These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effect of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Macrolides on Expression of Flagellin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we showed by molecular analysis that the inhibition of motility by macrolides in Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was well correlated with the loss of the expression of flagellin. Erythro- mycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin at subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) suppressed the expres- sion of flagellin dose dependently. Azithromycin had the strongest inhibitory effect on the expression of

KUMIKO KAWAMURA-SATO; YOSHITSUGU IINUMA; TADAO HASEGAWA; TOSHINOBU HORII; TAKAFUMI YAMASHINO; MICHIO OHTA

2000-01-01

2

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies Qun Ma1 depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly signal; Proteus mirabilis; Lucilia sericata; salivary gland; quorum sensing; bacterial swarming

Tomberlin, Jeff

3

Murein and the Outer Penetration Barrier of Escherichia coli K-12, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

A penetration barrier operating outside the periplasmic enzyme penicillinase was studied in an ampicillin-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli K-12. Growth in the presence of lysozyme and sublethal concentrations of ampicillin partially opened the barrier. This could be recorded as an increased penetration of penicillin G, sodium cholate, and rifampin to their respective targets. Brief treatments with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium cholate effectively impaired the barrier against penicillin and also caused leakage of penicillinase. Wild-type E. coli K-12, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa also showed an increased sensitivity to cholate after treatment with penicillins. Electron micrographs showed that lysis by cholate was due to a distortion of the cytoplasmic membrane causing a leakage of protein and RNA from the cells to the medium. Physiological data indicated that the increased sensitivity to cholate induced by growth in the presence of ampicillin or lysozyme was due to effects upon the murein. This was supported by measurement of the incorporation of 3H-diaminopimelic acid. These results indicate that the murein sacculus either is a part of the penetration barrier or is responsible for holding the structure of the outer membrane together. Images PMID:4629657

Burman, Lars G.; Nordstrom, Kurt; Bloom, Gunnar D.

1972-01-01

4

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies Qun Ma1 depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly: interkingdom signal; Proteus mirabilis; Lucilia sericata; salivary gland; quorum sensing; bacterial swarming

Wood, Thomas K.

5

Collaborative Surface Migration Behavior of Proteus mirabilis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collaborative migration behavior exerted by Proteus mirabilis cells on the surface of a low-agar medium. The organisms were differentiating into elongated hyperflagellates and gathering for migration.

American Society For Microbiology;

2008-11-07

6

Bacteriophage Typing of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Proteus morganii  

PubMed Central

A bacteriphage typing scheme for differentiating Proteus isolated from clinical specimens was developed. Twenty-one distinct patterns of lysis were seen when 15 bacteriophages isolated on 8 Proteus mirabilis, 1 P. vulgaris, and 1 P. morganii were used to type 162 of 189 (85.7%) P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates. Seven phages isolated on 3 P. morganii were used to type 13 of 19 (68.4%) P. morganii isolates. Overall, 84.1% of the 208 isolates were lysed by at least 1 phage at routine test dilution (RTD) or 1,000 × RTD. Fifty isolates, retyped several weeks after the initial testing, showed no changes in lytic patterns. The phages retained their titers after storage at 4 C for several months. A computer analysis of the data showed that there was no relationship between the source of the isolate and bacteriophage type. This bacteriophage typing system may provide epidemiological information on strains involved in human infections. PMID:4589141

Schmidt, William C.; Jeffries, Charles D.

1974-01-01

7

Transcriptome of Swarming Proteus mirabilis? †  

PubMed Central

Swarming motility by the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis has been a long-studied but little understood phenomenon. On agar, a P. mirabilis colony grows outward in a bull's-eye pattern formed by consecutive waves of rapid swarming followed by consolidation into shorter cells. To examine differential gene expression in these growth phases, a microarray was constructed based on the completed genome sequence and annotation. RNA was extracted from broth-cultured, swarming, and consolidation-phase cells to assess transcription during each of these growth states. A total of 587 genes were differentially expressed in broth-cultured cells versus swarming cells, and 527 genes were differentially expressed in broth-cultured cells versus consolidation-phase cells (consolidate). Flagellar genes were highly upregulated in both swarming cells and consolidation-phase cells. Fimbriae were downregulated in swarming cells, while genes involved in cell division and anaerobic growth were upregulated in broth-cultured cells. Direct comparison of swarming cells to consolidation-phase cells found that 541 genes were upregulated in consolidate, but only nine genes were upregulated in swarm cells. Genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis, oligopeptide transport, amino acid import and metabolism, cell division, and phage were upregulated in consolidate. Mutation of dppA, oppB, and cysJ, upregulated during consolidation compared to during swarming, revealed that although these genes play a minor role in swarming, dppA and cysJ are required during ascending urinary tract infection. Swarming on agar to which chloramphenicol had been added suggested that protein synthesis is not required for swarming. These data suggest that the consolidation phase is a state in which P. mirabilis prepares for the next wave of swarming. PMID:20368347

Pearson, Melanie M.; Rasko, David A.; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2010-01-01

8

Repair defect mutants of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two photoproducts, thymine-thymine and cytosine-thymine-dimers were identified after UV-irradiation of Proteus mirabilis. It was found that 1 erg\\/mm2 at 253 nm produced approximately 2.9×106 pyrimidine dimers\\/thymine residues or about 8 dimers per 107 nucleotides. Both photoproducts were excised at the same rate from the DNA of ultraviolet-resistant wildtype cells (PG 273, PG 758), but remained in acid precipitable DNA in

Karin Störl; Christa Mund; Harry Venner

1973-01-01

9

Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of resistance to amoxicillin among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 10 TEM-type b-lacta- mases were characterized: (i) the well-known penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, the extended-spectrum b-lac- tamases (ESBLs) TEM-3 and TEM-24, and the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) TEM-44 and (ii) five novel enzymes, a penicillinase TEM-57 similar to TEM-1, an ESBL TEM-66 similar to TEM-3, and three IRTs,

R. BONNET; C. DE CHAMPS; D. SIROT; C. CHANAL; R. LABIA; J. SIROT

1999-01-01

10

Capsule structure of Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 49565).  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis 2573 (ATCC 49565) produces an acidic capsular polysaccharide which was shown from glycose analysis, carboxyl reduction, methylation, periodate oxidation, and the application of one dimensional and two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to be a high-molecular-weight polymer of branched trisaccharide units composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-galactose (N-acetyl-L-fucosamine), and D-glucuronic acid, having the structure: [formula: see text] P. mirabilis 2573 also produces an O:6 serotype lipopolysaccharide in which the O-chain component has the same structure as the homologous capsular polysaccharide. This is the first report of a defined capsular polysaccharide in this bacterial genus. PMID:1551839

Beynon, L M; Dumanski, A J; McLean, R J; MacLean, L L; Richards, J C; Perry, M B

1992-01-01

11

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

E-print Network

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: ...

Xue, Chuan

12

Kinetic model of Proteus mirabilis swarm colony development  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Proteus mirabilis colonies display striking symmetry and periodicity. Based on experimental observations of cellular differentiation and group\\u000a motility, a kinetic model has been developed to describe the swarmer cell differentiation-dedifferentiation cycle and the\\u000a spatial evolution of swimmer and swarmer cells during Proteus mirabilis swarm colony development. A key element of the model is the age dependence of swarmer cell behaviour,

Sergei E. Esipov; J. A. Shapiro

1998-01-01

13

Isolation and characterisation of dog uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections, were characterised with respect to the production of haemolysin and fimbriae. In contrast to healthy dogs, P. mirabilis was also isolated in high numbers from the faeces of dogs suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections. Production of fimbriae was demonstrated by electron microscopy and the presence of

Wim Gaastra; Robert A. A. van Oosterom; Eef W. J. Pieters; Hans E. N. Bergmans; Linda van Dijk; A. Agnes; H. M. ter Huurne

1996-01-01

14

Radial and spiral stream formation in Proteus mirabilis colonies Chuan Xue1,  

E-print Network

1 Radial and spiral stream formation in Proteus mirabilis colonies Chuan Xue1, , Elena O. Budrene2@mbi.osu.edu Abstract The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can lead to #12;2 serious, hard-to-treat infections. Proteus mirabilis is an enteric bacterium that forms

Othmer, Hans

15

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis *, Elena O. Budrene2  

E-print Network

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies Chuan Xue1 *, Elena O. Budrene2 of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America Abstract The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, Budrene EO, Othmer HG (2011) Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies. PLoS Comput

Weinberger, Hans

16

Draft Genome Assemblies of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132.  

PubMed

The pleomorphic swarming bacilli of the genus Proteus are common human gut commensal organisms but also the causative agents of recurrent urinary tract infections and bacteremia. We sequenced and assembled the 3.99-Mbp genome of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 (accession no. JOVJ00000000) and the 3.97-Mbp genome of Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132 (accession no. JPIX00000000), both of which are commonly used reference strains. PMID:25342681

Minogue, T D; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Chertkov, O; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

2014-01-01

17

Draft Genome Assemblies of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132  

PubMed Central

The pleomorphic swarming bacilli of the genus Proteus are common human gut commensal organisms but also the causative agents of recurrent urinary tract infections and bacteremia. We sequenced and assembled the 3.99-Mbp genome of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 (accession no. JOVJ00000000) and the 3.97-Mbp genome of Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132 (accession no. JPIX00000000), both of which are commonly used reference strains. PMID:25342681

Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Chertkov, O.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Xu, Y.

2014-01-01

18

Proteus mirabilis biofilms and the encrustation of urethral catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms were observed on 69 of 75 catheters taken from patients undergoing long-term bladder management. Ten catheters were colonized by pure cultures of Proteus mirabilis. In each of these cases the bacteria formed layers on the catheter surface, underlying encrustations of struvite and hydroxyapatite which partially or completely occluded the catheter lumen. Encrustation was also apparent on catheters colonized

D. Stickler; L. Ganderton; J. King; J. Nettleton; C. Winters

1993-01-01

19

Swarming and pathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis in the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis is best known for its pattern of swarming differentiation on agar plates, as well as for its association with the development of renal stones in patients with urinary tract infection. Urease and flagella appear to contribute most significantly to virulence, with fimbriae playing a more subtle role, whereas hemolysin does not appear to contribute significantly to pathogenesis.

Harry L. T. Mobley; Robert Belas

1995-01-01

20

Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development with drift  

E-print Network

We prove a global existence result for a model describing the swarming phenomenon of the bacterium Proteus mirabilis. The model consists of an ordinary differential equation coupled with an age-structured equation involving nonlinear degenerate diffusion and an additional drift term.

Laurençot, Philippe

2008-01-01

21

THE NATURE OF COLICIN K FROM PROTEUS MIRABILIS  

PubMed Central

The colicinogenic factor K has been transferred from E. coli K 235 to Proteus mirabilis. The DNA of the colicinogenic Proteus has been shown to contain a small amount of a satellite DNA which presumably harbors the Col K factor. In the presence of mitomycin C the colicinogenic Proteus secretes colicin K into the growth medium. The bacteriocin has been purified by chromatography and obtained as an immunologically homogeneous substance unconjugated with other antigens of the Proteus bacillus. Proteus colicin K is a protein of relatively low molecular weight. It contains all of the usual amino acids except cysteine and is free of lipids and polysaccharides. The bacteriocin can be separated by electrofocusing into two major components. The latter have the same biological properties but differ in their specific electrical charges. PMID:4986216

Jesaitis, Margeris A.

1970-01-01

22

Regulation of reductase formation in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prteus mirabilis can form four reductases after anaerobic growth: nitrate reductase A, chlorate reductase C, thiosulfate reductase and tetrathionate reductase. The last three enzymes are formed constitutively. Nitrate reductase is formed only after growth in the presence of nitrate, which causes repression of the formation of thiosulfate reductase, chlorate reductase C, tetrathionate reductase and hydrogenase. Formic dehydrogenase assayed with methylene

G. N. Groot; A. H. Stouthamer

1969-01-01

23

Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single- species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections. PMID:23042564

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2013-01-01

24

Functional Identification of the Proteus mirabilis Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the identification of genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of two strains of Proteus mirabilis. Since P. mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. mirabilis genes was elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined mutants of K. pneumoniae. The functions of strain-specific outer-core genes were identified by using as surrogate acceptors LPSs from two well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. This approach allowed the identification of two new heptosyltransferases (WamA and WamC), a galactosyltransferase (WamB), and an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (WamD). In both strains, most of these genes were found in the so-called waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wabO) was found outside this cluster. PMID:20622068

Aquilini, Eleonora; Azevedo, Joana; Jimenez, Natalia; Bouamama, Lamiaa; Tomas, Juan M.; Regue, Miguel

2010-01-01

25

Core region in Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Four R mutants of P. mirabilis were isolated. The composition of their degraded polysaccharides (PS) obtained from the respective lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as well as the composition and properties of the PS-fractions separated by column chromatography were examined. The results were compared with those obtained with PS of the wild type. One of the mutants could be classified as an Ra-type mutant, presenting a complete LPS core. This polysaccharide core contains: galacturonic acid, glucosamine, glucose, D-glycero-D-mannoheptose, L-glycero-D-mannoheptose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 2 and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. Taking into consideration the common sugars described previously in the LPS chemotypes of P. hauseri, the composition of the complete core region mentioned above represents the LPS core part of all the chemotypes, containing two different heptoses. PMID:342599

Kote?ko, K; Gromska, W; Papierz, M; Sidorczyk, Z; Krajewska, D; Szer, K

1977-01-01

26

Crystallization and crystal packing of Proteus mirabilis PR catalase.  

PubMed

The tetrameric catalase from Proteus mirabilis PR (EC 1.11.1.6), known to bind NADPH, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop method in a form apparently depleted in dinucleotide. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(2)22 with a = b = 111.7 A, c = 248.8 A. There is one subunit in the asymmetric unit. Data were collected to 2.9 A at the L.U.R.E. (Orsay) synchrotron radiation facility. The tetramers have been located in the crystal, centered on the site (1/2, 0, 0) with 222 symmetry. PMID:1942042

Jouve, H M; Gouet, P; Boudjada, N; Buisson, G; Kahn, R; Duee, E

1991-10-20

27

R factors from Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.  

PubMed

Eighty-nine R factors were transmitted by conjugation to Escherichia coli K12 from isolates of Proteus hauseri (P. mirabilis plus P vulgaris). More than half were non-selftranmissible. The remainder included plasmids assigned to the previously defined groups FII,A-C complex, J, N and P, as well as some not belonging to any knwon compatibility groups. R factors from strains isolated in India, Thailand and Japan carried plasmids whose inheritance was extremely unstable in E. coli K12. All belonged to a new compatibility group, V. PMID:1095684

Hedges, R W

1975-04-01

28

Theory of periodic swarming of bacteria application to Proteus mirabilis  

E-print Network

The periodic swarming of bacteria is one of the simplest examples for pattern formation produced by the self-organized collective behavior of a large number of organisms. In the spectacular colonies of Proteus mirabilis (the most common species exhibiting this type of growth) a series of concentric rings are developed as the bacteria multiply and swarm following a scenario periodically repeating itself. We have developed a theoretical description for this process in order to get a deeper insight into some of the typical processes governing the phenomena in systems of many interacting living units. All of our theoretical results are in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete set of available observations.

Czirok, A; Vicsek, T; Czirok, Andras; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Vicsek, Tamas

2001-01-01

29

O antigens of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from patients with bacteremia.  

PubMed Central

During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia. PMID:6999017

Larsson, P

1980-01-01

30

hal-00133397,version1-26Feb2007 Existence result for a model of Proteus mirabilis swarm  

E-print Network

hal-00133397,version1-26Feb2007 Existence result for a model of Proteus mirabilis swarm E. Fr´enod February 26, 2007 Abstract: In this paper we present a modification of the usual Proteus mirabilis Swarm and uniqueness result. 1 Introduction and results Proteus mirabilis is a bacterium that can be either a short

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

An explanatory model to validate the way water activity rules periodic terrace generation in Proteus mirabilis swarm  

E-print Network

in Proteus mirabilis swarm Emmanuel Fr´enod Olivier Sire October 23, 2008 Abstract - This paper explains the biophysical principles which, according to us, govern the Proteus mirabilis swarm phenomenon. Then generation. Keywords - Proteus mirabilis swarm, modelling, partial differential equations, finite volumes

Frénod, Emmanuel

32

Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies  

PubMed Central

Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

2012-01-01

33

Expression of multiple flagellin-encoding genes of Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

The overproduction of flagella is a distinguishing characteristic of Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell differentiation. The synthesis of flagellin, the principal protein composing the flagellar filament, is coordinately regulated as part of a larger regulon of genes whose expression is a prerequisite in urinary pathogenesis. In this report, the regulation of expression of the flaA locus, comprising flaA and flaB, two tandemly linked and nearly identical copies of flagellin-encoding genes, is examined. Transcriptional expression studies reveal that flaA, but not flaB, is expressed by wild-type cells, and flaA transcription increases eightfold during differentiation. The flaA transcriptional start site for both swimmer and swarmer cells was determined to be located at a guanine, 8 bases downstream of the flaA sigma 28 promoter. FlaA- mutants are nonmotile and undifferentiated and do not synthesize flagellin, while FlaB- mutants are wild type, thus verifying that FlaA is the sole flagellin produced by wild-type cells and that flaB is silent. FlaA- mutants frequently revert to a Mot+ phenotype that is antigenically distinct from that of wild-type cells. Southern blot analysis of the flaA Mot+ revertants reveals a deletion of between 2 and 7kb in the flaA locus. Biochemical analyses of revertant flagellin indicate major changes in protein size and composition but conservation of the first 28 N-terminal residues. The result of this process is to produce an antigenically distinct flagellum that may be significant in ensuring the survival of P. mirabilis during pathogenesis. Images PMID:7961488

Belas, R

1994-01-01

34

The Special Affinity of Particular Types of Proteus Mirabilis for the Urinary Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

INFECTIONS of the urinary tract with strains of Proteus mirabilis are common and second only to Escherichia coli infections in the frequency with which they occur. However, whereas the majority of E. coli infections are confined to the bladder, Proteus strains have a special predilection for the upper urinary tract where they cause much greater kidney damage than E. coli

B. W. Senior

1979-01-01

35

A comparison of the dynamics of the structured cell population in virtual and experimental Proteus mirabilis swarm colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present size distributions of Proteus mirabilis cells obtained from age- and space-structured models and simulations of swarm colonies, and compare them to experimental results from the manuscript of Matsuyama et al. [T. Matsuyama, Y. Takagi, Y. Nakagawa, H. Itoh, J. Wakita, M. Matsushita, Dynamic aspects of the structured cell population in a swarming colony of Proteus mirabilis, J. Bacteriol.

Bruce P. Ayati

2009-01-01

36

Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated\\u000a how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal\\u000a formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent\\u000a stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal (Caco-2, HT29,\\u000a HT29-18N2, HT29-FU, and HT29-MTX) and one ureter cell line (SV-HUC-1) were\\u000a incubated in artificial urine with five Proteus mirabilis strains.\\u000a Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), laser

Rejiv B. Mathoera; Dik J. Kok; Cees M. Verduin; J. M. Nijman

2002-01-01

37

Development of an Intranasal Vaccine To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection by Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis commonly infects the complicated urinary tract and is associated with urolithiasis. Stone formation is caused by bacterial urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, causing local pH to rise, and leads to the subsequent precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium phosphate (apa- tite) crystals. To prevent these infections, we vaccinated CBA mice with formalin-killed bacteria or purified

Xin Li; C. Virginia Lockatell; David E. Johnson; John W. Warren; Harry L. T. Mobley

2004-01-01

38

In silico maturation of binding-specificity of DNA aptamers against Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a prominent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) among patients undergoing long-term bladder catheterization. There are currently no effective means of preventing P. mirabilis infections, and strategies for prophylaxis and rapid early diagnosis are urgently required. Aptamers offer significant potential for development of countermeasures against P. mirabilis CAUTI and are an ideal class of molecules for the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate the application of Cell-SELEX to identify DNA aptamers that show high affinity for P. mirabilis. While the aptamers identified displayed high affinity for P. mirabilis cells in dot blotting assays, they also bound to other uropathogenic bacteria. To improve aptamer specificity for P. mirabilis, an in silico maturation (ISM) approach was employed. Two cycles of ISM allowed the identification of an aptamer showing 36% higher specificity, evaluated as a ratio of binding signal for P. mirabilis to that for Escherichia coli (also a cause of CAUTI and the most common urinary tract pathogen). Aptamers that specifically recognize P. mirabilis would have diagnostic and therapeutic values and constitute useful tools for studying membrane-associated proteins in this organism. PMID:23568752

Savory, Nasa; Lednor, Danielle; Tsukakoshi, Kaori; Abe, Koichi; Yoshida, Wataru; Ferri, Stefano; Jones, Brian V; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

2013-10-01

39

Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

2013-03-01

40

Differentiation of Proteus mirabilis by bacteriophage typing and the Dienes reaction.  

PubMed Central

A provisional typing schema based on sensitivity to 23 bacteriophages has been established for Proteus mirabilis. Seventy-three bacteriophages were isolated on strains of P. mirabilis (64), P. vulgaris (1), P. morganii (7), and P. rettgeri (1), but those isolated on P. mirabilis were the most useful in differentiating other strains of . mirabilis. From the 73 phages studied, the best 23 were chosen by computer analysis for the provisional system, which was then used to study P. mirabilis infections in a 500-bed general hospital. All patient isolates for 19 months were saved and then compared by bacteriophage typing and the Dienes reaction in a retrospective study. There was evidence for only three instances of cross-infection or -colonization during this time. Bacteriophage typing was very sensitive in differentiating strains, since 200 strains were differentiated into 113 different lysis patterns and 94% were typable. The Dienes reaction was useful at times but often gave reactions that were difficult to read or that changed when the tests were repeated. The bacteriophages described by Schmidt and Jeffries were also evaluated and proved useful in combination with ours. The value of bacteriophage typing was clearly established, and work toward a standardized schema for P. mirabilis should continue. Images PMID:773962

Hickman, F W; Farmer, J J

1976-01-01

41

Proteus mirabilis ZapA Metalloprotease Degrades a Broad Spectrum of Substrates, Including Antimicrobial Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 54-kDa extracellular metalloprotease ZapA is an important virulence factor of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. While ZapA has the ability to degrade host immunoglobulins (Igs), the dramatic attenuation of virulence in ZapA mutants suggests that this enzyme may have a broader spectrum of activity. This hypothesis was tested by in vitro assays with purified ZapA and an array of purified protein

Robert Belas; Jim Manos; Rooge Suvanasuthi

2004-01-01

42

Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase  

PubMed Central

By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regue, Miguel; Tomas, Juan M.

2014-01-01

43

Development of an Intranasal Vaccine To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection by Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis commonly infects the complicated urinary tract and is associated with urolithiasis. Stone formation is caused by bacterial urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, causing local pH to rise, and leads to the subsequent precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium phosphate (apatite) crystals. To prevent these infections, we vaccinated CBA mice with formalin-killed bacteria or purified mannose-resistant, Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, a surface antigen expressed by P. mirabilis during experimental urinary tract infection, via four routes of immunization: subcutaneous, intranasal, transurethral, and oral. We assessed the efficacy of vaccination using the CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Subcutaneous or intranasal immunization with formalin-killed bacteria and intranasal or transurethral immunization with purified MR/P fimbriae significantly protected CBA mice from ascending urinary tract infection by P. mirabilis (P < 0.05). To investigate the potential of MrpH, the MR/P fimbrial tip adhesin, as a vaccine, the mature MrpH peptide (residues 23 to 275, excluding the signal peptide), and the N-terminal receptor-binding domain of MrpH (residues 23 to 157) were overexpressed as C-terminal fusions to maltose-binding protein (MBP) and purified on amylose resins. Intranasal immunization of CBA mice with MBP-MrpH (residues 23 to 157) conferred effective protection against urinary tract infection by P. mirabilis (P < 0.002). PMID:14688082

Li, Xin; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Johnson, David E.; Lane, M. Chelsea; Warren, John W.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2004-01-01

44

Molecular detection of HpmA and HlyA hemolysin of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the bacterial infections frequently documented in humans. Proteus mirabilis is associated with UTI mainly in individuals with urinary tract abnormality or related with vesicular catheterism and it can be difficult to treat because of the formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. These stones are formed due to the presence of urease synthesized by the bacteria. Another important factor is that P. mirabilis produces hemolysin HpmA, used by the bacteria to damage the kidney tissues. Proteus spp. samples can also express HlyA hemolysin, similar to that found in Escherichia coli. A total of 211 uropathogenic P. mirabilis isolates were analyzed to detect the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes by the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot and hlyA by PCR. The hpmA and hpmB genes were expressed by the RT-PCR technique and two P. mirabilis isolates were sequenced for the hpmA and hpmB genes. The presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes was confirmed by PCR in 205 (97.15 %) of the 211 isolates. The dot blot confirmed the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes in the isolates that did not amplify in the PCR. None of the isolates studied presented the hlyA gene. The hpmA and hpmB genes that were sequenced presented 98 % identity with the same genes of the HI4320 P. mirabilis sample. This study showed that the PCR technique has good sensitivity for detecting the hpmA and hpmB genes of P. mirabilis. PMID:23884594

Cestari, Silvia Emanoele; Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Fernando Henrique; da Rocha, Sérgio Paulo Dejato; Elias, Waldir Pereira; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

2013-12-01

45

The Assessment of Proteus mirabilis Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin and the Impact of These Antibiotics at Subinhibitory Concentrations on Proteus mirabilis Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Rods of the Proteus genus are commonly isolated from patients, especially from the urinary tracts of the catheterised patients. The infections associated with biomaterials are crucial therapeutic obstacles, due to the bactericidal resistance of the biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of P. mirabilis planktonic forms to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime, the ability to form biofilm, and the impact of chosen sub-MIC concentrations of these antibiotics on biofilm at different stages of its formation. The research included 50 P. mirabilis strains isolated from wounds and the urinary tracts from patients of the University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz. The assessment of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime was conducted using micromethods. The impact of sub-MIC concentrations of the chosen antibiotics on the biofilm was measured using the TTC method. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was confirmed for 20 strains (40.0%) while to ceftazidime for 32 (64.0%) of the tested P. mirabilis strains. All of the tested strains formed biofilm: 24.0% weakly, 26.0% moderately, and 50.0% strongly. It was determined that ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime caused eradication of the biofilm. Moreover, the connection between origin of the strains, biofilm maturity level, and resistance to antibiotics was proved. PMID:24151628

Kwiecinska-Pirog, Joanna; Zniszczol, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

2013-01-01

46

Characterization of 17 chaperone-usher fimbriae encoded by Proteus mirabilis reveals strong conservation.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in patients with indwelling catheters. Sequencing of clinical isolate P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed the presence of 17 predicted chaperone-usher fimbrial operons. We classified these fimbriae into three groups by their genetic relationship to other chaperone-usher fimbriae. Sixteen of these fimbriae are encoded by all seven currently sequenced P. mirabilis genomes. The predicted protein sequence of the major structural subunit for 14 of these fimbriae was highly conserved (? 95% identity), whereas three other structural subunits (Fim3A, UcaA and Fim6A) were variable. Further examination of 58 clinical isolates showed that 14 of the 17 predicted major structural subunit genes of the fimbriae were present in most strains (>85%). Transcription of the predicted major structural subunit genes for all 17 fimbriae was measured under different culture conditions designed to mimic conditions in the urinary tract. The majority of the fimbrial genes were induced during stationary phase, static culture or colony growth when compared to exponential-phase aerated culture. Major structural subunit proteins for six of these fimbriae were detected using MS of proteins sheared from the surface of broth-cultured P. mirabilis, demonstrating that this organism may produce multiple fimbriae within a single culture. The high degree of conservation of P. mirabilis fimbriae stands in contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, which exhibit greater variability in their fimbrial repertoires. These findings suggest there may be evolutionary pressure for P. mirabilis to maintain a large fimbrial arsenal. PMID:24809384

Kuan, Lisa; Schaffer, Jessica N; Zouzias, Christos D; Pearson, Melanie M

2014-07-01

47

Characterization and serological classification of O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis TG 276-90 from Proteus serogroup O34  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Proteus from the family Enterobacteriaceae are currently divided into the five species P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, P. hauseri, and P. myxofaciens and three unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5, and 6. They are important facultative human and animal pathogens which, under favorable conditions, cause\\u000a mainly intestinal and urinary tract infections, sometimes leading to

Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Ma?gorzata Siwi?ska; Krystyna Zych; Antoni Ró?alski; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2006-01-01

48

Requirement of MrpH for Mannose-Resistant Proteus-Like Fimbria-Mediated Hemagglutination by Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Two new genes, mrpH and mrpJ, were identified downstream of mrpG in the mrp gene cluster encoding mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Since the predicted MrpH has 30% amino acid sequence identity to PapG, the Gal?(1-4)Gal-binding adhesin of Escherichia coli P fimbriae, we hypothesized that mrpH encodes the functional MR/P hemagglutinin. MR/P fimbriae, expressed in E. coli DH5?, conferred on bacteria both the ability to cause mannose-resistant hemagglutination and the ability to aggregate to form pellicles on the broth surface. Both a ?mrpH mutant expressed in E. coli DH5? and an isogenic mrpH::aphA mutant of P. mirabilis were unable to produce normal MR/P fimbriae efficiently, suggesting that MrpH was involved in fimbrial assembly. Amino acid residue substitution of the N-terminal cysteine residues (C66S and C128S) of MrpH abolished the receptor-binding activity (hemagglutinating ability) of MrpH but allowed normal fimbrial assembly, supporting the notion that MrpH was the functional MR/P hemagglutinin. Immunogold electron microscopy of P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed that MrpH was located at the tip of MR/P fimbriae, also consistent with its role in receptor binding. The isogenic mrpH::aphA mutant of HI4320 was less able to colonize the urine, bladder, and kidneys in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (P < 0.01), and therefore MR/P fimbriae contribute significantly to bacterial colonization in mice. While there are similarities between P. mirabilis MR/P and E. coli P fimbriae, there are more notable differences: (i) synthesis of the MrpH adhesin is required to initiate fimbrial assembly, (ii) MR/P fimbriae confer an aggregation phenotype, (iii) site-directed mutation of specific residues can abolish receptor binding but allows fimbrial assembly, and (iv) mutation of the adhesin gene abolishes virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. PMID:10338487

Li, Xin; Johnson, David E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

1999-01-01

49

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.  

