resulted in a loss of binding ability of protein S-associated C4b-binding protein to apoptotic cells. Taken together, these results suggest a novel pathogenic role of SPE B that initiates protein S degradation followed by the inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. PMID:27181595

  10. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B inhibits apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages through protein S cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Yueh-Ying; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Han, Chia-Li; Wang, Shuying; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2016-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages plays an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Previous study indicated that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) reduces phagocytic activity in group A streptococcus (GAS) infection. Here, we demonstrate that SPE B causes an inhibitory effect on protein S-mediated phagocytosis. In the presence of SPE B, serum- and purified protein S-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells were significantly inhibited. The binding abilities of protein S to apoptotic cells were decreased by treatment with SPE B. Bacterial culture supernatants from GAS NZ131 strain also caused a reduction of protein S binding to apoptotic cells, but speB mutant strain did not. SPE B directly cleaved protein S in vitro and in vivo, whereas a lower level of cleavage occurred in mice infected with a speB isogenic mutant strain. SPE B-mediated initial cleavage of protein S caused a disruption of phagocytosis, and also resulted in a loss of binding ability of protein S-associated C4b-binding protein to apoptotic cells. Taken together, these results suggest a novel pathogenic role of SPE B that initiates protein S degradation followed by the inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. PMID:27181595

  11. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C.

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  12. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C

    2016-04-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  13. Energetics of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds in a Hydrophobic Protein Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lan; Baergen, Alyson; Michelsen, Klaus; Kitova, Elena N.; Schnier, Paul D.; Klassen, John S.

    2014-05-01

    This work explores the energetics of intermolecular H-bonds inside a hydrophobic protein cavity. Kinetic measurements were performed on the gaseous deprotonated ions (at the -7 charge state) of complexes of bovine β-lactoglobulin (Lg) and three monohydroxylated analogs of palmitic acid (PA): 3-hydroxypalmitic acid (3-OHPA), 7-hydroxypalmitic acid (7-OHPA), and 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (16-OHPA). From the increase in the activation energy for the dissociation of the (Lg + X-OHPA)7- ions, compared with that of the (Lg + PA)7- ion, it is concluded that the -OH groups of the X-OHPA ligands participate in strong (5 - 11 kcal mol-1) intermolecular H-bonds in the hydrophobic cavity of Lg. The results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that the -OH groups of 3-OHPA and 16-OHPA act as H-bond donors and interact with backbone carbonyl oxygens, whereas the -OH group of 7-OHPA acts as both H-bond donor and acceptor with nearby side chains. The capacity for intermolecular H-bonds within the Lg cavity, as suggested by the gas-phase measurements, does not necessarily lead to enhanced binding in aqueous solution. The association constant (Ka) measured for 7-OHPA [(2.3 ± 0.2) × 105 M-1] is similar to the value for the PA [(3.8 ± 0.1) × 105 M-1]; Ka for 3-OHPA [(1.1 ± 0.3) × 106 M-1] is approximately three-times larger, whereas Ka for 16-OHPA [(2.3 ± 0.2) × 104 M-1] is an order of magnitude smaller. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the energetic penalty to desolvating the ligand -OH groups, which is necessary for complex formation, is similar in magnitude to the energetic contribution of the intermolecular H-bonds.

  14. Seminal plasma proteins inhibit in vitro- and cooling-induced capacitation in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Melissa L; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Dilute boar seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes in boar spermatozoa, as assessed by the ability of the spermatozoa to undergo an ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. We hypothesised that the protein component of SP is responsible for this effect. To test this hypothesis, varying concentrations of total SP protein or SP proteins fractionated by heparin binding were assayed for their ability to inhibit in vitro capacitation, as well as cooling- and cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. In vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes were prevented by 10% whole SP, as well as by total proteins extracted from SP at concentrations greater than 500 microg mL(-1). No amount of SP protein was able to prevent cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. Total SP proteins were fractionated based on their heparin-binding properties and the heparin-binding fraction was shown to possess capacitation inhibitory activity at concentrations as low as 250 microg mL(-1). The proteins in the heparin-binding fraction were subjected to mass spectrometry and identified. The predominant proteins were three members of the spermadhesin families, namely AQN-3, AQN-1 and AWN, and SP protein pB1. We conclude that one or more of these heparin-binding SP proteins is able to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes, but not cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes, in boar spermatozoa. PMID:20591323

  15. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  16. Short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins: a case study of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase

    PubMed Central

    Langkilde, Annette; Kristensen, Søren M.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Mølgaard, Anne; Jensen, Jan H.; Houk, Andrew R.; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Kauppinen, Sakari; Larsen, Sine

    2008-01-01

    An extremely low-field signal (at approximately 18 p.p.m.) in the 1H NMR spectrum of rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase (RGAE) shows the presence of a short strong hydrogen bond in the structure. This signal was also present in the mutant RGAE D192N, in which Asp192, which is part of the catalytic triad, has been replaced with Asn. A careful analysis of wild-type RGAE and RGAE D192N was conducted with the purpose of identifying possible candidates for the short hydrogen bond with the 18 p.p.m. deshielded proton. Theor­etical calculations of chemical shift values were used in the interpretation of the experimental 1H NMR spectra. The crystal structure of RGAE D192N was determined to 1.33 Å resolution and refined to an R value of 11.6% for all data. The structure is virtually identical to the high-resolution (1.12 Å) structure of the wild-type enzyme except for the interactions involving the mutation and a disordered loop. Searches of the Cambridge Structural Database were conducted to obtain information on the donor–acceptor distances of different types of hydrogen bonds. The short hydrogen-bond inter­actions found in RGAE have equivalents in small-molecule structures. An examination of the short hydrogen bonds in RGAE, the calculated pK a values and solvent-accessibilities identified a buried carboxylic acid carboxylate hydrogen bond between Asp75 and Asp87 as the likely origin of the 18 p.p.m. signal. Similar hydrogen-bond interactions between two Asp or Glu carboxy groups were found in 16% of a homology-reduced set of high-quality structures extracted from the PDB. The shortest hydrogen bonds in RGAE are all located close to the active site and short interactions between Ser and Thr side-chain OH groups and backbone carbonyl O atoms seem to play an important role in the stability of the protein structure. These results illustrate the significance of short strong hydrogen bonds in proteins. PMID:18645234

  17. A Flagellar Glycan-Specific Protein Encoded by Campylobacter Phages Inhibits Host Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Muhammad Afzal; Sacher, Jessica C.; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Patry, Robert T.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized a carbohydrate binding protein, Gp047, derived from lytic Campylobacter phage NCTC 12673, as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. We also demonstrated that this protein binds specifically to acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid residues on host flagella, but the role of this protein in the phage lifecycle remains unknown. Here, we report that Gp047 is capable of inhibiting C. jejuni growth both on solid and liquid media, an activity, which we found to be bacteriostatic. The Gp047 domain responsible for bacterial growth inhibition is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein, and this activity is both contact- and dose-dependent. Gp047 gene homologues are present in all Campylobacter phages sequenced to date, and the resulting protein is not part of the phage particle. Therefore, these results suggest that either phages of this pathogen have evolved an effector protein capable of host-specific growth inhibition, or that Campylobacter cells have developed a mechanism of regulating their growth upon sensing an impending phage threat. PMID:26694450

  18. Identification of peptides that inhibit regulator of G protein signaling 4 function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuren; Lee, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Young, Kathleen H

    2008-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are a family of GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) that interact with heterotrimeric G proteins in the negative regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. RGS4, the first identified mammalian member of the RGS family, has been implicated in many GPCR signaling pathways involved in disease states. We report herein the identification of a 16-amino-acid peptide (P17) as an inhibitor of RGS4. The peptide was found by screening a random peptide library using RGS4 as 'bait' in a yeast two-hybrid system. This peptide inhibited RGS4 GAP activity on Galpha(i1)in a GTPase assay, and blocked the interaction between RGS4 and Galpha(i1)in a pull-down assay. The peptide displayed dose-dependent inhibition of RGS4 and Galpha-interacting protein (GAIP) GAP activities, yet showed no substantial effect on RGS7. Electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that P17 attenuates RGS4 modulation of M(2) muscarinic receptor stimulation of GIRK (G-protein-mediated inwardly rectifying potassium) channels. Deletion of an arginine at the N terminus of P17 abolished its ability to inhibit RGS4 GAP activity, as did deletions of C-terminal residues. The P17 peptide showed no similarity to any known peptide sequence. Further investigation and optimization of the peptide may provide unique information for the development of RGS4 inhibitors for future therapeutic application. PMID:18547979

  19. The Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein ZAP Inhibits LINE and Alu Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, John B.; Moran, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. To investigate the interplay between the L1 retrotransposition machinery and the host cell, we used co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the L1 first open reading frame-encoded protein, ORF1p. We identified 39 ORF1p-interacting candidate proteins including the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP or ZC3HAV1). Here we show that the interaction between ZAP and ORF1p requires RNA and that ZAP overexpression in HeLa cells inhibits the retrotransposition of engineered human L1 and Alu elements, an engineered mouse L1, and an engineered zebrafish LINE-2 element. Consistently, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous ZAP in HeLa cells led to a ~2-fold increase in human L1 retrotransposition. Fluorescence microscopy in cultured human cells demonstrated that ZAP co-localizes with L1 RNA, ORF1p, and stress granule associated proteins in cytoplasmic foci. Finally, molecular genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that ZAP reduces the accumulation of full-length L1 RNA and the L1-encoded proteins, yielding mechanistic insight about how ZAP may inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Together, these data suggest that ZAP inhibits the retrotransposition of LINE and Alu elements. PMID:25951186

  20. Cocktail of Four Active Components Derived from Sheng Mai San Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced PC12 Cell Apoptosis Linked with the Caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Huana; Song, Yunfei; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    SMXZF, a combination of four active components including ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, schizandrin, and DT-13 (6:9:5:4) that is derived from Sheng Mai San, has previously been shown to exhibit a neuroprotective effect against focal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Due to the key role of oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis in the pathogenesis of stroke, we examined the effect of SMXZF in oxidative stress responses and related signaling pathways in differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results showed that incubation with 100 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 12 hr could reduce cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity with an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In contrast, SMXZF alleviated oxidative stress by reducing the over-production of ROS and MDA in parallel to concentration dependently increasing SOD activity. In addition, SMXZF significantly attenuated H2O2-induced caspase-3 cleavage, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase-1 (ROCK1) activation, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Inhibiting either caspase-3 or ROCK1 mimicked the effect. Consequently, our results suggest that SMXZF inhibits H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis linked with the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway, which has also been confirmed to be a positive feedback loop in oxidative stress-injured PC12 cells. These findings support the pharmacological potential of SMXZF for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. PMID:26058543

  1. PD-1 Increases PTEN Phosphatase Activity While Decreasing PTEN Protein Stability by Inhibiting Casein Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Li, Lequn; Sari, Duygu; Petkova, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a potent inhibitor of T cell responses. PD-1 abrogates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, but the mechanism remains unclear. We determined that during T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3- and CD28-mediated stimulation, PTEN is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the Ser380-Thr382-Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal regulatory domain, which stabilizes PTEN, resulting in increased protein abundance but suppressed PTEN phosphatase activity. PD-1 inhibited the stabilizing phosphorylation of the Ser380-Thr382-Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal domain of PTEN, thereby resulting in ubiquitin-dependent degradation and diminished abundance of PTEN protein but increased PTEN phosphatase activity. These effects on PTEN were secondary to PD-1-mediated inhibition of CK2 and were recapitulated by pharmacologic inhibition of CK2 during TCR/CD3- and CD28-mediated stimulation without PD-1. Furthermore, PD-1-mediated diminished abundance of PTEN was reversed by inhibition of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Our results identify CK2 as a new target of PD-1 and reveal an unexpected mechanism by which PD-1 decreases PTEN protein expression while increasing PTEN activity, thereby inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling axis. PMID:23732914

  2. Inhibition of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) using whey proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was studied to inhibit tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) on infected tomato plants. Whey proteins fractions and their esterified derivatives were sprayed into TYLCV-infected plants. Samples were collected from infected leaves before treatment, 7 and 15 days after treatment for DNA and molecular hybridization analysis. The most evident inhibition of virus replication was observed after 7 and 15 days using α-lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin, respectively. Native and esterified lactoferrin showed complete inhibition after 7 days. On the other hand, native β-lactoglobulin showed inhibition after 7 and 15 days whereas esterified β-lactoglobulin was comparatively more effective after 7 days. The relative amount of viral DNA was less affected by the esterified α-lactalbumin whereas native α-lactalbumin inhibited virus replication completely after 15 days. These results indicate that native or modified whey proteins fractions can be used for controlling the TYLCV-infected plants. PMID:20128897

  3. Kinetics of the inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by pea protein-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2005-11-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) catalyzes the phosphorylation of various cellular proteins and excessive activities have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases. We hypothesized that positively charged peptides can be produced through enzymatic hydrolysis of pea proteins; such peptides could then bind to negatively charged calmodulin (CaM) at a physiological pH level and inhibit CaMKII activity. Pea protein isolate was hydrolyzed with an alkaline protease (alcalase) and filtered through a 1000-mol wt cutoff membrane. The permeate, which contained low-molecular weight peptides, was used to isolate cationic peptides on an SP-Sepharose column by ion exchange chromatography. Separation of the permeate on the SP-Sepharose column yielded two fractions with net positive charges that were subsequently used for enzyme inhibition studies. Fraction I eluted earlier from the column and contained lower contents of lysine and arginine than Fraction II, which eluted later. Results show that both peptide fractions inhibited CaMKII activity mostly in a competitive manner, although kinetic data suggested that inhibition by Fraction II may be of the mixed type. Kinetic analysis (K(m) and K(i)) showed that affinity of peptides in Fraction II for CaM was more than that in Fraction I, which was directly correlated with the higher inhibitory properties of Fraction II against CaMKII. The results suggest that it may be possible to use pea protein-derived cationic peptides to modulate CaMKII activities. PMID:16111873

  4. Surface plasmon resonance assay of inhibition by pharmaceuticals for thyroxine hormone binging to transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Keigo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kamimori, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay to estimate the competitive inhibition by pharmaceuticals for thyroxine (T4) binding to thyroid hormone transport proteins, transthyretin (TTR) and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG). In this SPR assay, the competitive inhibition of pharmaceuticals for introducing T4 into immobilized TTR or TBG on the sensor chip can be estimated using a running buffer containing pharmaceuticals. The SPR assay showed reproducible immobilization of TTR and TBG, and the kinetic binding parameters of T4 to TTR or TBG were estimated. The equilibrium dissociation constants of TTR or TBG measured by SPR did not clearly differ from data reported for other binding assays. To estimate the competitive inhibition of tetraiodothyroacetic acid, diclofenac, genistein, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, and furosemide, reported to be competitive or noncompetitive pharmaceuticals for T4 binding to TTR or TBG, their 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) (or 80% inhibition concentration, IC80) were calculated from the change of T4 responses in sensorgrams obtained with various concentrations of the pharmaceuticals. Our SPR method should be a useful tool for predicting the potential of thyroid toxicity of pharmaceuticals by evaluating the competitive inhibition of T4 binding to thyroid hormone binding proteins, TTR and TBG. PMID:26384643

  5. Protein Abundance Changes and Ubiquitylation Targets Identified after Inhibition of the Proteasome with Syringolin A*

    PubMed Central

    Svozil, Julia; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Dudler, Robert; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2014-01-01

    As proteins are the main effectors inside cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partly achieved by specific protein degradation via the Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS). In plants, an exceptionally high number of proteins are involved in Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system-mediated protein degradation and it is known to regulate most, if not all, important cellular processes. Here, we investigated the response to the inhibition of the proteasome at the protein level treating leaves with the specific inhibitor Syringolin A (SylA) in a daytime specific manner and found 109 accumulated and 140 decreased proteins. The patterns of protein level changes indicate that the accumulating proteins cause proteotoxic stress that triggers various responses. Comparing protein level changes in SylA treated with those in a transgenic line over-expressing a mutated ubiquitin unable to form polyubiquitylated proteins produced little overlap pointing to different response pathways. To distinguish between direct and indirect targets of the UPS we also enriched and identified ubiquitylated proteins after inhibition of the proteasome, revealing a total of 1791 ubiquitylated proteins in leaves and roots and 1209 that were uniquely identified in our study. The comparison of the ubiquitylated proteins with those changing in abundance after SylA-mediated inhibition of the proteasome confirmed the complexity of the response and revealed that some proteins are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. For the ubiquitylated proteins that accumulate in the cytoplasm but are targeted to the plastid or the mitochondrion, we often found peptides in their target sequences, demonstrating that the UPS is involved in controlling organellar protein levels. Attempts to identify the sites of ubiquitylation revealed that the specific properties of this post-translational modification can lead to incorrect peptide spectrum assignments in complex peptide mixtures

  6. Inhibition of RhoA-dependent pathway and contraction by endogenous hydrogen sulfide in rabbit gastric smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Nalli, Ancy D.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Grider, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory neurotransmitters, chiefly nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide, increase cyclic nucleotide levels and inhibit muscle contraction via inhibition of myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and activation of MLC phosphatase (MLCP). H2S produced as an endogenous signaling molecule synthesized mainly from l-cysteine via cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) regulates muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of CSE and H2S function in the regulation of MLCP activity, 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) phosphorylation, and contraction in isolated gastric smooth muscle cells. Both mRNA expression and protein expression of CSE, but not CBS, were detected in smooth muscle cells of rabbit, human, and mouse stomach. l-cysteine, an activator of CSE, and NaHS, a donor of H2S, inhibited carbachol-induced Rho kinase and PKC activity, Rho kinase-sensitive phosphorylation of MYPT1, PKC-sensitive phosphorylation of CPI-17, and MLC20 phosphorylation and sustained muscle contraction. The inhibitory effects of l-cysteine, but not NaHS, were blocked upon suppression of CSE expression by siRNA or inhibition of its activity by dl-propargylglycine (PPG) suggesting that the effect of l-cysteine is mediated via activation of CSE. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP channels, had no effect on the inhibition of contraction by H2S. Both l-cysteine and NaHS had no effect on basal cAMP and cGMP levels but augmented forskolin-induced cAMP and SNP-induced cGMP formation. We conclude that both endogenous and exogenous H2S inhibit muscle contraction, and the mechanism involves inhibition of Rho kinase and PKC activities and stimulation of MLCP activity leading to MLC20 dephosphorylation and inhibition of muscle contraction. PMID:25567809

  7. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency. PMID:26994425

  8. LOCALIZATION, FERTILITY INHIBITION, AND EPITOPE MAPS USING ANTIBODIES TO THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION, FERTILITY INHIBITION, AND EPITOPE MAPS USING ANTIBODIES TO THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22. GR Klinefelter1, JE Welch*1, HDM Moore*2, K Bobseine*1, J Suarez*1 ,N Roberts*1 ,R Zucker *1 1U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC and 2University of Sheffield...

  9. MECHANISM OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE INHIBITION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZN2+

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to Zn2+ inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and leads to activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in ...

  10. Short Hydrogen Bonds and Proton Delocalization in Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Short hydrogen bonds and specifically low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) have been the focus of much attention and controversy for their possible role in enzymatic catalysis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutant S65T, H148D has been found to form a very short hydrogen bond between Asp148 and the chromophore resulting in significant spectral perturbations. Leveraging the unique autocatalytically formed chromophore and its sensitivity to this interaction we explore the consequences of proton affinity matching across this putative LBHB. Through the use of noncanonical amino acids introduced through nonsense suppression or global incorporation, we systematically modify the acidity of the GFP chromophore with halogen substituents. X-ray crystal structures indicated that the length of the interaction with Asp148 is unchanged at ∼2.45 Å while the absorbance spectra demonstrate an unprecedented degree of color tuning with increasing acidity. We utilized spectral isotope effects, isotope fractionation factors, and a simple 1D model of the hydrogen bond coordinate in order to gain insight into the potential energy surface and particularly the role that proton delocalization may play in this putative short hydrogen bond. The data and model suggest that even with the short donor–acceptor distance (∼2.45 Å) and near perfect affinity matching there is not a LBHB, that is, the barrier to proton transfer exceeds the H zero-point energy. PMID:27162964

  11. Short Hydrogen Bonds and Proton Delocalization in Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP).

    PubMed

    Oltrogge, Luke M; Boxer, Steven G

    2015-06-24

    Short hydrogen bonds and specifically low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) have been the focus of much attention and controversy for their possible role in enzymatic catalysis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutant S65T, H148D has been found to form a very short hydrogen bond between Asp148 and the chromophore resulting in significant spectral perturbations. Leveraging the unique autocatalytically formed chromophore and its sensitivity to this interaction we explore the consequences of proton affinity matching across this putative LBHB. Through the use of noncanonical amino acids introduced through nonsense suppression or global incorporation, we systematically modify the acidity of the GFP chromophore with halogen substituents. X-ray crystal structures indicated that the length of the interaction with Asp148 is unchanged at ∼2.45 Å while the absorbance spectra demonstrate an unprecedented degree of color tuning with increasing acidity. We utilized spectral isotope effects, isotope fractionation factors, and a simple 1D model of the hydrogen bond coordinate in order to gain insight into the potential energy surface and particularly the role that proton delocalization may play in this putative short hydrogen bond. The data and model suggest that even with the short donor-acceptor distance (∼2.45 Å) and near perfect affinity matching there is not a LBHB, that is, the barrier to proton transfer exceeds the H zero-point energy. PMID:27162964

  12. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Vaitheeswari, S.; Sriram, R.; Brindha, P.; Kurian, Gino A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques. Results: The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4. Conclusion: Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O3 2-and SO4 2- moiety produced by the test compounds. PMID:26200543

  13. Inhibition of HIV derived lentiviral production by TAR RNA binding domain of TAT protein

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Michael Y; Zhang, Jiying; He, Yukai

    2005-01-01

    Background A critical step in the production of new HIV virions involves the TAT protein binding to the TAR element. The TAT protein contains in close proximity its TAR RNA binding domain and protein transduction domain (PTD). The PTD domain of TAT has been identified as being instrumental in the protein's ability to cross mammalian cell and nuclear membranes. All together, this information led us to form the hypothesis that a protein containing the TAR RNA binding domain could compete with the native full length TAT protein and effectively block the TAR RNA binding site in transduced HIV infected cells. Results We synthesized a short peptide named Tat-P, which contained the TAR RNA binding and PTD domains to examine whether the peptide has the potential of inhibiting TAT dependent HIV replication. We investigated the inhibiting effects of Tat-P in vitro using a HIV derived lentiviral vector model. We found that the TAT PTD domain not only efficiently transduced test cells, but also effectively inhibited the production of lentiviral particles in a TAT dependent manner. These results were also supported by data derived from the TAT activated LTR-luciferase expression model and RNA binding assays. Conclusion Tat-P may become part of a category of anti-HIV drugs that competes with full length TAT proteins to inhibit HIV replication. In addition, this study indicates that the HIV derived lentiviral vector system is a safe and reliable screening method for anti-HIV drugs, especially for those targeting the interaction of TAT and TAR RNAs. PMID:16293193

  14. Inhibition of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

    SciTech Connect

    Toner-Webb, J.; Taylor, S.S.

    1987-11-17

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) has been shown to inhibit the catalytic (C) subunit of adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase in a time-dependent, irreversible manner. The rate of inactivation was first order and showed saturation kinetics with an apparent K/sub i/ of 60 ..mu..M. Magnesium adenosine 5'-triphosphate (MgATP) was capable of protecting against this inhibition, whereas neither a synthetic peptide substrate nor histone afforded protection. Mg alone afforded some protection. When the catalytic subunit was aggregated with the regulatory subunit in the holoenzyme complex, no inhibition was observed. The inhibition was enhanced at low pH, suggesting that a carboxylic acid group was the target for interaction with DCCD. On the basis of the protection studies, it is most likely that this carboxylic acid group is associated with the MgATP binding site, perhaps serving as a ligand for the metal. Efforts to identify the site that was modified by DCCD were made. In no case was radioactivity incorporated into the protein, suggesting that the irreversible inhibition was due to an intramolecular cross-link between a reactive carboxylic acid group and a nearby amino group. Differential peptide mapping identified a single peptide that was consistently lost as a consequence of DCCD inhibition. This peptide (residues 166-189) contained four carboxylic acid residues as well as an internal Lys. Two of these carboxyl groups, Asp-166 and Asp-184, are conserved in all protein kinases, including oncogene transforming proteins and growth factor receptors, and thus are likely to play an essential role.

  15. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by flavonoids and tyrphostins. A structural insight.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Graziano; Cozza, Giorgio; Mazzorana, Marco; Tibaldi, Elena; Cesaro, Luca; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Meggio, Flavio; Venerando, Andrea; Franchin, Cinzia; Sarno, Stefania; Battistutta, Roberto; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2012-08-01

    Sixteen flavonoids and related compounds have been tested for their ability to inhibit three acidophilic Ser/Thr protein kinases: the Golgi apparatus casein kinase (G-CK) recently identified with protein FAM20C, protein kinase CK1, and protein kinase CK2. While G-CK is entirely insensitive to all compounds up to 40 μM concentration, consistent with the view that it is not a member of the kinome, and CK1 is variably inhibited in an isoform-dependent manner by fisetin and luteolin, and to a lesser extent by myricetin and quercetin, CK2 is susceptible to drastic inhibition by many flavonoids, displaying with six of them IC(50) values < 1 μM. A common denominator of these compounds (myricetin, quercetin, fisetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) is a flavone scaffold with at least two hydroxyl groups at positions 7 and 4'. Inhibition is competitive with respect to the phospho-donor substrate ATP. The crystal structure of apigenin and luteolin in complex with the catalytic subunit of Zea mays CK2 has been solved, revealing their ability to interact with both the hinge region (Val116) and the positive area near Lys68 and the conserved water W1, the two main polar ligand anchoring points in the CK2 active site. Modeling experiments account for the observation that luteolin but not apigenin inhibits also CK1. The observation that luteolin shares its pyrocatechol moiety with tyrphostin AG99 prompted us to solve also the structure of this compound in complex with CK2. AG99 was found inside the ATP pocket, consistent with its mode of inhibition competitive with respect to ATP. As in the case of luteolin, the pyrocatechol group of AG99 is critical for binding, interacting with the positive area in the deepest part of the CK2 active site. PMID:22794353

  16. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus production by aptamers against the core protein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shali; Yu, Xiaoyan; Gao, Yimin; Xue, Binbin; Wu, Xinjiao; Wang, Xiaohong; Yang, Darong; Zhu, Haizhen

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is essential for virus assembly. HCV core protein was expressed and purified. Aptamers against core protein were raised through the selective evolution of ligands by the exponential enrichment approach. Detection of HCV infection by core aptamers and the antiviral activities of aptamers were characterized. The mechanism of their anti-HCV activity was determined. The data showed that selected aptamers against core specifically recognize the recombinant core protein but also can detect serum samples from hepatitis C patients. Aptamers have no effect on HCV RNA replication in the infectious cell culture system. However, the aptamers inhibit the production of infectious virus particles. Beta interferon (IFN-β) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are not induced in virally infected hepatocytes by aptamers. Domains I and II of core protein are involved in the inhibition of infectious virus production by the aptamers. V31A within core is the major resistance mutation identified. Further study shows that the aptamers disrupt the localization of core with lipid droplets and NS5A and perturb the association of core protein with viral RNA. The data suggest that aptamers against HCV core protein inhibit infectious virus production by disrupting the localization of core with lipid droplets and NS5A and preventing the association of core protein with viral RNA. The aptamers for core protein may be used to understand the mechanisms of virus assembly. Core-specific aptamers may hold promise for development as early diagnostic reagents and potential therapeutic agents for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24307579

  17. Inhibition of hsc70-catalysed clathrin uncoating by HSJ1 proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, M E; Anderton, B H; Jackson, A P

    1996-01-01

    The uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles can be mediated in vitro by the 'uncoating ATPase' that has been identified as the constitutive 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), hsc70. It is now established that the activity of hsp70 proteins can be regulated by another family of molecular chaperones, the DnaJ family. In this study, we have investigated the effects of DnaJ-like proteins (the human neuron-specific proteins HSJ1a and HSJ1b) on clathrin uncoating. In order to measure the kinetics of clathrin release from coated vesicles, we have developed a quantitative, two-site ELISA for clathrin triskelions and demonstrated that stoichiometric amounts of HSJ1 proteins inhibit the initial burst of hsc70-mediated clathrin uncoating by over 40%. This inhibition is not a consequence of ADP binding by hsc70 or the aggregation of hsc70, but correlates with an increase in the hsc70 associated with the coated vesicle fraction, suggesting that the inhibition is a consequence of a non-productive stabilization of hsc70 with a component of the coated vesicle fraction. These results strongly suggest that HSJ1 proteins interfere with an endogenous DnaJ-like protein that is involved in uncoating. Recent evidence suggests that the brain-specific vesicle-associated protein auxilin could play such a role. Although we find no evidence for auxilin in our coated vesicle preparation, our results predict that an auxilin-like protein will be a general factor in clathrin uncoating. PMID:8870655

  18. Hydrogen bonding-assisted thermal conduction in β-sheet crystals of spider silk protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Teli; Ban, Heng; Liu, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Using atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that β-sheet, an essential component of spider silk protein, has a thermal conductivity 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of some other protein structures reported in the literature. In contrast to several other nanostructured materials of similar bundled/layered structures (e.g. few-layer graphene and bundled carbon nanotubes), the β-sheet is found to uniquely feature enhanced thermal conductivity with an increased number of constituting units, i.e. β-strands. Phonon analysis identifies inter-β-strand hydrogen bonding as the main contributor to the intriguing phenomenon, which prominently influences the state of phonons in both low- and high-frequency regimes. A thermal resistance model further verifies the critical role of hydrogen bonding in thermal conduction through β-sheet structures.Using atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that β-sheet, an essential component of spider silk protein, has a thermal conductivity 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of some other protein structures reported in the literature. In contrast to several other nanostructured materials of similar bundled/layered structures (e.g. few-layer graphene and bundled carbon nanotubes), the β-sheet is found to uniquely feature enhanced thermal conductivity with an increased number of constituting units, i.e. β-strands. Phonon analysis identifies inter-β-strand hydrogen bonding as the main contributor to the intriguing phenomenon, which prominently influences the state of phonons in both low- and high-frequency regimes. A thermal resistance model further verifies the critical role of hydrogen bonding in thermal conduction through β-sheet structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Structure of the β-sheets, computational model, determination of area and temperature gradient, and additional phonon DOS results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01195c

  19. Mapping Protein Conformational Landscapes under Strongly Native Conditions with Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Witten, Jacob; Ruschak, Amy; Poterba, Timothy; Jaramillo, Alexis; Miranker, Andrew D; Jaswal, Sheila S

    2015-08-01

    The thermodynamic stability and kinetic barriers separating protein conformations under native conditions are critical for proper protein function and for understanding dysfunction in diseases of protein conformation. Traditional methods to probe protein unfolding and folding employ denaturants and highly non-native conditions, which may destabilize intermediate species or cause irreversible aggregation, especially at the high protein concentrations typically required. Hydrogen exchange (HX) is ideal for detecting conformational behavior under native conditions without the need for denaturants, but detection by NMR is limited to small highly soluble proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS) can, in principle, greatly extend the applicability of native-state HX to larger proteins and lower concentrations. However, quantitative analysis of HXMS profiles is currently limited by experimental and theoretical challenges. Here we address both limitations, by proposing an approach based on using standards to eliminate the systematic experimental artifacts in HXMS profiles, and developing the theoretical framework to describe HX behavior across all regimes based on the Linderstrøm-Lang formalism. We demonstrate proof of principle by a practical application to native-state HX of a globular protein. The framework and the practical tools developed advance the ability of HXMS to extract thermodynamic and kinetic conformational parameters of proteins under native conditions. PMID:26146955

  20. Combining size-exclusion chromatography with differential hydrogen-deuterium exchange to study protein conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Alexey A; Helmy, Roy

    2016-01-29

    Methods for protein characterization are being actively developed based on the growing importance of protein therapies and applications. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the use of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) in combination with differential hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) to compare protein global conformational changes at different solution conditions. Using chaotropic mobile phase additive, differential HDX was used to detect a number of solvent accessible labile protons of protein on-column at pH and temperature conditions which provided unrestricted intrinsic H/D exchange (all-or-nothing approach). Varying SEC on-column conditions allowed for protein conformational changes to be observed. Temperature and pressure were independently studied with regards to their effect on the proteins' (insulin, cytochrome C, ubiquitin, and myoglobin) conformational changes in the solution. The obtained ΔHDX profiles revealed protein conformational changes in solution under varied conditions manifested as the difference in the number of protons exchanged to deuterons, or vice-versa. The approach described in this manuscript could prove useful for protein batch-to-batch comparisons, for optimization of chemical reactions with enzyme as catalyst or for protein chemical modification reactions. PMID:26763301

  1. Purification and properties of a protein linked to the soluble hydrogenase of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kärst, U; Suetin, S; Friedrich, C G

    1987-01-01

    In Alcaligenes eutrophus, the formation of the hydrogenases and of five new peptides is subject to the hydrogenase control system. Of these, the B peptide was purified to homogeneity. This protein (Mr, 37,500) was composed of two identical subunits (Mr, 18,800). Antibodies against the B protein were used for its quantification by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. About 4% of the total protein consisted of the B protein; its molar ratio to the NAD-linked hydrogenase was about 4:1. The B protein appeared to be associated with the NAD-linked hydrogenase, as shown by gel filtration analysis with Sephadex G-200. The B protein was not detected in cells that had not expressed the hydrogenase proteins or that lacked the genetic information of the hydrogen-oxidizing character; it was also not detected in Tn5 insertional mutants that were unable to form soluble hydrogenase antigens. Immunochemical analysis of other species and genera than A. eutrophus revealed that only strains able to form a NAD-linked hydrogenase also formed B-protein antigens. The B protein is not required for the catalytic activity of soluble hydrogenase in vitro; its function is at present unknown. Images PMID:3553156

  2. Mercuric ions inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation by inducing reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Engelhardt, Gabriela; Hebel, Silke; Rink, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    Mercury intoxication profoundly affects the immune system, in particular, signal transduction of immune cells. However, the mechanism of the interaction of mercury with cellular signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), remains elusive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate three potential ways in which Hg(2+) ions could inhibit MAPK dephosphorylation in the human T-cell line Jurkat: (1) by direct binding to phosphatases; (2) by releasing cellular zinc (Zn(2+)); and (3) by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hg(2+) causes production of ROS, measured by dihydrorhodamine 123, and triggers ROS-mediated Zn(2+) release, detected with FluoZin-3. Yet, phosphatase-inhibition is not mediated by binding of Zn(2+) or Hg(2+). Rather, phosphatases are inactivated by at least two forms of thiol oxidation; initial inhibition is reversible with reducing agents such as Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. Prolonged inhibition leads to non-reversible phosphatase oxidation, presumably oxidizing the cysteine thiol to sulfinic- or sulfonic acid. Notably, phosphatases are a particularly sensitive target for Hg(2+)-induced oxidation, because phosphatase activity is inhibited at concentrations of Hg(2+) that have only minor impact on over all thiol oxidation. This phosphatase inhibition results in augmented, ROS-dependent MAPK phosphorylation. MAPK are important regulators of T-cell function, and MAPK-activation by inhibition of phosphatases seems to be one of the molecular mechanisms by which mercury affects the immune system. PMID:20951154

  3. The Cytotoxicity of Elderberry Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Is Not Solely Determined by Their Protein Translation Inhibition Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Chenjing; Chen, Qiushi; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M.; De Vos, Winnok H.; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the protein translation inhibition activity of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) is well documented, little is known about the contribution of the lectin chain to the biological activity of these proteins. In this study, we compared the in vitro and intracellular activity of several S. nigra (elderberry) RIPs and non-RIP lectins. Our data demonstrate that RIPs from elderberry are much more toxic to HeLa cells than to primary fibroblasts. Differences in the cytotoxicity between the elderberry proteins correlated with differences in glycan specificity of their lectin domain, cellular uptake efficiency and intracellular destination. Despite the fact that the bulk of the RIPs accumulated in the lysosomes and partly in the Golgi apparatus, we could demonstrate effective inhibition of protein synthesis in cellula. As we also observed cytotoxicity for non-RIP lectins, it is clear that the lectin chain triggers additional pathways heralding cell death. Our data suggest that one of these pathways involves the induction of autophagy. PMID:26148207

  4. Borna disease virus P protein inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Guiqing; Zhang Fengmin; Zhang Qi; Wu Kailang; Zhu Fan; Wu Jianguo

    2007-09-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes.

