Sample records for proteus mirabilis pseudomonas

  1. Collaborative Surface Migration Behavior of Proteus mirabilis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2008-11-07

    Collaborative migration behavior exerted by Proteus mirabilis cells on the surface of a low-agar medium. The organisms were differentiating into elongated hyperflagellates and gathering for migration.

  2. [Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    Qadripur, S A; Schauder, S; Schwartz, P

    2001-07-01

    Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis were seen in a motor mechanic and in a petrol pump attendant. Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that generates hydrogen sulfide. This compound reacts with traces of metals in the nail plate such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin, copper and lead. Metal sulfides blacken the nail plate. The protracted course of the discoloration over months corresponds to the slow reactions of metals with hydrogen sulfide. The disappearance of the blackening after topical treatment with chinosol, tincture of iodine and chloramphenicol solution supports the etiologic connection between black nails and Proteus mirabilis. Wet and dirty work encourages the colonisation of Proteus mirabilis between nail fold and nail plate. PMID:11475651

  3. Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies

    E-print Network

    Xue, Chuan

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: ...

  4. Meningitis Caused by Proteus mirabilis: The Evaluation of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazif ELALDI; Ayça T. ERGÜR; Hakan ALAGÖZLÜ; Mustafa Z. BAKICI

    SUMMARY Proteus mirabilis is a rare cause of meningitis, especially in the neonatal period. In this report, a thirteen year old female patient who was admitted with meningitis complaints to our hospital and lost during the treatment, has been presented.

  5. Draft Genome Assemblies of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Chertkov, O.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic swarming bacilli of the genus Proteus are common human gut commensal organisms but also the causative agents of recurrent urinary tract infections and bacteremia. We sequenced and assembled the 3.99-Mbp genome of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 (accession no. JOVJ00000000) and the 3.97-Mbp genome of Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132 (accession no. JPIX00000000), both of which are commonly used reference strains. PMID:25342681

  6. Functional Identification of the Proteus mirabilis Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes?

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Azevedo, Joana; Jimenez, Natalia; Bouamama, Lamiaa; Tomás, Juan M.; Regué, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report the identification of genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of two strains of Proteus mirabilis. Since P. mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. mirabilis genes was elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined mutants of K. pneumoniae. The functions of strain-specific outer-core genes were identified by using as surrogate acceptors LPSs from two well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. This approach allowed the identification of two new heptosyltransferases (WamA and WamC), a galactosyltransferase (WamB), and an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (WamD). In both strains, most of these genes were found in the so-called waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wabO) was found outside this cluster. PMID:20622068

  7. Crystal Structure of Proteus mirabilis Lipase, a Novel Lipase from the Proteus/Psychrophilic Subfamily of Lipase Family I.1

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Tyler P.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipases from family I.1 and I.2 catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol between 25–45°C and are used extensively as biocatalysts. The lipase from Proteus mirabilis belongs to the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1 and is a promising catalyst for biodiesel production because it can tolerate high amounts of water in the reaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase, a member of the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of I.1lipases. The structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase was solved in the absence and presence of a bound phosphonate inhibitor. Unexpectedly, both the apo and inhibitor bound forms of P. mirabilis lipase were found to be in a closed conformation. The structure reveals a unique oxyanion hole and a wide active site that is solvent accessible even in the closed conformation. A distinct mechanism for Ca2+ coordination may explain how these lipases can fold without specific chaperones. PMID:23300806

  8. New aspects of RpoE in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Tsai, Yi-Lin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen causing recurrent or persistent urinary tract infections (UTIs). The underlying mechanisms for P. mirabilis to establish UTIs are not fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that loss of the sigma factor E (RpoE), mediating extracytoplasmic stress responses, decreased fimbria expression, survival in macrophages, cell invasion, and colonization in mice but increased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression of urothelial cells and swarming motility. This is the first study to demonstrate that RpoE modulated expression of MR/P fimbriae by regulating mrpI, a gene encoding a recombinase controlling the orientation of MR/P fimbria promoter. By real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we found that the IL-8 mRNA amount of urothelial cells was induced significantly by lipopolysaccharides extracted from rpoE mutant but not from the wild type. These RpoE-associated virulence factors should be coordinately expressed to enhance the fitness of P. mirabilis in the host, including the avoidance of immune attacks. Accordingly, rpoE mutant-infected mice displayed more immune cell infiltration in bladders and kidneys during early stages of infection, and the rpoE mutant had a dramatically impaired ability of colonization. Moreover, it is noteworthy that urea (the major component in urine) and polymyxin B (a cationic antimicrobial peptide) can induce expression of rpoE by the reporter assay, suggesting that RpoE might be activated in the urinary tract. Altogether, our results indicate that RpoE is important in sensing environmental cues of the urinary tract and subsequently triggering the expression of virulence factors, which are associated with the fitness of P. mirabilis, to build up a UTI. PMID:25547796

  9. Characterization and spectral properties of Proteus mirabilis PR catalase.

    PubMed

    Jouve, H M; Gaillard, J; Pelmont, J

    1984-10-01

    Purified catalase from a peroxide-resistant mutant (PR) of Proteus mirabilis displayed great similarities with the bovine liver catalase on the basis of its amino acid composition, content in prosthetic groups, and spectroscopic data. The bacterial enzyme was found to have 2.6 +/- 0.2 mol of protoheme IX per tetramer, with an equivalent amount of titrable iron atoms. The optical absorption of P. mirabilis PR catalase in the presence of various anionic species (cyanide, azide, formate) was examined. The dissociation constant of the formate-enzyme complex was determined as 60 +/- 2 mM at pH 7.5. Inhibition and spectral shifts induced by some thiol compounds were very similar to those reported with mammalian catalase. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra (at 9 GHz and 6 K) of bacterial catalase and its various complexes were reported. Two major different rhombic high-spin ferric signals could be seen in the g = 6 region, using either the pure enzyme or the cell crude extract. The balance between the two rhombic forms was reversibly altered by pH. Various changes in rhombicity were also observed after binding with anionic ligands. The EPR spectrum (at 40 K) of nitrosyl ferrous catalase was very similar to reported data with horse liver catalase. PMID:6095975

  10. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  11. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

  12. Molecular analysis of a metalloprotease from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Wassif, C; Cheek, D; Belas, R

    1995-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is known for its ability to differentiate from swimmer to swarmer cells, a process crucial for the pathogenesis of these bacteria during urinary tract infections. Among the many virulence factors produced during swarmer cell differentiation is an extracellular metalloprotease. A cosmid containing a large fragment of P. mirabilis chromosomal DNA was obtained by measuring protease expression in recombinant Escherichia coli. The recombinant and native enzymes were purified to over 95% homogeneity from culture supernatants by use of phenyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography and found to be identical. The activity of the 55-kDa enzyme was stimulated by divalent cations (Ca2+ > Mg2+) and inhibited by a chelator of these cations. The enzyme possesses substrate specificity for both serum and secretory forms of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and IgA2 as well as IgG and, unlike classic IgA proteases, digested to completion both human and mouse IgA. Following subcloning, a 5-kb DNA fragment encoding recombinant protease activity was identified by insertional mutagenesis with Tn5. Four open reading frames were identified within this 5-kb region by limited nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA flanking the transposon. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the metalloprotease structural gene (zapA) were obtained. Computerized homology studies revealed that the P. mirabilis metalloprotein is a member of the serralysin family of proteases and may be part of an operon comprising genes encoding an ATP-dependent ABC transporter in addition to the metalloprotease. The relevance of the metalloprotease to swarmer cell differentiation and pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:7592325

  13. Effect of Curcumin Against Proteus mirabilis During Crystallization of Struvite from Artificial Urine

    PubMed Central

    Prywer, Jolanta; Torzewska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the activity of curcumin against Proteus mirabilis and the struvite crystallization in relation to urinary stones formation. In order to evaluate an activity of curcumin we performed an in vitro experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that curcumin exhibits the effect against Proteus mirabilis inhibiting the activity of urease—an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. Addition of curcumin increases the induction time and decreases the efficiency of growth of struvite compared with the absence of curcumin. Interestingly, the addition of curcumin does not affect the crystal morphology and habit. In conclusion, curcumin has demonstrated its significant potential to be further investigated for its use in the case of struvite crystallization induced for the growth by Proteus mirabilis in relation to urinary stone formation. PMID:21808656

  14. Unique developmental characteristics of the swarm and short cells of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, J O; Hoffman, P S

    1984-01-01

    Swarming cells of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris could be distinguished from their short-cell counterparts by virtue of their synthesis (or lack of synthesis) of certain enzymes and outer membrane proteins. Urease synthesis was constitutive in swarm cells and uninducible in short cells. In contrast, phenylalanine deaminase was inducible in both short and swarm cells, demonstrating that transcriptional and translational processes were functional. During swarm cell development, the amount of one outer membrane protein (45 kilodaltons) fell and the amounts of two others (50 and 28.3 kilodaltons) rose significantly, the level of cytochrome b decreased, and the synthesis of cytochromes a and d were repressed. Respiratory activities of swarm cells were greatly diminished, suggesting that energy for swarming came from fermentation rather than from respiration. Widespread changes in the pattern of enzyme activities, in cytochrome composition, and in the composition and type of outer membrane proteins suggest that they are due to transcriptional regulation. PMID:6427187

  15. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in Poultry of Middle Moravia, Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. KOLÁ; J. BARDO; P. SAUER; M. KESSELOVÁ; L. âEKANOVÁ; I. VÁGNEROVÁ; D. KOUKALOVÁ; P. HEJNAR

    Koláfi M., J. BardoŔ, P. Sauer, M. Kesselová, L. âekanová, I. Vágnerová, D. Koukalová, P. Hejnar: Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in Poultry of Middle Moravia, Czech Republic. Acta Vet. Brno 2005, 74: 249-253. The aim of the study was to detect antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis isolates from farm-reared poultry. During the period of June

  16. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae (PMF) are important for both bladder and kidney colonization in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Zunino; Vanessa Sosa; Andrew G. Allen; Andrew Preston; Geraldine Schlapp; Duncan J. Maskell

    2003-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis expresses different types of fimbriae simultaneously. Several fimbrial types have been described and their role in the colonization of the urinary tract is under study. Previously, P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF) have been shown to be associated with bacterial colonization of the lower urinary tract but not of the kidneys. In this study, a pmfA mutant was generated and

  17. Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chuan; Budrene, Elena O.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:22219724

  18. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rejiv B. Mathoera; Dik J. Kok; Cees M. Verduin; J. M. Nijman

    2002-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated\\u000a how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal\\u000a formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent\\u000a stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal (Caco-2, HT29,\\u000a HT29-18N2, HT29-FU, and HT29-MTX) and one ureter cell line (SV-HUC-1) were\\u000a incubated in artificial urine with five Proteus mirabilis strains.\\u000a Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), laser

  19. Development of an Intranasal Vaccine To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection by Proteus mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; C. Virginia Lockatell; David E. Johnson; John W. Warren; Harry L. T. Mobley

    2004-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis commonly infects the complicated urinary tract and is associated with urolithiasis. Stone formation is caused by bacterial urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, causing local pH to rise, and leads to the subsequent precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium phosphate (apa- tite) crystals. To prevent these infections, we vaccinated CBA mice with formalin-killed bacteria or purified

  20. Role of swarming in the formation of crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilms on urinary catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian V. Jones; E. Mahenthiralingam; N. A. Sabbuba; D. J. Stickler

    2005-01-01

    Thecareofmanypatientsundergoinglong-termbladdercatheterizationisfrequentlycomplicatedby infection with Proteus mirabilis. These organisms colonize the catheter, forming surface biofilm communities, and their urease activity generates alkaline conditions under which crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphate are formed and become trapped in the biofilm. As the biofilm develops it obstructs the flow of urine through the catheter, causing either incontinence duetoleakage ofurinearoundthecatheteror retention ofurineinthebladder.Theaim of

  1. Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

    2013-03-01

    Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

  2. Synergism of Polymyxin and Sulfonamides in L-forms of Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomerie, J. Z.; Kalmanson, G. M.; Guze, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Earlier workers suggested that synergism of polymyxin and sulfonamides occurred because sulfonamides produced changes in the cell wall which permitted the more ready access of polymyxin. We tested this hypothesis by using L-forms, which lack cell wall. The demonstration that synergism of polymyxin and sulfonamides occurs in L-forms of Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus suggested that the synergism is a result of some mechanism other than alterations of the cell wall. Images PMID:4364179

  3. Flagellum Density Regulates Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Motility in Viscous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tuson, Hannah H.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming—increases in cell length and flagellum density—and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ?5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD4C2, the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters. PMID:23144253

  4. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant. PMID:25763050

  5. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  6. Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

  7. Putrescine Importer PlaP Contributes to Swarming Motility and Urothelial Cell Invasion in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437–446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant. PMID:23572531

  8. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N

    2013-05-31

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant. PMID:23572531

  9. Modified insulator semiconductor electrode with functionalized nanoparticles for Proteus mirabilis bacteria biosensor development.

    PubMed

    Braham, Yosra; Barhoumi, Houcine; Maaref, Abderrazak; Bakhrouf, Amina; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    The development of enzymatic sensors for biological purposes such as biomedicine, pharmacy, food industry, and environmental toxicity requires the purification step of the enzyme. To prevent the loss of the enzyme activity, a new strategy is held in order to immobilize the bacteria. It will constitute the biological sensing element leading to a high operational stability and multiple adaptations to various conditions such as temperature, pH and ionic strength changes. In this work we describe the development of a urea biosensor by immobilizing Proteus mirabilis bacteria onto an insulator-semiconductor electrode on functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), using cationic, Poly (allylamine hydrochloride) then anionic, Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) polyelectrolytes, BSA (serum bovin albumin), and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The response of P. mirabilis to urea addition is evaluated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Before the immobilization step, the activity of urease produced from the P. mirabilis bacteria was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs). Adhesion of the bacteria cells on IS electrodes have been studied using contact angle measurements. After immobilization of the bacteria, on the (Si/SiO2/Si3N4) and (Si/SiO2) substrates, the relationship between the evolution of the flat band potential ?VFB and the urea concentration is found to be linear for values ranging from 10(-2)M to 10(-5)M. PMID:24094152

  10. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min-Cheng; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection of the rats. In this regard, we found the hfq mutant induced higher IL-8 and MIF levels of uroepithelial cells and displayed reduced intra-macrophage survival. The loss of hfq affected bacterial abilities to handle H2O2 and osmotic pressures and to grow at 50°C. Relative to wild-type, the hfq mutant had reduced motility, fewer flagella and less hemolysin expression and was less prone to form biofilm and to adhere to and invade uroepithelial cells. The MR/P fimbrial operon was almost switched to the off phase in the hfq mutant. In addition, we found the hfq mutant exhibited an altered outer membrane profile and had higher RpoE expression, which indicates the hfq mutant may encounter increased envelope stress. With the notion of envelope disturbance in the hfq mutant, we found increased membrane permeability and antibiotic susceptibilities in the hfq mutant. Finally, we showed that Hfq positively regulated the RpoS level and tolerance to H2O2 in the stationary phase seemed largely mediated through the Hfq-dependent RpoS expression. Together, our data indicate that Hfq plays a critical role in P. mirabilis to establish UTIs by modulating stress responses, surface structures and virulence factors. This study suggests Hfq may serve as a scaffold molecule for development of novel anti-P. mirabilis drugs and P. mirabilis hfq mutant is a vaccine candidate for preventing UTIs. PMID:24454905

  11. Elucidating the Genetic Basis of Crystalline Biofilm Formation in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Holling, N.; Lednor, D.; Tsang, S.; Bissell, A.; Campbell, L.; Nzakizwanayo, J.; Dedi, C.; Hawthorne, J. A.; Hanlon, G.; Ogilvie, L. A.; Salvage, J. P.; Patel, B. A.; Barnes, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

  12. Detection of KPC2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC  Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tibbetts; J. G. Frye; J. Marschall; D. Warren; W. Dunne

    2008-01-01

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from blood cultures of a diabetic patient was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole-cell and\\/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate with primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase gene produced an amplicon of the expected size which was confirmed to be blaKPC-2 by

  13. Regulation of the Swarming Inhibitor disA in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Szostek, Bree A.

    2013-01-01

    The disA gene encodes a putative amino acid decarboxylase that inhibits swarming in Proteus mirabilis. 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and deletion analysis were used to identify the disA promoter. The use of a disA-lacZ fusion indicated that FlhD4C2, the class I flagellar master regulator, did not have a role in disA regulation. The putative product of DisA, phenethylamine, was able to inhibit disA expression, indicating that a negative regulatory feedback loop was present. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify regulators of disA and revealed that umoB (igaA) was a negative regulator of disA. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of disA by UmoB is mediated through the Rcs phosphorelay. PMID:23687266

  14. Proteus mirabilis urease: nucleotide sequence determination and comparison with jack bean urease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

    1989-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. Six open reading frames were found within a region of 4,952 base pairs which were predicted to encode polypeptides of 31.0 (ureD), 11.0 (ureA), 12.2 (ureB), 61.0 (ureC), 17.9 (ureE), and 23.0 (ureF) kilodaltons (kDa). Each open reading frame was preceded by a ribosome-binding site, with the exception of ureE. Putative promoterlike sequences were identified upstream of ureD, ureA, and ureF. Possible termination sites were found downstream of ureD, ureC, and ureF. Structural subunits of the enzyme were encoded by ureA, ureB, and ureC and were translated from a single transcript in the order of 11.0, 12.2, and 61.0 kDa. When the deduced amino acid sequences of the P. mirabilis urease subunits were compared with the amino acid sequence of the jack bean urease, significant amino acid similarity was observed (58% exact matches; 73% exact plus conservative replacements). The 11.0-kDa polypeptide aligned with the N-terminal residues of the plant enzyme, the 12.2-kDa polypeptide lined up with internal residues, and the 61.0-kDa polypeptide matched with the C-terminal residues, suggesting an evolutionary relationship of the urease genes of jack bean and P. mirabilis. PMID:2687233

  15. Overexpression of an Outer Membrane Protein Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Carbapenems in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Wang, Min-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Ming-Che; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Wu, Yue-Jin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates commonly have decreased susceptibility to imipenem. Previously, we found P. mirabilis hfq mutant was more resistant to imipenem and an outer membrane protein (OMP) could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the role of this OMP in carbapenem susceptibility. By SDS-PAGE we found this OMP (named ImpR) was increased in hfq mutant and LC-MS/MS revealed it to be the homologue of Salmonella YbfM, which is a porin for chitobiose and subject to MicM (a small RNA) regulation. We demonstrated that ImpR overexpression resulted in increased carbapenem MICs in the laboratory strain and clinical isolates. Chitobiose induced expression of chb (a chitobiose utilization operon). Real-time RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE were performed to elucidate the relationship of hfq, impR, chb and MicM in P. mirabilis. We found MicM RNA was decreased in hfq mutant and chbBC-intergenic region (chbBC-IGR) overexpression strain (chbIGRov), while impR mRNA was increased in hfq mutant, micM mutant and chbIGRov strain. In addition, mutation of hfq or micM and overexpression of chbBC-IGR increased ImpR protein level. Accordingly, chitobiose made wild-type have higher levels of ImpR protein and are more resistant to carbapenems. Hfq- and MicM-complemented strains restored wild-type MICs. Mutation of both impR and hfq eliminated the increase in carbapenem MICs observed in hfq mutant and ImpR-complementation of hfq/impR double mutant resulted in MICs as hfq mutant, indicating that the ImpR-dependent decreased carbapenem susceptibility of hfq mutant. These indicate MicM was antisense to impR mRNA and was negatively-regulated by chbBC-IGR. Together, overexpression of ImpR contributed to the decreased carbapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis. PMID:25756370

  16. Decrease in anti-Proteus mirabilis but not anti-Escherichia coli antibody levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with fasting and a one year vegetarian diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Kjeldsen-Kragh; T Rashid; A Dybwad; M Sioud; M Haugen; O Fřrre; A Ebringer

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli antibody levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during treatment by vegetarian diet. METHODS--Sera were collected from 53 RA patients who took part in a controlled clinical trial of fasting and a one year vegetarian diet. P mirabilis and E coli antibody levels were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence technique and an enzyme

  17. Proteus mirabilis isolates of different origins do not show correlation with virulence attributes and can colonize the urinary tract of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Sosa; Geraldine Schlapp; Pablo Zunino

    2006-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis has been described as an aetiological agent in a wide range of infections, playing an important role in urinary tract infections (UTIs). In this study, a collection of P. mirabilis isolates obtained from clinical and non-clinical sources was analysed in order to determine a possible correlation between origin, virulence factors and in vivo infectivity. Isolates were characterized in

  18. First Isolation of carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis from an uncomplicated cystitis patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oana, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Nagata, Mika; Washino, Kei-Ichi; Akahane, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Yu-Uki; Tsutsui, Chie; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjögren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped organisms that failed to grow on both Drigalski agar and sheep blood agar incubated in ambient air. The organism did grow when the urine was cultured overnight on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we believed that the organism was an anaerobe. Further investigation revealed that the isolate grew on sheep blood agar along with swarming when the atmospheric CO2 concentrations were increased to 5%. Initially, we failed to characterize or identify the P. mirabilis isolate or determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 System because the isolate did not grow in the system. However, the isolate was subsequently identified as P. mirabilis based on its morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties by using the commercially available kit systems, Quick ID-GN and ID-Test EB-20. This identification of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical isolation of capnophilic P. mirabilis. PMID:23698488

  19. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4?7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  20. Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

  1. Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D ?-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

    2014-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086?bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D ?-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. PMID:24027220

  2. Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 ?g/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24239192

  3. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters

    PubMed Central

    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. PMID:24786314

  4. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis strains recently isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2015-02-01

    Here we report on the prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis from a nationwide antimicrobial resistance survey in different geographical regions of Japan. A total of 799 P. mirabilis isolates recovered between July 2009 and June 2010 from 314 healthcare facilities were characterised according to ESBL production, source, location and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. ESBL production was found in 364 (45.6%) of the isolates, among which 354 (97.3%) produced CTX-M-2 group ?-lactamases. Of the 349 ESBL-producing isolates in which the inpatient or outpatient status of the source was known, 324 (92.8%) were from inpatients and 25 (7.2%) were from outpatients (P<0.05). Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis performed on 66 of the ESBL-producers generated a distribution of PFGE patterns into 21 groups. Genetic relatedness was seen among isolates within a region, which is consistent with horizontal transmission. With respect to the frequency of ESBL-producers by specimen source, 12/14 (85.7%) central venous catheter specimens yielded ESBL-producing P. mirabilis compared with 159/405 (39.3%), 119/209 (56.9%), 42/77 (54.5%) and 20/49 (40.8%), respectively, for isolates from urine, sputum, decubitus ulcer and wound specimens. Among the ESBL-producers, non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 74.2% of the ESBL-producing isolates compared with 17.7% of the ESBL-non-producing isolates. These results show that approximately one-half of the P. mirabilis isolates from clinical specimens in Japan are ESBL-producers and that the potential for concomitant fluoroquinolone resistance must also be considered. PMID:25182712

  5. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-01-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1–20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (?pH) and proton motive force (?H+) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ?pH (and therefore ?H+) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ?pH and ?H+ for motility. PMID:25100003

  6. Elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies to Proteus mirabilis and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli are associated with early rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Newkirk; R. Goldbach-Mansky; B. W. Senior; J. Klippel; H. R. Schumacher Jr; H. S. El-Gabalawy

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Antibodies to Proteus mirabilis were previously detected in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the prevalence of antibodies to P. mirabilis and their associations with RA in early synovitis patients. Methods. Two hundred and forty-six patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than 1 yr were prospectively evaluated for 1 yr. Of these patients, 30% had rheumatoid factor

  7. b-Lactamases Responsible for Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Recovered in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. D. PITOUT; K. S. THOMSON; N. D. HANSON; A. F. EHRHARDT; E. S. MOLAND; C. C. SANDERS

    1998-01-01

    Although resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among members of the family Enterobacteria- ceae lacking inducible b-lactamases occurs virtually worldwide, little is known about this problem among iso- lates recovered in South Africa. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from patients in various parts of South Africa over a 3-month period were investigated

  8. Occurrence and Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates at a Veterans Medical Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP E. COUDRON; ELLEN S. MOLAND; KENNETH S. THOMSON

    2000-01-01

    AmpC beta-lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of b-lactam drugs and that may thereby create serious therapeutic problems. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis remains unknown. We tested a total of 1,286 consecutive, nonrepeat isolates of these three species and found

  9. Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI. PMID:25724892

  10. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpH·FimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpH·FimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpH·FimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpH·FimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. PMID:25562574

  11. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC ?-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Egyptian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Mai M.; Wasfi, Reham

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC ?-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC ?-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC ?-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 ?-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt. PMID:25003107

  12. Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

  13. Expression of the DisA amino acid decarboxylase from Proteus mirabilis inhibits motility and class 2 flagellar gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lindsay G; Szostek, Bree A; Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

    2013-01-01

    In Proteus mirabilis, a putative phenylalanine decarboxylase (DisA) acts in a regulatory pathway to inhibit class 2 flagellar gene expression and motility. In this study, we demonstrate that DisA expression in Escherichia coli blocked motility and resulted in a 50-fold decrease in the expression of class 2 (fliA) and class 3 (fliC) flagellar genes. However, the expression of flhDC encoding the class 1 activator of the flagellar cascade was unchanged by DisA expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Phenethylamine, a decarboxylation product derived from phenylalanine, was able to mimic DisA overexpression and decrease both motility and class 2/3 flagellar gene expression. In addition, both DisA overexpression and phenethylamine strongly inhibited biofilm formation in E. coli. DisA overexpression and exogenous phenethylamine could also reduce motility in other enteric bacteria, but had no effect on motility in non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria. It is hypothesized that phenethylamine or a closely related compound formed by the DisA decarboxylation reaction inhibits the formation or activity of the FlhD(4)C(2) complex required for activation of class 2 genes. PMID:22982608

  14. Novel plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylase, RmtC, found in a proteus mirabilis isolate demonstrating extraordinary high-level resistance against various aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Yamane, Kunikazu; Shibayama, Keigo; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Shibata, Naohiro; Suzuki, Satowa; Doi, Yohei; Kimura, Kouji; Ike, Yasuyoshi; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis ARS68, which demonstrated a very high level of resistance to various aminoglycosides, was isolated in 2003 from an inpatient in Japan. The aminoglycoside resistance of this strain could not be transferred to recipient strains Escherichia coli CSH-2 and E. coli HB101 by a general conjugation experiment, but E. coli DH5alpha was successfully transformed by electroporation with the plasmid of the parent strain, ARS68, and acquired an unusually high degree of resistance against aminoglycosides. Cloning and sequencing analyses revealed that the presence of a novel 16S rRNA methylase gene, designated rmtC, was responsible for resistance in strain ARS68 and its transformant. The G+C content of rmtC was 41.1%, and the deduced amino acid sequences of the newly identified 16S rRNA methylase, RmtC, shared a relatively low level of identity (< or = 29%) to other plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases, RmtA, RmtB, and ArmA, which have also been identified in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Also, RmtC shared a low level of identity (< or = 28%) with the other 16S rRNA methylases found in aminoglycoside-producing actinomycetes. The purified histidine-tagged RmtC clearly showed methyltransferase activity against E. coli 16S rRNA in vitro. rmtC was located downstream of an ISEcp1-like element containing tnpA. Several plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases have been identified in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, and some of them are dispersing worldwide. The acceleration of aminoglycoside resistance among gram-negative bacilli by producing plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases, such as RmtC, RmtB, and RmtA, may indeed become an actual clinical hazard in the near future. PMID:16377684

  15. Nucleotide sequencing of the Proteus mirabilis calcium-independent hemolysin genes (hpmA and hpmB) reveals sequence similarity with the Serratia marcescens hemolysin genes (shlA and shlB).

    PubMed Central

    Uphoff, T S; Welch, R A

    1990-01-01

    We cloned a 13.5-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing the calcium-independent hemolysin determinant (pWPM110) from a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis (477-12). The DNA sequence of a 7,191-base-pair region of pWPM110 was determined. Two polypeptides are encoded in this region, HpmB and HpmA (in that transcriptional order), with predicted molecular masses of 63,204 and 165,868 daltons, respectively. A putative Fur-binding site was identified upstream of hpmB overlapping the -35 region of the proposed hpm promoter. In vitro transcription-translation of pWPM110 DNA and other subclones confirmed the assignment of molecular masses for the predicted polypeptides. These polypeptides are predicted to have NH2-terminal leader peptides of 17 and 29 amino acids, respectively. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of purified extracellular hemolysin (HpmA) confirmed the cleavage of the 29-amino-acid leader peptide in the secreted form of HpmA. Hemolysis assays and immunoblot analysis of Escherichia coli containing subclones expressing hpmA, hpmB, or both indicated that HpmB is necessary for the extracellular secretion and activation of HpmA. Significant nucleotide identity (52.1%) was seen between hpm and the shl hemolysin gene sequences of Serratia marcescens despite differences in the G+C contents of these genes (hpm, 38%; shl, 65%). The predicted amino acid sequences of HpmB and HpmA are also similar to those of ShlB and ShlA, the respective sequence identities being 55.4 and 46.7%. Predicted cysteine residues and major hydrophobic and amphipathic domains have been strongly conserved in both proteins. Thus, we have identified a new hemolysin gene family among gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:2407716

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    , College Station, TX, USA; 3 Department of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuca, Recife, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2 Department of Entomology, Texas A & M University Research Center, College Station, TX, USA Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide

  17. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kote?ko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Ebringer; Taha Rashid; Clyde Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten “Popper sequences” have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as

  19. PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Hemolysin production, salt tolerance, antibacterial resistance, and prevalence of extended spectrum ?-lactamases in Proteus bacilli isolated from clinical and environmental sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahla Mansouri; Farehnaz Pahlavanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Proteus bacilli are opportunistic members of Enterobacteriaceae and Proteus mirabilis is among the most common causes of community or hospital acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in many countries. In the present study hemolysin production, salt tolerance and resistance to antibacterial agents in environmental and UTIs samples were compared. Materials and methods: Bacteria were isolated from UTIs (n=80),

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that antibodies to Proteus come not only from sequences crossreacting to self antigens but also from non-crossreacting sequences, thereby indicating that active RA patients have been exposed to infection by Proteus. The ten Popper sequences establish that RA is most probably caused by Proteus upper urinary tract infections, which can possibly be treated with anti-Proteus therapy. PMID:19895906

  2. Proteus Mediastinitis Causing Fatal Pseudoaneurysm following Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, John; Tenovici, Alexandra-Alice; D'Costa, Horace

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Gram-negative mediastinitis following aortic valve replacement via median sternotomy. The patient presented two months after surgery following a urinary tract infection in septic shock with a discharging sternal wound and blood cultures positive for Proteus mirabilis. Imaging revealed a large anterior mediastinal abscess and aortic pseudoaneurysm which subsequently ruptured resulting in fatality. Gram-negative mediastinitis is a rare complication of cardiac surgery that can present late following initial clinical improvement and should be considered when “remote site” infections are present. Computerised Tomography scanning has a role to play in the identification of this. PMID:24369472

  3. A MAP Kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for defense against infection by opportunistic Proteus species.