PubMed

Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9?%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7?% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9?% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type ?-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals. PMID:25187600

Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

2014-11-01

50

Chromosomally Encoded AmpC-Type bLactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis (CF09) isolated from urine specimens of a patient displayed resistance to amoxicillin (MIC >4,096 mg\\/ml), ticarcillin (4,096 mg\\/ml), cefoxitin (64 mg\\/ml), cefotaxime (256 mg\\/ml), and ceftazidime (128 mg\\/ml) and required an elevated MIC of aztreonam (4 mg\\/ml). Clavulanic acid did not act synergistically with cephalosporins. Two b-lactamases with apparent pIs of 5.6 and 9.0

L. BRET; C. CHANAL-CLARIS; D. SIROT; E. B. CHAIBI; R. LABIA; J. SIROT

1998-01-01

51

AcrAB Multidrug Efflux Pump Is Associated with Reduced Levels of Susceptibility to Tigecycline (GAR936) in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tigecycline has good broad-spectrum activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens with the notable exception of the Proteeae. A study was performed to identify the mechanism responsible for the reduced susceptibility to tigecycline in Proteus mirabilis. Two independent transposon insertion mutants of P. mirabilis that had 16-fold-increased susceptibility to tigecycline were mapped to the acrB gene homolog of the Escherichia

Melissa A. Visalli; Ellen Murphy; Steven J. Projan; Patricia A. Bradford

2003-01-01

52

Effect of nutrient and stress factors on polysaccharides synthesis in Proteus mirabilis biofilm.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix in biofilm consists of water, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and phospholipids. Synthesis of these components is influenced by many factors, e.g. environment conditions or carbon source. The aim of the study was to analyse polysaccharides levels in Proteus mirabilis biofilms after exposure to stress and nutritional conditions. Biofilms of 22 P. mirabilis strains were cultivated for 24, 48, 72 hours, 1 and 2 weeks in tryptone soya broth or in modified media containing an additional amount of nutrients (glucose, albumin) or stress factors (cefotaxime, pH 4, nutrient depletion). Proteins and total polysaccharides levels were studied by Lowry and the phenol-sulphuric acid methods, respectively. Glycoproteins levels were calculated by ELLA with the use of selected lectins (WGA and HPA). For CLSM analysis dual fluorescent staining was applied with SYTO 13 and WGA-TRITC. In optimal conditions the levels of polysaccharides were from 0 to 442 ?g/mg of protein and differed depending on the strains and cultivation time. The agents used in this study had a significant impact on the polysaccharides synthesis in the P. mirabilis biofilm. Among all studied components (depending on tested methods), glucose and cefotaxime stimulated the greatest production of polysaccharides by P. mirabilis strains (more than a twofold increase). For most tested strains the highest amounts of sugars were detected after one week of incubation. CLSM analysis confirmed the overproduction of N-acetyloglucosamine in biofilms after cultivation in nutrient and stress conditions, with the level 111-1134%, which varied depending on the P. mirabilis strain and the test factor. PMID:24644556

Moryl, Magdalena; Kaleta, Aleksandra; Strzelecki, Kacper; Ró?alska, Sylwia; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-01-01

53

A new phage typing scheme for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bacteriophage typing set, composed of 22 phages, was established as a tool for differentiation ofProteus strains. All the phages were tailed and included 4 morphological types (A1, A2, B1 and C1). They were classified into the\\u000a familiesMyoviridae, Siphoviridae andPodoviridae. From the set, 19 phages had double-stranded DNA and 3 were single-stranded DNA phages.

G. Sekaninová; M. Hofer; I. Rychlík; J. Pillich; M. Kolá?ová; V. Zajícová; D. Kubí?ková

1994-01-01

54

Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

2014-01-01

55

Serotyping and the Dienes reaction on Proteus mirabilis from hospital infections  

PubMed Central

The serotype of 320 strains of Proteus mirabilis from clinical material was determined. Using 20 O antisera and four H antisera 61% of strains could be fully identified and 90% partially identified. A large number of serotypes were recognized but no difference was found between the serotype of organisms infecting the urinary tract and those from other infections. Biochemically identical organisms found in the same ward generally differed in serology. Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the faeces of 84·5% of 84 patients with urinary infection and from none of 20 normal controls. By serology and the Dienes test 61% of the organisms isolated from the urine and faeces of a single patient were identical, indicating that infection arose from the intestine. Most groups of serologically identical strains could, by the Dienes test, be further divided into a number of subtypes indicating that the strains were different and that cross infection had not been responsible for their spread. With three serological groups, however, the majority of strains belonged to a single Dienes type and it was concluded that these organisms had been spread from a common reservoir or carrier. Because of the unreliability of the Dienes test when carried out on random organisms it is suggested that reliable results can only be obtained by combining the Dienes test with serotyping. PMID:4891480

de Louvois, J.

1969-01-01

56

Complete Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis, a Master of both Adherence and Motility? †  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or with complicated urinary tracts (e.g., due to spinal cord injury or anatomic abnormality). P. mirabilis bacteriuria may lead to acute pyelonephritis, fever, and bacteremia. Most notoriously, this pathogen uses urease to catalyze the formation of kidney and bladder stones or to encrust or obstruct indwelling urinary catheters. Here we report the complete genome sequence of P. mirabilis HI4320, a representative strain cultured in our laboratory from the urine of a nursing home patient with a long-term (?30 days) indwelling urinary catheter. The genome is 4.063 Mb long and has a G+C content of 38.88%. There is a single plasmid consisting of 36,289 nucleotides. Annotation of the genome identified 3,685 coding sequences and seven rRNA loci. Analysis of the sequence confirmed the presence of previously identified virulence determinants, as well as a contiguous 54-kb flagellar regulon and 17 types of fimbriae. Genes encoding a potential type III secretion system were identified on a low-G+C-content genomic island containing 24 intact genes that appear to encode all components necessary to assemble a type III secretion system needle complex. In addition, the P. mirabilis HI4320 genome possesses four tandem copies of the zapE metalloprotease gene, genes encoding six putative autotransporters, an extension of the atf fimbrial operon to six genes, including an mrpJ homolog, and genes encoding at least five iron uptake mechanisms, two potential type IV secretion systems, and 16 two-component regulators. PMID:18375554

Pearson, Melanie M.; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Churcher, Carol; Quail, Michael A.; Seshasayee, Aswin S.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Abdellah, Zahra; Arrosmith, Claire; Atkin, Becky; Chillingworth, Tracey; Hauser, Heidi; Jagels, Kay; Moule, Sharon; Mungall, Karen; Norbertczak, Halina; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Walker, Danielle; Whithead, Sally; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Rather, Philip N.; Parkhill, Julian; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2008-01-01

57

Typing of Proteus mirabilis by Bacteriocin Production and Sensitivity as a Possible Epidemiological Marker  

PubMed Central

Two bacteriocin typing methods, based on bacteriocin production and bacteriocin sensitivity, were developed to aid in the separation of strains of Proteus mirabilis. One hundred sixty-two isolates of P. mirabilis and 10 Cradock-Watson bacteriocin producers were grown inproteose peptone no. 3 broth and induced with mitomycin C under culture conditions found optimum for bacteriocin production. Crude bacteriocin lysates were spotted on 186 indicator strains, and after incubation for 18 h at 35°C, positive zones of inhibition were recorded. A cluster analysis computer program was used to select 16 bacteriocin-producing and 16 indicator strains for inclusion in two bacteriocin typing sets. One hundred clinical isolates of P. mirabilis were differentiated by bacteriocin sensitivity into 41 distinct patterns, with 72% of the strains typable, whereas typing by bacteriocin production demonstrated 29 separate lysis patterns among the 80% typable strains. Combining the results of each typing method resulted in 72 individual bacteriocin production-sensitivity patterns and 91% of the isolates typed. Typing 14 epidemic strains by bacteriocin production revealed that 13 of 14 strains were identical, whereas only 2 of 14 strains were typable by bacteriocin sensitivity. Electron microscopy of partially purified bacteriocin revealed tail components of contractile bacteriophages. Standard bacteriocin lysates were destroyed by boiling for 1 h. In addition, all bacteriocin lysates tested were resistant to trypsin. The use of our bacteriocin production typing method against the presently selected 16 standard indicator strains is recommended for the investigation of any cases of suspected P. mirabilis cross-infections within hospitals. Images PMID:6999013

Kusek, John W.; Herman, Lloyd G.

1980-01-01

58

The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection of the rats. In this regard, we found the hfq mutant induced higher IL-8 and MIF levels of uroepithelial cells and displayed reduced intra-macrophage survival. The loss of hfq affected bacterial abilities to handle H2O2 and osmotic pressures and to grow at 50°C. Relative to wild-type, the hfq mutant had reduced motility, fewer flagella and less hemolysin expression and was less prone to form biofilm and to adhere to and invade uroepithelial cells. The MR/P fimbrial operon was almost switched to the off phase in the hfq mutant. In addition, we found the hfq mutant exhibited an altered outer membrane profile and had higher RpoE expression, which indicates the hfq mutant may encounter increased envelope stress. With the notion of envelope disturbance in the hfq mutant, we found increased membrane permeability and antibiotic susceptibilities in the hfq mutant. Finally, we showed that Hfq positively regulated the RpoS level and tolerance to H2O2 in the stationary phase seemed largely mediated through the Hfq-dependent RpoS expression. Together, our data indicate that Hfq plays a critical role in P. mirabilis to establish UTIs by modulating stress responses, surface structures and virulence factors. This study suggests Hfq may serve as a scaffold molecule for development of novel anti-P. mirabilis drugs and P. mirabilis hfq mutant is a vaccine candidate for preventing UTIs. PMID:24454905

Wang, Min-Cheng; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

2014-01-01

59

Elucidating the Genetic Basis of Crystalline Biofilm Formation in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

Holling, N.; Lednor, D.; Tsang, S.; Bissell, A.; Campbell, L.; Nzakizwanayo, J.; Dedi, C.; Hawthorne, J. A.; Hanlon, G.; Ogilvie, L. A.; Salvage, J. P.; Patel, B. A.; Barnes, L. M.

2014-01-01

60

Repair defect mutants of Proteus mirabilis. II. Excision of pyrimidine dimers from the DNA of ultraviolet-irradiated P. mirabilis wild-type and uv-sensitive mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two photoproducts, thymine-thymine and cytosine-thymine dimers were ; identified after uv irradiation of Proteus mirabilis. It was found that 1 erg\\/mm\\/; sup 2\\/ at 253 nm produced approximately 2.9 x 10⁻⁶ pyrimidine dimers\\/; thymine residues or about 8 dimers per 10⁷ nucleotides. Both photoproducts ; were excised at the same rate from the DNA of ultraviolet-resistant wild-type ; cells (PG

K. Stoerl; C. Mund; H. Venner

1973-01-01

61

Structural analysis of compound I in hemoproteins: study on Proteus mirabilis catalase.  

PubMed

Ferryl catalysis has attracted considerable interest, because a diverse variety of enzymes use ferryl intermediates to perform difficult chemistry. The structure of the reactional intermediate compound I of Proteus mirabilis catalase (PMC) has been solved using time-resolved X-ray diffraction techniques and single crystal microspectrophotometry. Formation of compound I is characterized by significant changes in the absorbance spectrum, and the creation of an oxoferryl group on the distal side of the heme. This group is clearly visible in the X-ray electron density maps. An unidentified electron density, likely to be an anion because of the nature of its environment, appears during the reaction, in a site distant from the heme. The structure of compound I in PMC is compared with that of compound I in cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). PMID:9479449

Jouve, H M; Andreoletti, P; Gouet, P; Hajdu, J; Gagnon, J

1997-11-01

62

Aerobic degradation of choline by Proteus mirabilis: enzymatic requirements and pathway.  

PubMed

Cleavage of choline to trimethylamine and acetaldehyde by extracts of Proteus mirabilis requires both particulate and soluble protein fractions, K+, and a bound divalent metal cation. The reaction shows a long lag period, abolished only by preincubation of the particulate fraction in the complete reaction system. The two-carbon fragment produced is acetaldehyde; choline cleavage appears to be tightly coupled to dismutation of the acetaldehyde to ethanol and acetate, as indicated by stimulation by NAD+, ADP, and Fe2+ and inhibition by reagents reacting with acetaldehyde. The system is thus similar to that previously described in anaerobes (Desulfovibrio, Clostridium). Attempts to demonstrate a cobamide coenzyme requirement (as in the similar ethanolamine ammonia-lyase reaction) were unsuccessful; the reaction was carried out by fractions devoid of vitamin B12 activity (not supporting growth of Lactobacillus leichmannii) and insensitive to light. PMID:3536045

Sandhu, S S; Chase, T

1986-09-01

63

Crystal structure of Proteus mirabilis PR catalase with and without bound NADPH.  

PubMed

A catalase from a peroxide resistant mutant of Proteus mirabilis binds NADPH tightly. Interestingly, this enzyme can be stripped of NADPH without loss of the catalatic activity. It is the only known non-mammalian catalase able to bind NADPH. The structure without cofactor was solved by molecular replacement using the structure of beef liver catalase as a model. The structure was refined to an R-factor of 19.3% in the range 8 to 2.2 A resolution. According to the sequence, a methionine sulphone was positioned in the haem active site. This oxidized form of methionine is particular to Proteus mirabilis catalase and likely to produce some steric hindrance in the active site. Two important water molecules are positioned in the haem distal site. These two water molecules are not located in the structure of beef liver catalase, but are supposed to account for the catalytic mechanism. The liganded form was obtained by soaking crystals of the unliganded form into an NADPH solution. The structure was refined to an R-factor of 15.9% in the range of 8 to 3.1 A resolution using the unliganded structure as a model. The NADPH was clearly located in the electron density map with the same conformation as in beef liver catalase. The NADPH binding induces slight structural changes. However, the imidazole ring of a histidine residue (His284) rotates about 50 degrees to accommodate the cofactor. The electron transfer from NADPH to the haem molecule was examined and several pathways are proposed. PMID:7791219

Gouet, P; Jouve, H M; Dideberg, O

1995-06-23

64

Classification of Proteus mirabilis TG 115 and CCUG 10701 into the Proteus O23 serogroup based on chemical and serological studies of O-polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Bacteria of the genus Proteus are a common cause of urinary tract infections. The O-polysaccharide (OPS) chain of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) defines\\u000a the serological specificity of strains. Based on the OPS structures and the immunospecificity of the LPS, Proteus strains have been classified into 74 O-serogroups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  The OPS of P. mirabilis TG 115 was obtained by mild

Agnieszka Zab?otni; Andrei V. Perepelov; Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Krystyna Zych; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2006-01-01

65

Integrons, ?-lactamase and qnr genes in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.  

PubMed

Thirty-three isolates of Proteus mirabilis and two P. vulgaris were examined for their antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons with regard to gene cassette content, and genetic determinants of ?-lactam and low-level quinolone resistance. Integrons were detected in 23 (69.7%) P. mirabilis isolates; six (18.2%) of them had class 1 integrons, 11 (33.3%) possessed class 2 integrons and six (18.2%) carried integrons of both classes. One P. vulgaris strain possessed class 1 and class 2 integrons. The presence of integrons was associated with increased frequency of resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and co-trimoxazole. Moreover, integron presence was associated with increased resistance range in terms of both the number of antimicrobials and the number of classes of antimicrobials to which a strain was resistant. Class 1 integrons contained aadA1, aadB-aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, bla(PSE-1) -aadA1 and aacA4-orfA-orfB-aadA1 gene cassette arrays, whereas all class 2 integrons had a dfrA1-sat2-aada1 array. ?-lactamase genes not associated with integrons comprised bla(TEM-2) , bla(DHA-1) and bla(CMY-15) . Plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance was determined by qnrD and qnrS1 genes. This is the first report of P. vulgaris strains harbouring qnrD genes in Europe. PMID:23030307

Mokracka, Joanna; Gruszczy?ska, Beata; Kaznowski, Adam

2012-12-01

66

Interaction of Proteus mirabilis Urease Apoenzyme and Accessory Proteins Identified with Yeast Two-Hybrid Technology  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The apourease is comprised of three structural subunits, UreA, UreB, and UreC, assembled as a homotrimer of individual UreABC heterotrimers (UreABC)3. To become catalytically active, apourease acquires divalent nickel ions through a poorly understood process involving four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG. While homologues of UreD, UreF, and UreG have been copurified with apourease, it remains unclear specifically how these polypeptides associate with the apourease or each other. To identify interactions among P. mirabilis accessory proteins, in vitro immunoprecipitation and in vivo yeast two-hybrid assays were employed. A complex containing accessory protein UreD and structural protein UreC was isolated by immunoprecipitation and characterized with immunoblots. This association occurs independently of coaccessory proteins UreE, UreF, and UreG and structural protein UreA. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, UreD was found to directly interact in vivo with coaccessory protein UreF. Unique homomultimeric interactions of UreD and UreF were also detected in vivo. To substantiate the study of urease proteins with a yeast two-hybrid assay, previously described UreE dimers and homomultimeric UreA interactions among apourease trimers were confirmed in vivo. Similarly, a known structural interaction involving UreA and UreC was also verified. This report suggests that in vivo, P. mirabilis UreD may be important for recruitment of UreF to the apourease and that crucial homomultimeric associations occur among these accessory proteins. PMID:11157956

Heimer, Susan R.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2001-01-01

67

An explanatory model to validate the way water activity rules periodic terrace generation in Proteus mirabilis swarm  

E-print Network

In this paper we explain the biophysical principles which, according to us, govern the Proteus mirabilis swarm phenomenon. Then, we translate this explanation into a mathematical model, essentially based on partial differential equations. This model is then implemented using numerical methods of the finite volume type in order to make simulations. The simulations show most of the characteristics which are observed in situ and in particular the terrace generation.

Frenod, Emmanuel

2007-01-01

68

Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL Is Viscosity Dependent and Requires Extragenic DNA  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr?) but do swim (Swm+) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed “pseudoswarmer cells,” that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr? phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity. PMID:23222728

Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius

2013-01-01

69

[Evaluation of biofilm formation by Proteus mirabilis strains on the surface of different biomaterials by two methods].  

PubMed

Proteus sp. rods are opportunistic human pathogens. These microorganisms are mainly isolated from patients with urinary tract infections, particularly associated with using of biomaterials, on which surface they can form biofilm. The aim of our study was the estimation of Proteus mirabilis rods ability to form biofilm on the surface of 5 biomaterials (polychloride vinyl, silicone latex, polypropylene, polybutylen teraftalan and polyamide) using Richards' and quantitative method and comparison results of both methods. A total number of 84 P. mirabilis strains were included into the study. All of them were isolated in the Department of Clinical Microbiology University Hospital no. 1 of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru? between 2005 and 2008. Examined P. mirabilis strains formed heavy biofilm with statistically significantly values on the surface of silicone latex than on polychloride vinyl and on polypropylene surface than polybutylen teraftalen or polyamide. High correlation of both methods was established. The Richards' method can be used to quick identification of P. mirabilis biofilm. PMID:22184907

Kwieci?ska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

2011-01-01

70

A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery. PMID:18718709

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

2009-04-15

71

Simulations of electron transfer in the NADPH-bound catalase from Proteus mirabilis PR.  

PubMed

Catalase-bound NADPH both prevents and reverses the accumulation of compound II, an inactive form of catalase that is generated from the normal active intermediate form (compound I) when catalase is exposed to a steady flow of hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism for the regeneration reaction is unknown although NADPH could act either as a one-electron or a two-electron donor. Recently, a reaction scheme has been proposed in which the formation of compound II from compound I generates a neighboring radical species within the protein. NADPH would then donate two electrons, one to compound II for reduction of the iron and the other to the protein free radical. In this paper, we report calculations to find the dominant electron tunneling pathways between NADPH and the heme iron in the catalase from the peroxide-resistant mutant of Proteus mirabilis. Two major tunneling pathways are found which fuse together on Ser-196. It is suggested that the sequence Gly-Ser of the loop that divides the beta 5-strand is the key element for shielding a radical amino acid. PMID:7548161

Bicout, D J; Field, M J; Gouet, P; Jouve, H M

1995-09-27

72

Immune enhancement of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide on recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide (TRPPS) on immune responses of chickens immunized with Proteus mirabilis outer membrane protein A (OmpA) recombinant protein vaccine. OmpA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and mixed with TRPPS. 360 chickens were randomly divided into six groups. Groups I to IV were treated with OmpA which contained TRPPS of three different dosages, Freund's adjuvant, respectively. Groups V and VI were treated with pure OmpA and physiological saline, respectively. The data showed that the antibody titers against OmpA, the concentration of IL-2, CD4 +, and CD8 +, T lymphocyte proliferation rate in Group II were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the other groups, little difference in SIgA content was observed among groups I to VI. These results indicated that TRPPS strengthened humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant OmpA vaccine. Moreover, 200 mg/mL TRPPS showed significance (P < 0.05) compared with Freund's adjuvant. Therefore, TRPPS can be developed into an adjuvant for recombinant subunit vaccine. PMID:25000334

Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Ya; Li, Bing; Zhu, Fujie; Zhu, Ruiliang

2014-09-01

73

Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

2008-01-01

74

Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4.7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

2010-11-01

75

Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D ?-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086?bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D ?-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. PMID:24027220

Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

2014-10-01

76

Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.  

PubMed

Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 ?g/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24239192

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

2014-01-01

77

Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

Jakab, G.J.

1987-02-01

78

Emergence of Proteus mirabilis Harboring blaKPC-2 and qnrD in a Chinese Hospital  

PubMed Central

Nineteen carbapenem-nonsusceptible Proteus mirabilis isolates were recovered from intensive care units in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University during a 3-month period. The isolates showed a high level of resistance against ciprofloxacin, in addition to their resistance against the carbapenems. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that these isolates belonged to three clonal strains. PCRs and DNA sequence analysis of the carbapenemase and other ?-lactamase genes indicated that all the isolates harbored the blaKPC-2 gene. Twelve of 19 isolates harbored the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, both the qnrD and aac(6?)-Ib-cr genes. Eight representative isolates with high levels of quinolone resistance carried the similar mutation profiles of S83I in gyrA, E466D in gyrB, and S80I in parC. Reduced carbapenem susceptibility was transferred to Escherichia coli (EC600) in a conjugation experiment, while the quinolone resistance was not. DNA hybridization showed that qnrD was located on a plasmid of approximately 4.5 kb. In summary, large clonally related isolates of KPC-2-producing P. mirabilis emerged in a Chinese hospital, and qnrD was detected in KPC-producing P. mirabilis for the first time. PMID:22354308

Hu, Yan-yan; Cai, Jia-chang; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong-wei; Sun, Qian

2012-01-01

79

Serum Immunoglobulin Response and Protection from Homologous Challenge by Proteus mirabilis in a Mouse Model of Ascending Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that experimental Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection in mice would protect against homologous bladder rechallenge. Despite production of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM (median titers of 1:320 and 1:80, respectively), vaccinated (infected and antibiotic-cured) mice did not show a decrease in mortality upon rechallenge; the survivors experienced only modest protection from infection (mean log10 number of CFU of P. mirabilis Nalr HI4320 per milliliter or gram in vaccinated mice versus sham-vaccinated mice: urine, 100-fold less [3.5 versus 5.5; P = 0.13]; bladder, 100-fold less [3.1 versus 5.1; P = 0.066]; kidneys, 40-fold less [2.7 versus 4.3; P = 0.016]). Western blots using protein from the wild-type strain and isogenic mutants demonstrated antibody responses to MR/P and PMF fimbriae and flagella. There was no correlation between serum IgG or IgM levels and protection from mortality or infection. There was a trend toward elevated serum IgA titers and protection from subsequent challenge (P ? 0.09), although only a few mice developed significant serum IgA levels. We conclude that prior infection with P. mirabilis does not protect significantly against homologous challenge. PMID:10569791

Johnson, David E.; Bahrani, Farah K.; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Drachenberg, Cinthia B.; Hebel, J. Richard; Belas, Robert; Warren, John W.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

1999-01-01

80

Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. PMID:24786314

Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

2014-06-01

81

Serological and structural characterization of the O-antigens of the unclassified Proteus mirabilis strains TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:  Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin, LPS) is an important potential virulence factor of Proteus rods. The serological specificity of the bacteria is defined by the structure of the O-polysaccharide chain (O-antigen) of\\u000a the LPS. Until now, 76 O-serogroups have been differentiated among Proteus strains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:  LPSs were isolated from Proteus mirabilis TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA) strains by phenol\\/water

Agnieszka Zab?otni; Krystyna Zych; Anna N. Kondakova; Ma?gorzata Siwi?ska; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2007-01-01

82

A multi-scale approach of the mechanisms underlying exopolysaccharide auto-organization in the Proteus mirabilis extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

For decades, the origin of the concentric ring pattern of bacterial swarming colonies has puzzled microbiologists. It was hypothesized that a periodic water activity variation originates a phase transition within the extracellular matrix water H bond network, which switches on and off the exopolysaccharide auto-organization. Both rheological and infrared spectroscopy measurements respectively performed at a molecular scale and on a currently migrating colony, have given a physical insight into the mechanisms which underlie the switch between swarming and consolidation phases. Thanks to in situ and real time infrared microspectroscopy, and thanks to the brilliance of the infrared beam at SOLEIL synchrotron, here we demonstrate that Proteus mirabilis swarming is triggered by a periodic variation of water activity at the colony edge. A dynamic behavior emerges from the global properties of the multicellular entity which relies on the ability of the bacterial cells to tune exoproduct synthesis in order to undergo sharp transitions at a given water activity threshold. PMID:25068149

Lahaye, Elodie; Qin, Yun; Jamme, Frédéric; Aubry, Thierry; Sire, Olivier

2014-08-26

83

Structural studies of Proteus mirabilis catalase in its ground state, oxidized state and in complex with formic acid.  

PubMed

The structure of Proteus mirabilis catalase in complex with an inhibitor, formic acid, has been solved at 2.3 A resolution. Formic acid is a key ligand of catalase because of its ability to react with the ferric enzyme, giving a high-spin iron complex. Alternatively, it can react with two transient oxidized intermediates of the enzymatic mechanism, compounds I and II. In this work, the structures of native P. mirabilis catalase (PMC) and compound I have also been determined at high resolution (2.0 and 2.5 A, respectively) from frozen crystals. Comparisons between these three PMC structures show that a water molecule present at a distance of 3.5 A from the haem iron in the resting state is absent in the formic acid complex, but reappears in compound I. In addition, movements of solvent molecules are observed during formation of compound I in a cavity located away from the active site, in which a glycerol molecule is replaced by a sulfate. These results give structural insights into the movement of solvent molecules, which may be important in the enzymatic reaction. PMID:14646074

Andreoletti, Pierre; Pernoud, Anaïs; Sainz, Germaine; Gouet, Patrice; Jouve, Hélène Marie

2003-12-01

84

Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force.  

PubMed

Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1-20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (?pH) and proton motive force (?H(+) ) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ?pH (and therefore ?H(+) ) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ?pH and ?H(+) for motility. PMID:25100003

Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

2014-10-01

85

Chromosomal Integration and Location on IncT Plasmids of the blaCTX-M-2 Gene in Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Analysis of five CTX-M-2-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates in Japan demonstrated that blaCTX-M-2 was located on the chromosome in four isolates and on IncT plasmids in three isolates, including two isolates that also carried the gene on the chromosome. In all four isolates with chromosomal blaCTX-M-2, ISEcp1 was responsible for the integration of the gene into the chromosome. Three different sites in the P. mirabilis genomic sequence were utilized as integration sites. PMID:22106217

Harada, Sohei; Saga, Tomoo; Kouyama, Yuichi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2012-01-01

86

Influence of hydrogen acceptors on growth and energy production of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation time ofP. mirabilis in defined and in complex medium is shorter in the presence of hydrogen acceptors than in their absence. In the presence\\u000a of hydrogen acceptors the molar growth yield for glucose and the acetate production are strongly increased. From the molar\\u000a growth yield and the acetate production YATP in defined medium was calculated as 5.5 g\\/mole,

A. H. Stouthamer; Corry Bettenhaussen

1972-01-01

87

mini-Tn7 insertion in bacteria with secondary, non-glmS-linked attTn7 sites: example Proteus mirabilis HI4320  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously constructed a series of mini-Tn7 chromosome integration vectors that, when provided only with the site-specific transposition machinery, generally transpose to a naturally evolved, neutral attTn7 site that is located 25-bp downstream of the glmS gene. Here we provide a protocol for application of the mini-Tn7 system in Proteus mirabilis as an example of a bacterium with a secondary

Kyoung-Hee Choi; Herbert P Schweizer

2006-01-01

88

b-Lactamases Responsible for Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Recovered in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among members of the family Enterobacteria- ceae lacking inducible b-lactamases occurs virtually worldwide, little is known about this problem among iso- lates recovered in South Africa. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from patients in various parts of South Africa over a 3-month period were investigated

J. D. D. PITOUT; K. S. THOMSON; N. D. HANSON; A. F. EHRHARDT; E. S. MOLAND; C. C. SANDERS

1998-01-01

89

Inhibitor-Based Methods for Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC -Lactamases in Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-beta-lactam inhibitor-based methods were evaluated for detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC -lacta- mases in Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Using CLSI methodology and disks containing cefotetan alone and in combination with 400 g of boronic acid, 9 of 10 positive control strains and 54 of 55 AmpC-PCR-positive clinical isolates were detected. Importantly 71% and 40% of these clinical isolates were

Philip E. Coudron

2005-01-01

90

Occurrence and Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates at a Veterans Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

AmpC beta-lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of b-lactam drugs and that may thereby create serious therapeutic problems. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis remains unknown. We tested a total of 1,286 consecutive, nonrepeat isolates of these three species and found

PHILIP E. COUDRON; ELLEN S. MOLAND; KENNETH S. THOMSON

2000-01-01

91

New Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Gene, qnrC, Found in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis?  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of qnrA in 1998, two additional qnr genes, qnrB and qnrS, have been described. These three plasmid-mediated genes contribute to quinolone resistance in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis was isolated from an outpatient with a urinary tract infection and was susceptible to most antimicrobials but resistant to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Plasmid pHS10, harbored by this strain, was transferred to azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 by conjugation. A transconjugant with pHS10 had low-level quinolone resistance but was negative by PCR for the known qnr genes, aac(6?)-Ib-cr and qepA. The ciprofloxacin MIC for the clinical strain and a J53/pHS10 transconjugant was 0.25 ?g/ml, representing an increase of 32-fold relative to that for the recipient, J53. The plasmid was digested with HindIII, and a 4.4-kb DNA fragment containing the new gene was cloned into pUC18 and transformed into E. coli TOP10. Sequencing showed that the responsible 666-bp gene, designated qnrC, encoded a 221-amino-acid protein, QnrC, which shared 64%, 42%, 59%, and 43% amino acid identity with QnrA1, QnrB1, QnrS1, and QnrD, respectively. Upstream of qnrC there existed a new IS3 family insertion sequence, ISPmi1, which encoded a frameshifted transposase. qnrC could not be detected by PCR, however, in 2,020 strains of Enterobacteriaceae. A new quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, was thus characterized from plasmid pHS10 carried by a clinical isolate of P. mirabilis. PMID:19258263

Wang, Minghua; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaoying; Ye, Xinyu; Wu, Shi; Hooper, David C.; Wang, Minggui

2009-01-01

92

New plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, found in a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of qnrA in 1998, two additional qnr genes, qnrB and qnrS, have been described. These three plasmid-mediated genes contribute to quinolone resistance in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis was isolated from an outpatient with a urinary tract infection and was susceptible to most antimicrobials but resistant to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Plasmid pHS10, harbored by this strain, was transferred to azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 by conjugation. A transconjugant with pHS10 had low-level quinolone resistance but was negative by PCR for the known qnr genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA. The ciprofloxacin MIC for the clinical strain and a J53/pHS10 transconjugant was 0.25 microg/ml, representing an increase of 32-fold relative to that for the recipient, J53. The plasmid was digested with HindIII, and a 4.4-kb DNA fragment containing the new gene was cloned into pUC18 and transformed into E. coli TOP10. Sequencing showed that the responsible 666-bp gene, designated qnrC, encoded a 221-amino-acid protein, QnrC, which shared 64%, 42%, 59%, and 43% amino acid identity with QnrA1, QnrB1, QnrS1, and QnrD, respectively. Upstream of qnrC there existed a new IS3 family insertion sequence, ISPmi1, which encoded a frameshifted transposase. qnrC could not be detected by PCR, however, in 2,020 strains of Enterobacteriaceae. A new quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, was thus characterized from plasmid pHS10 carried by a clinical isolate of P. mirabilis. PMID:19258263

Wang, Minghua; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaoying; Ye, Xinyu; Wu, Shi; Hooper, David C; Wang, Minggui

2009-05-01

93

Lipopolysaccharide interaction is decisive for the activity of the antimicrobial peptide NK-2 against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylglycerol is a widely used mimetic to study the effects of AMPs (antimicrobial peptides) on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. However, the antibacterial activities of novel NK-2-derived AMPs could not be sufficiently explained by using this simple model system. Since the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-containing outer membrane is the first barrier of Gram-negative bacteria, in the present study we investigated interactions of NK-2 and a shortened variant with viable Escherichia coli WBB01 and Proteus mirabilis R45, and with model membranes composed of LPS isolated from these two strains. Differences in net charge and charge distribution of the two LPS have been proposed to be responsible for the differential sensitivity of the respective bacteria to other AMPs. As imaged by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), NK-2-mediated killing of these bacteria was corroborated by structural alterations of the outer and inner membranes, the release of E. coli cytoplasma, and the formation of unique fibrous structures inside P. mirabilis, suggesting distinct and novel intracellular targets. NK-2 bound to and intercalated into LPS bilayers, and eventually induced the formation of transient heterogeneous lesions in planar lipid bilayers. However, the discriminative activity of NK-2 against the two bacterial strains was independent of membrane intercalation and lesion formation, which both were indistinguishable for the two LPS. Instead, differences in activity originated from the LPS-binding step, which could be demonstrated by NK-2 attachment to intact bacteria, and to solid-supported LPS bilayers on a surface acoustic wave biosensor. PMID:20187872

Hammer, Malte U; Brauser, Annemarie; Olak, Claudia; Brezesinski, Gerald; Goldmann, Torsten; Gutsmann, Thomas; Andrä, Jörg

2010-05-01

94

Native flagellin does not protect mice against an experimental Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection and neutralizes the protective effect of MrpA fimbrial protein.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis expresses several virulence factors including MR/P fimbriae and flagella. Bacterial flagellin has frequently shown interesting adjuvant and protective properties in vaccine formulations. However, native P. mirabilis flagellin has not been analyzed so far. Native P. mirabilis flagellin was evaluated as a protective antigen and as an adjuvant in co-immunizations with MrpA (structural subunit of MR/P fimbriae) using an ascending UTI model in the mouse. Four groups of mice were intranasally treated with either MrpA, native flagellin, both proteins and PBS. Urine and blood samples were collected before and after immunization for specific antibodies determination. Cytokine production was assessed in immunized mice splenocytes cultures. Mice were challenged with P. mirabilis, and bacteria quantified in kidneys and bladders. MrpA immunization induced serum and urine specific anti-MrpA antibodies while MrpA coadministered with native flagellin did not. None of the animals developed significant anti-flagellin antibodies. Only MrpA-immunized mice showed a significant decrease of P. mirabilis in bladders and kidneys. Instead, infection levels in MrpA-flagellin or flagellin-treated mice showed no significant differences with the control group. IL-10 was significantly induced in splenocytes of mice that received native flagellin or MrpA-flagellin. Native P. mirabilis flagellin did not protect mice against an ascending UTI. Moreover, it showed an immunomodulatory effect, neutralizing the protective role of MrpA. P. mirabilis flagellin exhibits particular immunological properties compared to other bacterial flagellins. PMID:24771125

Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Rial, Analía; Chabalgoity, José A; Zunino, Pablo

2014-06-01

95

Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).  

