Sample records for proteus mirabilis pseudomonas

  1. Collaborative Surface Migration Behavior of Proteus mirabilis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2008-11-07

    Collaborative migration behavior exerted by Proteus mirabilis cells on the surface of a low-agar medium. The organisms were differentiating into elongated hyperflagellates and gathering for migration.

  2. Transcriptome of Swarming Proteus mirabilis? †

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Melanie M.; Rasko, David A.; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2010-01-01

    Swarming motility by the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis has been a long-studied but little understood phenomenon. On agar, a P. mirabilis colony grows outward in a bull's-eye pattern formed by consecutive waves of rapid swarming followed by consolidation into shorter cells. To examine differential gene expression in these growth phases, a microarray was constructed based on the completed genome sequence and annotation. RNA was extracted from broth-cultured, swarming, and consolidation-phase cells to assess transcription during each of these growth states. A total of 587 genes were differentially expressed in broth-cultured cells versus swarming cells, and 527 genes were differentially expressed in broth-cultured cells versus consolidation-phase cells (consolidate). Flagellar genes were highly upregulated in both swarming cells and consolidation-phase cells. Fimbriae were downregulated in swarming cells, while genes involved in cell division and anaerobic growth were upregulated in broth-cultured cells. Direct comparison of swarming cells to consolidation-phase cells found that 541 genes were upregulated in consolidate, but only nine genes were upregulated in swarm cells. Genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis, oligopeptide transport, amino acid import and metabolism, cell division, and phage were upregulated in consolidate. Mutation of dppA, oppB, and cysJ, upregulated during consolidation compared to during swarming, revealed that although these genes play a minor role in swarming, dppA and cysJ are required during ascending urinary tract infection. Swarming on agar to which chloramphenicol had been added suggested that protein synthesis is not required for swarming. These data suggest that the consolidation phase is a state in which P. mirabilis prepares for the next wave of swarming. PMID:20368347

  3. Reduced Susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis to Triclosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Stickler; Gwennan L. Jones

    2008-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis causing catheter encrustation and blockage are susceptible to the biocide triclosan (MICs of 0.2 mg\\/liter). Studies with laboratory models of the bladder have demonstrated that the inflation of catheter retention balloons with triclosan solutions rather than water results in the diffusion of triclosan from the balloons into the surrounding urine and the inhibition of catheter

  4. [Peculiarities of Proteus mirabilis extracellular metalloproteinase biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zamaliutdinova, N M; Sharipova, M R; Bogomol'naia, L M; Bozhokina, E S; Mardanova, A M

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of metalloproteinase by the Proteus mirabilis 5127-1 strain on different media and the influence of glucose and urea on biosynthesis were studied. It was found that the P. mirabilis 5127-1 bacteria secretes metalloproteinase in the medium in two isoforms (52 and 50 kDa). It was established that proteinase synthesis is completely suppressed during the growth of bacteria on synthetic media, as well as in the presence of LB glucose in the medium. It was demonstrated that addition of urea in the medium results in an increase of the culture productivity in the proteinase synthesis. Maximal culture productivity in the proteinase synthesis was found in the medium with natural urine. During the growth of bacteria on artificial urine, proteinase appeared in the medium only after 12 hours of growth as a single isoform. PMID:25872397

  5. Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, R.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Chanal, C.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of resistance to amoxicillin among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 10 TEM-type ?-lactamases were characterized: (i) the well-known penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, the extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-3 and TEM-24, and the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) TEM-44 and (ii) five novel enzymes, a penicillinase TEM-57 similar to TEM-1, an ESBL TEM-66 similar to TEM-3, and three IRTs, TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74. The penicillinase TEM-57 and the ESBL TEM-66 differed from TEM-1 and TEM-3, respectively, by the amino acid substitution Gly-92?Asp (nucleotide mutation G-477?A). This substitution could have accounted for the decrease in pIs (5.2 for TEM-57 and 6.0 for TEM-66) but did not necessarily affect the intrinsic activities of these enzymes. The IRT TEM-65 was an IRT-1-like IRT (Cys-244) related to TEM-2 (Lys-39). The two other IRTs, TEM-73 and TEM-74, were related to IRT-1 (Cys-244) and IRT-2 (Ser-244), respectively, and harbored the amino acid substitutions Leu-21?Phe and Thr-265?Met. In this study, the ESBLs TEM-66, TEM-24, and TEM-3 were encoded by large (170- to 180-kb) conjugative plasmids that exhibited similar patterns after digestion and hybridization with the TEM and AAC(6?)I probes. The three IRTs TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74 were encoded by plasmids that ranged in size from 42 to 70 kb but for which no transfer was obtained. The characterization of five new plasmid-mediated TEM-type ?-lactamases and the first report of TEM-24 in P. mirabilis are evidence of the wide diversity of ?-lactamases produced in this species and of its possible role as a ?-lactamase-encoding plasmid reservoir. PMID:10543745

  6. Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate C05028

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolu; Zhu, Yuanfang; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Chen, Qiongcheng; Yuan, Yanting; Ni, Peixiang

    2014-01-01

    Genomic DNA of Proteus mirabilis C05028 was sequenced by an Illumina HiSeq platform and was assembled to 39 scaffolds with a total length of 3.8 Mb. Next, open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and were annotated by the KEGG, COG, and NR databases. Finally, we found special virulence factors only existing in P. mirabilis C05028. PMID:24675851

  7. Swarming characteristics of Proteus mirabilis under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, M L; Niederhoffer, E C

    1995-12-01

    Nutrients have a pronounced effect on the growth and swarming behaviour of Proteus mirabilis 7002. Iron, zinc, amino acids, and dioxygen are important for rapid growth and normal swarming. Anaerobically grown cultures of P. mirabilis 7002 were unable to swarm on anaerobically maintained rich nutrient agar. Upon exposure to aerobic conditions, P. mirabilis 7002 resumed swarming behaviour. Scanning electron microscopy was used to demonstrate the presence of community organization and mature rafts during normal swarming. These results support the importance of dioxygen and redox status in cell differentiation. PMID:16887546

  8. Evaluation of Proteus mirabilis structural fimbrial proteins as antigens against urinary tract infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Pellegrino; Umberto Galvalisi; Paola Scavone; Vanessa Sosa; Pablo Zunino

    2003-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) and produce several types of different fimbriae, including mannose-resistant\\/Proteus-like fimbriae, uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA), and P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF). Different authors have related these fimbriae with different aspects of P. mirabilis pathogenesis, although the precise role of fimbriae in UTI has not yet been elucidated. In this work we

  9. Extensive segments of the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome in Proteus mirabilis diploids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Wohlhieter; P. Gemski; L. S. Baron

    1975-01-01

    Various Escherichia coli K12 Hfr donors transfer at low frequency portions of the E. coli genome to Proteus mirabilis. By remating such Proteus hybrids with the same or a different E. coli Hfr strain, other genetic characters could be added to yield diploid Proteus hybrids which contained more than 30% of the E. coli genome. The extent of the E.