    PubMed

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Vigneshwari, Loganathan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity requires a conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. Being in the group of opportunistic pathogens, Proteus spp. cause large number of nosocomial infections. Since, Proteus spp. do not cause death in wild type C. elegans, to understand the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway, the mutants (sek-1 and pmk-1) of this pathway were employed. Physiological experiments revealed that the Proteus spp. were able to kill MAP Kinase pathway mutant's C. elegans significantly. To understand the involvement of innate immune pathways specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes were kinetically investigated during Proteus spp. infections. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a regulation of few candidate immune regulatory genes (F08G5.6, lys-7, nlp-29, ATF-7 and daf-16) during the course of Proteus spp. infections. In addition, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Proteus mirabilis upon exposure to mutant C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions suggesting that the pathogen modifies its internal machinery according to the specific host for effective pathogenesis. PMID:23597661

  4. Proteus: Mythology to modern times

    PubMed Central

    Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difference between clinical tests and research tests . To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook. Where can I find additional information about Proteus syndrome? You may find the ...

  6. Hawkmoth pollination of Mirabilis longiflora (Nyctaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Verne; Grant, Karen A.

    1983-01-01

    A guild composed of very-long-tubed hawkmoth flowers (nectar tubes, 9 cm or more long), belonging to different genera and families, occurs in the American Southwest. Our knowledge of the hawkmoth associates of these flowers is fragmentary. Mirabilis longiflora, a member of the guild with a tube 10.0-10.5 cm long, was found to be visited and pollinated mainly by Manduca quinquemaculata with a proboscis 10.7-11.6 cm long in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. This example fits in with four other previously reported cases. The long-tongued Man. quinquemaculata is now known to be associated with five species of very long-tongued hawkmoth flowers in the Southwest, and Man. rustica has been found on one of them. Images PMID:16593287

  7. Enzymes responsible for chlorate reduction by Pseudomonas sp. are different from those used for perchlorate reduction by Azospira sp.

    E-print Network

    the disproportionation of chlorite to chlo- ride and oxygen, and the oxygen that is produced is consumed for cell, respiration include mem- bers of Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Rhodobacter [2­4]. Oxygen is known to prevent

  8. [Substrate specifity in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2006-01-01

    Three different phosphatases ("slow", "middle" and "fast") were found in Amoeba proteus (strain B) after PAGE and a subsequent gel staining in 1-naphthyl phosphate containing incubation mixture (pH 9.0). Substrate specificity of these phosphatases was determined in supernatants of homogenates using inhibitors of phosphatase activity. All phosphatases showed a broad substrate specificity. Of 10 tested compounds, p-nitrophenyl phosphate was a preferable substrate for all 3 phosphatases. All phosphatases were able to hydrolyse bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and, hence, displayed phosphodiesterase activity. All phosphatases hydrolysed O-phospho-L-tyrosine to a greater or lesser degree. Only little differences in substrate specificity of phosphatases were noticed: 1) "fast" and "middle" phosphatases hydrolysed naphthyl phosphates and O-phospho-L-tyrosine less efficiently than did "slow" phosphatase; 2) "fast" and "middle" phosphatases hydrolysed 2- naphthyl phosphate to a lesser degree than 1-naphthyl phosphate 3) "fast" and "middle" phosphatases hydrolysed O-phospho-L-serine and O-phospho-L-threonine with lower intensity as compared with "slow" phosphatase; 4) as distinct from "middle" and "slow" phosphatases, the "fast" phosphatase hydrolysed glucose-6-phosphate very poorly. The revealed broad substrate specificity of "slow" phosphatase together with data of inhibitory analysis and results of experiments with reactivation of this phosphatase by Zn2+-ions after its inactivation by EDTA strongly suggest that only the "slow" phosphatase is a true alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1). The alkaline phosphatase of A. proteus is secreted into culture medium where its activity is low. The enzyme displays both phosphomono- and phosphodiesterase activities, in addition to supposed protein phosphatase activity. It still remains unknown, to which particular phosphatase class the amoeban "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may be assigned. PMID:17087151

  9. Calcium Distribution in Amoeba proteus

    E-print Network

    Robert D. Prusch; Jo Ann Hannafin

    ABSTRACT A preliminary investigation of the distribution ofcellular calcium in Amoeba proteus was undertaken. Total cellular calcium under control conditions was found to be 4.59 mmol/kg of cells. When the external Ca ++ concentration is increased from the control level of 0.03 to 20 mM, a net Ca ++ influx results with a new steady-state cellular calcium level being achieved in ~ 3 h. At steady state the amount of calcium per unit weight of cells is higher than the amount of calcium per unit weight of external solution when the external concentration of Ca ++ is below 10 raM. At external Ca ++ concentrations above this level, total cellular calcium approaches the medium level of Ca ++. Steady-state calcium exchange in Amoeba proteus was determined with 45Ca. There is an immediate and rapid exchange of 000.84 mmol/kg of cells or 18 % of the total cellular calcium with the labelled Ca ++. Following this initial exchange, there was very little if any further exchange observed. Most of this exchanged calcium could be eliminated from the cell with 1 mM La +++, suggesting that the exchanged calcium is associated with the surface of the cell. Increase in either the external Ca ++ concentration or pH raise the amount of exchangeable calcium associated with the cell. Calcium may be associated with the cell surface as a co-ion in the diffuse double layer or bound to fixed negative sites on the surface of the cell. If Ca++-binding sites do exist on the cell surface, there may be more than one type and they may have different dissociation constants. The cytoplasmic Ca ++ ion activity is probably maintained at very low levels.

  10. GENES ASSOCIATED WITH OPENING AND SENESCENCE OF MIRABILIS JALAPA FLOWERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modest ethylene climacteric accompanies flower senescence in Mirabilis jalapa L., and exogenous ethylene accelerates the process. However, inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis have little effect on the life-span of these ephemeral flowers. Treatment with '-amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-de...

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Red Alga Delisea pulchraon Swarming Motility ofProteus mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LONE GRAM; ROCKY DENYS; RIA MAXIMILIEN; MICHAEL GIVSKOV; PETER STEINBERG; ANDSTAFFAN KJELLEBERG

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal,uncoordinatedswarmingmotilityoftheopportunistichumanpathogenProteusmirabiliswasseen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium. This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation, and hyperflagellation were not affected. One halogenated furanone from D. pulchra inhibited swarming motility at concentrations that did not affect growth rate and swimming motility. Other structurally similarD. pulchrafuranones had

  12. The olfaction in Proteus anguinus: a behavioural and cytological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Dumas; B Chris

    1998-01-01

    Life and development in complete darkness for a strictly cavernicolous Urodele species such as Proteus raises the problem of orientation and environmental perception. An experimental study of olfaction in Proteus anguinus was undertaken on two complementary aspects: (a) a anatomical and ultrastructural aspect (photon and electron microscopy); and (b) a behavioural aspect, by testing Proteus’ sensitivity to decreasing amounts of

  13. The Proteus Navier-Stokes code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Bui, Trong T.; Cavicchi, Richard H.; Conley, Julianne M.; Molls, Frank B.; Schwab, John R.

    1992-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. The emphasis in the development of Proteus is not algorithm development or research on numerical methods, but rather the development of the code itself. The objective is to develop codes that are user-oriented, easily-modified, and well-documented. Well-proven, state-of-the-art solution algorithms are being used. Code readability, documentation (both internal and external), and validation are being emphasized. This paper is a status report on the Proteus development effort. The analysis and solution procedure are described briefly, and the various features in the code are summarized. The results from some of the validation cases that have been run are presented for both the two- and three-dimensional codes.

  14. Proteus syndrome with syringohydromyelia and arachnoid cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Rueda-Franco

    2007-01-01

    The authors make a good review of the main clinical and genetic aspects of Proteus syndrome. They also describe new neuroimaging findings with clinical significance that must be added to the variety of abnormalities in these rare multi-organic neurocutaneous syndrome. With regard to molecular genetics, Zhou et al. [3] reported a boy with congenital hemihypertrophy, epidermoid nevi, macrocephaly, lipomas, arteriovenous

  15. The influence of bacterial metabolites on the motility of stallion spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Rideout, Merry Ilene

    1979-01-01

    Standard growth curve of Klebsiella t ' (g "t 1' Standard growth curve of Proteus mirabilis. Standard growth curve of Pseudomonas ~*' 10 Standard growth curve of Escherichia cali Standard growth curve of Stre tococcus 12 Standard growth curve of Stre...' ) f'lt t on spermatozoa motility expressed as a percentage of the extended semen plus filtered tryptose broth control. 47 The effect of four concentrations of Proteus mirabilis filtrate on spermatozoa motility expressed as a percentage...

  16. Studies of relationship among terrestrial Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes , and enterobacteria by an immunological comparison of glutamine synthetase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Baumann; Paul Baumann

    1978-01-01

    Antibody to purified glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli was prepared and used for an immunological comparison of glutamine synthetases from species of Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus, Erwinia, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Xanthomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus. The results of Ouchterlony double diffusion experiments and quantitative microcomplement fixation studies indicated that the amino acid sequence of this enzyme was highly conserved in

  17. Proteus syndrome: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands. PMID:23716948

  18. Peptide stimulation of phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Prusch; Joseph C. Britton

    1987-01-01

    The tripeptide n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (NFMLP) at low levels (10-9 M) localized in a glass micropipette elicits a positive chemotactic response in Amoeba proteus. Peptide in solution at higher concentrations (10-5 M) stimulates food vacuole formation. Vacuoles induced by NFMLP result from the fusion of pseudopods which, in turn, entrap a portion of the external medium. Food vacuole formation stimulated by NFMLP

  19. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

  20. Antiadhesive activity of the biosurfactant pseudofactin II secreted by the Arctic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudofactin II is a recently identified biosurfactant secreted by Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5, the strain obtained from freshwater from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. Pseudofactin II is a novel compound identified as cyclic lipopeptide with a palmitic acid connected to the terminal amino group of eighth amino acid in peptide moiety. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the last amino acid forms a lactone with the hydroxyl of Thr3. Adhesion is the first stage of biofilm formation and the best moment for the action of antiadhesive and anti-biofilm compounds. Adsorption of biosurfactants to a surface e.g. glass, polystyrene, silicone modifies its hydrophobicity, interfering with the microbial adhesion and desorption processes. In this study the role and applications of pseudofactin II as a antiadhesive compound has been investigated from medicinal and therapeutic perspectives. Results Pseudofactin II lowered the adhesion to three types of surfaces (glass, polystyrene and silicone) of bacterial strains of five species: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and two Candida albicans strains. Pretreatment of a polystyrene surface with 0.5 mg/ml pseudofactin II inhibited bacterial adhesion by 36-90% and that of C. albicans by 92-99%. The same concentration of pseudofactin II dislodged 26-70% of preexisting biofilms grown on previously untreated surfaces. Pseudofactin II also caused a marked inhibition of the initial adhesion of E. faecalis, E. coli, E. hirae and C. albicans strains to silicone urethral catheters. The highest concentration tested (0.5 mg/ml) caused a total growth inhibition of S. epidermidis, partial (18-37%) inhibition of other bacteria and 8-9% inhibition of C. albicans growth. Conclusion Pseudofactin II showed antiadhesive activity against several pathogenic microorganisms which are potential biofilm formers on catheters, implants and internal prostheses. Up to 99% prevention could be achieved by 0.5 mg/ml pseudofactin II. In addition, pseudofactin II dispersed preformed biofilms. Pseudofactin II can be used as a disinfectant or surface coating agent against microbial colonization of different surfaces, e.g. implants or urethral catheters. PMID:22360895

  1. The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nield, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

  2. PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator

    E-print Network

    Koppelman, David M.

    PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator by Eric A. Brewer Chrysanthos N gured to simulate a wide range of architectures. Proteus provides a modular structure that simpli es customization and independent replacement of parts of architecture. There are typically multiple implementations

  3. The effects of ferrochrome lignosulfonate on the respiration and excretion of the coral, Madracis mirabilis

    E-print Network

    Westerhaus, Mary Joanne

    1978-01-01

    of the requirement for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE DecAsnber 1978 Hajor Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF FERROCHRCME LIGNOSULFONATE ON THE RESPIRATION AND THE EXCRETION OF THE CORAL& MkDRACIS MIRABILIS A Thesis by MARY JOANNE NESTERHAUS Approved... as to style and content by: Chaarman of ommittee Hea of tment er Member December 1978 ABSTRACT The Effects of Ferrochrome Lignosulfonate on the Respiration and Excreti. on of the Coral, Madracis mirabilis. (December 1978) Mary Joanne Westerhaus, B. S...

  4. The olfaction in Proteus anguinus: a behavioural and cytological study.

    PubMed

    Dumas, P; Chris, B

    1998-05-01

    Life and development in complete darkness for a strictly cavernicolous Urodele species such as Proteus raises the problem of orientation and environmental perception. An experimental study of olfaction in Proteus anguinus was undertaken on two complementary aspects: (a) a anatomical and ultrastructural aspect (photon and electron microscopy); and (b) a behavioural aspect, by testing Proteus' sensitivity to decreasing amounts of dead prey (chironomid larvae) in a choice chamber. The results show that: (a) Proteus' olfactory epithelium clearly belonged to the general model established for all vertebrates, with a pseudo-stratified structure mainly composed of the three classical cell types (sensory cells, supporting cells and basal cells). With the unusual thickness of the epithelium common to the Proteidae, a fourth cell type is observed in Proteus; and (b) Proteus shows a well-developed olfactive sense: the sensitivity threshold occurs around 1 g of prey (in a 250 cm(3)/min water current). This relatively low detection threshold implies the use of an outstanding sense of smell probably due to the particular necessities of the subterranean environment. The experiments also emphasize the effects of environmental factors on Proteus' response to experiments, and the role of thigmotactism. PMID:24895999

  5. Proteus Syndrome: Report of a Case with Developmental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Nursen; Sarman, Hakan; Bayramgurler, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema in a patient with Proteus syndrome. We defined the presence of developmental glaucoma, right pseudopapilledema and myopia in a 4.5-year-old patient with Proteus syndrome. Marked right hemihypertrophy, lipoma, macrodactyly, and asymmetry of the limbs were observed on systemic examination. A cavernoma was also detected in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The patient underwent bilateral goniotomy surgery due to glaucoma. The surgical outcomes were satisfactory in both eyes. In conclusions developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema might be associated with Proteus syndrome. PMID:24882963

  6. Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.

  7. The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, J A; Cohen, M M

    1986-01-01

    Sir Frederick Treves first showed Joseph Merrick, the famous Elephant Man, to the Pathological Society of London in 1884. A diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suggested in 1909 and was widely accepted. There is no evidence, however, of café au lait spots or histological proof of neurofibromas. It is also clear that Joseph Merrick's manifestations were much more bizarre than those commonly seen in neurofibromatosis. Evidence indicates that Merrick suffered from the Proteus syndrome and had the following features compatible with this diagnosis: macrocephaly; hyperostosis of the skull; hypertrophy of long bones; and thickened skin and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the hands and feet, including plantar hyperplasia, lipomas, and other unspecified subcutaneous masses. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3092979

  8. A NEW PHOTOSENSITIVE PIGMENT OF THE EURYHALINE TELEOST, GILLICHTHYS MIRABILIS

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Frederick W.

    1956-01-01

    Retinal extracts have been prepared from dark-adapted mudsuckers by treatment of retinal tissue or of isolated outer segments of the visual cells with digitonin solution. The extracts were examined spectrophotometrically and found to absorb light maximally between the wave lengths of 488 and 510 mµ, depending on the proportion of yellow impurities and light-sensitive pigment present. This photosensitive pigment was shown to be homogeneous by partial bleaching of the extracts with monochromatic light of various wave lengths from 390 to 660 mµ. The mudsucker pigment was specifically demonstrated not to be a mixture of rhodopsin and porphyropsin; the adequacy of the method used to analyze such mixtures was shown by performing a control experiment with an artificial mixture of bullfrog rhodopsin and carp porphyropsin. Comparison of the hydroxylamine difference spectrum and of the absorption maximum of the purest retinal extract located the mudsucker photosensitive pigment maximum at 512 ± 1 mµ. Extraction of retinal tissue with a fat solvent after exposure to white light gave a preparation which after the addition of antimony chloride reagent developed the absorption band maximal near 664 mµ, which is characteristic of retinene1. If an hour intervened between exposure of the retinal tissue to light and extraction of the carotenoid, the antimony trichloride test gave a color band maximal at 620 mµ, characteristic of vitamin A1. No evidence of retinene2 or vitamin A2 was obtained. The euryhaline mudsucker has, therefore, a photosensitive retinal pigment with an absorption maximum halfway between the peaks of rhodopsins and of porphyropsins and belonging to the retinene1 system characteristic of rhodopsins. The pigment is therefore named a retinene1 pigment 512 of the mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis. It is uncertain whether this type of photosensitive pigment will be found in other euryhaline fishes. PMID:13385450

  9. Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Salman S.; Waigh, Thomas A.; Lu, Jian R.

    2008-01-01

    The motility of Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera, and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short timescales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long timescales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterized by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibers. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e., the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid. PMID:18192370

  10. Intracellular microrheology of motile Amoeba proteus

    E-print Network

    Salman S. Rogers; Thomas A. Waigh; Jian R. Lu

    2007-10-12

    The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

  11. The construction of single-chip microcomputer virtual experiment platform based on Proteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xinhuan; Zhang Hongwei; Gao Qinghua; Zhang Wei

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problems of present single-chip microcomputer experiment teaching and the features of Proteus software. Teaching reform that brings EDA technology into the experimental teaching of MCU is proposed. It discusses how to use Proteus software to construct a single-chip virtual experiment platform. Through the simulation in Proteus soft and project designing & making based on MCU development

  12. Genes associated with opening and senescence of the ephemeral flowers of Mirabilis jalapa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modest ethylene climacteric accompanies flower senescence in Mirabilis jalapa L., and exogenous ethylene accelerates the process. However, inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis have little effect on the life-span of these ephemeral flowers. Treatment with a-amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-depe...

  13. Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengwei Peng; Qixing Zhou; Zhang Cai; Zhineng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by organic chemicals is a challenging problem in environmental science and engineering. On the basis of identifying remediation plants from ornamentals, the remediation capability of Mirabilis Jalapa L. to treat petroleum contaminated soil from the Shengli Oil Field in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China was further investigated using a field plot experiment carried out in a

  14. ?-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.

    PubMed

    Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    The ?-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ?-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ?20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ?-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ?-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ?-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

  15. Reversal of motory polarity of Amoeba proteus by suction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucyna Grebecka

    1980-01-01

    Summary When a glass capillary is introduced into the posterior body region ofA. proteus and its orifice is maintained inside the flowing mass of endoplasm, an applied suction force invariably initiates the reversal of streaming direction. This initial effect depends as well on the negative pressure value as on the terminal diameter of the pipette. Further transformations of configuration of

  16. PROTEUS: AN APPROACH TO INTERFACE EVALUATION Jonathan Crellin.

    E-print Network

    Crellin, Jonathan

    of PROTEUS as an integrated evaluation tool, and reports on some of the empirical work underlying methods, and interface evaluation approaches. Approaches is used here to describe the underlying philosophy of the evaluation. Methods are the techniques of data collection employed. Different approaches

  17. Wave Features of the Neptune's Satellites: Triton, Proteus, Nereid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2014-07-01

    Fastly orbiting Triton shows Mars-like tectonic dichotomy and very fine granulation 18 km across. Observed Proteus' granules are due to wave modulation. Nereid's fr.is close to that of Earth, thus their relatively sized granules are quite similar.

  18. In vitro Activity of Moxalactam against Pathogenic Bacteria and Its Comparison with Other Antibiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Perrymann; D. J. Flournoy; Hussain Qadri

    1983-01-01

    843 isolates from clinical specimens were tested against moxalactam by disc agar diffusion. The bacteria used in this study consisted of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and group B and group D Streptococci. In vitro activity of moxalactam was compared with the following

  19. Replication of spinodally decomposed structures with structural coloration from scales of the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian

    2013-12-01

    Scales of the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis possess a disordered bicontinuous macroporous structure that resembles a structure formed by a phase-separation process of spinodal decomposition. By using the scales as templates, SiO2 and TiO2 structures were successfully replicated. Structural and optical characterizations show that the fabricated oxide structures are spinodal decomposition structures with only short-range order and display non-iridescent structural colors. PMID:24262971

  20. Using stable isotopes to understand survival strategies of the living fossil, Welwitschia mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Namib Desert along the southwestern coast of Africa is hyper-arid in terms of rainfall (<25 mm/yr), but experiences coastal fog deposition up to 100 days each year. The Namib is also home to the biologically anomalous, very long-lived and evolutionarily ancient gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. Due to its perennial broad green leaves that apparently demand around 1 L of water per day, some have suggested that this living fossil survives on fog deposition. We have investigated this hypothesis using stable isotopes of water (?18O, ?2H) and found that W. mirabilis shows no evidence of fog uptake. Rather, its stem water looks much like that of large trees that tap into an alluvial aquifer, and nothing like the stem water of shrubs that are endemic to the fog zone and have been shown elsewhere to take up and translocate fog water. We also investigated some biogeochemical aspects of W. mirabilis through ?13C, ?15N and ?34S analysis of stem organic matter. These data revealed a large amount of variability in ?13C and ?15N among plants growing in close proximity to one another, indicating the possibility of micro-environmental control on the C and N cycles. The ?34S data provided a necessary additional constraint on the water isotope investigation.

  1. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  7. Confirmation of presumptive Salmonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Rojo, Rosalba; Torres Chavolla, Edith

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, zero tolerance regulation is practiced regarding Salmonella in food products. the presence of which is verified by the procedure described in NOM 114-SSA-1994. During the period between August 2002 and March 2003, 245 food samples were tested using this procedure in the Central Laboratories of the Department of Health for the State of Jalisco (CEESLAB). Of these 245 samples, 35 showed presumptive colonies contaminated with Proteus swarm cells even after selective isolation. These swarm cells make Salmonella recovery and biochemical identification difficult due to the occurance of atypical biochemical profiles which generally correspond to that of Proteus. Out of the 35 samples contaminated with Proteus, 65 presumptive colonies were isolated. These colonies were analyzed using both normative microbiological method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR method detected two positive samples while normative microbiological method was not able to identify. In order to determine the extent of interference of Proteus swarming on the Salmonella-specific PCR band amplification, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was grown in the presence of Proteus swarming. These results show that Proteus swarming did not interfere with Salmonella PCR-amplification, although the appearance of Sanlmonella was altered such that the black precipitate was no observed in the presence of Proteus swarming. Ours result indicate that the PCR method used in this study may be successfully applied to confirm presumptive Salmnonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming. PMID:18693548

  8. Chemical stimulation of phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus and the influence of external calcium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Prusch; Daniel R. Minck

    1985-01-01

    The process of phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus was examined by following the uptake of Tetrahymena pyriformis and agarose beads. The ciliates are taken up in a time dependent and saturable manner. T. pyriformis apparently emits a water-soluble substance that acts as a chemoattractant to the amoebae. Plain agarose beads are not engulfed by A. proteus, but those beads having reducedglutathione

  9. Trace Element Concentrations in the Tissues of Proteus Anguinus (Amphibia, Caudata) and the Surrounding Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Bulog; Katarina Mihajl; Zvonka Jeran; Mihael J. Toman

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of some essential (Cu, Zn, Se) and some toxicelements (Hg, As) were determined in tissues (liver, kidneys, integument, and muscle) of the endemic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus Laurenti 1768 and Proteus anguinus parkelj ssp.n. captured in the Planina Cave, Kompolje Cave, and Jelševnik, all situated within the Dinaric Karst in Slovenia. The highest amounts of selenium and mercury

  10. Immunocytochemical demonstration of visual pigments in the degenerate retinal and pineal photoreceptors of the blind cave salamander ( Proteus anguinus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjanca Kos; Boris Bulog; Ágoston Szél; Pál Röhlich

    2001-01-01

    Visual pigments in the regressed eye and pineal of the depigmented neotenic urodele, the blind cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus), were studied by immunocytochemistry with anti-opsin antibodies. The study included light- and electron-microscopic investigations of both the eye and the pineal organ. A comparison was made with the black pigmented subspecies Proteus anguinus parkelj (black proteus), which has a normal

  11. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

  12. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-04-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

  13. Mechanics and control of the cytoskeleton in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M

    1989-01-01

    Many models of the cytoskeletal motility of Amoeba proteus can be formulated in terms of the theory of reactive interpenetrating flow (Dembo and Harlow, 1986). We have devised numerical methodology for testing such models against the phenomenon of steady axisymmetric fountain flow. The simplest workable scheme revealed by such tests (the minimal model) is the main preoccupation of this study. All parameters of the minimal model are determined from available data. Using these parameters the model quantitatively accounts for the self assembly of the cytoskeleton of A. proteus: for the formation and detailed morphology of the endoplasmic channel, the ectoplasmic tube, the uropod, the plasma gel sheet, and the hyaline cap. The model accounts for the kinematics of the cytoskeleton: the detailed velocity field of the forward flow of the endoplasm, the contraction of the ectoplasmic tube, and the inversion of the flow in the fountain zone. The model also gives a satisfactory account of measurements of pressure gradients, measurements of heat dissipation, and measurements of the output of useful work by amoeba. Finally, the model suggests a very promising (but still hypothetical) continuum formulation of the free boundary problem of amoeboid motion. by balancing normal forces on the plasma membrane as closely as possible, the minimal model is able to predict the turgor pressure and surface tension of A. proteus. Several dynamical factors are crucial to the success of the minimal model and are likely to be general features of cytoskeletal mechanics and control in amoeboid cells. These are: a constitutive law for the viscosity of the contractile network that includes an automatic process of gelation as the network density gets large; a very vigorous cycle of network polymerization and depolymerization (in the case of A. proteus, the time constant for this reaction is approximately 12 s); control of network contractility by a diffusible factor (probably calcium ion); and control of the adhesive interaction between the cytoskeleton and the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:2765645

  14. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  15. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  16. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  17. Proteus syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of a series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cresio; Acosta, Angelina X.; Toralles, Maria Betânia P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes the clinical diagnosis of Proteus syndrome (PS) in children referred for evaluation of asymmetric disproportionate overgrowth. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted from January 1998 to December 2010. Results: During the study period, 2011 new patients were evaluated. Thirteen (0.65%) patients presented features suggestive of PS. These patients were formally evaluated based on the revised diagnostic criteria proposed by Biesecker. The mean age was 6.92 ± 5.1 years. Ten patients (76.9%) were females. All subjects had asymmetric disproportionate overgrowth. Other dysmorphic features were as follows: macrodactily (84.6%); linear epidermal nevus (41.6%); hemangioma (30.7%); and lipoma (23%). Six patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PS. Conclusions: The diagnostic rate of only 46.1% of patients with PS confirms the diagnostic difficulties and the need for continuous monitoring and periodic review of these patients since the clinical manifestations of this syndrome become more evident with aging. Molecular tests may help the differential diagnosis of Proteus syndrome when they became commercially available. PMID:24381883

  18. Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.

  19. Aetas Mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    1999-04-01

    I recently had occasion to read again Galileo's Dialogue on Two New Sciences. Although it's hard to read Newton's Principia with its geometrical proofs, it's a delight to follow the banter and brilliant reasoning of the Dialogues. What a marvelous time to have been a scientist! Only three hundred and sixty-five years ago our whole world view was being overthrown by a few men, armed with their brains and some new optical devices.