PubMed

Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract. PMID:24903814

Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

2014-10-01

96

Application of 1D and 2D NMR techniques to the structure elucidation of the O-polysaccharide from Proteus mirabilis O: 57  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LPS O-polysaccharide (O-PS) produced by Proteus mirabilis serotype O: 57 (ATCC 49995) was shown by NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to be a high-molecular-weight acidic branched polymer of pentasaccharide repeating units, composed of d-glucose, d-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose and glycerophosphate residues (1:2:2:2:1). Application of one-and two-dimensional NMR methods allowed the complete assignment of notoriously crowded 1H and 13C spectra of the

Dušan Uhrín; Jean-Robert Brisson; Leann L. MacLean; James C. Richards; Malcolm B. Perry

1994-01-01

97

Spectroscopic description of an unusual protonated ferryl species in the catalase from Proteus mirabilis and density functional theory calculations on related models. Consequences for the ferryl protonation state in catalase, peroxidase and chloroperoxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalase from Proteus mirabilis peroxide-resistant bacteria is one of the most efficient heme-containing catalases. It forms a relatively stable compound\\u000a II. We were able to prepare samples of compound II from P. mirabilis catalase enriched in 57Fe and to study them by spectroscopic methods. Two different forms of compound II, namely, low-pH compound II (LpH II) and\\u000a high-pH compound II

O. Horner; J. M. Mouesca; P. L. Solari; M. Orio; J. L. Oddou; P. Bonville; H. M. Jouve

2007-01-01

98

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC ?-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Egyptian Hospitals  

PubMed Central

The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC ?-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC ?-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC ?-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 ?-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt. PMID:25003107

Helmy, Mai M.; Wasfi, Reham

2014-01-01

99

Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

2014-06-01

100

Initiation of swarming motility by Proteus mirabilis occurs in response to specific cues present in urine and requires excess L-glutamine.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. L-Arginine, L-glutamine, DL-histidine, malate, and DL-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Mobley, Harry L T

2013-03-01

101

Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

2013-01-01

102

Chromosomally Encoded blaCMY-2 Located on a Novel SXT/R391-Related Integrating Conjugative Element in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate ?  

PubMed Central

Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that can transfer from the chromosome of a host to the chromosome of a new host through the process of excision, conjugation, and integration. Although SXT/R391-related ICEs, originally demonstrated in Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates, have become prevalent among V. cholerae isolates in Asia, the prevalence of the ICEs among Gram-negative bacteria other than Vibrio spp. remains unknown. In addition, SXT/R391-related ICEs carrying genes conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have never been described. Here we carried out a genetic analysis of a cefoxitin-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate, TUM4660, which revealed the presence of a novel SXT/R391-related ICE, ICEPmiJpn1. ICEPmiJpn1 had a core genetic structure showing high similarity to that of R391 and carried xis and int genes completely identical to those of R391, while an IS10-mediated composite transposon carrying blaCMY-2 was integrated into the ICE. A nucleotide sequence identical to the 3? part of ISEcp1 was located upstream of the blaCMY-2 gene, and other genes observed around blaCMY-2 in earlier studies were also present. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of hot spot 2 and hot spot 4 in ICEPmiJpn1 showed high similarity to that of hot spot 2 in SXTMO10 and with a part of the nucleotide sequence found in P. mirabilis ATCC 29906, respectively. ICEPmiJpn1 was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Citrobacter koseri in conjugation experiments. These observations suggest that ICEs may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes among clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae, which warrants careful observation of the prevalence of ICEs, including SXT/R391-related ICEs. PMID:20566768

Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tomoo; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2010-01-01

103

Single-step purification of Proteus mirabilis urease accessory protein UreE, a protein with a naturally occurring histidine tail, by nickel chelate affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis urease, a nickel metalloenzyme, is essential for the virulence of this species in the urinary tract. Escherichia coli containing cloned structural genes ureA, ureB, and ureC and accessory genes ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG displays urease activity when cultured in M9 minimal medium. To study the involvement of one of these accessory genes in the synthesis of active urease, deletion mutations were constructed. Cultures of a ureE deletion mutant did not produce an active urease in minimal medium. Urease activity, however, was partially restored by the addition of 5 microM NiCl2 to the medium. The predicted amino acid sequence of UreE, which concludes with seven histidine residues among the last eight C-terminal residues (His-His-His-His-Asp-His-His-His), suggested that UreE may act as a Ni2+ chelator for the urease operon. To exploit this potential metal-binding motif, we attempted to purify UreE from cytoplasmic extracts of E. coli containing cloned urease genes. Soluble protein was loaded onto a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid column, a metal chelate resin with high affinity for polyhistidine tails, and bound protein was eluted with a 0 to 0.5 M imidazole gradient. A single polypeptide of 20-kDa apparent molecular size, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-10 to 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was eluted between 0.25 and 0.4 M imidazole. The N-terminal 10 amino acids of the eluted polypeptide exactly matched the deduced amino acid sequence of P. mirabilis UreE. The molecular size of the native protein was estimated on a Superdex 75 column to be 36 kDa, suggesting that the protein is a dimer. These data suggest that UreE is a Ni(2)+-binding protein that is necessary for synthesis of a catalytically active urease at low Ni(2+) concentrations. PMID:7961442

Sriwanthana, B; Island, M D; Maneval, D; Mobley, H L

1994-11-01

104

Crystal structure of the dithiol oxidase DsbA enzyme from proteus mirabilis bound non-covalently to an active site peptide ligand.  

PubMed

The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery. PMID:24831013

Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Schembri, Mark A; Fairlie, David P; Martin, Jennifer L

2014-07-11

105

One-step production of ?-ketoglutaric acid from glutamic acid with an engineered L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Currently, ?-ketoglutaric acid (?-KG) is industrially produced by multi-step chemical synthesis, which can cause heavy environmental pollution. Here we reported a simple one-step approach for the production of ?-KG by transforming l-glutamic acid with an engineered l-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) from Proteus mirabilis. First, to facilitate the purification of membrane-bound l-AAD, one N-terminal transmembrane region (from 21 to 87th nucleotide) was removed from l-AAD to block the binding of l-AAD with membrane, and the relatively low-usage codons were replaced by high-usage codons in Escherichia coli to improve the expression level. However, inclusion bodies formed when expressing the ?N-LAAD in E. coli BL 21, and then the soluble and active ?N-LAAD was obtained by the solubilization and renaturation of ?N-LAAD. Furthermore, the biochemical properties of the refolded ?N-LAAD were characterized and compared with those of full-length l-AAD. Finally, the ?N-LAAD was used to synthesize ?-KG and the maximal formation rate of ?-KG reached 12.6% (w/w) at 6h under the following conditions: 12g/L l-glutamic acid, 0.1g/L ?N-LAAD, 5mM MgCl2, temperature 45°C and pH 8.0. Compared with the multi-step chemical synthesis, the transformation approach has less environmental pollution and has a great potential for ?-KG production. PMID:23333917

Liu, Long; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-03-10

106

A binational cohort study of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in patients admitted to rehabilitation centres.  

PubMed

The aims of our study were to analyse the risk factors for colonization by Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis (ESBL-PM) in rehabilitation patients and to characterize the molecular features of these strains. The study was conducted in two rehabilitation centres located in Rome, Italy (Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS (FSL)), and Tel-Aviv, Israel (Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (TASMC)). Carriage of ESBL-PM was surveyed by rectal swabs. Strain typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identification of ESBL genes was done by PCR and sequencing. Patients admitted to the same institutions without ESBL carriage were included as controls. The study group included 70 and 41 patients from FSL and TASMC, respectively. In FSL, the multivariate analysis identified severe acute brain injury (OR = 15, 95% CI = 3.2-69.5, p 0.001), decubitus ulcer (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.2-9.8, p 0.018) and recent treatment with quinolones (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.07-30.1, p 0.042) as independent risk factors. ESBL-PM carriers stayed longer in the hospital on average and were less likely to be discharged home. No significant risk factor was identified in TASMC. There were no similarities in PFGE types or ESBL genes between the ESBL-PM isolates from the two institutions. In both hospitals, a variety of PFGE types existed but a single ESBL type predominated, namely TEM-92 in FSL (n = 64/70; 91%) and CTX-M-2 in TASMC (n = 37/41; 90%). A new TEM ESBL variant, TEM-177 was identified in FSL. The clonal diversity and the predominance of a single ESBL type suggested that horizontal gene transfer played an important role in dissemination of resistance. The development of a population analysis tool that would allow tracing deeper genetic relationships is required. PMID:23210906

Adler, A; Baraniak, A; Izdebski, R; Fiett, J; Gniadkowski, M; Hryniewicz, W; Salvia, A; Rossini, A; Goossens, H; Malhotra, S; Lerman, Y; Elenbogen, M; Carmeli, Y

2013-02-01

107

Serological classification and epitope specificity of Proteus vulgaris TG 251 from Proteus serogroup O65  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction:  \\u000a Proteus rods are currently subdivided into five named species, i.e. Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, P. hauseri, and P. myxofaciens, and three unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4 to 6. Based on the serospecificity of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O-antigen), strains of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris were divided into 49 O-serogroups and 11 additional O-serogroups were proposed later. About

Krystyna Zych; Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Dominika Drzewiecka; Andrey V. Perepelov; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2007-01-01

108

Properties of an R Factor Which Originated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1822  

PubMed Central

RP1, a group of genes specifying resistance to carbenicillin, neomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline and originating in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was freely transmissible between strains of P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Acquisition of the multiple drug resistance specified by RP1 by these strains was accompanied by acquisition of an extrachromosomal satellite of covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid of molecular weight about 40 million daltons and of buoyant density 1.719 g/cm3 (60% guanine plus cytosine). PMID:4336689

Grinsted, John; Saunders, J. R.; Ingram, Lewis C.; Sykes, R. B.; Richmond, M. H.

1972-01-01

109

[Proteus bacilli: features and virulence factors].  

PubMed

In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli. PMID:17507868

Rózalski, Antoni; Kwil, Iwona; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Baranowska, Magdalena; Staczek, Pawe?

2007-01-01

110

Characterization and serological classification of a collection of Proteus penneri clinical strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Introduction: Bacteria of the genus Proteus, which are a common cause of urinary tract infections, are divided into four species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, and P. hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies, Proteus 4, 5, and 6 (single-strain species P. myxofaciens was iso- lated from the gypsy moth). Establishing the serological classification of these species would aid in

Dominika Drzewiecka; Krystyna Zych; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

111

Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Proteus penneri: a rare missed pathogen?  

PubMed

Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as Proteus mirabilis, often missing out isolates of Proteus penneri. We report a case of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing and multidrug-resistant P. penneri isolated from pus from pressure sore of a patient of road traffic accident. Correct and rapid isolation and identification of such resistant pathogen are important as they are significant nosocomial threat. PMID:25118755

Pandey, Anita; Verma, Himani; Asthana, Ashish K; Madan, Molly

2014-01-01

112

Fimbriæ and Hæmagglutinating Properties in Strains of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIMBRIATION and the hæmagglutinating pattern of 21 strains of Proteus mirabilis, 10 of P. vulgaris and 20 strains each of P. morgani and P. rettgeri have been investigated. The strains of P. hauseri were those previously used1 and were either in the Y, W or R phases2. The morgani strains comprised 12 recently isolated local strains and 8 (Nos. 232,

J. N. Coetzee; Gabrielle Pernet; J. J. THERON

1962-01-01

113

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni under Conditions of Atmospheric Oxygen Tension with the Support of Pseudomonas spp.?  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen. Despite causing enteritis in humans, it is a well-adapted intestinal microorganism in animals, hardly ever generating disease symptoms. Nevertheless, as a true microaerophilic microorganism it is still puzzling how Campylobacter cells can survive on chicken meat, the main source of human infection. In this study, we demonstrate that C. jejuni is able to withstand conditions of atmospheric oxygen tension when cocultured with Pseudomonas species, major food-spoiling bacteria that are frequently found on chicken meat in rather high numbers. Using an in vitro survival assay, interactions of 145 C. jejuni wild-type strains and field isolates from chicken meat, broiler feces, and human clinical samples with type strains and food isolates of Pseudomonas spp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Micrococcus luteus, and Enterococcus faecalis were studied. When inoculated alone or in coculture with Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Micrococcus luteus, or Enterococcus faecalis type strains, Campylobacter cells were able to survive ambient oxygen levels for no more than 18 h. In contrast, Campylobacter bacteria inoculated with type strains or wild-type isolates of Pseudomonas showed a prolonged aerobic survival of up to >48 h. This microbial commensalism was diverse in C. jejuni isolates from different sources; isolates from chicken meat and humans in coculture with Pseudomonas putida were able to use this survival support better than fecal isolates from broilers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the development of fiberlike structures braiding P. putida and C. jejuni cells. Hence, it seems that microaerophilic C. jejuni is able to survive ambient atmospheric oxygen tension by metabolic commensalism with Pseudomonas spp. This bacterium-bacterium interaction might set the basis for survival of C. jejuni on chicken meat and thus be the prerequisite step in the pathway toward human infection. PMID:20639377

Hilbert, Friederike; Scherwitzel, Manuela; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.

2010-01-01

114

Proteus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Proteus syndrome (OMIM # 176920) (OMIM™ 2005), a rare and highly variable congenital hamartomatous disorder (Gorlin et al. 2001), is a member of a group designated as local “overgrowth diseases ” (Cohen et al. 2002). It consists of asymmetric (mosaic), disproportionate and progressive overgrowth of body parts, connective tissue nevi,\\u000a epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue, vascular and lymphatic malformations, and

Martino Ruggieri; Ignacio Pascual-Castroviejo

115

Draft Genome Sequence of the Bioelectricity-Generating and Dye-Decolorizing Bacterium Proteus hauseri Strain ZMd44.  

PubMed

Proteus hauseri ZMd44 (CGMCC 6746), as a crucial biodecolorizing, bioelectricity-generating, and copper-resistant bacterium, is distinguished from the urinary pathogens Proteus penneri and Proteus mirabilis. To further investigate the genetic functions of this strain, the genome sequence and annotation of its open reading frames, which consist of 3,875,927 bp (G+C content, 38.12%), are presented here. PMID:24435854

Wang, Nan; Ng, I-Son; Chen, Po Ting; Li, Yuzhe; Chen, Yi-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann; Lu, Yinghua

2014-01-01

116

Draft Genome Sequence of the Bioelectricity-Generating and Dye-Decolorizing Bacterium Proteus hauseri Strain ZMd44  

PubMed Central

Proteus hauseri ZMd44 (CGMCC 6746), as a crucial biodecolorizing, bioelectricity-generating, and copper-resistant bacterium, is distinguished from the urinary pathogens Proteus penneri and Proteus mirabilis. To further investigate the genetic functions of this strain, the genome sequence and annotation of its open reading frames, which consist of 3,875,927 bp (G+C content, 38.12%), are presented here. PMID:24435854

Wang, Nan; Li, Yuzhe; Chen, Yi-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann; Lu, Yinghua

2014-01-01

117

Metabolic activation of bladder procarcinogens, 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, and benzidine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other human endogenous bacteria.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen of the human urinary tract, and other selected human endogenous bacteria were investigated for metabolic activation of the bladder procarcinogens, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-AB), and benzidine (Bz). The cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and intestinal anaerobes, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and Eubacterium aerofaciens produced increased histidine revertant frequencies with the tester strain Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In addition, the cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, and Eubacterium aerofaciens each showed the presence of a cytochrome P450 absorption peak in the carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. This was not demonstratable for the other bacteria. Our findings indicate that human endogenous bacteria, which are opportunistic pathogens of the urinary bladder, can metabolically activate the bladder procarcinogens 2-AF, 4-AB, and Bz into mutagens. The metabolic activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, and Eubacterium aerofaciens is mediated by a cytochrome P450 enzyme. For those organisms that induced metabolic activation but did not show a P450 absorption peak with the cell-free extracts, other oxidative enzymes may be involved. PMID:16203120

Adris, Piyatilake; Chung, King-Thom

2006-04-01

118

PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

119

Proteus Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... to Help Thank you for donating to the Proteus Syndrome Foundation. Learn More Medical Research Dr. Leslie Biesecker has discovered the cause of Proteus syndrome. See our FAQ section for more information. ...

120

Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... gov Research studies OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Proteus syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed June 2012 What is Proteus syndrome? Proteus syndrome is a rare condition characterized ...

121

The Proteus presentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development environments can increase user productivity by presenting information in more useful ways. This paper describes Proteus, the presentation system of Ensemble, a software development environment that supports a wide variety of language and document capabilities. Proteus provides a set of services which allow the appearance of software development documents, such as programs or design specifications, to be determined

Susan L. Graham; Michael A. Harrison; Ethan V. Munson

1992-01-01

122

Proteus at Sunset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

123

Isolation, identification & characterization of Proteus penneri - a missed rare pathogen  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as P. mirabilis, missing isolates of Proteus penneri. P. penneri is an invasive pathogen capable of causing major infectious diseases still seldom reported in individual cases. We report here the isolation, differentiation, characterization and typing of P. penneri from patients with different clinical infections. Methods: Urine, pus and body fluids collected from patients in intensive care units, wards and out patients departments of a tertiary health care institute from north India were cultured. A total of 61 indole negative Proteus isolates were subjected to extended biochemical tests to differentiate and identify P. penneri from P. mirabilis including failure to produce ornithine decarboxylase (by 0% strains of P. penneri and 100% strains of P. mirabilis) besides P. penneri being uniformly salicin negative, non-utilizer of citrate but ferments sucrose and maltose. Antibiograms and Dienes phenomenon were performed to characterize and type P. penneri isolates besides screening for ?-lactamase production. Results: Eight isolates of P. penneri were identified; four from urine, three from abdominal drain-fluid and one from diabetic foot ulcer. P. penneri was isolated as the sole pathogen in all patients having underlying disease; post-operatively. Swarming was not seen in the first strain on primary isolation and was poor in strain-4. All eight isolates were biochemically homologous but multi-drug resistant (MDR) with resistance to 6-8 drugs (up to 12). ?-lactamase production was seen in three of five isolates while Dienes phenomenon found four distinct types and discriminated strains differing in resistance even with a single drug. Interpretation & Conclusions: A few additional biochemical tests identified P. penneri isolates; it infected patients with underlying disease and strains were MDR and heterogenous. PMID:22561620

Kishore, Janak

2012-01-01

124

Specific Activity of Phenylalanine Deaminase in Extracts of the Proteus-Providence Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE possession of a phenylalanine deaminase which converts phenylalanine to phenylpyruvic acid is one of a combination of five properties unique for the Proteus-Providence group of organisms1. Of a total of 185 P. hauseri (P. mirabilis + P. vulgaris), 155 P. morganii, 29 P. rettgeri and 239 Providence strains qualitatively examined for the presence of this enzyme2-4, all but two

J. A. Smit

1966-01-01

125

Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 ?g/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23877712

Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

2014-02-01

126

PROTEUS: A SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDING DEPENDABILITY FOR CORBA APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

PROTEUS: A SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDING DEPENDABILITY FOR CORBA APPLICATIONS BY BRIJBHUSHAN ...............................................................................................................9 2.3. Proteus...........................................................................................................................10 3. PROTEUS

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

127

d Methionine preparation from racemic methionines by Proteus vulgaris IAM 12003 with asymmetric degrading activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial degradation of l-methionine was investigated in order to develop a practical process for d-methionine production from racemic methionines. Among the 1000 culture strains tested, microorganisms belonging to the Achromobacter, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas and Sarcina genera exhibited a high l-methionine-degrading activity. Proteus vulgaris IAM 12003 was determined to be the best strain and was used as

E. Takahashi; M. Furui; Hiroyasu Seko; T. Shibatani

1997-01-01

128

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF PROTEUS AND PROVIDENCE ORGANISMS  

PubMed Central

Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria. PMID:13891463

Falkow, Stanley; Ryman, I. R.; Washington, O.

1962-01-01

129

Proteus: Mythology to modern times  

PubMed Central

Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

2012-01-01

130

?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????.  

E-print Network

???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????. ????????? ??????????? 148 ??????? (68 PROTEUS MIRABILIS, 37 PROTEUS MORGANII, 25 PROTEUS VULGARIS… (more)

???????????????, ????????-?????????

1977-01-01

131

Structures and serology of the O-antigens of Proteus strains classified into serogroup O17 and former serogroup O35  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Bacteria of the genus Proteus are facultative pathogens which commonly cause urinary tract infections. Based on the serological specificity of the O-chain\\u000a polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, O-antigen), strains of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris have been classified into 60 serogroups. Studies on the chemical structure and serological specificity of the O-antigens\\u000a aim at the elucidation of the molecular

Agnieszka Torzewska; Sebastian Grabowski; Anna N. Kondakova; Filip V. Toukach; Sof’ya N. Senchenkova; Alexander S. Shashkov; Nikolay P. Arbatsky; Yuriy A. Knirel; Antoni Ró?alski; Wies?aw Kaca

2006-01-01

132

Development Status of PROTEUS-MOC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PROTEUS-MOC solver is intended to resolve the outstanding computational challenges that the PROTEUS-SN is limited by and bridge the gap between PROTEUS-SN and existing homogenized structured grid solvers. The primary push behind all of this work is to...

A. Marin-Lafleche, C. H. Lee, E. E. Lewis, M. A. Smith

2012-01-01

133

Proteus Survey: Technical Manual and Codebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1987 Proteus Survey was based on the 1986 Proteus Survey designed by the United States Military Academy and administered by Michigan State University. The Proteus Survey was transferred to the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...

B. C. Harris, K. Wochinger

1992-01-01

134

Biochemical Classification of Proteus and Providence Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Biochemical reactions of 153 Providence (29911 type) and 63 Proteus cultures were examined. Providence cultures are included in the genus Proteus, as their cultural characters are similar ; this relationship is strengthened by the pro- duction of L-amino acid oxidase and glutamic acid decarboxylase by both. Proteus inconstans Ornstein nov.comb. is the name proposed for Providence cultures. The family

CONSTANCE SHAW; PATRICIA H. CLARKE

1955-01-01

135

Deciphering azo dye decolorization characteristics by indigenous Proteus hauseri: Chemical structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study selected indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 as a model bacterium to explore how chemical structure affected dye decolorization characteristics in comparison with other biodecolorizers. No matter what naturally-existing decolorizer strain was used (e.g., Pseudomonas luteola, Aeromonas hydrophila and P. hauseri), chemical structures of azo dyes (e.g., molecular isomers or the presence of different functional groups) apparently affected the performance

Bor-Yann Chen; Meng-Meng Zhang; Chang-Tang Chang; Yongtao Ding; Wen-Ming Chen; Chung-Chuan Hsueh

2011-01-01

136

Morphological Variants of Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cultures of Proteus hauseri may consist of one or more of five colonial variants. Population pressure experiments started with one variant eventually yielded all other variants. Y variants form raised non-swarming colonies on a MacConkey-type agar at 37O, but swarm in concentric step-like rings at room temperature on this medium; they swarm in step-like concentric rings on nutrient agar

J. N. COETZEE; T. G. SACKS

1960-01-01

137

A First Assessment of Genetic Variation in Welwitschia mirabilis Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welwitschia mirabilis is a monotypic member of the family Welwitchiaceae which, along with Ephedra and Gnetum species, comprises the gymnospermous order Gnetales. While the monophyly of this order is now widely accepted, the relationship of the Gnetales to other seed plants is still contentious. Despite the unique phylogenetic position of W. mirabilis and its extraordinary physiological and anatomical adaptations, little

K. M. Jacobson; E. LESTER

2003-01-01

138

Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

Croft, Steven K.

1992-01-01

139

1986 Proteus Survey: Technical Manual and Codebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Proteus Survey conducted by the United States Military Academy (USMA) is part of the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) continuing research on officer careers. In 1987, the Proteus Survey was administered by...

B. C. Harris, K. Wochinger

1992-01-01

140

Hawkmoth pollination of Mirabilis longiflora (Nyctaginaceae)  

PubMed Central

A guild composed of very-long-tubed hawkmoth flowers (nectar tubes, 9 cm or more long), belonging to different genera and families, occurs in the American Southwest. Our knowledge of the hawkmoth associates of these flowers is fragmentary. Mirabilis longiflora, a member of the guild with a tube 10.0-10.5 cm long, was found to be visited and pollinated mainly by Manduca quinquemaculata with a proboscis 10.7-11.6 cm long in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. This example fits in with four other previously reported cases. The long-tongued Man. quinquemaculata is now known to be associated with five species of very long-tongued hawkmoth flowers in the Southwest, and Man. rustica has been found on one of them. Images PMID:16593287

Grant, Verne; Grant, Karen A.

1983-01-01

141

Version L3.11 Proteus Changes David M. Koppelman Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge  

E-print Network

Version L3.11 Proteus Changes David M. Koppelman Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 3 August 1997 #12;Proteus Local 1 ProteusLocal #12;Chapter 1: Proteus Overview 2 1 ProteusOverview Proteus be simu- lated; others can be added through user-written code. C programs, written using Proteus' parallel

Koppelman, David M.

142

Prototyping parallel and distributed programs in Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Proteus, an architecture-independent language suitable for prototyping parallel and distributed programs. Proteus is a high-level imperative notation based on sets and sequences with a single construct for the parallel composition of processes. Although a shared-memory model is the basis for communication between processes, this memory can be partitioned into shared and private variables. Parallel processes operate on

Peter H. Millst; Lars S. Nyland; Jan F. Prim; John H. Reift; Robert A. Wagnert

1991-01-01

143

The effects of washing upon the bacterial flora of the stallion prepuce  

E-print Network

. ~tr act* ggl Enterobacter spp. 1 a c*l 'PPFa o t ri pp. Klebsiella spp. pe o 1 M)crococcus spp. Proteus inconstans ~s gn Proteus spp. Proteus vulgaris pseupSomonas aeruginosa Psa a r q a s ( plq t d) Pseudomonas maltophilia PsNS* op p... pneumoniae d ?o?s spp. Proteus inconstans Proteus mirabilis ~ro eus spp. Proteus vulgaris P *d* es ~Po ganesa (no ptgm* t d) 'p er)o s ~p Pseudomonas spp. gttp ? s sPP. ( g 1 p ttt ) tap y ococcus spp. (coagulase negative) Streptococcus e uisimilis...

Tobin, Nancy Batterton

2012-06-07

144

The Proteus Navier-Stokes code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. The emphasis in the development of Proteus is not algorithm development or research on numerical methods, but rather the development of the code itself. The objective is to develop codes that are user-oriented, easily-modified, and well-documented. Well-proven, state-of-the-art solution algorithms are being used. Code readability, documentation (both internal and external), and validation are being emphasized. This paper is a status report on the Proteus development effort. The analysis and solution procedure are described briefly, and the various features in the code are summarized. The results from some of the validation cases that have been run are presented for both the two- and three-dimensional codes.

Towne, Charles E.; Bui, Trong T.; Cavicchi, Richard H.; Conley, Julianne M.; Molls, Frank B.; Schwab, John R.

1992-01-01

145

Prototyping HighPerformance Parallel Computing Applications in Proteus z  

E-print Network

Prototyping High­Performance Parallel Computing Applications in Proteus z Peter H. Mills y , Lars S, California, April 27­30), pp. 433--442, Meridian, 1992. Abstract This paper explores the use of Proteus parallel algorithms for N­body simulation in molecular dynamics are presented in Proteus, illustrating how

Reif, John H.

146

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator  

E-print Network

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator by Eric A. Brewer Chrysanthos N. Dellarocas Adrian Colbrook William E. Weihl September 1991 Abstract Proteus is a high-performance simulator gured to simulate a wide range of architectures. Proteus provides a modular structure that simpli es

Koppelman, David M.

147

An Introduction to Proteus Version 0.9  

E-print Network

An Introduction to Proteus Version 0.9 Gary Marc Levin Clarkson University Dept of Math-3175 nyland@cs.unc.edu UNC Technical Report TR95-025 July 11, 1995 #12;Abstract The current version of Proteus of expressions. The objects of Proteus include: integers, oating point numbers, funcs (sub-programs), strings

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

148

Proteus: Visual Analogy in Problem Solving Jim Davies a  

E-print Network

Proteus: Visual Analogy in Problem Solving Jim Davies a Ashok K. Goel b Patrick W. Yaner b a of visual analogy in problem solving which has been implemented in a computer program called Proteus. Proteus provides two main things. Firstly, it provides a content account for visual analogy in problem

Davies, Jim

149

PROTEUS: AN APPROACH TO INTERFACE EVALUATION Jonathan Crellin.  