  10. [Study on whorl swarming growth phenomenon of Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    He, Xianyuan; Liao, Sixiang; Liu, Junkang; Li, Kun; Liu, Yanxia; Yu, Lurong

    2015-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to explore the origins of Proteus mirabilis (PM) whorl swarming growth phenomenon. The whorl swarming growth phenomenon of PM was observed by changed bacterial culture inoculation time, humidity, vaccination practices, cultured flat placement, magnetic field, pH and other factors. Bacterial ring spiral direction of rotation is counterclockwise and the volatile growth process of PM was whorl swarming growth phenomenon. Spiro fluctuation phenomenon was of high frequency in the sealing tanks by cultured anytime inoculation, wherever inoculation technique applied or not, the presence or absence of the magnetic field, and wherever the dish position was. The experimental results showed that the whorl swarming growth phenomenon of PM requires specific pH environment, in which the facts may be relative to its genetic characteristics and the Earths rotation. PMID:25997280

  11. Inhibition of growth and swarming of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris by triclosan.

    PubMed Central

    Firehammer, B D

    1987-01-01

    The MICs of triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) and the effect on swarming were determined for 35 isolates of Proteus mirabilis and 7 isolates of P. vulgaris of animal origin. Both species were susceptible to the antimicrobial agent, and growth of all but one isolate was inhibited by less than 1 microgram/ml in broth and on agar without blood. Swarming was inhibited at triclosan concentrations two- to fourfold less than the MICs. Higher concentrations were required with blood agar than with plain agar for inhibition of growth and swarming. PMID:3301894

  12. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

  13. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-07-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

  14. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  15. Modeling the role of the cell cycle in regulating Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce P. Ayati

    2007-01-01

    We present models and computational results which indicate that the spatial and temporal regularity seen in Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development is largely an expression of a sharp age of dedifferentiation in the cell cycle from motile swarmer cells to immotile dividing cells (also called swimmer or vegetative cells.) This contrasts strongly with reaction-diffusion models of Proteus behavior that ignore or

  16. Modeling the Role of the Cell Cycle in Regulating Proteus mirabilis Swarm-Colony Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce P. Ayati

    2005-01-01

    We present models and computational results which indicate that the spatial and temporal regularity seen in Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development is largely an expression of a sharp age of dedifferentiation in the cell cycle from motile swarmer cells to immotile dividing cells (also called swimmer or vegetative cells.) This contrasts strongly with reaction-diffusion models of Proteus behavior that ignore or

  17. Theory of periodic swarming of bacteria: application to Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Czirók, A; Matsushita, M; Vicsek, T

    2001-03-01

    The periodic swarming of bacteria is one of the simplest examples for pattern formation produced by the self-organized collective behavior of a large number of organisms. In the spectacular colonies of Proteus mirabilis (the most common species exhibiting this type of growth), a series of concentric rings are developed as the bacteria multiply and swarm following a scenario that periodically repeats itself. We have developed a theoretical description for this process in order to obtain a deeper insight into some of the typical processes governing the phenomena in systems of many interacting living units. Our approach is based on simple assumptions directly related to the latest experimental observations on colony formation under various conditions. The corresponding one-dimensional model consists of two coupled differential equations investigated here both by numerical integrations and by analyzing the various expressions obtained from these equations using a few natural assumptions about the parameters of the model. We determine the phase diagram corresponding to systems exhibiting periodic swarming, and discuss in detail how the various stages of the colony development can be interpreted in our framework. We point out that all of our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the complete set of available observations. Thus the present study represents one of the few examples where self-organized biological pattern formation is understood within a relatively simple theoretical approach, leading to results and predictions fully compatible with experiments. PMID:11308686

  18. The Dienes Phenomenon: Competition and Territoriality in Swarming Proteus mirabilis?

    PubMed Central

    Budding, A. E.; Ingham, C. J.; Bitter, W.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; Schneeberger, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    When two different strains of swarming Proteus mirabilis encounter one another on an agar plate, swarming ceases and a visible line of demarcation forms. This boundary region is known as the Dienes line and is associated with the formation of rounded cells. While the Dienes line appears to be the product of distinction between self and nonself, many aspects of its formation and function are unclear. In this work, we studied Dienes line formation using clinical isolates labeled with fluorescent proteins. We show that round cells in the Dienes line originate exclusively from one of the swarms involved and that these round cells have decreased viability. In this sense one of the swarms involved is dominant over the other. Close cell proximity is required for Dienes line formation, and when strains initiate swarming in close proximity, the dominant Dienes type has a significant competitive advantage. When one strain is killed by UV irradiation, a Dienes line does not form. Killing of the dominant strain limits the induction of round cells. We suggest that both strains are actively involved in boundary formation and that round cell formation is the result of a short-range killing mechanism that mediates a competitive advantage, an advantage highly specific to the swarming state. Dienes line formation has implications for the physiology of swarming and social recognition in bacteria. PMID:19251852

  19. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the O-acetylated peptidoglycan of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Gyorffy, S; Clarke, A J

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (PmPG5-3) specific for the O-acetylated peptidoglycan of Proteus mirabilis 19 was produced by an NS-1 myeloma cell line and purified from ascites fluid by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography. The monoclonal antibody (an immunoglobulin M) was characterized by a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be equally specific for both insoluble and soluble O-acetylated peptidoglycan but weakly recognized chemically de-O-acetylated P. mirabilis peptidoglycan, the non-O-acetylated peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the peptidoglycan monosaccharide precursors N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid dipeptide. The monoclonal antibody did not react with D-alanine or lipopolysaccharide isolated from P. mirabilis. Based on this evidence, the binding epitope on the P. mirabilis peptidoglycan is predicted to be linear and to comprise the glycan backbone, including both the N- and O-acetyl moieties. Monoclonal antibody PmPG5-3 was used to localize the O acetylation of the P. mirabilis peptidoglycan by immunoelectron microscopy. Murein sacculi of P. mirabilis were heavily and randomly labelled with the immunogold, whereas very little labelling and no labelling were observed on the sacculi isolated from de-O-acetylated P. mirabilis and E. coli, respectively. Based on the apparent pattern of immunogold labelling, a physiological role for peptidoglycan O acetylation in P. mirabilis is proposed. Images PMID:1629161

  20. Structure of the O-polysaccharide of a serologically separate strain of Proteus mirabilis, TG 332, from a new proposed Proteus serogroup O50

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Anna N Kondakova; Krystyna Zych; Sof'ya N Senchenkova; Alexander S Shashkov; Yuriy A Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

    2003-01-01

    The O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis TG 332 strain. The following structure of the O-polysaccharide was determined by chemical methods along with NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, ROESY and 1H, 13C HMQC experiments:The O-polysaccharide studied has a unique structure among Proteus O-antigens. Accordingly, P. mirabilis TG 332 is serologically separate, and

  1. Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

    2013-03-01

    Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

  2. Transcriptome of Proteus mirabilis in the Murine Urinary Tract: Virulence and Nitrogen Assimilation Gene Expression?†

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Melanie M.; Yep, Alejandra; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2011-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. In this study, microarrays were used to analyze P. mirabilis gene expression in vivo from experimentally infected mice. Urine was collected at 1, 3, and 7 days postinfection, and RNA was isolated from bacteria in the urine for transcriptional analysis. Across nine microarrays, 471 genes were upregulated and 82 were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro broth culture. Genes upregulated in vivo encoded mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, urease, iron uptake systems, amino acid and peptide transporters, pyruvate metabolism enzymes, and a portion of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Flagella were downregulated. Ammonia assimilation gene glnA (glutamine synthetase) was repressed in vivo, while gdhA (glutamate dehydrogenase) was upregulated in vivo. Contrary to our expectations, ammonia availability due to urease activity in P. mirabilis did not drive this gene expression. A gdhA mutant was growth deficient in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source, and loss of gdhA resulted in a significant fitness defect in the mouse model of urinary tract infection. Unlike Escherichia coli, which represses gdhA and upregulates glnA in vivo and cannot utilize citrate, the data suggest that P. mirabilis uses glutamate dehydrogenase to monitor carbon-nitrogen balance, and this ability contributes to the pathogenic potential of P. mirabilis in the urinary tract. PMID:21505083