  20. The complete plastid genome sequence of Welwitschia mirabilis: an unusually compact plastome with accelerated divergence rates

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant member of the family Welwitschiaceae, one of three lineages of gnetophytes, an enigmatic group of gymnosperms variously allied with flowering plants or conifers. Limited sequence data and rapid divergence rates have precluded consensus on the evolutionary placement of gnetophytes based on molecular characters. Here we report on the first complete gnetophyte chloroplast genome sequence, from Welwitschia mirabilis, as well as analyses on divergence rates of protein-coding genes, comparisons of gene content and order, and phylogenetic implications. Results The chloroplast genome of Welwitschia mirabilis [GenBank: EU342371] is comprised of 119,726 base pairs and exhibits large and small single copy regions and two copies of the large inverted repeat (IR). Only 101 unique gene species are encoded. The Welwitschia plastome is the most compact photosynthetic land plant plastome sequenced to date; 66% of the sequence codes for product. The genome also exhibits a slightly expanded IR, a minimum of 9 inversions that modify gene order, and 19 genes that are lost or present as pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analyses, including one representative of each extant seed plant lineage and based on 57 concatenated protein-coding sequences, place Welwitschia at the base of all seed plants (distance, maximum parsimony) or as the sister to Pinus (the only conifer representative) in a monophyletic gymnosperm clade (maximum likelihood, bayesian). Relative rate tests on these gene sequences show the Welwitschia sequences to be evolving at faster rates than other seed plants. For these genes individually, a comparison of average pairwise distances indicates that relative divergence in Welwitschia ranges from amounts about equal to other seed plants to amounts almost three times greater than the average for non-gnetophyte seed plants. Conclusion Although the basic organization of the Welwitschia plastome is typical, its compactness, gene content and high nucleotide divergence rates are atypical. The current lack of additional conifer plastome sequences precludes any discrimination between the gnetifer and gnepine hypotheses of seed plant relationships. However, both phylogenetic analyses and shared genome features identified here are consistent with either of the hypotheses that link gnetophytes with conifers, but are inconsistent with the anthophyte hypothesis. PMID:18452621

  1. Functional gene losses occur with minimal size reduction in the plastid genome of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Zhang, Yan; Hansen, S Kellon; Roper, Jessie M; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Plock, Sheila A; Wolf, Paul G; DePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Goffinet, Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Aneura mirabilis is a parasitic liverwort that exploits an existing mycorrhizal association between a basidiomycete and a host tree. This unusual liverwort is the only known parasitic seedless land plant with a completely nonphotosynthetic life history. The complete plastid genome of A. mirabilis was sequenced to examine the effect of its nonphotosynthetic life history on plastid genome content. Using a partial genomic fosmid library approach, the genome was sequenced and shown to be 108,007 bp with a structure typical of green plant plastids. Comparisons were made with the plastid genome of Marchantia polymorpha, the only other liverwort plastid sequence available. All ndh genes are either absent or pseudogenes. Five of 15 psb genes are pseudogenes, as are 2 of 6 psa genes and 2 of 6 pet genes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cysT, ccsA, and ycf3 were also detected. The remaining complement of genes present in M. polymorpha is present in the plastid of A. mirabilis with intact open reading frames. All pseudogenes and gene losses co-occur with losses detected in the plastid of the parasitic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana, though the latter has functional gene losses not found in A. mirabilis. The plastid genome sequence of A. mirabilis represents only the second liverwort, and first mycoheterotroph, to have its plastid genome sequenced. We observed a pattern of genome evolution congruent with functional gene losses in parasitic angiosperms but suggest that its plastid genome represents a genome in the early stages of decay following the relaxation of selection pressures. PMID:18056074

  2. Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

  3. Proteus Syndrome: Report of Intra-Abdominal Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Erginel, Basak; Akin, Melih; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin; Sever, Nihat; Tanik, Canan; Erturk, Mehmet; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is an extremely rare sporadic disorder that manifests as an asymmetric, disproportionate overgrowth of any connective tissues, such as bone, fat, or epidermal nevi, in a mosaic or patchy pattern. This hamartoneoplastic syndrome was first described by Cohen and Hayden. Its prevalence is approximately 1 per 1,000,000 live births, and intra-abdominal expansion has been reported in no more than 20 cases in the literature. The phenotypes of the patients differ because of the variation in the pattern of the overgrowths, making diagnosis difficult. Extremely large subcutaneous lipomas and internal lipomas, which occur rarely, are one of the presentation phenotypes. Here, we present the second patient in the literature with PS involving the epiploon.

  4. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Surette, M; Gill, T; MacLean, S

    1990-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was isolated and purified from cell extracts of Proteus vulgaris recovered from spoiling cod fish (Gadus morhua). The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 120,000 +/- 2,000 and pH 6.8. The Michaelis constant for inosine as substrate was 3.9 x 10(-5). Guanosine also served as a substrate (Km = 2.9 x 10(-5). However, the enzyme was incapable of phosphorylizing adenosine. Adenosine proved to be useful as a competitive inhibitor and was used as a ligand for affinity chromatography of purine nucleoside phosphorylase following initial purification steps of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:2111121

  5. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  6. Clinical differentiation between Proteus syndrome and hemihyperplasia: description of a distinct form of hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Biesecker, L G; Peters, K F; Darling, T N; Choyke, P; Hill, S; Schimke, N; Cunningham, M; Meltzer, P; Cohen, M M

    1998-10-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare and highly variable hamartomatous syndrome that can affect multiple organ systems. It is characterized by hyperplastic lesions of connective tissue, vascular malformations, linear verrucous epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. The cause of the disorder is unknown, but the current working hypothesis is that it is caused by a mosaic alteration that leads to a highly variable phenotype, equal sex ratio, sporadic occurrence, and discordant monozygotic twins. Herein we describe our experience with 18 patients with a referring diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. It was found that imaging studies are very useful for the characterization of the syndrome. One finding was that splenic hyperplasia can be a manifestation of Proteus syndrome. Analysis of the clinical data shows that Proteus syndrome is frequently confused with "hemihyperplasia." A distinct subtype of hemihyperplasia is defined that includes static or mildly progressive hemihyperplasia and multiple lipomata. PMID:9781913

  7. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...antibodies to rickettsia (virus-like bacteria) in serum. Test results aid in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  8. Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti.

    PubMed

    Durand, J P

    1976-12-01

    The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process. PMID:1016662

  9. Behavioral Evidence and Supporting Electrophysiological Observations for Electroreception in the Blind Cave Salamander, Proteus anguinus (Urodela)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roth; P. Schlegel

    1988-01-01

    Conditioning experiments revealed that Proteus perceives a back-and-forth moving (?1 Hz) direct-current field and its polarity. Minimum behavioral thresholds occurred at a current density of 0.15 ?A\\/ cm2, corresponding to a voltage gradient of 0.5 mV\\/cm. Recordings from afferent nerve fibers showed that ampullary electroreceptors in Proteus respond as do other nonteleost receptors, i.e. with an increase in discharge rate

  10. Progressive Overgrowth of the Cerebriform Connective Tissue Nevus in Patients with Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beachkofsky, Thomas M.; Sapp, Julie C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Darling, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteus syndrome is a rare overgrowth disorder that almost always affects the skin. Objective Our purpose was to evaluate progression of skin lesions in patients with Proteus syndrome. Methods Skin findings were documented in 36 patients with Proteus syndrome. Progression of skin lesions in 16 of these patients was assessed by comparing photographs obtained on repeat visits for an average total duration of 53 months. Results The skin lesion most characteristic of Proteus syndrome, the cerebriform connective tissue nevus showed progression in 13 children but not in 3 adults. The cerebriform connective tissue nevus progressed by expansion into previously uninvolved skin, increased thickness, and development of new lesions. Lipomas increased in size and/or number in 8/10 children with lipomas. In contrast, epidermal nevi and vascular malformations generally did not spread or increase in number. Limitations Only 3 adults with Proteus syndrome were evaluated longitudinally. Conclusion The cerebriform connective tissue nevus in Proteus syndrome grows throughout childhood but tends to remain stable in adulthood. PMID:20709429

  11. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  12. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays follicular elevations of the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

  13. Polymicrobial Ventriculitis Involving Pseudomonas fulva

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L.; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S.; Anderson, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

  14. Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

    2014-06-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

  15. Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. P.; Kvíderová, J.; T?íska, J.; Elster, J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium?+?5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?50??M KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?200??M NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3?+?200??M NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3?+?50??M KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75??mol?m?2?s?1. During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from ?6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1?±?5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300??mol?m?2?s?1 (daily average 1,500?±?1,090??mol?m?2?s?1). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low-temperature-mass cultivation biotechnology. This strain is a perspective model organism for biotechnology in low-temperature conditions. PMID:23630521

  16. Classification of a Proteus penneri clinical isolate with a unique O-antigen structure to a new Proteus serogroup, O80.

    PubMed

    Siwi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Levina, Evgeniya A; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ró?alski, Antoni; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-04-30

    Proteus penneri is an opportunistic pathogen, which may cause severe diseases, most frequently urinary tract infections in immunocompromised patients. P. penneri Br 114 exhibiting a good swarming growth ability as an S-form strain was isolated from a wound of a patient in ?ód?, Poland. Serological studies using ELISA and Western blotting and chemical analyses along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that the O-antigen (O-polysaccharide) of this strain is unique among the known Proteus serotypes O1-O79. It possesses a linear pentasaccharide repeating unit containing a partially O-acetylated amide of d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) with l-serine having the following structure: These data are a basis for creating a new Proteus serogroup, O80, so far represented by the single Br 114 isolate. The O80 is the 21st O-serogroup containing P. penneri strains and the fourth serogroup based on Proteus spp. clinical isolates from ?ód?, Poland. PMID:25771295

  17. The Identity of Proteus hydrophilus Bergey et al. and Proteus melanovogenes Miles&Halanan, and their Relation to the Genus Aeromonas Kluyver&van Niel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELLEN M. MILES; A. A. JULES

    1951-01-01

    SUMMARY: Proteus melanovogenes, originally isolated from black-rot in eggs, does not differ from Pr. hydrophilus, the cause of red-leg in frogs, more than different strains in each species differ from one another ; and the two species may be considered as identical. Both species resemble Aerobacter liquefaciens Beijerinck, Pseudmnas fermentans von Wohlzogen Kuhr and Ps. ichthyomia. The divergences from a

  18. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth; Oliver Koberl; Luka Snoj

    2015-01-01

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the 235U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3s uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3s) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4s. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3s of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

  20. Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengwei; Zhou, Qixing; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhineng

    2009-09-15

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by organic chemicals is a challenging problem in environmental science and engineering. On the basis of identifying remediation plants from ornamentals, the remediation capability of Mirabilis Jalapa L. to treat petroleum contaminated soil from the Shengli Oil Field in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China was further investigated using a field plot experiment carried out in a greenhouse. The results showed that the average efficiency of removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by M. jalapa over the 127-day culture period was high, up to 41.61-63.20%, when the removal rate by natural attenuation was only 19.75-37.92%. The maximum reduction occurred in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction compared with other components of petroleum contaminants. According to the qualitative and quantitative parameters including plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root weight and visual stress symptoms, it was indicated that M. jalapa had a peculiar tolerance to petroleum contamination and could effectively promote the degradation of TPHs when the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was equal to and lower than 10,000 mg/kg. The population of living microorganisms in the planted soil could be also adaptive to

  1. Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

  2. Functional morphology of the inner ear and underwater audiograms of Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Bulog, B; Schlegel, P

    2000-01-01

    Octavolateral sensory organs (auditory and lateral line organs) of cave salamander Proteus anguinus are highly differentiated. In the saccular macula of the inner ear the complex pattern of hair cell orientation and the large otoconial mass enable particle displacement direction detection. Additionally, the same organ, through air cavities within the body, enables detection of underwater sound pressure changes thus acting as a hearing organ. The cavities in the lungs and mouth of Proteus are a resonators that transmit underwater sound pressure to the inner ear. Behaviourally determined audiograms indicate hearing sensitivity of 60 dB (rel. 1 microPa) at frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz. The hearing frequency range was between 10 Hz and 10 kHz. The hearing sensitivities of depigmented Proteus and black Proteus were compared. The highest sensitivities of the depigmented animals (N=4) were at frequencies 1.3-1.7 kHz and it was 2 kHz in black animals (N=1). Excellent underwater hearing abilities of Proteus are sensory adaptations to cave habitat. PMID:10653179

  3. Radiographic manifestations of the temporomandibular joint in a case of Proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, E; Kansu, Ö; Özgen, B; Akçiçek, G; Kansu, H

    2013-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder with progressive asymmetrical and disproportionate overgrowth of various tissues of the body. The syndrome is characterized by a wide range of malformations, including craniofacial deformities. Extraoral examination revealed several of the classical craniofacial features of Proteus syndrome: pronounced hemifacial hypertrophy, macrodactyly and hyperostosis. Intraoral examination revealed a high arched palate and gingival hyperplasia. Other findings were unilateral enlargement of the tongue, alveolar growth and dilaceration of the roots of the teeth. There were severe degenerative changes and deformities in the left temporomandibular joint but the oversized condyle was asymptomatic; there was no pain, limitation and deviation at mouth opening. Treatment was not necessary owing to the asymptomatic situation but periodic follow-up with clinical and radiographic examination was considered. The aim of this article is to describe the radiographic manifestations of an asymptomatic condyle malformation and other craniofacial, oral and dental findings in a 33-year-old female patient with known Proteus syndrome. PMID:22241876

  4. Antimicrobial effect of combinations of EDTA-Tris and amikacin or neomycin on the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Sparks; D. T. Kemp; R. E. Wooley; P. S. Gibbs

    1994-01-01

    Combinations of EDTA-Tris and two aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin and neomycin) were tested for synergistic activities against the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs and for the solutions' stability over time. Synergistic activity was observed when EDTA-Tris plus amikacin and EDTA-Tris plus neomycin were tested againstStaphylococcus intermedius, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, andEscherichia coli, but not againstCandida albicans. Stability studies over

  5. Activity of some antiseptics against urinary tract pathogens growing as biofilms on silicone surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Stickler; J. Dolman; S. Rolfe; J. Chawla

    1991-01-01

    The activity of chlorhexidine, mandelic acid and a mandelic\\/lactic mixture were tested against biofilms of four species of gram-negative nosocomial organisms that commonly infect the catheterized urinary tract. Cells growing on silicone discs were exposed to concentrations of agents used in bladder instillation.Citrobacter diversus biofilms proved to be sensitive to all three agents.Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis andKlebsiella pneumoniae all survived

  6. Inhibition of bacterial multiplication by the iron chelator deferoxamine: Potentiating effect of ascorbic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. van Asbeck; J. H. Marcelis; J. J. M. Marx; A. Struyvenberg; J. H. van Kats; J. Verhoef

    1983-01-01

    Since iron is essential for the multiplication of microorganisms, the effect of the iron chelator deferoxamine, with or without ascorbic acid, on the growth of 43 strains ofStaphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Neisseria meningitidis and species ofSalmonella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas andProvidencia, was investigated with the use of an automated turbidimeter. Addition of deferoxamine (25–400?g\\/ml)

  7. A minimal form of Proteus syndrome presenting with macrodactyly and hand hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Federica; Feliciani, Claudio; Toto, Paola; De Benedetto, Anna; Tulli, Antonello

    2003-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. Many atypical cases have been reported and this is probably due to the mosaicism of the genetic disorder displaying different clinical features. We describe a patient with an extremely mild form of Proteus syndrome presenting macrodactyly and hyperplasia of one hand which was misdiagnosed until the age of 33 years. PMID:12695139

  8. Behavioral evidence and supporting electrophysiological observations for electroreception in the blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Urodela).

    PubMed

    Roth, A; Schlegel, P

    1988-01-01

    Conditioning experiments revealed that Proteus perceives a back-and-forth moving (approximately 1 Hz) direct-current field and its polarity. Minimum behavioral thresholds occurred at a current density of 0.15 microA/cm2, corresponding to a voltage gradient of 0.5 mV/cm. Recordings from afferent nerve fibers showed that ampullary electroreceptors in Proteus respond as do other nonteleost receptors, i.e. with an increase in discharge rate to cathodal current and a decrease to anodal current (threshold: approximately 1 mV/cm). PMID:3233487

  9. Transcriptional responses to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper 1864).

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Somero, George N

    2010-09-01

    Thermal acclimation (acclimatization) capacity may be critical for determining how successfully an ectotherm can respond to temperature change, and adaptive shifts in gene expression may be pivotal for mediating these acclimatory responses. Using a cDNA microarray, we examined transcriptional profiles in gill tissue of a highly eurythermal goby fish, Gillichthys mirabilis, following 4 wk of acclimation to 9 degrees C, 19 degrees C, or 28 degrees C. Overall, gill transcriptomes were not strikingly different among acclimation groups. Of the 1,607 unique annotated genes on the array, only 150 of these genes (9%) were significantly different in expression among the three acclimation groups (ANOVA, false discovery rate < 0.05). Principal component analysis revealed that 59% of the variation in expression among these genes was described by an expression profile that is upregulated with increasing acclimation temperature. Gene ontology analysis of these genes identified protein biosynthesis, transport, and several metabolic categories as processes showing the greatest change in expression. Our results suggest that energetic costs of macromolecular turnover and membrane-localized transport rise with acclimation temperature. The upregulation of several classes of stress-related proteins, e.g., heat shock proteins, seen in the species' response to acute thermal stress was not observed in the long-term 28 degrees C-acclimated fish. The transcriptional differences found among the acclimation groups thus may reflect an acclimation process that has largely remedied the effects of acute thermal stress and established a new steady-state condition involving changes in relative energy costs for different processes. This pattern of transcriptional alteration in steady-state acclimated fish may be a signature of eurythermy. PMID:20610827

  10. Specificities of RNA N-glycosidase activity of Mirabilis antiviral protein variants.

    PubMed

    Habuka, N; Miyano, M; Kataoka, J; Tsuge, H; Noma, M

    1992-04-15

    Mirabilis antiviral protein (MAP), a ribosome-inactivating protein, inactivates both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes by means of site-specific RNA N-glycosidase activity. In order to identify the site of this activity, some amino acid residues of MAP, conserved in homologous ribosome-inactivating proteins, were altered to other amino acids by replacing DNA fragments of the total synthetic gene of MAP. When the in vitro proteins synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte was treated with MAP variants secreted into culture media of Escherichia coli transformants, the inhibitory effect of R26L and R48L (R26L designates MAP variant with Arg-26 changed to Leu) was found to be similar to that of native MAP. Both purified Y72F and Y118F had the same effect as native MAP, and E168D had a slightly weaker effect. In contrast, on the protein synthesis of E. coli, Y118F had one-tenth the effect of native MAP, and Y72F and E168D approximately one-hundredth the effect. These three variant proteins also exhibited reduced RNA N-glycosidase activity on substrate E. coli ribosomes. These results suggest that Tyr-72 and Glu-168 are involved in RNA N-glycosidase activity. When the R171K gene was expressed in E. coli, an N-glycosidic bond of the 23 S rRNA of the host ribosome was found to be cleaved, although no product of the gene could be detected. This suggests that MAP variants can maintain their N-glycosidase activity when the conserved Glu-168 and Arg-171 are changed to similarly charged residues. PMID:1560009

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy. PMID:19482674

  12. The antigens contributing to the serological cross-reactions of Proteus antisera with Klebsiella representatives.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Proteus sp. and Klebsiella sp. mainly cause infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts or wounds in humans. The representatives of both genera produce virulence factors like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or outer membrane proteins (OMPs) having much in common in the structures and/or functions. To check how far this similarity is revealed in the serological cross-reactivity, the bacterial masses of 24 tested Klebsiella sp. strains were tested in ELISA with polyclonal rabbit antisera specific to the representatives of 79 Proteus O serogroups. The strongest reacting systems were selected to Western blot, where the majority of Klebsiella masses reacted in a way characteristic for electrophoretic patterns of proteins. The strongest reactions were obtained for proteins of near 67 and 40 kDa and 12.5 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins samples of one Proteus sp. and one Klebsiella sp. strain showed the GroEL like protein of a sequence GI number 2980926 to be similar for both strains. In Western blot some Klebsiella sp. masses reacted similarly to the homologous Proteus LPSs. The LPS contribution in the observed reactions of the high molecular-mass LPS species was confirmed for Klebsiella oxytoca 0.062. PMID:25510650

  13. Prostaglandins may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Prusch; Stella-Maris Goette; Paula Haberman

    1989-01-01

    Phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus can be induced with prostaglandins (PG). In addition, arachidonic acid (the fatty acid precursor to the PG-2 series) also induces phagocytosis. The induction of phagocytosis with arachidonic acid can be partially inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Phagocytosis in the amoeba can also be induced with the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (NFMLP). The peptide presumably induces phagocytosis

  14. Some evidence for the ampullary organs in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus (Urodela, Amphibia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Isteni?; Boris Bulog

    1984-01-01

    The multicellular epithelial organs in Proteus anguinus, which Bugnion (1873) assumed to be developing neuromasts, have been analyzed by lightand electron-microscopy. Their fundamental structure consists of single ampullae with sensory and accessory cells with apical parts that extend into the pit of the ampulla, and of a short jelly-filled canal connecting the ampulla pit with the surface of the skin.

  15. Persistence of Retinal Dopamine Cells in the Degenerated Eye of the Cave Salamander, Proteus anguinus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine Nguyen-Legros; Jacques Durand; Axelle Simon; Nicole Keller; Annette Vigny; Josette Dupuy; Yves Pouliquen

    1987-01-01

    The Proteus anguinus L. is a blind cave perennibranch amphibian whose visual system undergoes an important morphogenetic degeneration in adulthood. The eyeball becomes atrophied and disappears under the fat tissue of the head. However, a retina can still be identified and a photophobic behavior of the animal indicates a remaining photosen-sitivity. In the oldest animal observed, some photoreceptor cells are

  16. Functional morphology of the inner ear and underwater audiograms of Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Bulog; Peter Schlegel

    2000-01-01

    Octavolateral sensory organs (auditory and lateral line organs) of cave salamander Proteus anguinus are highly differentiated. In the saccular macula of the inner ear the complex pattern of hair cell orientation and the large otoconial mass enable particle displacement direction detection. Additionally, the same organ, through air cavities within the body, enables detection of underwater sound pressure changes thus acting

  17. OCULAR DEVELOPMENT AND INVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN CAVE SALAMANDER, PROTEUS ANGUINUS LAURENTI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACQUES P. DURAND

    Proteus anguinus Laurenti is a well-known urodele amphibian, and it is the only real cave-dwelling vertebrate in Europe. Its biology remains, however, a relatively unknown field of study. In spite of the interest it has aroused in naturalists, there remain many contradictions and inexactitudes in studies of which this urodele has been the object. These contradictions are found in many

  18. Hepatic metallothioneins in two neotenic salamanders, Proteus anguinus and Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Dobrovoljc; I Falnoga; B Bulog; M Tušek-Žnidari?; J Š?an?ar

    2003-01-01

    The presence of metallothionein (MT) and the subcellular distribution of copper, zinc and cadmium were investigated in livers of two neotenic salamanders, Proteus anguinus and Necturus maculosus. In P. anguinus, caught in the wild, hepatic MTs were present as a single isoform of (Zn, Cu, Cd)-thioneins, whose molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 12000 by size exclusion chromatography. The

  19. Is the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus equiped for magnetic orientation ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bouquerel; J. P. Valet

    2003-01-01

    The Proteus anguinus is a blind cave salamander which can develop the ability of using the earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. It has been shown that the strength of the geomagnetic field is not strong enough to excite the electroreceptors of these animals through induction mechanism so that the most likely hypothesis is that they would use cristals

  20. Tuning of Electroreceptors in the Blind Cave Salamander, Proteus anguinus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Schlegel; A. Roth

    1997-01-01

    The blind cave salamander's (Proteus anguinus L.) sensitivity for electrical fields was determined by recordings from afferent fibers coming from ampullary electroreceptors. The animals were stimulated with single rectangular or continuous sinusoidal electrical signals passed through the cave water in the experimental tank. Best threshold sensitivities of the fibers for both kinds of signals were in the same range (0.1–0.5

  1. Proteus - A Free and Open Source Sensor Observation Service (SOS) Client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, J.; Satapathy, G.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's 'electronic skin' is becoming ever more sophisticated with a growing number of sensors measuring everything from seawater salinity levels to atmospheric pressure. To further the scientific application of this data collection effort, it is important to make the data easily available to anyone who wants to use it. Making Earth Science data readily available will allow the data to be used in new and potentially groundbreaking ways. The US National Science and Technology Council made this clear in its most recent National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations report, when it remarked that Earth observations 'are often found to be useful for additional purposes not foreseen during the development of the observation system'. On the road to this goal the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is defining uniform data formats and service interfaces to facilitate the discovery and access of sensor data. This is being done through the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) stack of standards, which include the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), Sensor Model Language (SensorML), Observations & Measurements (O&M) and Catalog Service for the Web (CSW). End-users do not have to use these standards directly, but can use smart tools that leverage and implement them. We have developed such a tool named Proteus. Proteus is an open-source sensor data discovery client. The goal of Proteus is to be a general-purpose client that can be used by anyone for discovering and accessing sensor data via OGC-based services. Proteus is a desktop client and supports a straightforward workflow for finding sensor data. The workflow takes the user through the process of selecting appropriate services, bounding boxes, observed properties, time periods and other search facets. NASA World Wind is used to display the matching sensor offerings on a map. Data from any sensor offering can be previewed in a time series. The user can download data from a single sensor offering, or download data in bulk from all matching sensor offerings. Proteus leverages NASA World Wind's WMS capabilities and allow overlaying sensor offerings on top of any map. Specific search criteria (i.e. user discoveries) can be saved and later restored. Proteus is supports two user types: 1) the researcher/scientist interested in discovering and downloading specific sensor data as input to research processes, and 2) the data manager responsible for maintaining sensor data services (e.g. SOSs) and wants to ensure proper data and metadata delivery, verify sensor data, and receive sensor data alerts. Proteus has a Web-based companion product named the Community Hub that is used to generate sensor data alerts. Alerts can be received via an RSS feed, viewed in a Web browser or displayed directly in Proteus via a Web-based API. To advance the vision of making Earth Science data easily discoverable and accessible to end-users, professional or laymen, Proteus is available as open-source on GitHub (https://github.com/intelligentautomation/proteus).

  2. Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.

    PubMed

    Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation. PMID:21361996

  3. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-03-28

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

  4. Distribution and evolution of pseudogenes, gene losses, and a gene rearrangement in the plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida).

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Fan, Yu; Lewis, Paul O; Goffinet, Bernard

    2008-07-01

    The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made using comparisons with the distantly related liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. We sampled several populations of A. mirabilis and its photosynthetic sister groups to correlate functional gene losses with the evolution of a achlorophylly. The gene losses, pseudogenes, or the psbE-petL inversion were never detected in a photosynthetic Aneura but were detected in every population of A. mirabilis. One population of A. mirabilis revealed a unique deletion of 541 bp in the psbE-petL region; another is characterized by a unique deletion of 471 bp in the trnV(UAC)-ndhC region. The ratio of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution rates (omega) was estimated for eight pseudogenes and six ORFs to detect relaxed purifying selection. A significant increase in omega for the nonphotosynthetic liverwort was detected in six pseudogenes. Relaxation purifying selection, determined by a significant increase in omega, was detected for three intact ORFs: psbA, psbM, and rbcL. PMID:18594897

  5. The ultrastructure of photoreceptor cells in the pineal organ of the blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Kos, M; Bulog, B

    2000-01-01

    We studied ultrastructure of the photoreceptor cells in the pineal organ of blind, depigmented, neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus. Unlike in epigean vertebrates the outer segments of most photoreceptor cells consists of concentrically arranged lamellae, however; in few cells, the outer segments contain 7-9 plasma membrane disks. In both types of photoreceptor cells the outer segments enclose lumps of vesicles of different sizes. The photoreceptor cells of Proteus anguinus are similar to those in other cavernicolous fish species. PMID:10653183

  6. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds,empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  7. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yauba, M. S.; Ahmed, H.; Imoudu, I. A.; Yusuf, M. O.; Makarfi, H. U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species.

  8. Persistence of retinal dopamine cells in the degenerated eye of the cave salamander, Proteus anguinus L.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Legros, J; Durand, J; Simon, A; Keller, N; Vigny, A; Dupuy, J; Pouliquen, Y

    1987-01-01

    The Proteus anguinus L. is a blind cave perennibranch amphibian whose visual system undergoes an important morphogenetic degeneration in adulthood. The eyeball becomes atrophied and disappears under the fat tissue of the head. However, a retina can still be identified and a photophobic behavior of the animal indicates a remaining photosensitivity. In the oldest animal observed, some photoreceptor cells are still present as well as other types of retinal neurons. Characteristic synapses are observed in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. Dopaminergic amacrine cells, with processes in the inner plexiform layer, can be identified by their tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Taken together, these results indicate a possible functional role of the remaining retina. Since dopamine is especially involved in light adaptation from darkness, the residual retina could act in triggering the turning behavior of Proteus in response to lightening. PMID:3441352

  9. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  10. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm. PMID:24010505

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC was able to confirm several plasmid-mediated carbapenemases among Pseudomonas including NDM. Top of page Print ... Training CDC HAI Commentaries Map: HAI Prevention Activities Research Prevention Epicenters (PE) Patient Safety Outpatient Settings Laboratory ...

  12. Proteus syndrome: a case report and a case study review in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Bao; Li, Chang-Xing; He, Yu-Qing; Zhang, San-Quan; Cai, Yan-Xia

    2010-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare and sporadic disorder characterized by overgrowth of multiple tissues and a propensity to develop particular neoplasms. The clinical manifestations of PS include macrodactyly, vertebral abnormalities, asymmetric limb overgrowth and length discrepancy, hyperostosis, abnormal and asymmetric fat distribution, asymmetric muscle development, connective tissue nevi, and vascular malformations. We report a 16-year old female patient who manifested a number of these complications and review the Chinese literature about the diagnosis, natural history, and management of PS. PMID:25386239

  13. Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilijana Bizjak Mali; Boris Bulog

    2010-01-01

    Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene\\u000a oocytes ranging from 100 to 600?µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were\\u000a divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology.

  14. Population-specific behavioral electrosensitivity of the European blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Schlegel; B Bulog

    1997-01-01

    In nine salamanders from different Slovenian populations of the urodele Proteus anguinus, including three specimens of its ‘black’ variety, P anguinus parkelj, thresholds of an overt avoidance response to electrical field stimuli were estimated as a function of frequency (continuous sine-waves in water). Thresholds down to 0.3 mV\\/cm (ca 100 nA\\/cm2) and up to 2 mV\\/cm (670 nA\\/cm2), at ‘best

  15. Population-specific behavioral electrosensitivity of the European blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P; Bulog, B

    1997-04-01

    In nine salamanders from different Slovenian populations of the urodele Proteus anguinus, including three specimens of its 'black' variety, P anguinus parkelj, thresholds of an overt avoidance response to electrical field stimuli were estimated as a function of frequency (continuous sine-waves in water). Thresholds down to 0.3V/cm (ca 100 nA/cm2) and up to 2 mV/cm (670 nA/cm2), at 'best frequencies' of around 30 Hz were found. Sensitivity covered a total frequency range of below 1 Hz, excluding DC, up to 1-2 kHz with up to 40 dB higher thresholds. Thresholds and tuning curves are compared with those of a Proteus population raised in captivity for more than 35 years. The biological significance and the apparently still ongoing evolution of the electrical sense in urodeles, ie in the genus Proteus, are interpreted in terms of comparative sensory physiology and ethological ecology as a result of more recent evolutionary diversification during and since glaciation in the Pleistocene. PMID:9326735

  16. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts of the bark of Melia azedarach (China Berry).