E-print Network

PROTEUS: AN APPROACH TO INTERFACE EVALUATION Jonathan Crellin. People and Computer Interaction, Walton Hall, MILTON KEYNES, MK7 6AA. United Kingdom. PROTEUS is a number of software tools which allow of PROTEUS as an integrated evaluation tool, and reports on some of the empirical work underlying

Crellin, Jonathan

150

SPECIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARALLEL ALGORITHMS WITH THE PROTEUS SYSTEM  

E-print Network

SPECIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARALLEL ALGORITHMS WITH THE PROTEUS SYSTEM ALLEN GOLDBERG, PETER MILLS, LARS NYLAND, JAN PRINS, JOHN REIF, AND JAMES RIELY Abstract. The Proteus language is a wide specification to various efficient architecture­dependent implementations. The Proteus sys­ tem combines

Goldberg, Allen

151

Inhibitory Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Red Alga Delisea pulchraon Swarming Motility ofProteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal,uncoordinatedswarmingmotilityoftheopportunistichumanpathogenProteusmirabiliswasseen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium. This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation, and hyperflagellation were not affected. One halogenated furanone from D. pulchra inhibited swarming motility at concentrations that did not affect growth rate and swimming motility. Other structurally similarD. pulchrafuranones had

LONE GRAM; ROCKY DENYS; RIA MAXIMILIEN; MICHAEL GIVSKOV; PETER STEINBERG; ANDSTAFFAN KJELLEBERG

1996-01-01

152

Host-range of Proteus morganii Bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLICINE H, which kills many Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella and a few Proteus hauseri1 also attacks many strains of P. morganii2. The relationship between P. morganii and the other genera mentioned has recently been strengthened by the finding3 that the guanidine + cytosine content of their deoxyribonucleic acids are very similar and differ from P. hauseri, P. rettgeri and Providence strains.

J. N. Coetzee

1963-01-01

153

A Receptor for a Proteus vulgaris Bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from a Proteus vulgaris strain susceptible to the killing action ofP. vulgaris bacteriocin 45, from two resistant mutants and from a wild P. vulgaris strain, none of which adsorb the bacteriocin. The carbohydrate composition of the lipopolysaccharide of the sensitive organism differs from that of the resistant strains. Neutralization tests and electron microscopy showed that this

J. A. SMIT; N. HUGO

154

Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

2010-10-01

155

Classification of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3 with recognition of Proteus hauseri sp. nov., nom. rev. and unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6.  

PubMed

Strains traditionally identified as Proteus vulgaris formed three biogroups. Biogroup 1, characterized by negative reactions for indole production, salicin fermentation and aesculin hydrolysis, is now known as Proteus penneri. Biogroup 2, characterized by positive reactions for indole, salicin and aesculin, was shown by DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) to be a genetic species separate from biogroup 1 and from biogroup 3 which is positive for indole production and negative for salicin and aesculin. In this study, 52 strains were examined, of which 36 strains were Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3, which included the current type strain of the species P. vulgaris (ATCC 29905T), and compared to seven strains of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 2 and nine type strains of other species in the genera Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. By DNA hybridization, these 36 strains were separated into four distinct groups, designated as Proteus genomospecies 3, 4, 5 and 6. DNAs within each separate Proteus genomospecies were 74-99% related to each other in 60 degrees C hybridization reactions with < or = 4.5% divergence between related sequences. Proteus genomospecies 3 contained the former P. vulgaris type strain and one other strain and was negative in reactions for salicin fermentation, aesculin hydrolysis and deoxyribonuclease, unlike the reactions associated with strains considered as typical P. vulgaris which are positive in reactions for salicin, aesculin and DNase. Genomospecies 3 can be distinguished from Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6 because it is negative for Jordan's tartrate. Proteus genomospecies 4, containing five strains, was differentiated from Proteus penneri, genomospecies 3 and 6 and most, but not all, strains of genomospecies 5, by its ability to ferment L-rhamnose. Proteus genomospecies 5 and 6, containing 18 and 11 strains, respectively, could not be separated from each other by traditional biochemical tests, by carbon source utilization tests or SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. In an earlier publication, a request was made to the Judicial Commission that the former type strain of P. vulgaris (ATCC 13315) be replaced by P. vulgaris biogroup 2 strain ATCC 29905T, a strain considered more biochemically typical of P. vulgaris strains. This would have the effect of assigning the name P. vulgaris to P. vulgaris biogroup 2. Since this request has been acceded to, the name Proteus hauseri is herein proposed for Proteus vulgaris genomospecies 3. Its type strain is ATCC 700826T. Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6 will remain unnamed until better phenotypic differentiation can be accomplished. All Proteus genomospecies were similar in their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Nineteen strains were isolated from urine, four from faeces, two from wounds, nine from other human sources and two from animals. PMID:11034498

O'Hara, C M; Brenner, F W; Steigerwalt, A G; Hill, B C; Holmes, B; Grimont, P A; Hawkey, P M; Penner, J L; Miller, J M; Brenner, D J

2000-09-01

156

Antibiotic resistance pattern among biofilm producing and non producing Proteus strains isolated from hospitalized patients; matter of hospital hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship.  

PubMed

A retrospective study on antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm production were carried out for eighty eight strains of Proteus strains isolated from UTI and other hospital samples during April 2011-April 2012. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and MIC by E-test. Biofilm production was measured by microtiter method and confirmed by Scanning electron microscopy. Plasmids from biofilm producing isolates were detected by alkaline lysis technique. From 88 patients infected by proteus species, 58% were female and 42% were mail. The most frequent age range was 20-29 (77.39%) and the least were 60-69 years old (3.4%) (p = 0.05). Eighty one isolates were identified as P. mirabilis while, 7 identified as P. vulgaris. 67.04% [n = 59] of the isolates showed MIC range (16-32 +/- 0.05 microg mL(-1)) to ceftriaxone, 46.59% [n = 41] exhibited least MIC range to chloramphenicol (8-64 +/- 0.08 microg mL(-1)). 31% [n = 28] of the isolates also exhibited MIC range 1-4 microg mL(-1) to ciprofloxacin. 17% [n = 15] of the isolates exhibited strong biofilm while, 6% [n = 6] did not show any biofilm (p < or = 0.05). Plasmid isolation from biofilm producing isolates revealed that stains number 19, 24 and 87' that produced strong biofilm carried similar high M. Wt. plasmid. From above results it can be concluded that the majority of Proteus isolated from UTI patients were belong to P. mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic for treatment of the infected patients. Limited number of the isolates could produce strong biofilm that were bearing plasmids. Majority of the biofilm producing isolates were also resistance at least to 4 antibiotics routinely prescribed in our hospital. PMID:24511691

Shikh-Bardsiri, Houshang; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza

2013-11-15

157

Die hypopeltaten Sepalen von Viola arvensis und Viola mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Sepalen vonViola arvensis undViola mirabilis und möglicherweise allerViola-Arten sind, wie die Untersuchungen der äußeren Morphologie, der Ontogenie, der Histogenie und der Bündelmorphologie ergeben, hypopeltat-schildförmige bzw.-schlauchförmige Blätter, deren dorsale Querzone zu dem basalen Anhängsel auswächst. Durch diesen Spreitenbau, der beiViola nur bei den Kelchblättern auftritt, erweisen sich diese als laminale Kelchblätter.

Irmgard Jäger

1963-01-01

158

Classification of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3 with recognition of Proteus hauseri sp. nov., nom. rev. and unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains traditionally identified as Proteus vulgaris formed three biogroups. Biogroup 1, characterized by negative reactions for indole production, salicin fermentation and aesculin hydrolysis, is now known as Proteus penneri. Biogroup 2, characterized by positive reactions for indole, salicin and aesculin, was shown by DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) to be a genetic species separate from biogroup 1 and from biogroup 3

Caroline Mohr O'Hara; Frances W. Brenner; Arnold G. Steigerwalt; Bertha C. Hill; Barry Holmes; Patrick A. D. Grimont; Peter M. Hawkey; John L. Penner; J. Michael Miller; Don J. Brenner

159

Sodium Azide Resistance in Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The sodium azide resistance pattern of Proteus hauseri is not of the all- or-none unilocal type reported for Escherichia coli but rather of the obligatory multi-step or penicillin variety. Independently isolated 1st-step resistant variants possessed similar degrees of resistance to sodium azide. Some properties of azide-resistant variants of P. hauseri are described. In support of the above finding it

J. N. Coetzee; H. C. de Klerk; I. J. Mare

1963-01-01

160

Induction of  Lactamase in Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various P-lactam antibiotics, including monocyclic P-lactams, induced the P-lactamase of Proteus vulgaris; when clinical isolates were induced by benzylpenicillin, each strain produced a single 0-lactamase but the activity per milligram dry weight differed from strain to strain. The P- lactamases of the P. vulgaris strains were heterogeneous with respect to their isoelectric points, but had almost the same specific activities,

KENJI OKONOGI; MITSUZO KUNO; F. HIGASHIDE

1986-01-01

161

Cultural and Serological Phases of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Three phases of Proteus vulgaris, A, B and C, are distinguishable by cellular and colonial morphology, and to some extent serologically. Phase A is the modal form of freshly-isolated strains ; it has a uniform bacillary morphology, swarms intermittently on nutrient agar, and forms stable suspensions in 0.85 yo saline. Phase B strains, though possessing flagella, are usually non-motile,

G. BELYAVIN

1951-01-01

162

HST BVI photometry of Triton and Proteus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BVI photometry of Triton and Proteus was derived from HST images taken in 1997. The VEGAMAG photometric technique was used. Triton was found to be brighter by a few percent than observations of the 1970's and 1980's, as expected due to the increasingly greater exposure of the bright south polar region. The leading side was also found to be brighter than the trailing side by 0.09 mag in all filters—50% larger than reported by Franz [Franz, O.G., 1981. Icarus 45, 602-606]. Contrary to our previous results [Pascu, D., et al., 1998. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1101], we found no episodic reddening. Our previous conclusions were based on an inaccurate early version of the Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) correction. The present result limits the start of the reddening event reported by Hicks and Buratti [Hicks, M.D., Buratti, B.J., 2004. Icarus 171, 210-218]. Our ( B- V) result of 0.70±0.01 supports the global blueing described by Buratti et al. [Buratti, B.J., Goguen, J.D., Gibson, J., Mosher, J., 1994. Icarus 110, 303-314]. Our observations of July 1997 agree with the Voyager results and are among the bluest colors seen. We found Proteus somewhat brighter than earlier studies, but in good agreement with the recent value given by Karkoschka [Karkoschka, E., 2003. Icarus 162, 400-407]. A leading/trailing brightness asymmetry was detected for Proteus, with the leading side 0.1 mag brighter. The unique differences in action of the endogenic and exogenic processes on Triton and Proteus provides an opportunity to separate the endogenic and exogenic effects on Triton.

Pascu, Dan; Storrs, Alex D.; Wells, Eddie N.; Hershey, John L.; Rohde, James R.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Currie, Douglas G.

2006-12-01

163

Proteus syndrome and hypothyroidism. An unusual association.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 3½-year-old girl diagnosed as Proteus syndrome with severe cosmetic disfigurement-macrodactyly, hemi-hypertrophy of the face and limbs, megalencephaly, lymph edema of both hands and feet along with severe global developmental delay. She was found to have severe recalcitrant epilepsy and also primary hypothyroidism; the association of which is not mentioned in the previous literature.  PMID:25228186

Ali, Manzoor A; Yaseen, Hakam A; Muhammed, Muhammed A

2014-09-01

164

Radiologic findings in the proteus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiological findings in two patients with the Proteus syndrome are described. Features in our two cases not previously\\u000a mentioned or stressed include vertebral dysplasia and enlargement (megaspondylodysplasia), bilateral genu valgum, recurrent\\u000a after surgery and intraabdominal and mesenteric lipomatosis. Emergency laparotomy was performed on the first patient who had\\u000a a twisted necrotic portion of mesenteric fat. Macrodactyly, skeletal muscle atrophy

E. M. Azouz; T. Costa; N. Fitch

1987-01-01

165

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising

Firas A. Al-Bayati

2008-01-01

166

Characterization of Proteus vulgaris K80 Lipase Immobilized on Amine-Terminated Magnetic Microparticles.  

PubMed

Proteus vulgaris K80 lipase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and immobilized on amine-terminated magnetic microparticles (Mag-MPs). The immobilization yield and activity retention were 84.15% and 7.87%, respectively. A homology model of lipase K80 was constructed using P. mirabilis lipase as the template. Many lysine residues were located on the protein surface, remote from active sites. The biochemical characteristics of immobilized lipase K80 were compared with the soluble free form of lipase K80. The optimum temperature of K80-Mag-MPs was 60°C, which was 20°C higher than that of the soluble form. K80-Mag-MPs also tended to be more stable than the soluble form at elevated temperatures and a broad range of pH. K80-Mag-MP maintained its stable form at up to 40°C and in a pH range of 5.0- 10.0, whereas soluble K80 maintained its activity up to 35°C and pH 6.0-10.0. K80-Mag-MPs had broader substrate specificity compared with that of soluble K80. K80-Mag-MPs showed about 80% residual relative activity after five recovery trials. These results indicate the potential benefit of K80-Mag-MPs as a biocatalyst in various industries. PMID:25001555

Natalia, Agnes; Kristiani, Lidya; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

2014-10-28

167

Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

2012-07-01

168

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

169

Fimbriae and Haemagglutinating Activity in Strains of Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Fimbriae were seen with the electron microscope on each of 79 strains of Proteus hauseri when these were in the haemagglutinating phase, but were absent from the non-haemagglutinating phase. All strains were variably fimbriate. The fimbriate mutant became dominant under anaerobic or relatively anaerobic cultural conditions. The non-fimbriate mutant became dominant under aerobic conditions. The properties of Proteus fimbriae

W. I. H. Shedden

1962-01-01

170

The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

Nield, Sophie

2008-01-01

171

Transmission of Proteus syndrome from father to son?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a male infant with cranial hemi-hypertrophy, a lymphangioma, a lipoma, and epidermal naevi. A diagnosis of Proteus syndrome was made. His father had had a large lymphangioma resected from the right side of the face as a child. We propose that Proteus syndrome has been transmitted from father to son.

J Goodship; A Redfearn; D Milligan; D Gardner-Medwin; J Burn

1991-01-01

172

Proteus in flight over mountains near Las Cruces, New Mexico.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

173

Proteus aircraft over Las Cruces International Airport in New Mexico.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

174

Proteus aircraft low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

175

Morphogenesis of the branching reef coral Madracis mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Understanding external deciding factors in growth and morphology of reef corals is essential to elucidate the role of corals in marine ecosystems, and to explain their susceptibility to pollution and global climate change. Here, we extend on a previously presented model for simulating the growth and form of a branching coral and we compare the simulated morphologies to three-dimensional (3D) images of the coral species Madracis mirabilis. Simulation experiments and isotope analyses of M. mirabilis skeletons indicate that external gradients of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) determine the morphogenesis of branching, phototrophic corals. In the simulations we use a first principle model of accretive growth based on local interactions between the polyps. The only species-specific information in the model is the average size of a polyp. From flow tank and simulation studies it is known that a relatively large stagnant and diffusion dominated region develops within a branching colony. We have used this information by assuming in our model that growth is entirely driven by a diffusion-limited process, where DIC supply represents the limiting factor. With such model constraints it is possible to generate morphologies that are virtually indistinguishable from the 3D images of the actual colonies. PMID:15695202

Kaandorp, Jaap A.; Sloot, Peter M. A.; Merks, Roeland M. H.; Bak, Rolf P. M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Maier, Cornelia

2005-01-01

176

Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.

Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

1992-01-01

177

Proteus syndrome: report of a case with developmental glaucoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema in a patient with Proteus syndrome. We defined the presence of developmental glaucoma, right pseudopapilledema and myopia in a 4.5-year-old patient with Proteus syndrome. Marked right hemihypertrophy, lipoma, macrodactyly, and asymmetry of the limbs were observed on systemic examination. A cavernoma was also detected in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The patient underwent bilateral goniotomy surgery due to glaucoma. The surgical outcomes were satisfactory in both eyes. In conclusions developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema might be associated with Proteus syndrome. PMID:24882963

Sarman, Zuleyha Sik; Yuksel, Nursen; Sarman, Hakan; Bayramgurler, Dilek

2014-06-01

178

The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed.  

PubMed Central

Sir Frederick Treves first showed Joseph Merrick, the famous Elephant Man, to the Pathological Society of London in 1884. A diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suggested in 1909 and was widely accepted. There is no evidence, however, of café au lait spots or histological proof of neurofibromas. It is also clear that Joseph Merrick's manifestations were much more bizarre than those commonly seen in neurofibromatosis. Evidence indicates that Merrick suffered from the Proteus syndrome and had the following features compatible with this diagnosis: macrocephaly; hyperostosis of the skull; hypertrophy of long bones; and thickened skin and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the hands and feet, including plantar hyperplasia, lipomas, and other unspecified subcutaneous masses. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3092979

Tibbles, J A; Cohen, M M

1986-01-01

179

Physica D 234 (2007) 9097 www.elsevier.com/locate/physd  

E-print Network

the differences between Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis colonies by using a different dependence of bacteria which, under certain conditions, form concentric ring-like colonies: Proteus mirabilis

Aubert, Marine

180

The influence of bacterial metabolites on the motility of stallion spermatozoa  

E-print Network

motile 4. Extended Semen + Filtered Tryptose Broth 62 percent motile Tests: 1/2* 1 2 4 A** PD*** A PD A PD A PD Klebsiella pneumoniae (genitalium) Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus mirabilis Escheric ia co i Streptococcus zooepidemicus Stre tococcus...* PD*** A PD A PD A PD Klebszella neumonj. ae enztalzum Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus mxra x xs Escherichia cols Streptococcus zooepidemicus Streptococcus e uj. simrlis Actj. nobacillus e uuli Corynebacterj. um equx 27 34 29 29 28 32 27 34...

Rideout, Merry Ilene

2012-06-07

181

On the Use of Artificial Intelligence for Prognosis and Diagnosis in the PROTEUS E-maintenance platform  

E-print Network

On the Use of Artificial Intelligence for Prognosis and Diagnosis in the PROTEUS E-maintenance platform PROTEUS WP2 Team (L. Déchamp, A. Dutech, T. Montroig, X. Qian, D. Racoceanu, I. Rasovska, B.Pelissier) PROTEUS ITEA European Project URL : http://www.proteus-iteaproject.com Abstract - The PROTEUS project has

Dutech, Alain

182

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus is a high-performance simulator for MIMD multiprocessors. It is fast, accurate, and flexible:it is one to two orders of magnitude faster than comparable simulators, it can reproduce results from realmultiprocessors, and it is easily configured to simulate a wide range of architectures. Proteus providesa modular structure that simplifies customization and independent replacement of parts of architecture.There are typically multiple

Eric A. Brewer; Chrysanthos N. Dellarocas; Adrian Colbrook; William E. Weihl

1992-01-01

183

dunck.doc.6 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications 143 The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel  

E-print Network

dunck.doc.6 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications 143 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications Allen Goldberg, Jan Prins, John parallel implementation. #12;144 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications

Reif, John H.

184

dunck.doc.6 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications 143 The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel  

E-print Network

dunck.doc.6 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications 143 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel Applications Allen Goldberg, Jan Prins, John parallel implementation. #12; 144 Chapter 5: The Proteus System for the Development of Parallel

Reif, John H.

185

21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis ; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis ; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis ;...

2011-04-01

186

21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis ; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis ; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis ;...

2012-04-01

187

21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2013-04-01

188

21 CFR 522.88 - Amoxicillin.  

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2014-04-01

189

21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.  

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2014-04-01

190

21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2011-04-01

191

21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2012-04-01

192

21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis ; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis ; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis ;...

2013-04-01

193

Intracellular microrheology of motile Amoeba proteus  

E-print Network

The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

Salman S. Rogers; Thomas A. Waigh; Jian R. Lu

2007-10-12

194

Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

Rogers, S.; Waigh, T.; Lu, J.

2008-04-01

195

[Histamine formation by Proteus species in tunafish (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Introducing the authors report on cases of scombroid poisoning episodes in food serving establishments. These cases were related to the formation of histamine in tuna meat due to Proteus morganii although the meat was sound when taken from cans. It is demonstrated experimentally (Table 1) and shown in a critical literature review (Table 2) that among Proteus species Proteus morganii is the only species being able of producing histamine levels high enough to cause food poisoning in humans. Multiplication and histamine formation by Proteus morganii at different temperatures show (Fig. 1 and 2) that the concentration of histamine increases rapidly once the formation has started and the level of 1000 mg/kg considered as critical may be exceeded within a short period of time. These results confirm our observations obtained during epidemiological studies of food poisoning cases that improper handling and storage of tuna meat from cans at food serving establishments may bear the risk of causing scombroid poisoning. It should be emphasized that certain cultures of Proteus morganii are able to form histamine at levels of more than 1000 mg/kg even at a temperature of 7 degree C although prolonged incubation is necessary (Fig. 1). This fact should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of results when a prolonged period of time has elapsed between sampling or consumption of the suspect food and its examination. PMID:7198852

Yamani, M I; Dickertmann, D; Untermann, F

1981-09-01

196

The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

2012-01-01

197

The construction of single-chip microcomputer virtual experiment platform based on Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the problems of present single-chip microcomputer experiment teaching and the features of Proteus software. Teaching reform that brings EDA technology into the experimental teaching of MCU is proposed. It discusses how to use Proteus software to construct a single-chip virtual experiment platform. Through the simulation in Proteus soft and project designing & making based on MCU development

Wang Xinhuan; Zhang Hongwei; Gao Qinghua; Zhang Wei

2010-01-01

198

PROTEUS RTI: A FRAMEWORK FOR ON-THE-FLY INTEGRATION OF BIOMEDICAL WEB SERVICES  

E-print Network

PROTEUS RTI: A FRAMEWORK FOR ON-THE-FLY INTEGRATION OF BIOMEDICAL WEB SERVICES Shahram on the domain-specific problem. Proteus RTI is a first step towards addressing this challenge. It includes in the context of bioinformatics. Proteus RTI is a first step towards the ideal framework. A key design decision

Ghandeharizadeh, Shahram

199

Proteus, des web services pour les systmes de maintenance , N. Blanc*, F. Charpillet  

E-print Network

Proteus, des web services pour les systèmes de maintenance X. Rebeuf , N. Blanc*, F. Charpillet , D, Besançon, France. LORIA, Nancy, France Xavier.Rebeuf@loria.fr RESUME Le projet PROTEUS a comme objectif de 1. OBJECTIFS DU PROJET PROTEUS1 La maintenance des systèmes industriels est une fonction cruciale

Dutech, Alain

200

ProTeus: Identifying Signatures in Protein Termini Iris Bahir1  

E-print Network

1 ProTeus: Identifying Signatures in Protein Termini Iris Bahir1 and Michal Linial1,2,3 1 98195, USA 3 Correspondence Author ABSTRACT ProTeus (PROtein TErminUS) is a web-based tool for revealing short signatures in termini of all proteins. The initial step in ProTeus development

Linial, Michal

201

ProTeus: identifying signatures in protein termini Iris Bahir and Michal Linial*  

E-print Network

ProTeus: identifying signatures in protein termini Iris Bahir and Michal Linial* Department 28, 2005; Revised and Accepted March 7, 2005 ABSTRACT ProTeus (PROtein TErminUS) is a web-based tool forrevealingshortsignaturesinterminiofallproteins. The initial step in ProTeus development was to collect all signature groups (SIGs) based

Linial, Michal

202

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator Eric A. Brewer (lhrysanthos N. Dellarocas  

E-print Network

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator Eric A. Brewer (lhrysanthos N Introduction PROTEUS is an execution-driven simulator for MIMD machines. Like Tango [3] and RPPT [2], it directly ex- ecutes most instructions to achieve very high perfor- mance. Despite exceptional speed PROTEUS

Brewer, Eric A.

203

PROTEUS: Network Performance Forecast for Real-Time, Interactive Mobile Applications  

E-print Network

PROTEUS: Network Performance Forecast for Real-Time, Interactive Mobile Applications Qiang Xu and the radio re- source scheduling algorithm at the base station. We develop a system interface called PROTEUS, and then uses regression trees to forecast fu- ture network performance. PROTEUS successfully predicts

Mao, Zhuoqing Morley

204

Proteus - An experimenter's view. [of spacecraft carrying exchangable Explorer scientific experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific experiments package to be carried by the Proteus system takes the form of an Instrument Load carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle, and there mated to a Proteus spacecraft with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System. The Proteus system extends to ground support equipment, development tools, and communications, as well as the orbiting satellites. It is expected that Proteus will be able to triple the number of Explorer missions while staying within the current budgetary allocation for such missions. The Proteus spacecraft encompasses a system interface assembly plug, a data handling module, remote interface units, and a power distribution module.

Hibbard, W. D.

1984-01-01

205

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of the Putative Proteus O Antigen Gene Locus? †  

PubMed Central

Proteus species are well-characterized opportunistic pathogens primarily associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) of humans. The Proteus O antigen is one of the most variable constituents of the cell surface, and O antigen heterogeneity is used for serological classification of Proteus isolates. Even though most Proteus O antigen structures have been identified, the O antigen locus has not been well characterized. In this study, we identified the putative Proteus O antigen locus and demonstrated this region's high degree of heterogeneity by comparing sequences of 40 Proteus isolates using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). This analysis identified five putative Proteus O antigen gene clusters, and the probable functions of these O antigen-related genes were proposed, based on their similarity to genes in the available databases. Finally, Proteus-specific genes from these five serogroups were identified by screening 79 strains belonging to the 68 Proteus O antigen serogroups. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of the putative Proteus O antigen locus, and we describe a novel molecular classification method for the identification of different Proteus serogroups. PMID:20581173

Wang, Quan; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ruan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaoting; Rozalski, Antoni; Shao, Zhujun; Guo, Xi; Zhou, Haijian; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

2010-01-01

206

Effect of Temperature on Flagellation, Motility and Swarming of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT was noted1 that the swarming of Proteus hauseri was more extensive at room temperature than at 37° C and variants were described which were motile at 37° C but formed swarming colonies only at room temperature. Apart from observations2 on a single strain of P. vulgaris there are no reports about the effects of temperature on flagellar synthesis by

J. N. Coetzee; H. C. de Klerk

1964-01-01

207

Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii , and Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae,

Gerhard Miirsdorf; Heinrich Kaltwasser

1989-01-01

208

Dimethylsulphoxide and trimethylamine oxide respiration of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) sustained anaerobic growth of Proteus vulgaris with the non-fermentable substrate lactate. Cytoplasmic membrane vesicles energized by electron transfer from formate to DMSO displayed anaerobic uptake of serine, which was hindered by metabolic inhibitors known to destroy the proton motive force. This showed that DMSO reduction was coupled with a chemiosmotic mechanism of energy conversion;

Olaf B. Styrvold; Arne R. Strøm

1984-01-01

209

A Reconsideration of the Swarming of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Studies by cinemicrography confirm that the long forms of Proteus vulgaris (Hauser) seen during the swarming stage are morphologically indistinguish- able from those induced by penicillin and other toxic agents. They appear only in cultures which are growing freely and when a threshold concentration of population has been reached ; thereafter the organisms at the growing edge of t,he

W. HOWARD HUGHES

1957-01-01

210

Effects of cystic fibrosis sera on Proteus vulgaris motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspensions of Proteus vulgaris were rapidly agglutinated by serum from cystic fibrosis patients. Serum from obligate heterozygotes exhibited a mean agglutination time that was significantly less than that observed for 128 controls. The agglutinating property was observed to be transmitted through several generations and through both maternal and paternal branches of the pedigrees. Qualitative differences were noted, with CF sera

F. L. Cohen; W. L. Daniel

1974-01-01

211

The challenges of Proteus syndrome: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a disorder of patchy or mosaic postnatal overgrowth of unknown etiology. The onset of overgrowth typically occurs in infancy and can involve any tissue of the body. Commonly involved tissues include connective tissue and bone, skin, central nervous system, the eye, but it apparently can affect any tissue. Diagnosing of PS is difficult and the diagnostic

Leslie Biesecker

2006-01-01

212

Nuptial gift in the spider Pisaura mirabilis maintained by sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuptial prey gift in the spider Pisaura mirabilis has been suggested to function as a male protection against sexual canni- balism during courtship and mating. This hypothesis together with two alternatives—male mating effort and paternal investment hypotheses—were tested in a laboratory experiment with sexually inexperienced males and females. One group of males offered no gift to the female while

Pia Stalhandske

2001-01-01

213

Pseudomonas screening assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

1993-01-01

214

Evaluation of the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Citrus reticulata fruit (Tangerine fruit peel) from South West Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile oil of tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata) was extracted by steam distillation and assessed for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The volatile oil was tested against some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter spp); Gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and a

G. A. Ayoola; O. O. Johnson; T. Adelowotan; I. E. Aibinu; E. Adenipekun; A. A. Adepoju; H. A. B. Coker; T. O. Odugbemi

215

Antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Verbascum sinuatum L. on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of Verbascum sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae) were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against the pathogens causing complicated urine tract infection (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans) disk diffusion method and microdilution method. Some antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics were used as a positive reference standard to determine the

Alper Sener; Basaran Dulger

216

The Mouse Pathogenicity and Toxicity of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The LD50 for mice of twenty-one strains of Proteus vulgaris from human infection ranged from 2 to 600 million living bacilli. Mouse-virulence was not associated with the severity or the site of infection in the human subject. The relatively high virulence of some strains was not due to any peculiar demon- strable toxicity of the cell-substance, because killed cells

A. A. MILES

1951-01-01

217

The Proteus syndrome: association with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.  

PubMed

In this report we present the first case of Proteus syndrome associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The case is a 9-month-old girl, with macrodactyly of both feet and left hand, syndactyly of the 3rd and 4th fingers of the left hand, soft tissue masses in the paravertebral and gluteal regions, and a hyperpigmented epidermal nevus with hyperkeratosis on the left half of the body. PMID:2208765

Hotamisligil, G S; Ertogan, F

1990-08-01

218

Leaf temperatures and energy balance of Welwitschia mirabilis in its natural habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welwitschia mirabilis is a perennial desert plant with extremely large leaves (0.5–1.0 m broad, 1–2 m long). Leaf temperatures were measured in the field and the energy budget was calculated. The portions of the leaf which were kept above the ground had leaf temperatures which were only 4–6°C above air temperature. In the leaf portions which were in contact with

E.-D. Schulze; B. M. Eller; D. A. Thomas; D. J. v. Willert; E. Brinckmann

1980-01-01

219

Proteus: A System for Dynamically Composing and Intelligently Executing Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations envision web services as an enabling component of Internet-scale computing. A final vision of web services is to realize a dynamic environment that identifies, composes and executes web services in response to a query. This vision shapes the design and implementation of Proteus. In addition to describing Proteus' novel components, this paper outlines its initial system design. A.

Shahram Ghandeharizadeh; Craig A. Knoblock; Christos Papadopoulos; Cyrus Shahabi; Esam Alwagait; José Luis Ambite; Min Cai; Ching-chien Chen; Parikshit Pol; Rolfe R. Schmidt; Saihong Song; Snehal Thakkar; Runfang Zhou

2003-01-01

220

Mechanics and control of the cytoskeleton in Amoeba proteus.  