  5. Many overlapping peptides for protein hydrogen exchange experiments by the fragment separation-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Leland; Kan, Zhong-Yuan; Chetty, Palaniappan Sevugan; Ricciuti, Alec; Walters, Benjamin T; Englander, S Walter

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of the naturally occurring hydrogen exchange (HX) behavior of proteins can in principle provide highly resolved thermodynamic and kinetic information on protein structure, dynamics, and interactions. The HX fragment separation-mass spectrometry method (HX-MS) is able to measure hydrogen exchange in biologically important protein systems that are not accessible to NMR methods. In order to achieve high structural resolution in HX-MS experiments, it will be necessary to obtain many sequentially overlapping peptide fragments and be able to identify and analyze them efficiently and accurately by mass spectrometry. This paper describes operations which, when applied to four different proteins ranging in size from 140 to 908 residues, routinely provides hundreds of useful unique peptides, covering the entire protein length many times over. Coverage in terms of the average number of peptide fragments that span each amino acid exceeds 10. The ability to achieve these results required the integrated application of experimental methods that are described here and a computer analysis program, called ExMS, described in a following paper. PMID:21952777

  6. Inhibition of Peptidoglycan, Ribonucleic Acid, and Protein Synthesis in Tolerant Strains of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mychajlonka, Myron; McDowell, Thomas D.; Shockman, Gerald D.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of exponentially growing cultures of Streptococcus mutans strains FA-1 and GS-5 to various concentrations of benzylpenicillin (Pen G) resulted in inhibition of turbidity increases at low concentrations (0.02 to 0.04 μg/ml). However, in contrast to some other streptococcal species, growth inhibition was not accompanied by cellular lysis or by a rapid loss of viability. In both strains, synthesis of insoluble cell wall peptidoglycan was very sensitive to Pen G inhibition and responded in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations of about 0.2 and 0.5 μg/ml for strains GS-5 and FA-1, respectively. Higher Pen G concentrations failed to inhibit further either growth or insoluble peptidoglycan assembly. Somewhat surprisingly, Pen G also inhibited both ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein syntheses, each in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis, inhibition of RNA and protein syntheses by Pen G was less rapid and less extensive. Maximum amounts of radiolabeled Pen G were specifically bound to intact cells upon exposure to about 0.2 and 0.5 μg/ml of Pen G for strains GS-5 and FA-1, respectively, concentrations consistent with those that resulted in maximum or near-maximum inhibitions of the synthesis of cellular peptidoglycan, RNA, and protein. Five polypeptide bands that had a very high affinity for [14C]Pen G were detected in a crude cell envelope preparation of strain FA-1. After exposure of cultures of strain FA-1 to the effects of saturating concentrations of the drug for up to 3 h, addition of penicillinase was followed by recovery of growth after a lag. The length of the lag before regrowth depended on both Pen G concentration and time of exposure. On the basis of these and other observations, it is proposed that the secondary inhibitions of cellular RNA or protein synthesis, or both, are involved in the tolerance of these organisms to lysis and killing by Pen G and other inhibitors of insoluble peptidoglycan assembly

  7. A phage protein that inhibits the bacterial ATPase required for type IV pilus assembly.

    PubMed

    Chung, In-Young; Jang, Hye-Jeong; Bae, Hee-Won; Cho, You-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Type IV pili (TFPs) are required for bacterial twitching motility and for phage infection in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we describe a phage-encoded protein, D3112 protein gp05 (hereafter referred to as Tip, representing twitching inhibitory protein), whose expression is necessary and sufficient to mediate the inhibition of twitching motility. Tip interacts with and blocks the activity of bacterial-encoded PilB, the TFP assembly/extension ATPase, at an internal 40-aa region unique to PilB. Tip expression results in the loss of surface piliation. Based on these observations and the fact that many P. aeruginosa phages require TFPs for infection, Tip-mediated twitching inhibition may represent a generalized strategy for superinfection exclusion. Moreover, because TFPs are required for full virulence, PilB may be an attractive target for the development of novel antiinfectives. PMID:25049409

  8. β2-Microglobulin Amyloid Fibrils Are Nanoparticles That Disrupt Lysosomal Membrane Protein Trafficking and Inhibit Protein Degradation by Lysosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Jakhria, Toral; Hellewell, Andrew L.; Porter, Morwenna Y.; Jackson, Matthew P.; Tipping, Kevin W.; Xue, Wei-Feng; Radford, Sheena E.; Hewitt, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation of amyloid fibrils produces fibrils that are reduced in length but have an otherwise unchanged molecular architecture. The resultant nanoscale fibril particles inhibit the cellular reduction of the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), a substrate commonly used to measure cell viability, to a greater extent than unfragmented fibrils. Here we show that the internalization of β2-microglobulin (β2m) amyloid fibrils is dependent on fibril length, with fragmented fibrils being more efficiently internalized by cells. Correspondingly, inhibiting the internalization of fragmented β2m fibrils rescued cellular MTT reduction. Incubation of cells with fragmented β2m fibrils did not, however, cause cell death. Instead, fragmented β2m fibrils accumulate in lysosomes, alter the trafficking of lysosomal membrane proteins, and inhibit the degradation of a model protein substrate by lysosomes. These findings suggest that nanoscale fibrils formed early during amyloid assembly reactions or by the fragmentation of longer fibrils could play a role in amyloid disease by disrupting protein degradation by lysosomes and trafficking in the endolysosomal pathway. PMID:25378395

  9. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus infection by DNA aptamer against envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Darong; Meng, Xianghe; Yu, Qinqin; Xu, Li; Long, Ying; Liu, Bin; Fang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Haizhen

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein (E1E2) is essential for virus binding to host cells. Aptamers have been demonstrated to have strong promising applications in drug development. In the current study, a cDNA fragment encoding the entire E1E2 gene of HCV was cloned. E1E2 protein was expressed and purified. Aptamers for E1E2 were selected by the method of selective evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and the antiviral actions of the aptamers were examined. The mechanism of their antiviral activity was investigated. The data show that selected aptamers for E1E2 specifically recognize the recombinant E1E2 protein and E1E2 protein from HCV-infected cells. CD81 protein blocks the binding of aptamer E1E2-6 to E1E2 protein. Aptamers against E1E2 inhibit HCV infection in an infectious cell culture system although they have no effect on HCV replication in a replicon cell line. Beta interferon (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are not induced in virus-infected hepatocytes with aptamer treatment, suggesting that E1E2-specific aptamers do not induce innate immunity. E2 protein is essential for the inhibition of HCV infection by aptamer E1E2-6, and the aptamer binding sites are located in E2. Q412R within E1E2 is the major resistance substitution identified. The data indicate that an aptamer against E1E2 exerts its antiviral effects through inhibition of virus binding to host cells. Aptamers against E1E2 can be used with envelope protein to understand the mechanisms of HCV entry and fusion. The aptamers may hold promise for development as therapeutic drugs for hepatitis C patients. PMID:23877701

  10. Prenylated proteins and lymphocyte proliferation: inhibition by d-limonene related monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Bühling, F; Ansorge, S

    1994-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of post-translational isoprenoid modification of cellular proteins in the proliferation of human lymphocytes. We here report that treatment of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells with monoterpenes including d-limonene, perillic acid and perillyl alcohol (0.5-5 mM) which selectively inhibit the isoprenylation of 21-26-kDa proteins resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis. Cell cycle analysis revealed that perillic acid arrested cells in G1 and prevented cells from entering S phase in a manner similar to that induced by the specific 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, compactin. However, unlike compactin, the perillic acid-induced effects on lymphocyte proliferation were not prevented by addition of mevalonate. We also examined the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into proteins in resting and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes during the first 30 h of culture. While in unstimulated lymphocytes radioactivity was predominantly incorporated into a cluster of 21-26-kDa proteins, mitogenic stimulation was associated with a striking increase in [3H]mevalonate incorporation into a protein (approximately 68 kDa) with migration characteristics similar to that of nuclear lamin B. Treatment of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes with 5 mM d-limonene, 2.5 mM perillic acid or 1.25 mM perillyl alcohol strongly suppressed [3H]mevalonate-labeling of proteins to a degree that correlated with the level of DNA synthesis inhibition. These findings suggest that those mevalonate-derived products required for lymphocyte proliferation may include one or more isoprenylated proteins and that the isoprenylation of these proteins is required for cell cycle progression. PMID:8299679

  11. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus Infection by DNA Aptamer against Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Darong; Meng, Xianghe; Yu, Qinqin; Xu, Li; Long, Ying; Liu, Bin; Fang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein (E1E2) is essential for virus binding to host cells. Aptamers have been demonstrated to have strong promising applications in drug development. In the current study, a cDNA fragment encoding the entire E1E2 gene of HCV was cloned. E1E2 protein was expressed and purified. Aptamers for E1E2 were selected by the method of selective evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and the antiviral actions of the aptamers were examined. The mechanism of their antiviral activity was investigated. The data show that selected aptamers for E1E2 specifically recognize the recombinant E1E2 protein and E1E2 protein from HCV-infected cells. CD81 protein blocks the binding of aptamer E1E2-6 to E1E2 protein. Aptamers against E1E2 inhibit HCV infection in an infectious cell culture system although they have no effect on HCV replication in a replicon cell line. Beta interferon (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are not induced in virus-infected hepatocytes with aptamer treatment, suggesting that E1E2-specific aptamers do not induce innate immunity. E2 protein is essential for the inhibition of HCV infection by aptamer E1E2-6, and the aptamer binding sites are located in E2. Q412R within E1E2 is the major resistance substitution identified. The data indicate that an aptamer against E1E2 exerts its antiviral effects through inhibition of virus binding to host cells. Aptamers against E1E2 can be used with envelope protein to understand the mechanisms of HCV entry and fusion. The aptamers may hold promise for development as therapeutic drugs for hepatitis C patients. PMID:23877701

  12. Regulatory elements and structural features of Beta vulgaris polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene for fungal and pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are involved in plant defense. PGIPs are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that are known to inhibit pathogen and pest polygalacturonases (PGs) during the infection process. Several sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) PGIP genes (BvPGIP) were clon...

  13. A Novel Mechanism of Formaldehyde Neurotoxicity: Inhibition of Hydrogen Sulfide Generation by Promoting Overproduction of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng-Fang; Zhuang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng; Hu, Bi

    2013-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA) induces neurotoxicity by overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increasing studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gastransmitter, protects nerve cells against oxidative stress by its antioxidant effect. It has been shown that overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the activity of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), the predominant H2S-generating enzyme in the central nervous system. Objective We hypothesize that FA-caused neurotoxicity involves the deficiency of this endogenous protective antioxidant gas, which results from excessive generation of NO. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether FA disturbs H2S synthesis in PC12 cells, and whether this disturbance is associated with overproduction of NO. Principal Findings We showed that exposure of PC12 cells to FA causes reduction of viability, inhibition of CBS expression, decrease of endogenous H2S production, and NO production. CBS silencing deteriorates FA-induced decreases in endogenous H2S generation, neurotoxicity, and intracellular ROS accumulation in PC12 cells; while ADMA, a specific inhibitor of NOS significantly attenuates FA-induced decreases in endogenous H2S generation, neurotoxicity, and intracellular ROS accumulation in PC12 cells. Conclusion/Significance Our data indicate that FA induces neurotoxicity by inhibiting the generation of H2S through excess of NO and suggest that strategies to manipulate endogenous H2S could open a suitable novel therapeutic avenue for FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23359814

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Selectively Inhibits γ-Secretase Activity and Decreases Mitochondrial Aβ Production in Neurons from APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Li; Qiao, Pei-Feng; Yan, Ning; Gao, Dan; Liu, Meng-Jie; Yan, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now considered to be a gasotransmitter and may be involved in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A majority of APP is associated with mitochondria and is a substrate for the mitochondrial γ-secretase. The mitochondria-associated APP metabolism where APP intracellular domains (AICD) and Aβ are generated locally and may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability of H2S to mediate APP processing in mitochondria and assessed the possible mechanisms underlying H2S-mediated AD development. We treated neurons from APP/PS1 transgenic mice with a range of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) concentrations. NaHS attenuated APP processing and decreased Aβ production in mitochondria. Meanwhile, NaHS did not changed BACE-1 and ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10) protein levels, but NaHS (30 μM) significantly increased the levels of presenilin 1(PS1), PEN-2, and NCT, as well as improved the γ-secretase activity, while NaHS (50 μM) exhibits the opposing effects. Furthermore, the intracellular ATP and the COX IV activity of APP/PS1 neurons were increased after 30 μM NaHS treatment, while the ROS level was decreased and the MMP was stabilized. The effect of NaHS differs from DAPT (a non-selective γ-secretase inhibitor), and it selectively inhibited γ-secretase in vitro, without interacting with Notch and modulating its cleavage. The results indicated that NaHS decreases Aβ accumulation in mitochondria by selectively inhibiting γ-secretase. Thus, we provide a mechanistic view of NaHS is a potential anti-AD drug candidate and it may decrease Aβ deposition in mitochondria by selectively inhibiting γ-secretase activity and therefore protecting the mitochondrial function during AD conditions. PMID:26708452

  15. Role of enzyme-peptide substrate backbone hydrogen bonding in determining protein kinase substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N E; Bramson, H N; Miller, W T; Kaiser, E T

    1987-07-14

    As part of a search for peptides that have specificity for selected protein kinases, the possibility that adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) recognizes the hydrogen-bonding potential of its peptide substrates was investigated. A-Kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of five N alpha-methylated and four depsipeptide derivatives of Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly (peptide 1) at rates that differ by at least 7 orders of magnitude. These peptide 1 analogues each lack the ability to donate a hydrogen bond at selected positions in the peptide chain. If a particular amide hydrogen of a peptide amide is involved in hydrogen bonding, which is important for enzyme recognition, the prediction is that peptides which contain an ester or a N-methylated bond at that position in peptide 1 will be comparatively poor substrates. In contrast, if a depsipeptide has a reactivity comparable to that of peptide 1 but the analogous N-methylated peptide has a poor reactivity with A-kinase, the result might indicate that the N-methyl group causes unfavorable steric effects. The depsipeptide that lacks a Leu6 amide proton is a good substrate for A-kinase, but the corresponding N-methylated peptide is phosphorylated far less efficiently. This result and others presented in this paper suggest that although enzyme-substrate hydrogen bonding may play some role in A-kinase catalysis of phosphoryl group transfer, other explanations are necessary to account for the relative reactivities of N alpha-methylated and depsi-containing peptide 1 analogues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3663600

  16. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  17. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  18. Estrogen inhibits phorbol ester-induced I kappa B alpha transcription and protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, W H; Keller, E T; Stebler, B S; Ershler, W B

    1998-03-27

    Estrogen (E2) is known to prevent bone loss and the mechanism is, at least in part, mediated by inhibition of expression of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Expression of IL-6 is tightly regulated and the transcription factor NF kappa B can upregulate IL-6 gene expression by binding to its promoter region. NF kappa B is kept in an inactive state by associating with its cytoplasmic inhibitor I kappa B alpha. Upon mitogenic stimulation, I kappa B alpha becomes phosphorylated, followed by a rapid protein degradation. As a result, NF kappa B is released and translocate to the nucleus where DNA binding occurs. It has been shown that E2 treatment downregulates mitogen-induced IL-6 expression by inhibiting NF kappa B activity. Here, we sought to determine whether E2 regulates IL-6 gene expression by modulating the levels of I kappa B alpha. Our results show that E2 treatment almost completely inhibits phorbol ester-induced I kappa B alpha protein degradation. In addition, E2 inhibits phorbol ester-stimulated I kappa B alpha gene expression. Taken together, our results suggest that E2 maintains steady state levels of I kappa B alpha upon mitogen stimulation, resulting in inhibition of NF kappa B activation and IL-6 gene expression. This may explain the protective effect of E2 on bone loss. PMID:9535726

  19. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%–99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy. PMID:26114473

  20. ITRACONAZOLE INHIBITS ENTEROVIRUS REPLICATION BY TARGETING THE OXYSTEROL-BINDING PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Strating, Jeroen R.P.M.; van der Linden, Lonneke; Albulescu, Lucian; Bigay, Joëlle; Arita, Minetaro; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Ulferts, Rachel; Drin, Guillaume; Schlinck, Nina; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Sever, Navdar; Head, Sarah A.; Liu, Jun O.; Beachy, Philip A.; De Matteis, Maria A.; Shair, Matthew D.; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Itraconazole (ITZ) is a well-known antifungal agent that also has anti-cancer activity. In this study, we identified ITZ as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-71, rhinovirus). We demonstrate that ITZ inhibits viral RNA replication by targeting oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related protein 4 (ORP4). Consistently, OSW-1, a specific OSBP/ORP4 antagonist, also inhibits enterovirus replication. Knockdown of OSBP inhibits virus replication whereas overexpression of OSBP or ORP4 counteracts the antiviral effects of ITZ and OSW-1. ITZ binds OSBP and inhibits its function, i.e. shuttling of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate between membranes, thereby likely perturbing the virus-induced membrane alterations essential for viral replication organelle formation. ITZ also inhibits hepatitis C virus replication, which also relies on OSBP. Together, these data implicate OSBP/ORP4 as novel molecular targets of ITZ and point to an essential role of OSBP/ORP4-mediated lipid exchange in virus replication that can be targeted by antiviral drugs. PMID:25640182

  1. Activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Is Inhibited by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Julie; Horvath, Curt M.; Polley, Rosalind; Basler, Christopher F.; Muster, Thomas; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel mechanism by which viruses may inhibit the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) cascade. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein NS1 of influenza virus is shown to prevent the potent antiviral interferon response by inhibiting the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a key regulator of IFN-α/β gene expression. IRF-3 activation and, as a consequence, IFN-β mRNA induction are inhibited in wild-type (PR8) influenza virus-infected cells but not in cells infected with an isogenic virus lacking the NS1 gene (delNS1 virus). Furthermore, NS1 is shown to be a general inhibitor of the interferon signaling pathway. Inhibition of IRF-3 activation can be achieved by the expression of wild-type NS1 in trans, not only in delNS1 virus-infected cells but also in cells infected with a heterologous RNA virus (Newcastle disease virus). We propose that inhibition of IRF-3 activation by a dsRNA binding protein significantly contributes to the virulence of influenza A viruses and possibly to that of other viruses. PMID:10933707

  2. Selective inhibition of farnesyl-protein transferase blocks ras processing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J B; Pompliano, D L; Mosser, S D; Rands, E; Lingham, R B; Singh, S B; Scolnick, E M; Kohl, N E; Oliff, A

    1993-04-15

    The ras oncogene product, Ras, is synthesized in vivo as a precursor protein that requires post-translational processing to become biologically active and to be capable of transforming mammalian cells. Farnesylation appears to be a critical modification of Ras, and thus inhibitors of the farnesyl-protein transferase (FPTase) that catalyzes this reaction may block ras-dependent tumorigenesis. Three structural classes of FPTase inhibitors were identified: (alpha-hydroxyfarnesyl)phosphonic acid, chaetomellic acids, and zaragozic acids. By comparison, these compounds were weaker inhibitors of geranylgeranyl-protein transferases. Each of these inhibitors was competitive with respect to farnesyl diphosphate in the FPTase reaction. All compounds were assayed for inhibition of Ras processing in Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Ras processing was inhibited by 1 microM (alpha-hydroxyfarnesyl)phosphonic acid. Neither chaetomellic acid nor zaragozic acid were active in this assay. These results are the first demonstration that a small organic chemical selected for inhibition of FPTase can inhibit Ras processing in vivo. PMID:8463291

  3. Water vapor inhibits hydrogen sulfide detection in pulsed fluorescence sulfur monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhme, Anders B.; Ingemar, Jonas L.; Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2016-06-01

    The Thermo Scientific 450 Hydrogen Sulfide-Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sulfur dioxide is measured by pulsed fluorescence, while H2S is converted to SO2 with a molybdenum catalyst prior to detection. The 450 is widely used to measure ambient concentrations, e.g., for emissions monitoring and pollution control. An air stream with a constant H2S concentration was generated and the output of the analyzer recorded as a function of relative humidity (RH). The analyzer underreported H2S as soon as the relative humidity was increased. The fraction of undetected H2S increased from 8.3 at 5.3 % RH (294 K) to over 34 % at RH > 80 %. Hydrogen sulfide mole fractions of 573, 1142, and 5145 ppb were tested. The findings indicate that previous results obtained with instruments using similar catalysts should be re-evaluated to correct for interference from water vapor. It is suspected that water decreases the efficiency of the converter unit and thereby reduces the measured H2S concentration.

  4. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  5. LINGO-1, a Transmembrane Signaling Protein, Inhibits Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination through Intercellular Self-interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Scott; Vought, Bryan; Gross, Christian H.; Gan, Lu; Austen, Douglas; Frantz, J. Daniel; Zwahlen, Jacque; Lowe, Derek; Markland, William; Krauss, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming remyelination failure is a major goal of new therapies for demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. LINGO-1, a key negative regulator of myelination, is a transmembrane signaling protein expressed in both neurons and oligodendrocytes. In neurons, LINGO-1 is an integral component of the Nogo receptor complex, which inhibits axonal growth via RhoA. Because the only ligand-binding subunit of this complex, the Nogo receptor, is absent in oligodendrocytes, the extracellular signals that inhibit myelination through a LINGO-1-mediated mechanism are unknown. Here we show that LINGO-1 inhibits oligodendrocyte terminal differentiation through intercellular interactions and is capable of a self-association in trans. Consistent with previous reports, overexpression of full-length LINGO-1 inhibited differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Unexpectedly, treatment with a soluble recombinant LINGO-1 ectodomain also had an inhibitory effect on OPCs and decreased myelinated axonal segments in cocultures with neurons from dorsal root ganglia. We demonstrated LINGO-1-mediated inhibition of OPCs through intercellular signaling by using a surface-bound LINGO-1 construct expressed ectopically in astrocytes. Further investigation showed that the soluble LINGO-1 ectodomain can interact with itself in trans by binding to CHO cells expressing full-length LINGO-1. Finally, we observed that soluble LINGO-1 could activate RhoA in OPCs. We propose that LINGO-1 acts as both a ligand and a receptor and that the mechanism by which it negatively regulates OPC differentiation and myelination is mediated by a homophilic intercellular interaction. Disruption of this protein-protein interaction could lead to a decrease of LINGO-1 inhibition and an increase in myelination. PMID:22514275

  6. LINGO-1, a transmembrane signaling protein, inhibits oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through intercellular self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Scott; Vought, Bryan; Gross, Christian H; Gan, Lu; Austen, Douglas; Frantz, J Daniel; Zwahlen, Jacque; Lowe, Derek; Markland, William; Krauss, Raul

    2012-06-22

    Overcoming remyelination failure is a major goal of new therapies for demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. LINGO-1, a key negative regulator of myelination, is a transmembrane signaling protein expressed in both neurons and oligodendrocytes. In neurons, LINGO-1 is an integral component of the Nogo receptor complex, which inhibits axonal growth via RhoA. Because the only ligand-binding subunit of this complex, the Nogo receptor, is absent in oligodendrocytes, the extracellular signals that inhibit myelination through a LINGO-1-mediated mechanism are unknown. Here we show that LINGO-1 inhibits oligodendrocyte terminal differentiation through intercellular interactions and is capable of a self-association in trans. Consistent with previous reports, overexpression of full-length LINGO-1 inhibited differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Unexpectedly, treatment with a soluble recombinant LINGO-1 ectodomain also had an inhibitory effect on OPCs and decreased myelinated axonal segments in cocultures with neurons from dorsal root ganglia. We demonstrated LINGO-1-mediated inhibition of OPCs through intercellular signaling by using a surface-bound LINGO-1 construct expressed ectopically in astrocytes. Further investigation showed that the soluble LINGO-1 ectodomain can interact with itself in trans by binding to CHO cells expressing full-length LINGO-1. Finally, we observed that soluble LINGO-1 could activate RhoA in OPCs. We propose that LINGO-1 acts as both a ligand and a receptor and that the mechanism by which it negatively regulates OPC differentiation and myelination is mediated by a homophilic intercellular interaction. Disruption of this protein-protein interaction could lead to a decrease of LINGO-1 inhibition and an increase in myelination. PMID:22514275

  7. Hydrogens detected by subatomic resolution protein crystallography in a [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Nishikawa, Koji; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-04-23

    The enzyme hydrogenase reversibly converts dihydrogen to protons and electrons at a metal catalyst. The location of the abundant hydrogens is of key importance for understanding structure and function of the protein. However, in protein X-ray crystallography the detection of hydrogen atoms is one of the major problems, since they display only weak contributions to diffraction and the quality of the single crystals is often insufficient to obtain sub-ångström resolution. Here we report the crystal structure of a standard [NiFe] hydrogenase (∼91.3 kDa molecular mass) at 0.89 Å resolution. The strictly anoxically isolated hydrogenase has been obtained in a specific spectroscopic state, the active reduced Ni-R (subform Ni-R1) state. The high resolution, proper refinement strategy and careful modelling allow the positioning of a large part of the hydrogen atoms in the structure. This has led to the direct detection of the products of the heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen into a hydride (H(-)) bridging the Ni and Fe and a proton (H(+)) attached to the sulphur of a cysteine ligand. The Ni-H(-) and Fe-H(-) bond lengths are 1.58 Å and 1.78Å, respectively. Furthermore, we can assign the Fe-CO and Fe-CN(-) ligands at the active site, and can obtain the hydrogen-bond networks and the preferred proton transfer pathway in the hydrogenase. Our results demonstrate the precise comprehensive information available from ultra-high-resolution structures of proteins as an alternative to neutron diffraction and other methods such as NMR structural analysis. PMID:25624102

  8. Enterovirus 71 inhibits cellular type I interferon signaling by downregulating JAK1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Xinghui; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Shipo; Liu, Ju; Chi, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaohong; Fu, Ling; Yu, Yingqun; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe disease and lead to death in children. Recurring outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in several countries. Interferons (IFNs) have been used for decades to treat several types of viral infection, but have a limited ability to inhibit EV71 replication. Herein, we intend to investigate the mechanisms by which EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN response. In this study, MRC-5 (human embryonic lung fibroblast) or RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma) cells were infected with EV71, and then treated with or without IFN-α2b. Cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the level of IFNAR1. Cell lysis were prepared to detect the levels of STAT1, STAT2, phosphorylated STAT1, phosphorylated STAT2, IFNAR1, JAK1, and TYK2 by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 induced by IFN were inhibited without significant downregulation of IFNAR1 in EV71-infected cells. The EV71-induced suppression of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation was not rescued by the protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, and was independent of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1/3 levels. The phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 were inhibited accompanied by EV71-induced downregulation of JAK1, which occurred at a post-transcriptional level and was proteasome independent. JAK1 expression did not decrease, and IFN-α-stimulated STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation were not blocked in HEK293T cells overexpressing the EV71 viral protein 2A or 3C. This study demonstrates that EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN antiviral pathway by downregulating JAK1, while the expression of IFNAR1 does not significantly alter in EV71-infected cells. Additionally, the EV71 viral proteins 2A and 3C do not act as antagonists of cellular type I IFN signaling. PMID:24905060

  9. Calcium absorption and calcium-binding protein synthesis: solanum malacoxylon reverses strontium inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, R H

    1974-03-15

    The ingestion of diets containing high concentrations of stable strontium inhibits calcium absorption and intestinal calcium-binding protein synthesis and, as shown by others, does so by inhibiting the conversion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active form of vitamin D. The addition of the South American plant Solanum malacoxylon to strontium-containing diets counteracts the inhibitory action of dietary strontium, thereby indicating that the plant contains a factor which can mimic the action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and representing the first such factor identified in a botanical source. PMID:4812040

  10. Identification of a 2-cys peroxiredoxin as a tetramethyl benzidine-hydrogen peroxide stained protein from the thylakoids of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum L.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Andrea; Antonacci, Alessia; Marsano, Francesco; Redondo-Gomez, Susana; Figueroa Clemente, Enrique Manuel; Andreucci, Flora; Barbato, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    Tetramethylbenzidine-H(2)O(2) staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gel is a widely used method for the specific detection of proteins with heme-dependent peroxidase activity. When this method was used with thylakoids from the halophytic plant Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, besides the cytochrome f and cytochrome b6 proteins usually found in higher plants and cyanobacteria, at least four additional bands were detected. One of them, a 46-kDa protein, was shown to be an extrinsic protein, and identified by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting as a 2-cys peroxiredoxin. Peroxidase activity was insensitive to oxidizing agents such as trans-4,4-diydroxy-1,2-dithiane or hydrogen peroxide, but was inhibited by treatment of thylakoids with reducing agents such as dithiothreitol or mercaptoethanol. By immunoblotting, it was shown that loss of peroxidase activity was paralleled by disappearance of the 46-kDa band, which was converted to a 23-kDa immunoreactive form. A dimer/monomer relationship between the two proteins is suggested, with the dimeric form likely being a heme-binding protein. This possibility was further supported by anionic exchange chromatography and de novo sequencing of tryptic fragments of the protein and sequence comparison, as most of the residues previously implicated in heme binding in 2-cys peroxiredoxin from Rattus norvegicus were conserved in A. macrostachyum. The amount of this protein was modulated by environmental conditions, and increased when salt concentration in the growth medium was higher or lower than the optimal one. PMID:22683464

  11. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus infection by DNA aptamer against NS2 protein.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yimin; Yu, Xiaoyan; Xue, Binbin; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Xiaohong; Yang, Darong; Liu, Nianli; Xu, Li; Fang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Haizhen

    2014-01-01

    NS2 protein is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. NS2 protein was expressed and purified. Aptamers against NS2 protein were raised and antiviral effects of the aptamers were examined. The molecular mechanism through which the aptamers exert their anti-HCV activity was investigated. The data showed that aptamer NS2-3 inhibited HCV RNA replication in replicon cell line and infectious HCV cell culture system. NS2-3 and another aptamer NS2-2 were demonstrated to inhibit infectious virus production without cytotoxicity in vitro. They did not affect hepatitis B virus replication. Interferon beta (IFN-β) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were not induced by the aptamers in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Furthermore, our study showed that N-terminal region of NS2 protein is involved in the inhibition of HCV infection by NS2-2. I861T within NS2 is the major resistance mutation identified. Aptamer NS2-2 disrupts the interaction of NS2 with NS5A protein. The data suggest that NS2-2 aptamer against NS2 protein exerts its antiviral effects through binding to the N-terminal of NS2 and disrupting the interaction of NS2 with NS5A protein. NS2-specific aptamer is the first NS2 inhibitor and can be used to understand the mechanisms of virus replication and assembly. It may be served as attractive candidates for inclusion in the future HCV direct-acting antiviral combination therapies. PMID:24587329

  12. Ozone inhibits endothelial cell cyclooxygenase activity through formation of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.C.; Eling, T.E.; Friedman, M.