  3. Loss of FliL alters Proteus mirabilis surface sensing and temperature-dependent swarming.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Belas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic motile bacterium well known for its flagellum-dependent swarming motility over surfaces. In liquid, P. mirabilis cells are 1.5- to 2.0-?m swimmer cells with 4 to 6 flagella. When P. mirabilis encounters a solid surface, where flagellar rotation is limited, swimmer cells differentiate into elongated (10- to 80-?m), highly flagellated swarmer cells. In order for P. mirabilis to swarm, it first needs to detect a surface. The ubiquitous but functionally enigmatic flagellar basal body protein FliL is involved in P. mirabilis surface sensing. Previous studies have suggested that FliL is essential for swarming through its involvement in viscosity-dependent monitoring of flagellar rotation. In this study, we constructed and characterized ?fliL mutants of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly and unlike other fliL mutants, both P. mirabilis and E. coli ?fliL cells swarm (Swr(+)). Further analysis revealed that P. mirabilis ?fliL cells also exhibit an alteration in their ability to sense a surface: e.g., ?fliL P. mirabilis cells swarm precociously over surfaces with low viscosity that normally impede wild-type swarming. Precocious swarming is due to an increase in the number of elongated swarmer cells in the population. Loss of fliL also results in an inhibition of swarming at <30°C. E. coli ?fliL cells also exhibit temperature-sensitive swarming. These results suggest an involvement of FliL in the energetics and function of the flagellar motor. PMID:25331431

  4. First description of DHA-1 ampCbeta-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Bidet, P; Verdet, C; Gautier, V; Bingen, E; Arlet, G

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the first occurrence of the DHA-1 ampCbeta-lactamase gene in Proteus mirabilis. The organism was isolated from the vaginal flora of a pregnant woman in a French hospital. The DHA-1 beta-lactamase gene was identified on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, PCR amplification and sequencing. Antagonism between cefoxitin and the other cephalosporins suggested inducible production of the DHA-1 enzyme. PMID:15966982

  5. Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

  6. Functional identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC gene encoding a core lipopolysaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase.

    PubMed

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of L-glycero-D-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of L,D-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

  7. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  8. Effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the subunit vaccine of Proteus mirabilis in birds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guolin; Zhong, Shixun; Yang, Shifa; Zuo, Xuemei; Liang, Manfei; Sun, Jing; Liu, Jingjing; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2013-05-01

    Three adjuvants, namely, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), white mineral oil (WO) and propolis (PP), were added to the outer membrane protein (OMP) of Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and their effects were compared. Three hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups (I-V), with 60 chicks per group, and injected subcutaneously with WO-OMP vaccine (I), PP-OMP vaccine (II), TPPPS-OMP vaccine (III), OMP-only vaccine (IV) and physiological saline (V) at 3, 7 and 12 days old. On days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 after the first vaccination, the antibody titers, interleukin-2 levels (IL-2) and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in the peripheral blood as well as the secreting-type IgA levels (SIgA) in the duodenum were measured. On day 7 after the third vaccination, the chicks were challenged with P. mirabilis strain Q1 and the protective effects of each group were observed. The highest protective rate was observed in group III. Moreover, the antibody titers as well as IL-2, SIgA and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in this group significantly increased and were significantly higher than those in the other groups at most time points. The results indicate that TPPPS could significantly enhance the effects of the subunit vaccine of P. mirabilis; induced stronger humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity as compared with WO and PP; and should be developed as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23403027

  9. Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Pearson, Melanie M.; Arewång, Carl J.; Nusca, Tyler D.; Sherman, David H.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2010-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis causes complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). While the urinary tract is an iron-limiting environment, iron acquisition remains poorly characterized for this uropathogen. Microarray analysis of P. mirabilis HI4320 cultured under iron limitation identified 45 significantly up-regulated genes (P ? 0.05) that represent 21 putative iron-regulated systems. Two gene clusters, PMI0229-0239 and PMI2596–2605, encode putative siderophore systems. PMI0229-0239 encodes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-independent siderophore (NIS) system for producing a novel siderophore, proteobactin. PMI2596-2605 are contained within the high-pathogenicity island, originally described in Yersinia pestis, and encodes proteins with apparent homology and organization to those involved in yersiniabactin production and uptake. Cross-feeding and biochemical analysis shows that P. mirabilis is unable to utilize or produce yersiniabactin, suggesting that this yersiniabactin-related locus is functionally distinct. Only disruption of both systems resulted in an in vitro iron-chelating defect; demonstrating production and iron-chelating activity for both siderophores. These findings clearly show that proteobactin and the yersiniabactin-related siderophore function as iron acquisition systems. Despite the activity of both siderophores, only mutants lacking the yersiniabactin-related siderophore reduce fitness in vivo. The fitness requirement for the yersiniabactin-related siderophore during UTI shows, for the first time, the importance of siderophore production in vivo for P. mirabilis. PMID:20923418

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type ?-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals. PMID:25187600

  11. Two Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variants in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Swine Farms in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Yang, Li-Qin; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Four different Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) variants, including two novel variants, were characterized in one Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen sequence type ST1917 isolate and three Proteus mirabilis isolates from swine farms in China. One novel variant was derived from SGI1-B with the backbone gene S021 disrupted by a 12.72-kb IS26 composite transposon containing the dfrA17-aadA5 cassettes and macrolide inactivation gene cluster mphA-mrx-mphR. The other one was an integron-free SGI1 and contained a 183-bp truncated S025 next to IS6100 and S044. PMID:25918148

  12. First Report of an OXA-48-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Strain from Gaza, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Al Laham, Nahed; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, Jose R; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2015-07-01

    We report the first multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain producing the carbapenemase OXA-48 (Pm-OXA-48) isolated at Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza, Palestine. Draft genome sequencing of Pm-OXA-48 identified 16 antimicrobial resistance genes, encoding resistance to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols, streptothricin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complete sequencing of the blaOXA-48-harboring plasmid revealed that it is a 72 kb long IncL/M plasmid, harboring carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48, extended spectrum ?-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-14, and aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, and aph(3')-VIb. PMID:25896692

  13. Novel Bacterial Membrane Surface Display System Using Cell Wall-Less L-Forms of Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Hoischen; Christine Fritsche; Johannes Gumpert; Martin Westermann; Katleen Gura; Beatrix Fahnert

    2002-01-01

    We describe a novel membrane surface display system that allows the anchoring of foreign proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) of stable, cell wall-less L-form cells of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The reporter protein, staphylokinase (Sak), was fused to transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins from E. coli (lactose permease LacY, preprotein translocase SecY) and P. mirabilis (curved cell

  14. Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

  15. Putrescine Importer PlaP Contributes to Swarming Motility and Urothelial Cell Invasion in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437–446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant. PMID:23572531

  16. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N

    2013-05-31

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant. PMID:23572531

  17. Repair and plasmid R46 mediated mutation requires inducible functions in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Hofemeister, J; Eitner, G

    1981-01-01

    In Proteus mirabilis nalidixic acid or a predose of UV induce Rec protein formation, a portion of post-UV replication repair and "post-UV replication enhancement." These inducible functions are not significantly affected by the plasmid R46, which renders P. mirabilis efficiently UV-mutable. The R46-mediated UV induction of rif mutations requires additional inducible functions, as existing after nalidixic acid treatment in rec+ strains. After a nalidixic acid pretreatment UV efficient induction of rif mutations occurs without an otherwise obligatory period of post-UV incubation prior to plating on rifampicin agar. THe inducible character of this "qualification" of plasmid R46-mediated UV mutagenesis in P. mirabilis is evident from the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol and starvation. Constitutive high-level synthesis of Rec protein in cells harboring the recombinant (multi-copy) rec+ plasmid pPM1 reduced plasmid R46-mediated UV mutagenesis, probably by preventing (inducible?) functions required by the plasmid R46 repair-mutator. PMID:7035831

  18. Elucidating the genetic basis of crystalline biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Holling, N; Lednor, D; Tsang, S; Bissell, A; Campbell, L; Nzakizwanayo, J; Dedi, C; Hawthorne, J A; Hanlon, G; Ogilvie, L A; Salvage, J P; Patel, B A; Barnes, L M; Jones, B V

    2014-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

  19. Elucidating the Genetic Basis of Crystalline Biofilm Formation in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Holling, N.; Lednor, D.; Tsang, S.; Bissell, A.; Campbell, L.; Nzakizwanayo, J.; Dedi, C.; Hawthorne, J. A.; Hanlon, G.; Ogilvie, L. A.; Salvage, J. P.; Patel, B. A.; Barnes, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