PubMed Central

Many models of the cytoskeletal motility of Amoeba proteus can be formulated in terms of the theory of reactive interpenetrating flow (Dembo and Harlow, 1986). We have devised numerical methodology for testing such models against the phenomenon of steady axisymmetric fountain flow. The simplest workable scheme revealed by such tests (the minimal model) is the main preoccupation of this study. All parameters of the minimal model are determined from available data. Using these parameters the model quantitatively accounts for the self assembly of the cytoskeleton of A. proteus: for the formation and detailed morphology of the endoplasmic channel, the ectoplasmic tube, the uropod, the plasma gel sheet, and the hyaline cap. The model accounts for the kinematics of the cytoskeleton: the detailed velocity field of the forward flow of the endoplasm, the contraction of the ectoplasmic tube, and the inversion of the flow in the fountain zone. The model also gives a satisfactory account of measurements of pressure gradients, measurements of heat dissipation, and measurements of the output of useful work by amoeba. Finally, the model suggests a very promising (but still hypothetical) continuum formulation of the free boundary problem of amoeboid motion. by balancing normal forces on the plasma membrane as closely as possible, the minimal model is able to predict the turgor pressure and surface tension of A. proteus. Several dynamical factors are crucial to the success of the minimal model and are likely to be general features of cytoskeletal mechanics and control in amoeboid cells. These are: a constitutive law for the viscosity of the contractile network that includes an automatic process of gelation as the network density gets large; a very vigorous cycle of network polymerization and depolymerization (in the case of A. proteus, the time constant for this reaction is approximately 12 s); control of network contractility by a diffusible factor (probably calcium ion); and control of the adhesive interaction between the cytoskeleton and the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:2765645

Dembo, M

1989-01-01

221

Classification, Identification, and Clinical Significance of Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella  

PubMed Central

This review presents the current taxonomy of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella, along with the current methods for the identification of each species within the three genera, incorporating both conventional biochemical and commercial methods. While all of these organisms are ubiquitous in the environment, individual case reports and nosocomial outbreak reports that demonstrate their ability to cause major infectious disease problems are presented. Lastly, anticipated antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are reviewed. Many of these organisms are easily controlled, but the advent of newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents has led to some problems of which laboratorians need to be aware. PMID:11023955

O'Hara, Caroline Mohr; Brenner, Frances W.; Miller, J. Michael

2000-01-01

222

The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

223

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays follicular elevations of the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

224

Prototyping parallel and distributed programs in PROTEUS. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Prototyping is an important technique in software development for early exploration and validation of requirements. When prototyping concurrent behavior, the authors must be able to embrace a wide spectrum of models used to construct parallel programs, reflecting a variety of underlying system architectures. In this paper we present Proteus, a language, suitable for prototyping parallel and distributed programs. Proteus starts with the high-level set-theoretic notations of SETL and REFINE. They then extend this base with the barrier-merge parallel construct, which partitions the variables used for communication in its shared memory model into shared and private sets. Each parallel process receives an independent copy of the private variables. These private copies are independently updated, and may be merged into the global state at specifiable barrier synchronization points: at these points a portion of the merged state may be reflected back into each private state. They envision a layered language structure to express the various programming models, such as communicating sequential processes and data-level parallelism, in terms of this common foundation. A common foundation also facilitates the prototyping of heterogeneous systems whose concurrent parts are programmed following different models.

Mills, P.H.; Nyland, L.S.; Prins, J.F.; Reif, J.H.; Wagner, R.A.

1990-10-01

225

Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.

Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

1995-01-01

226

LYSOGENY IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been made into lysogenicity and pyocinogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteriophages isolated were classified into groups on their antigenic properties and attempts have been made to correlate biological characteristics with this grouping. Multiple lysogeny in some strains is described, including one strain lysogenic for four unrelated phages.Certain of the bacterial strains are lysogenic for a phage having

BW Holloway; JB Egan; Marilyn Monk

1960-01-01

227

21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Streptococcus spp. (including S. equi ), Escherichia coli , and Proteus mirabilis , and skin and soft tissue...Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli , and P. mirabilis , when caused by...

2011-04-01

228

21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Streptococcus spp. (including S. equi ), Escherichia coli , and Proteus mirabilis , and skin and soft tissue...Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli , and P. mirabilis , when caused by...

2012-04-01

229

21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial...Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2013-04-01

230

21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella...Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus...Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated...

2012-04-01

231

21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Streptococcus spp. (including S. equi ), Escherichia coli , and Proteus mirabilis , and skin and soft tissue...Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli , and P. mirabilis , when caused by...

2013-04-01

232

21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.  

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial...Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2014-04-01

233

21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella...Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus...Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated...

2013-04-01

234

21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.  

...Streptococcus spp. (including S. equi ), Escherichia coli , and Proteus mirabilis , and skin and soft tissue...Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli , and P. mirabilis , when caused by...

2014-04-01

235

21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.  

... spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella...Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus...Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated...

2014-04-01

236

21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial...Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2011-04-01

237

21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial...Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

2012-04-01

238

21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella...Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus...Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated...

2011-04-01

239

Deciphering simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study disclosed how and why electron-shuttling mediators were capable to stimulate bioelectricity-generating capabilities of dye-bearing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Proteus hauseri. Due to significant biotoxicity of 4-aminophenol (4AP) and the absence of electron-mediating potential of 3AP, only 2AP among all isomers could work as an exogenous mediator to stimulate bioelectricity generation of P. hauseri. Dye toxicity to cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs apparently affected the performance of simultaneous bioelectricity production and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Plus, dose-response analysis upon toxicity potency of reactive blue 160 revealed that cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs had a higher tolerance to reactive blue 160 than suspended cells. Apparently, augmentation of electron mediator(s) with low toxicity was a feasible means to facilitate bioelectricity-generating capability of SBP&CR. PMID:22178022

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son; Liu, Shi-Qi; Hung, Jhao-Yin

2012-04-01

240

Nyu: description of the proteus\\/pet system as used for muc-7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paper we discuss the system's performance on the MUC-7 Scenario Template task (ST). The topicscovered in the following sections are: the Proteus core extraction engine; the example-based PET interfaceto Proteus; a discussion of how these were used to accommodate the MUC-7 Space Launch scenario task.We conclude with the evaluation of the system's performance and observations regarding possible areas

R. Yangarber; R. Grishman

1998-01-01

241

Behavioral Evidence and Supporting Electrophysiological Observations for Electroreception in the Blind Cave Salamander, Proteus anguinus (Urodela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioning experiments revealed that Proteus perceives a back-and-forth moving (?1 Hz) direct-current field and its polarity. Minimum behavioral thresholds occurred at a current density of 0.15 ?A\\/ cm2, corresponding to a voltage gradient of 0.5 mV\\/cm. Recordings from afferent nerve fibers showed that ampullary electroreceptors in Proteus respond as do other nonteleost receptors, i.e. with an increase in discharge rate

A. Roth; P. Schlegel

1988-01-01

242

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings  

MedlinePLUS

... Personnel Klebsiella MRSA Mycobacterium abscessus Norovirus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus Tuberculosis VISA / VRSA Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings Resources for Patients ...

243

A Severe and Rapidly Progressive Case of Proteus Syndrome in a Neonate Who Presented with Unilateral Hydrocephalus Apart from Other Typical Features of the Proteus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartomatous disorder affecting multiple tissues and manifesting itself in a variety of ways. The understanding of the complete spectrum of clinical features, the natural clinical course of the disease and the proper management of such a rare but highly variable syndrome depend heavily on experiences gathered by previously reported cases. We present an unusually severely affected and rapidly progressive case of proteus syndrome in a neonate who presented with craniofacial hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous masses, capillary hemangioma, varicose veins, epidermal nevi and macrodactyly. The cranial ultrasonogram revealed unilateral hydrocephalus with partial obstruction of the foramen of monro. PMID:24027714

Kumar, Rakesh; Bhagat, Puja

2012-01-01

244

Aetas Mirabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I recently had occasion to read again Galileo's Dialogue on Two New Sciences. Although it's hard to read Newton's Principia with its geometrical proofs, it's a delight to follow the banter and brilliant reasoning of the Dialogues. What a marvelous time to have been a scientist! Only three hundred and sixty-five years ago our whole world view was being overthrown by a few men, armed with their brains and some new optical devices.

Swartz, Clifford E.

1999-04-01

245

Effects of Aridity and Fog Deposition on C3/CAM Photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental controls on photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis are evaluated through ?13C and ?15N analyses of leaf material from 26 individuals in the southermost population of this long-lived gymnosperm, which is endemic to the Namib Desert. The coastal Namib Desert in southwestern Africa is hyperarid in terms of rainfall, but receives up to 100 days of fog each year. This climate regime leads to interesting water relations in the Namib flora and fauna. Among many enigmatic characteristics, photosynthesis in W. mirabilis has puzzled researchers since the 1970's. Although it is predominantly a C3 plant, ?13C ranges from -17.5 to -23.5‰ in natural habitats, and can be as enriched as -14.4‰ under artificial growing conditions. Recently the CAM pathway has been confirmed, but the driver for CAM utilization has not been identified. In this study we incorporate new ?13C compositions for plants in the middle of the 100 km aridity gradient which spans the natural distribution of W. mirabilis. Initial results show an enriched ?13C signal (-20‰) in the more exposed individuals compared with those in a sandy drainage depression (-22‰). In addition, the documented correlation between rainfall and ?15N found in Kalahari C3 plants (Swap et al. 2004) is used to interpret the ?15N values in this W. mirabilis population. Initial results indicate that the fog deposition may significantly affect the nutrition of these unusual plants from the Namib Desert.

Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

2008-12-01

246

Phylogenetic relationships of Dalyat mirabilis Mateu, 2002, with a revised molecular phylogeny of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalyat mirabilis Mateu 2002 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is a cave species recently described from SE Spain, which, based on morphological analyses, has been related to the Promecognathinae (with one genus in western North America and four genera in South Africa). In this paper, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the main lineages of family Carabidae, and the placement of Dalyat among

I. Ribera; J. Mateu; X. Belles

2005-01-01

247

Long-term growth patterns of Welwitschia mirabilis, a long-lived plant of the Namib Desert (including a bibliography)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 14 years, long-term ecological research (LTER) was conducted on the desert perennial, Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales: Welwitschiaceae), located in the Welwitschia Wash near Gobabeb in the Central Namib Desert. We measured leaf growth of 21 plants on a monthly basis and compared this with climatic data. The population structure as well as its spatial distribution was determined for

Joh R. Henschel; Mary K. Seely

2000-01-01

248

Franois-Ronan Dubois Paru dans Proteus, n5 (Tropes et rituels de la pornographie) : 48-54  

E-print Network

François-Ronan Dubois Paru dans Proteus, n°5 (Tropes et rituels de la pornographie) : 48-54 2013 La. halshs-00834735,version1-17Jun2013 Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "PROTEUS, 5 (2013) 48-54" #12;François-Ronan Dubois Paru dans Proteus, n°5 (Tropes et rituels de la pornographie) : 48-54 2013 dénoncer ses effets

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

The complete plastid genome sequence of Welwitschia mirabilis: an unusually compact plastome with accelerated divergence rates  

PubMed Central

Background Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant member of the family Welwitschiaceae, one of three lineages of gnetophytes, an enigmatic group of gymnosperms variously allied with flowering plants or conifers. Limited sequence data and rapid divergence rates have precluded consensus on the evolutionary placement of gnetophytes based on molecular characters. Here we report on the first complete gnetophyte chloroplast genome sequence, from Welwitschia mirabilis, as well as analyses on divergence rates of protein-coding genes, comparisons of gene content and order, and phylogenetic implications. Results The chloroplast genome of Welwitschia mirabilis [GenBank: EU342371] is comprised of 119,726 base pairs and exhibits large and small single copy regions and two copies of the large inverted repeat (IR). Only 101 unique gene species are encoded. The Welwitschia plastome is the most compact photosynthetic land plant plastome sequenced to date; 66% of the sequence codes for product. The genome also exhibits a slightly expanded IR, a minimum of 9 inversions that modify gene order, and 19 genes that are lost or present as pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analyses, including one representative of each extant seed plant lineage and based on 57 concatenated protein-coding sequences, place Welwitschia at the base of all seed plants (distance, maximum parsimony) or as the sister to Pinus (the only conifer representative) in a monophyletic gymnosperm clade (maximum likelihood, bayesian). Relative rate tests on these gene sequences show the Welwitschia sequences to be evolving at faster rates than other seed plants. For these genes individually, a comparison of average pairwise distances indicates that relative divergence in Welwitschia ranges from amounts about equal to other seed plants to amounts almost three times greater than the average for non-gnetophyte seed plants. Conclusion Although the basic organization of the Welwitschia plastome is typical, its compactness, gene content and high nucleotide divergence rates are atypical. The current lack of additional conifer plastome sequences precludes any discrimination between the gnetifer and gnepine hypotheses of seed plant relationships. However, both phylogenetic analyses and shared genome features identified here are consistent with either of the hypotheses that link gnetophytes with conifers, but are inconsistent with the anthophyte hypothesis. PMID:18452621

2008-01-01

250

Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

Trell, Erik

2012-09-01

251

Allocations de recherche doctorale (211-B2-9/ARED) Dossier N4573 Moocel Date de la demande : 10/01/2008  

E-print Network

water activity rules periodic terrace generation in Proteus mirabilis swarm. E. Frénod & E. Goubert result for a model of Proteus mirabilis Swarm. Differential and Integral Equations, Vol 19, No 6, p 697

Frénod, Emmanuel

252

42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...perfringens Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter freundii Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Salmonella typhimurium Serratia marcescens Shigella sonnei...

2012-10-01

253

42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...perfringens Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter freundii Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Salmonella typhimurium Serratia marcescens Shigella sonnei...

2013-10-01

254

An ultrastructural study, effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the rabbit spleen cells.  

PubMed

Effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the spleen cells of rabbits were investigated. Control group (n=5) and Proteus treated group (n=5) of New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study. Bacteria were injected to the rabbits in five days periods with increasing dosages for one month. Thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope (Jeol 100CXII). Ultrastructural changes were defined in spleen tissue cells due to the antigenic stimulation of bacteria. Spleen cells observed in control group were in normal structure and cells were in close contact with each other. However, spleen cells of Proteus treated group displayed structural changes with regard to the control group in electron microscopic examinations. Chemotaxis of macrophages, forming of pseudopodia and presence of phagocytic vacuoles were observed. Lymphocytes, the major cells of spleen revealed mitotic activity. In addition, chromatin condensation in nucleus and dilatations in perinuclear space were significant. Interactions of lymphocytes and macrophages were noteworthy. PMID:22726264

Gul, Nursel; Ozkorkmaz, Ebru Gokalp; Kelesoglu, Ilknur; Ozluk, Aydin

2013-01-01

255

Published Ahead of Print 9 November 2012. 2013, 195(2):368. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01537-12.J. Bacteriol.  

E-print Network

mirabilis Swarmer Cell Motility in Viscous Flagellum Density Regulates Proteus http://jb.asm.org/content/195 Regulates Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Motility in Viscous Environments Hannah H. Tuson,a Matthew F--Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USAc Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated

Weibel, Douglas B.

256

Dynamic self-assembly of motile bacteria in liquid Peter C. Mushenheim,a  

E-print Network

) that associate irreversibly in LCs via elasticity-mediated forces, we report that motile Proteus mirabilis Proteus mirabilis cells. We also measured the dissociation process, which occurs in a direction determined Proteus mirabilis relative to a population of non-motile cells. Overall, these observations and others

Weibel, Douglas B.

257

Advances in understanding Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the type species of pseudomonads, is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes a wide range of niches. Current genome sequencing projects are producing previously inconceivable detail about the population biology and evolution of P. aeruginosa. Its pan-genome has a larger genetic repertoire than the human genome, which explains the broad metabolic capabilities of P. aeruginosa and its ubiquitous distribution in aquatic habitats. P. aeruginosa may persist in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis for decades. The ongoing whole-genome analyses of serial isolates from cystic fibrosis patients provide the so far singular opportunity to monitor the microevolution of a bacterial pathogen during chronic infection over thousands of generations. Although the evolution in cystic fibrosis lungs is neutral overall, some pathoadaptive mutations are selected during the within-host evolutionary process. Even a single mutation may be sufficient to generate novel complex traits provided that predisposing mutational events have previously occurred in the clonal lineage. PMID:24592321

Wiehlmann, Lutz; Klockgether, Jens; Cramer, Nina

2014-01-01

258

Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; Garcia-Valdes, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

2006-01-01

259

Dr. Anthony Michaels (Tony) is co-Founder and Managing Director of Proteus Environmental Technologies and chief scientist at Pegasus Capital Advisors.  

E-print Network

Dr. Anthony Michaels (Tony) is co-Founder and Managing Director of Proteus Environmental Technologies and chief scientist at Pegasus Capital Advisors. Proteus creates economic value through novel environmental markets. Proteus creates and manages a portfolio of companies with environmental technologies

Zhang, Junshan

260

A Proteus-Mediated Communications Substrate for LegionCCA and XCAT-C++ Deger Cenk Erdil, Kenneth Chiu, Madhusudhan Govindaraju, Michael J. Lewis  

E-print Network

A Proteus-Mediated Communications Substrate for LegionCCA and XCAT-C++ Deger Cenk Erdil, Kenneth within two disjoint framework implementations. The Proteus multi-protocol communication layer will allow the two dis- tributed frameworks. This paper describes working imple- mentations of Proteus within both

261

Prototyping Nbody Simulation in Proteus z Peter H. Mills y , Lars S. Nyland \\Lambda , Jan F. Prins \\Lambda , John H. Reif y  

E-print Network

Prototyping N­body Simulation in Proteus z Peter H. Mills y , Lars S. Nyland \\Lambda , Jan F. Prins, 1992. Abstract This paper explores the use of Proteus, an architecture­independent language suitable for prototyp­ ing parallel and distributed programs. Proteus is a high­ level imperative notation based on sets

Reif, John H.

262

In the First International Conference on Web Services (ICWS), Las Vegas, Nevada, June 23-26, 2003. Proteus: A System for Dynamically Composing and Intelligently Executing Web  

E-print Network

. 1 Proteus: A System for Dynamically Composing and Intelligently Executing Web Services1 Shahram by an unrestricted cash gift from Microsoft Research. 2 Proteus is a Greek sea god with the ability to change shape and executes web services in response to a query. This vision shapes the design and implementation of Proteus

Shahabi, Cyrus

263

Prototyping Parallel and Distributed Programs in Proteus z Peter H. Mills y , Lars S. Nyland \\Lambda , Jan F. Prins \\Lambda , John H. Reif y , Robert A. Wagner y  

E-print Network

Prototyping Parallel and Distributed Programs in Proteus z Peter H. Mills y , Lars S. Nyland Processing, (Dallas, Texas, Dec.1­5), pp. 10--19, IEEE, 1991. Abstract This paper presents Proteus, an architecture­ independent language suitable for prototyping parallel and distributed programs. Proteus

Reif, John H.

264

Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer. PMID:24390313

Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

2014-04-01

265

Scaled Composites' Proteus and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are seen h  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

266

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the PROTEUS reactor  

SciTech Connect

An extensive program of reactor physics experiments in GCFR fuel pin lattices has been completed recently at the PROTEUS critical facility located at EIR laboratory in Switzerland. The PROTEUS reactor consists of a central test zone surrounded by a uranium buffer and thermal driver region. The test lattices included a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fuel region with internal and axial blankets of UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and thorium metal. Detailed analysis of the thorium-bearing lattices has been performed at EIR and at ORNL in order to validate nuclear data and methods used for reactor physics analysis of advanced GCFR designs.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Schmocker, U.

1980-01-01

267

PROTEUS investigations for advanced thermal, fast, and intermediate-spectrum reactors  

SciTech Connect

The zero-power reactor, PROTEUS, has been used over the years for physics investigations concerning various types of advanced systems, namely gas-cooled fast reactors (GCFRs) in the seventies, light water high-conversion reactors (LWHCR) in the eighties and, currently, low-enriched-uranium high-temperature reactors (LEU-HTRs). The wide range of test neutron spectra cover underlines the versatility of the facility, the safety and operational limits for which have largely remained unaltered during the different experimental programs. This paper reviews the scope of the various PROTEUS investigations and includes evaluations of some of the most recent experiments.

Chawla, R.; Seiler, R.; Mathews, D. (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland))

1992-01-01

268

Effect ofColiform andProteus Bacteria on Growth ofStaphylococcus aureus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIGIAcINTo, J.V.(University ofWisconsin, Madison), AND W. C.FRAZIER. Effect ofcoliform andProteus bacteria on growth ofStaphylococcus aureus.Appl. Microbiol. 14:124-129. 1966.-Cultures ofcoliform andProteus bacteria, mostly fromfoods, were tested fortheir effect on growthofStaphylococcus aureus in Trypticase SoyBroth. Inhibition ofthestaphylococcus bythese competitors in- creased withincreasing proportions ofinhibiting (effector) bacteria intheinoculum anddecreasing incubation temperatures (37to10C).Timerequired for2 X 104 staphylococci toincrease to5 X 10icells permilliliter, theminimal number

J. V. DiGIACINTO; W. C. FRAZIER

269

Behavioral evidence and supporting electrophysiological observations for electroreception in the blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Urodela).  

PubMed

Conditioning experiments revealed that Proteus perceives a back-and-forth moving (approximately 1 Hz) direct-current field and its polarity. Minimum behavioral thresholds occurred at a current density of 0.15 microA/cm2, corresponding to a voltage gradient of 0.5 mV/cm. Recordings from afferent nerve fibers showed that ampullary electroreceptors in Proteus respond as do other nonteleost receptors, i.e. with an increase in discharge rate to cathodal current and a decrease to anodal current (threshold: approximately 1 mV/cm). PMID:3233487

Roth, A; Schlegel, P

1988-01-01

270

Antibacterial effect of some 2,6-disubstituted 4-anilinoquinazolines.  

PubMed

Two synthetic 2,6-disubstituted 4-anilinoquinazolines exerted a significant effect on the G+ bacteria Bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus. None of 12 tested derivatives influenced Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Derivatives having the aromatic ring non-substituted or substituted by bromine, the pyrimidine ring by phenyl, morpholine or piperidine and the aniline skeleton non-substituted or substituted by methyl or amino group exerted a considerable antibacterial activity. PMID:10189231

Gottasová, R; Kubíková, J; Cipák, L

1998-01-01

271

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

2014-01-01

272

Inducible ?-Lactamases are Principally Responsible for the Naturally Occurring Resistance towards ?-Lactam Antibiotics in Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of inducible chromosomally mediated ?-lactamases was studied in 22 Proteus vulgaris isolates by monitoring enzyme induction in the presence of various inducers such as ampicillin, cefalothin, cefuroxime, cefsulodin, 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APS), and imipenem. 20 of the isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin, cefalothin, and cefuroxime, whereas 2 isolates were susceptible to these compounds. In all resistant isolates marked inoculum

A. Aspiotis; W. Cullmann; W. Dick; M. Stieglitz

1986-01-01

273

Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus1In

Zhi-Gang Feng; Efstathios E. Michaelides

2005-01-01

274

Orbital resonances in the inner neptunian system. II. Resonant history of Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, and Despina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the orbital history of the small neptunian satellites discovered by Voyager 2. Over the age of the Solar System, tidal forces have caused the satellites to migrate radially, bringing them through mean-motion resonances with one another. In this paper, we extend our study of the largest satellites Proteus and Larissa [Zhang, K., Hamilton, D.P., 2007. Icarus 188, 386-399] by adding in mid-sized Galatea and Despina. We test the hypothesis that these moons all formed with zero inclinations, and that orbital resonances excited their tilts during tidal migration. We find that the current orbital inclinations of Proteus, Galatea, and Despina are consistent with resonant excitation if they have a common density 0.4Proteus, which helps constrain the tidal migration timescale and thus Neptune's tidal quality factor: 9000Proteus and Larissa, finding 36

Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.

2008-01-01

275

[The isolation of a pure culture of Proteus hauseri from associated bacteria].  

PubMed

A simple method for isolation of P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis pure culture from associations with other microorganisms has been developed. Medium for inoculation of a bacterial culture suspected of an association contains glycerin and asparaginic acid. The suggested method is simple and highly effective, reproducible at any bacteriologic laboratory, and is particularly valuable for improving the quality of etiologic diagnosis of pyoseptic diseases. PMID:1699046

Parkhomenko, L V; Open'ko, L V

1990-01-01

276

1984, 158(3):1037.J. Bacteriol. J O Falkinham 3rd and P S Hoffman  

E-print Network

1984, 158(3):1037.J. Bacteriol. J O Falkinham 3rd and P S Hoffman Proteus mirabilis. swarm and short cells of Proteus vulgaris and Unique developmental characteristics of the http and Short Cells of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis J. 0. FALKINHAM III1* AND P. S. HOFFMAN2

Falkinham, Joseph

277

Genetic Recombination in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Genetic recombination has been shown to occur in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crosses between 18 biochemical mutants of 4 strains were studied and, although non-random segregation was found for non-selective markers, it has not yet been possible to draw conclusions concerning gene order or linkage. The progeny obtained from crosses tended to resemble one parent more than the other. The 4

B. W. HOLLOWAY

1955-01-01

278

Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

279

[Comparative study of the antibiotic sensitivity of Proteus hauseri bacteria belonging to different serological groups].  

PubMed

Sensitivity to 9 antibiotics of 1040 strains of Proteus belonging to the serological groups 03, 05, 06, 07, 010, 011, 013, 023, 024, 026, 027, 028 and 030 was studied. It was found that the above strains were sensitive and highly sensitive to the aminoglycosides and streptomycin, slightly sensitive to levomycetin and resistant to tetracyclines, erythromycin and penicillin. All the strains were polyresistant and 99.6 per cent of them were resistant to 4--9 antibiotics. Ten types of resistance were found. Proteus strains with the resistance type PETOtCht were most common. No relation between the occurrence of the strains of various serological groups and the character and level of their resistance to the antibiotics was found. PMID:132135

Agaeva, R A

1976-01-01

280

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds,empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

281

Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air–cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically

Bor-Yann Chen; Yu-Min Wang; I-Son Ng

2011-01-01

282

Assessment upon azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation by Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. Chemical structures of azo dyes apparently affected the performance of dye biodecolorization. Additions of diazo dye C.I. reactive blue 160 (RBu160) stimulated simultaneous dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of ZMd44 in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, high-level additions of RBu160 repressed

Bor-Yann Chen; Meng-Meng Zhang; Chang-Tang Chang; Yongtao Ding; Kae-Long Lin; Chyow-San Chiou; Chung-Chuan Hsueh; Huizhong Xu

2010-01-01

283

Untersuchungen über Wachstumserscheinungen von Proteus vulgaris Hauser unter dem Einfluß hoher Penicillinkonzentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Unter dem Einfluß von Penicillin bildet Bacterium vulgare (Proteus vulgaris) in einer einfachen serumfreien Nährlösung Kugelzellen, die in ihrer Gestalt von der Normalform der Bakterienzelle stark abweichen, aber in ihrer Entstehung und im Erscheinungsbild dem L-Phasenwachstum sehr ähneln.2.Phasenkontrastmikroskopische Untersuchungen ergaben, daß die beobachteten Formen sich vom L-Phasenwachstum durch den Besitz von wahrscheinlich zwei Membranen unterscheiden.3.Lebendzellzählungen und Trübungsmessungen führten zu dem

F. Radler; A. Rippel-Baldes

1956-01-01

284

Structure of an O-acetylated acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O46  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acidic O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O46 and studied by chemical methods (O-deacetylation, sugar and methylation analyses, partial solvolysis) and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Solvolysis of the O-deacetylated polysaccharide with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in a ?-d-GlcpNAc-(1?3)-d-GlcA disaccharide that demonstrated the usefulness of this reagent for selective cleavage of heteropolysaccharides.

Andrei V Perepelov; Sof'ya N Senchenkova; Agnieszka Torzewska; Beata Bartodziejska; Aleksander S Shashkov; Antoni Rozalski; Yuriy A Knirel

2000-01-01

285

Crystal Structure of Proteus vulgaris Chondroitin Sulfate ABC Lyase I at 1.9 Å Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondroitin Sulfate ABC lyase I from Proteus vulgaris is an endolytic, broad-specificity glycosaminoglycan lyase, which degrades chondroitin, chondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronan by ?-elimination of 1,4-hexosaminidic bond to unsaturated disaccharides and tetrasaccharides. Its structure revealed three domains. The N-terminal domain has a fold similar to that of carbohydrate-binding domains of xylanases and some lectins, the middle and C-terminal domains

Weijun Huang; Vladimir V. Lunin; Yunge Li; Sakaru Suzuki; Nobuo Sugiura; Hirofumi Miyazono; Miroslaw Cygler

2003-01-01

286

Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding the Proteus vulgaris chondroitin ABC lyase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural gene encoding chondroitin ABC lyase from Proteus vulgaris was cloned and sequenced. This gene consists of a single open reading frame of 3,063 bp, including a sequence (72 bp) for a possible secretory protein leader peptide, preceded by a Shire-Dalgarno ribosomal binding site. Promoter-like and ?-independent terminator sequences were detected upstream and downstream of the open reading frame,

Nobuyuki Sato; Masahiko Shimada; Hiroshi Nakajima; Hiroshi Oda; Shoji Kimura

1994-01-01

287

Changes in the Dry Weight and the Deoxyribonucleic Acid Content of Proteus vulgaris caused by Penicillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BONIFAS1 succeeded in stopping the lysis of the so-called `large bodies' of Proteus vulgaris by increasing the osmotic value of the nutritive medium, and Gale2 found that penicillin blocks the synthesis of high polymers, causing an accumulation of poly-peptides of low molecular weight and mononucleotides in the cell, which is accompanied by the increase in its osmotic value. On the

M. V. Nermut; V. DRÁŠIL

1958-01-01

288

Structure and cross-reactivity of the O-antigen of Proteus vulgaris O8  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-molecular-mass O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus vulgaris O8 lipopolysaccharide followed by gel permeation chromatography. Studies of the polysaccharide by sugar and methylation analyses and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, and H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments, demonstrated the presence of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure:The

Andrei V. Perepelov; Dorota Babicka; Alexander S. Shashkov; Nikolay P. Arbatsky; Sof’ya N. Senchenkova; Antoni Rozalski; Yuriy A. Knirel

1999-01-01

289

The structure of the core part of Proteus vulgaris OX2 lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity of a novel structural component, an open-chain acetalic linkage, in the core part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus vulgaris serotype OX2 has been determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis of fragments isolated after mild acid hydrolysis of the intact LPS. The open-chain N-acetylgalactosamine fragment is substituted in the 4-position by non-stoichiometric amounts of a ?-galactopyranose residue and

Evgeny Vinogradov; Klaus Bock

1999-01-01

290

Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results  

SciTech Connect

The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of the PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k{sub eff} (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)

Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Seiler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

291

The Proteus Navier-Stokes code. [two and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. Proteus solves the Reynolds-averaged, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. Turbulence is modeled using a Baldwin-Lomax based algebraic eddy viscosity model. In addition, options are available to solve thin layer or Euler equations, and to eliminate the energy equation by assuming constant stagnation enthalpy. An extensive series of validation cases have been run, primarily using the two dimensional planar/axisymmetric version of the code. Several flows were computed that have exact solution such as: fully developed channel and pipe flow; Couette flow with and without pressure gradients; unsteady Couette flow formation; flow near a suddenly accelerated flat plate; flow between concentric rotating cylinders; and flow near a rotating disk. The two dimensional version of the Proteus code has been released, and the three dimensional code is scheduled for release in late 1991.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.

1992-01-01

292

Applications of Monte Carlo methods for the analysis of MHTGR case of the PROTEUS benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo methods, as implemented in the MCNP code, have been used to analyze the neutronics characteristics of benchmarks related to Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. The benchmarks are idealized versions of the Japanes (VHTRC) and Swiss (PROTEUS) facilities and an actual configurations of the PROTEUS Configuration I experiment. The purpose of the unit cell benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, critical bucklings, migration lengths, reaction rates and spectral indices. The purpose of the full reactors benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, reaction rates, spectral indices, neutron balances, reaction rates profiles, temperature coefficients of reactivity and effective delayed neutron fractions. All of these parameters can be calculated by MCNP, which can provide a very detailed model of the geometry of the configurations, from fuel particles to entire fuel assemblies, using at the same time a continuous energy model. These characteristics make MCNP a very useful tool to analyze these MHTGR benchmarks. We have used the MCNP latest version, 4.x, eld = 01/12/93 with an ENDF/B-V cross section library. This library does not yet contain temperature dependent resonance materials, so all calculations correspond to room temperature, T = 300{degree}K. Two separate reports were made -- one for the VHTRC, the other for the PROTEUS benchmark.

Difilippo, F.C.