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Ahmed, Manzoor; Naz, Sumaira; Ayaz, Musarrat

    2014-11-26

    Nature provides a variety of drugs and medicinal agents derived from plants. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Melia azedarach bark with methanol/water (9:1 v/v), chloroform, butanol, hexane, water and ethyl acetate. For the determination of the antimicrobial activities, the agar well diffusion method was employed. Cytotoxicity was studied by brine shrimp lethality assay; antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The chloroform extract was active against Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis, the ethyl acetate extract had highest antibacterial spectrum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the n-hexane extract had highest inhibition against E. aerogenes, the aqueous extract showed highest activities against P. mirabilis, the butanol fraction showed highest activities against E. aerogenes and the methanolic extract was highly active against P. mirabilis. PMID:25426766

  17. Fructose metabolism in four Pseudomonas species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Dijken; J. R. Quayle

    1977-01-01

    1.ATP-Dependent phosphorylation of fructose could not be detected in extracts of fructose-grown cells of Pseudomonas extorquens strain 16, Pseudomonas 3A2, Pseudomonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Instead, phosphorylation of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate was found to occur when cell-free extracts were incubated with fructose and phosphoenolpyruvate. Such an activity could not be detected in cell-free extracts of succinate-grown cells.2.High levels of 1-phosphofructokinase

  18. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePLUS

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  19. Perineural infiltrates in Pseudomonas keratitis.

    PubMed

    Robbie, Scott J; Vega, Felipe A; Tint, Naing L; Hau, Scott; Allan, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    We describe 2 cases of contact lens-related microbial keratitis caused by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which perineural infiltrates were observed at presentation. In both cases, examination by confocal microscopy was negative for Acanthamoeba cysts but bacterial cultures and microscopy of corneal scrapings were positive for P aeruginosa. Both cases responded rapidly to treatment with topical levofloxacin with no significant long-term sequelae. These observations indicate that perineural infiltrates may occur in Pseudomonas keratitis without underlying Acanthamoeba infection and are, therefore, not pathognomonic of Acanthamoeba infection. PMID:24160385

  20. Is the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus equiped for magnetic orientation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquerel, H.; Valet, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The Proteus anguinus is a blind cave salamander which can develop the ability of using the earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation. It has been shown that the strength of the geomagnetic field is not strong enough to excite the electroreceptors of these animals through induction mechanism so that the most likely hypothesis is that they would use cristals of magnetite as permanent magnets. We have been looking for evidence of remanent magnetism in several proteus collected from the underground CNRS laboratory at Moulis (France). Because the level of natural remanent magnetization, if any, was too low to be measured with confidence using a 3 axis squid 2G magnetometer (even bringing the animals as close as possible to the sensors), we stepwise remagnetized the samples between 0.2 and 1.2T. Measurements were performed in different parts of three proteus bodies. No significant magnetization was detected in the head, most of the signal being concentrated in the lower body of the animal. Saturation was attained after 0.2T while stepwise demagnetization by alternating field showed that most magnetization was removed after 40 mT (medium destructive field, MDF of about 10 mT), which is typical of magnetite. Independent measurements of clay soils taken from the surrounding immediate environment of the animals reveal a different magnetic signature for saturation, MDF and viscosity. Thus there is no apparent and direct link between food absorbed from their environment and the magnetic remamence of the animals. New experiments are currently in progress to determine whether magnetite is the unique magnetic carrier and also to provide better clue about the magnetic granulometry and its distribution.

  1. Cloning and expression of a thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 in the perennibranchiate amphibian Proteus anguinus.

    PubMed

    Ho Huynh, T D; Gallien, C L; Durand, J P; Chanoine, C

    1996-06-01

    We demonstrated the presence of thyroid hormone receptor alpha mRNAs in tissues of the perennibranchiate amphibian Proteus anguinus, which is insensitive to thyroid hormone. From P. anguinus muscle we cloned and sequenced the 3' coding and untranslated region of a cDNA corresponding to a thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1. Using cDNA-PCR and in situ hybridization, we showed a tissue-specific expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha genes, which was not upregulated by thyroid hormone as opposed to that observed in the TH-sensitive species, Xenopus laevis. PMID:8840186

  2. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  3. Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the proteus reactor

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1980-12-01

    Detailed analysis has been completed for the ThO/sub 2/ and Th-metal axial blanket experiments performed at the Swiss PROTEUS critical facility in order to compare reaction rates and neutron spectra measured in prototypic GCFR configurations with calculated results. The PROTEUS configurations allowed the analysis of infinitely dilute thorium data in a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fast lattice spectrum at core center as well as the analysis of resonance self-shielding effects in the thorium-bearing axial blankets. These comparisons indicate that significant deficiencies still exist in the latest evaluated infinitely dilute thorium data file. Specifically, the analysis showed that the /sup 232/Th capture is underpredicted by ENDF/B-IV data, and the discrepancies are further exaggerated by ENDF/B-V data. On the other hand, ENDF/B-V /sup 232/Th fission data appear to be significantly improved relative to ENDF/B-IV data, while discrepancies are extremely large for the (n,2n) process in both data files. Finally, the (n,n') cross sections for thorium also appear improved in ENDF/B-V, except for a small energy range just above the 50 keV threshold. Therefore, these combined data deficiencies suggest that relatively large uncertainties should be associated with many of the results obtained from recent fast reactor alternate fuel cycle analyses. 38 figures, 12 tables.

  4. Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae).

    PubMed

    Mali, Lilijana Bizjak; Bulog, Boris

    2010-10-01

    Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene oocytes ranging from 100 to 600?µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology. Stage I oocytes can be identified by their transparent cytoplasm and a homogenous juxtanuclear mass, composed of numerous lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stage II oocytes are no longer transparent and have increased in diameter to 300- 600?µm, and many cortical alveoli differing in size have appeared. The common and most predominant ultrastructural characteristics of both stages of previtellogene oocytes are extensive quantities of smooth membrane, numerous mitochondria, and lipid droplets, as well as abundant free ribosomes. Myeline-like structures and remarkable annulate lamellae of closely packed membrane stacks are also frequently observed. Previtellogenic oocytes are the most predominant oocytes in the ovaries of Proteus, and while they possess certain structural characteristics typical for other amphibians, some features are unique and could result from adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:20177720

  5. Diacylglycerol as a component of the signal-coupling pathway during the initiation of endocytosis in Amoeba proteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Prusch; Victor L. Thompson

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to define the transmembrane-signal pathway used to couple external phagocytotic signals with effectors in the cell interior, the effects of diacylglycerol (DG) and related substances were examined in Amoeba proteus. DGs are highly chemotactic, readily attracting amoebae when presented in a glass micropipette. Addition of DG (10-6 M) to the medium elicits rapid shape changes in the

  6. The ultrastructure of photoreceptor cells in the pineal organ of the blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjanca Kos; Boris Bulog

    2000-01-01

    We studied ultrastructure of the photoreceptor cells in the pineal organ of blind, depigmented, neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus. Unlike in epigean vertebrates the outer segments of most photoreceptor cells consists of concentrically arranged lamellae, however; in few cells, the outer segments contain 7-9 plasma membrane disks. In both types of photoreceptor cells the outer segments enclose lumps of vesicles

  7. Histology and ultrastructure of the gut epithelium of the neotenic cave salamander,Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilijana Bizjak Mali; Boris Bulog

    2004-01-01

    Histological, histochemical, and ultrastruc- tural features of the gut of the European endemic cave salamander Proteus anguinus were studied. The gut is a relatively undifferentiated muscular tube lined with a simple columnar epithelium containing numerous goblet cells. The mucosa and underlying lamina propria\\/ submucosa are elevated into a number of high longitudi- nal folds projecting into the lumen. The enterocytes

  8. Underground and unknown: updated distribution, ecological notes and conservation guidelines on the Olm Proteus anguinus anguinus in Italy (Amphibia, Proteidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Bressi

    2004-01-01

    Proteus anguinus reaches the extreme western border of its distribution in Venezia Giulia, a narrow area of Italian territory in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. An alien population of P. anguinus is nowadays well acclimatised near Oliero Valstagna (Vicenza). The ancestors of diis population were introduced from Postojna (Slovenia) and could therefore be genetically well distinct from the Italian

  9. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Towne; John R. Schwab; Trong T. Bui

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations

  10. Denitrification by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Under Simulated Engineered Martian Conditions Denitrification by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Under

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Dave

    1 Denitrification by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Under Simulated Engineered Martian Conditions Denitrification by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Under Simulated Engineered Martian Conditions SHANDON D. HART1 under all conditions, and no significant differ- ences were observed between samples. These data

  11. Substantial increase of the inhibitory activity of Mirabilis antiviral protein by an elimination of the disulfide bond with genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Habuka, N; Miyano, M; Kataoka, J; Tsuge, H; Ago, H; Noma, M

    1991-12-15

    Mirabilis antiviral protein (MAP) is a rigid, heat-stable protein composed of 250 amino acids with an intramolecular disulfide bond. MAP inhibits the in vitro protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte with approximately one-thirtieth the activity of the ricin A chain, a homologous protein with no such bond (Habuka, N., Murakami, Y., Noma, M., Kudo, T., and Horikoshi, K. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 6629-6637; Habuka, N., Akiyama, K., Tsuge, H., Miyano, M., Matsumoto, T., and Noma, M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 10988-10992). The bond is presumed to induce some structural perturbation that alters the mode of interaction with the substrate ribosome and thus lowers the activity. To confirm this hypothesis, a mutant MAP gene in which the codons of both cysteines were replaced by those of serines was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its product (C36/22OS) was purified. In a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, C36/220S showed the same mobility as that of MAP reduced by 2-mercaptoethanol, whereas nonreduced MAP showed faster migration. The inhibitory activity of C36/220S was approximately 22 times higher than that of native MAP, that is the mutant had an IC50 of 0.16 nM for the protein synthesis of the rabbit reticulocyte system, whereas the native MAP had an IC50 of 3.5 nM. The results indicate that the activity of MAP is increased by the elimination of the disulfide bond, and this supports the hypothesis. PMID:1748633

  12. Preliminary examination of short-term cellular toxicological responses of the coral Madracis mirabilis to acute Irgarol 1051 exposure.

    PubMed

    Downs, C; Downs, A

    2007-01-01

    Irgarol 1051 is an s-triazine herbicide formulated with Cu2O in antifouling paints. Recent studies have shown that Irgarol 1051 inhibits coral photosynthesis at environmentally relevant concentrations, consistent with its mode of action as a photosystem II inhibitor. Related toxicologic effects of this herbicide on coral cellular physiology have not yet been investigated. We used cellular diagnostics to measure changes in 18 toxicologic cellular parameters in endosymbiotic algal (dinoflagellate) and cnidarian (host) fractions of the common branching coral Madracis mirabilis associated with in vivo 8- and 24-hour exposures to a nominal initial Irgarol 1051 concentration of 10 microg L(-1). Responses measured were (1) xenobiotic response, which includes total and dinoflagellate multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), cnidarian cytochrome (CYP) P450-3 and P450-6 classes, cnidarian, and dinoflagellate glutathione-s-transferase (GST); (2) oxidative damage and response, which includes cnidarian and dinoflagellate Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), cnidarian and dinoflagellate glutathione peroxidase (GPx), cnidarian catalase, and total protein carbonyl); (3) metabolic homeostasis, which includes chloroplast and invertebrate small heat-shock proteins (sHsp), cnidarian protoporphyrinogen oxidase IX (PPO), cnidarian ferrochelatase, and cnidarian heme oxygenase; and (4) protein metabolic condition, which includes cnidarian and dinoflagellate heat shock proteins (hsp70 and hsp60), total ubiquitin, and cnidarian ubiquitin ligase. Acute responses to Irgarol 1051 exposure included significant increases in total and dinoflagellate MXR, dinoflagellate Cu/Zn SOD, dinoflagellate chloroplast sHsp, and cnidarian PPO. Irgarol 1051 exposure resulted in decreases in cnidarian GPx, cnidarian ferrochelatase, cnidarian catalase, and cnidarian CYP 450-3 and -6 classes. Related implications of Irgarol 1051 exposure to coral cellular condition are discussed. PMID:17136316

  13. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  14. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  15. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3)...

  16. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3)...

  18. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis. (3)...

  20. [Metal resistance systems in Pseudomonas].

    PubMed

    Cervantes, C; Silver, S

    1996-01-01

    Several chromosome- and plasmid-encoded metal resistance genetic systems have been studied in Pseudomonas and related bacteria. Some systems are known with molecular detail whereas others are still poorly understood. The former include resistance genes for cations derived from mercury, cadmium and copper and anions from arsenic and chromium. Except for mercury, where a redox transformation occurs, extrusion of the toxic ions from the bacterial cytoplasm appears to be the most common mechanism of resistance. PMID:8966398

  1. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; K?opocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.). PMID:19088799

  2. Hepatic metallothioneins in two neotenic salamanders, Proteus anguinus and Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata).

    PubMed

    Dobrovoljc, K; Falnoga, I; Bulog, B; Tusek-Znidaric, M; Scancar, J

    2003-07-01

    The presence of metallothionein (MT) and the subcellular distribution of copper, zinc and cadmium were investigated in livers of two neotenic salamanders, Proteus anguinus and Necturus maculosus. In P. anguinus, caught in the wild, hepatic MTs were present as a single isoform of (Zn, Cu, Cd)-thioneins, whose molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 12000 by size exclusion chromatography. The percentage of zinc and cadmium was higher in the cytosol and of copper in the pellet. Cytosolic cadmium was almost exclusively associated with MTs (80%), while zinc and copper were also present in the regions of higher-molecular weight proteins. In laboratory bred N. maculosus, MTs were isolated from the liver cytosol and extract of the pellet as (Cu, Zn)- and (Zn, Cu)-thioneins, respectively. According to the low amount of copper extracting from liver pellets of N. maculosus, the presence of water insoluble aggregated forms of Cu-thioneins should be checked in further investigations. PMID:12927903

  3. Extreme lifespan of the human fish (Proteus anguinus): a challenge for ageing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Voituron, Yann; de Fraipont, Michelle; Issartel, Julien; Guillaume, Olivier; Clobert, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Theories of extreme lifespan evolution in vertebrates commonly implicate large size and predator-free environments together with physiological characteristics like low metabolism and high protection against oxidative damages. Here, we show that the ‘human fish’ (olm, Proteus anguinus), a small cave salamander (weighing 15–20 g), has evolved an extreme life-history strategy with a predicted maximum lifespan of over 100 years, an adult average lifespan of 68.5 years, an age at sexual maturity of 15.6 years and lays, on average, 35 eggs every 12.5 years. Surprisingly, neither its basal metabolism nor antioxidant activities explain why this animal sits as an outlier in the amphibian size/longevity relationship. This species thus raises questions regarding ageing processes and constitutes a promising model for discovering mechanisms preventing senescence in vertebrates. PMID:20659920

  4. Extreme lifespan of the human fish (Proteus anguinus): a challenge for ageing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Voituron, Yann; de Fraipont, Michelle; Issartel, Julien; Guillaume, Olivier; Clobert, Jean

    2011-02-23

    Theories of extreme lifespan evolution in vertebrates commonly implicate large size and predator-free environments together with physiological characteristics like low metabolism and high protection against oxidative damages. Here, we show that the 'human fish' (olm, Proteus anguinus), a small cave salamander (weighing 15-20 g), has evolved an extreme life-history strategy with a predicted maximum lifespan of over 100 years, an adult average lifespan of 68.5 years, an age at sexual maturity of 15.6 years and lays, on average, 35 eggs every 12.5 years. Surprisingly, neither its basal metabolism nor antioxidant activities explain why this animal sits as an outlier in the amphibian size/longevity relationship. This species thus raises questions regarding ageing processes and constitutes a promising model for discovering mechanisms preventing senescence in vertebrates. PMID:20659920

  5. Some evidence for the ampullary organs in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus (Urodela, Amphibia).

    PubMed

    Istenic, L; Bulog, B

    1984-01-01

    The multicellular epithelial organs in Proteus anguinus, which Bugnion (1873) assumed to be developing neuromasts, have been analyzed by light- and electron-microscopy. Their fundamental structure consists of single ampullae with sensory and accessory cells with apical parts that extend into the pit of the ampulla, and of a short jelly-filled canal connecting the ampulla pit with the surface of the skin. The organs are located intra-epithelially and are supported by a tiny dermal papilla. The cell elements of sensory epithelium are apically linked together by tight junctions. The free apical surface of the sensory cell bears several hundred densely packed stereocilia-like microvilli whereas the basal surface displays afferent neurosensory junctions with a pronounced round synaptic body. The compact uniform organization of the apical microvillous part shows a hexagonal pattern. A basal body was found in some sensory cells whereas a kinocilium was observed only in a single cell. The accessory cells have their free surface differentiated in a sparsely distributed and frequently-forked microvilli. The canal wall is built of two or three layers of tightly coalescent flat cells bordering on the lumen with branching microvilli. The ultrastructure of the content of the ampulla pit is presented. In the discussion stress is laid on the peculiarities of the natural history of Proteus anguinus that support the view that the morphologically-identified ampullary organs are electroreceptive. The structural characteristics of ampullary receptor cells are dealt with from the viewpoint of functional morphology and in the light of evolutionary hypotheses of ampullary organs. PMID:6705040

  6. Catfish spine envenomation and bacterial abscess with Proteus and Morganella: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Abscess formation and cellulitis in the setting of envenomation are rare complications of handling catfish. To the best of our knowledge, isolation of Proteus vulgaris has not been previously recorded, and recovery of Morganella morganii has been reported in only one prior case from wound cultures in patients injured by catfish stings. We report a case of catfish envenomation characterized by abscess formation and cellulitis, in which wound cultures grew these unusual organisms. Case presentation A 52-year-old Chinese-American man was hospitalized with erythema and swelling of his right arm of 10?days’ duration after skin penetration by a catfish barb. An abscess of his right thumb had undergone incision and drainage, with purulent drainage sent for wound culture immediately prior to admission. Laboratory studies revealed elevated white blood count, sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. The patient was treated with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam and vancomycin during his hospitalization, and symptoms improved. Wound cultures obtained prior to presentation grew many Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii. He was subsequently discharged on a 10-day course of oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. At a 12-month telephone follow-up, the patient denied developing further symptoms and reported that the wound had healed completely without complication. Conclusion Although envenomation and secondary infection are not uncommon sequelae of handling catfish, the present case is unique by virtue of the infecting organisms isolated. Given the prevalence of injury from catfish stings, a review of the literature is presented in order to provide recommendations for prevention and treatment of catfish envenomation. PMID:23631594

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens -A robust manufacturing platform

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Pseudomonas fluorescens -A robust manufacturing platform Reprinted from July/August 2004 Speciality from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I strain MB101. The system's performance is based on a combina- rescens strains bearing the lac operon from E. coli. Prokaryotic microorganisms such as P. fluorescens

  8. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  9. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  10. Verification of the proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

    1991-01-01

    The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for 2-D/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal, and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent developing pipe flows, and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations, and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, initial conditions, grid size, and grid packing is given for each case.

  11. High anoxia tolerance in the subterranean salamander Proteus anguinus without oxidative stress nor activation of antioxidant defenses during reoxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Issartel; Frédéric Hervant; Michelle de Fraipont; Jean Clobert; Yann Voituron

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes a high anoxia tolerance in an amphibian at high temperature. Indeed, the subterranean salamander\\u000a Proteus anguinus survived 12 h under anoxia at 12°C. Surprisingly, such experimental conditions did not affect P. anguinus oxidative status while muscles and liver antioxidant enzymes activities decreased under 8 h anoxia and only return to basal\\u000a level during reoxygenation. To test if such

  12. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial control region and flanking sequences in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Špela Gori?ki; Peter Trontelj

    2006-01-01

    The European cave salamander Proteus anguinus Laurenti 1768 is one of the best-known subterranean animals, yet its evolutionary history and systematic relationships remain enigmatic. This is the first comprehensive study on molecular evolution within the taxon, using an mtDNA segment containing the control region (CR) and adjacent sequences. Two to seven tandem repeats of 24–32 bp were found in the intergenic

  13. Immunocytochemical demonstration of visual pigments in the degenerate retinal and pineal photoreceptors of the blind cave salamander (Proteus anguinus).

    PubMed

    Kos, M; Bulog, B; Szél, A; Röhlich, P

    2001-01-01

    Visual pigments in the regressed eye and pineal of the depigmented neotenic urodele, the blind cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus), were studied by immunocytochemistry with anti-opsin antibodies. The study included light- and electron-microscopic investigations of both the eye and the pineal organ. A comparison was made with the black pigmented subspecies Proteus anguinus parkelj (black proteus), which has a normal eye structure. In the retina of the black proteus, we found principal rods, red-sensitive cones and a third photoreceptor type, which might represent a blue- or UV-sensitive cone. Photoreceptors in the regressed eye of the blind cave salamanders from the Planina cave contained degenerate outer segments, consisting of a few whorled discs and irregular clumps of membranes. The great majority of these outer segments showed immunolabelling for the red-sensitive cone opsin and only a few of them were found to be positive for rhodopsin. An even more pronounced degeneration was observed in the photoreceptors of the animals derived from the Otovec doline, which are completely devoid of an outer segment, most of them not even possessing an inner segment. Even in some of these highly degenerate cells, the presence of rhodopsin could be detected in the plasma membrane; however, immunoreactions with antibodies recognizing cone visual pigment were negative. In the pineals of all studied animals, the degenerate photoreceptor outer segments were recognized exclusively by the antibody against the red-sensitive cone opsin. The presence of immunopositive visual pigments indicates the possibility of a retained light sensitivity in the blind cave salamander photoreceptors. PMID:11236001

  14. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Towne; John R. Schwab; Trong T. Bui

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved

  15. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Towne; John R. Schwab; Trong T. Bui

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal

  16. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Towne; John R. Schwab; Trong T. Bui

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved

  17. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Towne; John R. Schwab; Trong T. Bui

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal

  18. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Towne; John R. Schwab; Trong T. Bui

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved

  19. Suppressor mutation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, M; Sano, Y; Shinomiya, T

    1979-01-01

    Suppressor mutations were identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a comparison was made with Escherichia coli suppressor systems. A suppressor-sensitive (sus) derivative of a plasmid, RP4 trp, and several Sus mutants of IncP1 plasmid-specific phages, were isolated by using E. coli. Plasmid RP4 trp (sus) was transferred to P. aeruginosa strains carrying trp markers which did not complement RP4 trp(sus), and Trp+ variants were selected. Some, but not all such revertants, could propagate PRD1 Sus phages, and these mutants were found to be supressor positive. Plating efficiencies of various Sus phages on these strains were compared with on E. coli strains carrying known suppressor genes. The results suggested that the Pseudomonas suppressors were probably amber suppressors. In iddition, some Sus phages (PRD1sus-55, PRD1sus-56) were obtained which, although apparently of the amber type for E. coli, were able to propagate equally well on sup+ or sup strains of P. aeruginosa. On the other hand, several mutants of phage PRR1 which were suppressed in E. coli were not suppressed by the P. aeruginosa suppressor. Suppressor-sensitive mutants were also isolated with P. aeruginosa bacteriophages E79 and D3. PMID:110767

  20. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  5. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from carrageenan.

    PubMed

    El-Fawal, G

    2014-09-01

    Carrageenan films have been formulated as a packaging material. Films plasticized with glycerol were loaded with citric acid (1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 %) for enhanced antimicrobial effects. Blank and citric acid loaded films were characterized by mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle. In addition, swelling and antibacterial studies were conducted to further characterize the films. Both blank and citric acid loaded films showed different morphology, high elasticity and acceptable tensile (mechanical) properties. These citric acid loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Dickeya chrysanthemi strains compared to blank film. PMID:25190889

  6. Pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility profiles in the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Onifade, E O; Nwobu, R A; Bamidele, E O; Okanume, C A

    1992-10-01

    Of 2,780 specimens of midstream urine (MSU) collected from patients of Medical out-patient Unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), and examined between March 1989 and February 1990, 780 (28.1%) had bacterial colony counts greater than 100,000 per ml. The commonest pathogens were E. coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 9.8% of the infections were caused by Gram-positive bacteria while 6.0% were due to the fungus, Candida albicans and Candida species. PMID:1473516

  7. Determination of usnic acid in some Rhizoplaca species from Middle Anatolia and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Cansaran, Demet; Cetin, Demet; Halici, M Gökhan; Atakol, Orhan

    2006-01-01

    Three species of lichens, Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca (Sm.) Zopf, Rhizoplaca melanopthalma (DC.) Leuckert & Poelt and Rhizoplaca peltata Ramonds Leuckert, were collected from middle Anatolia, Erciyes Mountain (Kayseri) in Turkey. Their usnic acid amounts were determined by HPLC in acetone extracts. In addition, antimicrobial activities of these extracts were determined against Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), Enterococcus faecalis (RSKK 508), Proteus mirabilis (Pasteur Ens. 235), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was shown that, as the usnic acid amount increased, the antimicrobial activities increased too. The usnic acid contents of Rhizoplaca species varied between 0.19-4.0% dry weight. PMID:16610216

  8. Allison Lab Protocol, Pseudomonas Culturing, 4/2008, Steve Allison Reagents and Procedures for Pseudomonas Culturing

    E-print Network

    German, Donovan P.

    . fluorescens mutant J-1, add 100 µg/ml rifampin and 50 µg/ml kanamycin #12;Allison Lab Protocol, PseudomonasAllison Lab Protocol, Pseudomonas Culturing, 4/2008, Steve Allison Reagents and Procedures for Pseudomonas Culturing 1 M MgSO4 Dissolve 24.6 g MgSO4·7H2O in 100 ml DI water. Autoclave for 20 min. 1 M Tris

  9. Proteus syndrome: Clinical profile of six patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Angurana, Suresh Kumar; Angurana, Renu Suthar; Panigrahi, Inusha; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by patchy or segmental overgrowth and hyperplasia of multiple tissues and organs, along with susceptibility to development of tumors. Very few cases are reported in literature from developing countries. Due to certain overlapping features with other overgrowth syndromes, diagnosis is usually delayed. Our aim was to describe clinical profile of this rare condition in six patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case sheet review of patients followed in a Pediatric Genetic and Metabolic clinic at a tertiary care institute of North India with a diagnosis of hemihypertrophy/overgrowth syndrome. RESULTS: Six cases presented with asymmetric overgrowth and peculiar features suggestive of PS were included in this study. Age at presentation was 2 months to 10 years; two were males and four were females. Hemihypertrophy was noticed in only one case at birth, and focal overgrowths in rest of other patients were seen later during childhood. CONCLUSION: Due to certain overlapping features with other overgrowth syndromes, diagnosis of PS is usually delayed. Pediatricians are the first persons who come across such patients and they should be aware about this rare condition. PMID:24019623

  10. Thoracolumbar scoliosis in a patient with Proteus syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2015-02-01

    The Proteus syndrome (PS) is a complex and rare congenital hamartomatous condition with a wide range of malformations. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study presents a case of scoliosis occurring in the setting of PS and explores the possible mechanisms between the 2 diseases. The patient is a 17-year-old Chinese female with scoliosis and hemihypertrophy of the right upper and lower extremity as well as exostosis of the right lower leg joint including the hip, knee, ankle, and toes. These manifestations were suggestive of PS. She underwent a posterior correction at thoracic 2-lumbar 4 (T5-L4) levels, using the Moss-SI spinal system. At 3-month follow-ups, the patient was clinically pain free and well balanced. Plain radiographs showed solid spine fusion with no loss of deformity correction. The severity of scoliosis in PS is progressively aggravated and the correction of the extensive spinal deformities is generally difficult. Therefore, early diagnosis is required for adequate interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25654373

  11. Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

  12. Biogenesis of melanosomes in Kupffer cells of Proteus anguinus (Urodela, Amphibia).

    PubMed

    Prelovsek, Petra-Maja; Bulog, Boris

    2003-08-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of melanosomes and premelanosomes observed during the biogenesis of melanosomes in liver pigment cells of the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus (Proteidae) are described. It is well known that amphibian liver pigment cells, also known as Kupffer cells (KC), contain melanosomes and are able to synthesize melanin. Liver pigment cells of P. anguinus contain numerous siderosomes and melanosomes. The melanosomes are grouped together within single-membrane-bounded bodies, named as 'clusters of melanosomes' or 'melanosomogenesis centers'. Inside such clusters, different structures are present: (1) filament-like structures, characteristic of the initial stage of melanosome biogenesis, (2) medium electron-dense melanosomes in different stages of melanization, (3) melanosomes with an electron-dense cortical area and a less electron-dense medullar area, and (4) uniformly highly electron-dense mature melanosomes or melanin granules. Histochemical and cytochemical dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) oxidase reactions in pigment cells were positive. Our results confirm the ability of amphibian KC to synthesize melanin and contribute to this little known subject. PMID:12859617

  13. Tuning of electroreceptors in the blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus L.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P A; Roth, A

    1997-01-01

    The blind cave salamander's (Proteus anguinus L.) sensitivity for electrical fields was determined by recordings from afferent fibers coming from ampullary electroreceptors. The animals were stimulated with single rectangular or continuous sinusoidal electrical signals passed through the cave water in the experimental tank. Best threshold sensitivities of the fibers for both kinds of signals were in the same range (0.1-0.5 mV/cm = 30-150 nA/cm2). The fibers showed phase-locked responses to rostrally cathodic phases of rectangular or sinusoidal stimuli and suppression to anodal phases. Units were tuned to 'best frequencies' (B.F., sine waves) between 20 and 40 Hz. Any functional, i.e. phase-related, firing or suppression of firing occurs in a total frequency range of less than 0.1 to around 100 Hz. This frequency range of tuning in the primary fibers was the same as found in the behavior, and this therefore reflects the peripheral sensory properties. Electrical sensitivity might be of special value for these cave dwelling animals, as they may detect and recognize prey animals by means of the prey's electrical field spreading into the surroundings, i.e. its electromyogram. PMID:9063591

  14. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae. PMID:25855348

  15. Siderophore production by Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H M; Chaowagul, W; Sokol, P A

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from patients with melioidosis were examined for siderophore production. All the strains were shown to produce siderophore both on chrome azurol S agar plates and in liquid medium under iron-deficient conditions. Chemical assays indicated that the siderophore belongs to the hydroxamate class. Addition of iron to the culture medium resulted in increased culture growth with markedly decreased yield of siderophore. Siderophore produced by strain U7 was purified by gel filtration chromatography, and the molecular weight was estimated to be 1,000. When this partially purified siderophore was added to culture medium, it promoted iron uptake by P. pseudomallei in the presence of EDTA and enhanced growth of the organism in the presence of transferrin. We have given this siderophore the trivial name malleobactin. PMID:1825486

  16. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Do I Protect Myself and My Family? "Hot Tub Rash" ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) Below are answers ... hot tub rash and healthy swimming. What is Hot Tub Rash? Hot tub rash, or dermatitis, is ...