    1987-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a 2H exposure of cultured pulmonary endothelial cells to ozone (0.0-1.0 ppm) in-vitro resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of endothelial prostacyclin production (90% decrease at the 1.0 ppm level). Ozone-exposed endothelial cells, incubated with 20 uM arachidonate, also demonstrated a significant inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis. To further examine the mechanisms of the inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis, bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were exposed to 1.0 ppm ozone for 2H. A significant decrease in prostacyclin synthesis was found within 5 min of exposure (77 +/- 36% of air-exposed control values, p less than 0.05). Endothelial prostacyclin synthesis returned to baseline levels by 12H after ozone exposure, a time point which was similar to the recovery time of unexposed endothelium treated with 0.5 uM acetylsalicylic acid. Incubation of endothelial cells, previously exposed to 1.0 ppm ozone for 2 hours, with 4 uM PGH2 resulted in restoration of essentially normal prostacyclin synthesis. When endothelial cells were co-incubated with catalase (5 U/ml) during ozone exposure, no inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis was observed. Co-incubation with either heat-inactivated catalase or superoxide dismutase (10 U/ml) did not affect the ozone-induced inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis. These data suggest that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is a major toxic species produced in endothelial cells during ozone exposure and responsible for the inhibition of endothelial cyclooxygenase activity.

  13. Inhibition of Methylglyoxal-Mediated Protein Modification in Glyoxalase I Overexpressing Mouse Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhariah, Mahesha H.; Mailankot, Maneesh; Reneker, Lixing; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Here we tested the role of Glo I in the prevention of advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in transgenic mouse lenses. Methods. A transgenic animal line that expressed high levels of human Glo I in the lens was developed from the C57B6 mouse strain. The role of Glo I in the inhibition of MGO-AGE formation was tested in organ-cultured lenses. Results. Organ culture of Wt and Glo I lenses with 5 mM D, L-glyceraldehyde (GLD) enhanced MGO by 29-fold and 17-fold in Wt lenses and Glo I lenses, respectively. Argpyrimidine levels were 192 ± 73 pmoles/mg protein, and hydroimidazolone levels were 22 ± 0.7 units/μg protein in GLD-incubated Wt lenses. In Glo I lenses, formation of AGEs was significantly inhibited; the argpyrimidine levels were 82 ± 18 pmoles/mg protein, and the HI levels were 2.6 ± 2.3 units/μg protein. Incubation of Wt lens proteins with 5 mM ribose for 7 days resulted in the formation of pentosidine. However, the levels were substantially higher in Glo I lens proteins incubated with ribose. Conclusion. Our study provides direct evidence that Glo I activity plays an important role in the regulation of AGE synthesis in the lens; while Glo I activity blocks the formation of MGO-AGEs, it might promote the formation of sugar-derived AGEs. PMID:20671953

  14. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo . E-mail: sueokae@post.saga-med.ac.jp

    2005-08-05

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression.

  15. Mechanisms of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Inhibition by Lysyl-Peptidyl-Anthraquinone Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Sosic, Alice; Sinigaglia, Laura; Cappellini, Marta; Carli, Ilaria; Parolin, Cristina; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Rovero, Paolo; Fabris, Dan; Gatto, Barbara

    2016-01-20

    The Nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone responsible for essential steps of the HIV-1 life cycle and an attractive candidate for drug development. NC destabilizes nucleic acid structures and promotes the formation of annealed substrates for HIV-1 reverse transcription elongation. Short helical nucleic acid segments bordered by bulges and loops, such as the Trans-Activation Response element (TAR) of HIV-1 and its complementary sequence (cTAR), are nucleation elements for helix destabilization by NC and also preferred recognition sites for threading intercalators. Inspired by these observations, we have recently demonstrated that 2,6-disubstituted peptidyl-anthraquinone-conjugates inhibit the chaperone activities of recombinant NC in vitro, and that inhibition correlates with the stabilization of TAR and cTAR stem-loop structures. We describe here enhanced NC inhibitory activity by novel conjugates that exhibit longer peptidyl chains ending with a conserved N-terminal lysine. Their efficient inhibition of TAR/cTAR annealing mediated by NC originates from the combination of at least three different mechanisms, namely, their stabilizing effects on nucleic acids dynamics by threading intercalation, their ability to target TAR RNA substrate leading to a direct competition with the protein for the same binding sites on TAR, and, finally, their effective binding to the NC protein. Our results suggest that these molecules may represent the stepping-stone for the future development of NC-inhibitors capable of targeting the protein itself and its recognition site in RNA. PMID:26666402

  16. Merlin inhibits growth hormone-regulated Raf-ERKs pathways by binding to Grb2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Hongtae; Jeun, Sin-Soo . E-mail: ssjeun@catholic.ac.kr; Kang, Seok-Gu; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2006-02-24

    Numerous studies have suggested that the NF2 protein merlin is involved in the regulation of abnormal cell growth and proliferation. In this study, to better understand the merlin's mechanisms that contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis, we examined the potential action of merlin on the cell proliferative signaling pathways in response to growth hormone (GH). Merlin effectively attenuated the GH-induced serum response element (SRE) and Elk-1-mediated transcriptional activation, as well as the endogenous SRE-regulated gene c-fos expression in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, merlin prevented the Raf-1 complex activation process, which resulted in the suppression of MAP kinase/ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERKs), and Elk-1 phosphorylation, which are the downstream signals of Raf-1. Moreover, it was shown that merlin interacted with endogenous growth factor receptor bound 2 (Grb2) protein and inhibited its expression. These results suggest that merlin contributes, via its protein-to-protein interaction with Grb2 and consequent inhibition of the MAPK pathways, to the regulation of the abnormal cell proliferation, and this provides a further mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor function of merlin.

  17. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Erica M.; Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann; Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  18. Wound induced Beta vulgaris polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein genes encode a longer leucine-rich repeat domain and inhibit fungal polygalacturonases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defense. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) PGIP genes, BvPGIP1, BvPGIP2 and BvPGIP3, were isolated from two breeding lines, F1016 and F1010. Full-length cDNA sequences of the three BvPGIP genes encod...

  19. Structural requirements of (2'-5') oligoadenylate for protein synthesis inhibition in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Drocourt, J L; Dieffenbach, C W; Ts'o, P O; Justesen, J; Thang, M N

    1982-01-01

    The structural requirements of (2'-5')-oligoadenylic acid (pppA(2'p5'A)x, X greater than or equal to 1 or (2'-5'An) for inhibition of protein synthesis in cells were examined with a modified calcium-coprecipitation technique, using a series of trinucleotide analogs (pppA2'p5'A2'p5'N, N=rC, rG, rU, T, dC, dG, dA). In this system both the degree and the duration of the inhibition of protein synthesis were dependent on the added concentration of (2'-5')A3. Of all the heterotrimers, only the deoxy A derivative was active as an inhibitor of protein synthesis, while the other members of the analog series were found to have no inhibitory effects. In competition experiments between (2'-5')A3 and the non-active analogs, three heterotrimers were shown to reduce the activity of (2'-5')A3 in protein inhibition. In contrast, the dephosphorylated (2'-5')A3 had no inhibitory effect and was not effective in blocking (2'-5')A3. These results indicate that the 5'-terminal triphosphate is important for binding of (2'-5')A3 to the site of (2'-5')An action and the adenine base at the 2'-terminus is important for activating the machinery responsible for protein synthesis inhibition in the cells, most likely the (2'-5')An-activated nuclease. PMID:7079179

  20. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  1. A coarse-grained α-carbon protein model with anisotropic hydrogen-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Eng-Hui; Fawzi, Nicolas Lux; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    We develop a sequence based α-carbon model to incorporate a mean field estimate of the orientation dependence of the polypeptide chain that gives rise to specific hydrogen bond pairing to stabilize α-helices and β-sheets. We illustrate the success of the new protein model in capturing thermodynamic measures and folding mechanism of proteins L and G. Compared to our previous coarse-grained model, the new model shows greater folding cooperativity and improvements in designability of protein sequences, as well as predicting correct trends for kinetic rates and mechanism for proteins L and G. We believe the model is broadly applicable to other protein folding and protein–protein co-assembly processes, and does not require experimental input beyond the topology description of the native state. Even without tertiary topology information, it can also serve as a mid-resolution protein model for more exhaustive conformational search strategies that can bridge back down to atomic descriptions of the polypeptide chain. PMID:17879350

  2. Start2Fold: a database of hydrogen/deuterium exchange data on protein folding and stability

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Varadi, Mihaly; Tompa, Peter; Vranken, Wim F.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins fulfil a wide range of tasks in cells; understanding how they fold into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures and how these structures remain stable while retaining sufficient dynamics for functionality is essential for the interpretation of overall protein behaviour. Since the 1950's, solvent exchange-based methods have been the most powerful experimental means to obtain information on the folding and stability of proteins. Considerable expertise and care were required to obtain the resulting datasets, which, despite their importance and intrinsic value, have never been collected, curated and classified. Start2Fold is an openly accessible database (http://start2fold.eu) of carefully curated hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) data extracted from the literature that is open for new submissions from the community. The database entries contain (i) information on the proteins investigated and the underlying experimental procedures and (ii) the classification of the residues based on their exchange protection levels, also allowing for the instant visualization of the relevant residue groups on the 3D structures of the corresponding proteins. By providing a clear hierarchical framework for the easy sharing, comparison and (re-)interpretation of HDX data, Start2Fold intends to promote a better understanding of how the protein sequence encodes folding and structure as well as the development of new computational methods predicting protein folding and stability. PMID:26582925

  3. PED/PEA-15 Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Ins-1E Pancreatic Beta-Cells via PLD-1

    PubMed Central

    Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Zatterale, Federica; Nigro, Cecilia; Mirra, Paola; Falco, Roberta; Ulianich, Luca; Di Jeso, Bruno; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The small scaffold protein PED/PEA-15 is involved in several different physiologic and pathologic processes, such as cell proliferation and survival, diabetes and cancer. PED/PEA-15 exerts an anti-apoptotic function due to its ability to interfere with both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in different cell types. Recent evidence shows that mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 present larger pancreatic islets and increased beta-cells mass. In the present work we investigated PED/PEA-15 role in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E beta-cells. In pancreatic islets isolated from TgPED/PEA-15 mice hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA fragmentation was lower compared to WT islets. TUNEL analysis showed that PED/PEA-15 overexpression increases the viability of Ins-1E beta-cells and enhances their resistance to apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide exposure. The activity of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP-1 were markedly reduced in Ins-1E cells overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Ins-1EPED/PEA-15). In parallel, we observed a decrease of the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes Bcl-xS and Bad. In contrast, the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL was enhanced. Accordingly, DNA fragmentation was higher in control cells compared to Ins-1EPED/PEA-15 cells. Interestingly, the preincubation with propranolol, an inhibitor of the pathway of PLD-1, a known interactor of PED/PEA-15, responsible for its deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, abolishes the antiapoptotic effects of PED/PEA-15 overexpression in Ins-1E beta-cells. The same results have been obtained by inhibiting PED/PEA-15 interaction with PLD-1 in Ins-1EPED/PEA-15. These results show that PED/PEA-15 overexpression is sufficient to block hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E cells through a PLD-1 mediated mechanism. PMID:25489735

  4. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Improves Vascular Calcification in Rats by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Teng, Xu; Li, Hui; Xue, Hong-Mei; Guo, Qi; Xiao, Lin; Wu, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) model of rats was used to prove that H2S alleviates vascular calcification (VC) and phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Besides, H2S can also inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) of calcified aortic tissues. The effect of H2S on alleviating VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC can be blocked by TM, while PBA also alleviated VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC that was similar to the effect of H2S. These results suggest that H2S may alleviate rat aorta VC by inhibiting ERS, providing new target and perspective for prevention and treatment of VC. PMID:27022436

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Improves Vascular Calcification in Rats by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Teng, Xu; Li, Hui; Xue, Hong-Mei; Guo, Qi; Xiao, Lin; Wu, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) model of rats was used to prove that H2S alleviates vascular calcification (VC) and phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Besides, H2S can also inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) of calcified aortic tissues. The effect of H2S on alleviating VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC can be blocked by TM, while PBA also alleviated VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC that was similar to the effect of H2S. These results suggest that H2S may alleviate rat aorta VC by inhibiting ERS, providing new target and perspective for prevention and treatment of VC. PMID:27022436

  7. Aluminium and hydrogen ions inhibit a mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    The tension-dependent activity of mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in excised plasmalemmal patches from onion bulb scale epidermis is modulated by pH in the physiologically meaningful range between 4.5 and 7.2. It is rapidly lowered by lowering pH and rapidly raised by raising pH. Channel activity is effectively inhibited by low levels of aluminium ions and activity can be partially restored by washing for a few minutes. We suggest that under normal conditions the sensitivity of the mechanosensory channels to pH of the wall free space plays important roles in regulation of plant activities such as growth. We further suggest that, when levels of acid and aluminium ions in the soil solution are high, they might inhibit similar sensory channels in cells of the root tip, thus contributing critically to the acid soil syndrome.

  8. Heat Shock Protein-70 Inhibition by the Small-Molecule 2-phenylethynesulfonamide Impairs Protein Clearance Pathways in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leu, J. I-Ju; Pimkina, Julia; Pandey, Pooja; Murphy, Maureen E.; George, Donna L.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved stress-inducible HSP70 molecular chaperone plays a central role in maintaining protein quality control in response to various forms of stress. Constitutively elevated HSP70 expression is a characteristic of many tumor cells and contributes to their survival. We recently identified the small-molecule 2-phenylethyenesulfonamide (PES) as a novel HSP70 inhibitor. Here we present evidence that PES-mediated inhibition of HSP70-family proteins in tumor cells results in an impairment of the two major protein degradation systems, namely the autophagy-lysosome system as well as the proteasome pathway. HSP70-family proteins work closely with the HSP90 molecular chaperone to maintain the stability and activities of their many client proteins and PES causes a disruption in the HSP70/HSP90 chaperone system. As a consequence, many cellular proteins, including known HSP70/HSP90 substrates, accumulate in detergent-insoluble cell fractions, indicative of aggregation and functional inactivation. Overall, PES simultaneously disrupts several cancer-critical survival pathways, supporting the idea of targeting HSP70 as a potential approach for cancer therapeutics. PMID:21636681

  9. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (BPI) Inhibits the Infectivity of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pinkenburg, Olaf; Meyer, Torben; Bannert, Norbert; Norley, Steven; Bolte, Kathrin; Czudai-Matwich, Volker; Herold, Susanne; Gessner, André; Schnare, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In addition to their well-known antibacterial activity some antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) display also antiviral effects. A 27 aa peptide from the N-terminal part of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) previously shown to harbour antibacterial activity inhibits the infectivity of multiple Influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1) the causing agent of the Influenza pneumonia. In contrast, the homologous murine BPI-peptide did not show activity against Influenza A virus. In addition human BPI-peptide inhibits the activation of immune cells mediated by Influenza A virus. By changing the human BPI-peptide to the sequence of the mouse homologous peptide the antiviral activity was completely abolished. Furthermore, the human BPI-peptide also inhibited the pathogenicity of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus but failed to interfere with HIV and measles virus. Electron microscopy indicate that the human BPI-peptide interferes with the virus envelope and at high concentrations was able to destroy the particles completely. PMID:27273104

  10. STAT1:DNA sequence-dependent binding modulation by phosphorylation, protein:protein interactions and small-molecule inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Andrew J.; Wenta, Nikola; Osslund, Leah M.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Vinkemeier, Uwe; Reich, Norbert O.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA-binding specificity and affinity of the dimeric human transcription factor (TF) STAT1, were assessed by total internal reflectance fluorescence protein-binding microarrays (TIRF-PBM) to evaluate the effects of protein phosphorylation, higher-order polymerization and small-molecule inhibition. Active, phosphorylated STAT1 showed binding preferences consistent with prior characterization, whereas unphosphorylated STAT1 showed a weak-binding preference for one-half of the GAS consensus site, consistent with recent models of STAT1 structure and function in response to phosphorylation. This altered-binding preference was further tested by use of the inhibitor LLL3, which we show to disrupt STAT1 binding in a sequence-dependent fashion. To determine if this sequence-dependence is specific to STAT1 and not a general feature of human TF biology, the TF Myc/Max was analysed and tested with the inhibitor Mycro3. Myc/Max inhibition by Mycro3 is sequence independent, suggesting that the sequence-dependent inhibition of STAT1 may be specific to this system and a useful target for future inhibitor design. PMID:23180800

  11. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 inhibition of lipoprotein lipase: evidence for reversible complex formation.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Michael J; Bradford, Kira C; Erie, Dorothy A; Neher, Saskia B

    2013-10-01

    Elevated triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triglycerides from circulating lipoproteins. The N-terminal domain of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits LPL activity. ANGPTL4 was previously described as an unfolding molecular chaperone of LPL that catalytically converts active LPL dimers into inactive monomers. Our studies show that ANGPTL4 is more accurately described as a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of LPL. We find that inhibited LPL is in a complex with ANGPTL4, and upon dissociation, LPL regains lipase activity. Furthermore, we have generated a variant of ANGPTL4 that is dependent on divalent cations for its ability to inhibit LPL. We show that LPL inactivation by this regulatable variant of ANGPTL4 is fully reversible after treatment with a chelator. PMID:23960078

  12. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R

    2015-08-01

    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass. PMID:25935390

  13. The Motor Protein KIF14 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cancer Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Hong, Tse-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Gee-Chen; Jou, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The motor protein kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are involved in cancer progression. The depletion of one of the KIFs, KIF14, might delay the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, resulting in a binucleated status, which enhances tumor progression; however, the exact correlation between KIF14 and cancer progression remains ambiguous. In this study, using loss of heterozygosity and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses, we observed a 30% loss in the regions surrounding KIF14 on chromosome 1q in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the protein expression levels of KIF14 in 122 lung adenocarcinomas also indicated that approximately 30% of adenocarcinomas showed KIF14 down-regulation compared with the expression in the bronchial epithelial cells of adjacent normal counterparts. In addition, the reduced expression of KIF14 mRNA or proteins was correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.0158 and <0.0001, respectively), and the protein levels were also inversely correlated with metastasis (P<0.0001). The overexpression of KIF14 in lung adenocarcinoma cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 also inhibited or enhanced cancer cell migration, invasion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen IV. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion molecules cadherin 11 (CDH11) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) as cargo on KIF14. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 enhanced or reduced the recruitment of CDH11 in the membrane fraction, suggesting that KIF14 might act through recruiting adhesion molecules to the cell membrane and modulating cell adhesive, migratory and invasive properties. Thus, KIF14 might inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:23626713

  14. The motor protein KIF14 inhibits tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Hong, Tse-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Gee-Chen; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Pan, Szu-Hua; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2013-01-01

    The motor protein kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are involved in cancer progression. The depletion of one of the KIFs, KIF14, might delay the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, resulting in a binucleated status, which enhances tumor progression; however, the exact correlation between KIF14 and cancer progression remains ambiguous. In this study, using loss of heterozygosity and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses, we observed a 30% loss in the regions surrounding KIF14 on chromosome 1q in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the protein expression levels of KIF14 in 122 lung adenocarcinomas also indicated that approximately 30% of adenocarcinomas showed KIF14 down-regulation compared with the expression in the bronchial epithelial cells of adjacent normal counterparts. In addition, the reduced expression of KIF14 mRNA or proteins was correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.0158 and <0.0001, respectively), and the protein levels were also inversely correlated with metastasis (P<0.0001). The overexpression of KIF14 in lung adenocarcinoma cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 also inhibited or enhanced cancer cell migration, invasion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen IV. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion molecules cadherin 11 (CDH11) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) as cargo on KIF14. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 enhanced or reduced the recruitment of CDH11 in the membrane fraction, suggesting that KIF14 might act through recruiting adhesion molecules to the cell membrane and modulating cell adhesive, migratory and invasive properties. Thus, KIF14 might inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:23626713

  15. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; Parra, Columba de la; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J.; Wade, Paul A.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Donnell, Robert M.; Pestell, Richard G.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  16. Phenylarsine oxide and vanadate: apparent paradox of inhibition of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Elberg, G; Shechter, Y

    1996-07-24

    Vanadate mimics, whereas phenylarsine oxide (PAO) antagonizes, the effects of insulin in rat adipocytes. Both vanadate and PAO are documented inhibitors of protein-phosphotyrosine phosphatases. The relationship between the inhibition of 'inhibitory' PTPase and 'stimulatory' PTPase has been studied here in primary rat adipocytes. Low concentrations of PAO (IC50 = 0.6-2.0 microM) blocked the stimulating effects of insulin, vanadate and pervanadate on hexose uptake and glucose metabolism. Inhibition of isoproterenol-mediating lipolysis by vanadate and insulin was not blocked by PAO. The activating effects of okadaic acid on hexose uptake and glucose metabolism, which occur at points downstream to tyrosine phosphorylation, were also not blocked by PAO. Subsequent studies suggested that the PAO-sensitive PTPase comprises a minute fraction of the total adipocytic PTPase activity. To identify its location we applied procedures involving fractionations and activation of non-receptor adipocytic protein tyrosine kinase by PAO and vanadate in cell free assays. We found that the 'inhibitory' PTPase is exclusively associated with the membrane fraction whereas the 'stimulatory' PTPases are present in both the cytosolic and plasma membrane compartments. We next searched for markers, possibly associated with PAO-dependent desensitization and found that several proteins became phosphorylated on tyrosine moieties in the supernatant of PAO but not in vanadate pretreated adipocytes. In summary, we propose the presence of a minute, plasma membrane associated PTPase in primary rat adipocytes, inhibition of which arrests the activation of glucose metabolism. In contrast, inhibition of all the other cellular adipose PTPases, ultimately activates rather than inhibits these same bioeffects. PMID:8703991

  17. Cadmium inhibits mouse sperm motility through inducing tyrosine phosphorylation in a specific subset of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirui; Li, Yuhua; Fu, Jieli; Zhen, Linqing; Zhao, Na; Yang, Qiangzhen; Li, Sisi; Li, Xinhong

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been reported to impair male fertility, primarily by disrupting sperm motility, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we investigated the effects of Cd on sperm motility, tyrosine phosphorylation, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, and ATP levels in vitro. Our results demonstrated that Cd inhibited sperm motility, GAPDH activity, AMPK activity and ATP production, and induced tyrosine phosphorylation of 55-57KDa proteins. Importantly, all the parameters affected by Cd were restored to normal levels when incubated with 10μM Cd in the presence of 30μM ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Interestingly, changes of tyrosine phosphorylation levels of 55-57KDa proteins are completely contrary to that of other parameters. These results suggest that Cd-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of 55-57KDa proteins might act as an engine to block intracellular energy metabolism and thus decrease sperm motility. PMID:27233480

  18. Inhibition of tomato yellow leaf curl virus replication by artificial zinc-finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Koshino-Kimura, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we designed an artificial zinc-finger protein (AZP) for blocking a replication protein (Rep) of beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) from binding to its replication origin and demonstrated that transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the AZP are completely resistant to the virus infection. Here we applied the AZP technology to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infective to an important agricultural crop, tomato. We designed an AZP binding to the direct repeat to block the TYLCV Rep binding and confirmed in gel shift assays that the designed AZP has a higher affinity to the replication origin than that of Rep. Furthermore, we demonstrated in competitive binding assays that the AZP effectively inhibited the Rep binding in vitro. We discuss properties of the AZP for inhibition of TYLCV replication in detail. PMID:18029770

  19. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC. PMID:23924858

  20. Vesnarinone suppresses TNFα mRNA expression by inhibiting valosin-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kentaro; Nashimoto, Akihiro; Yasumura, Eiji; Suzuki, Masafumi; Azuma, Motoki; Iizumi, Yosuke; Shima, Daisuke; Nabeshima, Ryusuke; Hiramoto, Masaki; Okada, Akira; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Tokunaga, Makio; Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Kabe, Yasuaki; Aizawa, Shinichi; Imai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Hajime; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Vesnarinone is a synthetic quinolinone derivative used in the treatment of cardiac failure and cancer. It is also known to cause agranulocytosis as a side effect, which restricts its use, although the mechanism underlying agranulocytosis is not well understood. Here, we show that vesnarinone binds to valosin-containing protein (VCP), which interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins and is essential for the degradation of IκBα to activate nuclear factor (NF)κB. We show that vesnarinone impairs the degradation of IκBα, and that the impairment of the degradation of IκBα is the result of the inhibition of the interaction between VCP and the 26S proteasome by vesnarinone. These results suggest that vesnarinone suppresses NFκB activation by inhibiting the VCP-dependent degradation of polyubiquitinated IκBα, resulting in the suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression. PMID:23393163

  1. Inhibition of ATPase activity of the recA protein by ATP ribose-modified analogs.

    PubMed

    Karasaki, Y; Higashi, K

    1984-09-01

    The single-stranded, DNA-dependent ATPase activity of purified recA protein was found to be inhibited competitively by ribose-modified analogs of ATP, 3'-O-anthraniloyl-ATP (Ant-ATP), and 3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP (Mant-ATP). The Ki values for Ant-ATP and Mant-ATP were around 7 and 3 microM at pH 7.5, respectively. The inhibitions by these analogs were much stronger than that by ADP, which is also a competitive inhibitor for the ATPase activity of the recA protein. The Ki value for ADP is 76 microM. Ant-ATP and Mant-ATP reduced the Hill coefficient for ATP hydrolysis and thus contributed to the cooperative effect of ATP. PMID:6237610

  2. Inhibition of a Mitotic Motor Protein: Where, How, and Conformational Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Youwei; Sardana, Vinod; Xu, Bei; Homnick, Carl; Halczenko, Wasyl; Buser, Carolyn A.; Schaber, Michael; Hartman, George D.; Huber, Hans E.; Kuo, Lawrence C.

    2010-11-16

    We report here the first inhibitor-bound structure of a mitotic motor protein. The 1.9 {angstrom} resolution structure of the motor domain of KSP, bound with the small molecule monastrol and Mg{sup 2+} {center_dot} ADP, reveals that monastrol confers inhibition by 'induced-fitting' onto the protein some 12 {angstrom} away from the catalytic center of the enzyme, resulting in the creation of a previously non-existing binding pocket. The structure provides new insights into the biochemical and mechanical mechanisms of the mitotic motor domain. Inhibition of KSP provides a novel mechanism to arrest mitotic spindle formation, a target of several approved and investigative anti-cancer agents. The structural information gleaned from this novel pocket offers a new angle for the design of anti-mitotic agents.

  3. Inhibition of CDC25B Phosphatase Through Disruption of Protein–Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    CDC25 phosphatases are key cell cycle regulators and represent very attractive but challenging targets for anticancer drug discovery. Here, we explored whether fragment-based screening represents a valid approach to identify inhibitors of CDC25B. This resulted in identification of 2-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzonitrile, which directly binds to the catalytic domain of CDC25B. Interestingly, NMR data and the crystal structure demonstrate that this compound binds to the pocket distant from the active site and adjacent to the protein–protein interaction interface with CDK2/Cyclin A substrate. Furthermore, we developed a more potent analogue that disrupts CDC25B interaction with CDK2/Cyclin A and inhibits dephosphorylation of CDK2. Based on these studies, we provide a proof of concept that targeting CDC25 phosphatases by inhibiting their protein–protein interactions with CDK2/Cyclin A substrate represents a novel, viable opportunity to target this important class of enzymes. PMID:25423142

  4. L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine inhibits the transfer function of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hiroaki; Westerman, Jan; Snoek, Gerry T; Taraschi, Theodore F; Janes, Nathan

    2003-12-30

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITP-alpha) is a bifunctional phospholipid transfer protein that is highly selective for phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Polar lipid metabolites, including L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GroPCho), increasingly have been linked to changes in cellular function and to disease. In this study, polar lipid metabolites of PtdIns and PtdCho were tested for their ability to influence PITP-alpha activity. GroPCho inhibited the ability of PITP-alpha to transfer PtdIns or PtdCho between liposomes. The IC(50) of both processes was dependent on membrane composition. D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate and glycerylphosphorylinositol modestly enhanced PITP-alpha-mediated phospholipid transfer. Choline, phosphorylcholine (PCho), CDP-choline, glyceryl-3-phosphate, myo-inositol and D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate had little effect. Membrane surface charge was a strong determinant of the GroPCho inhibition with the inhibition being greatest for highly anionic membranes. GroPCho was shown to enhance the binding of PITP-alpha to anionic vesicles. In membranes of low surface charge, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) was a determinant enabling the GroPCho inhibition. Anionic charge and PtdEtn content appeared to increase the strength of PITP-alpha-membrane interactions. The GroPCho-enhanced PITP-alpha-membrane binding was sufficient to cause inhibition, but not sufficient to account for the extent of inhibition observed. Processes associated with strengthened PITP-alpha-membrane binding in the presence of GroPCho appeared to impair the phospholipid insertion/extraction process. PMID:14729069

  5. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p < 0.05). Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase) and surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins) were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth with sub-MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets. PMID:27065957

  6. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p < 0.05). Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase) and surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins) were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth with sub-MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets. PMID:27065957

  7. Swine Interferon-Inducible Transmembrane Proteins Potently Inhibit Influenza A Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Caroline; Yángüez, Emilio; Andenmatten, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Human interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) were identified as restriction factors of influenza A virus (IAV). Given the important role of pigs in the zoonotic cycle of IAV, we cloned swine IFITMs (swIFITMs) and found two IFITM1-like proteins, one homologue of IFITM2, and a homologue of IFITM3. We show that swIFITM2 and swIFITM3 localize to endosomes and display potent antiviral activities. Knockdown of swIFITMs strongly reduced virus inhibition by interferon, establishing the swIFITMs as potent restriction factors in porcine cells. PMID:25320322

  8. Major peptides from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) protein inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  9. Antibacterial activity and inhibition of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli by antisense DNA analogs.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Summerton, J; Foster, E; Cunningham, K; Stirchak, E; Weller, D; Schaup, H W

    1991-01-01

    Protein synthesis, which takes place within ribosomes, is essential for the survival of any living organism. Ribosomes are composed of both proteins and RNA. Specific interaction between the 3' end CCUCC sequence of prokaryotic 16S rRNA and a partially complementary sequence preceding the initiating codon of mRNA is believed to be a prerequisite for initiation of protein synthesis. Here we report the use of short (three to six nucleotides) synthetic DNA analogs complementary to this sequence to block protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo in Escherichia coli. In the DNA analogs the normal phosphodiester bond in the antisense DNA was replaced by methylcarbamate internucleoside linkages to enhance transport across plasma membranes. Of the analogs tested, those with the sequence AGG and GGA inhibit protein synthesis and colony formation by E. coli strains lacking an outer cell wall. Polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) was attached to the 5' end of some of the test methylcarbamate DNAs to enhance solubility. Analogs of AGG and GGAG with PEG 1000 attached inhibited colony formation in normal E. coli. These analogs may be useful food additives to control bacterial spoilage and biomedically as antibiotics. PMID:1821653

  10. Inhibition of protein kinase C induces differentiation in Neuro-2a cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miñana, M D; Felipo, V; Grisolía, S

    1990-01-01

    1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, induced neuritogenesis in Neuro-2a cells, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), which inhibits more efficiently cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, did not. The effect, noticeable after 3 hr, was maximum (13-fold increase at 500 microM H7) between 1 and 3 days and was maintained over 2 months. In controls, 90% of the cells were undifferentiated, whereas after 3 hr with 500 microM H7 only 25% of the cells remained undifferentiated. DNA synthesis decreased as the number of differentiated cells increased. Differentiation is also functional since acetylcholinesterase activity increased approximately 7-fold after 48 hr with 500 microM H7. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a specific activator of protein kinase C, prevented or reversed the induction of neuritogenesis and the inhibition of DNA synthesis by H7. There is a good correlation between the level of protein kinase C and the percentage of differentiated cells. The results indicate that protein kinase C may play a key role in the control of differentiation of neural cells. Some possible clinical implications are briefly discussed. Images PMID:1693437

  11. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  12. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session. PMID:27314672

  13. Decatransin, a new natural product inhibiting protein translocation at the Sec61/SecYEG translocon

    PubMed Central

    Junne, Tina; Wong, Joanne; Studer, Christian; Aust, Thomas; Bauer, Benedikt W.; Beibel, Martin; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Bruccoleri, Robert; Eichenberger, Jürg; Estoppey, David; Hartmann, Nicole; Knapp, Britta; Krastel, Philipp; Melin, Nicolas; Oakeley, Edward J.; Oberer, Lukas; Riedl, Ralph; Roma, Guglielmo; Schuierer, Sven; Petersen, Frank; Tallarico, John A.; Rapoport, Tom A.; Spiess, Martin; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new cyclic decadepsipeptide was isolated from Chaetosphaeria tulasneorum with potent bioactivity on mammalian and yeast cells. Chemogenomic profiling in S. cerevisiae indicated that the Sec61 translocon complex, the machinery for protein translocation and membrane insertion at the endoplasmic reticulum, is the target. The profiles were similar to those of cyclic heptadepsipeptides of a distinct chemotype (including HUN-7293 and cotransin) that had previously been shown to inhibit cotranslational translocation at the mammalian Sec61 translocon. Unbiased, genome-wide mutagenesis followed by full-genome sequencing in both fungal and mammalian cells identified dominant mutations in Sec61p (yeast) or Sec61α1 (mammals) that conferred resistance. Most, but not all, of these mutations affected inhibition by both chemotypes, despite an absence of structural similarity. Biochemical analysis confirmed inhibition of protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum of both co- and post-translationally translocated substrates by both chemotypes, demonstrating a mechanism independent of a translating ribosome. Most interestingly, both chemotypes were found to also inhibit SecYEG, the bacterial Sec61 translocon homolog. We suggest ‘decatransin’ as the name for this new decadepsipeptide translocation inhibitor. PMID:25616894

  14. d-Amino Acids Indirectly Inhibit Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis by Interfering with Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leiman, Sara A.; May, Janine M.; Lebar, Matthew D.; Kahne, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms on surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces. It was previously reported that these biofilms disassemble late in their life cycle and that conditioned medium from late-stage biofilms inhibits biofilm formation. Such medium contained a mixture of d-leucine, d-methionine, d-tryptophan, and d-tyrosine and was reported to inhibit biofilm formation via the incorporation of these d-amino acids into the cell wall. Here, we show that l-amino acids were able to specifically reverse the inhibitory effects of their cognate d-amino acids. We also show that d-amino acids inhibited growth and the expression of biofilm matrix genes at concentrations that inhibit biofilm formation. Finally, we report that the strain routinely used to study biofilm formation has a mutation in the gene (dtd) encoding d-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase, an enzyme that prevents the misincorporation of d-amino acids into protein in B. subtilis. When we repaired the dtd gene, B. subtilis became resistant to the biofilm-inhibitory effects of d-amino acids without losing the ability to incorporate at least one noncanonical d-amino acid, d-tryptophan, into the peptidoglycan peptide side chain. We conclude that the susceptibility of B. subtilis to the biofilm-inhibitory effects of d-amino acids is largely, if not entirely, due to their toxic effects on protein synthesis. PMID:24097941

  15. D-amino acids indirectly inhibit biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by interfering with protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leiman, Sara A; May, Janine M; Lebar, Matthew D; Kahne, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms on surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces. It was previously reported that these biofilms disassemble late in their life cycle and that conditioned medium from late-stage biofilms inhibits biofilm formation. Such medium contained a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tryptophan, and D-tyrosine and was reported to inhibit biofilm formation via the incorporation of these D-amino acids into the cell wall. Here, we show that L-amino acids were able to specifically reverse the inhibitory effects of their cognate D-amino acids. We also show that D-amino acids inhibited growth and the expression of biofilm matrix genes at concentrations that inhibit biofilm formation. Finally, we report that the strain routinely used to study biofilm formation has a mutation in the gene (dtd) encoding D-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase, an enzyme that prevents the misincorporation of D-amino acids into protein in B. subtilis. When we repaired the dtd gene, B. subtilis became resistant to the biofilm-inhibitory effects of D-amino acids without losing the ability to incorporate at least one noncanonical D-amino acid, D-tryptophan, into the peptidoglycan peptide side chain. We conclude that the susceptibility of B. subtilis to the biofilm-inhibitory effects of D-amino acids is largely, if not entirely, due to their toxic effects on protein synthesis. PMID:24097941

  16. Rhodamine 123 inhibits protein synthesis in mitochondria isolated from normal and cancer tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Khalil, W.H.; Yunis, A.; Abou-Khalil, S.