  20. Detection of KPC2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC  Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tibbetts; J. G. Frye; J. Marschall; D. Warren; W. Dunne

    2008-01-01

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from blood cultures of a diabetic patient was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole-cell and\\/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate with primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase gene produced an amplicon of the expected size which was confirmed to be blaKPC-2 by

  1. Proteus mirabilisMannose-Resistant,Proteus-Like Fimbriae: MrpG Is Located at the Fimbrial Tip and Is Required for Fimbrial Assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XIN LI; HUI ZHAO; LILIANA GEYMONAT; FARAH BAHRANI; DAVID E. JOHNSON; ANDHARRY L. T. MOBLEY

    1997-01-01

    Themannose-resistant, Proteus-like(MR\\/P)fimbria,responsibleformannose-resistanthemagglutination,is a virulence factor for uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Based on knownfimbrial gene organization, we postu- lated that MrpG, a putative minor subunit of the MR\\/P fimbria, functions as an adhesin responsible for hemagglutination,whileMrpAservesasthemajorstructuralsubunitforthefilamentousstructure.Totestthis hypothesis, an mrpG mutant was constructed by allelic-exchange mutagenesis and verified by PCR and Southern blotting. The mrpG mutant was found to be negative for hemagglutination,

  2. Regulation of the swarming inhibitor disA in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Szostek, Bree A; Rather, Philip N

    2013-07-01

    The disA gene encodes a putative amino acid decarboxylase that inhibits swarming in Proteus mirabilis. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and deletion analysis were used to identify the disA promoter. The use of a disA-lacZ fusion indicated that FlhD(4)C(2), the class I flagellar master regulator, did not have a role in disA regulation. The putative product of DisA, phenethylamine, was able to inhibit disA expression, indicating that a negative regulatory feedback loop was present. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify regulators of disA and revealed that umoB (igaA) was a negative regulator of disA. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of disA by UmoB is mediated through the Rcs phosphorelay. PMID:23687266

  3. Regulation of the Swarming Inhibitor disA in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Szostek, Bree A.

    2013-01-01

    The disA gene encodes a putative amino acid decarboxylase that inhibits swarming in Proteus mirabilis. 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and deletion analysis were used to identify the disA promoter. The use of a disA-lacZ fusion indicated that FlhD4C2, the class I flagellar master regulator, did not have a role in disA regulation. The putative product of DisA, phenethylamine, was able to inhibit disA expression, indicating that a negative regulatory feedback loop was present. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify regulators of disA and revealed that umoB (igaA) was a negative regulator of disA. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of disA by UmoB is mediated through the Rcs phosphorelay. PMID:23687266

  4. Integrons, ?-lactamase and qnr genes in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Gruszczy?ska, Beata; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Proteus mirabilis and two P. vulgaris were examined for their antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons with regard to gene cassette content, and genetic determinants of ?-lactam and low-level quinolone resistance. Integrons were detected in 23 (69.7%) P. mirabilis isolates; six (18.2%) of them had class 1 integrons, 11 (33.3%) possessed class 2 integrons and six (18.2%) carried integrons of both classes. One P. vulgaris strain possessed class 1 and class 2 integrons. The presence of integrons was associated with increased frequency of resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and co-trimoxazole. Moreover, integron presence was associated with increased resistance range in terms of both the number of antimicrobials and the number of classes of antimicrobials to which a strain was resistant. Class 1 integrons contained aadA1, aadB-aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, bla(PSE-1) -aadA1 and aacA4-orfA-orfB-aadA1 gene cassette arrays, whereas all class 2 integrons had a dfrA1-sat2-aada1 array. ?-lactamase genes not associated with integrons comprised bla(TEM-2) , bla(DHA-1) and bla(CMY-15) . Plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance was determined by qnrD and qnrS1 genes. This is the first report of P. vulgaris strains harbouring qnrD genes in Europe. PMID:23030307

  5. Decolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue 13 by Proteus mirabilis LAG.

    PubMed

    Olukanni, O D; Osuntoki, A A; Kalyani, D C; Gbenle, G O; Govindwar, S P

    2010-12-15

    The decolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue 13 (RB13), a sulphonated reactive azo dye, was achieved under static anoxic condition with a bacterial strain identified as Proteus mirabilis LAG, which was isolated from a municipal dump site soil near Lagos, Nigeria. This strain decolorized RB13 (100mg/l) within 5h. The formation of aromatic amine prior to mineralization was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), which revealed the disappearance of certain peaks, particularly those of the aromatic C-H bending at 600-800 cm(-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GCMS) analysis of the dye metabolite showed the presence of sodium-2(2-formyl-2-hydroxyvinyl) benzoate, with a tropylium cation as its base peak, this suggested the breakage of naphthalene rings in RB13. The detection of azoreductase and laccase activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. In addition, phytotoxicity studies indicated the detoxification of RB13 to non-toxic degradation products by this strain of P. mirabilis LAG. PMID:20832936

  6. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. PMID:25240234

  7. Effects of the pH and the Urine Infected by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis on Chromic Catgut, Polyglycolic Acid and Polyglactin 910: Study in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flávio L. O. Hering; David Rosenberg; Jamil Chade

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the effects of the pH and the urine infected by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis on chromic catgut, polyglycolic acid (PGA) and polyglactin 910 (P910), we divided the experiment into three steps. In the first step, the behavior of suture material immersed in sterile urine, urine infected by E. coli and urine infected by P. mirabilis

  8. Complete secretion of activable bovine prochymosin by genetically engineered L forms of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Klessen, C; Schmidt, K H; Gumpert, J; Grosse, H H; Malke, H

    1989-01-01

    To circumvent problems encountered in the synthesis of active chymosin in a number of bacteria and fungi, a recombinant DNA L-form expression system that directed the complete secretion of fully activable prochymosin into the extracellular culture medium was developed. The expression plasmid constructions involved the in-frame fusion of prochymosin cDNA minus codons 1 to 4 to streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type A gene (speA') sequences, including the speA promoter, ribosomal binding site, and signal sequence and five codons of mature SpeA. Secretion of fusion prochymosin enzymatically and immunologically indistinguishable from bovine prochymosin was achieved after transformation of two stable protoplast type L-form strains derived from Proteus mirabilis. The secreted proenzyme was converted by autocatalytic processing to chymosin showing milk-clotting activity. In controlled laboratory fermentation processes, a maximum specific rate of activable prochymosin synthesis of 0.57 x 10(-3)/h was determined from the time courses of biomass dry weight and product formation. Yields as high as 40 +/- 10 micrograms/ml were obtained in the cell-free culture fluid of strain L99 carrying a naturally altered expression plasmid of increased segregational stability. The expression-secretion system described may be generally useful for production of recombinant mammalian proteins synthesized intracellularly as aberrantly folded insoluble aggregates. Images PMID:2499253

  9. Immune enhancement of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide on recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Ya; Li, Bing; Zhu, Fujie; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide (TRPPS) on immune responses of chickens immunized with Proteus mirabilis outer membrane protein A (OmpA) recombinant protein vaccine. OmpA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and mixed with TRPPS. 360 chickens were randomly divided into six groups. Groups I to IV were treated with OmpA which contained TRPPS of three different dosages, Freund's adjuvant, respectively. Groups V and VI were treated with pure OmpA and physiological saline, respectively. The data showed that the antibody titers against OmpA, the concentration of IL-2, CD4 +, and CD8 +, T lymphocyte proliferation rate in Group II were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the other groups, little difference in SIgA content was observed among groups I to VI. These results indicated that TRPPS strengthened humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant OmpA vaccine. Moreover, 200 mg/mL TRPPS showed significance (P < 0.05) compared with Freund's adjuvant. Therefore, TRPPS can be developed into an adjuvant for recombinant subunit vaccine. PMID:25000334

  10. Swarming-coupled expression of the Proteus mirabilis hpmBA haemolysin operon

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gillian M.; Claret, Laurent; Furness, Richard; Gupta, Srishti; Hughes, Colin