  17. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  18. Salmonella Suppression by Known Populations of Bacteria in Flies

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Bernard

    1969-01-01

    Survivorship of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in dibiotic and tribiotic interactions in vitro and in various regions of the digestive tract of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina. In dibiotic interactions, Salmonella typhimurium dominated Streptococcus faecalis and was dominated by P. mirabilis, but in neither case was it eliminated from the larval gut. In tribiotic interactions, there was synergic suppression and a definite trend toward elimination of Salmonella typhimurium from the gut. This trend approaches but does not match the total exclusion of S. typhimurium from the gut of maggots with a normal flora. Bacterial survival in the gut of the fly is discussed in relation to doubling time, sweep-out rate of the maggot and prepupal gut, and the midgut bactericide. Images PMID:4984172

  19. Kinetics of BTEX biodegradation by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens under hypoxic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hojae Shim; Byungho Hwang; Sang-Seob Lee; Sung-Ho Kong

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens present as a coculture were studied for their abilities to degrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively known as BTEX) under various growth conditions. The coculture effectively degraded various concentrations of BTEX as sole carbon sources. However, all BTEX compounds showed substrate inhibition to the bacteria, in terms of specific growth, degradation rate, and cell

  20. Predation in caves: the effects of prey immobility and darkness on the foraging behaviour of two salamanders, Euproctus asper and Proteus anguinus.

    PubMed

    Uiblein, F; Durand, J P; Juberthie, C; Parzefall, J

    1992-12-01

    The behavioural responses of the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus and the Pyrenean salamander Euproctus asper (a facultative cave dweller) to living and dead chironomids offered in light or in darkness were studied experimentally. Both species were able to detect and locate single prey items positioned at distances of 30 cm. Proteus responded to dead prey in light faster and captured live prey in darkness earlier than E. asper. E. asper captured live prey in light earlier than in darkness. Proteus is well equipped to search for non-visual information and used an active, mechanically and chemically guided approach in all experiments. E. asper showed a more directed, visually dominated approach behaviour with live chironomids in light, but used an active, widely foraging mode with live prey in darkness and dead prey in light. E. asper may forage successfully both in epigean and hypogean habitats. PMID:24924789

  1. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative that a symbiotic system is in place and the results definitely support the potential use of this unique new model. This model many help in plant / animal and cancer processes.

  2. Histology and ultrastructure of the gut epithelium of the neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Caudata).

    PubMed

    Bizjak Mali, Lilijana; Bulog, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural features of the gut of the European endemic cave salamander Proteus anguinus were studied. The gut is a relatively undifferentiated muscular tube lined with a simple columnar epithelium containing numerous goblet cells. The mucosa and underlying lamina propria/submucosa are elevated into a number of high longitudinal folds projecting into the lumen. The enterocytes are covered apically with uniform microvilli. Irregularity in the arrangement of microvilli was observed. Occasionally, irregular protrusions of the cytoplasm appear between groups of microvilli. Pinocytotic activity occurs at the bases of the intermicrovillous space. Mitochondria are numerous in the apical cytoplasm and basally beneath the nuclei. The supranuclear cytoplasm contains most of the cell organelles. The lateral plasma membranes of adjacent cells interdigitate and are joined by junctional complexes. The periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction, indicating neutral mucosubstances, is positive only in the apical brush border of enterocytes and in goblet cells. The goblet cells also stained with Alcian blue (AB), at pH 2.5, thus revealing the presence of carboxylated glycosaminoglycans. Compact aggregations of AB- and PAS-negative cells are situated directly below the epithelium. Mitotic figures are present in individual clusters of cells. The fine structure of cells in these clusters indicated that these cells could be responsible for renewal of intestinal epithelium. Numerous endocrine-like cells could also be seen. The closely packed smooth muscle cells and amorphous extracellular material with collagen fibrils constitute a net-like structure under the basal lamina that is very closely associated with the epithelium. There are numerous acidophilic granular cells between epithelial cells, in the lamina propria/submucosa, and between cells aggregations. They seem to be associated with nematode infections and possibly constitute a humoral defense mechanism. PMID:14666527

  3. Declination of Copper Toxicity in Pigeon Pea and Soil System by Growth-Promoting Proteus vulgaris KNP3 Strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anju Rani; Yogesh S. Shouche; Reeta Goel

    2008-01-01

    The copper-resistant (1318 ?M CuSO4·5H2O) strain KNP3 of Proteus vulgaris was isolated from soil near the Panki power plant, Kanpur, India, and was used to inoculate pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan var. UPS-120) seeds grown in soil for 60 days in the presence of 600 ?M CuSO4·5H2O. A study of siderophore production (126.34 ± 0.52 ?g ml?1) and its subsequent effects on plant growth

  4. Comparative study of the rheotaxis in the cave salamander Proteus anguinus and his epigean relative Necturus maculosus (Proteidae, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Durand, J P; Parzefall, J

    1987-12-01

    The reaction to different water currents of the cave salamander Proteus anguinus and his epigean relative Necturus maculosus has been tested in a choice chamber. Both species showed a positive reaction which started in P. anguinus with a current of 35 cm/min and in N. maculosus 60 cm/min. These thresholds are within the range measured for different species of fish in the absence of visual stimuli. In addition, the rheotactic behaviour is less steady in N. maculosus . It seems that the differences found are not sufficient to be explained by adaptation to cave life. PMID:24925659

  5. Thyroidal status and myosin isoenzymic pattern in the skeletal dorsal muscle of urodelan amphibians--the perennibranchiate Proteus anguinus.

    PubMed

    Chanoine, C; Guyot-Lenfant, M; d'Albis, A; Durand, J P; Perasso, F; Salles-Mourlan, A M; Janmot, C; Gallien, C L

    1989-11-01

    In the perennibranchiate Proteus anguinus, larval myosin isoforms were shown to coexist for life with the adult isomyosins that appeared at the end of the larval stage. Analysis of the myofibrillar ATPase profile also revealed that a high percentage of immature fibers persisted in adults. A long-term treatment with large amounts of T3 had no effect on juvenile individuals. Applied to subadult animals it promoted a regression of larval myosin isoforms and a reduction in the percentage of immature fiber types. The regulative effect of T3 in the myosin isoenzymic transition may be delayed and depends on metabolic conditions, which suggests it is indirect. PMID:2532948

  6. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  7. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and P, Aarhus C, Denmark Keywords Amyloids, biofilm, fap, FuBA, Pseudomonas.. Correspondence Per H. Nielsen­382 doi: 10.1002/mbo3.81 Abstract The fap operon, encoding functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap

  8. Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins

    E-print Network

    and Pseudomonas fluorescens to inject HopPsyA into tobacco cells, thereby eliciting a hypersensitive responseColloquium Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins Alan Collmer; and ¶Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004 Pseudomonas syringae

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Proteolysis of casein micelles by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Proteolysis of casein micelles by Pseudomonas fluorescens CNRZ 798 contributes with Pseudomonas fluorescens CNRZ 798 on the stability of the corresponding UHT milk during storage. After 92 days-high- temperature (UHT) milk during storage, the heat-resistant proteases of Pseudomonas are considered to play

  10. Spectrophotometric Ferric Ion Biosensor From Pseudomonas fluorescens Culture

    E-print Network

    Mittal, Aditya

    ARTICLE Spectrophotometric Ferric Ion Biosensor From Pseudomonas fluorescens Culture Varun Gupta InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.21754 ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas fluorescens role in sensing and uptake of iron (Rachid and Ahmed, 2005). Pseudomonas fluorescens is one

  11. Feeding Habits and Biological Features of Deep-Sea Species of the Northwest Atlantic: Large-eyed Rabbitfish (Hydrolagus mirabilis), Narrownose Chimaera (Harriotta raleighana) and Black Dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción González; Josefina Teruel; Eduardo López; Xabier Pa

    Feeding habits and biological features of three deep-water species -large-eyed rabbitfish (Hydrolagus mirabilis), narrownose chimaera (Harriotta raleighana) and black dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii)- distributed in the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap (Northwest Atlantic) were analyzed. Both chimaeroid species fed on endo and epi-benthic organisms, but with different behavior. Narrownose chimaera showed a closer relationship with the sea bed in the feeding

  12. Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Girardin, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

  13. Characterization of a cDNA of peroxiredoxin II responding to hydrogen peroxide and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Park, Miey; Shin, Hae J; Lee, Soo Y; Ahn, Tae I

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytic cells have defense systems against reactive oxygen species generated as the first non-specific defense mechanism against invading pathogens or microorganisms. We cloned a cDNA encoding a 21.69-kDa protein in Amoeba proteus homologous to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx-Ap). In the disk inhibition assay using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent, Escherichia coli overproducing Prx-Ap showed better viability than did E. coli transformed with pBluescript II SK for control. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) produced against Prx-Ap reacted with a 22.5-kDa protein and several minor proteins. In Western blot analysis, levels of the 22.5-kDa protein in amoebae treated with 2-mM H2O2 for 1 h increased about 2-fold over those in control cells. Immunofluorescence scattered throughout the cytoplasm also increased after H2O2 treatment. In Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe, the level of transcripts also changed with H2O2 treatment. When amoebae were fed with Tetrahymena, the intensity of immunofluorescence increased from 15 min and persisted until 2 h after phagocytosis. These results suggest that the 22.5-kDa protein of A. proteus is a Prx protein and that it has an antioxidant property responding to phagocytosis. PMID:15926998

  14. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial control region and flanking sequences in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus.

    PubMed

    Goricki, Spela; Trontelj, Peter

    2006-08-15

    The European cave salamander Proteus anguinus Laurenti 1768 is one of the best-known subterranean animals, yet its evolutionary history and systematic relationships remain enigmatic. This is the first comprehensive study on molecular evolution within the taxon, using an mtDNA segment containing the control region (CR) and adjacent sequences. Two to seven tandem repeats of 24-32 bp were found in the intergenic spacer region (VNTR1), and three, four or six repeats, 59-77 bp each, in the 3' end of the CR (VNTR2). Different molecular mechanisms account for VNTR2 formation in different lineages of Proteus. The overall CR variation was lower than that of the spacer region, the 3' end of the cytb gene, or the tRNA genes. Individual genes and the concatenated non-repetitive sequences produced similar, well resolved maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and parsimony trees. The numbers of repeat elements as well as the genealogy of the VNTR2 repeat units were mostly inconsistent with the groupings of the non-repetitive sequences. Different degrees of repeat array homogenization were detected in all major groups. Orthology was established for the first and the second VNTR2 elements of some populations. These two copies may therefore be used for analyses at the population level. The pattern of CR sequence variation points to strong genetic isolation of hydrographically separated populations. Genetic separation of the major groups of populations is incongruent with the current division into subspecies. PMID:16764998

  15. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  16. FY2012 summary of tasks completed on PROTEUS-thermal work.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Smith, M.A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-06-06

    PROTEUS is a suite of the neutronics codes, both old and new, that can be used within the SHARP codes being developed under the NEAMS program. Discussion here is focused on updates and verification and validation activities of the SHARP neutronics code, DeCART, for application to thermal reactor analysis. As part of the development of SHARP tools, the different versions of the DeCART code created for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis were integrated. Verification and validation tests for the integrated version were started, and the generation of cross section libraries based on the subgroup method was revisited for the targeted reactor types. The DeCART code has been reorganized in preparation for an efficient integration of the different versions for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis. In DeCART, the old-fashioned common blocks and header files have been replaced by advanced memory structures. However, the changing of variable names was minimized in order to limit problems with the code integration. Since the remaining stability problems of DeCART were mostly caused by the CMFD methodology and modules, significant work was performed to determine whether they could be replaced by more stable methods and routines. The cross section library is a key element to obtain accurate solutions. Thus, the procedure for generating cross section libraries was revisited to provide libraries tailored for the targeted reactor types. To improve accuracy in the cross section library, an attempt was made to replace the CENTRM code by the MCNP Monte Carlo code as a tool obtaining reference resonance integrals. The use of the Monte Carlo code allows us to minimize problems or approximations that CENTRM introduces since the accuracy of the subgroup data is limited by that of the reference solutions. The use of MCNP requires an additional set of libraries without resonance cross sections so that reference calculations can be performed for a unit cell in which only one isotope of interest includes resonance cross sections, among the isotopes in the composition. The OECD MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART as initial focus of the verification/validation efforts. Among the benchmark problems, Exercise 1 of Phase 1 is a steady-state benchmark case for the neutronics calculation for which block-wise cross sections were provided in 26 energy groups. This type of problem was designed for a homogenized geometry solver like DIF3D rather than the high-fidelity code DeCART. Instead of the homogenized block cross sections given in the benchmark, the VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library of DeCART was directly used for preliminary calculations. Initial results showed that the multiplication factors of a fuel pin and a fuel block with or without a control rod hole were off by 6, -362, and -183 pcm Dk from comparable MCNP solutions, respectively. The 2-D and 3-D one-third core calculations were also conducted for the all-rods-out (ARO) and all-rods-in (ARI) configurations, producing reasonable results. Figure 1 illustrates the intermediate (1.5 eV - 17 keV) and thermal (below 1.5 eV) group flux distributions. As seen from VHTR cores with annular fuels, the intermediate group fluxes are relatively high in the fuel region, but the thermal group fluxes are higher in the inner and outer graphite reflector regions than in the fuel region. To support the current project, a new three-year I-NERI collaboration involving ANL and KAERI was started in November 2011, focused on performing in-depth verification and validation of high-fidelity multi-physics simulation codes for LWR and VHTR. The work scope includes generating improved cross section libraries for the targeted reactor types, developing benchmark models for verification and validation of the neutronics code with or without thermo-fluid feedback, and performing detailed comparisons of predicted reactor parameters against both Monte Carlo solutions and experimental measurements. The following list summarizes the work conducted so far for PROTEUS-Thermal Tasks: Unification of different versions of DeC

  17. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the...encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  2. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  3. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  4. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 5, 6, 7, & 8: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:2 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P. aeruginosa “core lineage” and typically exhibited the exoS+/exoU? genotype and group B oprL and oprD alleles. This is to our knowledge the first report of an MST analysis conducted on a polyphasic data set. PMID:19936230

  6. The Length of the Filamentous Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bacteriophage Pf

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY The length of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa filamentous bacteriophage Pf was found to be 1915 +77 nm, as measured in the electron microscope using the Kleinschmidt spreading technique. Pf is thus the longest filamentous phage so far isolated. Coliphage If, the I-specific filamentous phage, is nearest to it with a length of I3OO nm. Bacteriophage Pf, which is the only

  7. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS5028

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Marqués; Xavier Roca; M. Dolores Simon-Pujol; M. Carmen Fuste; Francisco Congregado

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution

  8. PSEUDOMONAS AND RELATED GENERA (XANTHOMONAS, SHEWANELLA, ETC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial genus Pseudomonas comprises a very large and important group of bacteria. They can be found abundantly as free-living organisms in soils, fresh water and marine environments, and in many other natural habitats. They can also be found in association with plants and animals as normal flo...

  9. Pseudomonas maltophilia, an Alcaligenes-like Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hugh; EWDOKIA RYSCHENKOW

    1961-01-01

    SUMMARY Pseudomonas maltophilia is frequently encountered in specimens submitted to the clinical laboratory for bacteriological examination. This report describes morpho- logical, physiological and serological attributes of this species. Photomicrographs show the presence of polar multitrichous flagella in stained preparations. These pseudomonads do not produce acid from glucose but readily produce acidity from maltose oxidation. A historical review of the epithet

  10. Recharacterization of Pseudomonas fulva Iizuka and Komagata 1963, and proposals of Pseudomonas parafulva sp. nov. and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Masataka; Shida, Osamu; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Seven Pseudomonas fulva strains obtained from culture collections were taxonomically studied. The seven strains were separated into three clusters (Clusters I to III) on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, and located phylogenetically in the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto. Further, the strains were classified into 4 groups (Groups I to IV) on the basis of DNA-DNA similarity. As a result, Cluster I was split into Groups I and II. Group I included the type strain of P. fulva and two strains, and levels of DNA-DNA similarity ranged from 88 to 100% among the strains. Group II contained two strains, and the level between the two strains ranged from 91 to 100%. Group III consisted of one strain. Group IV included one strain, and this strain showed a high level of DNA-DNA similarity with the type strain of Pseudomonas straminea NRIC 0164(T). Clusters II and III corresponded to Groups III and IV, respectively. The four groups were separated from one another and from related Pseudomonas species at the level from 3 to 45% of DNA-DNA similarity. The strains of Groups I, II, and III had ubiquinone 9 as the major quinone. According to numerical analysis by the use of 133 phenotypic characteristics, the seven P. fulva strains were split into four phenons (Phenons I to IV). The groups by DNA-DNA similarity corresponded well with the phenons produced by numerical taxonomy, and differential characteristics were recognized. Consequently, Group I was regarded as P. fulva because the type strain (NRIC 0180(T)) of this species was included in this group. Strains in Group II were identified as a new species, Pseudomonas parafulva sp. nov., and the type strain is AJ 2129 (=IFO 16636=JCM 11244=NRIC 0501). NRIC 0181 in Group III was identified as a new species, Pseudomonas cremoricolorata sp. nov., and the type strain is NRIC 0181 (=IFO 16634=JCM 11246). NRIC 0182 in Group IV was identified as P. straminea on the basis of the high level of DNA-DNA similarity with the type strain of this species. PMID:12483612

  11. Use of an Amoeba proteus model for in vitro cytotoxicity testing in phytochemical research. Application to Euphorbia hirta extracts.

    PubMed

    Duez, P; Livaditis, A; Guissou, P I; Sawadogo, M; Hanocq, M

    1991-09-01

    Amoeba proteus is proposed as a low-cost multi-purpose biochemical tool for screening and standardizing cytotoxic plant extracts with possible application in the laboratories of developing countries. Advantages and limitations of this test are examined and different mathematical treatments (probit analysis versus curve fitting to Von Bertalanffy and Hill functions) are investigated. Known anti-cancer (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil) and antiparasitic (emetine, dehydroemetine, metronidazole, cucurbitine, chloroquine) drugs were tested using this method and only metronidazole appeared inactive. Application of this model to Euphorbia hirta established that a 100 degrees C aqueous extraction of fresh aerial parts allows efficient extraction of active constituents and that drying the plant material before extraction considerably reduces activity. PMID:1686625

  12. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  13. Within-Pin Reaction Rate Distributions: CASMO-4 and HELIOS Compared Against Tomographic Measurements at the PROTEUS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchere, C. Pralong; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

    2005-05-15

    In the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS project - an extended validation program for advanced light water reactor core analysis tools conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute - the radial, internal variations of the total fission rate (F{sub tot}) and the capture rate in {sup 238}U (C{sub 8}) have been calculated for zero-burnup pins of a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ boiling water reactor fuel assembly using two codes, namely, CASMO-4 and HELIOS. While F{sub tot} distributions predicted by CASMO-4 and HELIOS are in good agreement, C{sub 8} distributions show significant inconsistencies (20 to 30%). The calculations are compared with experimental results obtained using single photon emission computerized tomography for several SVEA-96+ pins irradiated in the zero-power reactor PROTEUS. The comparisons confirm the predicted shape of the F{sub tot} distributions within UO{sub 2} pins and clearly indicate that HELIOS within-pin predictions for C{sub 8} are more reliable than CASMO-4 results. This is important for the derivation of gamma-ray self-absorption corrections when pin-integrated reaction rates are to be determined using the gamma-scanning technique. Thus, the use of CASMO-4-type within-pin distributions would lead to 3 to 4% discrepancies in the absolute, self-absorption-corrected pin-integrated values deduced for C{sub 8} and hence for C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}. For relative C{sub 8} distributions, the discrepancy would be much smaller, namely, up to {approx}1% if pins containing a burnable absorber are involved.

  14. Pseudomonas moraviensis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas vranovensis sp. nov., soil bacteria isolated on nitroaromatic compounds, and emended description of Pseudomonas asplenii.

    PubMed

    Tvrzová, Ludmila; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sedlácek, Ivo; Pácová, Zdena; Sedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbynek; Steffen, Maike; Lang, Elke

    2006-11-01

    Two strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from soil by selective enrichment with nitroaromatics were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas, within the Gammaproteobacteria. Strain 1B4T shared the highest sequence similarity with Pseudomonas koreensis DSM 16610T (99.5%) and Pseudomonas jessenii CCM 4840T (99.3%), and strain 2B2T with Pseudomonas asplenii DSM 17133T (98.9%), Pseudomonas fuscovaginae DSM 7231T (98.9%) and Pseudomonas putida DSM 291T (98.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotype, including chemotaxonomic characteristics, two novel species, Pseudomonas moraviensis sp. nov. with the type strain 1B4T (=CCM 7280T=DSM 16007T) and Pseudomonas vranovensis sp. nov. with the type strain 2B2T (=CCM 7279T=DSM 16006T), are proposed. The description of P. asplenii was emended on the basis of additional data obtained in this study. PMID:17082407

  15. Comparison of ethylene-producing Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) with Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Völksch; H. Weingart

    1997-01-01

    The relationships among strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Psg) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) isolated from kudzu ( Pueraria lobata) and bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated. All strains tested showed a close phenotypic similarity, with the exception of the utilization of inositol and mannitol as well as the production of toxins. On this basis the strains could

  16. Aluminum detoxification in Pseudomonas fluorescens is mediated by oxalate and phosphatidylethanolamine

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    Aluminum detoxification in Pseudomonas fluorescens is mediated by oxalate carbon source to the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens. We have demonstrated the ability September 2002; accepted 23 September 2002 Abstract 13 C NMR studies with aluminum (Al)-stressed Pseudomonas

  17. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

  18. Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elke; Burghartz, Melanie; Spring, Stefan; Swiderski, Jolanthe; Spröer, Cathrin

    2010-02-01

    Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed. PMID:19771475

  19. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  20. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúńiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

  1. Cell-Surface Signalling in Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María A. Llamas; Wilbert Bitter

    \\u000a Next to the two-component and quorum sensing systems, cell-surface signalling (CSS) has been recently identified as an important\\u000a regulatory system in Pseudomonas. CSS senses signals from outside the cell and transmits them into the cytoplasm. This regulatory\\u000a system generally consists of three components, an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor in the cytoplasm, a sigma factor\\u000a regulator (or anti-sigma factor) located

  2. Metabolism of sitosterol by a Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, S B; Banerjee, S; Mukherjee, A; Kumar, R

    1981-01-01

    Fermentation of sitosterol by a Pseudomonas species (SK-25) resulted in the formation of 5-stigmastene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol; 5,6 alpha-epoxy-5 alpha-stigmastan-3 beta-ol; 5,6 beta-epoxy-5 beta-stigmastan-3 beta-ol and 5 alpha-stigmastan-3 beta, 5,6 beta-triol. The metabolites were characterized by a variety of conventional chemical and spectrometric techniques. PMID:7317000

  3. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas nitroreducens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yao; Guang Zhang; Qiong Wu; Guo-Qiang Chen; Riqing Zhang

    1999-01-01

    A strain coded AS 1.2343 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil in an oil-field in North China Tianjian City and it was identified as Pseudomonas nitroreducens. The strain demonstrated some unusual ability to synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) homopolymer from medium-chain-length (mcl) fatty acids including hexanoate and octanoate. While polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) consisting of mcl hydroxyalkanoate (HA) monomers such as hydroxyoctanoate (HO) and hydroxydecanoate

  4. Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Oguiza, José A; Kiil, Kristoffer; Ussery, David W

    2005-12-01

    Genome analyses of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, pv. syringae B728a and pv. phaseolicola 1448A reveal fewer extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors than in related Pseudomonads with different lifestyles. We highlight the presence of a P. syringae-specific ECF sigma factor that is an interesting target for future studies because of its potential role in the adaptation of P. syringae to its specialized phytopathogenic lifestyle. PMID:16257528

  5. Genetics of alkane oxidation by Pseudomonas oleovorans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan B. Beilen; Marcel G. Wubbolts; Bernard Witholt

    1994-01-01

    Many Pseudomonads are able to use linear alkanes as sole carbon and energy source. The genetics and enzymology of alkane metabolism have been investigated in depth forPseudomonas oleovorans, which is able to oxidize C5-C12 n-alkanes by virtue of two gene regions, localized on the OCT-plasmid. The so-calledalk-genes have been cloned in pLAFR1, and were subsequent analyzed using minicell expression experiments,

  6. Pharmacodynamics of Polymyxin B against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent H. Tam; Amy N. Schilling; Giao Vo; Samer Kabbara; Andrea L. Kwa; Nathan P. Wiederhold; Russell E. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Received 30 March 2005\\/Returned for modification 25 May 2005\\/Accepted 25 June 2005 Despite limited data, polymyxin B (PB) is increasingly used clinically as the last therapeutic option for multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacterial infections. We examined the in vitro pharmacodynamics of PB against four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clonal relatedness of the strains was assessed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA.

  7. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  8. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

  9. DNA sequence analysis of the recA genes from Proteus vulgaris, Erwinia carotovora, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli B\\/r

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XiaoJun Zhao; Kevin McEntee

    1990-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of therecA genes fromEscherichia coli B\\/r,Shigella flexneri, Erwinia carotovora andProteus vulgaris were determined. The DNA sequence of the coding region of theE. coli B\\/r gene contained a single nucleotide change compared with theE. coli K12 gene sequence whereas theS. flexneri gene differed at 7 residues. In both cases, the predicted proteins were identical in primary structure

  10. Behavioral Sensitivity of the European Blind Cave Salamander, Proteus anguinus, and a Pyrenean Newt, Euproctus asper, to Electrical Fields in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Schlegel

    1997-01-01

    In the urodeles Proteus anguinus and Euproctus asper, thresholds of an overt avoidance response to weak electrical field stimuli (continuous sine-waves) were measured as a function of frequency. Thresholds down to 0.1 mV\\/cm (30 nA\\/cm2) were found in P. anguinus and 2 mV\\/cm (600 nA\\/cm2) in E. asper at 'best frequencies' (B.F.) of 20–30 Hz, but sensitivity covered a total

  11. Pseudomonas salomonii sp. nov., pathogenic on garlic, and Pseudomonas palleroniana sp. nov., isolated from rice.

    PubMed

    Gardan, Louis; Bella, Patrizia; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Christen, Richard; Rott, Philippe; Achouak, Wafa; Samson, Régine

    2002-11-01

    A total of 26 strains, including 15 strains isolated from garlic plants with the typical symptoms of 'Café au lait' disease and 11 strains isolated from diseased or healthy rice seeds and sheaths infested by Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, were compared with 70 type or reference strains of oxidase-positive pathogenic or non-pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads. The strains were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Numerical taxonomy of phenotypic characteristics showed that the garlic and rice strains were related to each other. However, they clustered into separate phenons, distinct from those of the other strains tested, and were different in several nutritional tests. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, the garlic and rice strains constituted two distinct DNA hybridization groups, indicating that they belonged to separate species. The two groups of strains were also well differentiated by siderotyping. Garlic strains were pathogenic to garlic plants and either weakly pathogenic or non-pathogenic on rice; rice strains were either weakly pathogenic or non-pathogenic on rice and non-pathogenic on garlic. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the two groups of strains belonged to the y-Proteobacteria and to the genus Pseudomonas. The names Pseudomonas salomonii sp. nov. and Pseudomonas palleroniana sp. nov. are respectively proposed for the garlic strains and the rice strains. The type strains are P. salomonii CFBP 2022(T) ( = ICMP 14252(T) = NCPPB 4277(T)) and P. palleroniana CFBP 4389(T) (= ICMP 14253(T) = NCPPB 4278(T)). PMID:12508870

  12. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, Mark DP

    2012-01-01

    Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms “Pseudomonas” + “Keratitis” limit to “2007–2012”, and [“Ulcerative” or “Microbial”] + “Keratitis” + “Contact lenses” limit to “2007–2012”. These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin) fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin). In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (?95%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%. PMID:22791973

  13. Recombineering using RecET from Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  14. Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SABINE KIRNER; PHILIP E. HAMMER; D. STEVEN HILL; ANNETT ALTMANN; ILONA FISCHER; LAURA J. WEISLO; MIKE LANAHAN; KARL-HEINZ VAN PEE; JAMES M. LIGON

    1998-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2

    PubMed Central

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Suzuki, Haruo; Bashford, Kelsie; Heuer, Holger; Stragier, Pieter; De Vos, Paul; Settles, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2, isolated from creek sediment in Moscow, ID, USA. The strain is most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. However, it has a slightly smaller genome that appears to have been impacted by horizontal gene transfer and poorly maintains IncP-1 plasmids. PMID:25838493

  16. Genetic Detection of Pseudomonas spp. in Commercial Amazonian Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajňs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

  17. Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2005-03-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-fermentative, non-denitrifying, non-pigmented, rod-shaped bacteria that were motile by means of polar flagella, designated strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331, were isolated from a deep-sea sponge specimen and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The new isolates exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9 %, and their mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 82 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains within the genus Pseudomonas as an independent deep clade. Strain KMM 330(T) shared highest sequence similarity (96.3 %) with each of Pseudomonas fulva NRIC 0180(T), Pseudomonas parafulva AJ 2129(T) and Pseudomonas luteola IAM 13000(T); sequence similarity to other recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas was below 95.7 %. The marine sponge isolates KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 could be distinguished from the other recognized Pseudomonas species based on a unique combination of their phenotypic characteristics, including growth in 8 or 10 % NaCl, the absence of pigments, the inability to denitrify and lack of carbohydrate utilization. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 330(T) (=JCM 12285(T)=NRIC 0583(T)=CCUG 46540(T)). PMID:15774686

  18. The Gac Regulon of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 showed that 702 genes were differentially regulated (FC>4, P<0.0001) in a gacS::Tn5 mutant, with 300 and 402 genes up- and down-regulated, respectively. Similar to the Gac-regulon of four other Pseudomonas species, genes involved in motility, b...