    1986-05-01

    The dye rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) is well known to specifically stain mitochrondria in living cells. Its accumulation in these organelles is associated with certain toxic effects where the dye is found to inhibit bioenergetic function in normal and cancer mitochondria. Since mitochondria appear to be a target for Rho 123 interaction, the authors investigated its effects on mitochondrial protein synthesis (PS) in rat liver, and in both erythroleukemia and chloroleukemia tumors. L-(/sup 14/C) leucine incorporation into mitochondria protein was used to determine the rate of PS. While the specific activity of leucine incorporation was much higher in tumor as compared to liver mitochondria, the addition of 10 ..mu..g Rho 123/ml in all tested mitochondria resulted in 75-80% inhibition. Similar results were obtained with 10 ..mu..g/ml of chloramphenicol, the specific inhibitor for mitochondrial PS. PS inhibition in the three types of mitochondria was Rho 123 concentration-dependent being about 50% at 5 ..mu..g/ml and with total inhibition at 15-20 ..mu..g/ml. Moreover, the addition of Rho 123 to mitochondria under PS condition did not trigger any ATPase activity. If present, such activity would compete for ATP which is the energy source of PS. These results demonstrate that the mitochondrial probe Rho 123 has a potent inhibitory effect on PS in both normal and cancer mitochondria.

  17. Spironolactone blocks Epstein-Barr virus production by inhibiting EBV SM protein function.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dinesh; Thompson, Jacob; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2016-03-29

    Clinically available drugs active against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other human herpesviruses are limited to those targeting viral DNA replication. To identify compounds directed against other steps in the viral life cycle, we searched for drugs active against the EBV SM protein, which is essential for infectious virus production. SM has a highly gene-specific mode of action and preferentially enhances expression of several late lytic cycle EBV genes. Here we demonstrate that spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist approved for clinical use, inhibits SM function and infectious EBV production. Expression of EBV viral capsid antigen is highly SM dependent, and spironolactone inhibits viral capsid antigen synthesis and capsid formation, blocking EBV virion production at a step subsequent to viral DNA replication. In addition, spironolactone inhibits expression of other SM-dependent genes necessary for infectious virion formation. We further demonstrate that molecules structurally related to spironolactone with similar antimineralocorticoid blocking activity do not inhibit EBV production. These findings pave the way for development of antiherpesvirus drugs with new mechanisms of action directed against SM and homologous essential proteins in other herpesviruses. PMID:26976570

  18. Multivalency in the Inhibition of Oxidative Protein Folding by Arsenic(III) Species

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The renewed use of arsenicals as chemotherapeutics has rekindled interest in the biochemistry of As(III) species. In this work, simple bis- and tris-arsenical derivatives were synthesized with the aim of exploiting the chelate effect in the inhibition of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (here, Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase, QSOX, and protein disulfide isomerase, PDI) that utilize two or more CxxC motifs in the catalysis of oxidative protein folding. Coupling 4-aminophenylarsenoxide (APAO) to acid chloride or anhydride derivatives yielded two bis-arsenical prototypes, BA-1 and BA-2, and a tris-arsenical, TA-1. Unlike the monoarsenical, APAO, these new reagents proved to be strong inhibitors of oxidative protein folding in the presence of a realistic intracellular concentration of competing monothiol (here, 5 mM reduced glutathione, GSH). However, this inhibition does not reflect direct inactivation of QSOX or PDI, but avid binding of MVAs to the reduced unfolded protein substrates themselves. Titrations of reduced riboflavin-binding protein with MVAs show that all 18 protein −SH groups can be captured by these arsenicals. With reduced RNase, addition of substoichiometric levels of MVAs is accompanied by the formation of Congo Red- and Thioflavin T-positive fibrillar aggregates. Even with Kd values of ∼50 nM, MVAs are ineffective inhibitors of PDI in the presence of millimolar levels of competing GSH. These results underscore the difficulties of designing effective and specific arsenical inhibitors for folded enzymes and proteins. Some of the cellular effects of arsenicals likely reflect their propensity to associate very tightly and nonspecifically to conformationally mobile cysteine-rich regions of proteins, thereby interfering with folding and/or function. PMID:25506675

  19. Inhibition of transketolase by oxythiamine altered dynamics of protein signals in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiarui; Zhang, Xuemei; Ma, Danjun; Lee, Wai-Nang Paul; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Yingchun; Go, Vay Liang; Wang, Qi; Yen, Yun; Recker, Robert; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2013-01-01

    Oxythiamine (OT), an analogue of anti-metabolite, can suppress the nonoxidative synthesis of ribose and induce cell apoptosis by causing a G1 phase arrest in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear yet. In the present study, a quantitative proteomic analysis using the modified SILAC method (mSILAC) was performed to determine the effect of metabolic inhibition on dynamic changes of protein expression in MIA PaCa-2 cancer cells treated with OT at various doses (0 μM, 5 μM, 50 μM and 500 μM) and time points (0 h, 12 h and 48 h). A total of 52 differential proteins in MIA PaCa-2 cells treated with OT were identified, including 14 phosphorylated proteins. Based on the dynamic expression pattern, these proteins were categorized in three clusters, straight down-regulation (cluster 1, 37% of total proteins), upright "V" shape expression pattern (cluster 2, 47.8% total), and downright "V" shape pattern (cluster 3, 15.2% total). Among them, Annexin A1 expression was significantly down-regulated by OT treatment in time-dependent manner, while no change of this protein was observed in OT dose-dependent fashion. Pathway analysis suggested that inhibition of transketolase resulted in changes of multiple cellular signaling pathways associated with cell apoptosis. The temporal expression patterns of proteins revealed that OT altered dynamics of protein expression in time-dependent fashion by suppressing phosphor kinase expression, resulting in cancer cell apoptosis. Results from this study suggest that interference of single metabolic enzyme activity altered multiple cellular signaling pathways. PMID:23890079

  20. Pranlukast inhibits renal epithelial cyst progression via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Pathomthongtaweechai, Nutthapoom; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2014-02-01

    Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1 receptor) antagonists were found to inhibit chloride secretion in human airway epithelial cells. Since chloride secretion in renal epithelial cells, which shares common mechanisms with airway epithelial cells, plays important roles in renal cyst progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), this study was aimed to investigate effects of drugs acting as CysLT1 receptor antagonists on renal cyst progression and its underlying mechanisms. Effects of CysLT1 receptor antagonists on renal cyst growth and formation were determined using Madine Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst models. Mechanisms of actions of CysLT1 receptor antagonists were determined using short-circuit current measurement, assays of cell viability and cell proliferation, and immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins. Of the three drugs acting as CysLT1 receptor antagonists (montelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast) tested, pranlukast was the most promising drug that inhibited MDCK cyst growth and formation without affecting cell viability. Its effect was independent of the inhibition of CysLT1 receptors. Instead, it reduced cAMP-activated chloride secretion and proliferation of MDCK cells in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner and had no effect on CFTR protein expression. Interestingly, pranlukast enhanced AMPK activation via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta (CaMKKβ) with consequent activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These results indicate that pranlukast retards renal epithelial cyst progression by inhibiting cAMP-activated chloride secretion and cell proliferation via CaMKKβ-AMPK-mTOR pathway. Therefore, pranlukast represents a class of known drugs that may have potential utility in PKD treatment. PMID:24360935

  1. Structural Basis of the Inhibition of STAT1 Activity by Sendai Virus C Protein

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Kosuke; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Irie, Takashi; Kawabata, Ryoko; Fukushi, Masaya; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sendai virus (SeV) C protein inhibits the signal transduction pathways of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) and IFN-γ by binding to the N-terminal domain of STAT1 (STAT1ND), thereby allowing SeV to escape from host innate immunity. Here we determined the crystal structure of STAT1ND associated with the C-terminal half of the C protein (Y3 [amino acids 99 to 204]) at a resolution of 2.0 Å. This showed that two molecules of Y3 symmetrically bind to each niche created between two molecules of the STAT1ND dimer. Molecular modeling suggested that an antiparallel form of the full-length STAT1 dimer can bind only one Y3 molecule and that a parallel form can bind two Y3 molecules. Affinity analysis demonstrated anticooperative binding of two Y3 molecules with the STAT1 dimer, which is consistent with the hypothetical model that the second Y3 molecule can only target the STAT1 dimer in a parallel form. STAT1 with excess amounts of Y3 was prone to inhibit the dephosphorylation at Tyr701 by a phosphatase. In an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 (pY-STAT1) with Y3 associated with the γ-activated sequence, probably as high-molecular-weight complexes (HMWCs), which may account for partial inhibition of a reporter assay from IFN-γ by Y3. Our study suggests that the full-length C protein interferes with the domain arrangement of the STAT1 dimer, leading to the accumulation of pY-STAT1 and the formation of HMWCs. In addition, we discuss the mechanism by which phosphorylation of STAT2 is inhibited in the presence of the C protein after stimulation by IFN-α/β. IMPORTANCE Sendai virus, a paramyxovirus that causes respiratory diseases in rodents, possesses the C protein, which inhibits the signal transduction pathways of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) and IFN-γ by binding to the transcription factor STAT1. In virus-infected cells, phosphorylation of STAT1 at the Tyr701 residue is potently enhanced, although transcription by STAT1 is

  2. Inhibition of protein carbonyl formation and lipid peroxidation by glutathione in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Palamanda, J R; Kehrer, J P

    1992-02-14

    The peroxidation of rat liver microsomal lipids is stimulated in the presence of iron by the addition of NADPH or ascorbate and is inhibited by the addition of glutathione (GSH). The fate of GSH and the oxidative modification of proteins under these conditions have not been well studied. Rat liver microsomes were incubated at 37 degrees C under 95% O2:5% CO2 in the presence of 10 microM ferric chloride, 400 microM ADP, and either 450 microM ascorbic acid or 400 microM NADPH. Lipid peroxidation was assessed in the presence 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, or 5 mM GSH by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and oxidative modification of proteins by measuring protein thiol and carbonyl groups. GSH inhibited TBARS and protein carbonyl group formation in both ascorbate and NADPH systems in a dose-dependent manner. Heat denaturing of microsomes or treatment with trypsin resulted in the loss of this protection. The formation of protein carbonyl groups could be duplicated by incubating microsomes with 4-hydroxynonenal. Ascorbate-dependent peroxidation caused a loss of protein thiol groups which was diminished by GSH only in fresh microsomes. Both boiling and trypsin treatment significantly decreased the basal protein thiol content of microsomes and enhanced ascorbate-stimulated lipid peroxidation. Protection against protein carbonyl group formation by GSH correlated with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and appeared not to be due to the formation of the GSH conjugate of 4-hydroxynonenal as only trace amounts of this conjugate were detected. Ninety percent of the GSH lost after 60 min of peroxidation was recoverable as borohydride reducible material in the supernatant fraction. The remaining 10% could be accounted for as GSH-bound protein mixed disulfides. However, only 75% of the GSH lost during peroxidation appeared as glutathione disulfide, suggesting that some was converted to other soluble borohydride reducible forms. These data support a role for protein thiol

  3. An exogenous hydrogen sulphide donor, NaHS, inhibits the apoptosis signaling pathway to exert cardio-protective effects in a rat hemorrhagic shock model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjie; Dai, Xiongwei; Zhu, Danxia; Xu, Xiaoli; Gao, Cao; Wu, Changping

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to be interwined in multiple systems, specifically in the cardiovascular system. However, the mechanisms underlying remain controversial. In the present study, we assessed the cardio-protective effects of H2S in the rat hemorrhagic shock model. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by drawing blood from the femoral artery to maintain the mean arterial pressure at 35-40 mmHg for 1.5 h. The rats were assigned to four groups and the H2S donor, NaHS (28 μmol/kg, i.p.), was injected before the resuscitation in certain groups. After resuscitation the animals were observed and then killed to harvest the hearts. The morphological investigation and ultrastructural analyses were done and apoptotic cells were detected. The levels of relevant proteins were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock induced heart injury and significantly increased the levels of serum myocardial enzymes, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Furthermore, it caused marked increase of apoptotic cells in heart tissue. Moreover, the expression of death receptor Fas and Fas-ligand, as well as the expression of apoptosis-relevant proteins active-caspase 3 and active-caspase 8 were markedly increased. Administration of NaHS significantly ameliorated hemorrhagic shock caused hemodynamic deterioration, decreased myocardial enzymes elevation, protected myocardial ultrastructure, and inhibited the expression of apoptosis-relevant proteins. It suggested that H2S might exert its cardio-protective roles via both the extrinsic Fas/FasL/caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway and the intrinsic mitochondria-involved pathways. PMID:26261501

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide in Spinacia oleracea Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a potential gaseous messenger molecule, has been suggested to play important roles in a wide range of physiological processes in plants. The aim of present study was to investigate which set of proteins is involved in H2S-regulated metabolism or signaling pathways. Spinacia oleracea seedlings were treated with 100 µM NaHS, a donor of H2S. Changes in protein expression profiles were analyzed by 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. Over 1000 protein spots were reproducibly resolved, of which the abundance of 92 spots was changed by at least 2-fold (sixty-five were up-regulated, whereas 27 were down-regulated). These proteins were functionally divided into 9 groups, including energy production and photosynthesis, cell rescue, development and cell defense, substance metabolism, protein synthesis and folding, cellular signal transduction. Further, we found that these proteins were mainly localized in cell wall, plasma membrane, chloroplast, mitochondria, nucleus, peroxisome and cytosol. Our results demonstrate that H2S is involved in various cellular and physiological activities and has a distinct influence on photosynthesis, cell defense and cellular signal transduction in S. oleracea leaves. These findings provide new insights into proteomic responses in plants under physiological levels of H2S. PMID:25181351

  5. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C is phosphorylated and inhibited by 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Zhao, Z; Filloux, C; Fischer, E H; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C (PTP2C, also named SHPTP2, SHPTP3, or PTP1D) is a cytosolic enzyme with two Src homology 2 domains. We have investigated its regulation by phosphorylation in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. In untreated cells, PTP2C was phosphorylated predominantly on serine residues. A 5-min treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced an increase in phosphorylation on threonine and, to a lesser degree, on serine. After 45 min of exposure to EGF, PTP2C phosphorylation returned to basal levels. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we found that the 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase, p44mapk, phosphorylated PTP2C on serine and threonine residues. This phosphorylation resulted in a pronounced inhibition of PTP2C enzyme activity measured with phosphorylated EGF receptors as substrate. Moreover, in intact PC12 cells, PTP2C was also inhibited following a short EGF treatment, but its activity returned to normal when the exposure to EGF was maintained for 45 min. The profile of this response to EGF can be inversely correlated to that of the stimulatory action of EGF on p44mapk. These data suggest that the EGF-induced regulation of PTP2C activity is mediated by p44mapk. These findings provide evidence for an additional role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade--namely, the regulation of a PTP. Images PMID:8197172

  6. Inhibition of Setaria cervi protein tyrosine phosphatases by Phenylarsine oxide: A proteomic and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Wadhawan, Mohit; Tiwari, Savitri; Kumar, Ranjeet; Rathaur, Sushma

    2016-07-01

    Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor significantly decreased the motility and viability of Setaria cervi ultimately leading to its death. The PTP activity present in the cytosolic and detergent soluble fractions as well as on surface of these parasites was significantly inhibited by PAO. A marked alteration in protein spots abundance after proteomic analysis showed 14 down-regulated and 9 upregulated spots in the treated parasites as compared to the control. The PTP inhibition led to increase in the cytosolic and mitochondrial calpain activity in these parasites. PAO also blocked the ATP generation in the parasite depicted by reduced activity of phosphoglycerate kinase and expression of enolase. An increased ROS level, induced lipid peroxidation/protein carbonyl formation and decreased activity of different antioxidant enzymes like thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione transferases was also observed in the PAO treated parasites. PAO, thus disturbs the overall homeostasis of the filarial parasite by inhibiting PTPs. Thereby suggesting that these molecules could be used as a good chemotherapeutic target for lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26965172

  7. Inhibition of protein synthesis by the T cell receptor-inducible human TDAG51 gene product.

    PubMed

    Hinz, T; Flindt, S; Marx, A; Janssen, O; Kabelitz, D

    2001-05-01

    The T cell death associated gene 51 (TDAG51) was shown to be required for T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent induction of Fas/Apo1/CD95 expression in a murine T cell hybridoma. Despite the absence of a nuclear localization sequence and a nucleic acid binding domain, it was suggested to be localized in the nucleus and to function as a transcription factor regulating Fas-expression. However, we demonstrate that the human (h)TDAG51 protein is localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleoli, suggesting a role in ribosome biogenesis and/or translation regulation. Indeed, it strongly inhibited translation of a luciferase mRNA in a reticulocyte translational extract. Furthermore, cotransfection of hTDAG51 and the luciferase gene into 293T cells resulted in a strong inhibition of luciferase mRNA translation. Our findings were further strengthened by isolating in a yeast two-hybrid screen three proteins which are involved in the regulation of translation. We speculate that hTDAG51 couples TCR signaling to inhibition of protein biosynthesis in activated T lymphocytes. PMID:11369516

  8. A novel role of cytosolic protein synthesis inhibition in aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Francis, Shimon P; Katz, Joshua; Fanning, Kathryn D; Harris, Kimberly A; Nicholas, Brian D; Lacy, Michael; Pagana, James; Agris, Paul F; Shin, Jung-Bum

    2013-02-13

    Ototoxicity is a main dose-limiting factor in the clinical application of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Despite longstanding research efforts, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying aminoglycoside ototoxicity remains limited. Here we report the discovery of a novel stress pathway that contributes to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell degeneration. Modifying the previously developed bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging method, we used click chemistry to study the role of protein synthesis activity in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell stress. We demonstrate that aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis in hair cells and activate a signaling pathway similar to ribotoxic stress response, contributing to hair cell degeneration. The ability of a particular aminoglycoside to inhibit protein synthesis and to activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway correlated well with its ototoxic potential. Finally, we report that a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug known to inhibit ribotoxic stress response also prevents JNK activation and improves hair cell survival, opening up novel strategies to prevent and treat aminoglycoside ototoxicity. PMID:23407963

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE9 protein has high activity binding peptides which inhibit target cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Diana P; Ocampo, Marisol; Pabón, Laura; Herrera, Chonny; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Munoz, Marina; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    PE/PPE proteins are involved in several processes during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection of target cells; studying them is extremely interesting as they are the only ones from the Mycobacterium genus, they abound in pathogenic species such as Mtb and their function remains yet unknown. The PE9 protein (Rv1088) was characterised, the rv1088 gene was identified by PCR in Mtb complex strains and its expression and localisation on mycobacterial surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy. Bioinformatics tools were used for predicting PE9 protein structural aspects and experimental study involved the circular dichroism of synthetic peptides. The peptides were tested in binding assays involving U937 and A549 cells; two high activity binding peptides (HABPs) were found for both cell lines (39226-(1)MSYMIATPAALTAAATDIDGI(21) and 39232-(125)YQRHFGTGGQPEFRQHSEHRR(144)), one for U937 (39231-(104)YAGAGRRQRRRRSGDGQWRLRQ(124)) and one for A549 (39230-(83)YGTGVFRRRRGRQTVTAAEHRA(103)). HABP 39232 inhibited mycobacterial entry to A549 cells (∼70%) and U937 cells (∼50%), peptides 39226 and 39231 inhibited entry to U937 cells (∼60% and 80%, respectively) and peptide 39230 inhibited entry to A549 cells (∼60%). This emphasised HABPs' functional importance in recognition between Mtb H37Rv and target cell receptors. These peptide sequences could be involved in invasion and were recognised by the host's immune system, thereby highlighting their use when designing an efficient anti-tuberculosis multiantigenic vaccine. PMID:26851205

  10. A small molecule directly inhibits the p53 transactivation domain from binding to replication protein A

    PubMed Central

    Glanzer, Jason G.; Carnes, Katie A.; Soto, Patricia; Liu, Shengqin; Parkhurst, Lawrence J.; Oakley, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), essential for DNA replication, repair and DNA damage signalling, possesses six ssDNA-binding domains (DBDs), including DBD-F on the N-terminus of the largest subunit, RPA70. This domain functions as a binding site for p53 and other DNA damage and repair proteins that contain amphipathic alpha helical domains. Here, we demonstrate direct binding of both ssDNA and the transactivation domain 2 of p53 (p53TAD2) to DBD-F, as well as DBD-F-directed dsDNA strand separation by RPA, all of which are inhibited by fumaropimaric acid (FPA). FPA binds directly to RPA, resulting in a conformational shift as determined through quenching of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence in full length RPA. Structural analogues of FPA provide insight on chemical properties that are required for inhibition. Finally, we confirm the inability of RPA possessing R41E and R43E mutations to bind to p53, destabilize dsDNA and quench tryptophan fluorescence by FPA, suggesting that protein binding, DNA modulation and inhibitor binding all occur within the same site on DBD-F. The disruption of p53–RPA interactions by FPA may disturb the regulatory functions of p53 and RPA, thereby inhibiting cellular pathways that control the cell cycle and maintain the integrity of the human genome. PMID:23267009

  11. Is Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Responsible for the Toxic Effects of Okadaic Acid in Animals?

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Rex

    2013-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Dinophysis, are responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans. In laboratory animals, these toxins cause epithelial damage and fluid accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, and at high doses, they cause death. These substances have also been shown to be tumour promoters, and when injected into the brains of rodents, OA induces neuronal damage reminiscent of that seen in Alzheimer’s disease. OA and certain of its derivatives are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, which play many roles in cellular metabolism. In 1990, it was suggested that inhibition of these enzymes was responsible for the diarrhetic effect of these toxins. It is now repeatedly stated in the literature that protein phosphatase inhibition is not only responsible for the intestinal effects of OA and derivatives, but also for their acute toxic effects, their tumour promoting activity and their neuronal toxicity. In the present review, the evidence for the involvement of protein phosphatase inhibition in the induction of the toxic effects of OA and its derivatives is examined, with the conclusion that the mechanism of toxicity of these substances requires re-evaluation. PMID:23381142

  12. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum, and their relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). Inhibiting by PGIPs directly reduces potential PG activity in specific plant pathogenic fungi, reducing their aggressiveness. Here, we isolated and functionally chara...

  13. IP-FCM Measures Physiologic Protein-Protein Interactions Modulated by Signal Transduction and Small-Molecule Drug Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen E. P.; Bida, Anya T.; Davis, Tessa R.; Sicotte, Hugues; Patterson, Steven E.; Gil, Diana; Schrum, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) mediate the formation of intermolecular networks that control biological signaling. For this reason, PPIs are of outstanding interest in pharmacology, as they display high specificity and may represent a vast pool of potentially druggable targets. However, the study of physiologic PPIs can be limited by conventional assays that often have large sample requirements and relatively low sensitivity. Here, we build on a novel method, immunoprecipitation detected by flow cytometry (IP-FCM), to assess PPI modulation during either signal transduction or pharmacologic inhibition by two different classes of small-molecule compounds. First, we showed that IP-FCM can detect statistically significant differences in samples possessing a defined PPI change as low as 10%. This sensitivity allowed IP-FCM to detect a PPI that increases transiently during T cell signaling, the antigen-inducible interaction between ZAP70 and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex. In contrast, IP-FCM detected no ZAP70 recruitment when T cells were stimulated with antigen in the presence of the src-family kinase inhibitor, PP2. Further, we tested whether IP-FCM possessed sufficient sensitivity to detect the effect of a second, rare class of compounds called SMIPPI (small-molecule inhibitor of PPI). We found that the first-generation non-optimized SMIPPI, Ro-26-4550, inhibited the IL-2:CD25 interaction detected by IP-FCM. This inhibition was detectable using either a recombinant CD25-Fc chimera or physiologic full-length CD25 captured from T cell lysates. Thus, we demonstrate that IP-FCM is a sensitive tool for measuring physiologic PPIs that are modulated by signal transduction and pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:23029201

  14. Anti-dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 antibodies recognize protein disulfide isomerase on platelets and inhibit platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsien-Jen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Wan, Shu-Wen; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2009-12-01

    Hemorrhagic syndrome is a hallmark of severe dengue diseases. We previously suggested a mechanism of molecular mimicry in which antibodies against dengue virus (DV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) cross-react with platelets. In the present study, we demonstrate that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on the platelet surface is recognized by anti-DV NS1 antibodies. Anti-DV NS1 obtained from hyperimmunized mouse sera inhibited PDI activity and platelet aggregation, and both inhibitory effects were prevented when anti-DV NS1 antibodies were preabsorbed with PDI. Anti-PDI antibodies bound to a peptide consisting of amino acid residues 311-330 (P311-330) of NS1. This peptide was a predicted epitope analyzed by homologous sequence alignments between DV NS1 and PDI. The platelet binding activities of anti-PDI and anti-DV NS1 antibodies were both reduced by P311-330 preabsorption. Similar to the findings using anti-DV NS1, antibodies against P311-330 bound to PDI and platelets, followed by inhibition of PDI activity and platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the cross-reactivity of dengue hemorrhagic fever patient sera with platelets was reduced when patient sera were preabsorbed with PDI or P311-330. Dengue hemorrhagic fever patient sera also inhibited platelet aggregation, while PDI or P311-330 reduced this inhibitory effect. In conclusion, anti-DV NS1 antibodies cross-react with PDI on platelet surface causing inhibition of platelet aggregation, which may provide implications in dengue disease pathogenesis. PMID:19822367

  15. Anandamide Protects HT22 Cells Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide by Inhibiting CB1 Receptor-Mediated Type 2 NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ji; Wu, Mingchun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiajing; Zhai, Qian; Jiang, Tao; Xiong, Lize

    2014-01-01

    Background. Endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) protects neurons from oxidative injury in rodent models; however the mechanism of AEA-induced neuroprotection remains to be determined. Activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) contributes to oxidative damage of the brain, and inhibition of Nox2 can attenuate cerebral oxidative stress. We aimed to determine whether the neuronal Nox2 was involved in protection mediated by AEA. Methods. The mouse hippocampal neuron cell line HT22 was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to mimic oxidative injury of neurons. The protective effect of AEA was assessed by measuring cell metabolic activity, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant and oxidant levels and Nox2 expression. Results. HT22 cells exposed to H2O2 demonstrated morphological changes, decreased LDH release, reduced metabolic activity, increased levels of intracellular ROS and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased expression of Nox2. AEA prevented these effects, a property abolished by simultaneous administration of CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB1-siRNA. Conclusion. Nox2 inhibition is involved in AEA-induced cytoprotection against oxidative stress through CB1 activation in HT22 cells. PMID:25136404

  16. Inhibition of Astrocytic Glutamine Synthetase by Lead is Associated with a Slowed Clearance of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Glutathione System

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen R.; Lee, Alan; Bishop, Glenda M.; Czerwinska, Hania; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Lead intoxication in humans is characterized by cognitive impairments, particularly in the domain of memory, where evidence indicates that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be impacted. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that lead decreases the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes, yet the basis of this effect is uncertain. To investigate the mechanism responsible, the present study exposed primary astrocyte cultures to a range of concentrations of lead acetate (0–330 μM) for up to 24 h. GS activity was significantly reduced in cells following 24 h incubation with 100 or 330 μM lead acetate. However, no reduction in GS activity was detected when astrocytic lysates were co-incubated with lead acetate, suggesting that the mechanism is not due to a direct interaction and involves intact cells. Since GS is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the capacity of lead to inhibit the clearance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. It was found that exposure to lead significantly diminished the capacity of astrocytes to degrade H2O2, and that this was due to a reduction in the effectiveness of the glutathione system, rather than to catalase. These results suggest that the inhibition of GS activity in lead poisoning is a consequence of slowed H2O2 clearance, and supports the glutathione pathway as a primary therapeutic target. PMID:26696846

  17. Novel phenanthridine (PHE-4i) derivative inhibits carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema through suppression of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    George, Leema; Ramasamy, Tamizhselvi; Manickam, Venkatraman; Iyer, Sathiyanarayanan Kulathu; Radhakrishnan, Vidya

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel synthesized phenanthridine alkaloid (PHE-4i) and to examine the possible involvement of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in anti-inflammatory mechanism. The synthesized phenanthridine derivative PHE-4i (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to rats. One hour following treatment, inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (1 %), in the hind paw. Paw volume as the index of inflammation was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Neutrophil sequestration into the hind paw was quantified by measuring tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and was compared for the inhibition of H2S production. Pretreatment with PHE-4i significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw weight, MPO activity, leukocyte infiltration, and H2S production in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of PHE-4i on carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema could be via the inhibition of the gaseous mediator H2S. PMID:27380491

  18. Effects of protein sources on concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in the rumen headspace gas of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A J M; Cabrita, A R J; Pinho, L A O; Kim, E J; Dewhurst, R J

    2013-01-01

    Two Latin square design experiments investigated the relationship between hydrogen sulphide concentration in the rumen headspace gas of dairy cows and the early stages of protein degradation in the rumen. In Expt 1, three protein sources differing in rumen N (nitrogen) degradability (maize gluten feed (MGF); sunflower meal (SFM); and soyabean meal (SBM)) were used, whereas in Expt 2 four different batches of the same feed (MGF) differing in colour (CIE L*, a*, b* (CIELAB) scale) were used. After allowing the concentration of hydrogen sulphide in rumen gas to decline close to zero, a fixed amount of protein sources was offered to cows and the concentrations of hydrogen sulphide were recorded in rumen headspace gas at 30-min intervals. In Expt 1, the concentration of hydrogen sulphide showed considerable variation between protein sources, with MGF having the highest concentration followed by SFM and SBM resulting in very low concentrations. The N wash losses (zero time measurements with nylon bags) ranked the feeds in the same way, from MGF (highest; 61%) to SBM (lowest; 26%). There were marked differences in the degradation of cystine and methionine between protein sources, although the degradation of cystine was always higher than for methionine. MGF (Expt 2) led to increased concentrations of hydrogen sulphide, with peak concentrations achieved between 1 and 2 h after feeding. The concentrations of hydrogen sulphide were higher for MGF1, intermediate for MGF2 and lower for MGF3 and MGF4, agreeing with colour scale. Differences in the early stages of dietary sulphur degradation corresponded with differences in hydrogen sulphide concentrations in rumen gas. The results suggest that hydrogen sulphide concentrations in the rumen headspace gas could be useful to evaluate nutritional parameters not measured by the in sacco technique, contributing to a better understanding of the response of dairy cows to different protein supplements. PMID:23031538

  19. Zinc finger protein 131 inhibits estrogen signaling by suppressing estrogen receptor {alpha} homo-dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Yohan; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding affinity of ZNF131 to ER{alpha} increases upon E2 stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-dimerization and E2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor. -- Abstract: Steroid hormone estrogen elicits various physiological functions, many of which are mediated through two structurally and functionally distinct estrogen receptors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. The functional role of zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly understood, but it is assumed to possess transcriptional regulation activity due to the presence of a DNA binding motif. A few recent reports, including ours, revealed that ZNF131 acts as a negative regulator of ER{alpha} and that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling. However, its molecular mechanism for ER{alpha} inhibition has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}, which consequently inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Moreover, we show that the C-terminal region of ZNF131 containing the SUMOylation site is necessary for its inhibition of estrogen signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor.