    2008-01-01

    The HpmA haemolysin toxin of Proteus mirabilis is encoded by the hpmBA locus and its production is upregulated co-ordinately with the synthesis and assembly of flagella during differentiation into hyperflagellated swarm cells. Primer extension identified a ?70 promoter upstream of hpmB that was upregulated during swarming. Northern blotting indicated that this promoter region was also required for concomitant transcription of the immediately distal hpmA gene, and that the unstable hpmBA transcript generated a stable hpmA mRNA and an unstable hpmB mRNA. Transcriptional luxAB fusions to the DNA regions 5? of the hpmB and hpmA genes confirmed that hpmB ?70 promoter activity increased in swarm cells, and that there was no independent hpmA promoter. Increased transcription of the hpmBA operon in swarm cells was dependent upon a 125 bp sequence 5? of the ?70 promoter ?35 hexamer. This sequence spans multiple putative binding sites for the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), and band-shift assays with purified Lrp confirmed the presence of at least two such sites. The influence on hpmBA expression of the key swarming positive regulators FlhD2C2 (encoded by the flagellar master operon), Lrp, and the membrane-located upregulator of the master operon, UmoB, was examined. Overexpression of each of these regulators moderately increased hpmBA transcription in wild-type P. mirabilis, and the hpmBA operon was not expressed in any of the flhDC, lrp or umoB mutants. Expression in the mutants was not recovered by cross-complementation, i.e. by overexpression of FlhD2C2, Lrp or UmoB. Expression of the zapA protease virulence gene, which like hpmBA is also upregulated in swarm cells, did not require Lrp, but like flhDC it was upregulated by UmoB. The results indicate intersecting pathways of control linking virulence gene expression and swarm cell differentiation. PMID:12101306

  11. Role of RppA in the Regulation of Polymyxin B Susceptibility, Swarming, and Virulence Factor Expression in Proteus mirabilis?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Won-Bo; Chen, I-Chun; Jiang, Sin-Sien; Chen, Hui-Ru; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a human pathogen that frequently causes urinary tract infections, is intrinsically highly resistant to cationic antimicrobial peptides, such as polymyxin B (PB). To explore the mechanisms underlying P. mirabilis resistance to PB, a mutant which displayed increased (>160-fold) sensitivity to PB was identified by transposon mutagenesis. This mutant was found to have Tn5 inserted into a novel gene, rppA. Sequence analysis indicated that rppA may encode a response regulator of the two-component system and is located upstream of the rppB gene, which may encode a membrane sensor kinase. An rppA knockout mutant of P. mirabilis had an altered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile. The LPS purified from the rppA knockout mutant could bind more PB than the LPS purified from the wild type. These properties of the rppA knockout mutant may contribute to its PB-sensitive phenotype. The rppA knockout mutant exhibited greater swarming motility and cytotoxic activity and expressed higher levels of flagellin and hemolysin than the wild type, suggesting that RppA negatively regulates swarming, hemolysin expression, and cytotoxic activity in P. mirabilis. PB could modulate LPS synthesis and modification, swarming, hemolysin expression, and cytotoxic activity in P. mirabilis through an RppA-dependent pathway, suggesting that PB could serve as a signal to regulate RppA activity. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of rppA was up-regulated by a low concentration of PB and down-regulated by a high concentration of Mg2+. Together, these data highlight the essential role of RppA in regulating PB susceptibility and virulence functions in P. mirabilis. PMID:18316383

  12. Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 ?g/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24239192

  13. Evidence for N----O acetyl migration as the mechanism for O acetylation of peptidoglycan in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, C; Clarke, A J

    1991-01-01

    O-acetylated peptidoglycan was purified from Proteus mirabilis grown in the presence of specifically radiolabelled glucosamine derivatives, and the migration of the radiolabel was monitored. Mild-base hydrolysis of the isolated peptidoglycan (to release ester-linked acetate) from cells grown in the presence of 40 microM [acetyl-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in the release of [3H]acetate, as detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The inclusion of either acetate, pyruvate, or acetyl phosphate, each at 1 mM final concentration, did not result in a diminution of mild-base-released [3H]acetate levels. No such release of [3H]acetate was observed with peptidoglycan isolated from either Escherichia coli incubated with the same radiolabel or P. mirabilis grown with [1,6-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-[1-14C]glucosamine. These observations support a hypothesis that O acetylation occurs by N----O acetyl transfer within the sacculus. A decrease in [3H]acetate release by mild-base hydrolysis was observed with the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis cultures incubated in the presence of antagonists of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, penicillin G and D-cycloserine. The absence of free-amino sugars in the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis but the detection of glucosamine in spent culture broths implies that N----O transacetylation is intimately associated with peptidoglycan turnover. PMID:2066331

  14. Two Independent Pathways for Self-Recognition in Proteus mirabilis Are Linked by Type VI-Dependent Export

    PubMed Central

    Wenren, Larissa M.; Sullivan, Nora L.; Cardarelli, Lia; Septer, Alecia N.; Gibbs, Karine A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swarming colonies of the bacterium Proteus mirabilis are capable of self-recognition and territorial behavior. Swarms of independent P. mirabilis isolates can recognize each other as foreign and establish a visible boundary where they meet; in contrast, genetically identical swarms merge. The ids genes, which encode self-identity proteins, are necessary but not sufficient for this territorial behavior. Here we have identified two new gene clusters: one (idr) encodes rhs-related products, and another (tss) encodes a putative type VI secretion (T6S) apparatus. The Ids and Idr proteins function independently of each other in extracellular transport and in territorial behaviors; however, these self-recognition systems are linked via this type VI secretion system. The T6S system is required for export of select Ids and Idr proteins. Our results provide a mechanistic and physiological basis for the fundamental behaviors of self-recognition and territoriality in a bacterial model system. PMID:23882014

  15. Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. PMID:23111869

  16. Production and characterization of a bioflocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jianfu; Leonard, Didier; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2008-09-01

    A bioflocculant TJ-F1 with high flocculating activity, produced by strain TJ-1 from a mixed activated sludge, was investigated with regard to its production and characterization. By 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain TJ-1 was identified as Proteus mirabilis. The most preferred carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio (w/w) for strain TJ-1 to produce the bioflocculant were found to be glucose, peptone and 10, respectively. TJ-F1 production could be greatly stimulated by cations Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+). The optimal conditions for TJ-F1 production were inoculum size 2 per thousand (v/v), initial pH 7.0, culture temperature 25 degrees C, and shaking speed 130r/min, under which the flocculating activity of the bioflocculant reached 93.13%. About 1.33 g of the purified bioflocculant, whose molecular weight (MW) was 1.2 x 10(5) Da, could be recovered from 1.0 l of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis of bioflocculant TJ-F1 indicated that it contained protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w), including neutral sugar, glucuronic acid and amino sugar as the principal constituents in the relative weight proportions of 8.2:5.3:1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the purified solid-state TJ-F1 showed that it had a crystal-linear structure. Spectroscopic analysis of the bioflocculant by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups preferred for the flocculation process. PMID:18155905

  17. Perturbation of FliL Interferes with Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Gene Expression and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Kathleen; Lee, Yi-Ying; Youchak, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic, motile bacterium often associated with urinary tract infections. Colonization of urinary tract surfaces is aided by swarmer cell differentiation, which is initiated by inhibition of flagellar rotation when the bacteria first contact a surface. Mutations in fliL, encoding a flagellar structural protein with an enigmatic function, result in the inappropriate production of differentiated swarmer cells, called pseudoswarmer cells, under noninducing conditions, indicating involvement of FliL in the surface sensing pathway. In the present study, we compared the fliL transcriptome with that of wild-type swarmer cells and showed that nearly all genes associated with motility (flagellar class II and III genes) and chemotaxis are repressed. In contrast, spontaneous motile revertants of fliL cells that regained motility yet produced differentiated swarmer cells under noninducing conditions transcribed flagellar class II promoters at consistent levels. Expression of umoA (a known regulator of swarmer cells), flgF, and flgI increased significantly in both swarmer and pseudoswarmer cells, as did genes in a degenerate prophage region situated immediately adjacent to the Rcs phosphorelay system. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmers displayed increased activity, rather than transcription, of the flagellar master regulatory protein, FlhD4C2, and analyses of the fliL parent strain and its motile revertants showed that they result from mutations altering the C-terminal 14 amino acids of FliL. Collectively, the data suggest a functional role for the C terminus of FliL in surface sensing and implicate UmoA as part of the signal relay leading to the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2, which ultimately controls swarmer cell differentiation. PMID:22081397