  19. Genetic detection of Pseudomonas spp. in commercial Amazonian fish.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2013-09-01

    Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajňs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

  20. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  1. Vanadate reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Ianieva, O D; Smirnova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The ability of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to reduce vanadate under microaerophilic conditions has been studied. It has been demonstrated that P. aeruginosa strains A17, A03 and C25a were able to reduce up to 38-60% pentavalent vanadium present in the medium. Vanadate reduction by P. aeruginosa strains A17, A03 and C25a was not associated with anaerobic respiration. It has been shown that vanadate reduction by P. aeruginosa strains is not the result of the spontaneous process. This is the first report of stimulation of vanadate reduction by ATPase activity inhibitor N-N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide under aerobic conditions. PMID:25007441

  2. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  3. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

  4. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  5. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  6. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  7. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  8. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  9. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  10. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  11. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  12. High anoxia tolerance in the subterranean salamander Proteus anguinus without oxidative stress nor activation of antioxidant defenses during reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Issartel, Julien; Hervant, Frédéric; de Fraipont, Michelle; Clobert, Jean; Voituron, Yann

    2009-05-01

    The present study describes a high anoxia tolerance in an amphibian at high temperature. Indeed, the subterranean salamander Proteus anguinus survived 12 h under anoxia at 12 degrees C. Surprisingly, such experimental conditions did not affect P. anguinus oxidative status while muscles and liver antioxidant enzymes activities decreased under 8 h anoxia and only return to basal level during reoxygenation. To test if such adaptation is common in Urodels, equivalent experimentations have been conducted on another newt: the stream-dwelling Calotriton asper. This latter species exhibited only 1.5 h survival under anoxia in spite of higher antioxidant enzymes activities than P. anguinus. Furthermore, aerobic recovery after 1 h anoxia induced a 30% increase of oxidative damage partly explained by SOD and CAT activities that did not return to control values during reoxygenation, demonstrating a lower capacity to counteract ROS overproduction than P. anguinus. In addition, uncoupling protein (UCP) transcript was for the first time detected, partly sequenced and quantified in amphibian muscles and liver. UCP may be considered as a ROS production attenuator by mediating a discharge of the proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain. The putative role of UCP in post-anoxic oxidative status of both species is discussed. PMID:19148651

  13. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol. PMID:23023748

  14. Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Flores-Félix, José David; Mulas, Rebeca; Rivas, Raúl; Castro-Pinto, Joao; Brańas, Javier; Mulas, Daniel; González-Andrés, Fernando; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial strain, OHA11(T), was isolated during the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in a forest soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain OHA11(T) shared 99.1% similarity with respect to Pseudomonas baetica a390(T), and 98.9% similarity with the type strains of Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas moorei, Pseudomonas umsongensis, Pseudomonas mohnii and Pseudomonas koreensis. The analysis of housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation to the genus Pseudomonas and showed similarities lower than 95% in almost all cases with respect to the above species. Cells possessed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1?7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, positive for arginine dihydrolase but negative for nitrate reduction, ?-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis. It was able to grow at 31 °C and at pH 11. The DNA G+C content was 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 49% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the seven closest related species. Therefore, the combined genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strain OHA11(T) to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OHA11(T) (?= LMG 28168(T)?= CECT 8548(T)). PMID:24744015

  15. Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase in Pseudomonas putida and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestrini, M C; Cutruzzolŕ, F; D'Alessandro, R; Brunori, M; Fochesato, N; Zennaro, E

    1992-01-01

    Nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been successfully expressed in Pseudomonas putida. The purified recombinant enzyme contains haem c but no haem d1. Nonetheless, like the holoenzyme from Ps. aeruginosa, it is a stable dimer (molecular mass 120 kDa), and electron transfer to oxidized azurin is biphasic and follows bimolecular kinetics (k1 = 1.5 x 10(5) and k2 = 2.2 x 10(4) M-1.s-1). Unlike the chemically produced apoenzyme, recombinant nitrite reductase containing only haem c is water-soluble, stable at neutral pH and can be quantitatively reconstituted with haem d1, yielding a holoenzyme with the same properties as that expressed by Ps. aeruginosa (namely optical and c.d. spectra, molecular mass, cytochrome c551 oxidase activity and CO-binding kinetics). Images Fig. 1. PMID:1637357

  16. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus...bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii...respiratory tract due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and E. coli;...

  17. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus...bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii...respiratory tract due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and E. coli;...

  18. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli...abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). [66 FR 712, Jan. 4, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 15370, Mar. 31, 2003; 70 FR 36338, June 23,...

  20. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus...bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii...respiratory tract due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and E. coli;...

  1. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli...abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and...

  2. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli...abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli...abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and...

  4. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus...bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii...respiratory tract due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and E. coli;...

  5. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus...bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii...respiratory tract due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and E. coli;...

  6. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli...abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin, mometasone, and clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian....

  8. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...For use in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. (iii) Limitations. Administer intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If no improvement is seen after 3...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...For use in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. (iii) Limitations. Administer intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If no improvement is seen after 3...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...For use in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. (iii) Limitations. Administer intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If no improvement is seen after 3...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...For use in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. (iii) Limitations. Administer intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If no improvement is seen after 3...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...For use in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. (iii) Limitations. Administer intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If no improvement is seen after 3...

  13. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) Balances Life and Death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Populations

    PubMed Central

    Häussler, Susanne; Becker, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    When environmental conditions deteriorate and become inhospitable, generic survival strategies for populations of bacteria may be to enter a dormant state that slows down metabolism, to develop a general tolerance to hostile parameters that characterize the habitat, and to impose a regime to eliminate damaged members. Here, we provide evidence that the pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) mediates induction of all of these phenotypes. For individual cells, PQS, an interbacterial signaling molecule of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has both deleterious and beneficial activities: on the one hand, it acts as a pro-oxidant and sensitizes the bacteria towards oxidative and other stresses and, on the other, it efficiently induces a protective anti-oxidative stress response. We propose that this dual function fragments populations into less and more stress tolerant members which respond differentially to developing stresses in deteriorating habitats. This suggests that a little poison may be generically beneficial to populations, in promoting survival of the fittest, and in contributing to bacterial multi-cellular behavior. It further identifies PQS as an essential mediator of the shaping of the population structure of Pseudomonas and of its response to and survival in hostile environmental conditions. PMID:18818733

  14. Chromosomal beta-lactamase expression and resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y J; Livermore, D M

    1988-01-01

    Indole-positive members of the Proteeae usually have inducible expression of chromosomal beta-lactamases. Mutants with stably derepressed beta-lactamase expression occur in inducible populations at frequencies in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-8). The contribution of these beta-lactamases to drug resistance was examined in Morganella morganii and Proteus vulgaris. The M. morganii enzyme was a high-molecular-weight (49,000) class I cephalosporinase with low Vmax rates for ampicillin, carbenicillin, and and broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The P. vulgaris enzyme had a lower molecular weight (32,000) and high Vmax rates for ampicillin, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone. Imipenem and cefoxitin inactivated the P. vulgaris enzyme but were low-Vmax, low-Km substrates for that of M. morganii. Despite these differences, the two beta-lactamases caused similar resistance profiles. Ampicillin and cephaloridine were strong inducers for both species, and beta-lactamase-inducible strains and their stably derepressed mutants were resistant, whereas basal mutants (those with low-level uninducible beta-lactamase) were susceptible to these two compounds. Mezlocillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and (usually) carbenicillin were almost equally active against beta-lactamase-inducible organisms and their basal mutants, but were less active against stably derepressed mutants. This behavior reflected the beta-lactamase lability of these drugs, coupled with their weak inducer activity below the MIC. Carbenicillin was a labile strong inducer for a single P. vulgaris strain, and inducible enzyme was protective against the drug in this atypical organism. Cefoxitin and imipenem, both strong inducers below the MIC, were almost equally active against beta-lactamase-inducible organisms and their basal and stably derepressed mutants. PMID:3058021

  15. MICREDOX--development of a ferricyanide-mediated rapid biochemical oxygen demand method using an immobilised Proteus vulgaris biocomponent.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Neil; Baronian, Keith; Jeffries, Cy; Webber, Judith; Hay, Joanne

    2004-10-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an international regulatory environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in wastewater and the current legislated standard test for BOD monitoring requires 5 days to complete (BOD5 test). We are developing a rapid microbial technique, MICREDOX, for measuring BOD by eliminating oxygen and, instead, quantifying an equivalent biochemical co-substrate demand, the co-substrate being a redox mediator. Elevated concentrations of Proteus vulgaris, either as free cells or immobilised in Lentikat disks, were incubated with an excess of redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) and organic substrate for 1h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the catabolic activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator, which was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. The recorded currents were converted to their BOD5 equivalent with the only assumption being a fixed conversion of substrate and known stoichiometry. Measurements are reported both for the BOD5 calibration standard solution (150 mg l(-1) glucose, 150 mg l(-1) glutamic acid) and for filtered effluent sampled from a wastewater treatment plant. The inclusion of a highly soluble mediator in place of oxygen facilitated a high ferricyanide concentration in the incubation, which in turn permitted increased concentrations of microorganisms to be used. This substantially reduced the incubation time, from 5 days to 1h, for the biological oxidation of substrates equivalent to those observed using the standard BOD5 test. Stoichiometric conversion efficiencies for the oxidation of the standard substrate by P. vulgaris were typically 60% for free cells and 35-50% for immobilised cells. PMID:15494235

  16. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2012-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  17. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  18. PCB accumulation and tissue distribution in cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus, Amphibia, Urodela) in the polluted karstic hinterland of the Krupa River, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Marko; Heath, Ester; Bizjak Mali, Lilijana; Bulog, Boris

    2011-08-01

    For over two decades, a manufacturer of electrical capacitors disposed of its waste within the karstic hinterland of the Krupa River (Slovenia) resulting in the surroundings becomming heavily polluted with PCB. Albeit the extent of the contamination has been known since 1983 and the Krupa River has become one of the most PCB polluted river in Europe, the effects on the cave fauna of the region remain unknown. The most famous cave dweller of the Krupa hinterland is the endemic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus. In this study we determine the levels of PCB in the tissues of the Proteus and in river sediments. The total concentration of PCB in individual tissue samples from specimens of the Krupa spring was between 165.59 ?g g(-1) and 1560.20 ?g g(-1)dry wt, which is at least 28-times higher than those from an unpolluted site. The kidneys contained the lowest concentration, while the highest concentration was in subcutaneous fat and tissues with high lipid contents like visceral fat and liver. Total PCB concentrations in sediment samples from the Krupa River were between 5.47 and 59.20 ?g g(-1)dry wt showing that a high burden of PCB still remains in the region. The most abundant PCB congeners in all analyzed samples were di-ortho substituted (PCB #101, #118, #138 and #158), but higher proportion of mono-ortho PCB was present in sediments. The ability of Proteus to survive a high PCB loading in its environment and especially in its tissues is remarkable. Its partial elimination of low chlorinated and mono-ortho substituted congeners is also reported. PMID:21658741

  19. Cesium stress and adaptation in pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Appanna, V.D.; Huang, J.; St. Pierre, M. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)] [and others] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); and others

    1996-05-01

    Industrialization and acid rain have led to a marked increment on the bioavailability of numerous metals. These metallic pollutants pose a serious threat to the ecosystem due to their ability to interact negatively with living organisms. Thus, considerable effort has been directed towards the development of environmentally-friendly technologies tailored to the management of metal wastes. As microbes are known to adapt to most environmental stresses, they constitute organisms of choice in the study of molecular adaptation processes. The adaptive features may be subsequently engineered for biotechnological applications. Cesium, a monovalent metal with chemical similarities to potassium but no know essential biological function has become a cause of environmental concern owing to its accidental release from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. This study examines the impact of cesium on the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescensts, and discusses the possibilities of its use in management of this nuclear waste. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria. PMID:25014900

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii

    PubMed Central

    Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with “Pseudomonas reactans,” producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas luteola XLDN4-9 and Pseudomonas stutzeri XLDN-R, Two Efficient Carbazole-Degrading Strains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaorui; Gai, Zhonghui; Tao, Fei; Yu, Hao; Tang, Hongzhi

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas luteola XLDN4-9 and Pseudomonas stutzeri XLDN-R are two efficient carbazole-degrading pseudomonad strains. Here we present 4.63- and 4.70-Mb assemblies of their genomes. Their annotated key genes for carbazole catabolism are similar, which may provide further insights into the molecular mechanism of carbazole degradation in Pseudomonas. PMID:23012282

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  4. UTILIZATION OF FLUORANTHENE BY PSEUDOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS STRAIN EPA505

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, was previously purified from a 7-membered bacterial community originally isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil for its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote. The unique ability of this organism...

  5. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  6. RecTEPsy mediated recombineering in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently developed Pseudomonas syringae recombineering system simplifies the procedure for installing specific mutations at a chosen genomic locus. The procedure involves, transforming P. syringae cells expressing recombineering functions with a PCR product that contains desired changes flanked b...

  7. DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACTERIOPHAGES IN LAKE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence and interaction between newly isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and resident bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater environment was monitored over 45 days in lake water microcosms. he interaction between susceptible and resistant bacteria with pure pha...

  8. Hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis mice to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa oropharyngeal

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis mice to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa oropharyngeal 02115 Contributed by Frederick M. Ausubel, December 24, 2002 No transgenic cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse lung disease. Cystic fibrosis (CF), a common and devastating human genetic disease, is caused

  9. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  10. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering effects during pebble loading. Core 4 was determined to be acceptable benchmark experiment.

  11. Bioactive substances produced by marine isolates of Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alim Isnansetyo; Yuto Kamei

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas is a genus of non-fermentative gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found both on land and in the water. Many terrestrial isolates of this genus have been studied extensively. While many produce\\u000a bioactive substances, enzymes, and biosurfactants, other Pseudomonas isolates are used for biological control of plant diseases and bioremediation. In contrast, only a few marine isolates of\\u000a this genus have been described

  12. Beta-lactam susceptibilities and prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates among more than 5000 European Enterobacteriaceae isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nijssen; A. Florijn; M. J. M. Bonten; F. J. Schmitz; J. Verhoef; A. C. Fluit

    2004-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility to 15 ?-lactam antibiotics was evaluated using Enterobacteriaceae isolated during the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Piperacillin\\/tazobactam was the most active penicillin against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae (94.9%, 98.3%, 87.4% and 82.9% of isolates susceptible). Of the cephalosporins, cefepime was most effective against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae (99.2%, 96.3% and

  13. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...established for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...established for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...established for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

  1. Characterization and production of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1 and Pseudomonas putida G12 strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokcen Yuvali Celik; Belma Aslim; Yavuz Beyatli

    2008-01-01

    In this study, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) production was investigated by growing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1 and Pseudomonas putida G12 in medium containing various carbon sources such as glucose, mannose, fructose, and xylose. EPS production (192 and 182mg\\/L, respectively) of these strains grown in PAP medium with 2% glycerol (v\\/v) was used as control. The highest EPS production of the two

  2. Phylogenetic characterization of Legionella-like endosymbiotic X-bacteria in Amoeba proteus: a proposal for 'Candidatus Legionella jeonii' sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Park, Miey; Yun, Seong Tae; Kim, Mu Soo; Chun, Jongsik; Ahn, Tae In

    2004-12-01

    The X-bacteria which initiated organismic association with the D strain of Amoeba proteus in 1966 as parasites have changed to obligate endosymbionts on which the host depends for survival. Owing to the difficulty in cultivating the bacteria in vitro, the identity of X-bacteria has not been determined. As the life cycle of X-bacteria is similar to that of Legionella spp. in soil amoebae, we applied the polymerase chain reaction method with specific primers aimed at Legionella spp. for the detection and cloning of 16S rRNA gene. The identity and intracellular localization of the endosymbiont were confirmed by the application of a specific fluorescently labelled 16S rRNA-targeted probe. In addition we cloned RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) of X-bacteria by genomic library tagging. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene placed the bacterium within a unique monophyletic group containing all other members of the genus Legionella. Phylogeny from rpoB and mip genes further confirmed the taxonomic context of X-bacteria to be a Legionella sp. In all three phylogenic analyses, X-bacterium was placed apart from Legionella-like amoebal pathogens present in soil amoebae. Thus, we propose the name 'Candidatus Legionella jeonii' sp. nov. for the endosymbiotic X-bacteria in Amoeba proteus. PMID:15560823

  3. Behavioral sensitivity of the European blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, and a Pyrenean newt, Euproctus asper, to electrical fields in water.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P A

    1997-01-01

    In the urodeles Proteus anguinus and Euproctus asper, thresholds of an overt avoidance response to weak electrical field stimuli (continuous sine-waves) were measured as a function of frequency. Thresholds down to 0.1 mV/cm (30 nA/cm2) were found in P. anguinus and 2 mV/cm (600 nA/cm2) in E. asper at 'best frequencies' (B.F.) of 20-30 Hz, but sensitivity covered a total frequency range of below 0.1 Hz to 1-2 kHz, with up to 70 dB higher thresholds. Average thresholds of 1 mV/cm in P. anguinus and 40 mV/cm in E. asper were more than 30 dB apart and significantly different. Both species were sensitive to galvanic DC-pulses, clicks, and noise bursts with intensities of about the same order of magnitude. Specimens of the transparent catfish, Kryptopterus (Siluridae) reacted in the same frequency range as found for Proteus and Euproctus, and had still lower thresholds, down to 0.02 mV/cm (1.5 nA/cm2). The biological significance and possibly still ongoing evolution of the electrical sense in urodeles is interpreted in terms of comparative sensory physiology and more recent, still speculative, evolutionary diversification during and since the Pleistocene. PMID:9063590

  4. Behavioural, physiological and metabolic responses to long-term starvation and refeeding in a blind cave-dwelling (Proteus anguinus) and a surface-dwelling (Euproctus asper) salamander.

    PubMed

    Hervant, F; Mathieu, J; Durand, J

    2001-01-01

    The effects of long-term starvation and subsequent refeeding on haematological variables, behaviour, rates of oxygen consumption and intermediary and energy metabolism were studied in morphologically similar surface- and cave-dwelling salamanders. To provide a hypothetical general model representing the responses of amphibians to food stress, a sequential energy strategy has been proposed, suggesting that four successive phases (termed stress, transition, adaptation and recovery) can be distinguished. The metabolic response to prolonged food deprivation was monophasic in the epigean Euproctus asper (Salamandridae), showing an immediate, linear and large decrease in all the energy reserves. In contrast, the hypogean Proteus anguinus (Proteidae) displayed successive periods of glucidic, lipidic and finally lipido-proteic-dominant catabolism during the course of food deprivation. The remarkable resistance to long-term fasting and the very quick recovery from nutritional stress of this cave organism may be explained partly by its ability to remain in an extremely prolonged state of protein sparing and temporary torpor. Proteus anguinus had reduced metabolic and activity rates (considerably lower than those of most surface-dwelling amphibians). These results are interpreted as adaptations to a subterranean existence in which poor and discontinuous food supplies and/or intermittent hypoxia may occur for long periods. Therefore, P. anguinus appears to be a good example of a low-energy-system vertebrate. PMID:11136613

  5. [Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, N V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Krasil'nikova, E N; Karava?ko, G I

    2006-01-01

    The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri VKM B-975T. Upon the introduction of CN- and SCN- into cell suspensions of strains 18 and 21 in phosphate buffer (pH 8.8), the production of NH4+ was observed. Due to the high rate of their utilization, NH3, NH4+, and CNO- were absent from the culture liquids of P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18 grown with CN- or SCN-. Both Pseudomonas strains decomposed SCN- via cyanate production. The cyanase activity was 0.75 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. putida strain 21 and 1.26 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. stutzeri strain 18. The cyanase activity was present in the cells grown with SCN- but absent in cells grown with NH4+. Strain 21 of P. putida was a more active CN- decomposer than strain 18 of P. stutzeri. Ammonium and CO2 were the terminal nitrogen and carbon products of CN- and SCN- decomposition. The terminal sulfur products of SCN- decomposition by P. stutzeri strain 18 and P. putida strain 21 were thiosulfate and tetrathionate, respectively. The strains utilized the toxic compounds in the anabolism only, as sources of nitrogen (CN- and SCN-) and sulfur (SCN-). The pathway of thiocyanate decomposition by the association of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas is proposed based on the results obtained. PMID:16871797

  6. Biochemical Adaptations in Pseudomonas fluorescens Exposed to Nitric Oxide, an Endogenous Antibacterial Agent

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    Biochemical Adaptations in Pseudomonas fluorescens Exposed to Nitric Oxide, an Endogenous supérieures Title of Thesis Titre de la thčse BIOCHEMICAL ADAPTATIONS IN PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS EXPOSED. fluorescens engineers an elaborate metabolic network to generate ATP whilst withstanding the injurious effects

  7. Metabolic networks to combat zinc toxicity in Pseudomonas fluorescens Azhar Alhasawi

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    Metabolic networks to combat zinc toxicity in Pseudomonas fluorescens By Azhar Alhasawi Thesis was to determine how Pseudomonas fluorescens reprograms its metabolic networks to overcome metal toxicity stemming ineffective. P. fluorescens upregulated the enzymes citrate lyase (CL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC

  8. Is Glyoxylate, a Glycine-derived Ketoacid, a Potent Detoxifier of ROS in Pseudomonas fluorescens?

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    1 Is Glyoxylate, a Glycine-derived Ketoacid, a Potent Detoxifier of ROS in Pseudomonas fluorescens as an ROS scavenger by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Metabolomic analysis revealed oxalate and formate, two

  9. Adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Mojave Desert Soil: Role of Motility and Chemotaxis

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Mojave Desert Soil: Role of Motility and Chemotaxis Background Materials and Method Purpose and Hypothesis Results Conclusion Acknowledgements Pseudomonas fluorescens is a gram negative, rod- shaped bacterium with one flagellum which confers motility. P

  10. MEASURING THE DISPERSAL AND REENTRAINMENT OF RECOMBINANT PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE AT CALIFORNIA TEST SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersal of genetically engineered Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens was investigated during and after spray applications onto plants at Brentwood and Tulelake, California. ive different sampling devices were used to evaluate the dispersal within and around te...

  11. Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K.; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Collins, Cynthia H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

  12. Ribotype analysis of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, M M; Goebel, L A; Godfrey, A J; Choawagul, W; White, N J; Woods, D E

    1993-01-01

    No epidemiological typing system to differentiate among Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolates has been available. Ribotype analysis was developed and used to examine 74 clinical and 10 environmental isolates of P. pseudomallei from Thailand. Six P. pseudomallei ribotypes were identified from restriction fragment polymorphisms of EcoRI chromosomal digests. The predominant ribotype, A, was found in 59 of the isolates examined. By using patterns from hybridizations with SalI, HindIII, and PstI restriction digests, isolates of ribotype A were subdivided into a further five subtypes, giving a total of 10 differentiable P. pseudomallei types. In 23 of 34 melioidosis patients studied, multiple P. pseudomallei isolates were present. In all but one of these patients, a single ribotype of the organism was present. Isolation of two different ribotypes of P. pseudomallei from one patient, one each in sputum and urine, suggests that superinfection may have occurred. The ribotype was shown to be conserved during the course of antibiotic treatments in seven patients studied, although the antibiotic sensitivity patterns in the isolates from these patients varied. The prevalence of subtype A1 in clinical and environmental specimens suggests that this strain may be predominant in this geographical location. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the ribotyping method for epidemiological studies of P. pseudomallei. Images PMID:7679401

  13. Pseudomonas infection in antibody deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Duraisingham, Sai S.; Hanson, Steven; Buckland, Matthew; Grigoriadou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is commonly isolated from the respiratory secretions of antibody deficiency patients, but the significance of this has not been well studied. We have reviewed our adult antibody deficiency cohort of 179 patients and assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PA infection and the effects of early antibiotic eradication treatments. Of the 34 patients with PA, 55.9% (19) underwent successful eradication and were infection-free, 38.2% (13) had intermittent infection, and 5.9% (2) had chronic PA. PA infection was significantly associated with bronchiectasis (p < 0.0001), with 36.1% (22 out of 61) of patients with bronchiectasis developing a PA infection. Infection status was also significantly associated with chronic sinusitis (p < 0.0001). Most treated PA exacerbations were symptomatic and with colony counts of ?1000 cfu/ml. Current eradication protocols used at our center involve early treatment at first positive isolate with ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks and nebulized colomycin for 3 months, and if eradication fails, intravenous ceftazidime and gentamycin or colomycin is administered for 2 weeks. Continued sputum surveillance and early eradication treatments upon positive PA culture may help to limit chronic PA infection in antibody deficiency patients. PMID:25544892

  14. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

  15. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal); Carrondo, M.J.T. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)]|[Inst. de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica, Oeiras (Portugal)

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  16. Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel

    PubMed Central

    De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:24214409

  17. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

  18. Aflatoxin B? degradation by a Pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB?, AFB? and AFM? by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB? effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn˛? and Cu˛? were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg˛?, Li?, Zn˛?, Se˛?, Feł? were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB? was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB?. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB? by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. PMID:25341538

  19. Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control.

    PubMed

    Masák, Jan; ?ejková, Alena; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    Genus Pseudomonas includes a large number of species that can be encountered in biotechnological processes as well as in the role of serious human or plant pathogens. Pseudomonads easily form biofilms on various types of surfaces. The biofilm phenotype is characterized by an increased resistance to environmental influences including resistance to antibiotics and other disinfectants, causing a number of problems in health care, food industry, and other areas. Considerable attention is therefore paid to the possibilities of eradication/destruction of pseudomonads biofilms both in terms of understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation and at the level of finding suitable antibiofilm tools applicable in practice. The first part of this review is devoted to an overview of the regulatory mechanisms that are directly or indirectly involved in the formation of biofilm. The most effective approaches to suppressing the formation of biofilm that do not cause the development of resistance are based on the application of substances that interfere with the regulatory molecules or block the appropriate regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm development by the cells. Pseudomonads biofilm formation is, similar to other microorganisms, a sophisticated process with many regulatory elements. The suppression of this process therefore also requires multiple antibiofilm tools. PMID:24754832

  20. Degradation of nitrobenzene by a Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, S F; Spain, J C

    1993-01-01

    A Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes able to use nitrobenzene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy was isolated from soil and groundwater contaminated with nitrobenzene. The range of aromatic substrates able to support growth was limited to nitrobenzene, hydroxylaminobenzene, and 2-aminophenol. Washed suspensions of nitrobenzene-grown cells removed nitrobenzene from culture fluids with the concomitant release of ammonia. Nitrobenzene, nitrosobenzene, hydroxylaminobenzene, and 2-aminophenol stimulated oxygen uptake in resting cells and in extracts of nitrobenzene-grown cells. Under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, crude extracts converted nitrobenzene to 2-aminophenol with oxidation of 2 mol of NADPH. Ring cleavage, which required ferrous iron, produced a transient yellow product with a maximum A380. In the presence of NAD, the product disappeared and NADH was produced. In the absence of NAD, the ring fission product was spontaneously converted to picolinic acid, which was not further metabolized. These results indicate that the catabolic pathway involves the reduction of nitrobenzene to nitrosobenzene and then to hydroxylaminobenzene; each of these steps requires 1 mol of NADPH. An enzyme-mediated Bamberger-like rearrangement converts hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol, which then undergoes meta ring cleavage to 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. The mechanism for release of ammonia and subsequent metabolism are under investigation. PMID:8368838

  1. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

  2. ETUDE COMPARATIVE DE L'ACTIVITE PHARMACOLOGIQUE DE EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. (EUPHORBIACEAE) ET HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA G. DON (APOCYNACEAE) VIS-A-VIS D'AMIBES NON PATHOGENES DU GENE AMOEBA PROTEUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. GUISSOU; H. MILLOGO-KONE; I. Z. KABORE

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Hollarrhena floribunda G. Don (Apocynaceae) proved active on non pathogenic amoebae of the Amoeba proteus type, thus justifying the use of these plants in the cure of amoebic diseases. This activity has been compared to the one of modern re f e rence medicines (Dehydro-Emetine and Metro n i - dazole), Euphorbia hirta proved

  3. Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans")

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, R G; DiChristina, T J; Hoffmann, M R

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic respiration and dissimilative iron reduction were studied in pure, batch cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans"). Specific respiratory inhibitors were used to identify elements of electron transport chains involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen and Fe(III). When cells were grown at a high oxygen concentration, dissimilative iron reduction occurred via an abbreviated electron transport chain. The induction of alternative respiratory pathways resulted from growth at low oxygen tension (less than 0.01 atm [1 atm = 101.29 kPa]). Induced cells were capable of O2 utilization at moderately increased rates; dissimilative iron reduction was accelerated by a factor of 6 to 8. In cells grown at low oxygen tension, dissimilative iron reduction appeared to be uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. Models of induced and uninduced electron transport chains, including a mathematical treatment of chemical inhibition within the uninduced, aerobic electron transport system, are presented. In uninduced cells respiring anaerobically, electron transport was limited by ferrireductase activity. This limitation may disappear among induced cells. PMID:2428308

  4. Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment.