  20. Mercuric ions inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation by inducing reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Hajo; Engelhardt, Gabriela; Hebel, Silke; Rink, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    Mercury intoxication profoundly affects the immune system, in particular, signal transduction of immune cells. However, the mechanism of the interaction of mercury with cellular signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), remains elusive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate three potential ways in which Hg{sup 2+} ions could inhibit MAPK dephosphorylation in the human T-cell line Jurkat: (1) by direct binding to phosphatases; (2) by releasing cellular zinc (Zn{sup 2+}); and (3) by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hg{sup 2+} causes production of ROS, measured by dihydrorhodamine 123, and triggers ROS-mediated Zn{sup 2+} release, detected with FluoZin-3. Yet, phosphatase-inhibition is not mediated by binding of Zn{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. Rather, phosphatases are inactivated by at least two forms of thiol oxidation; initial inhibition is reversible with reducing agents such as Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. Prolonged inhibition leads to non-reversible phosphatase oxidation, presumably oxidizing the cysteine thiol to sulfinic- or sulfonic acid. Notably, phosphatases are a particularly sensitive target for Hg{sup 2+}-induced oxidation, because phosphatase activity is inhibited at concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} that have only minor impact on over all thiol oxidation. This phosphatase inhibition results in augmented, ROS-dependent MAPK phosphorylation. MAPK are important regulators of T-cell function, and MAPK-activation by inhibition of phosphatases seems to be one of the molecular mechanisms by which mercury affects the immune system.

  1. A pro-chelator triggered by hydrogen peroxide inhibits iron-promoted hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed

    Charkoudian, Louise K; Pham, David M; Franz, Katherine J

    2006-09-27

    The synthesis and structural characterization of a new pro-chelating agent, isonicotinic acid [2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-benzylidene]-hydrazide (BSIH), are presented. BSIH only weakly interacts with iron unless hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present to remove the boronic ester protecting group to reveal a phenol that is a key metal-binding group of tridentate salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH). BSIH prevents deoxyribose degradation caused by hydroxyl radicals that are generated from H2O2 and redox-active iron by sequestering Fe3+ and preventing iron-promoted hydroxyl radical formation. The rate-determining step for iron sequestration is conversion of BSIH to SIH, followed by rapid Fe3+ complexation. The pro-chelate approach of BSIH represents a promising strategy for chelating a specific pool of detrimental metal ions without disturbing healthy metal ion distribution. PMID:16984186

  2. Complex I and complex III inhibition specifically increase cytosolic hydrogen peroxide levels without inducing oxidative stress in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Forkink, Marleen; Basit, Farhan; Teixeira, José; Swarts, Herman G.; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Willems, Peter H.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor studies with isolated mitochondria demonstrated that complex I (CI) and III (CIII) of the electron transport chain (ETC) can act as relevant sources of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we studied ROS generation and oxidative stress induction during chronic (24 h) inhibition of CI and CIII using rotenone (ROT) and antimycin A (AA), respectively, in intact HEK293 cells. Both inhibitors stimulated oxidation of the ROS sensor hydroethidine (HEt) and increased mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels without major effects on cell viability. Integrated analysis of cells stably expressing cytosolic- or mitochondria-targeted variants of the reporter molecules HyPer (H2O2-sensitive and pH-sensitive) and SypHer (H2O2-insensitive and pH-sensitive), revealed that CI- and CIII inhibition increased cytosolic but not mitochondrial H2O2 levels. Total and mitochondria-specific lipid peroxidation was not increased in the inhibited cells as reported by the C11-BODIPY581/591 and MitoPerOx biosensors. Also expression of the superoxide-detoxifying enzymes CuZnSOD (cytosolic) and MnSOD (mitochondrial) was not affected. Oxyblot analysis revealed that protein carbonylation was not stimulated by CI and CIII inhibition. Our findings suggest that chronic inhibition of CI and CIII: (i) increases the levels of HEt-oxidizing ROS and (ii) specifically elevates cytosolic but not mitochondrial H2O2 levels, (iii) does not induce oxidative stress or substantial cell death. We conclude that the increased ROS levels are below the stress-inducing level and might play a role in redox signaling. PMID:26516986

  3. Polymer-drug conjugates for intracellar molecule-targeted photoinduced inactivation of protein and growth inhibition of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Yuan, Huanxiang; Zhu, Chunlei; Yang, Qiong; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2012-10-01

    For most molecule-targeted anticancer systems, intracellular protein targets are very difficult to be accessed by antibodies, and also most efforts are made to inhibit protein activity temporarily rather than inactivate them permanently. In this work we firstly designed and synthesized multifunctional polymer-drug conjugates (polythiophene-tamoxifen) for intracellular molecule-targeted binding and inactivation of protein (estrogen receptor α, ERα) for growth inhibition of MCF-7 cancer cells. Small molecule drug was conjugated to polymer side chain for intracellular signal protein targeting, and simultaneously the fluorescent characteristic of polymer for tracing the cellular uptake and localization of polythiophene-drug conjugates by cell imaging. Under light irradiation, the conjugated polymer can sensitize oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that specifically inactivate the targeted protein, and thus inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The conjugates showed selective growth inhibition of ERα positive cancer cells, which exhibits low side effect for our intracellular molecule-targeted therapy system.

  4. Enhancements to the Rosetta Energy Function Enable Improved Identification of Small Molecules that Inhibit Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Karanicolas, John

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are among today’s most exciting and promising targets for therapeutic intervention. To date, identifying small-molecules that selectively disrupt these interactions has proven particularly challenging for virtual screening tools, since these have typically been optimized to perform well on more “traditional” drug discovery targets. Here, we test the performance of the Rosetta energy function for identifying compounds that inhibit protein interactions, when these active compounds have been hidden amongst pools of “decoys.” Through this virtual screening benchmark, we gauge the effect of two recent enhancements to the functional form of the Rosetta energy function: the new “Talaris” update and the “pwSHO” solvation model. Finally, we conclude by developing and validating a new weight set that maximizes Rosetta’s ability to pick out the active compounds in this test set. Looking collectively over the course of these enhancements, we find a marked improvement in Rosetta’s ability to identify small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:26484863

  5. How to Target Activated Ras Proteins: Direct Inhibition vs. Induced Mislocalization.

    PubMed

    Brock, Ethan J; Ji, Kyungmin; Reiners, John J; Mattingly, Raymond R

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras proteins are a driving force in a significant set of human cancers and wildtype, unmutated Ras proteins likely contribute to the malignant phenotype of many more. The overall challenge of targeting activated Ras proteins has great promise to treat cancer, but this goal has yet to be achieved. Significant efforts and resources have been committed to inhibiting Ras, but these energies have so far made little impact in the clinic. Direct attempts to target activated Ras proteins have faced many obstacles, including the fundamental nature of the gain-of-function oncogenic activity being produced by a loss-of-function at the biochemical level. Nevertheless, there has been very promising recent pre-clinical progress. The major strategy that has so far reached the clinic aimed to inhibit activated Ras indirectly through blocking its post-translational modification and inducing its mislocalization. While these efforts to indirectly target Ras through inhibition of farnesyl transferase (FTase) were rationally designed, this strategy suffered from insufficient attention to the distinctions between the isoforms of Ras. This led to subsequent failures in large-scale clinical trials targeting K-Ras driven lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. Despite these setbacks, efforts to indirectly target activated Ras through inducing its mislocalization have persisted. It is plausible that FTase inhibitors may still have some utility in the clinic, perhaps in combination with statins or other agents. Alternative approaches for inducing mislocalization of Ras through disruption of its palmitoylation cycle or interaction with chaperone proteins are in early stages of development. PMID:26423696

  6. mTOR inhibition activates overall protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system as well as by autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinghui; Zhai, Bo; Gygi, Steven P.; Goldberg, Alfred Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and nutrients enhance protein synthesis and suppress overall protein degradation by activating the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Conversely, nutrient or serum deprivation inhibits mTOR and stimulates protein breakdown by inducing autophagy, which provides the starved cells with amino acids for protein synthesis and energy production. However, it is unclear whether proteolysis by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which catalyzes most protein degradation in mammalian cells, also increases when mTOR activity decreases. Here we show that inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin or Torin1 rapidly increases the degradation of long-lived cell proteins, but not short-lived ones, by stimulating proteolysis by proteasomes, in addition to autophagy. This enhanced proteasomal degradation required protein ubiquitination, and within 30 min after mTOR inhibition, the cellular content of K48-linked ubiquitinated proteins increased without any change in proteasome content or activity. This rapid increase in UPS-mediated proteolysis continued for many hours and resulted primarily from inhibition of mTORC1 (not mTORC2), but did not require new protein synthesis or key mTOR targets: S6Ks, 4E-BPs, or Ulks. These findings do not support the recent report that mTORC1 inhibition reduces proteolysis by suppressing proteasome expression [Zhang Y, et al. (2014) Nature 513(7518):440–443]. Several growth-related proteins were identified that were ubiquitinated and degraded more rapidly after mTOR inhibition, including HMG-CoA synthase, whose enhanced degradation probably limits cholesterol biosynthesis upon insulin deficiency. Thus, mTOR inhibition coordinately activates the UPS and autophagy, which provide essential amino acids and, together with the enhanced ubiquitination of anabolic proteins, help slow growth. PMID:26669439

  7. Hybrid Fluorinated and Hydrogenated Double-Chain Surfactants for Handling Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fréderic; Breyton, Cécile; Guillet, Pierre; Ebel, Christine; Durand, Grégory

    2016-01-15

    Two hybrid fluorinated double-chain surfactants with a diglucosylated polar head were synthesized. The apolar domain consists of a perfluorohexyl main chain and a butyl hydrogenated branch as a side chain. They were found to self-assemble into small micelles at low critical micellar concentrations, demonstrating that the short branch increases the overall hydrophobicity while keeping the length of the apolar domain short. They were both able to keep the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin stable, one of them for at least 3 months. PMID:26694765

  8. Deciphering the protein translation inhibition and coping mechanism of trichothecene toxin in resistant fungi.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Indu; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-09-01

    In modern times for combating the deleterious soil microbes for improved sustainable agricultural practices, there is a need to have a proper understanding of the plant-microbe interactions present in the rhizospheric microbiome of the plant roots. In the present study, the interactions of trichodermin with petidyltransferase centre of ribosomal complex was studied by molecular dynamics and in silico interaction methods to demonstrate its mechanism of action and to decipher the possible reason how it may inhibit protein synthesis at the ribosomal complex. Further we have illustrated how trichodermin resistance protein (60S ribosomal protein L3) helps to overcome the deleterious effects of trichothecene compounds like trichodermin. Normal mode analysis of trichodermin resistance protein and 25S rRNA that constitutes the petidyltransferase centre showed that the W-finger region of the protein moved towards 25S rRNA. Further analysis of molecular dynamics simulation time frames showed that several intermediate states of large motions of the protein molecules towards the 25S rRNA which finally blocks the binding pocket of the trichodermin. It indicated that this protein not only changes the local environment and conformation of the petidyltransferase centre but also restrain trichodermin from binding to the 25S rRNA at the petidyltransferase centre. PMID:27495375

  9. Bifunctional Ligands for Inhibition of Tight-Binding Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Taavi; Enkvist, Erki; Viira, Birgit; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu; Raidaru, Gerda; Pflug, Alexander; Alam, Kazi Asraful; Zaccolo, Manuela; Engh, Richard Alan; Uri, Asko

    2016-08-17

    The acknowledged potential of small-molecule therapeutics targeting disease-related protein-protein interactions (PPIs) has promoted active research in this field. The strategy of using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) to fight strong (tight-binding) PPIs tends to fall short due to the flat and wide interfaces of PPIs. Here we propose a biligand approach for disruption of strong PPIs. The potential of this approach was realized for disruption of the tight-binding (KD = 100 pM) tetrameric holoenzyme of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Supported by X-ray analysis of cocrystals, bifunctional inhibitors (ARC-inhibitors) were constructed that simultaneously associated with both the ATP-pocket and the PPI interface area of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc). Bifunctional inhibitor ARC-1411, possessing a KD value of 3 pM toward PKAc, induced the dissociation of the PKA holoenzyme with a low-nanomolar IC50, whereas the ATP-competitive inhibitor H89 bound to the PKA holoenzyme without disruption of the protein tetramer. PMID:27389935

  10. Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibition (2P2I)-Oriented Chemical Library Accelerates Hit Discovery.

    PubMed

    Milhas, Sabine; Raux, Brigitt; Betzi, Stéphane; Derviaux, Carine; Roche, Philippe; Restouin, Audrey; Basse, Marie-Jeanne; Rebuffet, Etienne; Lugari, Adrien; Badol, Marion; Kashyap, Rudra; Lissitzky, Jean-Claude; Eydoux, Cécilia; Hamon, Véronique; Gourdel, Marie-Edith; Combes, Sébastien; Zimmermann, Pascale; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Roux, Thomas; Rogers, Catherine; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan; Trinquet, Eric; Collette, Yves; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Morelli, Xavier

    2016-08-19

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represent an enormous source of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. We and others have recently pinpointed key rules that will help in identifying the next generation of innovative drugs to tackle this challenging class of targets within the next decade. We used these rules to design an oriented chemical library corresponding to a set of diverse "PPI-like" modulators with cores identified as privileged structures in therapeutics. In this work, we purchased the resulting 1664 structurally diverse compounds and evaluated them on a series of representative protein-protein interfaces with distinct "druggability" potential using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) technology. For certain PPI classes, analysis of the hit rates revealed up to 100 enrichment factors compared with nonoriented chemical libraries. This observation correlates with the predicted "druggability" of the targets. A specific focus on selectivity profiles, the three-dimensional (3D) molecular modes of action resolved by X-ray crystallography, and the biological activities of identified hits targeting the well-defined "druggable" bromodomains of the bromo and extraterminal (BET) family are presented as a proof-of-concept. Overall, our present study illustrates the potency of machine learning-based oriented chemical libraries to accelerate the identification of hits targeting PPIs. A generalization of this method to a larger set of compounds will accelerate the discovery of original and potent probes for this challenging class of targets. PMID:27219844

  11. Crystal Structure of the Human Fatty Acid Synthase Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein-Reductase Domain Complexed with Triclosan Reveals Allosteric Protein-Protein Interface Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Katherine H.; Vyas, Nand K.; Zhang, Wei; Sankaran, Banumathi; Quiocho, Florante A.

    2014-01-01

    Human fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a large, multidomain protein that synthesizes long chain fatty acids. Because these fatty acids are primarily provided by diet, FAS is normally expressed at low levels; however, it is highly up-regulated in many cancers. Human enoyl-acyl carrier protein-reductase (hER) is one of the FAS catalytic domains, and its inhibition by drugs like triclosan (TCL) can increase cytotoxicity and decrease drug resistance in cancer cells. We have determined the structure of hER in the presence and absence of TCL. TCL was not bound in the active site, as predicted, but rather at the protein-protein interface (PPI). TCL binding induces a dimer orientation change that causes downstream structural rearrangement in critical active site residues. Kinetics studies indicate that TCL is capable of inhibiting the isolated hER domain with an IC50 of ∼55 μm. Given the hER-TCL structure and the inhibition observed in the hER domain, it seems likely that TCL is observed in the physiologically relevant binding site and that it acts as an allosteric PPI inhibitor. TCL may be a viable scaffold for the development of anti-cancer PPI FAS inhibitors. PMID:25301948

  12. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt-GSK-3β signaling and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingqing; Fu, Hailong; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Fengying; Zou, Zui; Liu, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Xueyin

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg) did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury. PMID:24058562

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Preconditioning Protects Rat Liver against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Activating Akt-GSK-3β Signaling and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Fengying; Zou, Zui; Liu, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Xueyin

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg) did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury. PMID:24058562

  14. S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins as biomarkers of exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Reyes, Leticia; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidation of cellular nucleophiles, particularly cysteines in proteins. Commercial mouthwashes containing H2O2 provide the opportunity to determine clinically whether changes in S-glutathionylation of susceptible proteins in buccal mucosa cells can be used as biomarkers of ROS exposure. Methods Using an exploratory clinical protocol, 18 disease-free volunteers rinsed with a mouthwash containing 1.5% H2O2 (442 mM) over four consecutive days. Exfoliated buccal cell samples were collected prior and post-treatment and proteomics were used to identify S-glutathionylated proteins. Results Four consecutive daily treatments with the H2O2-containing mouthwash induced significant dose and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins, stable for at least 30 min following treatments. Elevated levels of S-glutathionylation were maintained with subsequent daily exposure. Increased S-glutathionylation preceded and correlated with transcriptional activation of ROS sensitive genes, such as ATF3, and with the presence of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine. Data from a human buccal cell line TR146 were consistent with the trial results. We identified twelve proteins that were S-glutathionylated following H2O2 exposure. Conclusions Buccal cells can predict exposure to ROS through increased levels of S-glutathionylation of proteins. These post-translationally modified proteins serve as biomarkers for the effects of H2O2 in the oral cavity and in the future, may be adaptable as extrapolated pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the impact of other systemic drugs that cause ROS and/or impact redox homeostasis. General significance S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins can be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to ROS. PMID:26673080

  15. Interbacterial signaling via Burkholderia contact-dependent growth inhibition system proteins.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Erin C; Perault, Andrew I; Marlatt, Sara A; Cotter, Peggy A

    2016-07-19

    In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cell-cell communication and recognition of self are critical to coordinate multicellular functions. Although kin and kind discrimination are increasingly appreciated to shape naturally occurring microbe populations, the underlying mechanisms that govern these interbacterial interactions are insufficiently understood. Here, we identify a mechanism of interbacterial signal transduction that is mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) system proteins. CDI systems have been characterized by their ability to deliver a polymorphic protein toxin into the cytoplasm of a neighboring bacterium, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless the recipient bacterium produces a corresponding immunity protein. Using the model organism Burkholderia thailandensis, we show that delivery of a catalytically active CDI system toxin to immune (self) bacteria results in gene expression and phenotypic changes within the recipient cells. Termed contact-dependent signaling (CDS), this response promotes biofilm formation and other community-associated behaviors. Engineered strains that are isogenic with B. thailandensis, except the DNA region encoding the toxin and immunity proteins, did not display CDS, whereas a strain of Burkholderia dolosa producing a nearly identical toxin-immunity pair induced signaling in B. thailandensis Our data indicate that bcpAIOB loci confer dual benefits; they direct antagonism toward non-self bacteria and promote cooperation between self bacteria, with self being defined by the bcpAIOB allele and not by genealogic relatedness. PMID:27335458

  16. RAGE inhibits human respiratory syncytial virus syncytium formation by interfering with F-protein function

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jane; Huang, Kelly; Krishnan, Subramaniam; Svabek, Catherine; Rowe, Daniel C.; Brewah, Yambasu; Sanjuan, Miguel; Patera, Andriani C.; Kolbeck, Roland; Herbst, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection. Infection is critically dependent on the RSV fusion (F) protein, which mediates fusion between the viral envelope and airway epithelial cells. The F protein is also expressed on infected cells and is responsible for fusion of infected cells with adjacent cells, resulting in the formation of multinucleate syncytia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor that is constitutively highly expressed by type I alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we report that RAGE protected HEK cells from RSV-induced cell death and reduced viral titres in vitro. RAGE appeared to interact directly with the F protein, but, rather than inhibiting RSV entry into host cells, virus replication and budding, membrane-expressed RAGE or soluble RAGE blocked F-protein-mediated syncytium formation and sloughing. These data indicate that RAGE may contribute to protecting the lower airways from RSV by inhibiting the formation of syncytia, viral spread, epithelial damage and airway obstruction. PMID:23559480

  17. Three cardiovirus Leader proteins equivalently inhibit four different nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2015-10-15

    Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions. - Highlights: • Nup98, but not Nup50 becomes phosphorylated by cardiovirus Leader protein-dependent mechanisms. • At least four independent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways are inhibited by this process. • Nups must be presented in a nuclear pore context for Leader-directed phosphorylation. • Leader, by itself, does not cause activation of cellular kinases.

  18. Pim-1 preserves mitochondrial morphology by inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1 translocation

    PubMed Central

    Din, Shabana; Mason, Matthew; Völkers, Mirko; Johnson, Bevan; Cottage, Christopher T.; Wang, Zeping; Joyo, Anya Y.; Quijada, Pearl; Erhardt, Peter; Magnuson, Nancy S.; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial morphological dynamics affect the outcome of ischemic heart damage and pathogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has been identified as a mediator of mitochondrial morphological changes and cell death during cardiac ischemic injury. In this study, we report a unique relationship between Pim-1 activity and Drp1 regulation of mitochondrial morphology in cardiomyocytes challenged by ischemic stress. Transgenic hearts overexpressing cardiac Pim-1 display reduction of total Drp1 protein levels, increased phosphorylation of Drp1-S637, and inhibition of Drp1 localization to the mitochondria. Consistent with these findings, adenoviral-induced Pim-1 neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) retain a reticular mitochondrial phenotype after simulated ischemia (sI) and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial sequestration. Interestingly, adenovirus Pim-dominant negative NRCMs show increased expression of Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only protein p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), which has been previously shown to induce Drp1 accumulation at mitochondria and increase sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Overexpression of the p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis–dominant negative adenovirus attenuates localization of Drp1 to mitochondria in adenovirus Pim-dominant negative NRCMs promotes reticular mitochondrial morphology and inhibits cell death during sI. Therefore, Pim-1 activity prevents Drp1 compartmentalization to the mitochondria and preserves reticular mitochondrial morphology in response to sI. PMID:23530233

  19. Normal protein content but abnormally inhibited enzyme activity in muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Zierz, Stephan

    2014-04-15

    The biochemical consequences of the disease causing mutations of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency are still enigmatic. Therefore, CPT II was characterized in muscle biopsies of nine patients with genetically proven muscle CPT II deficiency. Total CPT activity (CPT I+CPT II) of patients was not significantly different from that of controls. Remaining activities upon inhibition by malonyl-CoA and Triton X-100 were significantly reduced in patients. Immunohistochemically CPT II protein was predominantly expressed in type-I-fibers with the same intensity in patients as in controls. Western blot showed the same CPT II staining intensity ratio in patients and controls. CPT I and CPT II protein concentrations estimated by ELISA were not significantly different in patients and in controls. Citrate synthase activity in patients was significantly increased. Total CPT activity significantly correlated with both CPT I and CPT II protein concentrations in patients and controls. This implies (i) that normal total CPT activity in patients with muscle CPT II deficiency is not due to compensatory increase of CPT I activity and that (ii) the mutant CPT II is enzymatically active. The data further support the notion that in muscle CPT II deficiency enzyme activity and protein content are not reduced, but rather abnormally inhibited when fatty acid metabolism is stressed. PMID:24602495

  20. Proteomics Analysis of Nucleolar SUMO-1 Target Proteins upon Proteasome Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Matafora, Vittoria; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Mori, Silvia; Blasi, Francesco; Bachi, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Many cellular processes are regulated by the coordination of several post-translational modifications that allow a very fine modulation of substrates. Recently it has been reported that there is a relationship between sumoylation and ubiquitination. Here we propose that the nucleolus is the key organelle in which SUMO-1 conjugates accumulate in response to proteasome inhibition. We demonstrated that, upon proteasome inhibition, the SUMO-1 nuclear dot localization is redirected to nucleolar structures. To better understand this process we investigated, by quantitative proteomics, the effect of proteasome activity on endogenous nucleolar SUMO-1 targets. 193 potential SUMO-1 substrates were identified, and interestingly in several purified SUMO-1 conjugates ubiquitin chains were found to be present, confirming the coordination of these two modifications. 23 SUMO-1 targets were confirmed by an in vitro sumoylation reaction performed on nuclear substrates. They belong to protein families such as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, ribosomal proteins, histones, RNA-binding proteins, and transcription factor regulators. Among these, histone H1, histone H3, and p160 Myb-binding protein 1A were further characterized as novel SUMO-1 substrates. The analysis of the nature of the SUMO-1 targets identified in this study strongly indicates that sumoylation, acting in coordination with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, regulates the maintenance of nucleolar integrity. PMID:19596686

  1. 15-Deoxyspergualin inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis through eIF2α phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2006-01-01

    DSG (15-deoxyspergualin), an immunosuppressant with tumoricidal properties, binds potently to the regulatory C-terminal ‘EEVD’ motif of Hsps (heat-shock proteins). In the present study we demonstrate that DSG inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis by sequestering Hsp70 which is required for maintaining HRI (haem-regulated inhibitor), a kinase of the eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α), inactive. DSG stalled initiation of protein synthesis through phosphorylation of HRI and eIF2α. Addition of a recombinant eIF2α (S51A) protein, which lacks the phosphorylation site, lowered the inhibitory potential of DSG in reticulocyte lysate. The inhibitory effect of DSG was also attenuated in HRI knockdown cells. Moreover, exogenous addition of Hsp70 or the peptide ‘EEVD’ reversed the inhibitory effect of DSG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of DSG in different mammalian cancer cells was found to negatively correlate with the amount of Hsp70 expressed in the cells, emphasizing the link with Hsp70 in DSG inhibition of eukaryotic translation. PMID:16952278

  2. Induction of cellular prion protein (PrPc) under hypoxia inhibits apoptosis caused by TRAIL treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, You-Jin; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia decreases cytotoxic responses to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) protein. Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is regulated by HIF-1α in neurons. We hypothesized that PrPc is involved in hypoxia-mediated resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We found that hypoxia induced PrPc protein and inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus silencing of PrPc increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis under hypoxia. Overexpression of PrPc protein using an adenoviral vector inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In xenograft model in vivo, shPrPc transfected cells were more sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis than in shMock transfected cells. Molecular chemo-therapy approaches based on the regulation of PrPc expression need to address anti-tumor function of TRAIL under hypoxia. Molecular chemo-therapy approaches based on the regulation of PrPc expression need to address anti-tumor function of TRAIL under hypoxia. PMID:25742790

  3. Inhibition of prefrontal protein synthesis following recall does not disrupt memory for trace fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Sonja; Runyan, Jason D; Dash, Pramod K

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of similarity between consolidation and reconsolidation is not yet fully understood. One of the differences noted is that not every brain region involved in consolidation exhibits reconsolidation. In trace fear conditioning, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are required for consolidation of long-term memory. We have previously demonstrated that trace fear memory is susceptible to infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the hippocampus following recall. In the present study, we examine whether protein synthesis inhibition in the mPFC following recall similarly results in the observation of reconsolidation of trace fear memory. Results Targeted intra-mPFC infusions of anisomycin or vehicle were performed immediately following recall of trace fear memory at 24 hours, or at 30 days, following training in a one-day or a two-day protocol. The present study demonstrates three key findings: 1) trace fear memory does not undergo protein synthesis dependent reconsolidation in the PFC, regardless of the intensity of the training, and 2) regardless of whether the memory is recent or remote, and 3) intra-mPFC inhibition of protein synthesis immediately following training impaired remote (30 days) memory. Conclusion These results suggest that not all structures that participate in memory storage are involved in reconsolidation. Alternatively, certain types of memory-related information may reconsolidate, while other components of memory may not. PMID:17026758

  4. Inhibiting cortical protein kinase A in spinal cord injured rats enhances efficacy of rehabilitative training.

    PubMed

    Wei, David; Hurd, Caitlin; Galleguillos, Danny; Singh, Jyoti; Fenrich, Keith K; Webber, Christine A; Sipione, Simonetta; Fouad, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of the second messenger molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are often associated with neuron sprouting and neurite extension (i.e., neuroplasticity). Phosphokinase A (PKA) is a prominent downstream target of cAMP that has been associated with neurite outgrowth. We hypothesized that rehabilitative motor training following spinal cord injuries promotes neuroplasticity via PKA activation. However, in two independent experiments, inhibition of cortical PKA using Rp-cAMPS throughout rehabilitative training robustly increased functional recovery and collateral sprouting of injured corticospinal tract axons, an indicator of neuroplasticity. Consistent with these in vivo findings, using cultured STHdh neurons, we found that Rp-cAMPS had no effect on the phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein), a prominent downstream target of PKA, even with the concomitant application of the adenylate cyclase agonist forskolin to increase cAMP levels. Conversely, when cAMP levels were increased using the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, Rp-cAMPS potently inhibited CREB phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that an alternate cAMP dependent pathway was involved in increasing CREB phosphorylation and neuroplasticity. This idea was supported by an in vitro neurite outgrowth assay, where inhibiting PKA did enhance neurite outgrowth. However, when PKA inhibition was combined with inhibition of EPAC2 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP), another downstream target of cAMP in neurons, neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced. In conclusion, blocking PKA in cortical neurons of spinal cord injured rats increases neurite outgrowth of the lesioned corticospinal tract fibres and the efficacy of rehabilitative training, likely via EPAC. PMID:27401133

  5. The Ebola Virus VP35 Protein Inhibits Activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Christopher F.; Mikulasova, Andrea; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Paragas, Jason; Mühlberger, Elke; Bray, Mike; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2003-01-01

    The Ebola virus VP35 protein was previously found to act as an interferon (IFN) antagonist which could complement growth of influenza delNS1 virus, a mutant influenza virus lacking the influenza virus IFN antagonist protein, NS1. The Ebola virus VP35 could also prevent the virus- or double-stranded RNA-mediated transcriptional activation of both the beta IFN (IFN-β) promoter and the IFN-stimulated ISG54 promoter (C. Basler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:12289-12294, 2000). We now show that VP35 inhibits virus infection-induced transcriptional activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-responsive mammalian promoters and that VP35 does not block signaling from the IFN-α/β receptor. The ability of VP35 to inhibit this virus-induced transcription correlates with its ability to block activation of IRF-3, a cellular transcription factor of central importance in initiating the host cell IFN response. We demonstrate that VP35 blocks the Sendai virus-induced activation of two promoters which can be directly activated by IRF-3, namely, the ISG54 promoter and the ISG56 promoter. Further, expression of VP35 prevents the IRF-3-dependent activation of the IFN-α4 promoter in response to viral infection. The inhibition of IRF-3 appears to occur through an inhibition of IRF-3 phosphorylation. VP35 blocks virus-induced IRF-3 phosphorylation and subsequent IRF-3 dimerization and nuclear translocation. Consistent with these observations, Ebola virus infection of Vero cells activated neither transcription from the ISG54 promoter nor nuclear accumulation of IRF-3. These data suggest that in Ebola virus-infected cells, VP35 inhibits the induction of antiviral genes, including the IFN-β gene, by blocking IRF-3 activation. PMID:12829834