  18. The Helicobacter pylori flbA flagellar biosynthesis and regulatory gene is required for motility and virulence and modulates urease of H. pylori and Proteus mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER COKER; TRACI L. TESTERMAN; JANETTE M. HARRO; SUSAN V. GIBSON; HARRY L. T. MOBLEY

    Helicobacter pylori and Proteus mirabilis ureases are nickel-requiring metallo-enzymes that hydrolyse urea to NH3 and CO2. In both H. pylori and in an Escherichia coli model of H. pylori urease activity, a high affinity nickel transporter, NixA, is required for optimal urease activity, whereas the urea-dependent UreR positive transcriptional activator governs optimal urease expression in P. mirabilis. The H. pylori

  19. The type III secretion system of Proteus mirabilis HI4320 does not contribute to virulence in the mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie M. Pearson; Harry L. T. Mobley

    2007-01-01

    The Gram-negative enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or with complicated urinary tracts. The recent release of the P. mirabilis strain HI4320 genome sequence has facilitated identification of potential virulence factors in this organism. Genes appearing to encode a type III secretion system (TTSS) were found in

  20. Single-Disk Diffusion Testing (Kirby-Bauer) ofSusceptibility ofProteus mirabilis toChloramphenicol: Significance ofthe Intermediate Category

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY L. FURTADO; ANTONE A. MEDEIROS

    1980-01-01

    Thesignificance oftheintermediate category ofthesingle-disk diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer) ofantibiotic susceptibility hasneverbeenclearly defined. Thirty- twopercent of756clinical isolates ofProteus mirabilis wereofintermediate susceptibility tochloramphenicol, ahigher percentage thanforanyother species. Thebreakpoint separating susceptible andintermediate isolates nearly bisected thefrequency distribution ofzonediameters ofP.mirabilis butnotthatofthe otherspecies tested. Byserial brothdilution testing, theminimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ofchloramphenicol of50individual isolates ofP.mirabilis were3.9to22.1ug\\/mI (geometric mean,8.0), whereas theMICsofsusceptible Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, andEnterobacter strains were2.0to3.9,ig\\/ml

  1. The Ability of Proteus mirabilis To Sense Surfaces and Regulate Virulence Gene Expression Involves FliL, a Flagellar Basal Body Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Belas; Rooge Suvanasuthi

    2005-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen that differentiates from a short swimmer cell to an elongated, highly flagellated swarmer cell. Swarmer cell differentiation parallels an increased expression of several virulence factors, suggesting that both processes are controlled by the same signal. The molecular nature of this signal is not known but is hypothesized to involve the inhibition of flagellar

  2. Genotyping Demonstrates That the Strains of Proteus Mirabilis From Bladder Stones and Catheter Encrustations of Patients Undergoing Long-Term Bladder Catheterization are Identical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. SABBUBA; D. J. STICKLER; E. MAHENTHIRALINGAM; D. J. PAINTER; J. PARKIN; R. C. L. FENELEY

    2004-01-01

    PurposeWe established the incidence of bladder stones in patients who experienced recurrent encrustation and blockage of indwelling bladder catheters and examined the relationship between isolates of Proteus mirabilis from the stones and from the crystalline biofilms on the catheters.

  3. A total internal reflection ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study of interactions between Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gle?ska-Olender, J; S?k, S; Dworecki, K; Kaca, W

    2015-07-01

    Specific antigen-antibody interactions play a central role in the human immune system. The objective of this paper is to detect immune complexes using label-free detection techniques, that is, total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based topography and recognition imaging. Interactions of purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with bacterial endotoxins (Proteus mirabilis S1959 O3 lipopolysaccharides) were studied. Lipopolysaccharide was adsorbed on gold surface for TIRE. In the AFM imaging experiments, LPS was attachment to the PEG linker (AFM tip modification). The mica surface was covered by IgG. In TIRE, the optical parameters ? and ? change when a complex is formed. It was found that even highly structured molecules, such as IgG antibodies (anti-O3 LPS rabbit serum), preserve their specific affinity to their antigens (LPS O3). LPS P. mirabilis O3 response of rabbit serum anti-O3 was also tested by topography and recognition imaging. Both TIRE and AFM techniques were recruited to check for possible detection of antigen-antibody recognition event. The presented data allow for determination of interactions between a variety of biomolecules. In future research, this technique has considerable potential for studying a wide range of antigen-antibody interactions and its use may be extended to other biomacromolecular systems. PMID:25854960

  4. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-01-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1–20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (?pH) and proton motive force (?H+) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ?pH (and therefore ?H+) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ?pH and ?H+ for motility. PMID:25100003

  5. Characterization of CMY-type ?-lactamases in clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in four hospitals in the Paris area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Decré; Charlotte Verdet; Laurent Raskine; Hervé Blanchard; Béatrice Burghoffer; Alain Philippon; Marie José Sanson-Le-Pors; Jean Claude Petit; Guillaume Arlet

    We isolated five clinical strains (three Proteus mirabilis and two Klebsiella pneumoniae) with ?-lactam resistance phenotypes consistent with production of an AmpC-type ?-lactamase. The predicted amino acid sequences of the enzymes were typical of class C ?-lactamases. The enzymes were identified as CMY-2, CMY-4 and a new CMY-variant ?-lactamase, CMY-12. The AmpC ?-lactamases from the two K. pneumoniae isolates were

  6. Characterisation of CMY-4, an AmpC-type plasmid-mediated ?-lactamase in a Tunisian clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Verdet; Guillaume Arlet; Saida Ben Redjeb; Assia Ben Hassen; Philippe H Lagrange; Alain Philippon

    1998-01-01

    A strain of Proteus mirabilis resistant to ?-lactams, including cefoxitin, was isolated from the urine of a woman from Tunisia. Its antibiotic susceptibility pattern and that of the Escherichia coli transconjugant suggested the presence of an AmpC-type ?-lactamase. Two bands of ?-lactamase activity (pI 5.4 and 9.2) were detected by isoelectric focusing. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the

  7. Integration of a Transposon Tn1Encoded Inhibitor-Resistant  Lactamase Gene, blaTEM-67 from Proteus mirabilis, into the Escherichia coli Chromosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Naas; Marie Zerbib; Delphine Girlich; Patrice Nordmann

    2003-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis NEL-1 was isolated from a urine sample of a patient hospitalized in a long-term care facility. Strain NEL-1 produced a -lactamase with a pI of 5.2 conferring resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Sequencing of a PCR amplicon by using TEM-specific primers revealed a novel blaTEM gene, blaTEM-67. TEM-67 was an IRT-1-like TEM derivative related to TEM-65 (Lys39,

  8. Characterization of CMY-type beta-lactamases in clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in four hospitals in the Paris area.