  5. Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2015-01-01

    One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria. PMID:25535873

  6. Immunological characterization of ice nucleation proteins from Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Erwinia herbicola.

    PubMed Central

    Deininger, C A; Mueller, G M; Wolber, P K

    1988-01-01

    Antibodies were raised against the InaW protein, the product of the ice nucleation gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens MS1650, after protein isolation from an Escherichia coli clone. On Western blots (immunoblots), these antibodies recognized InaW protein and InaZ protein (the ice nucleation gene product of Pseudomonas syringae S203), produced by both E. coli clones and the source organisms. The InaZ protein appeared in P. syringae S203 during stationary phase; its appearance was correlated with the appearance of the ice nucleation-active phenotype. In contrast, the InaW protein occurred at relatively constant levels throughout the growth phases of P. fluorescens MS1650; the ice nucleation activity was also constant. Western analyses of membrane preparations of P. syringae PS31 and Erwinia herbicola MS3000 with this antibody revealed proteins which were synthesized with development of the nucleating phenotype. In these species the presence or absence of the nucleating phenotype was controlled by manipulation of culture conditions. In all nucleation-positive cultures examined, cross-reacting low-molecular-weight bands were observed; these bands appeared to be products of proteolytic degradation of ice nucleation proteins. The proteolysis pattern of InaZ protein seen on Western blots showed a periodic pattern of fragment sizes, suggesting a highly repetitive site for protease action. A periodic primary structure is predicted by the DNA sequence of the inaZ gene. Images PMID:3123461

  7. COMPARATIVE TAXONOMY OF CRYSTALLOGENIC STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND PSEUDOMONAS CHLORORAPHIS

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, William C.; Rhodes, Lenora J.

    1962-01-01

    Haynes, William C. (Northern Utilization Research and Development Division, Peoria, Ill.) and Lenora J. Rhodes. Comparative taxonomy of crystallogenic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1080–1084. 1962.—Only 11 of 39 strains received in the Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection under the designation Pseudonomas chlororaphis proved to be authentic; 28 were typical, pyocyanogenic strains of P. aeruginosa. The reason for this disproportionately high rate of misidentification apparently arises from an erroneous belief that the ability to produce green and yellow crystals of chlororaphin and oxychlororaphin is confined to P. chlororaphis. The ability of many strains of P. aeruginosa to do likewise is not well known. Inasmuch as the characteristic is not unique to P. chlororaphis, other criteria are required to distinguish crystallogenic strains of these species. After a taxonomic comparison of 18 strains of P. chlororaphis and 47 crystallogenic strains of P. aeruginosa, it was determined that there are three main distinctions: (i) P. aeruginosa grows well at 42 C but fails to grow upon serial transfer at 5 C, whereas P. chlororaphis fails to grow at 42 C, but grows well at 5 C: (ii) most strains of P. aeruginosa produce pyocyanin, whereas P. chlororaphis strains do not; (iii) P. aeruginosa cells possess only one or two polar flagella, whereas P. chlororaphis usually has at least four, sometimes as many as eight, polar flagella. PMID:13963593

  8. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus L; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Tribelli, Paula M; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Molin, Sřren

    2015-04-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of expressed sRNAs across strains and species. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify sRNAs in P.?putida?DOT-T1E and Pseudomonas extremaustralis 14-3b. This is the first strain of P.?extremaustralis and the second strain of P.?putida to have their transcriptomes analysed for sRNAs, and we identify the presence of around 150 novel sRNAs in each strain. Furthermore, we provide a comparison based on sequence conservation of all the sRNAs detected by RNA-seq in the Pseudomonas species investigated so far. Our results show that the extent of sRNA conservation across different species is very limited. In addition, when comparing the sRNAs expressed in different strains of the same species, we observe that numerous sRNAs exhibit a strain-specific expression pattern. These results support the idea that the evolution of most bacterial sRNAs is rapid, which limits the extent of both interspecies and intraspecies conservation. PMID:25394275

  9. Study of therapeutic potential of the experimental pseudomonas bacteriophage preparation.

    PubMed

    Dzuliashvili, M; Gabitashvili, K; Golidjashvili, A; Hoyle, N; Gachechiladze, K

    2007-06-01

    Wide expansion of the infections caused by multi-antibiotic resistant strains of P. aeruginosa revived the idea of phage therapy with pseudomonas phage preparations for treatment and prevention of the bacterial infection diseases. The purpose of this study was examination of an experimental series of the therapeutic-prophylactic pseudomonas bacteriophage preparation, with wide spectra of lytical activity and high therapeutic potential. Newly isolated phage clones of P. aeruginosa were studied by the basic tests (such as host range, lysis stability, physiological and immunogenic properties of the phages, host dependent restriction/modification phenomena and automatic reproduction ability of the phages on the UV inactivated strains) determining their virulent nature. An experimental series of the therapeutic-prophylactic pseudomonas phage preparation were developed from the genuine virulent phage clones CF1/1; CF1/7; P.a.N1, P.a.N2 and P.a.N4. The phage preparation successfully passed in vitro (efficacy, sterility, stability) and in vivo (safety, definition of therapeutic potential) controls on experimental animals (white mice). The host range of the experimental pseudomonas phage preparation equals 99.5% of 206 strains of P. aeruginosa. Preclinical testing of the experimental pseudomonas phage preparation on white mice revealed that the therapeutic efficacy of the phage preparation was higher (80-100%) than that of the antibiotic-ciprinol (50-80%). Noteworthy, 100% therapeutic efficacy was observed after combined application of the antibiotic and the phage preparation. PMID:17660609

  10. Biosurfactant production in sugar beet molasses by some Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

    2009-01-01

    In this study rhamnolipid biosurfactant production was investigated in eighteen strains of Pseudomonas spp.. Rhamnolipid by these strains was determined by a spectrophotometric method in nutrient broth medium (NB). From the 18 strains screened, two Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas luteola B17 and Pseudomonas putida B12) which had produced the highest percentage yield of rhamnolipid were examined for rhamnolipid production at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and different sugar beet molasses concentrations [1-5% w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)]. The rhamnolipid production increased with the increase in the concentration of molasses and maximum production occurred when 5 % (w/v) of molasses were used. At the same time, maximum rhamnolipid production occurred after 72 hr of incubation. When the amount of rhamnolipid produced at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and with different concentrations of molasses [1-5 % w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)] by Pseudomonas spp.; was compared, no significant difference in amount of production was seen. These studies show that the waste product from sugar industry may be suggested for important biotechnological processes such as rhamnolipid production. PMID:20112880

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some 1,2,4-triazole-3-mercaptoacetic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, N; Gürsoy, A; Otük, G

    2001-12-01

    Ethyl 5-(2-furyl)-4-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-mercaptoacetate (2), 5-(2-furyl)-4-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-mercaptoacetic acid hydrazide (3) and a series of new N-alkylidene/arylidene-5-(2-furyl)-4-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-mercaptoacetic acid hydrazides (4a-f) were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. Compound 4f showed antibacterial activity against some bacteria. The in vitro antimycobacterial activity of the new compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was evaluated employing the BACTEC 460 radiometric system. The highest inhibition observed was 61% at > 6.25 microg/ml. PMID:11829115

  12. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  13. Synergy of nitric oxide and silver sulfadiazine against Gram-negative, -positive, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Deupree, Susan M.; Privett, Benjamin J.; Backlund, Christopher J.; Rao, Kavitha S.; Johnson, C. Bryce; Coneski, Peter N.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    The synergistic activity between nitric oxide (NO) released from diazeniumdiolate-modified proline (PROLI/NO) and silver (I) sulfadiazine (AgSD) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using a modified broth microdilution technique and a checkerboard-type assay. The combination of NO and AgSD was defined as synergistic when the fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) was calculated to be <0.5 Gram-negative species were generally more susceptible to the individual antimicrobial agents than the Gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro synergistic activity of AgSD and NO observed against a range of pathogens strongly supports future investigation of this therapeutic combination, particularly for its potential use in the treatment of chronic and burn wounds. PMID:20939612

  14. Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human colonic mucosal biopsy inhibits the growth and adhesion of enteric and foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Varma, Parvathi; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Menon, Krishna K; Biswas, Raja

    2010-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species are used as probiotic strains in order to benefit health. We have isolated L. fermentum from human colonic mucosal biopsy samples that possess antimicrobial activities against entroinvasive and foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio sp. In addition to lactic acid, L. fermentum secretes antimicrobial proteinacious compound(s) that was found to be active even at neutral pH (pH 7.0). The compound was sensitive to heat treatment and trypsin digestion. Lactobacillus fermentum inhibited the adhesion of enteropathogens to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Isolated cell surface associated proteins (SAPs) from L. fermentum were sufficient for the adhesion exclusions of enteropathogenic E. coli. Our results indicate that L. fermentum produces antimicrobial compounds and SAPs to inhibit the growth and adhesion of enteropathogens, respectively. PMID:21535608

  15. An ATP and Oxalate Generating Variant Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Counters Aluminum Toxicity in Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    in Pseudomonas fluorescens Ranji Singh, Joseph Lemire, Ryan J. Mailloux, Daniel Che´nier, Robert Hamel, Vasu D of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The upregulation of isocitrate lyase (ICL) and acylating glyoxylate dehydrogenase Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Counters Aluminum Toxicity in Pseudomonas fluorescens. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7344. doi:10

  16. An Investigation of Palindromic Sequences in the Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 Genome

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    An Investigation of Palindromic Sequences in the Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 Genome Bachelor sequences found in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. Using a collection of computer scripts, the species we study, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, promotes plant growth by colonizing a plant's roots

  17. Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 36 1999 7389 Transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17

    E-print Network

    Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 36 1999 73­89 Transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17 Abstract Porous media column experiments were used to investigate Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17 reserved. Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17; Porous media; Quartz sand 1. Introduction Research

  18. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas celllulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain #142 ATCC 55702.

  19. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relationships Among Hydrogen Oxidizing Strains of the Genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. AULING; M. DITTBRENNER; M. MAARZAHL; T. NOKHAL; M. REH

    Optical determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -DNA reassociation ki- netics was applied to the classification of 32 selected strains of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus. The renaturation studies revealed a high intraspecies DNA homology for some strains of the species Pseudomonas palleronii, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, and Alcaligenes paradoxus, supporting former taxonomic concepts of different au- thors.

  20. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dees; H. Craig

    1999-01-01

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas celllulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa

  1. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dees

    1999-01-01

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas cellulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa

  2. Bacteriophage-mediated control of a two-species biofilm formed by microorganisms causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in an in vitro urinary catheter model.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Susan M; Donlan, Rodney M

    2015-02-01

    Microorganisms from a patient or their environment may colonize indwelling urinary catheters, forming biofilm communities on catheter surfaces and increasing patient morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effect of pretreating hydrogel-coated silicone catheters with mixtures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteriophages on the development of single- and two-species biofilms in a multiday continuous-flow in vitro model using artificial urine. Novel phages were purified from sewage, characterized, and screened for their abilities to reduce biofilm development by clinical isolates of their respective hosts. Our screening data showed that artificial urine medium (AUM) is a valid substitute for human urine for the purpose of evaluating uropathogen biofilm control by these bacteriophages. Defined phage cocktails targeting P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis were designed based on the biofilm inhibition screens. Hydrogel-coated catheters were pretreated with one or both cocktails and challenged with approximately 1×10(3) CFU/ml of the corresponding pathogen(s). The biofilm growth on the catheter surfaces in AUM was monitored over 72 to 96 h. Phage pretreatment reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm counts by 4 log10 CFU/cm2 (P?0.01) and P. mirabilis biofilm counts by >2 log10 CFU/cm2 (P?0.01) over 48 h. The presence of P. mirabilis was always associated with an increase in lumen pH from 7.5 to 9.5 and with eventual blockage of the reactor lines. The results of this study suggest that pretreatment of a hydrogel urinary catheter with a phage cocktail can significantly reduce mixed-species biofilm formation by clinically relevant bacteria. PMID:25487795

  3. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  4. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-01-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ?sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  5. [The etiology of urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Avio, C M; Ceccherini, M; Pierotti, R; Falcone, G

    1977-01-01

    The Authors have planned a program in order to file and elaborate with a computer the results of urine cultures. From 8.600 specimens, about 86% were negative or doubtful. The data obtained from 1201 positive cultures were processed in order to state the absolute and relative frequency of the bacterial species isolated and their distribution according to their genera, antibiotic resistence, month and sex. Among the most representative species the pattern of antibiotic resistence was surveyed. E. coli shows very high frequency (38%). The frequency of Pseudomonas increases while staphylococci frequency decreases as compared with the previous statements of various Authors. The analysis of the antibiotic sensitivity spectrum of 534 specimens shows that about 50% of E. coli strains are sensitive to 10, 11 and 12 antibiotics and their pattern of resistence involves no more than 9 antibiotics; on the contrary more than 60% of Pseudomonas and Proteus rettgeri are resistant to 10, 11 or 12 antibiotics and at any rate to no less than seven. Enterobacter and Proteus mirabilis present an intermediate pattern of resistence. PMID:615747

  6. Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8?%), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7?%) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4?%). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70?% DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3?%), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5?%) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8?%). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10?%) were C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?0, and C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) (?=?CGMCC 2318(T)?=?DSM 26382(T)). PMID:24021726

  7. A Genomic Redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species

    PubMed Central

    Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively. PMID:24086635

  8. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; shirazi, Mohammad khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 ?g/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (Table1). Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLAN?) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat infectious diseases.

  9. Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.

    PubMed

    Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

    2011-10-01

    Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system. PMID:21503776

  10. The effect of topical ceftazidime on pseudomonas keratitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kremer, I; Robinson, A; Braffman, M; Drucker, M; Goldenfeld, M; Samra, Z; Myszne-Daye, N; Gaton, D; Savir, H

    1994-07-01

    Ceftazidime is a beta-lactam antibiotic highly effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Using a rabbit model of Pseudomonas keratitis, 10(3) bacteria (in 20 microliters) were injected unilaterally into the corneal stroma of albino rabbits. Twenty-six hours after inoculation, topical Ceftazidime (50 mg/ml) drops were administered for 48 h, following which the corneal tissue was cultured. Eighteen of 20 corneal cultures (90%) from rabbits treated with Ceftazidime drops were negative. In comparison, all untreated control group cultures showed florid bacterial growth. These results suggest that topical Ceftazidime may be a useful agent in the treatment of P. aeruginosa keratitis. PMID:7924338

  11. Specific genomic fingerprints of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains generated by BOX elements.

    PubMed

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  12. Isolation of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. from raw fish sold in fish market in Khartoum state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanaa O. Yagoub

    Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from gills, skin, muscles and the intestine of 83 out of 150 (55%) randomly collected fishes, the most dominants isolates were E. coli, Citrobacter spp, Enteriobacter spp and Klebsiella spp. This together with the highly pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae including Salmonella spp and Shigella spp. Proteus spp, and Alklegens spp. Potential pathogenic organisms were also among the isolates. On

  13. Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is known to produce six secondary metabolites, and the genomic sequence of Pf-5 revealed three additional gene clusters, which encode for the biosynthesis of unknown natural products but contain conserved sequences of genes encoding for non-ribo...

  14. The epidemiology of nosocomial epidemic Pseudomonas cepacia infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Martone; O. C. Tablan; W. R. Jarvis

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia has occasionally been identified as an epidemic and endemic nosocomial pathogen. In outbreaks, usually one clinical site predominates but many may be involved. Detailed investigations have usually implicated a contaminated liquid reservoir or moist environmental surface as the source. Liquid sources have included a number of different classes of antiseptics and disinfectants such as quaternary ammonium chlorides, biguanides,

  15. Transesterification of Jatropha oil using immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Devanesan; T. Viruthagiri; N. Sugumar

    Transesterification of vegetable oils is an important reaction that produces fatty acid alkyl esters, methyl and ethyl esters which are excellent substitutes for diesel fuel. Biodiesel prepared by catalyzed mild transesterification has become of much current interest for alternative fuel production. In the present study the ability of a commercial immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC 103 to catalyze the transesterification of

  16. Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand Kyoung-Ho Kim,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 , was isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju Island, Korea. Cells grew at 4­37 6C, at pH 5 beach sand, a bacterium was isolated and subjected to taxonomic characterization. On the basis

  17. Impact of Multidrug Resistance on Experimental Empyema by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Ira Tzepi; Irini Tsovolou; Aikaterini Spyridaki; Thomas Tsaganos; Ilia Vaki; Antigone Kotsaki; Vlasios Polychronopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of infections of the lower respiratory tract among patients with chronic lung disorders. It is questionable whether virulence of this species may be influenced by multidrug resistance (MDR). Objectives: To define the impact of MDR in experimental lung infection. Methods: Experimental empyema was induced in rabbits by MDR (group A, n = 16) and by

  18. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL-PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (phlD+) are biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens and play a key role in the disease suppressiveness of some soils. Considerable variation among isolates has been observed by using genomic fingerprinting techn...

  19. Induction of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed Central

    Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Hřiby, N; Kharazmi, A; Costerton, J W

    1991-01-01

    Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth could be a major reason for the persistence of this sessile bacterium in chronic infections. PMID:1906694

  20. Human polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Lam, K; Costerton, J W; Hřiby, N

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of human neutrophils with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms was examined by using a chemiluminescence assay. The biofilms induced an oxidative burst response by polymorphonuclear leukocytes which was slow and only 25% of the response to planktonic bacteria. The reduced response to P. aeruginosa biofilms could play a role in the persistence of bacteria in chronic infections. PMID:2114367

  1. Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hentzer; GAIL M. TEITZEL; GRANT J. BALZER; A. Heydorn; S. Molin; M. Givskov; MATTHEW R. PARSEK

    2001-01-01

    During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them

  2. Genome Sequence of the Rice Pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae CB98818

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guanlin; Cui, Zhouqi; Tao, Zhongyun; Qiu, Hui; Liu, He; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gulei; Sun, Guochang; Almoneafy, Abdulwareth

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing bacterial sheath brown rot of cereal crops. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. fuscovaginae CB98818, originally isolated from a diseased rice plant in China. The draft genome will aid in epidemiological studies, comparative genomics, and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen. PMID:22965098

  3. Genome sequence of the rice pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae CB98818.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guanlin; Cui, Zhouqi; Tao, Zhongyun; Qiu, Hui; Liu, He; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gulei; Sun, Guochang; Almoneafy, Abdulwareth; Li, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing bacterial sheath brown rot of cereal crops. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. fuscovaginae CB98818, originally isolated from a diseased rice plant in China. The draft genome will aid in epidemiological studies, comparative genomics, and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen. PMID:22965098

  4. Metabolism of volatile chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbergh, P.A.; Kunka, B.S. (Microlife Technics, Sarasota, FL (USA))

    1988-10-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain designated PFL12 was isolated at a landfill site from soil and water that were contaminated with various chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons. The isolate was able to metabolize 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2,2-dichloropropane, and trichloroethylene.

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens 378: growth and product characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Persson; Eva Österberg; Milan Dostalek

    1988-01-01

    An isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain 378 was shown to produce a novel surface active compound (code name AP-6). The compound is unique in being a high molecular weight compound but has, in some aspects, properties of a low molecular weight surfactant. The product is extracellular and its formation appeared to be partly growth-associated. Using a semisynthetic medium, fermentor cultivations

  6. Shotgun Sequencing of the Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 is a bacterial plant pathogen capable of causing disease in tomatoes and Arabidopsis. The genome of this bacterium has been sequenced, however as with other genomes, accurate annotation and determination of coding vs. non-coding regions has proven to be...

  7. PHENAZINE COMPOUNDS IN FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS SPP.: BIOSYNTHESIS AN REGULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenazines include upward of 50 pigmented, heterocyclic nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites synthesized by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and a few other bacterial genera. The antibiotic properties of these compounds have been known for over 150 years, but advances within the...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Rice Isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Spence, Carla A.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a strain isolated from rice rhizosphere, has shown antagonistic activities against a rice fungal pathogen, and could be important in defense against rice blast. We report the draft genome sequence of EA105, which is an estimated size of 6.6 Mb. PMID:25540352

  9. EXPRESSION OF DEGRADATIVE GENES OF 'PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA' IN 'CAULOBACTER CRESCENTUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recombinant plasmid RP4-TOL was transferred into Caulobacter crescentus at a high frequency, and the plasmid was maintained for at least 50 generations. C. crescentus cells which contained RP4-TOL grew on all the aromatic compounds that the plasmid normally allowed Pseudomona...

  10. Industrial biotechnology of Pseudomonas putida and related species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Poblete-Castro; J. Becker; K. Dohnt; V. A. P. Martins dos Santos; C. Wittmann

    2012-01-01

    Since their discovery many decades ago, Pseudomonas putida and related subspecies have been intensively studied with regard to their potential application in industrial biotechnology. Today, these Gram-negative soil bacteria, traditionally known as well-performing xenobiotic degraders, are becoming efficient cell factories for various products of industrial relevance including a full range of unnatural chemicals. This development is strongly driven by systems

  11. The Biology and Biological Activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) is a disease of plants in the family Asteraceae. A distinctive characteristic of this bacterial pathogen is the symptom of apical chlorosis in infected plants, caused by the phytotoxin tagetitoxin. Strains of Pst have been isolated from several plant species ...

  12. Global features of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 genome sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Weinel; Karen E. Nelson; Burkhard Tummler

    2002-01-01

    Summary The compositional bias of the G + C, di- and tetranu- cleotide contents in the 6 181 862 bp Pseudomonas putida KT2440 genome was analysed in sliding win- dows of 4000 bp in steps of 1000 bp. The genome has a low GC skew (mean 0.066) between the leading and lagging strand. The values of GC contents (mean 61.6%)

  13. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Peter C.; Villenueva, Jacylyn; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that is able to suppress disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here we present a 7.1-Mb assembly of the PA23 genome. PMID:25035328

  14. Treatment of Severe Pseudomonas Infections of the Bronchi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pines; H. Raafat; G. M. Siddiqui; J. S. B. Greenfield

    1970-01-01

    Experience in treating 81 patients with severe bronchial infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described. For those who were desperately ill high doses of intravenous carbenicillin (18g. or more daily) were successful, even when initial carbenicillin resistance was present. For those who were less desperately ill lower doses of carbenicillin together with high doses of gentamicin (given both intramuscularly and by

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

  16. Phylogenetic Characterization of Virulence and Resistance Phenotypes of Pseudomonas syringae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. H. Hwang; Robyn L. Morgan; Sara F. Sarkar; Pauline W. Wang; David S. Guttman

    2005-01-01

    Individual strains of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae vary in their ability to produce toxins, nucleate ice, and resist antimicrobial compounds. These phenotypes enhance virulence, but it is not clear whether they play a dominant role in specific pathogen-host interactions. To investigate the evolution of these virulence-associated phenotypes, we used functional assays to survey for the distribution of these

  17. Detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is one of 52 that will compose the second edition of the Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria from Seeds and other Planting Material, to be published by the American Phytopathological Society. The chapter presents a description of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. ...

  18. Mechanism of nitrite inhibition of cellular respiration in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsanyen Yang

    1985-01-01

    One of the principal mechanisms of nitrite inhibition of cellular respiration has been considered to be the interference with the action of iron-containing enzymes. In procaryotic systems, the effect of nitrite on cellular metabolism remains unclear. This study provides evidence which shows a direct inhibition by a low concentration of nitrite on a highly purified oxidase inPseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibition

  19. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation in Different Environments Mehdi Shadmand1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation in Different Environments Mehdi Shadmand1 , Gregory G materials. These structures are called biofilms. The goal of this research is to isolate P. aeruginosa from several soil samples and determine whether they are able to form biofilms in those environments. Another

  20. MULTIPLE REPLICONS CONSTITUTING THE GENOME OF PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrorestriction fragment analysis of DNA from Pseudomonas cepacia 17616, in conjunction with Southern hybridization experiments using junction n enzyme sites as probes, indicated that this bacterium contains three large circular replicons of 3.4, 2.5, and 0.9 170-kb cryptic plas...

  1. Contribution of free radicals to Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced acute pyelonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Mittal; Saroj Sharma; Sanjay Chhibber; Kusum Harjai

    2008-01-01

    Pyelonephritis induces an inflammatory process in the renal parenchyma, which may occur as a result of excessive reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and\\/or impaired antioxidant capacity. In the present investigation, contribution of free radicals to the development of acute pyelonephritis induced by planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Increase in production of RNI

  2. N-acetylcysteine inhibit biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiemei Zhao; Youning Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in chronic respiratory tract infections. It typically makes a biofilm, which makes treatment of these infections difficult. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on biofilms produced by P. aeruginosa. RESULTS: We found that minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC for most isolates of P. aeruginosa were 10 to

  3. First Report of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Pseudomonas fulva? †

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Yoonmi; Shin, Heebong; Lee, Yangsoon; Cho, Injoo; Na, Sungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas fulva has not yet been isolated from humans as a pathogen. Herein, we report the first case of P. fulva bacteremia in a patient hospitalized due to trauma. The species was identified using biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD genes. PMID:20444972

  4. First report of bloodstream infection caused by Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Seok, Yoonmi; Shin, Heebong; Lee, Yangsoon; Cho, Injoo; Na, Sungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas fulva has not yet been isolated from humans as a pathogen. Herein, we report the first case of P. fulva bacteremia in a patient hospitalized due to trauma. The species was identified using biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD genes. PMID:20444972

  5. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its production of secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity displayed among strains. Certain st...

  6. Imipenem resistance of Pseudomonas in pneumonia: a systematic literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marya D Zilberberg; Joyce Chen; Samir H Mody; Andrew M Ramsey; Andrew F Shorr

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, and particularly nosocomial (NP) and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP), results in high morbidity and costs. NPs in particular are likely to be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), ~20% of which in observational studies are resistant to imipenem. We sought to identify the burden of PA imipenem resistance in pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of randomized controlled

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pyocyanin Is Critical for Lung Infection in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gee W. Lau; Huimin Ran; Fansheng Kong; Daniel J. Hassett; Dimitri Mavrodi

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes copious amounts of the redox-active phenazine, pyocyanin (PCN), during cystic fibrosis lung infection. PCN has been shown to interfere with a variety of cellular processes in cultured lung epithelial cells. Here, by using two respiratory tract models of infection, we demonstrate that PCN mediates tissue damage and necrosis during lung infection.

  8. A re-examination of twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annalese B. T. Semmler; C. B. Whitchuch; John S. Mattick

    1999-01-01

    Twitching motility is a form of solid surface translocation which occurs in a wide range of bacteria and which is dependent on the presence of functional type IV fimbriae or pili. A detailed examination of twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa under optimal conditions in vitro was carried out. Under these conditions (at the smooth surface formed between semi-solid growth media

  9. Heavy Metal Resistance of Biofilm and Planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail M. Teitzel; Matthew R. Parsek

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc on biofilm and planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A rotating-disk biofilm reactor was used to generate biofilm and free- swimming cultures to test their relative levels of resistance to heavy metals. It was determined that biofilms were anywhere from 2 to 600 times more resistant to

  10. Interrelationships between Colonies, Biofilms, and Planktonic Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mikkelsen; Z. Duck; K. S. Lilley; M. Welch

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen that causes chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals. These infections are hard to treat, partly due to the high intrinsic resistance of the bacterium to clinically used antibiotics and partly due to the formation of antibiotic-tolerant biofilms. The three most common ways of growing bacteria in vitro are as planktonic

  11. Involvement of Nitric Oxide in Biofilm Dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Barraud; Daniel J. Hassett; Sung-Hei Hwang; Scott A. Rice; Staffan Kjelleberg; Jeremy S. Webb

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms at times undergo regulated and coordinated dispersal events where sessile biofilm cells convert to free-swimming, planktonic bacteria. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,w e previously observed that dispersal occurs concurrently with three interrelated processes within mature bio- films: (i) production of oxidative or nitrosative stress-inducing molecules inside biofilm structures, (ii) bac- teriophage induction, and (iii) cell lysis.