  6. Peptides of Matrix Gla Protein Inhibit Nucleation and Growth of Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Goiko, Maria; Dierolf, Joshua; Gleberzon, Jared S.; Liao, Yinyin; Grohe, Bernd; Goldberg, Harvey A.; de Bruyn, John R.; Hunter, Graeme K.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a phosphorylated and γ-carboxylated protein that has been shown to prevent the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in the walls of blood vessels. MGP is also expressed in kidney and may inhibit the formation of kidney stones, which mainly consist of another crystalline phase, calcium oxalate monohydrate. To determine the mechanism by which MGP prevents soft-tissue calcification, we have synthesized peptides corresponding to the phosphorylated and γ-carboxylated sequences of human MGP in both post-translationally modified and non-modified forms. The effects of these peptides on hydroxyapatite formation and calcium oxalate crystallization were quantified using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Peptides YGlapS (MGP1-14: YγEpSHEpSMEpSYELNP), YEpS (YEpSHEpSMEpSYELNP), YGlaS (YγESHESMESYELNP) and SK-Gla (MGP43-56: SKPVHγELNRγEACDD) inhibited formation of hydroxyapatite in order of potency YGlapS > YEpS > YGlaS > SK-Gla. The effects of YGlapS, YEpS and YGlaS on hydroxyapatite formation were on both crystal nucleation and growth; the effect of SK-Gla was on nucleation. YGlapS and YEpS significantly inhibited the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, while simultaneously promoting the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate. The effects of these phosphopeptides on calcium oxalate monohydrate formation were on growth of crystals rather than nucleation. We have shown that the use of dynamic light scattering allows inhibitors of hydroxyapatite nucleation and growth to be distinguished. We have also demonstrated for the first time that MGP peptides inhibit the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate. Based on the latter finding, we propose that MGP function not only to prevent blood-vessel calcification but also to inhibit stone formation in kidney. PMID:24265810

  7. Hydrogen exchange during cell-free incorporation of deuterated amino acids and an approach to its inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Marco; Singarapu, Kiran K; Makino, Shin-ichi; Sahu, Sarata C; Matsubara, Yuko; Endo, Yaeta; Kainosho, Masatsune; Markley, John L

    2011-12-01

    Perdeuteration, selective deuteration, and stereo array isotope labeling (SAIL) are valuable strategies for NMR studies of larger proteins and membrane proteins. To minimize scrambling of the label, it is best to use cell-free methods to prepare selectively labeled proteins. However, when proteins are prepared from deuterated amino acids by cell-free translation in H(2)O, exchange reactions can lead to contamination of (2)H sites by (1)H from the solvent. Examination of a sample of SAIL-chlorella ubiquitin prepared by Escherichia coli cell-free synthesis revealed that exchange had occurred at several residues (mainly at Gly, Ala, Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln). We present results from a study aimed at identifying the exchanging sites and level of exchange and at testing a strategy for minimizing (1)H contamination during wheat germ cell-free translation of proteins produced from deuterated amino acids by adding known inhibitors of transaminases (1 mM aminooxyacetic acid) and glutamate synthetase (0.1 mM L: -methionine sulfoximine). By using a wheat germ cell-free expression system, we produced [U-(2)H, (15)N]-chlorella ubiquitin without and with added inhibitors, and [U-(15)N]-chlorella ubiquitin as a reference to determine the extent of deuterium incorporation. We also prepared a sample of [U-(13)C, (15)N]-chlorella ubiquitin, for use in assigning the sites of exchange. The added inhibitors did not reduce the protein yield and were successful in blocking hydrogen exchange at C(α) sites, with the exception of Gly, and at C(β) sites of Ala. We discovered, in addition, that partial exchange occurred with or without the inhibitors at certain side-chain methyl and methylene groups: Asn-H(β), Asp-H(β), Gln-H(γ), Glu-H(γ), and Lys-H(ε). The side-chain labeling pattern, in particular the mixed chiral labeling resulting from partial exchange at certain sites, should be of interest in studies of large proteins, protein complexes, and membrane proteins. PMID:21984356

  8. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7543732

  9. Mesenchyme-specific overexpression of nucleolar protein 66 in mice inhibits skeletal growth and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Zhang, Liping; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Krahe, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that nucleolar protein 66 (NO66), the Jumonji C-domain-containing histone demethylase for methylated histone H3K4 and H3K36 (H3K36me), negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro by inhibiting the activity of transcription factor osterix (Osx). However, whether NO66 affects mammalian skeletogenesis in vivo is not yet known. Here, we generated transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing a flag-tagged NO66 transgene driven by the Prx1 (paired related homeobox 1) promoter. We found that NO66 overexpression in Prx1-expressing mesenchymal cells inhibited skeletal growth and bone formation. The inhibitory phenotype was associated with >50% decreases in chondrocyte/osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, we found that in bones of NO66-TG mice, expression of Igf1, Igf1 receptor (Igf1r), runt-related transcription factor 2, and Osx was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). Consistent with these results, we observed >50% reduction in levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and H3K36me3 in bones of NO66-TG mice, suggesting an inverse correlation between NO66 histone demethylase and the activity of IGF1R/Akt signaling. This correlation was further confirmed by in vitro assays of C2C12 cells with NO66 overexpression. We propose that the decrease in the IGF1R/Akt signaling pathway in mice with mesenchymal overexpression of NO66 may contribute in part to the inhibition of skeletal growth and bone formation.—Chen, Q., Zhang, L., de Crombrugghe, B., Krahe, R. Mesenchyme-specific overexpression of nucleolar protein 66 in mice inhibits skeletal growth and bone formation. PMID:25746793

  10. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Hempstead, Andrew D.; Isberg, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR. PMID:26598709

  11. Translation Inhibition of Capped and Uncapped Viral RNAs Mediated by Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Jorge M; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of the large rRNA and arrest protein synthesis at the translocation step. In addition to their enzymatic activity, RIPs have been reputed to be potent antiviral agents against many plant, animal, and human viruses. We recently showed that pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), an RIP from pokeweed, inhibits translation in cell extracts by binding to the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA and viral RNAs and depurinating these RNAs at multiple sites downstream of the cap structure. In this study, we examined the activity of three different RIPs against capped and uncapped viral RNAs. PAP, Mirabilis expansa RIP (ME1), and the Saponaria officinalis RIP (saporin) depurinated the capped Tobacco mosaic virus and Brome mosaic virus RNAs, but did not depurinate the uncapped luciferase RNA, indicating that other type I RIPs besides PAP can distinguish between capped and uncapped RNAs. We did not detect depurination of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs at multiple sites by PAP or ME1. Because AMV RNAs are capped, these results indicate that recognition of the cap structure alone is not sufficient for depurination of the RNA at multiple sites throughout its sequence. Furthermore, PAP did not cause detectable depurination of uncapped RNAs from Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), and uncapped RNA containing poliovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES). However, in vitro translation experiments showed that PAP inhibited translation of AMV, TBSV, SPMV RNAs, and poliovirus IRES dependent translation. These results demonstrate that PAP does not depurinate every capped RNA and that PAP can inhibit translation of uncapped viral RNAs in vitro without causing detectable depurination at multiple sites. Thus, the cap structure is not the only determinant for inhibition of translation by PAP. PMID:18942981

  12. Pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for time-resolved membrane protein folding studies.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Anil; Pan, Yan; Brown, Leonid S; Konermann, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Kinetic folding experiments by pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) are a well-established tool for water-soluble proteins. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first that applies this approach to an integral membrane protein. The native state of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) comprises seven transmembrane helices and a covalently bound retinal cofactor. BR exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces partial unfolding and retinal loss. We employ a custom-built three-stage mixing device for pulsed-HDX/MS investigations of BR refolding. The reaction is triggered by mixing SDS-denatured protein with bicelles. After a variable folding time (10 ms to 24 h), the protein is exposed to excess D(2) O buffer under rapid exchange conditions. The HDX pulse is terminated by acid quenching after 24 ms. Subsequent off-line analysis is performed by size exclusion chromatography and electrospray MS. These measurements yield the number of protected backbone N-H sites as a function of folding time, reflecting the recovery of secondary structure. Our results indicate that much of the BR secondary structure is formed quite late during the reaction, on a time scale of 10 s and beyond. It is hoped that in the future it will be possible to extend the pulsed-HDX/MS approach employed here to membrane proteins other than BR. PMID:23280751

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Myocardial Collagen Remodeling in Association with Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Jin, Hongfang; Sun, Lujing; Chen, Siyao; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Manman; Sun, Yan; Tang, Chaoshu; Zhao, Bin; Du, Junbao

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the role and possible mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the regulation of myocardial collagen remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We treated nine-week-old male SHRs and age- and sex-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKYs) with NaHS (90 μmol/kg−1·day−1) for 9 wks. At 18 wks, plasma H2S, tail arterial pressure, morphology of the heart, myocardial ultrastructure and collagen volume fraction (CVF), myocardial expressions of collagen I and III protein and procollagen I and III mRNA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I), type II receptor (TβR-II), p-Smad2 and 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-1 proteins were determined. TGF-β1-stimulated cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were used to further study the mechanisms. The results showed that compared with WKYs, SHRs showed a reduced plasma H2S, elevated tail artery pressure and increased myocardial collagen, TGF-β1, TβR-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 expressions. However, NaHS markedly decreased tail artery pressure and inhibited myocardial collagen, TGF-β1, TβR-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 protein expressions, but H2S had no effect on the expressions of MMP-13 and TIMP-1. Hydralazine reduced blood pressure but had no effect on myocardial collagen, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expressions and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. H2S prevented activation of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and abnormal collagen synthesis in CFs. In conclusion, the results suggested that H2S could prevent myocardial collagen remodeling in SHR. The mechanism might be associated with inhibition of collagen synthesis via TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:25222913

  14. Systematic identification of arsenic-binding proteins reveals that hexokinase-2 is inhibited by arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-nan; Yang, Lina; Ling, Jian-ya; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Ge, Feng; Yang, Ming-kun; Xiong, Qian; Guo, Shu-Juan; Le, Huang-Ying; Wu, Song-Fang; Yan, Wei; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Zhu; Tao, Sheng-ce

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is highly effective for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has shown significant promise against many other tumors. However, although its mechanistic effects in APL are established, its broader anticancer mode of action is not understood. In this study, using a human proteome microarray, we identified 360 proteins that specifically bind arsenic. Among the most highly enriched proteins in this set are those in the glycolysis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, hexokinase-1. Detailed biochemical and metabolomics analyses of the highly homologous hexokinase-2 (HK2), which is overexpressed in many cancers, revealed significant inhibition by arsenic. Furthermore, overexpression of HK2 rescued cells from arsenic-induced apoptosis. Our results thus strongly implicate glycolysis, and HK2 in particular, as a key target of arsenic. Moreover, the arsenic-binding proteins identified in this work are expected to serve as a valuable resource for the development of synergistic antitumor therapeutic strategies. PMID:26598702

  15. Cigarette smoke affects posttranslational modifications and inhibits capacitation-induced changes in human sperm proteins.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Vibha; Marmor, Hannah; Chernyak, Sholom; Goldstein, Marc; Feliciano, Miriam; Vigodner, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Sperm are highly dependent on posttranslational modifications of proteins. Massive phosphorylation on tyrosine residue is required for sperm capacitation. Sumoylation has also been recently implicated in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. Cigarette smoke is known to cause oxidative stress in different tissues, and several studies suggest that it causes oxidative stress in sperm. Whether tobacco affects posttranslational modifications in human sperm is currently unknown. In this study, we show that a short exposure of human sperm to physiological concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) causes the partial de-sumoylation of many sperm proteins. Furthermore, the presence of a low concentration of CSE in the human tubal fluid during an induction of in vitro capacitation inhibits the capacitation-associated increase in protein phosphorylation. Collectively, changes in posttranslational modifications may be one of the mechanisms through which exposure to tobacco can negatively affect sperm functions and cause fertility problems. PMID:24345728

  16. A poxvirus protein that binds to and inactivates IL-18, and inhibits NK cell response.

    PubMed

    Born, T L; Morrison, L A; Esteban, D J; VandenBos, T; Thebeau, L G; Chen, N; Spriggs, M K; Sims, J E; Buller, R M

    2000-03-15

    IL-18 induces IFN-gamma and NK cell cytotoxicity, making it a logical target for viral antagonism of host defense. We demonstrate that the ectromelia poxvirus p13 protein, bearing homology to the mammalian IL-18 binding protein, binds IL-18, and inhibits its activity in vitro. Binding of IL-18 to the viral p13 protein was compared with binding to the cellular IL-18R. The dissociation constant of p13 for murine IL-18 is 5 nM, compared with 0.2 nM for the cellular receptor heterodimer. Mice infected with a p13 deletion mutant of ectromelia virus had elevated cytotoxicity for YAC-1 tumor cell targets compared with control animals. Additionally, the p13 deletion mutant virus exhibited decreased levels of infectivity. Our data suggest that inactivation of IL-18, and subsequent impairment of NK cell cytotoxicity, may be one mechanism by which ectromelia evades the host immune response. PMID:10706717

  17. Time-resolved pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry probes gaseous proteins structural kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) method has been developed for rapid monitoring of the exchange kinetics of protein ions with D2O a few milliseconds after electrospray ionization (ESI). The stepwise gradual evolution of HDX of multiply charged protein ions was monitored using the pulsed HDX mass spectrometry technique. Upon introducing a very short pulse of D2O (in the μs to ms time scale) into the linear ion trap (LIT) of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, bimodal distributions were detected for the ions of cytochrome c and ubiquitin. Mechanistic details of HDX reactions for ubiquitin and cytochrome c in the gas phase were uncovered and the structural transitions were followed by analyzing the kinetics of HDX. PMID:25318698

  18. Time-Resolved Pulsed Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Probes Gaseous Proteins Structural Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) method has been developed for rapid monitoring of the exchange kinetics of protein ions with D2O a few milliseconds after electrospray ionization (ESI). The stepwise gradual evolution of HDX of multiply charged protein ions was monitored using the pulsed HDX mass spectrometry technique. Upon introducing a very short pulse of D2O (in the μs to ms time scale) into the linear ion trap (LIT) of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, bimodal distributions were detected for the ions of cytochrome c and ubiquitin. Mechanistic details of HDX reactions for ubiquitin and cytochrome c in the gas phase were uncovered and the structural transitions were followed by analyzing the kinetics of HDX.

  19. Lucanthone and its derivative hycanthone inhibit apurinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) by direct protein binding

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, M.; Naidu, M.; Agarwal, R.; Pena, L.A.; Cunha, L.; Mezei, M.; Shen, M.; Wilson, D.M.; Liu, Y.; Sanchez, Z.; Chaudhary, P.; Wilson, S.H.; Waring, M.J.

    2011-09-15

    Lucanthone and hycanthone are thioxanthenone DNA intercalators used in the 1980s as antitumor agents. Lucanthone is in Phase I clinical trial, whereas hycanthone was pulled out of Phase II trials. Their potential mechanism of action includes DNA intercalation, inhibition of nucleic acid biosyntheses, and inhibition of enzymes like topoisomerases and the dual function base excision repair enzyme apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1). Lucanthone inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity. Our goal was to decipher the precise mechanism of APE1 inhibition as a prerequisite towards development of improved therapeutics that can counteract higher APE1 activity often seen in tumors. The IC{sub 50} values for inhibition of APE1 incision of depurinated plasmid DNA by lucanthone and hycanthone were 5 {mu}M and 80 nM, respectively. The K{sub D} values (affinity constants) for APE1, as determined by BIACORE binding studies, were 89 nM for lucanthone/10 nM for hycanthone. APE1 structures reveal a hydrophobic pocket where hydrophobic small molecules like thioxanthenones can bind, and our modeling studies confirmed such docking. Circular dichroism spectra uncovered change in the helical structure of APE1 in the presence of lucanthone/hycanthone, and notably, this effect was decreased (Phe266Ala or Phe266Cys or Trp280Leu) or abolished (Phe266Ala/Trp280Ala) when hydrophobic site mutants were employed. Reduced inhibition by lucanthone of the diminished endonuclease activity of hydrophobic mutant proteins (as compared to wild type APE1) supports that binding of lucanthone to the hydrophobic pocket dictates APE1 inhibition. The DNA binding capacity of APE1 was marginally inhibited by lucanthone, and not at all by hycanthone, supporting our hypothesis that thioxanthenones inhibit APE1, predominantly, by direct interaction. Finally, lucanthone-induced degradation was drastically reduced in the presence of short and long lived free radical scavengers, e

  20. Unconventional N-H…N Hydrogen Bonds Involving Proline Backbone Nitrogen in Protein Structures.

    PubMed

    Deepak, R N V Krishna; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2016-05-10

    Contrary to DNA double-helical structures, hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) involving nitrogen as the acceptor are not common in protein structures. We systematically searched N-H…N H-bonds in two different sets of protein structures. Data set I consists of neutron diffraction and ultrahigh-resolution x-ray structures (0.9 Å resolution or better) and the hydrogen atom positions in these structures were determined experimentally. Data set II contains structures determined using x-ray diffraction (resolution ≤ 1.8 Å) and the positions of hydrogen atoms were generated using a computational method. We identified 114 and 14,347 potential N-H…N H-bonds from these two data sets, respectively, and 56-66% of these were of the Ni+1-Hi+1…Ni type, with Ni being the proline backbone nitrogen. To further understand the nature of such unusual contacts, we performed quantum chemical calculations on the model compound N-acetyl-L-proline-N-methylamide (Ace-Pro-NMe) with coordinates taken from the experimentally determined structures. A potential energy profile generated by varying the ψ dihedral angle in Ace-Pro-NMe indicates that the conformation with the N-H…N H-bond is the most stable. An analysis of H-bond-forming proline residues reveals that more than 30% of the proline carbonyl groups are also involved in n → π(∗) interactions with the carbonyl carbon of the preceding residue. Natural bond orbital analyses demonstrate that the strength of N-H…N H-bonds is less than half of that observed for a conventional H-bond. This study clearly establishes the H-bonding capability of proline nitrogen and its prevalence in protein structures. We found many proteins with multiple instances of H-bond-forming prolines. With more than 15% of all proline residues participating in N-H…N H-bonds, we suggest a new, to our knowledge, structural role for proline in providing stability to loops and capping regions of secondary structures in proteins. PMID:27166805

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High-Salt Diet-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury in Dahl Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pan; Shen, Zhizhou; Liu, Jia; Huang, Yaqian; Chen, Siyao; Yu, Wen; Wang, Suxia; Ren, Yali; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The study was designed to investigate if H2S could inhibit high-salt diet-induced renal excessive oxidative stress and kidney injury in Dahl rats. METHODS. Male salt-sensitive Dahl and SD rats were used. Blood pressure (BP), serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance rate, and 24-hour urine protein were measured. Renal ultra- and microstructures were observed. Collagen-I and -III contents the oxidants and antioxidants levels in renal tissue were detected. Keap1/Nrf2 association and Keap1 s-sulfhydration were detected. RESULTS. After 8 weeks of high-salt diet, BP was significantly increased, renal function and structure were impaired, and collagen deposition was abundant in renal tissues with increased renal MPO activity, H2O2, MDA, GSSG, and (•)OH contents, reduced renal T-AOC and GSH contents, CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activity, and SOD expressions in Dahl rats. Furthermore, endogenous H2S in renal tissues was decreased in Dahl rats. H2S donor, however, decreased BP, improved renal function and structure, and inhibited collagen excessive deposition in kidney, in association with increased antioxidative activity and reduced oxidative stress in renal tissues. H2S activated Nrf2 by inducing Keap1 s-sulfhydration and subsequent Keap1/Nrf2 disassociation. CONCLUSIONS. H2S protected against high-salt diet-induced renal injury associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited renal oxidative stress. PMID:26823949

  2. CDK2 Inhibition Causes Anaphase Catastrophe in Lung Cancer through the Centrosomal Protein CP110

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shanhu; Danilov, Alexey V.; Godek, Kristina; Orr, Bernardo; Tafe, Laura J.; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Behrens, Carmen; Mino, Barbara; Moran, Cesar A.; Memoli, Vincent A.; Mustachio, Lisa Maria; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Ravi, Saranya; DeCastro, Andrew; Lu, Yun; Sekula, David; Andrew, Angeline S; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Freemantle, Sarah; Compton, Duane A.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy is frequently detected in human cancers and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Pharmacological targeting of aneuploidy is an attractive therapeutic strategy as this would preferentially eliminate malignant over normal cells. We previously discovered that CDK2 inhibition causes lung cancer cells with more than two centrosomes to undergo multipolar cell division leading to apoptosis, defined as anaphase catastrophe. Cells with activating KRAS mutations were especially sensitive to CDK2 inhibition. Mechanisms of CDK2-mediated anaphase catastrophe and how activated KRAS enhances this effect were investigated. Live-cell imaging provided direct evidence that following CDK2 inhibition, lung cancer cells develop multipolar anaphase and undergo multipolar cell division with the resulting progeny apoptotic. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated repression of the CDK2 target and centrosome protein CP110 induced anaphase catastrophe of lung cancer cells. In contrast, CP110 overexpression antagonized CDK2 inhibitor-mediated anaphase catastrophe. Furthermore, activated KRAS mutations sensitized lung cancer cells to CDK2 inhibition by deregulating CP110 expression. Thus, CP110 is a critical mediator of CDK2-inhibition-driven anaphase catastrophe. Independent examination of murine and human paired normal-malignant lung tissues revealed marked upregulation of CP110 in malignant versus normal lung. Human lung cancers with KRAS mutations had significantly lower CP110 expression as compared to KRAS wild-type cancers. Thus, a direct link was found between CP110 and CDK2 inhibitor antineoplastic response. CP110 plays a mechanistic role in response of lung cancer cells to CDK2 inhibition, especially in the presence of activated KRAS mutations. PMID:25808870

  3. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation.

  4. Discovery and Analysis of Natural-Product Compounds Inhibiting Protein Synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmei; Keniry, Megan; Palmer, Stephanie O; Bullard, James M

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation (A/T) protein synthesis system composed of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases (PheRS), ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa This system has been used for high-throughput screening of a natural-compound library. Assays were developed for each component of the system to ascertain the specific target of inhibitory compounds. In high-throughput screens, 13 compounds were identified that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.3 to >80 μM. MICs were determined for the compounds against the growth of a panel of pathogenic organisms, including Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae Three of the compounds were observed to have broad-spectrum activity and inhibited a hypersensitive strain of P. aeruginosa with MICs of 8 to 16 μg/ml. The molecular target of each of the three compounds was determined to be PheRS. One compound was found to be bacteriostatic, and one compound was bactericidal against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The third compound was observed to be bacteriostatic against Gram-positive and bactericidal against Gram-negative bacteria. All three compounds were competitive with the substrate ATP; however, one compound was competitive, one was uncompetitive, and one noncompetitive with the amino acid substrate. Macromolecular synthesis assays confirm the compounds inhibit protein synthesis. The compounds were shown to be more than 25,000-fold less active than the control staurosporine in cytotoxicity MTT testing in human cell lines. PMID:27246774

  5. Disruption of the protein interaction between FAK and IGF-1R inhibits melanoma tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Deniz A; Kurenova, Elena; Garrett, Timothy J; Cance, William G; Nyberg, Carl; Cox, Audrey; Massoll, Nicole; Ostrov, David A; Lawrence, Nicholas; Sebti, Said M; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; Hochwald, Steven N

    2012-09-01

    FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor receptor-1) directly interact with each other and thereby activate crucial signaling pathways that benefit cancer cells. Inhibition of FAK and IGF-1R function has been shown to significantly decrease cancer cell proliferation and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. As a novel approach in human melanoma, we evaluated the effect of a small-molecule compound that disrupts the protein interaction of FAK and IGF-1R. Previously, using virtual screening and functional testing, we identified a lead compound (INT2-31) that targets the known FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction site. We studied the ability of this compound to disrupt FAK-IGF-1R protein interactions, inhibit downstream signaling, decrease human melanoma cell proliferation, alter cell cycle progression, induce apoptosis and decrease tumor growth in vivo. INT2-31 blocked the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R in vitro and in vivo in melanoma cells and tumor xenografts through precluding the activation of IRS-1, leading to reduced phosphorylation of AKT upon IGF-1 stimulation. As a result, INT2-31 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and viability (range 0.05-10 μM). More importantly, 15 mg/kg of INT2-31 given for 21 d via intraperitoneal injection disrupted the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R and effectively decreased phosphorylation of tumor AKT, resulting in significant melanoma tumor regression in vivo. Our data suggest that the FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction is an important target, and disruption of this interaction with a novel small molecule (INT2-31) has potential anti-neoplastic therapeutic effects in human melanoma. PMID:22894899

  6. Conformation and hydrogen ion titration of proteins: a continuum electrostatic model with conformational flexibility.

    PubMed

    You, T J; Bashford, D

    1995-11-01

    A new method for including local conformational flexibility in calculations of the hydrogen ion titration of proteins using macroscopic electrostatic models is presented. Intrinsic pKa values and electrostatic interactions between titrating sites are calculated from an ensemble of conformers in which the positions of titrating side chains are systematically varied. The method is applied to the Asp, Glu, and Tyr residues of hen lysozyme. The effects of different minimization and/or sampling protocols for both single-conformer and multi-conformer calculations are studied. For single-conformer calculations it is found that the results are sensitive to the choice of all-hydrogen versus polar-hydrogen-only atomic models and to the minimization protocol chosen. The best overall agreement of single-conformer calculations with experiment is obtained with an all-hydrogen model and either a two-step minimization process or minimization using a high dielectric constant. Multi-conformational calculations give significantly improved agreement with experiment, slightly smaller shifts between model compound pKa values and calculated intrinsic pKa values, and reduced sensitivity of the intrinsic pKa calculations to the initial details of the structure compared to single-conformer calculations. The extent of these improvements depends on the type of minimization used during the generation of conformers, with more extensive minimization giving greater improvements. The ordering of the titrations of the active-site residues, Glu-35 and Asp-52, is particularly sensitive to the minimization and sampling protocols used. The balance of strong site-site interactions in the active site suggests a need for including site-site conformational correlations. PMID:8580316

  7. Adenosine kinase inhibition and suppression of RNA silencing by geminivirus AL2 and L2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Buckley, Kenneth J; Yang, Xiaojuan; Buchmann, R Cody; Bisaro, David M

    2005-06-01

    Most plant viruses are initiators and targets of RNA silencing and encode proteins that suppress this adaptive host defense. The DNA-containing geminiviruses are no exception, and the AL2 protein (also known as AC2, C2, and transcriptional activator protein) encoded by members of the genus Begomovirus has been shown to act as a silencing suppressor. Here, a three-component, Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay is used to further examine the silencing suppression activity of AL2 from Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV, a begomovirus) and to determine if the related L2 protein of Beet curly top virus (BCTV, genus Curtovirus) also has suppression activity. We show that TGMV AL2, AL2(1-100) (lacking the transcriptional activation domain), and BCTV L2 can all suppress RNA silencing directed against a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene when silencing is induced by a construct expressing an inverted repeat GFP RNA (dsGFP). We previously found that these viral proteins interact with and inactivate adenosine kinase (ADK), a cellular enzyme important for adenosine salvage and methyl cycle maintenance. Using the GFP-dsGFP system, we demonstrate here that codelivery of a construct expressing an inverted repeat ADK RNA (dsADK), or addition of an ADK inhibitor (the adenosine analogue A-134974), suppresses GFP-directed silencing in a manner similar to the geminivirus proteins. In addition, AL2/L2 suppression phenotypes and nucleic acid binding properties are shown to be different from those of the RNA virus suppressors HC-Pro and p19. These findings provide strong evidence that ADK activity is required to support RNA silencing, and indicate that the geminivirus proteins suppress silencing by a novel mechanism that involves ADK inhibition. Further, since AL2(1-100) is as effective a suppressor as the full-length AL2 protein, activation and silencing suppression appear to be independent activities. PMID:15919897

  8. Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Mesangial Cells Inhibit Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Wang, Yanxia; Davis, Mark E; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Chaudhari, Sarika; Begg, Malcolm; Ma, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix derived from glomerular mesangial cells is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Ca(2+) signals mediated by store-operated Ca(2+) channels regulate protein production in a variety of cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells on extracellular matrix protein expression. In cultured human mesangial cells, activation of store-operated Ca(2+) channels by thapsigargin significantly decreased fibronectin protein expression and collagen IV mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibition of the channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and collagen IV. Similarly, overexpression of stromal interacting molecule 1 reduced, but knockdown of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) increased fibronectin protein expression. Furthermore, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly augmented angiotensin II-induced fibronectin protein expression, whereas thapsigargin abrogated high glucose- and TGF-β1-stimulated matrix protein expression. In vivo knockdown of Orai1 in mesangial cells of mice using a targeted nanoparticle siRNA delivery system resulted in increased expression of glomerular fibronectin and collagen IV, and mice showed significant mesangial expansion compared with controls. Similarly, in vivo knockdown of stromal interacting molecule 1 in mesangial cells by recombinant adeno-associated virus-encoded shRNA markedly increased collagen IV protein expression in renal cortex and caused mesangial expansion in rats. These results suggest that store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells negatively regulate extracellular matrix protein expression in the kidney, which may serve as an endogenous renoprotective mechanism in diabetes. PMID:25788524

  9. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 V protein inhibits and antagonizes tetherin.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Goto, H; Yumine, N; Nishio, M

    2016-03-01

    Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an antiviral membrane protein that prevents the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface. We found that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), but not that of V protein-deficient recombinant hPIV-2, was inhibited by tetherin. V protein immunoprecipitates with tetherin, and this interaction requires its C-terminal Trp residues. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol attachment signal of tetherin, but not its cytoplasmic tail, was necessary for its binding with V. The distribution of the V protein clearly changed when co-expressed with tetherin in plasmid-transfected cells. hPIV-2 infection of HeLa cells reduced cell surface tetherin without affecting total cellular tetherin. This reduction also occurred in HeLa cells constitutively expressing V, whereas mutated V protein did not affect the cell surface tetherin. Our results suggest that hPIV-2 V protein antagonizes tetherin by binding it and reducing its presence at the cell surface. PMID:26675672

  10. Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Walle, Jacqueline; Sergent, Therese; Piront, Neil; Toussaint, Olivier; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2010-06-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial protein synthesis and barrier integrity. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, as a widely used model of the human intestinal barrier, were exposed to realistic intestinal concentrations of DON (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) during 24 h. DON caused a concentration-dependent decrease in total protein content associated with a reduction in the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-leucine, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis. DON simultaneously increased the paracellular permeability of the monolayer as reflected through a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increased paracellular flux of the tracer [{sup 3}H]-mannitol. A concentration-dependent reduction in the expression level of the tight junction constituent claudin-4 was demonstrated by Western blot, which was not due to diminished transcription, increased degradation, or NF-{kappa}B, ERK or JNK activation, and was also observed for a tight junction independent protein, i.e. intestinal alkaline phosphatase. These results demonstrate a dual toxicological effect of DON on differentiated Caco-2 cells consisting in an inhibition of protein synthesis as well as an increase in monolayer permeability, and moreover suggest a possible link between them through diminished synthesis of the tight junction constituent claudin-4.