    PubMed

    Decré, Dominique; Verdet, Charlotte; Raskine, Laurent; Blanchard, Hervé; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Philippon, Alain; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie José; Petit, Jean Claude; Arlet, Guillaume

    2002-11-01

    We isolated five clinical strains (three Proteus mirabilis and two Klebsiella pneumoniae) with beta-lactam resistance phenotypes consistent with production of an AmpC-type beta-lactamase. The predicted amino acid sequences of the enzymes were typical of class C beta-lactamases. The enzymes were identified as CMY-2, CMY-4 and a new CMY-variant beta-lactamase, CMY-12. The AmpC beta-lactamases from the two K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be encoded on self-transferable plasmids. The genes encoding the AmpC-type beta-lactamase produced by the three P. mirabilis isolates were chromosomal. Four of the five clinical isolates were from patients transferred from Greece, Algeria and Egypt; one of the K. pneumoniae strains was recovered from a French patient. PFGE analysis and rep-PCR fingerprinting showed that the two P. mirabilis isolates from Greek patients were closely related. PMID:12407124

  9. Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI. PMID:25724892

  10. Occurrence of Proteus mirabilis associated with two species of venezuelan oysters.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Gueneau, Pulchérie; Suárez, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The fecal contamination of raw seafood by indicators and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms represents a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of enteric bacteria colonizing oysters collected from a Venezuelan touristic area. Oyster samples were collected at the northwestern coast of Venezuela and local salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen of seawater were recorded. Total and fecal coliforms were measured for the assessment of the microbiological quality of water and oysters, using the Multiple Tube Fermentation technique. Analyses were made using cultures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Diverse enrichment and selective culture methods were used to isolate enteric bacteria. We obtained pure cultures of Gram-negative straight rods with fimbriae from Isognomon alatus and Crassostrea rhizophorae. Our results show that P. mirabilis was predominant under our culture conditions. We confirmed the identity of the cultures by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and data analysis. Other enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated from seawater and oysters. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in oysters could have serious epidemiological implications and a potential human health risk associated with consumption of raw seafood. PMID:18157401

  11. 10?(Z),13?(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10?(Z), 13?(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  12. 10'(Z),13'(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone inhibits swarming and virulence factors and increases polymyxin B susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Che; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10'(Z), 13'(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  13. Spread of multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis isolates producing an AmpC-type beta-lactamase: epidemiology and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Luzzaro, Francesco; Brigante, Gioconda; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Pini, Beatrice; Giani, Tommaso; Mantengoli, Elisabetta; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Toniolo, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    A remarkable increase in Proteus mirabilis strains producing acquired AmpC-type beta-lactamases (CBLs) has been observed at Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi (Varese, Italy) over the last few years. The epidemiology and treatment outcome of infections associated with this unprecedented spread are reported. From 2004-2006, 2070 P. mirabilis isolates were investigated. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and CBL resistance determinants were identified by gene amplification and direct sequencing. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by macrorestriction analysis. Overall, 43 CBL-positive isolates were obtained from hospitalised (n=22) and non-hospitalised (n=21) patients (median age 78.8 years). The prevalence of CBL-positive isolates increased from 0.3% in 2004 to 4.6% in 2006, whereas that of ESBL-positive isolates remained constant (ca. 10%). CBL-positive isolates were multidrug-resistant and carried the CMY-16 determinant. All but two isolates were genetically identical or closely related. Retrospective analysis of clinical records revealed that the majority of CMY-16-positive isolates were associated with urinary tract infections. Treatment with amikacin or carbapenems was consistently effective, whereas piperacillin/tazobactam produced a clinical response in seven of nine cases. This is the first report of a rapid spread of CBL-positive P. mirabilis strains endowed with remarkable antimicrobial resistance. Practical methods for CBL detection are needed for the appropriate management of related infections. PMID:19095415

  14. Isolation of lacZ fusions to Proteus mirabilis genes regulated by intercellular signaling: potential role for the sugar phosphotransferase (Pts) system in regulation.

    PubMed

    Sturgill, Gwen M; Siddiqui, Soofia; Ding, Xuedong; Pecora, Nicole D; Rather, Philip N

    2002-11-19

    Using a mini-Tn5lacZ1 reporter transposon, lacZ fusions have been identified in Proteus mirabilis that are activated by the accumulation of self-produced extracellular signals. Genes identified by this approach include putative homologs of pgm, nlpA and two genes of unknown function. The extracellular signal(s) involved in activation were resistant to the effects of acid and alkali. The signal required for activation of (nlpA) cma482::lacZ was sensitive to protease, suggesting the signal is a peptide or small protein. The signals behaved as polar molecules and were not extractable with ethyl acetate. A mini-Tn5Cm insertion was identified in a probable ptsI homolog that blocked activation of the cma134::lacZ fusion by an extracellular signal. The ptsI mutation did not alter extracellular signal production and may have a role in signal response. PMID:12445644

  15. Occurrence and Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates at a Veterans Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Coudron, Philip E.; Moland, Ellen S.; Thomson, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    AmpC beta-lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of ?-lactam drugs and that may thereby create serious therapeutic problems. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis remains unknown. We tested a total of 1,286 consecutive, nonrepeat isolates of these three species and found that, overall, 45 (3.5%) yielded a cefoxitin zone diameter less than 18 mm (screen positive) and that 16 (1.2%) demonstrated AmpC bands by isoelectric focusing. Based on the species, of 683 E. coli, 371 K. pneumoniae, and 232 P. mirabilis isolates tested, 13 (1.9%), 28 (7.6%), and 4 (1.7%), respectively, demonstrated decreased zone diameters and 11 (1.6%), 4 (1.1%), and 1 (0.4%), respectively, demonstrated AmpC bands. Cefoxitin resistance was transferred for all but 8 (E. coli) of the 16 AmpC producers. We also describe a three-dimensional extract test, which was used to detect phenotypically isolates that harbor AmpC beta-lactamase. Of the 45 cefoxitin-resistant isolates, the three-dimensional extract test accurately identified all 16 AmpC producers and 28 of 29 (97%) isolates as non-AmpC producers. Interestingly, most (86%) isolates in the latter group were K. pneumoniae isolates. These data confirm that, at our institution, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis harbor plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes. PMID:10790101

  16. Characterization of UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Mutants of Proteus mirabilis: Defectiveness in Polymyxin B Resistance, Swarming, and Virulence ?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sin-Sien; Lin, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Won-Bo; Liu, Ming-Che; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is known to be highly resistant to the action of polymyxin B (PB). However, the mechanism underlying PB resistance is not clear. In this study, we used Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to identify genes that may affect PB resistance in P. mirabilis. Two genes, ugd and galU, which may encode UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugd) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (GalU), respectively, were identified. Knockout mutants of ugd and galU were found to be extremely sensitive to PB, presumably because of alterations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and cell surface architecture in these mutants. These mutants were defective in swarming, expressed lower levels of virulence factor hemolysin, and had lower cell invasion ability. Complementation of the ugd or galU mutant with the full-length ugd or galU gene, respectively, led to the restoration of wild-type phenotypic traits. Interestingly, we found that the expression of Ugd and GalU was induced by PB through RppA, a putative response regulator of the bacterial two-component system that we identified previously. Mutation in either ugd or galU led to activation of RpoE, an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor that has been shown to be activated by protein misfolding and alterations in cell surface structure in other bacteria. Activation of RpoE or RpoE overexpression was found to cause inhibition of FlhDC and hemolysin expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the roles and regulation of Ugd and GalU in P. mirabilis. PMID:20160049

  17. Prevalence of ?-Lactamases among 1,072 Clinical Strains of Proteus mirabilis: a 2-Year Survey in a French Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chanal, C.; Bonnet, R.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

    2000-01-01

    ?-Lactam resistance was studied in 1,072 consecutive P. mirabilis clinical strains isolated at the Clermont-Ferrand teaching hospital between April 1996 and March 1998. The frequency of amoxicillin resistance was 48.5%. Among the 520 amoxicillin-resistant isolates, three resistance phenotypes were detected: penicillinase (407 strains [78.3%]), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (74 strains [14.2%]), and inhibitor resistance (39 strains [7.5%]). The penicillinase phenotype isolates were divided into three groups according to the level of resistance to ?-lactams, which was shown to be related to the strength of the promoter. The characterization of the different ?-lactamases showed that amoxicillin resistance in P. mirabilis was almost always (97%) associated with TEM or TEM-derived ?-lactamases, most of which evolved via TEM-2. PMID:10858357

  18. Chromosomally Encoded blaCMY-2 Located on a Novel SXT/R391-Related Integrating Conjugative Element in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate ?