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Archetypal analysis of diverse Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    positive selection in the cystic fibrosis lung environment, and changes in gene expression reveals adaptation in cystic fibrosis airways Juliane Charlotte Thøgersen1 , Morten Mørup2 , Søren Damkiær of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Results: Our analysis clustered

  13. Proteome analysis of Pseudomonas sp. K82 biodegradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Jin Young; Yun, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Leem, Sun-Hee; Lee, Chulhyun

    2004-11-01

    Pseudomonas sp. K82 is a soil bacterium that can degrade and use monocyclic aromatic compounds including aniline, 3-methylaniline, 4-methylaniline, benzoate and p-hydroxybenzoate as its sole carbon and energy sources. In order to understand the impact of these aromatic compounds on metabolic pathways in Pseudomonas sp. K82, proteomes obtained from cultures exposed to different substrates were displayed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and were compared to search for differentially induced metabolic enzymes. Column separations of active fractions were performed to identify major biodegradation enzymes. More than thirty proteins involved in biodegradation and other types of metabolism were identified by electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. The proteome analysis suggested that Pseudomonas sp. K82 has three main metabolic pathways to degrade these aromatic compounds and induces specific metabolic pathways for each compound. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (CD2,3) pathway was the major pathway and the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (beta-ketoadipate) pathway was the secondary pathway induced by aniline (aniline analogues) exposure. On the other hand, the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase pathway was the major pathway induced by benzoate exposure. For the degradation of p-hydroxybenzoate, the protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase pathway was the major degradation pathway induced. The nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of substrates demonstrated that Pseudomonas sp. K82 metabolizes some aromatic compounds more rapidly than others (benzoate > p-hydroxybenzoate > aniline) and that when combined, p-hydroxybenzoate metabolism is repressed by the presence of benzoate or aniline. These results suggest that proteome analysis can be useful in the high throughput study of bacterial metabolic pathways, including that of biodegradation, and that inter-relationships exist with respect to the metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds in Pseudomonas sp. K82. PMID:15449373

  14. Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov., isolated from an electroactive biofilm, and emended description of the genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guiqin; Han, Luchao; Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rod-shaped bacterium, motile with peritrichous flagella, designated SgZ-6(T), was isolated from an electroactive biofilm and was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1?%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) in trypticase soya broth. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes identified the isolate as a member of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SgZ-6(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to 'Pseudomonas linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 (97.5?%), followed by Pseudomonas sagittaria JCM 18195(T) (97.4?%), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) (96.6?%), P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (96.5?%) and P. alcaliphila JCM 10630(T) (96.4?%). Strain SgZ-6(T) showed the highest gyrB gene sequence similarity of 93.7?% to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 among all type strains of genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that strain SgZ-6(T) displayed 47.1 and 40.3?% relatedness to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 and P. sagittaria JCM 18195(T), respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The whole-cell fatty acids consisted mainly of summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), C16?:?0 and summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?6c and/or C18?:?1?7c). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SgZ-6(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SgZ-6(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012022(T)?=?KACC 16606(T)). An emended description of the genus Pseudomonas is also proposed. PMID:23918787

  15. Defining the Pseudomonas genus: where do we draw the line with Azotobacter?

    PubMed

    Özen, Asli I; Ussery, David W

    2012-02-01

    The genus Pseudomonas has gone through many taxonomic revisions over the past 100 years, going from a very large and diverse group of bacteria to a smaller, more refined and ordered list having specific properties. The relationship of the Pseudomonas genus to Azotobacter vinelandii is examined using three genomic sequence-based methods. First, using 16S rRNA trees, it is shown that A. vinelandii groups within the Pseudomonas close to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genomes from other related organisms (Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Cellvibrio) are outside the Pseudomonas cluster. Second, pan genome family trees based on conserved gene families also show A. vinelandii to be more closely related to Pseudomonas than other related organisms. Third, exhaustive BLAST comparisons demonstrate that the fraction of shared genes between A. vinelandii and Pseudomonas genomes is similar to that of Pseudomonas species with each other. The results of these different methods point to a high similarity between A. vinelandii and the Pseudomonas genus, suggesting that Azotobacter might actually be a Pseudomonas. PMID:21811795

  16. Spoilage potentials and antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cheeses.

    PubMed

    Arslan, S; Eyi, A; Özdemir, F

    2011-12-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are aerobic, gram-negative bacteria that are recognized as major food spoilage microorganisms. A total of 32 (22.9%) Pseudomonas spp. from 140 homemade white cheese samples collected from the open-air public bazaar were isolated and characterized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics, the production of extracellular enzymes, slime and ?-lactamase, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cheeses. The identified isolates including Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V, and P. pseudoalcaligenes ssp. citrulli were found to produce extracellular enzymes, respectively: protease and lecithinase production (100%), and lipase activity (85.7, 42.9, 100, and 100%, and nonlipolytic, respectively). The isolates did not produce slime and had no detectable ?-lactamase activity. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested using the disk diffusion method. Pseudomonas spp. had the highest resistance to penicillin G (100%), then sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (28.1%). However, all Pseudomonas spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Multidrug-resistance patterns were not observed among these isolates. In this study, Pseudomonas spp., exhibiting spoilage features, were isolated mainly from cheeses. Isolation of this organism from processed milk highlights the need to improve the hygienic practices. All of the stages in the milk processing chain during manufacturing have to be under control to achieve the quality and safety of dairy products. PMID:22118075

  17. Influence of Storage Conditions on the Growth of Pseudomonas Species in Refrigerated Raw Milk? †

    PubMed Central

    De Jonghe, Valerie; Coorevits, An; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Messens, Winy; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The refrigerated storage of raw milk throughout the dairy chain prior to heat treatment creates selective conditions for growth of psychrotolerant bacteria. These bacteria, mainly belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, are capable of producing thermoresistant extracellular proteases and lipases, which can cause spoilage and structural defects in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated milk (products). To map the influence of refrigerated storage on the growth of these pseudomonads, milk samples were taken after the first milking turn and incubated laboratory scale at temperatures simulating optimal and suboptimal preprocessing storage conditions. The outgrowth of Pseudomonas members was monitored over time by means of cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. These incubations revealed that outgrowth of Pseudomonas members occurred from the beginning of the dairy chain (farm tank) under both optimal and suboptimal storage conditions. An even greater risk for outgrowth, as indicated by a vast increase of about 2 log CFU per ml raw milk, existed downstream in the chain, especially when raw milk was stored under suboptimal conditions. This difference in Pseudomonas outgrowth between optimal and suboptimal storage was already statistically significant within the farm tank. The predominant taxa were identified as Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas gessardii-like, Pseudomonas fluorescens-like, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Pseudomonas fragi-like. Those taxa show an important spoilage potential as determined on elective media for proteolysis and lipolysis. PMID:21115713

  18. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses of Pyoverdin Siderophores Differentiate among Phytopathogenic Fluorescent Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two ?-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of pyoverdin siderophores differentiate among phytopathogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas Species.

    PubMed

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2003-02-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two beta-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

  20. Induction of toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes.

    PubMed

    McClay, K; Streger, S H; Steffan, R J

    1995-09-01

    Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. PMID:7574658

  1. Transfer and occurrence of large mercury resistance plasmids in river epilithon. [Pseudomonas fluorescens; Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Bale, M.J.; Fry, J.C.; Day, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    In situ mating experiments were done in the River Taff, South Wales, United Kingdom, by using a natural mercury resistance plasmid (pQM1) isolated from a mixture of epilithic bacteria in vitro. The river temperature from March to November was found to influence transfer frequencies strongly (6.8 x 10/sup -9/ to 1.5 x 10/sup -2/ per recipient). A linear relationship existed between log/sub 10/ transfer frequency and river temperature (6 to 21/sup 0/C), a 2.6/sup 0/C change in temperature giving a 10-fold change in transfer frequency. In vitro experiments showed that pQM1 transferred most efficiently between fluorescent pseudomonads and that one epilithic isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) was an efficient donor in situ. Experiments with a P. putida recipient showed that intact epilithic bacterial communities could transfer mercury resistance plasmids in situ at frequencies of up to 3.75 x 10/sup -6/ per recipient. Nineteen of the large (>250-kilobase) plasmids isolated by transfer into P. putida were studied in detail and grouped into seven types by restriction digests. Mercury resistance and UV resistance were found to be common linked phenotypes in 19 of the 23 plasmids tested.

  2. Phenotypic Characterization and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homologies of Pseudomonas solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Palleroni, N. J.; Doudoroff, M.

    1971-01-01

    Twenty-six strains and colony variants of Pseudomonas solanacearum belonging to four described biotypes were characterized, by using 169 phenotypic characters previously found useful in distinguishing among strains of other Pseudomonas species. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization (intra- and interspecific DNA-DNA hybridizations) was performed by using the in vitro “DNA competition” technique. P. solanacearum appears to be a moderately homogeneous species, which is, at most, only remotely related to all other species of the genus studied to date. The four biotypes are not clearly distinct from one another with respect to nutritional characters or DNA homologies. Discrepancies between acid production and growth with some carbohydrates were noted. Difficulties were encountered in certain DNA competition experiments and some problems of the methodology are discussed. PMID:4937783

  3. Biodegradation of p-toluenesulphonamide by a Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    van Haperen, A M; van Velde, J W; van Ginkel, C G

    2001-11-13

    A bacterium capable of utilising p-toluenesulphonamide was isolated from activated sludge. The isolated strain designated PTSA was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. using chemotaxonomic and genetic studies. Pseudomonas PTSA grew on p-toluenesulphonamide in a chemostat with approximately 90% release of sulphate and 80% release of ammonium. The isolate was also able to grow on 4-carboxybenzenesulphonamide and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate but did not grow on p-toluenesulphonate. The transient appearance of 4-hydroxymethylbenzenesulphonamide and 4-carboxybenzenesulphonamide during p-toluenesulphonamide degradation proves oxidation of the methyl group is the initial attack in the biodegradation pathway. Both metabolites of p-toluenesulphonamide degradation were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. 4-Carboxybenzenesulphonamide is probably converted into 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and amidosulphurous acid. The latter is a chemically unstable compound in aqueous solutions and immediately converted into sulphite and ammonium. Both sulphite and ammonium were formed during degradation of 4-carboxybenzenesulphonamide. PMID:11731139

  4. Tn2001, a transposon encoding chloramphenicol resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Iyobe, S; Sagai, H; Mitsuhashi, S

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a new transposon, Tn2001, from the group P-2 plasmid Rms159-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tn2001-encoded chloramphenicol resistance did not result from the formation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Tn2001 was transposable between temperate phages and conjugative and nonconjugative plasmids belonging to various incompatibility groups, including P-1, P-3, P-4, P-5, P-7, and P-8 in P. aeruginosa. Transposition occurred independently of the general recombination ability of the Pseudomonas host, and its frequency varied between 10(-1) and 10(-8), depending upon the donor and recipient replicons. Tn2001 transposition also occurred in a recombination-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopic observations revealed that Tn2001 could transpose to different sites in the RP4 replicon and that the transposed deoxyribonucleic acid fragment was 2.1 kilobases long. Images PMID:6260739

  5. Intra- and Intergeneric Similarities of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Cistrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. DE VOS; J. DE LEY

    1983-01-01

    We hybridized 23s 2- 14C-labeled ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) from type strains Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Pseudomonas acidovorans ATCC 15668, Pseudomonas solanacearum NCPPB 325, and Xanthomonas campestris NCPPB 528 with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) from 65 Pseudomo- nus strains, 23 Xanthomonas strains, and 148 mostly gram-negative strains belonging to 43 genera and 93 species and subspecies including more than 60 type

  6. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, H.C.

    1999-09-28

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas cellulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain {number{underscore}sign}142 ATCC 55702.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in an intrathecal baclofen pump: successful treatment with adjunct intra-reservoir gentamicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Galloway; FZ Falope

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the use of intra-reservoir gentamicin for the treatment of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected baclofen pump.Setting: Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Hexham, Northumberland, England.Subject: Male patient aged 32 years with progressive multiple sclerosis and severe bilateral spasticity.Results: Intra-reservoir gentamicin proved successful in treating infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Conclusion: Intra-reservoir gentamicin may be successful in treating pump infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  8. Effect of osmotic stress on plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sandhya; Sk. Z. Ali; B. Venkateswarlu; Gopal Reddy; Minakshi Grover

    2010-01-01

    In this study we isolated and screened drought tolerant Pseudomonas isolates from arid and semi arid crop production systems of India. Five isolates could tolerate osmotic stress up to ?0.73 MPa\\u000a and possessed multiple PGP properties such as P-solubilization, production of phytohormones (IAA, GA and cytokinin), siderophores,\\u000a ammonia and HCN however under osmotic stress expression of PGP traits was low compared

  9. Involvement of bioemulsifier in heptadecane uptake in Pseudomonas nautica.

    PubMed

    Patricia, B; Jean-Claude, B

    1999-02-01

    A microbial surfactant was investigated for its potential to enhance the biodegradation of heptadecane. The bioemulsifier used in this study was extracted from culture supernatants of Pseudomonas nautica after growth on heptadecane. The heptadecane uptake rate-could be increased 15-fold by the addition of 1.5 mg protein of bioemulsifier per 100 mg of heptadecane. Scanning electron microscopy showed that bioemulsification was the main mode allowing the transfer of hydrocarbon in the presence of the isolated compound. PMID:10028664

  10. RecTE(Psy)-mediated recombineering in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Swingle, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed Pseudomonas syringae recombineering system simplifies the procedure for installing specific mutations at a chosen genomic locus. The procedure involves transforming P. syringae cells expressing recombineering functions with a PCR product that contains desired changes flanked by sequences homologous to a target location. Cells transformed with the substrate undergo homologous recombination between the genomic DNA and the recombineering substrate. The recombinants are found by selection for traits carried by the recombineering substrate, usually antibiotic resistance. PMID:24557893

  11. Monomer composition and sequence of alginates from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Schürks; J. Wingender; H.-C. Flemming; C. Mayer

    2002-01-01

    Alginates from four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one mucoid strain isolated from a technical water system, one strain isolated from a patient with cystic fibrosis and two mutants of this strain with a defect which affects the O-acetylation of the extracellular alginate, have been isolated and analysed for monomer composition and sequence by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The detected

  12. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas azelaica Strain Aramco J

    PubMed Central

    El-Said Mohamed, Magdy; García, José L.; Martínez, Igor; del Cerro, Carlos; Nogales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas azelaica strain Aramco J (7.3 Mbp; GC content, 61.9%), one of the few bacteria that can completely mineralize different hydroxybiphenyls, e.g., 2-hydroxybiphenyl, 2,2?-dihydroxybiphenyl, and 3-hydroxybiphenyl. The findings obtained from its genome annotation suggest that this strain becomes a useful biocatalyst for aromatic bioconversions. PMID:25744991

  13. [Pseudomonas syringae - the agent of bacterial diseases of weeds].

    PubMed

    Pasichnik, L A; Savenko, E A; Butsenko, L N; Shcherbina, T N; Patyka, V F

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of bacterial diseases of the associated weeds have been identified and described in the wheat crops grown in different farming systems. On the basis of its morphological, biochemical and serological properties the agent isolated from frost-blite, barnyard grass, wild radish, couch grass, bottle-brush, bindweed and sow thistle has been identified as Pseudomonas syringae. Serological affinity between the weed bacteria and the agent of bacterial diseases of cereals has been established. PMID:24006783

  14. Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P.; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A.; Giddens, Stephen R.; Coppoolse, Eric R.; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J.; Rainey, Paul B.; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765

  15. Chromate resistance and reduction in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LB300

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence H. Bopp; Henry L. Ehrlich

    1988-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 is a chromateresistant strain isolated from chromium-contaminated river sediment. Chromate resistance is conferred by the plasmid pLHB1. Strain LB300 grew in minimal salts medium with as much as 1000 µg of K2CrO4 ml-1, and actively reduced chromate to Cr(III) while growing aerobically on a variety of substrates. Chromate was also reduced during anaerobic growth on acetate, the

  16. Penetration and growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in chicken eggs

    E-print Network

    Mountney, George Joseph

    1957-01-01

    for the genus Pseudomonas prepared for use in the forthcoming seventh edition of Bergey? s Manual of Deter? minative Bacteriology by Haynes (1955)? To insure identical treatment of groups of eggs inoculated with Ps. fluorescens the standard infection...PENETRATION AND GROWTH OF FSEUDOMOHAS FLUORESCENS IN CHICKEN EGGS A Dissertation By George Joseph Mounfcney Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  17. Effects of atmospheric conditions on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, E.; Yang, H.; Delort, A.-M.; Amato, P.; Pöschl, U.; Glaux, C.; Koop, T.; Morris, C. E.

    2012-11-01

    Although ice nuclei from bacterial origin are known to be efficient at the highest temperatures known for ice catalysts, quantitative data are still needed to assess their role in cloud processes. Here we studied the effects of three typical cloud conditions (i) acidic pH (ii) NO2 and O3 exposure and (iii) UV-A exposure on the ice nucleation activity (INA) of four Pseudomonas strains. Three of the Pseudomonas syringae strains were isolated from cloud water and the phyllosphere and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CGina-01 was isolated from Antarctic glacier ice melt. Among the three conditions tested, acidic pH caused the most significant effects on INA likely due to denaturation of the ice nucleation protein complex. Exposure to NO2 and O3 gases had no significant or only weak effects on the INA of two P. syringae strains whereas the INA of P. fluorescens CGina-01 was significantly affected. The INA of the third P. syringae strain showed variable responses to NO2 and O3 exposure. These differences in the INA of different Pseudomonas suggest that the response to atmospheric conditions could be strain-specific. After UV-A exposure, a substantial loss of viability of all four strains was observed whereas their INA decreased only slightly. This corroborates the notion that under certain conditions dead bacterial cells can maintain their INA. Overall, the negative effects of the three environmental factors on INA were more significant at the warmer temperatures. Our results suggest that in clouds where temperatures are near 0 °C, the importance of bacterial ice nucleation in precipitation processes could be reduced by some environmental factors.

  18. Effects of atmospheric conditions on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, E.; Yang, H.; Delort, A.-M.; Amato, P.; Pöschl, U.; Glaux, C.; Koop, T.; Morris, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Although ice nuclei from bacterial origin are known to be efficient at the highest temperatures known for ice catalysts, quantitative data are still needed to assess their role in cloud processes. Here we studied the effects of three typical cloud conditions (i) acidic pH (ii) NO2 and O3 exposure and (iii) UV-A exposure on the ice nucleation activity (INA) of four Pseudomonas strains. Three of the Pseudomonas syringae strains were isolated from cloud water and the phyllosphere and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CGina-01 was isolated from Antarctic glacier ice melt. Among the three conditions tested, acidic pH caused the most significant effects on INA likely due to denaturation of the ice nucleation protein complex. Exposure to NO2 and O3 gases had no significant or only weak effects on the INA of two P. syringae strains whereas the INA of P. fluorescens CGina-01 was significantly affected. The INA of the third P. syringae strain showed variable responses to NO2 and O3 exposure. These differences in the INA of different Pseudomonas suggest that the response to atmospheric conditions could be strain-specific. After UV-A exposure, a substantial loss of viability of all four strains was observed whereas their INA decreased only slightly. This corroborates the notion that under certain conditions dead bacterial cells can maintain their INA. Overall, the negative effects of the three environmental factors on INA were more significant at the warmer temperatures. Our results suggest that in clouds where temperatures are near 0 °C, the importance of bacterial ice nucleation in precipitation processes could be reduced by some environmental factors.

  19. Survival ofalginate-ecapsulated Pseudomonas fluorescens cells in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Trevors; J. D. van Elsas; H. Lee; A. C. Wolters

    1993-01-01

    Alginate-encapsulated and unencapsulated cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens Rsf were introduced into soil microcosms with and without wheat plants to evaluate bacterial survival and colonization of the rhizoplane and rhizosphere. Encapsualtion of cells in alginate amended with skim milk or with skim milk plus bentonite clay significantly enchanced long-term survival of the cells. There was a negligible effect on long-term bacterial

  20. Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato isolates from Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Shenge; D. Stephan; R. B. Mabagala; C. N. Mortensen; K. Wydra

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial speck caused byPseudomonas syringae pv.tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania,\\u000a 56 isolates ofP. syringae pv.tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using pathogenicity assays on tomato, carbon source utilization\\u000a by the Biolog Microplate system, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length

  1. Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye infections by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.N.; Kreter, J.K.; Dalton, H.P.; Dishler, J.

    1982-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa elaborates several pigment fractions that fluoresce in ultraviolet light. This fact has been used by surgeons in burn units so that treatment of subclinical P aeruginosa infections may be initiated promptly. We have determined the minimum in vitro concentration of two strains of this organism that exhibit ultraviolet light fluorescence and have applied this principle to the early detection of P aeruginosa eye infections.

  2. Degradation of Alkyl Methyl Ketones by Pseudomonas veronii MEK700

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Onaca; Martin Kieninger; K.-H. Engesser; J. Altenbuchner

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas veronii MEK700 was isolated from a biotrickling filter cleaning 2-butanone-loaded waste air. The strain is able to grow on 2-butanone and 2-hexanol. The genes for degradation of short chain alkyl methyl ketones were identified by transposon mutagenesis using a newly designed transposon, mini-Tn5495, and cloned in Escherichia coli. DNA sequence analysis of a 15-kb fragment revealed three genes involved

  3. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas azelaica Strain Aramco J.

    PubMed

    El-Said Mohamed, Magdy; García, José L; Martínez, Igor; Del Cerro, Carlos; Nogales, Juan; Díaz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas azelaica strain Aramco J (7.3 Mbp; GC content, 61.9%), one of the few bacteria that can completely mineralize different hydroxybiphenyls, e.g., 2-hydroxybiphenyl, 2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl, and 3-hydroxybiphenyl. The findings obtained from its genome annotation suggest that this strain becomes a useful biocatalyst for aromatic bioconversions. PMID:25744991

  4. [Genome plasticity and catabolic potential of pseudomonas cepacia]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes efforts directed at understanding the genomic structure of Pseudomonas cepacia. Variously reported are descriptions of the replicons in the genome, organization of macrorestriction fragments comprising the genome, use of a Tn-5- 751S to insertionally inactivate and map selected genes, construction of IS407 derivatives containing a trimethoprim resistance marker and SwaI site, and analysis of nucleotide sequences of IS401 and IS408.

  5. Optical resolution of RS(±)-mandelic acid by Pseudomonas sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Yong Kim; Ki-Chul Hwang; Hee-Sang Song; Namhyun Chung; Won-Gi Bang

    2000-01-01

    For the optical resolution of R-(-)-mandelic acid from (±)-mandelic acid, Pseudomonas sp. MA02, which assimilated S-(+)-mandelic acid as carbon and energy source, was isolated from soil. Using the fed-batch culture under optimal condition, R-(-)-mandelic acid was accumulated up to the maximum theoretical yield of 50% (30 g l-1) and entiomeric excess of 99.4%.

  6. Degradation of phenol and phenolic compounds by Pseudomonas putida EKII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christel Hinteregger; Raimund Leitner; Michael Loidl; Andreas Ferschl; Franz Streichsbier

    1992-01-01

    The phenol-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida EKII was isolated from a soil enrichment culture and utilized phenol up to 10.6 mM (1.0 g·1 -1) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Furthermore, cresols, chlorophenols, 3,4-dimethylphenol, and 4-chloro-m-cresol were metabolized as sole substrates by phenol-grown resting cells of strain EKII. Under conditions of cell growth, degradation of these xenobiotics was achieved

  7. Detection of Pseudomonas pseudomallei by PCR and hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Lew, A E; Desmarchelier, P M

    1994-01-01

    A molecular method for the detection of Pseudomonas pseudomallei was developed on the basis of the differences in the 23S rRNA sequences of related species of the genus Pseudomonas. An 18-base oligonucleotide probe, designed following partial sequencing of 23s ribosomal DNA (rDNA), was used for the identification and detection of P. pseudomallei either by hybridization or by direct PCR. Optimal detection was obtained by hybridization of the probe with PCR-amplified rDNA rather than with total genomic DNA or colony blots. One nanogram of template DNA amplified in a PCR mixture containing 14% glycerol could be detected in slot blots hybridized with the digoxigenin-labelled probe and the lumigen PPD detection system. Amplified rDNA sequences from 41 P. pseudomallei strains of various origins hybridized with the probe. The probe also hybridized with three Pseudomonas mallei reference strains under conditions of high stringency but failed to hybridize with amplified rDNA sequences from other closely related Pseudomonas spp. PCR with a conserved primer and the 18-base oligonucleotide probe (direct PCR) specifically amplified P. pseudomallei and P. mallei. By using these methods, approximately 10(4) P. pseudomallei cells per ml could be detected in artificially inoculated blood samples and in blood dried on filter paper following Chelex extraction. The detection limit in blood was increased to 10(2) cells per ml by concentration of bacteria from 0.5 ml of blood or by a 24-h blood culture enrichment prior to PCR. Approximately 10(3) cells per ml were detected in seeded sputum samples. The detection times by direct PCR and indirect PCR and then probe hybridization were approximately 5 h and 24 h, respectively. These results indicate that amplification of conserved rDNA sequences by PCR directly or by hybridization with a probe to PCR fragments offers promise for the detection of P. pseudomallei and P. mallei. Images PMID:7519629

  8. Degradation of parabens by Pseudomonas beteli and Burkholderia latens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aeshna Amin; Sateesh Chauhan; Manish Dare; Arvind Kumar Bansal

    2010-01-01

    p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are commonly used antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations. Two microorganisms, isolated from non-sterile methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP) solutions, were found to degrade the respective parabens. Identification by 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing revealed them to be Pseudomonas beteli and Burkholderia latens, respectively. The present work describes a previously unreported interaction of the parabens

  9. Secretins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : large holes in the outer membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilbert Bitter

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a large number of exoproteins, ranging from the ADP-ribosyltransferases exotoxin A and ExoS to degradative enzymes, such as elastase and chitinase. As it is a gram-negative bacterium, P. aeruginosa must be able to transport these exoproteins across both membranes of the cell envelope. In addition, also proteins that are part of cellular appendages, such as type IV

  10. A genetic basis for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm antibiotic resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thien-Fah Mah; Betsey Pitts; Brett Pellock; Graham C. Walker; Philip S. Stewart; George A. O'Toole

    2003-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached microbial communities with characteristic architecture and phenotypic and biochemical properties distinct from their free-swimming, planktonic counterparts. One of the best-known of these biofilm-specific properties is the development of antibiotic resistance that can be up to 1,000-fold greater than planktonic cells. We report a genetic determinant of this high-level resistance in the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We

  11. Insights into the Life Styles of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena García-Valdés; Magdalena Mulet; Jorge Lalucat

    \\u000a For many years, Pseudomonas stutzeri has been a model microorganism for studying the biochemical and physiological properties of a bacterium with enormous metabolic\\u000a capacities. Denitrification – the ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor – was discovered\\u000a in this species. This characteristic was elucidated by dissecting the biochemistry and genetics of the ZoBell strain. This\\u000a strain

  12. Regulation of las and rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVERETT C. PESCI; JAMES P. PEARSON; PATRICK C. SEED; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI

    1997-01-01

    The production of several virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is controlled according to cell density through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is comprised of the transcriptional activator protein LasR and of LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer PAI-1. Similarly, the rhl system consists of the transcriptional activator protein RhlR and of RhlI, which directs

  13. An RND-Type Multidrug Efflux Pump from Pseudomonas syringae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stoitsova; Matthias Ullrich; H. Weingart

    Multidrug efflux (MDE) transporters are major contributors to bacterial resistance towards antibiotics and naturally occurring\\u000a toxic substances. The goal of our research is to identify and characterize MDE pumps in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and to gain in-depth knowledge about their regulation, structure, mechanism of transport and natural functions. MDE pumps\\u000a may play an important role in the adaptation

  14. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa Toxin that Hijacks the Host Ubiquitin Proteolytic System

    E-print Network

    Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen chronically infecting the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, cystic fibrosis (CF), and bronchiectasis. Cif ...

  15. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    PubMed

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens. PMID:24494528

  16. Unusual presentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Molina, D N; Colón, M; Bermúdez, R H; Ramírez-Ronda, C H

    1991-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic, gram negative bacillus that causes serious hospital acquired infections. However, it also causes infections with unusual presentations which are acquired in a non-hospital environment. This report will discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and therapy of this uncommon infection, such as: 1) Pseudomonas folliculitis: a superficial or deep bacterial infection associated with the use of public hot tubs, whirlpools and swimming pools. 2) Invasive external otitis: an infection that can progress to skull base mostly associated to elderly diabetic patients. It is usually secondary to aural irrigation with contaminated water. 3) Pseudomonas osteomyelitis: an infection usually associated with nail puncture wounds especially if wearing tennis shoes. 4) Toe with infection: mostly associated with individuals using topical antibacterial agents. 5) Green nail syndrome: a non tender paronychia lesion that appears most often in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma. 6) Corneal ulcer keratitis: mostly associated with the use of soft lenses, eye drops, mascara or contaminated whirlpools. This condition may terminate in panophthalmitis. 7) Endocarditis: most commonly associated with intravenous drug addicts. PMID:1816775

  17. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  18. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zamioudis, Christos; Mastranesti, Parthena; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Blilou, Ikram; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-05-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of the most abundant genera of the root microbiome. Here, by employing a germ-free experimental system, we demonstrate the ability of selected Pseudomonas spp. strains to promote plant growth and drive developmental plasticity in the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. By studying cell type-specific developmental markers and employing genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate the crucial role of auxin signaling and transport in rhizobacteria-stimulated changes in the root system architecture of Arabidopsis. We further show that Pseudomonas spp.-elicited alterations in root morphology and rhizobacteria-mediated systemic immunity are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. This study sheds new light on the ability of soil-borne beneficial bacteria to interfere with postembryonic root developmental programs. PMID:23542149

  19. First detection in Europe of the metallo-?-lactamase IMP-15 in clinical strains of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gilarranz, R; Juan, C; Castillo-Vera, J; Chamizo, F J; Artiles, F; Álamo, I; Oliver, A

    2013-09-01

    In a prospective study (2009-2011) in healthcare institutions from the Canary Islands (Spain), 6 out of 298 carbapenem non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates produced a metallo-?-lactamase: four IMP-15, two VIM-2 (including one IMP-15-positive isolate) and one VIM-1. Multilocus sequence typing identified the single VIM-1-producing isolate as clone ST111 and two IMP-15-producing isolates as ST606, but, strikingly, bacterial re-identification revealed that the other three isolates (producing IMP-15 and/or VIM-2) were actually Pseudomonas putida. Further retrospective analysis revealed a very high prevalence (close to 50%) of carbapenem resistance in this environmental species. Hence, we report the simultaneous emergence in hospitals on the Canary Islands of P. putida and P. aeruginosa strains producing IMP-15, a metallo-?-lactamase not previously detected in Europe, and suggest an underestimated role of P. putida as a nosocomial reservoir of worrying transferable resistance determinants. PMID:23656535

  20. Phytochemical study and screening for antimicrobial activity of flavonoids of Euphorbia hirta

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids (free and bound) of Euphorbia hirta L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by subculturing the relevant samples. Total activity (TA) of extracts against each sensitive pathogen was also evaluated. Results: Out of fungi; A. flavus, A. niger, and T. mentagrophytes were found to be resistant, against which none of the tested extracts showed activity. Bound flavonoids extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (inhibition zone (IZ) 27.66, MIC 0.039, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) 0.039). TA of free flavonoid extract of root was found to be the same for P. mirabilis and S. aureus (192.30 ml/g). Two flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were identified in the bound flavonoids of stem extract which showed activity against all the microorganisms. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation indicate that E. hirta has good antimicrobial activity with low range of MIC, hence can be exploited for future plant-based antimicrobial drugs. PMID:24083146