  11. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  12. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein CIZ reduces adult bone mass by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Morinobu, Mikihiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Hino, Kazunori; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Nifuji, Akira; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Hirai, Hisamaru; Noda, Masaki

    2005-03-21

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem; however, the mechanisms regulating adult bone mass are poorly understood. Cas-interacting zinc finger protein (CIZ) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that localizes at cell adhesion plaques that form where osteoblasts attach to substrate. To investigate the potential role of CIZ in regulating adult bone mass, we examined the bones in CIZ-deficient mice. Bone volume was increased and the rates of bone formation were increased in CIZ-deficient mice, whereas bone resorption was not altered. CIZ deficiency enhanced the levels of mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to osteoblastic phenotypes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as osterix mRNA expression in whole long bones. Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. CIZ deficiency increased newly formed bone mass after femoral bone marrow ablation in vivo. Finally, BMP-2-induced bone formation on adult mouse calvariae in vivo was enhanced by CIZ deficiency. These results establish that CIZ suppresses the levels of adult bone mass through inhibition of BMP-induced activation of osteoblasts. PMID:15781586

  13. Inhibition of the p53/hDM2 protein-protein interaction by cyclometallated iridium(III) compounds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Juan; He, Bingyong; Miles, Jennifer A.; Wang, Wanhe; Mao, Zhifeng; Che, Weng Ian; Lu, Jin-Jian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wilson, Andrew J.; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of the p53 transcription factor by mutation or other mechanisms is a frequent event in tumorigenesis. One of the major endogenous negative regulators of p53 in humans is hDM2, a ubiquitin E3 ligase that binds to p53 causing proteasomal p53 degradation. In this work, a library of organometallic iridium(III) compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to disrupt the p53/hDM2 protein-protein interaction. The novel cyclometallated iridium(III) compound 1 [Ir(eppy)2(dcphen)](PF6) (where eppy = 2-(4-ethylphenyl)pyridine and dcphen = 4, 7-dichloro-1, 10-phenanthroline) blocked the interaction of p53/hDM2 in human amelanotic melanoma cells. Finally, 1 exhibited anti-proliferative activity and induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines consistent with inhibition of the p53/hDM2 interaction. Compound 1 represents the first reported organometallic p53/hDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor. PMID:26883110

  14. Walnut extract inhibits the fibrillization of amyloid beta-protein, and also defibrillizes its preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neha; Wang, K C; Wegiel, Jerzy; Malik, Mazhar N

    2004-08-01

    Fibrillar amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the effect of walnut extract on Abeta fibrillization by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The walnut extract not only inhibited Abeta fibril formation in a concentration and time- dependent manner but it was also able to defibrillize Abeta preformed fibrils. Over 90% inhibition of Abeta fibrillization was observed with 5 microl of methanolic extract of walnut (MEOW) both after 2 and 3 days of incubation. The maximum defibrillization (91.6%) was observed when preformed Abeta fibrils were incubated with 10 microl of MEOW for 2 days. These results suggest that walnuts may reduce the risk or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease by maintaining Abeta in the soluble form. Further studies showed that anti-amyloidogenic compound in walnut is an organic compound of molecular weight less than 10 kDa, which is neither a lipid nor a protein. Chloroform extract of walnut had no effect on Abeta fibrillization while MEOW and its 10 kDa filtrate inhibited Abeta fibrillization equally. It is proposed that polyphenolic compounds (such as flavonoids) present in walnuts may be responsible for its anti-amyloidogenic activity. PMID:15975066

  15. Peripheral neuropathy via mutant tRNA synthetases: Inhibition of protein translation provides a possible explanation.

    PubMed

    Storkebaum, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inhibition of protein translation may be a common pathogenic mechanism for peripheral neuropathy associated with mutant tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). aaRSs are enzymes that ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNA, thus catalyzing the first step of translation. Dominant mutations in five distinct aaRSs cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy, characterized by length-dependent degeneration of peripheral motor and sensory axons. Surprisingly, loss of aminoacylation activity is not required for mutant aaRSs to cause CMT. Rather, at least for some mutations, a toxic-gain-of-function mechanism underlies CMT-aaRS. Interestingly, several mutations in two distinct aaRSs were recently shown to inhibit global protein translation in Drosophila models of CMT-aaRS, by a mechanism independent of aminoacylation, suggesting inhibition of translation as a common pathogenic mechanism. Future research aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the translation defect induced by CMT-mutant aaRSs should provide novel insight into the molecular pathogenesis of these incurable diseases. PMID:27352040

  16. Structural requirements within protoporphyrin IX in the inhibition of heat shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Lee, Jung Min; Lim, Chaemin; Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Sang Geon

    2013-06-25

    Porphyrins are used for photodynamic therapy for their light-absorbing properties, and some of them were approved for the treatment of certain types of cancers. Porphyrins prevent activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) by inhibiting heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). This study investigated the structural requirements within protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) for the inhibition of HSP90 activity. In HCT116, HT29 and DLD-1 cells, PPIX treatment directly hindered the binding between HSP90 and HIF-1α; PPIX treatment inhibited the chaperone activity of HSP90, accelerating protein degradation of HIF-1α. In addition, PPIX treatment suppressed cancer cell migration, endothelial cell tube formation, and aortic ring sprouting, being consistent with its anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities. In silico analysis, molecular docking model indicated that a tetrapyrrole macrocycle and two propionate chains within PPIX are necessary for the binding to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding pocket of HSP90. The predicted structural requirement was verified by the differential inhibitory effects of PPIX analogs, or the precursor of PPIX, on HIF-1α; compounds lacking either the tetrapyrrole macrocycle or the propionate chains were inactive. Our results show that a tetrapyrrole macrocycle and two attached propionate chains in PPIX coordinately interact with the ATP-binding pocket of HSP90, offering structural information on the inhibitory effect of porphyrins on angiogenesis. PMID:23624237

  17. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Alexey M. Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F. Yakovleva, Anastasia A. Zefirov, Andrei L.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  18. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Gas Hydrates by α-Helical Antifreeze Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjun; Davies, Peter L; Walker, Virginia K

    2015-10-20

    Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are used commercially to inhibit gas hydrate formation and growth in pipelines. However, improvement of these polymers has been constrained by the lack of verified molecular models. Since antifreeze proteins (AFPs) act as KHIs, we have used their solved x-ray crystallographic structures in molecular modeling to explore gas hydrate inhibition. The internal clathrate water network of the fish AFP Maxi, which extends to the protein's outer surface, is remarkably similar to the {100} planes of structure type II (sII) gas hydrate. The crystal structure of this water web has facilitated the construction of in silico models for Maxi and type I AFP binding to sII hydrates. Here, we have substantiated our models with experimental evidence of Maxi binding to the tetrahydrofuran sII model hydrate. Both in silico and experimental evidence support the absorbance-inhibition mechanism proposed for KHI binding to gas hydrates. Based on the Maxi crystal structure we suggest that the inhibitor adsorbs to the gas hydrate lattice through the same anchored clathrate water mechanism used to bind ice. These results will facilitate the rational design of a next generation of effective green KHIs for the petroleum industry to ensure safe and efficient hydrocarbon flow. PMID:26488661

  19. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Parvez; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and Aβ-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demonstrated that vitamin k3 significantly inhibits fibril formation as well as the inhibitory effect is dose dependent manner. Our experimental studies inferred that vitamin k3 exert its neuro protective effect against amyloid induced cytotoxicity through concerted pathway, modifying the aggregation formation towards formation of nontoxic aggregates. Molecular docking demonstrated that vitamin k3 mediated inhibition of HEWL and Aβ-42 fibrillogenesis may be initiated by interacting with proteolytic resistant and aggregation prone regions respectively. This work would provide an insight into the mechanism of protein aggregation inhibition by vitamin k3; pave the way for discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effect against amyloid formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27230476

  20. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin/CREB binding protein (CBP) signaling reverses pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, William R.; Chi, Emil Y.; Ye, Xin; Nguyen, Cu; Tien, Ying-tzang; Zhou, Beiyun; Borok, Zea; Knight, Darryl A.; Kahn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)/usual interstitial pneumonia is a ravaging condition of progressive lung scarring and destruction. Anti-inflammatory therapies including corticosteroids have limited efficacy in this ultimately fatal disorder. An important unmet need is to identify new agents that interact with key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis to prevent progression or reverse fibrosis in these patients. Because aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade occurs in lungs of patients with IPF, we have targeted this pathway for intervention in pulmonary fibrosis using ICG-001, a small molecule that specifically inhibits T-cell factor/β-catenin transcription in a cyclic AMP response-element binding protein binding protein (CBP)-dependent fashion. ICG-001 selectively blocks the β-catenin/CBP interaction without interfering with the β-catenin/p300 interaction. We report here that ICG-001 (5 mg/kg per day) significantly inhibits β-catenin signaling and attenuates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice, while concurrently preserving the epithelium. Administration of ICG-001 concurrent with bleomycin prevents fibrosis, and late administration is able to reverse established fibrosis and significantly improve survival. Because no effective treatment for IPF exists, selective inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcription suggests a potential unique therapeutic approach for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:20660310

  1. Inhibition of Human Telomerase Activity by an Engineered Zinc Finger Protein that Binds G-Quadruplexes†

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sachin D.; Isalan, Mark; Gavory, Gérald; Ladame, Sylvain; Choo, Yen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    The G-quadruplex nucleic acid structural motif is a target for designing molecules that could potentially modulate telomere length or have anticancer properties. We have recently described an engineered zinc finger protein (Gq1) that binds with specificity to the intramolecular G-quadruplex formed by the human telomeric sequence 5′-(GGTTAG)5-3′ (Isalan et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 830-836). Here, we report that Gq1 is able to arrest the action of a DNA polymerase on a template-containing telomeric sequence. Inhibition occurs in a concentration-dependent manner, probably by forming a stabilized G-quadruplex·protein complex. Furthermore, Gq1 inhibits the apparent activity of the enzyme telomerase in vitro, with an IC50 value of 74.3 ± 11.1 nM. Possible molecular mechanisms of inhibition are discussed, together with the potential for using engineered zinc fingers to interfere with the cellular processes associated with telomere function. PMID:15491152

  2. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases.

    PubMed

    Alam, Parvez; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and Aβ-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demonstrated that vitamin k3 significantly inhibits fibril formation as well as the inhibitory effect is dose dependent manner. Our experimental studies inferred that vitamin k3 exert its neuro protective effect against amyloid induced cytotoxicity through concerted pathway, modifying the aggregation formation towards formation of nontoxic aggregates. Molecular docking demonstrated that vitamin k3 mediated inhibition of HEWL and Aβ-42 fibrillogenesis may be initiated by interacting with proteolytic resistant and aggregation prone regions respectively. This work would provide an insight into the mechanism of protein aggregation inhibition by vitamin k3; pave the way for discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effect against amyloid formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27230476

  3. Mechanism of Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Small Molecule Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chirasani, Venkat R; Sankar, Revathi; Senapati, Sanjib

    2016-08-25

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the bidirectional exchange of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides between high-density lipoproteins and low- or very low-density lipoproteins. Recent studies have shown that the impairment of lipid exchange processes of CETP can be an effective strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Understanding the molecular mechanism of CETP inhibition has, therefore, attracted tremendous attention in recent past. In this study, we explored the detailed mechanism of CETP inhibition by a series of recently reported small molecule inhibitors that are currently under preclinical testing. Our results from molecular dynamics simulations and protein-ligand docking studies suggest that the hydrophobic interactions between the CETP core tunnel residues and inhibitor moieties play a pivotal role, and physical occlusion of the CETP tunnel by these small molecules is the primary mechanism of CETP inhibition. Interestingly, bound inhibitors were found to increase the plasticity of CETP, which was explained by principal component analysis that showed a larger space of sampling of CETP C-domain due to inhibitor binding. The atomic-level details presented here could help accelerate the structure-based drug-discovery processes targeting CETP for CVD therapeutics. PMID:27111423

  4. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rao, Basuthkar J; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2014-01-01

    Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL) for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH) in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52) derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' ( http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html). PMID:25717367

  5. Induction of nitric oxide synthase by protein synthesis inhibition in aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Marczin, Nándor; Go, Carolyn Y; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Catravas, John D

    1998-01-01

    The role of de novo protein synthesis in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activation was investigated in vitro by evaluating the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide (CH) and anisomycin (ANI) on iNOS activity, protein and mRNA levels in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC).As determined by cyclic GMP accumulation, substrate (L-arginine)- and inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, NMMA)-sensitive iNOS activity was significantly elevated in CH- or ANI-treated RASMC after 24 h.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced a time-dependent increase in cyclic GMP levels with maximal stimulation at 6 h and a decline to near baseline at 24 h. CH attenuated LPS-induced cyclic GMP accumulation at 3 and 6 h. However, cyclic GMP levels were superinduced at later times by CH. The concentration-dependence of cyclic GMP stimulation by cycloheximide was biphasic both in the absence and presence of LPS, with maximal stimulation at 10 μM and inhibition at higher concentrations.Increased iNOS activity by CH was associated with elevated levels of immunoreactive iNOS protein as judged by Western blotting in LPS- and CH-treated cells.CH-induced iNOS activity and superinduction of iNOS by CH in cells treated with LPS were both significantly inhibited by actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor.RT-PCR revealed elevated iNOS mRNA levels after 12 h of exposure to CH. The combination of LPS and CH caused a significant increase in iNOS gene expression relative to LPS- or CH stimulation alone.These results show that partial protein synthesis inhibition by CH alone upregulates iNOS mRNA and superinduces iNOS mRNA in cytokine-treated RASMC, which is translated to the functional enzyme generating biologically active NO. Thus iNOS activation in these cells not only requires new protein synthesis but it also appears to be negatively regulated by newly synthesized proteins. PMID:9535031

  6. Studies on the Golgi apparatus. Cumulative inhibition of protein and glycoprotein secretion by d-galactosamine

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christian H.; Lukaschek, Rainer; Reutter, Werner G.

    1974-01-01

    1. The administration of d-galactosamine leads to inhibition of protein and glycoprotein secretion by rat liver. To test the secretory function, the secretion times for galactose-and fucose-containing glycoproteins were determined; they were lengthened from 6 to 9min and from 8 to 13min respectively. 2. The Golgi apparatus was enriched 100–120-fold relative to the homogenate. A new linked-assay system for the marker enzyme, UDP-galactose–N-acetyl-d-glucosamine galactosyltransferase, is presented. The activity of the enzyme was measured spectrophotometrically by following the formation of UDP coupled to nicotinamide nucleotide reduction. The Michaelis constants were calculated to be 0.11mm for UDP-galactose with N-acetyl-d-glucosamine as exogenous acceptor and 19mm for N-acetyl-d-glucosamine itself. 3. The physiological substrate of the galactosyltransferase, UDP-galactose, can be replaced by UDP-galactosamine, which accumulates after d-galactosamine administration. Under conditions in vitro the rate of d-galactosamine transfer to an endogenous acceptor protein of the Golgi fraction reaches 9% of that with d-galactose; this finding is noteworthy, because normally a non-acetylated amino sugar does not occur in glycoproteins. 4. The albumin content of the Golgi-rich fraction was diminished to 55% of the reference value 6h after the injection of 375mg of d-galactosamine hydrochloride/kg body wt. The transfer of d-[1-14C]galactose to an endogenous acceptor protein fell to 60% compared with Golgi-rich fractions from untreated animals. Analysis of the Golgi-rich fraction by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed a decrease or loss of several protein bands. 5. Protein synthesis can be restored by up to 80% if the UTP pool, decreased after d-galactosamine administration, is filled up by several injections of uridine. 6. From the results presented it can be concluded that the disturbed secretion of proteins and glycoproteins was due to a cumulative effect of

  7. Heat Shock Protein 70 Inhibits Apoptosis in Cancer Cells Through Simultaneous and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    DUDEJA, VIKAS; MUJUMDAR, NAMEETA; PHILLIPS, PHOEBE; CHUGH, ROHIT; BORJA–CACHO, DANIEL; DAWRA, RAJINDER K.; VICKERS, SELWYN M.; SALUJA, ASHOK K.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved and serve a multitude of functions that mediate cell survival. HSP70, the only inducible form of the 70-kilodalton subfamily of HSPs, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has been shown to inhibit caspase-dependent apoptosis. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which HSP70 inhibits apoptosis in cancer cells. Methods HSP70 expression was down-regulated in cultured pancreatic cancer cells by exposure to quercetin, triptolide, or short interfering RNAs. Intracellular Ca2+, cytosolic cathepsin B activity, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, and lysosome integrity were measured using colorimetric assays. Immunofluorescence assays were used to localize cathepsin B and Lamp2. BAPTA-AM was used to chelate intracellular Ca2+. Results Inhibition of HSP70 increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in pancreatic and colon cancer cell lines and led to loss of lysosome integrity in pancreatic cancer cells. The release of intracellular Ca2+ and lysosomal enzymes activated caspase-dependent apoptosis independently and simultaneously. Conclusions HSP70 inhibits apoptosis in cancer cells by 2 mechanisms: attenuation of cytosolic calcium and stabilization of lysosomes. HSP70-mediated cell survival might occur in other types of cancer cells. PMID:19208367

  8. Implication of unfolded protein response in resveratrol-induced inhibition of K562 cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bao-Qin; Gao, Yan-Yan; Niu, Xiao-Fang; Xie, Ji-Sheng; Meng, Xin; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol (RES), a natural plant polyphenol, is an effective inducer of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of carcinoma cell types. In addition, RES has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis in several animal models suggesting that it functions as a chemopreventive and anti-tumor agent in vivo. The chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties associated with resveratrol offer promise for the design of new chemotherapeutic agents. However, the mechanisms by which RES mediates its effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we showed that RES caused cell cycle arrest and proliferation inhibition via induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) in human leukemia K562 cell line. Treatment of K562 cells with RES induced a number of signature UPR markers, including transcriptional induction of GRP78 and CHOP, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2{alpha} (eIF2{alpha}), ER stress-specific XBP-1 splicing, suggesting the induction of UPR by RES. RES inhibited proliferation of K562 in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that K562 cells were arrested in G1 phase upon RES treatment. Salubrinal, an eIF2{alpha} inhibitor, or overexpression of dominant negative mutants of PERK or eIF2{alpha}, effectively restored RES-induced cell cycle arrest, underscoring the important role of PERK/eIF2{alpha} branch of UPR in RES-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  9. E1A inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling through binding to Smad proteins.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, A; Hanai, J; Imamura, T; Miyazono, K; Kawabata, M

    1999-10-01

    Smads form a recently identified family of proteins that mediate intracellular signaling of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily. Smads bind to DNA and act as transcriptional regulators. Smads interact with a variety of transcription factors, and the interaction is likely to determine the target specificity of gene induction. Smads also associate with transcriptional coactivators such as p300 and CBP. E1A, an adenoviral oncoprotein, inhibits TGF-beta-induced transactivation, and the ability of E1A to bind p300/CBP is required for the inhibition. Here we determined the Smad interaction domain (SID) in p300 and found that two adjacent regions are required for the interaction. One of the regions is the C/H3 domain conserved between p300 and CBP, and the other is a nonconserved region. p300 mutants containing SID inhibit transactivation by TGF-beta in a dose-dependent manner. E1A inhibits the interaction of Smad3 with a p300 mutant that contains SID but lacks the E1A binding domain. We found that E1A interacts specifically with receptor-regulated Smads, suggesting a novel mechanism whereby E1A antagonizes TGF-beta signaling. PMID:10497242

  10. A cationic tetrapyrrole inhibits toxic activities of the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Massignan, Tania; Cimini, Sara; Stincardini, Claudia; Cerovic, Milica; Vanni, Ilaria; Elezgarai, Saioa R.; Moreno, Jorge; Stravalaci, Matteo; Negro, Alessandro; Sangiovanni, Valeria; Restelli, Elena; Riccardi, Geraldina; Gobbi, Marco; Castilla, Joaquín; Borsello, Tiziana; Nonno, Romolo; Biasini, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into PrPSc, a self-replicating isoform (prion) that accumulates in the central nervous system of affected individuals. The structure of PrPSc is poorly defined, and likely to be heterogeneous, as suggested by the existence of different prion strains. The latter represents a relevant problem for therapy in prion diseases, as some potent anti-prion compounds have shown strain-specificity. Designing therapeutics that target PrPC may provide an opportunity to overcome these problems. PrPC ligands may theoretically inhibit the replication of multiple prion strains, by acting on the common substrate of any prion replication reaction. Here, we characterized the properties of a cationic tetrapyrrole [Fe(III)-TMPyP], which was previously shown to bind PrPC, and inhibit the replication of a mouse prion strain. We report that the compound is active against multiple prion strains in vitro and in cells. Interestingly, we also find that Fe(III)-TMPyP inhibits several PrPC-related toxic activities, including the channel-forming ability of a PrP mutant, and the PrPC-dependent synaptotoxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, which are associated with Alzheimer’s Disease. These results demonstrate that molecules binding to PrPC may produce a dual effect of blocking prion replication and inhibiting PrPC-mediated toxicity. PMID:26976106

  11. Protein kinase Cα inhibits myocardin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the promotion of myocardin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weizong; Wang, Nan; Li, Man; Gong, Huiqin; Liao, Xinghua; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Tongcun

    2015-09-01

    Myocardin plays a key role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the upstream signals that control the stability and transactivity of myocardin remain to be fully understood. The expression of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) also induces cardiac hypertrophy. An essential downstream molecule of PKCα, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, was reported to negatively regulate the activities of myocardin. But, the effect of cooperation between PKCα and myocardin and the potential molecular mechanism by which PKCα regulates myocardin-mediated cardiac hypertrophy are unclear. In this study, a luciferase assay was performed using H9C2 cells transfected with expression plasmids for PKCα and myocardin. Surprisingly, the results showed that PKCα inhibited the transcriptional activity of myocardin. PKCα inhibited myocardin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, demonstrated by the decrease in cell surface area and fetal gene expression, in cardiomyocyte cells overexpressing PKCα and myocardin. The potential mechanism underlying the inhibition effect of PKCα on the function of myocardin is further explored. PKCα directly promoted the basal phosphorylation of endogenous myocardin at serine and threonine residues. In myocardin-overexpressing cardiomyocyte cells, PKCα induced the excessive phosphorylation of myocardin, resulting in the degradation of myocardin and a transcriptional suppression of hypertrophic genes. These results demonstrated that PKCα inhibits myocardin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the promotion of myocardin phosphorylation. PMID:26206583

  12. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Elevates Brain Anandamide Levels and Produces Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Ralph, Brian P.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T.; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W.; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C.; Deutsch, Dale G.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:24705380

  13. The dynamical mechanism of auto-inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2011-07-01

    We use a novel normal mode analysis of an elastic network model drawn from configurations generated during microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the mechanism of auto-inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A recent X-ray and mutagenesis experiment (Chen, et al Nature 2009, 459, 1146) of the AMPK homolog S. Pombe sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1) has proposed a new conformational switch model involving the movement of the kinase domain (KD) between an inactive unphosphorylated open state and an active or semi-active phosphorylated closed state, mediated by the autoinhibitory domain (AID), and a similar mutagenesis study showed that rat AMPK has the same auto-inhibition mechanism. However, there is no direct dynamical evidence to support this model and it is not clear whether other functionally important local structural components are equally inhibited. By using the same SNF1 KD-AID fragment as that used in experiment, we show that AID inhibits the catalytic function by restraining the KD into an unproductive open conformation, thereby limiting local structural rearrangements, while mutations that disrupt the interactions between the KD and AID allow for both the local structural rearrangement and global interlobe conformational transition. Our calculations further show that the AID also greatly impacts the structuring and mobility of the activation loop. PMID:21814500

  14. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  15. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation rescues native folding in loss of function protein misfolding diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Song, Wensi; Brancati, Giovanna; Segatori, Laura

    2011-12-16

    Lysosomal storage disorders are often caused by mutations that destabilize native folding and impair trafficking of secretory proteins. We demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) prevents native folding of mutated lysosomal enzymes in patient-derived fibroblasts from two clinically distinct lysosomal storage disorders, namely Gaucher and Tay-Sachs disease. Prolonging ER retention via ERAD inhibition enhanced folding, trafficking, and activity of these unstable enzyme variants. Furthermore, combining ERAD inhibition with enhancement of the cellular folding capacity via proteostasis modulation resulted in synergistic rescue of mutated enzymes. ERAD inhibition was achieved by cell treatment with small molecules that interfere with recognition (kifunensine) or retrotranslocation (eeyarestatin I) of misfolded substrates. These different mechanisms of ERAD inhibition were shown to enhance ER retention of mutated proteins but were associated with dramatically different levels of ER stress, unfolded protein response activation, and unfolded protein response-induced apoptosis. PMID:22006919

  16. The cytochrome bd oxidase of Escherichia coli prevents respiratory inhibition by endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Sergey; Imlay, Karin R C; Imlay, James A

    2016-07-01

    When sulfur compounds are scarce or difficult to process, Escherichia coli adapts by inducing the high-level expression of sulfur-compound importers. If cystine then becomes available, the cystine is rapidly overimported and reduced, leading to a burgeoning pool of intracellular cysteine. Most of the excess cysteine is exported, but some is adventitiously degraded, with the consequent release of sulfide. Sulfide is a potent ligand of copper and heme moieties, raising the prospect that it interferes with enzymes. We observed that when cystine was provided and sulfide levels rose, E. coli became strictly dependent upon cytochrome bd oxidase for continued respiration. Inspection revealed that low-micromolar levels of sulfide inhibited the proton-pumping cytochrome bo oxidase that is regarded as the primary respiratory oxidase. In the absence of the back-up cytochrome bd oxidase, growth failed. Exogenous sulfide elicited the same effect. The potency of sulfide was enhanced when oxygen concentrations were low. Natural oxic-anoxic interfaces are often sulfidic, including the intestinal environment where E. coli dwells. We propose that the sulfide resistance of the cytochrome bd oxidase is a key trait that permits respiration in such habitats. PMID:26991114

  17. The case for inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Arabacilar, Pelin; Marber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This minireview discusses the evidence that the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPKs) maybe of therapeutic value in heart failure. Most previous experimental studies, as well as past and ongoing clinical trials, have focussed on the role of p38 MAPKs in myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndromes. There is now growing evidence that these kinases are activated within the myocardium of the failing human heart and in the heart and blood vessels of animal models of heart failure. Furthermore, from a philosophical viewpoint the chronic activation of the adaptive stress pathways that lead to the activation of p38 MAPKs in heart failure is analogous to the chronic activation of the sympathetic, renin-aldosterone-angiotensin and neprilysin systems. These have provided some of the most effective therapies for heart failure. This minireview questions whether similar and synergistic advantages would follow the inhibition of p38 MAPKs. PMID:26029107

  18. Silver nanoclusters-based fluorescence assay of protein kinase activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Xia, Xiaodong; Hu, Shengqiang; Yang, Minghui; Wang, Jianxiu

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive fluorescence method for monitoring the activity and inhibition of protein kinase (PKA) has been developed using polycytosine oligonucleotide (dC12)-templated silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) was found to enhance the fluorescence of Ag NCs, while the hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by PKA decreased the fluorescence of Ag NCs. Compared to the existing methods for kinase activity assay, the developed method does not involve phosphorylation of the substrate peptides, which significantly simplifies the detection procedures. The method exhibits high sensitivity, good selectivity, and wide linear range toward PKA detection. The inhibition effect of kinase inhibitor H-89 on the activity of PKA was also studied. The sensing protocol was also applied to the assay of drug-stimulated activation of PKA in HeLa cell lysates. PMID:25517425

  19. Zinc pyrithione inhibits yeast growth through copper influx and inactivation of iron-sulfur proteins.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Nancy L; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D; Schwartz, James R; Grant, Raymond A; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L; Saunders, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  20. Protein Folding-How and Why: By Hydrogen Exchange, Fragment Separation, and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Englander, S Walter; Mayne, Leland; Kan, Zhong-Yuan; Hu, Wenbing

    2016-07-01

    Advanced hydrogen exchange (HX) methodology can now determine the structure of protein folding intermediates and their progression in folding pathways. Key developments over time include the HX pulse labeling method with nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the fragment separation method, the addition to it of mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, and recent improvements in the HX MS technique and data analysis. Also, the discovery of protein foldons and their role supplies an essential interpretive link. Recent work using HX pulse labeling with MS analysis finds that a number of proteins fold by stepping through a reproducible sequence of native-like intermediates in an ordered pathway. The stepwise nature of the pathway is dictated by the cooperative foldon unit construction of the protein. The pathway order is determined by a sequential stabilization principle; prior native-like structure guides the formation of adjacent native-like structure. This view does not match the funneled energy landscape paradigm of a very large number of folding tracks, which was framed before foldons were known and is more appropriate for the unguided residue-level search to surmount an initial kinetic barrier rather than for the overall unfolded-state to native-state folding pathway. PMID:27145881

  1. Electron and Hydrogen Atom Transfers in the Hydride Carrier Protein EmoB.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Natacha; Lévy, Bernard; Moliner, Vicent; Demachy, Isabelle; de la Lande, Aurélien

    2014-11-11

    In this article, we investigate the mechanism of hydride transfer taking place within the EmoB protein of the Mesorhizobium species. The reaction involves the net transfer of one proton and two electrons from a reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor, which is anchored in the protein scaffold, to a diffusible oxidized FMN cofactor, both being held together by π-stacking interactions. To analyze the formal hydride transfer in terms of more elementary steps, electron transfer (ET), and hydrogen atom transfers (HAT), we employ a combination of classical molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid constrained Density Functional Theory/Molecular Mechanics (cDFT/MM) energy calculations to build the free energy profiles, for the ET before and after HAT occurs between the flavins. The main outcomes of our study are first to highlight the role of the protein in stabilizing the π-stacked FMN dimer and second to reveal the coupling between the ET and HAT. Before HAT has taken place, ET is unfavorable by 8 kcal/mol and become favorable by 8 kcal/mol after HAT. Our simulations show that such a coupling is not present for the analogous process in water (ET is almost athermal). This suggests a functional role for the protein matrix to ensure EmoB a role of hydride carrier in the Mesorhizobium species. PMID:26584385

  2. The expression of N-terminal deletion DNA pilot proteins inhibits the early stages of phiX174 replication.

    PubMed

    Ruboyianes, Mark V; Chen, Min; Dubrava, Mathew S; Cherwa, James E; Fane, Bentley A

    2009-10-01

    The phiX174 DNA pilot protein H contains four predicted C-terminal coiled-coil domains. The region of the gene encoding these structures was cloned, expressed in vivo, and found to strongly inhibit wild-type replication. DNA and protein synthesis was investigated in the absence of de novo H protein synthesis and in wild-type-infected cells expressing the inhibitory proteins (DeltaH). The expression of the DeltaH proteins interfered with early stages of DNA replication, which did not require de novo H protein synthesis, suggesting that the inhibitory proteins interfere with the wild-type H protein that enters the cell with the penetrating DNA. As transcription and protein synthesis are dependent on DNA replication in positive single-stranded DNA life cycles, viral protein synthesis was also reduced. However, unlike DNA synthesis, efficient viral protein synthesis required de novo H protein synthesis, a novel function for this protein. A single amino acid change in the C terminus of protein H was both necessary and sufficient to confer resistance to the inhibitory DeltaH proteins, restoring both DNA and protein synthesis to wild-type levels. DeltaH proteins derived from the resistant mutant did not inhibit wild-type or resistant mutant replication. The inhibitory effects of the DeltaH proteins were lessened by the coexpression of the internal scaffolding protein, which may suppress H-H protein interactions. While coexpression relieved the block in DNA biosynthesis, viral protein synthesis remained suppressed. These data indicate that protein H's role in DNA replication and stimulating viral protein synthesis can be uncoupled. PMID:19640994

  3. Soy protein films for wound-healing applications: antibiotic release, bacterial inhibition and cellular response.

    PubMed

    Peles, Zachi; Binderman, Itzhak; Berdicevsky, Israela; Zilberman, Meital

    2013-05-01

    Use of naturally derived materials is becoming widespread in the biomedical field. Soy protein has advantages over the various types of natural proteins employed for biomedical applications, due to its low price, non-animal origin and relatively long storage time and stability. In the current study, soy protein isolate (SPI) was investigated as a matrix for wound-dressing applications. The antibiotic drug gentamicin was incorporated into the matrix for local controlled release and thus continuous bactericidal effect. Homogeneous high-quality films were cast from aqueous solutions and tested for the effects of gentamicin release on bacterial inhibition. The cytotoxicity and in vitro biocompatibility of these films were also examined. The gentamicin release profiles exhibited a moderate burst effect followed by a decreasing release rate, which was maintained for at least 4 weeks, thus enabling a suitable bacterial inhibition effect. The materials released from the films during an indirect cytotoxicity test were found to be safe, except for a slight inhibitory effect in the presence of high concentrations of glycerol. The biocompatibility test showed confluent cell cultures in close proximity to the SPI films. It is clear that these new antibiotic-eluting SPI films exhibit a high potential for use as wound dressings. PMID:22411912

  4. N-(3-oxo-acyl) homoserine lactone inhibits tumor growth independent of Bcl-2 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Neely, Aaron M.; Schwarzer, Christian; Lu, Huayi; Whitt, Aaron G.; Stivers, Nicole S.; Burlison, Joseph A.; White, Carl; Machen, Terry E.; Li, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacterial communication. C12 has also been reported to induce apoptosis in various types of tumor cells. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of C12-triggerred tumor cell apoptosis is still unclear. In addition, it is completely unknown whether C12 possesses any potential therapeutic effects in vivo. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in tumor cells through inducing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Importantly, C12 inhibits tumor growth in animals regardless of either pro- or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, opposite to conventional chemotherapeutics, C12 requires paraoxonase 2 (PON2) to exert its cytotoxicity on tumor cells in vitro and its inhibitory effects on tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that C12 inhibits tumor growth independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, and through inducing unique apoptotic signaling mediated by PON2 in tumor cells. PMID:26758417

  5. Selective inhibition of unfolded protein response induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiao-Yang; Torres-Fernandez, Lucia A; Tan, Siew Zhuan; Xiao, Jinfen; Lim, Su Lin; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Kian Leong; Kitajima, Shojiro; Takao, Sumiko; Leong, Wei Zhong; Sun, Haibo; Tokatly, Itay; Poellinger, Lorenz; Gery, Sigal; Koeffler, Phillip H