1994-04-01

293

The pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyocins are produced by more than 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and each strain may synthesise several pyocins. The pyocin genes are located on the P. aeruginosa chromosome and their activities are inducible by mutagenic agents such as mitomycin C. Three types of pyocins are described. (i) R-type pyocins resemble non-flexible and contractile tails of bacteriophages. They provoke a depolarisation of

Yvon Michel-Briand; Christine Baysse

2002-01-01

294

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

295

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

296

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

297

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taking Off from Mojave Airport in Mojave, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uniquely-shaped Proteus high-altitude research aircraft lifts off from the runway at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

298

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

299

Biotesting of water quality in Peter the Great Bay with the use of the microalga Dunaliella salina and embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biotesting was performed using embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis and the microalga Dunaliella salina. These two species were taken as test organisms for estimating water quality in areas of various anthropogenic loads. Seawater\\u000a from Nakhodka and Vostok bays, as well as from the southwestern part of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) near the

E. V. Zhuravel; Zh. V. Markina; N. K. Khristoforova; N. A. Aizdaicher

2006-01-01

300

The 2:1 Mean-motion Resonance between Proteus and Larissa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyager 2 discovered six small satellites orbiting near Neptune; Proteus and Larissa, the two largest and outermost ones, display larger eccentricities than average, as well as non-zero inclinations. These satellites formed in a thin debris disk resulting from the catastrophic destruction of the original Neptunian satellites shortly after the capture of Triton. The slim debris disk suggests that moonlet orbits should not acquire significant tilts at formation, and any initial eccentricities should damp away rapidly due to tides. Hence, the non-zero eccentricities and inclinations of these two satellites require an explanation. We investigate the possibility of mean-motion resonance passages as an excitation mechanism for the orbital eccentricities and inclinations of Proteus and Larissa. The most recent strong resonance between these two satellites, the 2:1, is located only 600 km outside Larissa's orbit, or 900 km inside Proteus'. This resonance probably occurred only a few hundred million years ago. We find that not only is this resonance partially responsible for the current orbital shapes and orientations of the moons, but it also provides interesting constraints on their physical properties. Our study of this resonance limits the average density of the moons to 0.05 g/cc < ? < 1.5 g/cc, and puts a lower limit on their tidal quality factors, which parameterize energy loss due to tides: Q > 10. Through numerical simulations, we identify a new type of three-body resonance between the small satellite pair and Triton. These resonances occur near the traditional 2:1 mean-motion resonances and, surprisingly, are much stronger than their two-body counterparts, presumably due to Triton's large mass and orbital inclination. We derive a mathematical framework to analyze resonances in this system, and discuss applications to extra-Solar planetary systems.

Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, D. P.

2006-06-01

301

Methods for preventing pseudomonas folliculitis.  

PubMed

This outbreak highlights a number of significant factors related to most pseudomonas folliculitis outbreaks. The bath water had not been changed in more than four weeks which led to a build-up of high levels of organic carbon. There was an extended interval of six days between subsequent OTD chlorine residual tests, allowing the chlorine residual to decrease to low levels between tests. It should also be noted that the OTD test, by design, measures both the active free chlorine and the inactive combined chlorine residual. Therefore OTD residual readings in the low normal range may actually represent below normal free active chlorine residual levels. The following measures are suggested to reduce the growth of pseudomonads in hot tubs and whirlpool baths and to prevent subsequent cases of pseudomonas folliculitis: 1. The OTD chlorine residual should be checked every day. The residual should be well above the minimum level suggested for the bath. Or, preferably, an automatic chlorinator should be installed. This device measures the free chlorine residual and automatically adds chlorine to keep the residual in the desired range. 2. The water in the bath should be changed at least every eight weeks in order to reduce the total organic carbon level. The water should be changed more frequently if the bath is used by a large number of persons. 3. If an outbreak of pseudomonas folliculitis is associated with a bath, the water should be changed and the bath washed with a chlorine-based solution. Also, the method of keeping the chlorine residual in the operating range should be re-evaluated. PMID:7083913

Smith, G L

1982-04-01

302

Assessment upon azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation by Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This study explored dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. Chemical structures of azo dyes apparently affected the performance of dye biodecolorization. Additions of diazo dye C.I. reactive blue 160 (RBu160) stimulated simultaneous dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of ZMd44 in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, high-level additions of RBu160 repressed capabilities of power production in MFC due to competition of electrons used for reductive decolorization. Decolorized intermediates of RBu160-phenyl methadiamine and 5-sulfoanthranilic acid as electron shuttles might mediate electron transport for current generation in MFC. PMID:20156682

Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Chang, Chang-Tang; Ding, Yongtao; Lin, Kae-Long; Chiou, Chyow-San; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Xu, Huizhong

2010-06-01

303

Recent developments for Pseudomonas vaccines  

PubMed Central

Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major health problem for immune-compromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. A vaccine against P. aeruginosa has long been sought after, but is so far not available. Several vaccine candidates have been assessed in experimental animals and humans, which include sub-cellular fractions, capsule components, purified and recombinant proteins. Unique characteristics of the host and the pathogen have complicated the vaccine development. This review summarizes the current state of vaccine development for this ubiquitous pathogen, in particular to provide mucosal immunity against infections of the respiratory tract in susceptible individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:21941090

Sharma, Anurag; Krause, Anja

2011-01-01

304

A REACTION-DIFFUSION SYSTEM WITH PERIODIC FRONT GEORGIY S. MEDVEDEV, TASSO J. KAPER, AND NANCY KOPELL  

E-print Network

, pp. 1601­1638 Abstract. A reaction-diffusion model motivated by Proteus mirabilis swarm colony cells and swimmer cells, which are multicellular and single-cell forms, respectively, of the Proteus words. reaction-diffusion systems, Proteus mirabilis bacterial colonies, population dynam- ics

Kaper, Tasso J.

305

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the proteus reactor  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analysis has been completed for the ThO/sub 2/ and Th-metal axial blanket experiments performed at the Swiss PROTEUS critical facility in order to compare reaction rates and neutron spectra measured in prototypic GCFR configurations with calculated results. The PROTEUS configurations allowed the analysis of infinitely dilute thorium data in a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fast lattice spectrum at core center as well as the analysis of resonance self-shielding effects in the thorium-bearing axial blankets. These comparisons indicate that significant deficiencies still exist in the latest evaluated infinitely dilute thorium data file. Specifically, the analysis showed that the /sup 232/Th capture is underpredicted by ENDF/B-IV data, and the discrepancies are further exaggerated by ENDF/B-V data. On the other hand, ENDF/B-V /sup 232/Th fission data appear to be significantly improved relative to ENDF/B-IV data, while discrepancies are extremely large for the (n,2n) process in both data files. Finally, the (n,n') cross sections for thorium also appear improved in ENDF/B-V, except for a small energy range just above the 50 keV threshold. Therefore, these combined data deficiencies suggest that relatively large uncertainties should be associated with many of the results obtained from recent fast reactor alternate fuel cycle analyses. 38 figures, 12 tables.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1980-12-01

306

Calcium and initial surface binding phase of pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of membrane-bound solute and external medium by bulk-phase pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus is influenced by the level of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the external medium. Increasing external Ca/sup 2 +/ to approx.10/sup -4/ M increases pinocytotic intensity, while increases in Ca/sup 2 +/ above this level decrease the intensity of pinocytosis. The initial interaction of pinocytotic inducers and Ca/sup +2/ at the surface of A moeba proteus was therefore examined. Alcain blue and Na/sup +/, both inducers of pinocytosis, differ in the manner with which they associate with the amoeba surface, suggesting the possibility of different pinocytosis-inducing sites on the amoeba surface. Low levels of external Ca/sup 2 +/ in the range of 3 x 10/sup -5/ to 4.5 x 10/sup -4/ M increase the amount of cationic inducer associated with the cell surface while, at the same time, decreasing anion association with the cell surface. It is suggested that Ca/sup 2 +/ influences ion association with the cell surface by controlling the availability of negative surface sites, which in turn influences pinocytotic intensity. Surface binding of Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Cl/sup -/ was determined by adding /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca or /sup 36/Cl.

Prusch, R.D.

1986-08-01

307

Copper response of Proteus hauseri based on proteomic and genetic expression and cell morphology analyses.  

PubMed

The copper response of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 was determined using one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry for a similarity analysis of proteins isolated from P. hauseri ZMd44 cultured in CuSO4-bearing LB medium. Candidate proteins identified as a copper-transporting P-type ATPase (CTPP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), flagellin (Fla), and outer membrane proteins (Omps) were the major copper-associated proteins in P. hauseri. In a comparative analysis of subcellular (i.e., periplasmic, intracellular, and inner membranes) and cellular debris, proteomics analysis revealed a distinct differential expression of proteins in P. hauseri with and without copper ion exposure. These findings were consistent with the transcription level dynamics determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Based on a genetic cluster analysis of copper-associated proteins from P. hauseri, Fla and one of the Omps showed greater diversity in their protein sequences compared to those of other Proteus species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the observed growth on LB agar plates showed that the swarming motility of cells was significantly suppressed and inhibited upon Cu(II) exposure. Thus, copper stress could have important therapeutic significance due to the loss of swarming motility capacity in P. hauseri, which causes urinary tract infections. PMID:24752937

Ng, I-Son; Zheng, Xuesong; Wang, Nan; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Xia; Lu, Yinghua

2014-07-01

308

Allison Lab Protocol, Pseudomonas Culturing, 4/2008, Steve Allison Reagents and Procedures for Pseudomonas Culturing  

E-print Network

. fluorescens mutant J-1, add 100 µg/ml rifampin and 50 µg/ml kanamycin #12;Allison Lab Protocol, PseudomonasAllison Lab Protocol, Pseudomonas Culturing, 4/2008, Steve Allison Reagents and Procedures for Pseudomonas Culturing 1 M MgSO4 Dissolve 24.6 g MgSO4·7H2O in 100 ml DI water. Autoclave for 20 min. 1 M Tris

German, Donovan P.

309

Distribution and Evolution of Pseudogenes, Gene Losses, and a Gene Rearrangement in the Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made

Norman J. Wickett; Yu Fan; Paul O. Lewis; Bernard Goffinet

2008-01-01

310

[Antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria. 22. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus hauseri lipopolysaccharide].  

PubMed

The following structure of the repeating unit of the Proteus hauseri O-specific polysaccharide was established on the basis of monosaccharide composition and 13C NMR data of the polysaccharide and products of its Smith degradation and partial cleavage with hydrogen fluoride: (Formula: see text). PMID:2441707

Vinogradov, E V; Shashkov, A S; Knirel', Iu A; Kochetkov, N K; Kholodkova, E V

1987-05-01

311

Replacement of NCTC 4175, the Current Type Strain of Proteus vulgaris, with ATCC 29905 Request for an Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current type strain of Proteus vulgaris, NCTC 4175 (= ATCC 13315), differs substantially from typical strains of this species both biochemically and chemotaxonomically. DNA relatedness studies revealed that strains previously classified as P. vulgaris belong to six genomospecies. One of these genomospecies contains strains that are negative in indole, salicin, and esculin reactions (biogroup 1) and has been named

DON J. BRENNER; FRANCES W. HICKMAN-BRENNER; BARRY HOLMES; P. M. HAWKEY; JOHN L. PENNER; PATRICK A. D. GRIMONT

312

Weitere Untersuchungen über den Atmungsstoffwechsel von Proteus vulgaris, dessen stabiler L-Phase und der pleuropneumonie-ähnlichen Organismen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es wurde durch manometrische Atmungsmessung festgestellt, daß die stabile L-Phase von Proteus vulgaris die gleichen Substrate (verschiedene Kohlenhydrate, organische Säuren, Aminosäuren und Alkohole) oxydieren bzw. nicht oxydieren kann wie die Bakterienform, aus der sie isoliert wurde. Auch die Empfindlichkeit gegenüber verschiedenen Atmungsgiften ist von kleineren graduellen Abweichungen abgesehen die gleiche.

Otto Kandler; Claus Zehender; Johannes Müller

1956-01-01

313

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

... parks, interactive fountains, water play areas, hot tubs, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, streams, or the ocean stays ... in locations that have been closed because of pollution. Pseudomonas can multiply quickly when water disinfectant levels ...

314

Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

2004-01-01

315

Reductive metabolism of aminoazobenzenes by Pseudomonas cepacia  

SciTech Connect

The authors earlier isolated a few strains of microbes in sludge from the sewage of an azo dye factory which had assimilability to azo dye. Among them, strain 13NA was identified as Pseudomonas cepacia based on Bergey's Manual and was named Pseudomonas cepacia 13NA. A model experiment for continuous treatment of dye waste was also reported. Some strain 13NA specificities for aminoazobenzenes and reductive and acetylating pathways are described in the present study.

Idaka, E.; Ogawa, T.; Horitsu, H.

1987-07-01

316

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Mirabilis jalapa L. Root on Normal and Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Mirabilis jalapa L. root (EEM) in normal and diabetic mice. After induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, both normal and diabetic mice were singly or repeatedly for 28 days administrated with EEM at doses of 2, 4, 8?g/kg, respectively. Before induction of diabetes, mice were administrated with EEM at doses of 2, 4, 8?g/kg for 14 days and were injected with streptozotocin and continued on EEM administration for another 28 days. Both after and before induction of diabetes, repeated administration with 4, 8?g/kg EEM continually lowered blood glucose level, decreased serum insulin level and improved insulin sensitivity index, and lowered serum total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and triglyceride content in liver and skeletal muscle, and increased glycogen content in these tissues; but repeated administration had no influence on those indexes of normal mice. Single administration with EEM (4, 8?g/kg) showed hypoglycemic effect in oral glucose tolerance test in normal and diabetic mice. Single administration with EEM had no hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects on normal and diabetic mice. These results suggest that EEM possesses both potential insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects on diabetes. PMID:22474494

Zhou, Ji-Yin; Zhou, Shi-Wen; Zeng, Sheng-Ya; Zhou, Jian-Yun; Jiang, Ming-Jin; He, Yan

2012-01-01

317

Analysis of Stomatal and Nonstomatal Components in the Environmental Control of CO2 Exchange in Leaves of Welwitschia mirabilis1  

PubMed Central

In well-watered plants of Welwitschia mirabilis, grown in the glass-house under high irradiance conditions, net CO2 assimilation was almost exclusively observed during the daytime. The plants exhibited a very low potential for Crassulacean acid metabolism, which usually resulted in reduced rates of net CO2 loss for several hours during the night. In leaves exposed to the diurnal changes in temperature and humidity typical of the natural habitats, CO2 assimilation rates in the light were markedly depressed under conditions resembling those occurring during midday, when leaf temperatures and the leaf-air vapor pressure differences were high (36°C and 50 millibars bar?1, respectively). Studies on the relationship between CO2 assimilation rate and intercellular CO2 partial pressure at various temperatures and humidities showed that this decrease in CO2 assimilation was largely due to stomatal closure. The increase in the limitation of photosynthesis by CO2 diffusion, which is associated with the strong decline in stomatal conductance in Welwitschia exposed to midday conditions, may significantly contribute to the higher 13C content of Welwitschia compared to the majority of C3 species. PMID:16664987

Winter, Klaus; Schramm, Michael J.

1986-01-01

318

Extreme lifespan of the human fish (Proteus anguinus): a challenge for ageing mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Theories of extreme lifespan evolution in vertebrates commonly implicate large size and predator-free environments together with physiological characteristics like low metabolism and high protection against oxidative damages. Here, we show that the ‘human fish’ (olm, Proteus anguinus), a small cave salamander (weighing 15–20 g), has evolved an extreme life-history strategy with a predicted maximum lifespan of over 100 years, an adult average lifespan of 68.5 years, an age at sexual maturity of 15.6 years and lays, on average, 35 eggs every 12.5 years. Surprisingly, neither its basal metabolism nor antioxidant activities explain why this animal sits as an outlier in the amphibian size/longevity relationship. This species thus raises questions regarding ageing processes and constitutes a promising model for discovering mechanisms preventing senescence in vertebrates. PMID:20659920

Voituron, Yann; de Fraipont, Michelle; Issartel, Julien; Guillaume, Olivier; Clobert, Jean

2011-01-01

319

Operative management of splenic injury in a patient with proteus syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 20-year-old female with Proteus syndrome sustained splenic injury after fall from a bike. She was initially managed non-operatively at a different hospital for three days and was then referred to our level I trauma center in view of increasing abdominal pain and distention. On admission in the Emergency Department (ED), her pulse rate was 120 per minute and blood pressure was 108/68 mm Hg. Clinical examination showed a distended abdomen with left hypochondrial pain. Ultrasonogram (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed splenomegaly and grade III splenic injury with significant hemoperitoneum. Her hemoglobin was 2.9 g/dl with packed cell volume (PCV) of 12%. In view of low hemoglobin and possibility of pathologic spleen, splenectomy was done. Microscopic examination of the spleen showed hemangiolymphangioma. The patient was discharged on the 5th post-operative day and is doing well at 6 months of follow-up. PMID:25114436

Kannan, Umashankkar; Mishra, Biplab; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Sagar, Sushma; Kumar, Subodh; Singhal, Maneesh

2014-01-01

320

Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30 days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically active anodic biofilm played a crucial role to enhance the performance of SBP&CR in MFCs. Gradually increased supplementations of C.I. reactive blue 160 resulted in progressively decreased decay rate of bioelectricity generation. That is, a dye decolorized in a faster rate would result in a lower capability for bioelectricity generation and vice versa. In addition, a reduced dye with less toxicity potency (e.g., 2-aminophenol) might work as a redox mediator of electron transport to anodic biofilm for bioelectricity generation in MFCs. PMID:20932743

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son

2011-01-01

321

Biochemical Identification and Characterization of DNA Groups within the Proteus vulgaris Complex  

PubMed Central

We placed 43 isolates belonging to the Proteus vulgaris complex into proposed DNA groups (genomovars) using five previously recommended tests (tests for esculin hydrolysis, production of acid from salicin, l-rhamnose fermentation, and elaboration of DNase and lipase). On the basis of the results of these five tests, 49% of the isolates fell into DNA groups 5 and 6, 37% fell into DNA group 2, and the remaining 14% fell into DNA groups 3 and 4. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of 11 members of DNA groups 5 and 6 indicated that 10 of these isolates (91%) could be unambiguously assigned to one of these two genomospecies. Overall expression of selected enzymatic and virulence-associated characteristics did not differ significantly among DNA groups. PMID:11283033

Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.; Khashe, Shideh; Probert, Will

2001-01-01

322

Operative management of splenic injury in a patient with proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old female with Proteus syndrome sustained splenic injury after fall from a bike. She was initially managed non-operatively at a different hospital for three days and was then referred to our level I trauma center in view of increasing abdominal pain and distention. On admission in the Emergency Department (ED), her pulse rate was 120 per minute and blood pressure was 108/68 mm Hg. Clinical examination showed a distended abdomen with left hypochondrial pain. Ultrasonogram (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed splenomegaly and grade III splenic injury with significant hemoperitoneum. Her hemoglobin was 2.9 g/dl with packed cell volume (PCV) of 12%. In view of low hemoglobin and possibility of pathologic spleen, splenectomy was done. Microscopic examination of the spleen showed hemangiolymphangioma. The patient was discharged on the 5(th) post-operative day and is doing well at 6 months of follow-up. PMID:25114436

Kannan, Umashankkar; Mishra, Biplab; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Sagar, Sushma; Kumar, Subodh; Singhal, Maneesh

2014-07-01

323

Catfish spine envenomation and bacterial abscess with Proteus and Morganella: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abscess formation and cellulitis in the setting of envenomation are rare complications of handling catfish. To the best of our knowledge, isolation of Proteus vulgaris has not been previously recorded, and recovery of Morganella morganii has been reported in only one prior case from wound cultures in patients injured by catfish stings. We report a case of catfish envenomation characterized by abscess formation and cellulitis, in which wound cultures grew these unusual organisms. Case presentation A 52-year-old Chinese-American man was hospitalized with erythema and swelling of his right arm of 10?days’ duration after skin penetration by a catfish barb. An abscess of his right thumb had undergone incision and drainage, with purulent drainage sent for wound culture immediately prior to admission. Laboratory studies revealed elevated white blood count, sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. The patient was treated with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam and vancomycin during his hospitalization, and symptoms improved. Wound cultures obtained prior to presentation grew many Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii. He was subsequently discharged on a 10-day course of oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. At a 12-month telephone follow-up, the patient denied developing further symptoms and reported that the wound had healed completely without complication. Conclusion Although envenomation and secondary infection are not uncommon sequelae of handling catfish, the present case is unique by virtue of the infecting organisms isolated. Given the prevalence of injury from catfish stings, a review of the literature is presented in order to provide recommendations for prevention and treatment of catfish envenomation. PMID:23631594

2013-01-01

324

Creative Strategic Intelligence Analysis and Decision Making Within the Elements of National Power. Proteus Futures Workshop, held Carlise, PA on 14-16 Aug 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the Proteus Futures Academic Workshop: 'Creative Strategic Intelligence Analysis and Decision Making within the Elements of National Power,' was to provide scholars from various organizations across the Department of Defense, the interagency, ...

L. Williams, W. Waddell

2007-01-01

325

Photochemical inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Adaptability to a broad range of environments together with relatively high resistance to antibiotics and to disinfectants makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa a concern in hospitals and in public health. We investigated whether UVA-mediated photochemical inactivation of P. aeruginosa could be accomplished with high efficiency while at the same time preserving the sensitivity of subsequent diagnostic tests. We characterized dose responses and bactericidal kinetic rates of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (INA) and of amotosalen (AMO) as these substances exposed to UVA are known to inactivate germs with minimal impact to blood products or to viral antigens. Neither UVA without photochemicals nor INA or AMO in the dark inactivated bacteria. We found that AMO was ca 1000-fold more effective in inactivating P. aeruginosa cells than INA under similar conditions. Photoinactivation with either INA or AMO at conditions that abolished bacterial infectivity did not impair polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For comparison, similar titers of Bacillus atrophaeus spores (a surrogate for B. anthracis) remained unaffected at conditions that reduced the survival of P. aeruginosa below detection levels. The results presented in this study should assist in improved methods to inactivate P. aeruginosa in environmental, clinical and forensic samples without impairing subsequent nucleic acid- or immune-based analysis. PMID:22053910

Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Grote, Gudrun; Niederwöhrmeier, Bärbel; Hülseweh, Birgit; Marschall, Hans-Jürgen

2012-01-01

326

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

2012-04-01

327

21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pseudintermedius , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis...Klebsiella pneumoniae , E. coli , Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter...susceptible strains of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. multocida ....

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

2012-04-01

330

21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.  

...pseudintermedius , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis...Klebsiella pneumoniae , E. coli , Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter...susceptible strains of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. multocida. [75...

2014-04-01

331

21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

2013-04-01

332

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

2011-04-01

333

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug...

2014-04-01

334

21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.  

...Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

2014-04-01

335

21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pseudintermedius , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis...Klebsiella pneumoniae , E. coli , Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter...susceptible strains of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. multocida ....

2012-04-01

336

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

2013-04-01

337

21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pseudintermedius , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis...Klebsiella pneumoniae , E. coli , Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter...susceptible strains of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. multocida ....

2013-04-01

338

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

339

Available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on doi:10.1006/bulm.2002.0287  

E-print Network

, Proteus, Salmonella and Vibrio [e.g., Eberl et al. (1996b, 1999), and references therein]. The process as for colonies of S. liquefaciens; see below) or can occur in periodic bursts [such as for Proteus mirabilis

Bees, Martin

340

Production of acylated homoserine lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.  

PubMed

A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter cultures was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production (5.675 µg l(-1)) at 24 h growth. The strain exhibited swarming, but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production and reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated protein during swarming, was considered as a possible target for these inhibitors, and docking of the two most active and two least active inhibitors to this protein suggested preferential binding of the former set of compounds. Apart from adding new evidence to AHL production in Proteus vulgaris, active inhibitors shortlisted from this study could help in identifying lead compounds to act against this opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25012967

Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

2014-10-01

341

The pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pyocins are produced by more than 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and each strain may synthesise several pyocins. The pyocin genes are located on the P. aeruginosa chromosome and their activities are inducible by mutagenic agents such as mitomycin C. Three types of pyocins are described. (i). R-type pyocins resemble non-flexible and contractile tails of bacteriophages. They provoke a depolarisation of the cytoplasmic membrane in relation with pore formation. (ii). F-type pyocins also resemble phage tails, but with a flexible and non-contractile rod-like structure. (iii). S-type pyocins are colicin-like, protease-sensitive proteins. They are constituted of two components. The large component carries the killing activity (DNase activity for pyocins S1, S2, S3, AP41; tRNase for pyocin S4; channel-forming activity for pyocin S5). It interacts with the small component (immunity protein). The synthesis of pyocins starts when a mutagen increases the expression of the recA gene and activates the RecA protein, which cleaves the repressor PrtR, liberating the expression of the protein activator gene prtN. R and F-pyocins are derived from an ancestral gene, with similarities to the P2 phage family and the lambda phage family, respectively. The killing domains of S1, S2, AP41 pyocins show a close evolutionary relationship with E2 group colicins, S4 pyocin with colicin E5, and S5 pyocin with colicins Ia, and Ib. PMID:12423794

Michel-Briand, Yvon; Baysse, Christine

2002-01-01

342

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections. PMID:24096885

Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

2014-07-01

343

A Change in the Number of Nucleoids in Proteus vulgaris during a Penicillin-induced L-cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The author studied changes in the number of nucleoids inProteus vulgaris in the course of a penicillin-induced incomplete L-cycle. It was found that the number of nucleoids increased significantly\\u000a during the development of large bodies from rods, and more so on solid than in liquid media. The size of the nucleoids did\\u000a not decrease, but remained the same during the

M. Nermut

1959-01-01

344

Über die Wirkung von Kobalt-Ionen auf das Cytochromsystem und die Katalase-Aktivität von Proteus vulgaris Hauser  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Co++-Ionen in 2·10-3 m Konzentration bewirkten bei weitgehend anaerober flüssiger Kultur ein völliges Verschwinden der Cytochrombanden von Proteus vulgaris Hauser, während die Katalase-Aktivität auf etwa ein Viertel, des Normalwertes herabgesetzt wurde. Nach Verlängerung der Lag-Phase erreichte die maximale Zellzahl unter Kobalt-Wirkung nur etwa ein Drittel des Kontrollwertes; gleichzeitig wurde eine deutliche Verkleinerung der Zellen beobachtet.2.Agar-Kultur bei gleichmolarer Co++-Ionen-Konzentration bewirkte völlige

E. Petras

1957-01-01

345

Characterization of an alkaline lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 and the DNA sequence of the encoding gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultatively anaerobic bacterium producing an extracellular alkaline lipase was isolated from the soil collected near a sewage disposal plant in Korea and identified to be a strain of Proteus vulgaris. The molecular mass of the purified lipase K80 was estimated to be 31 kDa by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be an alkaline enzyme having maximum hydrolytid activity at

Hyung-Kwoun Kim; Jung-Kee Lee; Hyoungman Kim; Tae-Kwang Oh

1996-01-01

346

Identification of the promotors directing in vivo expression of hemolysin genes in Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemolytic activity of Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris is determined by common contiguous genes encoding synthesis (hly C, hly A) and specific secretion (hly B, hly D) of active hemolysin. Nevertheless, the hlyC-proximal DNA sequences directing production of the homologous hemolysins by the recombinant DNAs P. vulgaris pVU763-709 and E. coli pANN202-312 showed no extensive homology. Primer extension and

Vassilis Koronakis; Colin Hughes

1988-01-01

347

Verification of the Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for two-dimensional/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent dveloping pipe flows and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, intitial conditions, grid size and grid packing is given for each case.

Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

1991-01-01

348

Verification of the proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for 2-D/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal, and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent developing pipe flows, and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations, and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, initial conditions, grid size, and grid packing is given for each case.

Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

1991-01-01

349

LWR-PROTEUS Verification of Reaction Rate Distributions in Modern 10 x 10 Boiling Water Reactor Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B calculations of reaction rate distributions in a modern, fresh 10 x 10 boiling water reactor fuel element have been validated using the experimental results of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project corresponding to full-density water moderation conditions (core 1B). The reaction rate distributions measured with a special gamma-scanning machine employing twin germanium detectors consisted of total fission

F. Jatuff; P. Grimm; O. Joneja; M. Murphy; A. Luethi; R. Seiler; R. Brogli; R. Jacot-Guillarmod; T. Williams; S. Helmersson; R. Chawla

2001-01-01

350

Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial control region and flanking sequences in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European cave salamander Proteus anguinus Laurenti 1768 is one of the best-known subterranean animals, yet its evolutionary history and systematic relationships remain enigmatic. This is the first comprehensive study on molecular evolution within the taxon, using an mtDNA segment containing the control region (CR) and adjacent sequences. Two to seven tandem repeats of 24–32 bp were found in the intergenic

Špela Gori?ki; Peter Trontelj

2006-01-01

351

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and P, Aarhus C, Denmark Keywords Amyloids, biofilm, fap, FuBA, Pseudomonas.. Correspondence Per H. Nielsen­382 doi: 10.1002/mbo3.81 Abstract The fap operon, encoding functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

352

ORIGINAL PAPER Proteolysis of casein micelles by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Proteolysis of casein micelles by Pseudomonas fluorescens CNRZ 798 contributes with Pseudomonas fluorescens CNRZ 798 on the stability of the corresponding UHT milk during storage. After 92 days-high- temperature (UHT) milk during storage, the heat-resistant proteases of Pseudomonas are considered to play

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.  

PubMed Central

A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare. PMID:3579287

Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

1987-01-01

354

Possible regulation of cation-induced pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus by phospholipase A.  

PubMed

We have studied the effects of exogenous phospholipids and compounds which are known to alter the activity of phospholipase A (PLA) on Ca2+-dependent, Na+-induced pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus. The PLA-inhibitors mepacrine, p-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) and Rosenthal's inhibitor depressed pinocytosis. Normal pinocytotic intensity was restored by the addition of Ca2+ or picomolar concentrations of lysolecithin. Very low concentrations of lysophospholipids and different molecular species of lecithins increased the capacity for pinocytosis in starved amoebae. The effect of the lecithins but not of the corresponding lysolecithins was abolished by PLA-inhibitors. Also, the restoration of the pinocytotic capacity of starved amoebae by melittin and mastoparan, which are known to stimulate PLA, was inhibited by mepacrine and pBPB. Isolated amoeba plasma membranes contain phospholipase A1 and A2 activity and the amoebae secrete a lipid (PRF, pinocytosis regulating factor) which has lysolecithin-like effects on pinocytosis. The enzyme activities and the release of PRF were markedly decreased by the PLA-inhibitors. Our observations support the hypothesis that PRF is a lysophospholipid that may constitute a signal for the formation of pinocytotic channels in the initial stages of pinocytosis. The phospholipase A activity of the amoeba must therefore be assigned an important role in the regulation of the Ca2+-dependent, cation-induced pinocytosis. PMID:3396589

Josefsson, J O; Arvidson, G; Cobbold, P

1988-04-01

355

"NEW MEMBRANE" FORMATION IN AMOEBA PROTEUS UPON INJURY OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

Changes in the plasma membrane complex following the injury of single cells of Amoeba proteus were examined with the electron microscope. Two types of injury were employed in this study; cells were either pinched ("cut") in half or speared with a glass microneedle, and quickly fixed. Speared cells, when fixed in the presence of the ruthenium violet (a derivative of ruthenium red), revealed the presence of an extra trilaminar structure outside of each cell. This structure, called the "new membrane," was separated from the plasma membrane complex by a distance of less than a micron. The trilaminar structure of the new membrane strikingly resembled the image of the plasma membrane in all cells examined, except for its increased width (30%). This new membrane appeared nearly to surround the injured amebae. Attempts were made to demonstrate the possible origin of the new membrane, its reality, and its sensitivity to calcium. Also, some evidence is shown concerning the role of the small dense droplets (100–1200 A in diameter) normally present in the cytoplasm of amebae. Their frequent contact with the plasma membrane of the cell as the result of injury is interpreted as indicating their involvement in the formation and expansion of the plasma membrane. PMID:4103955

Szubinska, Barbara

1971-01-01

356

Burnup calculations and chemical analysis of irradiated fuel samples studied in LWR-PROTEUS phase II  

SciTech Connect

The isotopic compositions of 5 UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR power plant, which were investigated in the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme, were calculated using the CASMO-4 and BOXER assembly codes. The burnups of the samples range from 50 to 90 MWd/kg. The results for a large number of actinide and fission product nuclides were compared to those of chemical analyses performed using a combination of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry. A good agreement of calculated and measured concentrations is found for many of the nuclides investigated with both codes. The concentrations of the Pu isotopes are mostly predicted within {+-}10%, the two codes giving quite different results, except for {sup 242}Pu. Relatively significant deviations are found for some isotopes of Cs and Sm, and large discrepancies are observed for Eu and Gd. The overall quality of the predictions by the two codes is comparable, and the deviations from the experimental data do not generally increase with burnup. (authors)

Grimm, P.; Guenther-Leopold, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Berger, H. D. [AREVA NP GmbH, FEEP, Bunsenstrasse 43, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2006-07-01

357

Monte Carlo Calculations of Pebble Bed Benchmark Configurations of the PROTEUS Facility  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, a series of well-documented benchmark experiments were performed at the Proteus facility of the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute. Thirteen critical pebble bed reactor configurations were assembled, with ten of them deterministic with a precise location of the low-enriched fuel and moderator pebbles. Seven of these configurations were modeled with a very high spatial resolution with the Monte Carlo code MCNP with details that go from the fuel kernel (0.5 mm in diameter) to the walls surrounding the facility. The calculations of the k's of the configurations agree quite well with the experiments (within a fraction of a dollar). A sensitivity analysis is included to discuss the possibility of a small bias; also biases introduced by customary approximations of production codes were calculated. The experiments and the analysis of this paper might be very useful tools to check the calculational accuracy of procedures used in the emerging work related to pebble bed modular gas-cooled reactors.