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress from unfolded proteins is associated with the proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells, making the many regulatory molecules of this pathway appealing targets for therapy. The objective of our study was to assess potential therapeutic efficacy of inhibitors of unfolded protein response (UPR) in pancreatic cancers focusing on IRE1α inhibitors. IRE1α-mediated XBP-1 mRNA splicing encodes a transcription factor that enhances transcription of chaperone proteins in order to reverse UPR. Proliferation assays using a panel of 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines showed a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition by IRE1α-specific inhibitors (STF-083010, 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, 3-Ethoxy-5,6-dibromosalicylaldehyde, toyocamycin). Growth inhibition was also noted using a clonogenic growth assay in soft agar, as well as a xenograft in vivo model of pancreatic cancer. Cell cycle analysis showed that these IRE1α inhibitors caused growth arrest at either the G1 or G2/M phases (SU8686, MiaPaCa2) and induced apoptosis (Panc0327, Panc0403). Western blot analysis showed cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and prominent induction of the apoptotic molecule BIM. In addition, synergistic effects were found between either STF-083010, 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, 3-Ethoxy-5,6-dibromosalicylaldehyde, or toyocamycin and either gemcitabine or bortezomib. Our data suggest that use of an IRE1α inhibitor is a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of pancreatic cancers. PMID:24952679

  6. Selective inhibition of unfolded protein response induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wenwen; Ding, Ling-Wen; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Torres-Fernandez, Lucia A; Tan, Siew Zhuan; Xiao, Jinfen; Lim, Su Lin; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Kian Leong; Kitajima, Shojiro; Takao, Sumiko; Leong, Wei Zhong; Sun, Haibo; Tokatly, Itay; Poellinger, Lorenz; Gery, Sigal; Koeffler, Phillip H

    2014-07-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress from unfolded proteins is associated with the proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells, making the many regulatory molecules of this pathway appealing targets for therapy. The objective of our study was to assess potential therapeutic efficacy of inhibitors of unfolded protein response (UPR) in pancreatic cancers focusing on IRE1α inhibitors. IRE1α-mediated XBP-1 mRNA splicing encodes a transcription factor that enhances transcription of chaperone proteins in order to reverse UPR. Proliferation assays using a panel of 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines showed a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition by IRE1α-specific inhibitors (STF-083010, 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, 3-Ethoxy-5,6-dibromosalicylaldehyde, toyocamycin). Growth inhibition was also noted using a clonogenic growth assay in soft agar, as well as a xenograft in vivo model of pancreatic cancer. Cell cycle analysis showed that these IRE1α inhibitors caused growth arrest at either the G1 or G2/M phases (SU8686, MiaPaCa2) and induced apoptosis (Panc0327, Panc0403). Western blot analysis showed cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and prominent induction of the apoptotic molecule BIM. In addition, synergistic effects were found between either STF-083010, 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, 3-Ethoxy-5,6-dibromosalicylaldehyde, or toyocamycin and either gemcitabine or bortezomib. Our data suggest that use of an IRE1α inhibitor is a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of pancreatic cancers. PMID:24952679

  7. An imported thylakoid protein accumulates in the stroma when insertion into thylakoids is inhibited.

    PubMed

    Cline, K; Fulsom, D R; Viitanen, P V

    1989-08-25

    The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein (LHCP) is synthesized in the cytosol as a precursor (pLHCP) that is imported into chloroplasts and assembled into thylakoid membranes. Under appropriate conditions, either pLHCP or LHCP will integrate into isolated thylakoids. We have identified two situations that inhibit integration in this assay. Ionophores and uncouplers inhibited integration up to 70%. Carboxyl-terminal truncations of pLHCP also interfered with integration. A 22-residue truncation reduced integration to about 25% of control, whereas a 93 residue truncation completely abolished it. When pLHCP was imported into chloroplasts in the presence of uncouplers or when truncated forms of pLHCP were used, significant amounts of the imported proteins failed to insert into thylakoids and instead accumulated in the aqueous stroma. Accumulation of stromal LHCP occurred at uncoupler concentrations required to dissipate the trans-thylakoid proton electrochemical gradient and was enhanced at reduced levels of ATP. The latter effect may be a secondary consequence of a reduction in ATP-dependent degradation within the stroma. These results indicate that the stroma is an intermediate location in the LHCP assembly pathway and provide the first evidence for a soluble intermediate during biogenesis of a chloroplast membrane protein. PMID:2668283

  8. N-(3-oxo-acyl) homoserine lactone inhibits tumor growth independent of Bcl-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoping; Neely, Aaron M; Schwarzer, Christian; Lu, Huayi; Whitt, Aaron G; Stivers, Nicole S; Burlison, Joseph A; White, Carl; Machen, Terry E; Li, Chi

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacterial communication. C12 has also been reported to induce apoptosis in various types of tumor cells. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of C12-triggerred tumor cell apoptosis is still unclear. In addition, it is completely unknown whether C12 possesses any potential therapeutic effects in vivo. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in tumor cells through inducing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Importantly, C12 inhibits tumor growth in animals regardless of either pro- or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, opposite to conventional chemotherapeutics, C12 requires paraoxonase 2 (PON2) to exert its cytotoxicity on tumor cells in vitro and its inhibitory effects on tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that C12 inhibits tumor growth independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, and through inducing unique apoptotic signaling mediated by PON2 in tumor cells. PMID:26758417

  9. Sodium arsenite induces chromosome endoreduplication and inhibits protein phosphatase activity in human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Rong-Nan Huang; I-Ching Ho; Ling-Hui Yih

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic, strongly associated with increased risks of human cancers, is a potent clastogen in a variety of mammalian cell systems. The effect of sodium arsenite (a trivalent arsenic compound) on chromatid separation was studied in human skin fibroblasts (HFW). Human fibroblasts were arrested in S phase by the aid of serum starvation and aphidicolin blocking and then these cells were allowed to synchronously progress into G2 phase. Treatment of the G2-enriched HFW cells with sodium arsenite (0-200 {mu}M) resulted in arrest of cells in the G2 phase, interference with mitotic division, inhibition of spindle assembly, and induction of chromosome endoreduplication in their second mitosis. Sodium arsenite treatment also inhibited the activities of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and enhanced phosphorylation levels of a small heat shock protein (HSP27). These results suggest that sodium arsenite may mimic okadaic acid to induce chromosome endoreduplication through its inhibitory effect on protein phosphatase activity. 61 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Insulin attenuates atrophy of unweighted soleus muscle by amplified inhibition of protein degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Satarug, S.; Aannestad, A.; Munoz, K. A.; Henriksen, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    Unweighting atrophy of immature soleus muscle occurs rapidly over the first several days, followed by slower atrophy coinciding with increased sensitivity to insulin of in vitro protein metabolism. This study determined whether this increased sensitivity might account for the diminution of atrophy after 3 days of tall-cast hindlimb suspension. The physiological significance of the increased response to insulin in unweighted muscle was evaluated by analyzing in vivo protein metabolism for day 3 (48 to 72 hours) and day 4 (72 to 96 hours) of unweighting in diabetic animals either injected with insulin or not treated. Soleus from nontreated diabetic animals showed a similar loss of protein during day 3 (-16.2%) and day 4 (-14.5%) of unweighting, whereas muscle from insulin-treated animals showed rapid atrophy (-14.5%) during day 3 only, declining to just -3.1% the next day. Since fractional protein synthesis was similar for both day 3 (8.6%/d) and day 4 (7.0%/d) of unweighting in insulin-treated animals, the reduction in protein loss must be accounted for by a slowing of protein degradation due to circulating insulin. Intramuscular (IM) injection of insulin (600 nmol/L) stimulated in situ protein synthesis similarly in 4-day unweighted (+56%) and weight-bearing (+90%) soleus, even though unweighted muscle showed a greater in situ response of 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose uptake to IM injection of either insulin (133 nmol/L) or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (200 nmol/L) than control muscle. These findings suggest that unweighted muscle is selectively more responsive in vivo to insulin, and that the slower atrophy after 3 days of unweighting was due to an increased effect of insulin on inhibiting protein degradation.

  11. Inhibition of interleukin-6 expression by the V protein of parainfluenza virus 5

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Yuan; Sun Minghao; Fuentes, Sandra M.; Keim, Celia D.; Rothermel, Terri; He Biao

    2007-11-25

    The V protein of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) plays an important role in the evasion of host immune responses. The V protein blocks interferon (IFN) signaling in human cells by causing degradation of the STAT1 protein, a key component of IFN signaling, and blocks IFN-{beta} production by preventing nuclear translocation of IRF3, a key transcription factor for activating IFN-{beta} promoter. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and IL-1{beta}, is a major proinflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in clearing virus infection through inflammatory responses. Many viruses have developed strategies to block IL-6 expression. Wild-type PIV5 infection induces little, if any, expression of cytokines such as IL-6 or TNF-{alpha}, whereas infection by a mutant PIV5 lacking the conserved C-terminal cysteine rich domain (rPIV5V{delta}C) induced high levels of IL-6 expression. Examination of mRNA levels of IL-6 indicated that the transcription activation of IL-6 played an important role in the increased IL-6 expression. Co-infection with wild-type PIV5 prevented the activation of IL-6 transcription by rPIV5V{delta}C, and a plasmid encoding the full-length PIV5 V protein prevented the activation of IL-6 promoter-driven reporter gene expression by rPIV5V{delta}C, indicating that the V protein played a role in inhibiting IL-6 transcription. The activation of IL-6 was independent of IFN-{beta} even though rPIV5V{delta}C-infected cells produced IFN-{beta}. Using reporter gene assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), it was found that NF-{kappa}B played an important role in activating expression of IL-6. We have proposed a model of activating and inhibiting IL-6 transcription by PIV5.

  12. Activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by epigenetically inhibiting the redox enzyme p66Shc

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Fabian; Shahzad, Khurrum; Wang, Hongjie; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Wolter, Juliane; Dong, Wei; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Kashif, Muhammed; Ranjan, Satish; Schmidt, Simone; Ritzel, Robert; Schwenger, Vedat; Reymann, Klaus G.; Esmon, Charles T.; Madhusudhan, Thati; Nawroth, Peter P.; Isermann, Berend

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease activated protein C (aPC) confers cytoprotective effects in various in vitro and in vivo disease models, including diabetic nephropathy. The nephroprotective effect may be related to antioxidant effects of aPC. However, the mechanism through which aPC may convey these antioxidant effects and the functional relevance of these properties remain unknown. Here, we show that endogenous and exogenous aPC prevents glomerular accumulation of oxidative stress markers and of the redox-regulating protein p66Shc in experimental diabetic nephropathy. These effects were predominately observed in podocytes. In vitro, aPC inhibited glucose-induced expression of p66Shc mRNA and protein in podocytes (via PAR-1 and PAR-3) and various endothelial cell lines, but not in glomerular endothelial cells. Treatment with aPC reversed glucose-induced hypomethylation and hyperacetylation of the p66Shc promoter in podocytes. The hyperacetylating agent sodium butyrate abolished the suppressive effect of aPC on p66Shc expression both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, sodium butyrate abolished the beneficial effects of aPC in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Inhibition of p66Shc expression and mitochondrial translocation by aPC normalized mitochondrial ROS production and the mitochondrial membrane potential in glucose-treated podocytes. Genetic ablation of p66Shc compensated for the loss of protein C activation in vivo, normalizing markers of diabetic nephropathy and oxidative stress. These studies identify a unique mechanism underlying the cytoprotective effect of aPC. Activated PC epigenetically controls expression of the redox-regulating protein p66Shc, thus linking the extracellular protease aPC to mitochondrial function in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23267072

  13. The Matricellular Protein CCN1 Suppresses Hepatocarcinogenesis by Inhibiting Compensatory Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chiun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lau, Lester F.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is on the rise in the United States. Previous studies showed that the matricellular protein CCN1 (CYR61) is induced during hepatic injuries and functions to restrict and resolve liver fibrosis. Here we show that CCN1 suppresses hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting carcinogen-induced compensatory hepatocyte proliferation, thus limiting the expansion of damaged and potentially oncogenic hepatocytes. Consistent with tumor suppression, CCN1 expression is down-regulated in human HCC. Ccn1ΔHep mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Ccn1 suffer increased HCC tumor multiplicity induced by the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosoamine (DEN). Knockin mice (Ccn1dm/dm) that express an integrin α6β1-binding defective CCN1 phenocopied Ccn1ΔHep mice, indicating that CCN1 acts through its α6β1 binding sites in this context. CCN1 effectively inhibits EGFR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation through integrin α6-mediated accumulation of reaction oxygen species (ROS), thereby triggering p53 activation and cell cycle block. Consequently, Ccn1dm/dm mice exhibit diminished p53 activation and elevated compensatory hepatocyte proliferation, resulting in increased HCC. Furthermore, we show that a single dose of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib delivered prior to DEN-induced injury was sufficient to block compensatory proliferation and annihilate development of HCC nodules observed 8 months later, suggesting potential chemoprevention by targeting CCN1-inhibitable EGFR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation. Together, these results show that CCN1 is an injury response protein that functions not only to restrict fibrosis in the liver, but also to suppress hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting EGFR-dependent hepatocyte compensatory proliferation. PMID:26028023

  14. Inhibition of radiation induced dissolution of UO2 by sulfide - A comparison with the hydrogen effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Miao; Barreiro Fidalgo, Alexandre; Sundin, Sara; Jonsson, Mats

    2013-03-01

    In this work we have studied the influence of H2S on radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel using simple model systems. The reaction between H2O2 and H2S/HS- has been studied experimentally as well as the effect of H2S/HS- on γ-radiation induced dissolution of a UO2 pellet. The experiments clearly show that the reaction of H2O2 and H2S/HS- is fairly rapid and that H2O2 and H2S/HS- stoichiometry is favorable for inhibition. Radiolysis experiments show that H2S/HS- can effectively protect UO2 from oxidative dissolution. The effect depends on sulfide concentration in combination with dose rate. Autoclave experiments were also conducted to study the role of H2S/HS- in the reduction of U(VI) in the presence and absence of H2 and Pd particles in anoxic aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions were pressurized with H2 or N2 and two different concentrations of H2S/HS- were used in the presence and absence of Pd. No catalytic effect of Pd on the U(VI) reduction by H2S/HS- could be found in N2 atmosphere. U(VI) reduction was found to be proportional to H2S/HS- concentration in H2 and N2 atmosphere. It is clearly shown the Pd catalyzed H2 effect is more powerful than the effect of H2S/HS-. H2S/HS- poisoning of the Pd catalyst is not observed under the present conditions.

  15. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N.; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (β-Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc-(1→4)[α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (α-Gal-(1→4)-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc) and CD-grease (α-Gal-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  16. Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition enhances airway epithelial Basal-cell proliferation and lentivirus transduction.

    PubMed

    Horani, Amjad; Nath, Aditya; Wasserman, Mollie G; Huang, Tao; Brody, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    The identification of factors that regulate airway epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation are essential for understanding the pathophysiology of airway diseases. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are downstream effector proteins of RhoA GTPase that direct the functions of cell cytoskeletal proteins. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 has been shown to enhance the survival and cloning of human embryonic stem cells and pluripotent cells in other tissues. We hypothesized that Y27632 treatment exerts a similar effect on airway epithelial basal cells, which function as airway epithelial progenitor cells. Treatment with Y27632 enhanced basal-cell proliferation in cultured human tracheobronchial and mouse tracheal epithelial cells. ROCK inhibition accelerated the maturation of basal cells, characterized by a diminution of the cell size associated with cell compaction and the expression of E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. Transient treatment of cultured basal cells with Y27632 did not affect subsequent ciliated or mucous cell differentiation under air-liquid interface conditions, and allowed for the initial use of lower numbers of human or mouse primary airway epithelial cells than otherwise possible. Moreover, the use of Y27632 during lentivirus-mediated transduction significantly improved posttransduction efficiency and the selection of a transduced cell population, as determined by reporter gene expression. These findings suggest an important role for ROCKs in the regulation of proliferation and maturation of epithelial basal cells, and demonstrate that the inhibition of ROCK pathways using Y27632 provides an adjunctive tool for the in vitro genetic manipulation of airway epithelial cells by lentivirus vectors. PMID:23713995

  17. Effective protein inhibition in intact mouse oocytes through peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruichao; Jin, Zhen; Gao, Leilei; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Female meiosis is a fundamental area of study in reproductive medicine, and the mouse oocyte model of in vitro maturation (IVM) is most widely used to study female meiosis. To investigate the probable role(s) of an unknown protein in female meiosis, the method traditionally used involves microinjecting a specific antibody into mouse oocytes. Recently, in studies on somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection has become a popular tool because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, untill now no researchers have tried using this technique on mouse oocytes because the zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane) is usually thought or proved to be a tough barrier to macromolecules such as antibodies and proteins. Therefore, we attempted to introduce an antibody into mouse oocytes using a peptide nanoparticle. Here we show for the first time that with our optimized method, an antibody can be effectively delivered into mouse oocytes and inhibit its target protein with high specificity. We obtained significant results using small GTPase Arl2 as a test subject protein. We propose peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection to be a superior alternative to antibody microinjection for preliminary functional studies of unknown proteins in mouse oocytes. PMID:27114861

  18. 3C protein of feline coronavirus inhibits viral replication independently of the autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Li-En; Huang, Wei-Pang; Tang, Da-Jay; Wang, Ying-Ting; Chen, Ching-Tang; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-12-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) can cause either asymptomatic enteric infection or fatal peritonitis in cats. Although the mutation of FCoV accessory gene 3c has been suggested to be related to the occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), how the 3C protein is involved in this phenomenon remains unknown. To investigate the role of the 3C protein, a full-length 3c gene was transiently expressed and the cytoplasmic distribution of the protein was found to be primarily in the perinuclear region. Using 3c-stable expression cells, the replication of a 3c-defective FCoV strain was titrated and a significant decrease in replication (p<0.05) was observed. The mechanism underlying the decreased FIPV replication caused by the 3C protein was further investigated; neither the induction nor inhibition of autophagy rescued the viral replication. Taken together, our data suggest that the 3C protein might have a virulence-suppressing effect in FCoV-infected cats. Deletion of the 3c gene could therefore cause more efficient viral replication, which leads to a fatal infection. PMID:24050534

  19. The inhibition of IGF-1 signaling promotes proteostasis by enhancing protein aggregation and deposition.

    PubMed

    Moll, Lorna; Ben-Gedalya, Tziona; Reuveni, Hadas; Cohen, Ehud

    2016-04-01

    The discovery that the alteration of aging by reducing the activity of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) cascade protects nematodes and mice from neurodegeneration-linked, toxic protein aggregation (proteotoxicity) raises the prospect that IIS inhibitors bear therapeutic potential to counter neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that NT219, a highly efficient IGF-1 signaling inhibitor, protects model worms from the aggregation of amyloid β peptide and polyglutamine peptides that are linked to the manifestation of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, respectively. Here, we employed cultured cell systems to investigate whether NT219 promotes protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in mammalian cells and to explore its underlying mechanisms. We found that NT219 enhances the aggregation of misfolded prion protein and promotes its deposition in quality control compartments known as "aggresomes." NT219 also elevates the levels of certain molecular chaperones but, surprisingly, reduces proteasome activity and impairs autophagy. Our findings show that IGF-1 signaling inhibitors in general and NT219 in particular can promote proteostasis in mammalian cells by hyperaggregating hazardous proteins, thereby bearing the potential to postpone the onset and slow the progression of neurodegenerative illnesses in the elderly.-Moll, L., Ben-Gedalya, T., Reuveni, H., Cohen, E. The inhibition of IGF-1 signaling promotes proteostasis by enhancing protein aggregation and deposition. PMID:26722006

  20. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; Ramanathan, Arvind; Zhang, Weixing; Shelat, Anang A.; Zuo, Jian; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2015-10-28

    In disordered proteins we see that they are highly prevalent in biological systems. They control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Moreover, two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups ofmore » small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule: disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of- principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A).« less

  1. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; Ramanathan, Arvind; Zhang, Weixing; Shelat, Anang A.; Zuo, Jian; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Disordered proteins are highly prevalent in biological systems, they control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule:disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of-principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A). PMID:26507530

  2. Schisandrae fructus enhances myogenic differentiation and inhibits atrophy through protein synthesis in human myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cy Hyun; Shin, Jin-Hong; Hwang, Sung Jun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Kim, Cheol Min

    2016-01-01

    Schisandrae fructus (SF) has recently been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit atrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of SF extract on human myotube differentiation and its acting pathway. Various concentrations (0.1–10 μg/mL) of SF extract were applied on human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Myotube area and fusion index were measured to quantify myotube differentiation. The maximum effect was observed at 0.5 μg/mL of SF extract, enhancing differentiation up to 1.4-fold in fusion index and 1.6-fold in myotube area at 8 days after induction of differentiation compared to control. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which initiate translation as downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, was upregulated in early phases of differentiation after SF treatment. SF also attenuated dexamethasone-induced atrophy. In conclusion, we show that SF augments myogenic differentiation and attenuates atrophy by increasing protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 signaling pathway in human myotubes. SF can be a useful natural dietary supplement in increasing skeletal muscle mass, especially in the aged with sarcopenia and the patients with disuse atrophy. PMID:27330287

  3. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    SciTech Connect

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; Ramanathan, Arvind; Zhang, Weixing; Shelat, Anang A.; Zuo, Jian; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2015-10-28

    In disordered proteins we see that they are highly prevalent in biological systems. They control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Moreover, two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule: disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of- principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A).

  4. Curcumin Triggers DNA Damage and Inhibits Expression of DNA Repair Proteins in Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Liu, Yu-Chang; Chiang, I-Tsang

    2015-07-01

    The study goal was to evaluate the effects of curcumin on DNA damage and expression of DNA-repair proteins in human lung cancer. Thus, NCI-H460 cells were used to study the effects of curcumin on DNA damage and repair in vitro. We investigated curcumin induces DNA damage by comet the assay and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The DNA damage/repair-related protein levels were examined and monitored by western blotting and confocal microscopy. Curcumin significantly increased the length of comet tails and DNA condensation in NCI-H460 cells. Curcumin reduced expression of DNA-repair proteins such as 14-3-3 protein sigma (14-3-3σ), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1). Curcumin also increased phosphorylation of p53 and Histone H2A.X (S140) in the nuclei of NCI-H460 cells. Taken together, our findings indicated that curcumin triggered DNA damage and inhibited expression of DNA-repair-associated proteins in NCI-H460 cells. PMID:26124332

  5. Schisandrae fructus enhances myogenic differentiation and inhibits atrophy through protein synthesis in human myotubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cy Hyun; Shin, Jin-Hong; Hwang, Sung Jun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Kim, Cheol Min

    2016-01-01

    Schisandrae fructus (SF) has recently been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit atrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of SF extract on human myotube differentiation and its acting pathway. Various concentrations (0.1-10 μg/mL) of SF extract were applied on human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Myotube area and fusion index were measured to quantify myotube differentiation. The maximum effect was observed at 0.5 μg/mL of SF extract, enhancing differentiation up to 1.4-fold in fusion index and 1.6-fold in myotube area at 8 days after induction of differentiation compared to control. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which initiate translation as downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, was upregulated in early phases of differentiation after SF treatment. SF also attenuated dexamethasone-induced atrophy. In conclusion, we show that SF augments myogenic differentiation and attenuates atrophy by increasing protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 signaling pathway in human myotubes. SF can be a useful natural dietary supplement in increasing skeletal muscle mass, especially in the aged with sarcopenia and the patients with disuse atrophy. PMID:27330287

  6. Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling reduces vascular calcification and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Derwall, Matthias; Malhotra, Rajeev; Lai, Carol S; Beppu, Yuko; Aikawa, Elena; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Zapol, Warren M; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Yu, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is enhanced in human atherosclerotic and calcific vascular lesions. While genetic gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mice have supported a causal role of BMP signaling in atherosclerosis and vascular calcification, it remains uncertain whether BMP signaling might be targeted pharmacologically to ameliorate both of these processes. Methods and Results We tested the impact of pharmacologic BMP inhibition upon atherosclerosis and calcification in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR−/−) mice. LDLR−/− mice fed a high-fat diet developed abundant vascular calcification within twenty weeks. Prolonged treatment of LDLR−/− mice with the small molecule BMP inhibitor LDN-193189 was well-tolerated and potently inhibited development of atheroma, as well as associated vascular inflammation, osteogenic activity, and calcification. Administration of recombinant BMP antagonist ALK3-Fc replicated the anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects of LDN-193189. Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc abrogated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by oxidized LDL, a known early event in atherogenesis. Unexpectedly, treatment of mice with LDN-193189 lowered LDL serum cholesterol by 35% and markedly decreased hepatosteatosis without inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity. Treatment with BMP2 increased, whereas LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc inhibited apolipoprotein B100 secretion in HepG2 cells, suggesting that BMP signaling contributes to the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Conclusions These results definitively implicate BMP signaling in atherosclerosis and calcification, while uncovering a previously unidentified role for BMP signaling in LDL cholesterol metabolism. BMP inhibition may be helpful in the treatment of atherosclerosis and associated vascular calcification. PMID:22223731

  7. Inhibition of polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase by synthetic musks induces cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ayuk-Takem, Lambert; Amissah, Felix; Aguilar, Byron J; Lamango, Nazarius S

    2014-04-01

    Synthetic fragrances are persistent environmental pollutants that tend to bioaccumulate in animal tissues. They are widely used in personal care products and cleaning agents. Worldwide production of Galaxolide and Tonalide are in excess of 4500 tons annually. Because of their widespread production and use, they have been detected in surface waters and fish in the US and Europe. Consumption of contaminated water and fish from such sources leads to bioaccumulation and eventual toxicity. Since fragrances and flavors bear structural similarities to polyisoprenes, it was of interest to determine whether toxicity by Galaxolide and Tonalide may be linked with polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase) inhibition. A concentration-dependent study of PMPMEase inhibition by Galaxolide and Tonalide as well as their effects on the degeneration of cultured cells were conducted. Galaxolide and Tonalide inhibited purified porcine liver PMPMEase with Ki values of 11 and 14 μM, respectively. Galaxolide and Tonalide also induced human cancer cell degeneration with EC50 values of 26 and 98 μM (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells) and 58 and 14 μM (lung cancer A549 cells), respectively. The effects on cell viability correlate well with the inhibition of PMPMEase activity in the cultured cells. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the binding interactions are most likely between the fragrance molecules and hydrophobic amino acids in the active site of the enzyme. These results appear to suggest that the reported neurotoxicity of these compounds may be associated with their inhibition of PMPMEase. Exposure to fragrances may pose a significant risk to individuals predisposed to developing degenerative disorders. PMID:22489002

  8. Sestrin2 inhibits uncoupling protein 1 expression through suppressing reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Seung-Hyun; Nam, Myeongjin; Jang, Insook; Park, Hwan-Woo; Park, Haeli; Semple, Ian A.; Kim, Myungjin; Kim, Jeong Sig; Park, Haewon; Einat, Paz; Damari, Golda; Golikov, Maya; Feinstein, Elena; Lee, Jun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), which is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane of mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT), generates heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. Upon cold exposure or nutritional abundance, sympathetic neurons stimulate BAT to express Ucp1 to induce energy dissipation and thermogenesis. Accordingly, increased Ucp1 expression reduces obesity in mice and is correlated with leanness in humans. Despite this significance, there is currently a limited understanding of how Ucp1 expression is physiologically regulated at the molecular level. Here, we describe the involvement of Sestrin2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulation of Ucp1 expression. Transgenic overexpression of Sestrin2 in adipose tissues inhibited both basal and cold-induced Ucp1 expression in interscapular BAT, culminating in decreased thermogenesis and increased fat accumulation. Endogenous Sestrin2 is also important for suppressing Ucp1 expression because BAT from Sestrin2−/− mice exhibited a highly elevated level of Ucp1 expression. The redox-inactive mutant of Sestrin2 was incapable of regulating Ucp1 expression, suggesting that Sestrin2 inhibits Ucp1 expression primarily through reducing ROS accumulation. Consistently, ROS-suppressing antioxidant chemicals, such as butylated hydroxyanisole and N-acetylcysteine, inhibited cold- or cAMP-induced Ucp1 expression as well. p38 MAPK, a signaling mediator required for cAMP-induced Ucp1 expression, was inhibited by either Sestrin2 overexpression or antioxidant treatments. Taken together, these results suggest that Sestrin2 and antioxidants inhibit Ucp1 expression through suppressing ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation, implying a critical role of ROS in proper BAT metabolism. PMID:24825887

  9. Elastase inhibition by the C-terminal domains of alpha-crystallin and small heat-shock protein.

    PubMed

    Voorter, C E; de Haard-Hoekman, W; Merck, K B; Bloemendal, H; de Jong, W W

    1994-01-11

    alpha-Crystallin, an abundant eye-lens protein and a stress protein in other tissues, shows structural and functional similarities with the small heat-shock proteins. One of the properties in common is the inhibition of elastase. We now report that the separated subunits of alpha-crystallin, alpha A and alpha B, also exhibit elastase inhibition, whereas phosphorylation of these subunits apparently has no influence on the inhibitory capacity. Furthermore, for both alpha A-crystallin and mouse HSP25 the putative C-terminal structural domain, comprising the major region of homology between these proteins, is sufficient to give elastase inhibition. With database search no homology could be found between the three proteins under investigation and any of the known consensus sequences of proteinase inhibitor families. PMID:8305474

  10. Genetically engineered endostatin-lidamycin fusion proteins effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endostatin (ES) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. It also shows antiangiogenesis and antitumor activities in several animal models. Endostatin specifically targets tumor vasculature to block tumor growth. Lidamycin (LDM), which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a non-covalently bound apo-protein (LDP), is a member of chromoprotein family of antitumor antibiotics with extremely potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that endostatin-lidamycin (ES-LDM) fusion proteins upon energizing with enediyne chromophore may obtain the combined capability targeting tumor vasculature and tumor cell by respective ES and LDM moiety. Methods In this study, we designed and obtained two new endostatin-based fusion proteins, endostatin-LDP (ES-LDP) and LDP-endostatin (LDP-ES). In vitro, the antiangiogenic effect of fusion proteins was determined by the wound healing assay and tube formation assay and the cytotoxicity of their enediyne-energized analogs was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. Tissue microarray was used to analyze the binding affinity of LDP, ES or ES-LDP with specimens of human lung tissue and lung tumor. The in vivo efficacy of the fusion proteins was evaluated with human lung carcinoma PG-BE1 xenograft and the experimental metastasis model of 4T1-luc breast cancer. Results ES-LDP and LDP-ES disrupted the formation of endothelial tube structures and inhibited endothelial cell migration. Evidently, ES-LDP accumulated in the tumor and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. ES-LDP and ES show higher binding capability than LDP to lung carcinoma; in addition, ES-LDP and ES share similar binding capability. Furthermore, the enediyne-energized fusion protein ES-LDP-AE demonstrated significant efficacy against lung carcinoma xenograft in athymic mice. Conclusions The ES-based fusion protein therapy provides some fundamental information for further drug development. Targeting both tumor

  11. Phyllostachys edulis Compounds Inhibit Palmitic Acid-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) Production

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jason K.; Liang, Zhibin; Williams, Philip G.; Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae) is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA), a FFA. Methodology/Principal Findings MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX) inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. Conclusions/Significance PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible therapeutic

  12. The purification of a novel amylase from Bacillus subtilis and its inhibition by wheat proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, A R; Ade, P; Di Maggio, D; Fanelli, C; Vittozzi, L

    1983-01-01

    A new alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) from Bacillus subtilis was purified by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme, estimated from sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, was 93000, which is very different from the molecular weights of two well-characterized amylases from B. subtilis. Electrofocusing showed an isoelectric point of 5. Amylase shows a broad maximum of activity between pH 6 and 7; maximal inhibition of enzyme by wheat-protein alpha-amylase inhibitors is displayed at pH 7. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6189482

  13. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome by Tildipirosin Compared with Other Veterinary Macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis on the ribosome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.23 ± 0.01 μM) and compared it with the established veterinary macrolides tylosin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin. Mutation and methylation at key rRNA nucleotides revealed differences in the interactions of these macrolides within their common ribosomal binding site. PMID:22926570

  14. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting the expression of peroxiredoxin III in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Lin, Xiao-Long; Yuan, Cong; He, Jun; Tan, Tian-Ping; Wu, Shao-Jian; Yu, Shan; Chen, Li; Liu, Jun; Tian, Wei; Chen, Yu-Dan; Fu, Hong-Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, which can give rise to severe cardiotoxicity, limiting its clinical use. Preliminary evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may exert protective effects on DOX‑induced cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether peroxiredoxin III is involved in the cardioprotection of H2S against DOX‑induced cardiotoxicity. The results demonstrated that DOX not only markedly induced injuries, including cytotoxicity and apoptosis, it also increased the expression levels of peroxiredoxin III. Notably, pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide significantly attenuated the DOX‑induced decrease in cell viability and increase in a