Difilippo, Felix C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2003-03-15

358

Analysis of kinetics experiments in LEU-HTR configurations of the PROTEUS facility  

SciTech Connect

On the recommendation of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) working group on gas-cooled reactors, the IAEA has established a coordinated research program (CRP) on the validation of safety-related physics calculations for low-enriched uranium (LEU)-fueled high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The objective of the CRP is to provide safety-related physics data for LEU-fueled HTGRs for use in validating reactor physics codes and methods used by participating countries for analysis of their designs. At present, the main activities within the CRP are being carried out by the international project now under way at the PROTEUS critical facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. Within this project, critical experiments will be conducted for HTGR-LEU systems to determine core reactivity; flux and power profiles; reaction rate ratios; worth of control rods, including reflector control rods; worth of burnable poisons; and the effects of water ingress on these parameters. Of particular interest are quality-assured (benchmark type) measurements of the worth of control rods located in the graphite reflector. Two independent techniques have been selected for this purpose; the pulsed neutron source (PNS) and the inverse kinetics methods.

Difilippo, F.C.; Worley, B.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Williams, T. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland))

1992-01-01

359

Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.  

SciTech Connect

A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-02-01

360

Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from carrageenan.  

PubMed

Carrageenan films have been formulated as a packaging material. Films plasticized with glycerol were loaded with citric acid (1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 %) for enhanced antimicrobial effects. Blank and citric acid loaded films were characterized by mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle. In addition, swelling and antibacterial studies were conducted to further characterize the films. Both blank and citric acid loaded films showed different morphology, high elasticity and acceptable tensile (mechanical) properties. These citric acid loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Dickeya chrysanthemi strains compared to blank film. PMID:25190889

El-Fawal, G

2014-09-01

361

The Length of the Filamentous Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The length of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa filamentous bacteriophage Pf was found to be 1915 +77 nm, as measured in the electron microscope using the Kleinschmidt spreading technique. Pf is thus the longest filamentous phage so far isolated. Coliphage If, the I-specific filamentous phage, is nearest to it with a length of I3OO nm. Bacteriophage Pf, which is the only

Bacteriophage Pf

1973-01-01

362

Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS5028  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution

Ana M. Marqués; Xavier Roca; M. Dolores Simon-Pujol; M. Carmen Fuste; Francisco Congregado

1991-01-01

363

Corneal response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common organism associated with bacterial keratitis, especially in those who use extended wear contact lenses. Recent advances in our understanding of host innate and adaptive immune responses to experimental infection have been made using a variety of animal models, including inbred murine models that are classed as resistant (cornea heals) vs. susceptible (cornea perforates).

Linda Dondero Hazlett

2004-01-01

364

Ailinella mirabilis gen. n., sp. n. (eucestoda: pseudophyllidea) from Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) in the Andean-Patagonian region of Argentina.  

PubMed

Ailinella gen. n. (Pseudophyllidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate Ailinella mirabilis sp. n. from Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842), a freshwater fish inhabiting the Andean lakes in Argentinean Patagonia. Ailinella belongs to the Triaenophoridae because it has a marginal genital pore, a follicular vitelline gland, and a ventral uterine pore. The new genus can be distinguished from other triaenophorids by the following combination of characters: a small body size, a low number of proglottides, which are longer than wide, a truncated pyramidal to globular scolex, a rectangular apical disc, presence of the neck, lack of internal longitudinal musculature separating the cortex from the medulla, testes distributed in one central field surrounding the ovary laterally and posteriorly, the vagina predominantly anterior to the cirrus sac, vitelline follicles circum-medullary, the genital pores post-equatorial, a saccate uterus, and operculate eggs. Blade-like spiniform microtriches were present on all tegument surfaces, and tumuli on all surfaces of the scolex and the anterior surface of the neck. Microtriches were characterized according to their size and density, and tumuli according to their size, inter-tumulus distance and density. Ailinella mirabilis is the first cestode described from G. maculatus and the second triaenophorid species recorded from a South American freshwater fish. PMID:17256203

de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; Semenas, Liliana G

2006-12-01

365

Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses. PMID:21739934

Mickien?, R?ta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonien?, Violeta

2011-06-01

366

Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative that a symbiotic system is in place and the results definitely support the potential use of this unique new model. This model many help in plant / animal and cancer processes.

Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

2011-03-01

367

[Sensitivity of Proteus hauseri bacteria to chemotherapeutic preparations depending on the cultivation conditions and on the composition of the nutrient medium].  

PubMed

Sensitivity of 227 Proteus strains isolated from patients was studied comparatively using the agar-diffusion method (disks) and the method of serial dilutions. Marked differences in the numbers of the strains resistant to benzylpenicillin and chloramphenicol were found with the above methods. It was shown that the ingredients of Ploskirev's medium significantly (by 2.8--13.5 times) inhibited the antibacterial activity of streptomycin, neomycin, monomycin, kanamycin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid and had practically no effect on the activity of benzylpenicillin, chloramphenicol and furazolidone. The values of the MIC of the drugs used in the experiment with liquid media correlated with those obtained with Sabouro's medium, which provided recommendation of the latter for determination of Proteus sensitivity by the method of serial dilutions in the solid medium, Cultivation of Proteus at a temperature of 40 degrees C resulted in a decrease of the resistance to most of the drugs tested by (by 3--12.4 times). PMID:327915

Shvidenko, I G

1977-05-01

368

Comparison of ethylene-producing Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) with Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Psg) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) isolated from kudzu ( Pueraria lobata) and bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated. All strains tested showed a close phenotypic similarity, with the exception of the utilization of inositol and mannitol as well as the production of toxins. On this basis the strains could

B. Völksch; H. Weingart

1997-01-01

369

Determination of {beta}{sub eff} using MCNP-4C2 and application to the CROCUS and PROTEUS reactors  

SciTech Connect

A new Monte Carlo method for the determination of {beta}{sub eff} has been recently developed and tested using appropriate models of the experimental reactors CROCUS and PROTEUS. The current paper describes the applied methodology and highlights the resulting improvements compared to the simplest MCNP approach, i.e. the 'prompt method' technique. In addition, the flexibility advantages of the developed method are presented. Specifically, the possibility to obtain the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} per delayed neutron group, per fissioning nuclide and per reactor region is illustrated. Finally, the MCNP predictions of {beta}{sub eff} are compared to the results of deterministic calculations. (authors)

Vollaire, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Plaschy, M.; Jatuff, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

370

Generalized Transduction in the Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae†  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophages isolated from culture supernatants of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and from sewage transferred various chromosomal genes to P. syringae PS224. Linkage between arginine and tryptophan loci was demonstrated. The number of transductants recovered per milliliter was not altered appreciably by UV irradiation of selected phage isolates. In addition, the presence of the IncP2 plasmid R38 in a P. syringae PS224 arginine auxotroph did not increase the transduction frequency as it does in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Increasing the multiplicity of infection of transducing phage Pssy15 from 1 to 10 resulted in up to a 10-fold increase in the number of transductants recovered, although the actual transductional frequency remained about the same. Treatment of transduction mixtures with DNase did not affect transductional frequency. PMID:16346318

Nordeen, Russell O.; Currier, Thomas C.

1983-01-01

371

A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the nemertean ancestral mitochondrial gene order most closely resembles the heteronemertean type. Phylogenetic analysis proposes a sister-group relationship between Hetero- and Hoplonemertea, which supports one of two recent alternative hypotheses of nemertean phylogeny. PMID:22507536

2012-01-01

372

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fluoroquinolone Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluat- ed the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured flu- oroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between

Conan MacDougall; Spencer E. Harpe; J. Patrick Powell; Christopher K. Johnson; Michael B. Edmond; Ron E. Polk

2005-01-01

373

Genetics of alkane oxidation by Pseudomonas oleovorans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Pseudomonads are able to use linear alkanes as sole carbon and energy source. The genetics and enzymology of alkane metabolism have been investigated in depth forPseudomonas oleovorans, which is able to oxidize C5-C12 n-alkanes by virtue of two gene regions, localized on the OCT-plasmid. The so-calledalk-genes have been cloned in pLAFR1, and were subsequent analyzed using minicell expression experiments,

Jan B. Beilen; Marcel G. Wubbolts; Bernard Witholt

1994-01-01

374

Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.  

PubMed

During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

2013-05-01

375

Shifting Paradigms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa have long been recognized as a challenge in clinical settings. Cystic fibrosis, endocarditis, device-related infections,\\u000a and ventilator-associated pneumonia are some of the diseases that are considerably complicated by the formation of bacterial\\u000a biofilms, which are resistant to most current antimicrobial therapies. Due to intense research efforts, our understanding\\u000a of the molecular events involved in P.

A. H. Tart; D. J. Wozniak

376

Biotransformation of styrenes by a Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Pseudomonas putida was isolated from soil in the presence of a-methylstyrene, as the sole carbon and energy source. The analysis of the oxidation products from culture broth allowed the identification of 2-phenyl-2-propen-1-ol and 1,2-dihydroxy-3-isopropenyl-3-cyclohexene suggesting the existence of different initial steps in the metabolism of a-methylstyrene. The same strain also oxidized styrene and produced by initial oxidation

G. Bestetti; E. Galli; C. Benigni; F. Orsini; F. Pelizzoni

1989-01-01

377

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on...

2013-07-01

378

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on...

2012-07-01

379

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on...

2011-07-01

380

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on...

2010-07-01

381

Isolation and characterization of PhoP homolog in Brucella abortus  

E-print Network

hybridization analysis. These include E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Ci trobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marsescens, Proteus mirabilis, Erwinia herbicola, and Yersinia pestis (21). Molecular... hybridization analysis. These include E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Ci trobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marsescens, Proteus mirabilis, Erwinia herbicola, and Yersinia pestis (21). Molecular...

Huang, Xin

2012-06-07

382

Loss of Bacterial Diversity During Antibiotic Treatment of Intubated Patients Colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

E-print Network

the Risk of Hospital-Acquired Infection with Ciprofloxacin-Hospital-acquired Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; antimicrobials. Authors contributions: Conflicts of interest: Summary Background Managing airway infections

2006-01-01

383

Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices  

SciTech Connect

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Girardin, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

384

Reanalysis of the Gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility Proteus - Spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PROTEUS is a zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute which has been employed during the 1970's to study experimentally the physics of the gas-cooled fast reactor. Reaction rate distributions, flux spectrum and reactivity effects have been measured in several configurations featuring PuO2/UO2 fuel, absorbers, large iron shields, and thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasihomogeneously in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. This papers focus on the spectral indices - including fission and capture in 232Th and 237Np - measured in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattices and their predictions with an MCNPX model specially developed for the PROTEUS-GCFR core. Predictions were obtained with JEFF-3.1 and -3.11, ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, and JENDL-3.3 and -4.0. A general good agreement was demonstrated. The ratio of 232Th fission to 239Pu fission, however, was under-predicted by 8.7±2.1% and 6.5±2.1% using ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, respectively. Finally, the capture rates in 237Np tended to be underpredicted by the JEFF and JENDL libraries, although the new cross section in JEFF-3.1.1 slightly improved the 237Np capture to 239Pu fission results (3.4±2.4%).

Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

2013-03-01

385

FY2012 summary of tasks completed on PROTEUS-thermal work.  

SciTech Connect

PROTEUS is a suite of the neutronics codes, both old and new, that can be used within the SHARP codes being developed under the NEAMS program. Discussion here is focused on updates and verification and validation activities of the SHARP neutronics code, DeCART, for application to thermal reactor analysis. As part of the development of SHARP tools, the different versions of the DeCART code created for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis were integrated. Verification and validation tests for the integrated version were started, and the generation of cross section libraries based on the subgroup method was revisited for the targeted reactor types. The DeCART code has been reorganized in preparation for an efficient integration of the different versions for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis. In DeCART, the old-fashioned common blocks and header files have been replaced by advanced memory structures. However, the changing of variable names was minimized in order to limit problems with the code integration. Since the remaining stability problems of DeCART were mostly caused by the CMFD methodology and modules, significant work was performed to determine whether they could be replaced by more stable methods and routines. The cross section library is a key element to obtain accurate solutions. Thus, the procedure for generating cross section libraries was revisited to provide libraries tailored for the targeted reactor types. To improve accuracy in the cross section library, an attempt was made to replace the CENTRM code by the MCNP Monte Carlo code as a tool obtaining reference resonance integrals. The use of the Monte Carlo code allows us to minimize problems or approximations that CENTRM introduces since the accuracy of the subgroup data is limited by that of the reference solutions. The use of MCNP requires an additional set of libraries without resonance cross sections so that reference calculations can be performed for a unit cell in which only one isotope of interest includes resonance cross sections, among the isotopes in the composition. The OECD MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART as initial focus of the verification/validation efforts. Among the benchmark problems, Exercise 1 of Phase 1 is a steady-state benchmark case for the neutronics calculation for which block-wise cross sections were provided in 26 energy groups. This type of problem was designed for a homogenized geometry solver like DIF3D rather than the high-fidelity code DeCART. Instead of the homogenized block cross sections given in the benchmark, the VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library of DeCART was directly used for preliminary calculations. Initial results showed that the multiplication factors of a fuel pin and a fuel block with or without a control rod hole were off by 6, -362, and -183 pcm Dk from comparable MCNP solutions, respectively. The 2-D and 3-D one-third core calculations were also conducted for the all-rods-out (ARO) and all-rods-in (ARI) configurations, producing reasonable results. Figure 1 illustrates the intermediate (1.5 eV - 17 keV) and thermal (below 1.5 eV) group flux distributions. As seen from VHTR cores with annular fuels, the intermediate group fluxes are relatively high in the fuel region, but the thermal group fluxes are higher in the inner and outer graphite reflector regions than in the fuel region. To support the current project, a new three-year I-NERI collaboration involving ANL and KAERI was started in November 2011, focused on performing in-depth verification and validation of high-fidelity multi-physics simulation codes for LWR and VHTR. The work scope includes generating improved cross section libraries for the targeted reactor types, developing benchmark models for verification and validation of the neutronics code with or without thermo-fluid feedback, and performing detailed comparisons of predicted reactor parameters against both Monte Carlo solutions and experimental measurements. The following list summarizes the work conducted so far for PROTEUS-Thermal Tasks: Unification of different versions of DeC

Lee, C.H.; Smith, M.A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-06-06

386

A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes) from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with \\

Adhikarla Haritha; Agnes Rodrigue; Pamarthi Maruthi Mohan

2008-01-01

387

Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

A novel biochemical technique, the Carba NP test, has been evaluated to detect carbapenemase production in Pseudomonas spp. This test was specific (100%), sensitive (94.4%), and rapid (<2 h). This cost-effective test, which could be implemented in any microbiology laboratory, offers a reliable technique for identification of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. PMID:22972829

Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

2012-11-01

388

Rapid Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed Central

A novel biochemical technique, the Carba NP test, has been evaluated to detect carbapenemase production in Pseudomonas spp. This test was specific (100%), sensitive (94.4%), and rapid (<2 h). This cost-effective test, which could be implemented in any microbiology laboratory, offers a reliable technique for identification of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. PMID:22972829

Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent

2012-01-01

389

Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but

SABINE KIRNER; PHILIP E. HAMMER; D. STEVEN HILL; ANNETT ALTMANN; ILONA FISCHER; LAURA J. WEISLO; MIKE LANAHAN; KARL-HEINZ VAN PEE; JAMES M. LIGON

1998-01-01

390

Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ATCC 15442  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 is an environmental strain of the Pseudomonas genus. Here, we present a 6.77-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. Besides giving insights into characteristics associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa, such as virulence, drug resistance, and biofilm formation, the genome sequence may provide some information related to biotechnological utilization of the strain. PMID:24786961

Wang, Yujiao; Li, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

391

Nitrogen Control of Atrazine Utilization in Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP uses the herbicide atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. We have devised a simple atrazine degradation assay to determine the effect of other nitrogen sources on the atrazine degradation pathway. The atrazine degradation rate was greatly decreased in cells grown on nitrogen sources that support rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP compared to cells cultivated

V. Garcia-Gonzalez; Fernando Govantes; Liz J. Shaw; Richard G. Burns; Eduardo Santero

2003-01-01

392

Implementation/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional/axisymmetric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.

Bui, Trong T.

1992-01-01

393

Massetolide A Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens?  

PubMed Central

Massetolide A is a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotic produced by various Pseudomonas strains from diverse environments. Cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, and complementation showed that massetolide A biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SS101 is governed by three nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, designated massA, massB, and massC, spanning approximately 30 kb. Prediction of the nature and configuration of the amino acids by in silico analysis of adenylation and condensation domains of the NRPSs was consistent with the chemically determined structure of the peptide moiety of massetolide A. Structural analysis of massetolide A derivatives produced by SS101 indicated that most of the variations in the peptide moiety occur at amino acid positions 4 and 9. Regions flanking the mass genes contained several genes found in other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis clusters, which encode LuxR-type transcriptional regulators, ABC transporters, and an RND-like outer membrane protein. In contrast to most Pseudomonas CLP gene clusters known to date, the mass genes are not physically linked but are organized in two separate clusters, with massA disconnected from massB and massC. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of massC is strongly reduced when massB is mutated, suggesting that these two genes function in an operon, whereas transcription of massA is independent of massBC and vice versa. Massetolide A is produced in the early exponential growth phase, and biosynthesis appears not to be regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactone-based quorum sensing. Massetolide A production is essential in swarming motility of P. fluorescens SS101 and plays an important role in biofilm formation. PMID:17993540

de Bruijn, I.; de Kock, M. J. D.; de Waard, P.; van Beek, T. A.; Raaijmakers, J. M.

2008-01-01

394

Vanadate reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.  

PubMed

The ability of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to reduce vanadate under microaerophilic conditions has been studied. It has been demonstrated that P. aeruginosa strains A17, A03 and C25a were able to reduce up to 38-60% pentavalent vanadium present in the medium. Vanadate reduction by P. aeruginosa strains A17, A03 and C25a was not associated with anaerobic respiration. It has been shown that vanadate reduction by P. aeruginosa strains is not the result of the spontaneous process. This is the first report of stimulation of vanadate reduction by ATPase activity inhibitor N-N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide under aerobic conditions. PMID:25007441

Ianieva, O D; Smirnova, G F

2014-01-01

395

Primary Alcohol Sulfatase ina Pseudomonas Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAYNE,W.J.(University ofGeorgia, Athens), JoYP.WILLIAMS, AND W.R.MAY- BERRY. Primary alcohol sulfatase inaPseudomonas species. Appl. Microbiol. 13:698-701. 1965.-An ammoniumsulfate-precipitated fraction fromcell-free extracts ofPseudo- monas C12Bgrown on a mediumcontaining sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS)contained alkyl sulfatase increased fourfold inspecific activity overthecrude. Optimal pH (7.5) andtemperature (70C)forsulfate release were determined withSDS labeled with radioactive sulfur (SDS35) as testsubstrate. Phosphate, arsenate, andcertain heavy metalionsinhibited desulfation, whereasMg++andMn++stimulated activity

W. J. PAYNE; W. R. MAYBERRY

396

Arginine decarboxylase from a Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed Central

An arginine decarboxylase has been isolated from a Pseudomonas species. The enzyme is constitutive and did not appear to be repressed by a variety of carbon sources. After an approximately 40-fold purification, the enzyme appeared more similar in its properties to the Escherichia coli biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase than to the E. coli inducible (biodegradative) enzyme. The Pseudomonas arginine decarboxylase exhibited a pH optimum of 8.1 and an absolute requirement of Mg2+ and pyridoxal phosphate, and was inhibited significantly at lower Mg2+ concentrations by the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and cadaverine. The Km for L-arginine was about 0.25 mM at pH 8.1 AND 7.2. The enzyme was completely inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. The inhibition was prevented by dithiothreitol, a feature that suggests the involvement of an -SH group. Of a variety of labeled amino acids tested, only L-arginine, but not D-arginine was decarboxylated. D-Arginine was a potent inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase with a Ki of 3.2 muM. PMID:1382

Rosenfeld, H J; Roberts, J

1976-01-01

397

Biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Background Dihydrolinalool and terpineol are sources of fragrances that provide a unique volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity and thus are widely used in the perfumery industry, in folk medicine, and in aromatherapy. They are important chemical constituents of the essential oil of many plants. Previous studies have concerned the biotransformation of limonene by Pseudomonas putida. The objective of this research was to study biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The culture preparation was done using such variables as different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain maximum cells of P. aeruginosa for myrcene biotransformation. Results It was found that myrcene was converted to dihydrolinalool and 2,6-dimethyloctane in high percentages. The biotransformation products were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet (UV) analysis, gas chromatography (GC), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Comparison of the different incubation times showed that 3 days was more effective, the major products being 2,6-dimethyloctane (90.0%) and ?-terpineol (7.7%) and comprising 97.7%. In contrast, the main compounds derived for an incubation time of 1.5 days were dihydrolinalool (79.5%) and 2,6-dimethyloctane (9.3%), with a total yield of 88.8%. PMID:21609445

2011-01-01

398

Use of an Amoeba proteus model for in vitro cytotoxicity testing in phytochemical research. Application to Euphorbia hirta extracts.  

PubMed

Amoeba proteus is proposed as a low-cost multi-purpose biochemical tool for screening and standardizing cytotoxic plant extracts with possible application in the laboratories of developing countries. Advantages and limitations of this test are examined and different mathematical treatments (probit analysis versus curve fitting to Von Bertalanffy and Hill functions) are investigated. Known anti-cancer (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil) and antiparasitic (emetine, dehydroemetine, metronidazole, cucurbitine, chloroquine) drugs were tested using this method and only metronidazole appeared inactive. Application of this model to Euphorbia hirta established that a 100 degrees C aqueous extraction of fresh aerial parts allows efficient extraction of active constituents and that drying the plant material before extraction considerably reduces activity. PMID:1686625

Duez, P; Livaditis, A; Guissou, P I; Sawadogo, M; Hanocq, M

1991-09-01

399

Analysis of test-lattice experiments in the light-water high-conversion reactor PROTEUS. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the preliminary analysis of a series of tight-pitch lattice experiments. The first phase of an experimental program was recently completed at the PROTEUS zero-power reactor facility. The primary purpose of the program was to obtain experimental data on a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/-fueled test lattice with a fuel-to-moderator ratio of approximately 2.0. Reaction rate ratios were measured in the center of the test lattice. Measurements included the capture rates in U-238 and fission rates in U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241. Radial and axial reaction-rate traverses across the test lattice were also measured to determine material buckling. EPRI-CPM and its associated production library CPMLIB3 were used in the calculations of the lattice parameters (reaction rate ratios and k/sub infinity/), the results of which were subsequently compared to the measured parameters.

Hettergott, E.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.

1983-07-01

400

Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries  

SciTech Connect

The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k {infinity} void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations.

Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland))

1989-11-01

401

Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

402

Within-Pin Reaction Rate Distributions: CASMO-4 and HELIOS Compared Against Tomographic Measurements at the PROTEUS Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS project - an extended validation program for advanced light water reactor core analysis tools conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute - the radial, internal variations of the total fission rate (F{sub tot}) and the capture rate in {sup 238}U (C{sub 8}) have been calculated for zero-burnup pins of a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ boiling water reactor fuel assembly using two codes, namely, CASMO-4 and HELIOS. While F{sub tot} distributions predicted by CASMO-4 and HELIOS are in good agreement, C{sub 8} distributions show significant inconsistencies (20 to 30%). The calculations are compared with experimental results obtained using single photon emission computerized tomography for several SVEA-96+ pins irradiated in the zero-power reactor PROTEUS. The comparisons confirm the predicted shape of the F{sub tot} distributions within UO{sub 2} pins and clearly indicate that HELIOS within-pin predictions for C{sub 8} are more reliable than CASMO-4 results. This is important for the derivation of gamma-ray self-absorption corrections when pin-integrated reaction rates are to be determined using the gamma-scanning technique. Thus, the use of CASMO-4-type within-pin distributions would lead to 3 to 4% discrepancies in the absolute, self-absorption-corrected pin-integrated values deduced for C{sub 8} and hence for C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}. For relative C{sub 8} distributions, the discrepancy would be much smaller, namely, up to {approx}1% if pins containing a burnable absorber are involved.

Fauchere, C. Pralong; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

2005-05-15

403

Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.  

PubMed Central

Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

Preston, Gail M

2004-01-01

404

Promysalin, a salicylate-containing Pseudomonas putida antibiotic, promotes surface colonization and selectively targets other Pseudomonas.  

PubMed

Under control of the Gac regulatory system, Pseudomonas putida RW10S1 produces promysalin to promote its own swarming and biofilm formation, and to selectively inhibit many other pseudomonads, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This amphipathic antibiotic is composed of salicylic acid and 2,8-dihydroxymyristamide bridged by a unique 2-pyrroline-5-carboxyl moiety. In addition to enzymes for salicylic acid synthesis and activation, the biosynthetic gene cluster encodes divergent type II fatty acid biosynthesis components, unusual fatty acid-tailoring enzymes (two Rieske-type oxygenases and an amidotransferase), an enzyme resembling a proline-loading module of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and the first prokaryotic member of the BAHD family of plant acyltransferases. Identification of biosynthetic intermediates enabled to propose a pathway for synthesis of this bacterial colonization factor. PMID:22035801

Li, Wen; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina; Matthijs, Sandra; Xie, Guan-Lin; Busson, Roger; Cornelis, Pierre; Rozenski, Jef; De Mot, René

2011-10-28

405

HTR-Proteus Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 9 and 10: Columnar Hexagonal Point-on-Point Packing with a 1:1 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity; it is a part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (formerly EIR, Eidgenossisches Institut fur Reaktorforschung) and is situated near Wurenlingen ...

H. D. Gougar, I. Lengar, J. B. Briggs, J. D. Bess, J. W. Sterbentz, L. Snoj, O. Koberl

2014-01-01

406

Vesiculation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa under SOS  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity. PMID:22448133

Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F.; Yu, JiehJuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E.; Weitao, Tao

2012-01-01

407

Cesium stress and adaptation in pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

Industrialization and acid rain have led to a marked increment on the bioavailability of numerous metals. These metallic pollutants pose a serious threat to the ecosystem due to their ability to interact negatively with living organisms. Thus, considerable effort has been directed towards the development of environmentally-friendly technologies tailored to the management of metal wastes. As microbes are known to adapt to most environmental stresses, they constitute organisms of choice in the study of molecular adaptation processes. The adaptive features may be subsequently engineered for biotechnological applications. Cesium, a monovalent metal with chemical similarities to potassium but no know essential biological function has become a cause of environmental concern owing to its accidental release from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. This study examines the impact of cesium on the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescensts, and discusses the possibilities of its use in management of this nuclear waste. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Appanna, V.D.; Huang, J.; St. Pierre, M. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)] [and others] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); and others

1996-05-01

408

Trypsin inhibitors from the garden four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seeds: isolation, characterization and chemical synthesis.  

PubMed

Five serine proteinase inhibitors (Mirabilis jalapa trypsin inhibitors, MJTI I and II and Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitors, SOTI I, II, and III) from the garden four-o'clock (M. jalapa) and spinach (S. oleracea) seeds were isolated. The purification procedures included affinity chromatography on immobilized methylchymotrypsin in the presence of 5M NaCl, ion exchange chromatography and/or preparative electrophoresis, and finally RP-HPLC on a C-18 column. The inhibitors, crosslinked by three disulfide bridges, are built of 35 to 37 amino-acid residues. Their primary structures differ from those of known trypsin inhibitors, but showed significant similarity to the antimicrobial peptides isolated from the seeds of M. jalapa (MJ-AMP1, MJ-AMP2), Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (AMP1), and Phytolacca americana (AMP-2 and PAFP-S) and from the hemolymph of Acrocinus longimanus (Alo-1, 2 and 3). The association equilibrium constants (K(a)) with bovine beta-trypsin for the inhibitors from M. jalapa (MJTI I and II) and S. oleracea (SOTI I-III) were found to be about 10(7)M(-1). Fully active MJTI I and SOTI I were obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The disulfide bridge pattern in both inhibitors (Cys1-Cys4, Cys2-Cys5 and Cys3-Cys6) was established after their digestion with thermolysin and proteinase K followed by the MALDI-TOF analysis. PMID:17481678

Kowalska, Jolanta; Pszczo?a, Katarzyna; Wilimowska-Pelc, Anna; Lorenc-Kubis, Irena; Zuziak, Ewa; ?ugowski, Mateusz; ?egowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Sleszy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Lesner, Adam; Walewska, Aleksandra; Zab?otna, Ewa; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wilusz, Tadeusz

2007-06-01

409

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

410

DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACTERIOPHAGES IN LAKE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and interaction between newly isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and resident bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater environment was monitored over 45 days in lake water microcosms. he interaction between susceptible and resistant bacteria with pure pha...

411

Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.  

PubMed

Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

2014-02-01

412

Pseudomonas litoralis sp. nov., isolated from Mediterranean seawater.  

PubMed

Strains 2SM5(T) and 2SM6, two strictly aerobic chemo-organotrophic gammaproteobacteria, were isolated from Mediterranean seawater off the coast of Vinaroz, Castellón, Spain, in February, 1990. They were extensively characterized by a polyphasic study that placed them in the genus Pseudomonas. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains shared 100?% sequence similarity and were closely related to members of the Pseudomonas pertucinogena clade, with less than 97.3?% similarity to strains of established species; Pseudomonas xiamenensis was the closest relative. Analysis of sequences of three housekeeping genes, rpoB, rpoD and gyrB, further confirmed the phylogenetic assignment of the Mediterranean isolates. Chemotaxonomic traits such as quinone and polar lipid composition also corroborated the placement of strains 2SM5(T) and 2SM6 in the gammaproteobacteria. Other phenotypic traits, including fatty acid composition, enabled clear differentiation of both isolates from other species of Pseudomonas. We therefore conclude that strains 2SM5(T) and 2SM6 represent a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas litoralis is proposed; the type strain is 2SM5(T) (?=?CECT 7670(T)?=?KCTC 23093(T)). PMID:21460136

Pascual, Javier; Lucena, Teresa; Ruvira, María A; Giordano, Assunta; Gambacorta, Agata; Garay, Esperanza; Arahal, David R; Pujalte, María J; Macián, M Carmen

2012-02-01

413

Immobilization of Proteus vulgaris for the reduction of 2-oxo acids with hydrogen gas or formate to d-2-hydroxy acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the stereoselective reduction of 2-oxo acids by hydrogen gas or formate to d-2-hydroxy acids, anaerobically grown Proteus vulgaris cells were immobilized in alginate, ?-carrageenan, chitosan, polyurethane and polyacrylamide acylhydrazide. With the exception of the last matrix, immobilization led to a decrease in the apparent activity, probably caused by diffusional limitations. Chitosan or polyurethane-entrapped cells kept their initial catalytic activity

Gunther Karsten; Helmut Simon

1993-01-01

414

The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the core–lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus vulgaris serotype O25  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following structure of the lipid A–core region of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus vulgaris serotype O25 was determined by using NMR and chemical analysis of the core oligosaccharide, obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS, of the products of alkaline deacylation of the LPS, and of the products of LPS deamination:Terminal residues of ?-GlcNAc and ?-Kdo (indicated by bold

Evgeny Vinogradov; Maciej Cedzynski; Antoni Rozalski; Andrzej Ziolkowski; Anna Swierzko

2000-01-01

415

Comparison of the haemolysin secretion protein HlyB from Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli ; site-directed mutagenesis causing impairment of export function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hlyB secretion genes of Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli showed 81% nucleotide homology and similar E. coli-atypical codon usage. The deduced protein sequences differed in 54 of 707 residues and shared a previously unreported sequence which corresponds to the ATP-binding motif characteristic of protein kinases. The motif was also conserved in the HlyB of Morganella morganii. Of 4 oligonucleotide-directed

Vassilis Koronakis; Eva Koronakis; Colin Hughes

1988-01-01

416

Characterization of p Pvu1, the autonomous plasmid from proteus vulgaris that carries the genes of the PvuII restriction-modification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmid pPvu1 from Proteus vulgaris carries the genes of the PvuII restriction-modification system [Blumenthal et al., J. Bacteriol. 164 (1985) 501–509]. This report focuses on physical and functional features of the 4.84-kb plasmid, which shows a composite genetic architecture. Plasmid pPvu1 has a replication origin and an incompatibility locus that each function in Escherichia coli, and an apparent cer recombination

Michelle D. Calvin Koons; Robert M. Blumenthal

1995-01-01

417

DNA sequence analysis of the recA genes from Proteus vulgaris, Erwinia carotovora, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli B\\/r  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequences of therecA genes fromEscherichia coli B\\/r,Shigella flexneri, Erwinia carotovora andProteus vulgaris were determined. The DNA sequence of the coding region of theE. coli B\\/r gene contained a single nucleotide change compared with theE. coli K12 gene sequence whereas theS. flexneri gene differed at 7 residues. In both cases, the predicted proteins were identical in primary structure

XiaoJun Zhao; Kevin McEntee

1990-01-01

418

40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...established for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in...

2012-07-01

419

40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption...established for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in...

2013-07-01

420

[Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains].  

PubMed

The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri VKM B-975T. Upon the introduction of CN- and SCN- into cell suspensions of strains 18 and 21 in phosphate buffer (pH 8.8), the production of NH4+ was observed. Due to the high rate of their utilization, NH3, NH4+, and CNO- were absent from the culture liquids of P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18 grown with CN- or SCN-. Both Pseudomonas strains decomposed SCN- via cyanate production. The cyanase activity was 0.75 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. putida strain 21 and 1.26 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. stutzeri strain 18. The cyanase activity was present in the cells grown with SCN- but absent in cells grown with NH4+. Strain 21 of P. putida was a more active CN- decomposer than strain 18 of P. stutzeri. Ammonium and CO2 were the terminal nitrogen and carbon products of CN- and SCN- decomposition. The terminal sulfur products of SCN- decomposition by P. stutzeri strain 18 and P. putida strain 21 were thiosulfate and tetrathionate, respectively. The strains utilized the toxic compounds in the anabolism only, as sources of nitrogen (CN- and SCN-) and sulfur (SCN-). The pathway of thiocyanate decomposition by the association of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas is proposed based on the results obtained. PMID:16871797

Grigor'eva, N V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Krasil'nikova, E N; Karava?ko, G I

2006-01-01

421

Pseudomonas composti sp. nov., isolated from compost samples.  

PubMed

Two unusual, Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive rods, designated C2(T) and C5, were isolated from compost samples. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that both isolates were members of the genus Pseudomonas and belonged to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa group. Strain C2(T) was most closely related to Pseudomonas cuatrocienegasensis 1N(T) and Pseudomonas borbori R-20821(T) (97.9 and 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However, phylogenetic analysis based on rpoD gene sequences revealed that both isolates could be discriminated from members of the P. aeruginosa group that exhibited >97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The DNA G+C content of strain C2(T) was 61.5 mol%. The major fatty acids of strain C2(T) were a summed feature (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(18:1)?7c/12t/9t, C(16:0) and C(12:0), which supported the isolates' affiliation with the genus Pseudomonas. Moreover, strain C2(T) could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours of the genus Pseudomonas by DNA-DNA hybridization studies and biochemical tests. On the basis of both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the isolates be classified as a novel species, with the name Pseudomonas composti sp. nov. The type strain is C2(T) (=CECT 7516(T)=CCUG 59231(T)). PMID:21278410

Gibello, Alicia; Vela, Ana I; Martín, Margarita; Mengs, Gerardo; Alonso, Pilar Z; Garbi, Carlos; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

2011-12-01

422

Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil.  

PubMed

We isolated a bacterial strain designated PCAVU11(T) in the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in rhizospheric soil of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Guárico state, Venezuela. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.2?% sequence similarity with respect to the most closely related species, Pseudomonas taiwanensis, and 99.1?% with respect to Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas monteilii, on the basis of which PCAVU11(T) was classified as representing a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation and showed sequence similarities lower than 95?% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Strain PCAVU11(T) showed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were 16?:?0 (25.7?%), 18?:?1?7c (20.4?%), 17?:?0 cyclo (11.5?%) and 16?:?1?7c/15?:?0 iso 2-OH in summed feature 3 (10.8?%). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, the arginine dihydrolase system was present but nitrate reduction, ?-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. Strain PCAVU11(T) grew at 44 °C and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 56?% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain PCAVU11(T) as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, which we propose to name Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov. The type strain is PCAVU11(T) (?=?LMG 27394(T)?=?CECT 8262(T)). PMID:23847284

Toro, Marcia; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

2013-12-01

423

Revised pyocin typing method for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

In the Gillies and Govan method of pyocin typing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa a cross-streaking technique was used, and 105 main types and 25 subtypes were identified by the patterns of inhibition observed on 13 indicator strains. Disadvantages of the technique included the need to remove test strain growth before application of the indicator strains, the 48-h period needed to obtain a result, and the inability to reliably type mucoid P. aeruginosa. Recent studies have enabled us to overcome these disadvantages and significantly improve the speed and application of pyocin typing. Our revised technique utilizes the same 13 indicator strains which are already used internationally. Test strains were rapidly applied to the surface of agar plates with a multiple inoculator. After incubation for 6 h and exposure to chloroform, the indicator strains were applied in agar overlays without prior removal of the test strain growth. After 18 h of incubation, the pyocin type was recognized by inhibition of particular indicator strains. Additionally, the activity of particulate (R and F) and nonparticulate (S) pyocins could be distinguished on the basis of inhibition zone size, which thus allowed further discrimination. The revised technique allows typing within 24 h, increases the number of identifiable types, and can be used to type mucoid strains. Images PMID:6430955

Fyfe, J A; Harris, G; Govan, J R

1984-01-01

424

Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control.  

PubMed

Genus Pseudomonas includes a large number of species that can be encountered in biotechnological processes as well as in the role of serious human or plant pathogens. Pseudomonads easily form biofilms on various types of surfaces. The biofilm phenotype is characterized by an increased resistance to environmental influences including resistance to antibiotics and other disinfectants, causing a number of problems in health care, food industry, and other areas. Considerable attention is therefore paid to the possibilities of eradication/destruction of pseudomonads biofilms both in terms of understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation and at the level of finding suitable antibiofilm tools applicable in practice. The first part of this review is devoted to an overview of the regulatory mechanisms that are directly or indirectly involved in the formation of biofilm. The most effective approaches to suppressing the formation of biofilm that do not cause the development of resistance are based on the application of substances that interfere with the regulatory molecules or block the appropriate regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm development by the cells. Pseudomonads biofilm formation is, similar to other microorganisms, a sophisticated process with many regulatory elements. The suppression of this process therefore also requires multiple antibiofilm tools. PMID:24754832

Masák, Jan; ?ejková, Alena; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Tomáš

2014-07-01

425

The metabolism of thymol by a Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

1. Pseudomonas putida when grown with thymol contained a meta-fission dioxygenase, which required ferrous ions and readily cleaved the benzene nucleus of catechols between adjacent carbon atoms bearing hydroxyl and isopropyl groups. 2. 3-Hydroxythymo-1,4-quinone was excreted towards the end of exponential growth and later was slowly metabolized. This compound was oxidized by partially purified extracts only when NADH was supplied; the substrate for the dioxygenase appeared to be 3-hydroxythymo-1,4-quinol, which was readily and non-enzymically oxidized to the quinone. 3. 2-Oxobutyrate (0·9 mole) was formed from 1 mole of 3-hydroxythymo-1,4-quinone with the consumption of 1 mole of oxygen; acetate, isobutyrate and 2-hydroxybutyrate (which arose from the enzymic reduction of 2-oxobutyrate) were also formed. 4. These products, which were produced only when the catechol substrate contained a third hydroxyl group, appeared to result from the enzymic hydrolysis of the ring-fission product. PMID:4303067

Chamberlain, Enid M.; Dagley, S.

1968-01-01

426

Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal); Carrondo, M.J.T. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)]|[Inst. de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica, Oeiras (Portugal)

1995-05-05

427

Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:24214409

De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sa-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tummler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhan; Winstanley, Craig

2013-01-01

428

Antivirulence activity of azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Antibiotics represent our bulwark to combat bacterial infections, but the spread of antibiotic resistance compromises their clinical efficacy. Alternatives to conventional antibiotics are urgently needed in order to complement the existing antibacterial arsenal. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) provides a paradigmatic example of an "unconventional" antibacterial drug. Besides its growth-inhibiting activity, AZM displays potent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antivirulence activity on some intrinsically resistant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this bacterium, the antivirulence activity of AZM mainly relies on its ability to interact with the ribosome, resulting in direct and/or indirect repression of specific subsets of genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Both clinical experience and clinical trials have shown the efficacy of AZM in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The aim of this review is to combine results from laboratory studies with evidence from clinical trials in order to unify the information on the in vivo mode of action of AZM in P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:24795709

Imperi, Francesco; Leoni, Livia; Visca, Paolo

2014-01-01

429

Oxidative stress response in Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas putida is widely distributed in nature and is capable of degrading various organic compounds due to its high metabolic versatility. The survival capacity of P. putida stems from its frequent exposure to various endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses. Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of interactions with various reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing agents existing in various niches. ROS could facilitate the evolution of bacteria by mutating genomes. Aerobic bacteria maintain defense mechanisms against oxidative stress throughout their evolution. To overcome the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, P. putida has developed defensive cellular systems involving induction of stress-sensing proteins and detoxification enzymes as well as regulation of oxidative stress response networks. Genetic responses to oxidative stress in P. putida differ markedly from those observed in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Two major redox-sensing transcriptional regulators, SoxR and OxyR, are present and functional in the genome of P. putida. However, the novel regulators FinR and HexR control many genes belonging to the E. coli SoxR regulon. Oxidative stress can be generated by exposure to antibiotics, and iron homeostasis in P. putida is crucial for bacterial cell survival during treatment with antibiotics. This review highlights and summarizes current knowledge of oxidative stress in P. putida, as a model soil bacterium, together with recent studies from molecular genetics perspectives. PMID:24957251

Kim, Jisun; Park, Woojun

2014-08-01

430

Copper ion-stimulated McoA-laccase production and enzyme characterization in Proteus hauseri ZMd44.  

PubMed

The novel bioelectricity-generating bacterium of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 has been first identified to produce McoA-laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) induced by copper sulphate. The optimal concentration of copper is 3 mM as supplementation at the beginning of culture or early exponential growth phase, during which laccase is predominantly synthesized. Moreover, the whole cellular and intracellular activities of laccase increase in the degrees of inducible copper concentrations. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is that copper ions enhance the laccase genetic transcription level during the laccase synthesis thus granting this strain in copper tolerance. McoA-laccase belongs to typical type 1 (T1) Cu site laccase by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of intracellular enzyme. From our results, the optimal temperature and pH are 60°C and pH 2.2, respectively. The kinetic profiles show that this enzyme is stable under 50°C and in the slightly acidic environment, making it a potentially useful enzyme in dye decolorization, paper-pulp bleaching and bioremediation industries. PMID:23153927

Zheng, Xuesong; Ng, I-Son; Ye, Chiming; Chen, Bor-Yann; Lu, Yinghua

2013-04-01

431

Structure of the Proteus vulgaris HigB-(HigA)2-HigB toxin-antitoxin complex.  

PubMed

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems regulate key cellular processes to promote cell survival during periods of stress. During steady-state cell growth, antitoxins typically interact with their cognate toxins to inhibit activity presumably by preventing substrate recognition. We solved two x-ray crystal structures of the Proteus vulgaris tetrameric HigB-(HigA)2-HigB TA complex and found that, unlike most other TA systems, the antitoxin HigA makes minimal interactions with toxin HigB. HigB adopts a RelE family tertiary fold containing a highly conserved concave surface where we predict its active site is located. HigA does not cover the solvent-exposed HigB active site, suggesting that, in general, toxin inhibition is not solely mediated by active site hindrance by its antitoxin. Each HigA monomer contains a helix-turn-helix motif that binds to its own DNA operator to repress transcription during normal cellular growth. This is distinct from antitoxins belonging to other superfamilies that typically only form DNA-binding motifs upon dimerization. We further show that disruption of the HigB-(HigA)2-HigB tetramer to a HigBA heterodimer ablates operator binding. Taken together, our biochemical and structural studies elucidate the novel molecular details of the HigBA TA system. PMID:24257752

Schureck, Marc A; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Miles, Stacey J; Marquez, Jhomar; Cho, Shein Ei; Erdman, Rachel; Dunham, Christine M

2014-01-10

432

A CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF REDUCTIVE SITES IN A GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIUM Tellurite Reduction in Proteus vulgaris  

E-print Network

In order to obtain information on the exact location of the respiratory enzyme chain in Gram-negative bacteria, an electron microscopic study was made of the sites of reducing activity of cells that had, in the living state, incorporated tellurite. In the test object Proteus vulgaris, the reduced tellurite was found to be deposited in bodies contiguous with the plasma membrane but different in structure from those described in the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (2). In fact, the bodies proved to consist of a conglomerate of elements which contained the strongly electron-scattering reduced tellurite and a delicately granular "matrix. " A limiting membrane was not observed around these complexes. In serial sections details of the complexes are illustrated. Reduced tellurite was not deposited in the plasma membrane to any important degree. Since no other sites of deposition of the reduced product were revealed, it is assumed that the complexes represent the mitochondrial equivalents in the investigated organism. In addition, the bodies might function as the basal granules of the flagella.

Woutera Van Iterson, Ph.D.; W. Leene

433

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

434

Investigation of the void coefficient and other integral parameters in the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II program  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of calculated and measured neutron balance components are reported for the 7.5% fissile plutonium reference test lattice of the PROTEUS-light water high conversion reactor (LWHCR) phase II program, both wet (with H/sub 2/O) and dry (100% void). Special experimental techniques have been developed and applied, particularly for kappa/sub infinity/, and the range of directly measured reaction rate ratios has been extended. For the two cell codes tested, WIMS-D/1981 library and KARBUS/KEDAK-4, specific shortcomings have been identified; the new measurements have been found to be significantly more representative and accurate than the earlier phase I experiments. The kappa/sub infinity/ void coefficient for the phase II reference lattice between 0 and 100% void has been found to be qualitatively different from those assessed for the earlier phase I test lattices. Consideration of the individual void coefficient components show this to be largely a consequence of the more LWHCR-representative fuel rod diameter and plutonium isotopic composition of the fuel currently being used. Results of control rod studies conducted for the phase II reference lattice - both wet and dry - serve to illustrate the efforts being made toward investigations of special power reactor features.

Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.; Hager, H.; Berger, H.D.; Bohme, R.

1988-02-01

435

Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

436

Orbital resonances in the inner neptunian system. I. The 2:1 Proteus Larissa mean-motion resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the orbital resonant history of Proteus and Larissa, the two largest inner neptunian satellites discovered by Voyager 2. Due to tidal migration, these two satellites probably passed through their 2:1 mean-motion resonance a few hundred million years ago. We explore this resonance passage as a method to excite orbital eccentricities and inclinations, and find interesting constraints on the satellites' mean density ( 0.05 g/cm10). Through numerical study of this mean-motion resonance passage, we identify a new type of three-body resonance between the satellite pair and Triton. These new resonances occur near the traditional two-body resonances between the small satellites and, surprisingly, are much stronger than their two-body counterparts due to Triton's large mass and orbital inclination. We determine the relevant resonant arguments and derive a mathematical framework for analyzing resonances in this special system.

Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.

2007-06-01

437

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

438

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

439

Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

440

Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

441

Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment.

Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

442

Catabolism of Naphthalenesulfonic Acids by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22  

PubMed Central

Naphthalene and two naphthalenesulfonic acids were degraded by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22 by the same enzymes. Gentisate is a major metabolite. Catabolic activities for naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid are induced by growth with naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, methylnaphthalene, or salicylate. Gentisate is also an inducer in strain A3. Inhibition kinetics show that naphthalene and substituted naphthalenes are hydroxylated by the same naphthalene dioxygenase. Substrates with nondissociable substituents such as CH3, OCH3, Cl, or NO2 are hydroxylated in the 7,8-position, and 4-substituted salicylates are accumulated. If CO2H, CH2CO2H, or SO3H are substituents, hydroxylation occurs with high regioselectivity in the 1,2-position. Thus, 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acids are formed quantitatively from the corresponding naphthalenecarboxylic acids. Utilization of naphthalenesulfonic acids proceeds by the same regioselective 1,2-dioxygenation which labilizes the C—SO3? bond and eliminates sulfite. PMID:16345814

Brilon, C.; Beckmann, W.; Knackmuss, H.-J.

1981-01-01

443

Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 (Pseudomonas ferrireductans)  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic respiration and dissimilative iron reduction were studied in pure, batch cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 (Pseudomonas ferrireductans). Specific respiratory inhibitors were used to identify elements of electron transport chains involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen and Fe(III). When cells were grown at a high oxygen concentration, dissimilative iron reduction occurred via an abbreviated electron transport chain. The induction of alternative respiratory pathways resulted from growth at low oxygen tension (<0.01 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa)). Induced cells were capable of O/sub 2/ utilization at moderately increased rates; dissimilative iron reduction was accelerated by a factor of 6 to 8. In cells grown at low oxygen tension, dissimilative iron reduction appeared to be uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. Models of induced and uninduced electron transport chains, including a mathematical treatment of chemical inhibition within the uninduced, aerobic electron transport system, are presented. In uninduced cells respiring anaerobically, electron transport was limited by ferrireductase activity. This limitation may disappear among induced cells.

Arnold, R.G.; DiChristina, T.J.; Hoffman, M.R.

1986-08-01

444

Interference with Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis inhibits virulence factor expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that controls numerous virulence factors through intercellular signals. This bacterium has two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl), which act through the intercellular signals N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), respectively. P. aeruginosa also produces a third intercellular signal that is involved in virulence factor regulation. This signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone [referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)], is a secondary metabolite that is part of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing hierarchy. PQS can induce both lasB (encodes LasB elastase) and rhlI (encodes the C4-HSL synthase) in P. aeruginosa and is produced maximally during the late stationary phase of growth. Because PQS is an intercellular signal that is part of the quorum-sensing hierarchy and controls multiple virulence factors, we began basic studies designed to elucidate its biosynthetic pathway. First, we present data that strongly suggest that anthranilate is a precursor for PQS. P. aeruginosa converted radiolabeled anthranilate into radioactive PQS, which was bioactive. We also found that an anthranilate analog (methyl anthranilate) would inhibit the production of PQS. This analog was then shown to have a major negative effect on elastase production by P. aeruginosa. These data provide evidence that precursors of intercellular signals may provide viable targets for the development of therapeutic treatments that will reduce P. aeruginosa virulence. PMID:11573001

Calfee, M. Worth; Coleman, James P.; Pesci, Everett C.

2001-01-01

445

Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas mendocina DLHK, Isolated from a Biotrickling Reactor  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas mendocina DLHK is an aerobic bacterium isolated from a biotrickling reactor which can remove nitric oxide, a common air pollutant from combustion exhaust gas. Here, we present the draft genome of Pseudomonas mendocina DLHK. PMID:23105066

Wong, Chi Fat; Niu, Hejingying; Jiang, Jingwei; Li, Jun; Chan, Charis May Ngor; Leung, Dennis Yiu Cheong

2012-01-01

446

Adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Mojave Desert Soil: Role of Motility and Chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Mojave Desert Soil: Role of Motility and Chemotaxis Background Materials and Method Purpose and Hypothesis Results Conclusion Acknowledgements Pseudomonas fluorescens is a gram negative, rod- shaped bacterium with one flagellum which confers motility. P

Walker, Lawrence R.

447

Evolutionary and functional diversity of the Pseudomonas type IVa pilin islandemi_2327 250..264  

E-print Network

Evolutionary and functional diversity of the Pseudomonas type IVa pilin islandemi_2327 250Master University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Summary In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, most proteins involved in type IVa pilus

Burrows, Lori

448

Pseudomonas soli sp. nov., a novel producer of xantholysin congeners.  

PubMed

A chemoorganotrophic Gram-negative bacterium was isolated by means of a diffusion sandwich system from a soil sample from the Sierra Nevada National Park, Spain. Strain F-279,208(T) was oxidase and catalase positive, strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming and motile by single polar flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-279,208(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas putida group with Pseudomonas mosselii and Pseudomonas entomophila as its closest relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain belongs to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-279,208(T) (=DSM 28043(T)=LMG 27941(T)), and during fermentation it produces xantholysins, a family of lipodepsipeptides. The major compound, xantholysin A, showed an interesting activity in a RCC4 kidney tumor cell line with inactivation of VHL linked with the HIF pathway, without any cytotoxic effects against other human tumor cell lines tested including, liver, pancreas and breast. PMID:25097020

Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Carmona, Cristina; Sousa, Thiciana da S; de Pedro, Nuria; Cautain, Bastien; Martín, Jesús; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

2014-09-01

449

Use of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.  

PubMed

The therapeutic efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin was studied in 30 patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. In 20 patients ciprofloxacin was given alone and in 10 patients (including 8 compromised hosts) in combination with an aminoglycoside (9) or azlocillin (1). Ciprofloxacin was given in doses of 500 mg orally or 200-300 mg i.v. every 12 h. In patients receiving only ciprofloxacin clinical cure with eradication of bacteria was obtained in 15 patients (75%) with infections of bone and joint (6), skin and soft tissue (4), lung (2), middle ear (2) and CSF (1). Two patients with lymphoma and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia died. In patients receiving combination therapy a definite therapeutic success was achieved in four (40%). Three patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia died. In seven patients nine bacterial strains with decreasing susceptibility of ciprofloxacin (increase in MIC from less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml to 2-16 micrograms/ml) were selected (6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Serratia marcescens, 1 Staphylococcus aureus). Ciprofloxacin was well tolerated. This new quinolone seems to be suitable for single drug treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with normal host defense mechanisms, while its therapeutic potential in compromised hosts requires further evaluation. PMID:2941289

Follath, F; Bindschedler, M; Wenk, M; Frei, R; Stalder, H; Reber, H

1986-04-01

450

Biosurfactant production in sugar beet molasses by some Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

In this study rhamnolipid biosurfactant production was investigated in eighteen strains of Pseudomonas spp.. Rhamnolipid by these strains was determined by a spectrophotometric method in nutrient broth medium (NB). From the 18 strains screened, two Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas luteola B17 and Pseudomonas putida B12) which had produced the highest percentage yield of rhamnolipid were examined for rhamnolipid production at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and different sugar beet molasses concentrations [1-5% w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)]. The rhamnolipid production increased with the increase in the concentration of molasses and maximum production occurred when 5 % (w/v) of molasses were used. At the same time, maximum rhamnolipid production occurred after 72 hr of incubation. When the amount of rhamnolipid produced at different incubation times (24, 48 and 72 hr) and with different concentrations of molasses [1-5 % w/v concentration (1-5 g molasses/100 ml water)] by Pseudomonas spp.; was compared, no significant difference in amount of production was seen. These studies show that the waste product from sugar industry may be suggested for important biotechnological processes such as rhamnolipid production. PMID:20112880

Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

2009-01-01

451

Pseudomonas marincola sp. nov., isolated from marine environments.  

PubMed

An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, non-pigmented bacterium, strain KMM 3042(T), isolated from a deep-sea brittle star in the Fiji Sea, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed marine Mn(II)-oxidizing isolate S185-2B as the closest neighbour of strain KMM 3042(T) (99.9 % sequence similarity). The two strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Pseudomonas adjacent to the members of the Pseudomonas borbori cluster, sharing highest sequence similarity of 97.4 and 97.0 %, respectively, with P. borbori DSM 17834(T) and Pseudomonas flavescens DSM 12071(T). The DNA-DNA hybridization value (71 %) between strains KMM 3042(T) and S185-2B confirmed their assignment to the same species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 3042(T) and S185-2B should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas marincola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3042(T) (=NRIC 0729(T) =JCM 14761(T)). PMID:18319482

Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Tebo, Bradley M; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V

2008-03-01

452

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genomic Structure and Diversity  

PubMed Central

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome (G?+?C content 65–67%, size 5.5–7?Mbp) is made up of a single circular chromosome and a variable number of plasmids. Sequencing of complete genomes or blocks of the accessory genome has revealed that the genome encodes a large repertoire of transporters, transcriptional regulators, and two-component regulatory systems which reflects its metabolic diversity to utilize a broad range of nutrients. The conserved core component of the genome is largely collinear among P. aeruginosa strains and exhibits an interclonal sequence diversity of 0.5–0.7%. Only a few loci of the core genome are subject to diversifying selection. Genome diversity is mainly caused by accessory DNA elements located in 79 regions of genome plasticity that are scattered around the genome and show an anomalous usage of mono- to tetradecanucleotides. Genomic islands of the pKLC102/PAGI-2 family that integrate into tRNALys or tRNAGly genes represent hotspots of inter- and intraclonal genomic diversity. The individual islands differ in their repertoire of metabolic genes that make a large contribution to the pangenome. In order to unravel intraclonal diversity of P. aeruginosa, the genomes of two members of the PA14 clonal complex from diverse habitats and geographic origin were compared. The genome sequences differed by less than 0.01% from each other. One hundred ninety-eight of the 231 single nucleotide substitutions (SNPs) were non-randomly distributed in the genome. Non-synonymous SNPs were mainly found in an integrated Pf1-like phage and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, membrane and extracellular constituents, transport, and secretion. In summary, P. aeruginosa is endowed with a highly conserved core genome of low sequence diversity and a highly variable accessory genome that communicates with other pseudomonads and genera via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:21808635

Klockgether, Jens; Cramer, Nina; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Davenport, Colin F.; Tummler, Burkhard

2011-01-01

453

Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful clues for the improvement and optimization of chemotherapy in order to appropriately treat pseudomonal infections while minimizing the emergence of resistance. PMID:24409175

Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

454

Corneal response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common organism associated with bacterial keratitis, especially in those who use extended wear contact lenses. Recent advances in our understanding of host innate and adaptive immune responses to experimental infection have been made using a variety of animal models, including inbred murine models that are classed as resistant (cornea heals) vs. susceptible (cornea perforates). Evidence has been provided that sustained IL-12-driven IFN-gamma production in dominant Th1 responder strains such as C57BL/6 (B6) contributes to corneal destruction and perforation, while IL-18-driven production of IFN-gamma in the absence of IL-12 is associated with bacterial killing and less corneal destruction in dominant Th2 responder strains such as BALB/c. The critical role of IL-1 and chemotactic cytokines such as MIP-2 in PMN recruitment and the critical role of this cell in the innate immune response to bacterial infection is reviewed. Regulation of PMN persistence is also discussed and evidence provided that persistence of PMN in B6 cornea is regulated by CD4+ T cells, while macrophages regulate PMN number in the cornea of BALB/c mice. The studies provide a better understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms that are operative in the cornea after P. aeruginosa challenge and are consistent with long-term goals of providing targets for alternative or adjunctive treatment for this disease. Future studies will be aimed at better defining the role of Toll receptors, neuropeptides (as unconventional modulators of the immune response) and exploitation of disease control by new techniques, such as RNA silencing. PMID:14766315

Hazlett, Linda Dondero

2004-01-01

455

Chromosomal Organization and Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic ?-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed. PMID:23658532

Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Boccard, Frederic

2013-01-01

456

Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici LMG 2367  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing brown stripe disease in economically important crops worldwide. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici LMG2367 to provide further valuable insights for comparison of the pathovars among species Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:23012277

Liu, He; Qiu, Hui; Zhao, Wenjun; Cui, Zhouqi; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Jin, Gulei; Li, Bin

2012-01-01

457

Characterization of Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 171 tolerant to organic solvents.  

PubMed

An organic solvent-tolerant bacterium, designated as Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 171, was isolated from industrial wastewater in Korea, on the basis of its ability to survive in the presence of benzene, toluene, propylbenzene and xylenes. Its tolerance limits were 8 mM in phenol, 20 mM in benzene and 60 M in toluene. The log P value of phenol was approximately 1.5, which indicates that Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 171 exhibits the highest tolerance to organic solvents. Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 171, a relative of P. putida, P. mosselii and P. moteillii based on phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA sequences, was designated as a new sp. that is tolerant to a wide spectrum of organic solvents, especially xylene isomers. These findings may facilitate the understanding of organic solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. PMID:18792055

Choi, Hye Jung; Kim, Seon-A; Kim, Dong Wan; Moon, Ja Young; Jeong, Yong Kee; Joo, Woo Hong

2008-12-01

458

Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ?sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

2014-01-01

459

Antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas in bottled drinking water.  

PubMed

Eight different bottled drinking waters were tested weekly over an 8-month period to determine the diversity of their Pseudomonas population and their sensitivity to eight antibiotics used in treating Pseudomonas infections. Nine species of Pseudomonas were recovered, with P. stutzeri (24%) and P. diminuta (18.8%) being the most common isolates. Sensitivity patterns of environmental and clinical isolates were shown to differ to some degree. Statistical analyses indicated a significant effect of specific antibiotic on the size of the inhibition zone, a significant difference between species and size of inhibition zone, and a strong species-antibiotic interaction. Distribution of species within the brands of water was also significantly different in 68% of the paired comparisons. PMID:3594309

Hernandez Duquino, H; Rosenberg, F A

1987-04-01

460

Phylogenetic affiliation of Pseudomonas putida biovar A and B strains.  

PubMed

In the genus Pseudomonas, two main lineages and 19 phylogenetic groups or subgroups have been defined based on DNA sequence studies of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes. In the present study, 33 strains previously classified as Pseudomonas putida were phylogenetically affiliated with their closest relatives in the genus by multilocus sequence analysis. The results demonstrated that strains assigned to biovar A of the species were located in the P