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tomoo; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2010-01-01

    Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that can transfer from the chromosome of a host to the chromosome of a new host through the process of excision, conjugation, and integration. Although SXT/R391-related ICEs, originally demonstrated in Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates, have become prevalent among V. cholerae isolates in Asia, the prevalence of the ICEs among Gram-negative bacteria other than Vibrio spp. remains unknown. In addition, SXT/R391-related ICEs carrying genes conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have never been described. Here we carried out a genetic analysis of a cefoxitin-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate, TUM4660, which revealed the presence of a novel SXT/R391-related ICE, ICEPmiJpn1. ICEPmiJpn1 had a core genetic structure showing high similarity to that of R391 and carried xis and int genes completely identical to those of R391, while an IS10-mediated composite transposon carrying blaCMY-2 was integrated into the ICE. A nucleotide sequence identical to the 3? part of ISEcp1 was located upstream of the blaCMY-2 gene, and other genes observed around blaCMY-2 in earlier studies were also present. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of hot spot 2 and hot spot 4 in ICEPmiJpn1 showed high similarity to that of hot spot 2 in SXTMO10 and with a part of the nucleotide sequence found in P. mirabilis ATCC 29906, respectively. ICEPmiJpn1 was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Citrobacter koseri in conjugation experiments. These observations suggest that ICEs may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes among clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae, which warrants careful observation of the prevalence of ICEs, including SXT/R391-related ICEs. PMID:20566768

  19. Characterisation of CMY-4, an AmpC-type plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in a Tunisian clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Verdet, C; Arlet, G; Ben Redjeb, S; Ben Hassen, A; Lagrange, P H; Philippon, A

    1998-12-15

    A strain of Proteus mirabilis resistant to beta-lactams, including cefoxitin, was isolated from the urine of a woman from Tunisia. Its antibiotic susceptibility pattern and that of the Escherichia coli transconjugant suggested the presence of an AmpC-type beta-lactamase. Two bands of beta-lactamase activity (pI 5.4 and 9.2) were detected by isoelectric focusing. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the AmpC-type enzyme was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence was 98-99% identical to CMY-3 and to those of the plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamases originated from Citrobacter freundii and 97% identical to the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of a Tunisian clinical isolate of C. freundii. This enzyme differs from CMY-2 by one substitution (Arg for Trp at position 221) and from CMY-3 by two substitutions (Glu for Gly at position 42 and Ser for Asn at position 363) and we propose the denomination CMY-4. PMID:9868767

  20. A glutathione S-transferase from Proteus mirabilis involved in heavy metal resistance and its potential application in removal of Hg²?.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yin, Kun; Li, Bowei; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-10-15

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional proteins playing important roles in detoxification of harmful physiological and xenobiotic compounds in organisms. In our study, a gene encoding a GST from Proteus mirabilis strain V7, gstPm-4, was cloned and conditionally expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The purified GstPm-4 protein, with an estimated molecular mass of approximately 23kDa, was able to conjugate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and bind to the GSH-affinity matrix. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that mRNA level of gstPm-4 was increased in the presence of CdCl2, CuCl2, HgCl2 and PbCl2, respectively. Correspondingly, overexpression of gstPm-4 in the genetically engineered bacterium Top10/pLacpGst exhibited higher heavy metal resistance compared to the control Top10/pLacP3. Another genetically engineered bacterium Top10/pBATGst, in which the DNA encoding GstPm-4 protein was fused with the DNA encoding Pfa1-based auto surface display system, was built. Top10/pBATGst could constitutively express the chimeric GstPm-4 and anchor it onto the cell surface subsequently. Almost 100% of the Hg(2+) within the range of 0.1-100 nM was adsorbed by Top10/pBATGst, and 80% of the bounded Hg(2+) could be desorbed from bacterial cells when pH was adjusted to 6.0. Thus, Top10/pBATGst can be potentially used for efficient treatment of Hg(2+)-contaminated aquatic environment. PMID:23995561

  1. Role of the Umo Proteins and the Rcs Phosphorelay in the Swarming Motility of the Wild Type and an O-Antigen (waaL) Mutant of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstein, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that exists as a short rod when grown in liquid medium, but during growth on surfaces it undergoes a distinct physical and biochemical change that culminates in the formation of a swarmer cell. How P. mirabilis senses a surface is not fully understood; however, the inhibition of flagellar rotation and accumulation of putrescine have been proposed to be sensory mechanisms. Our lab recently isolated a transposon insertion in waaL, encoding O-antigen ligase, that resulted in a loss of swarming but not swimming motility. The waaL mutant failed to activate flhDC, the class 1 activator of the flagellar gene cascade, when grown on solid surfaces. Swarming in the waaL mutant was restored by overexpression of flhDC in trans or by a mutation in the response regulator rcsB. To further investigate the role of the Rcs signal transduction pathway and its possible relationship with O-antigen surface sensing, mutations were made in the rcsC, rcsB, rcsF, umoB (igaA), and umoD genes in wild-type and waaL backgrounds. Comparison of the swarming phenotypes of the single and double mutants and of strains overexpressing combinations of the UmoB, UmoD, and RcsF proteins demonstrated the following: (i) there is a differential effect of RcsF and UmoB on swarming in wild-type and waaL backgrounds, (ii) RcsF inhibits UmoB activity but not UmoD activity in a wild-type background, and (iii) UmoD is able to modulate activity of the Rcs system. PMID:22139504

  2. Role of the Umo proteins and the Rcs phosphorelay in the swarming motility of the wild type and an O-antigen (waaL) mutant of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Morgenstein, Randy M; Rather, Philip N

    2012-02-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that exists as a short rod when grown in liquid medium, but during growth on surfaces it undergoes a distinct physical and biochemical change that culminates in the formation of a swarmer cell. How P. mirabilis senses a surface is not fully understood; however, the inhibition of flagellar rotation and accumulation of putrescine have been proposed to be sensory mechanisms. Our lab recently isolated a transposon insertion in waaL, encoding O-antigen ligase, that resulted in a loss of swarming but not swimming motility. The waaL mutant failed to activate flhDC, the class 1 activator of the flagellar gene cascade, when grown on solid surfaces. Swarming in the waaL mutant was restored by overexpression of flhDC in trans or by a mutation in the response regulator rcsB. To further investigate the role of the Rcs signal transduction pathway and its possible relationship with O-antigen surface sensing, mutations were made in the rcsC, rcsB, rcsF, umoB (igaA), and umoD genes in wild-type and waaL backgrounds. Comparison of the swarming phenotypes of the single and double mutants and of strains overexpressing combinations of the UmoB, UmoD, and RcsF proteins demonstrated the following: (i) there is a differential effect of RcsF and UmoB on swarming in wild-type and waaL backgrounds, (ii) RcsF inhibits UmoB activity but not UmoD activity in a wild-type background, and (iii) UmoD is able to modulate activity of the Rcs system. PMID:22139504

  3. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Welcome 11/12/2014 LAUNCH: Proteus Foundation Patient Contact Registry. READ MORE. Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation, a 501c3 not-for-profit organization, is dedicated improving the ...

  4. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2014-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 ?g/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23877712

  5. Proteus: Mythology to modern times

    PubMed Central

    Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... proposed for the condition is segmental overgrowth, lipomatosis, arteriovenous malformations, and epidermal nevus (SOLAMEN) syndrome; another is type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome. However, some scientific articles still refer to PTEN -related Proteus ... complication ; connective tissue ; diagnosis ; ...

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the Pseudomonas putida protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Frazee, R W; Livingston, D M; LaPorte, D C; Lipscomb, J D

    1993-01-01

    The genes that encode the alpha and beta subunits of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-PCD [EC 1.13.11.3]) were cloned from a Pseudomonas putida (formerly P. aeruginosa) (ATCC 23975) genomic library prepared in lambda phage. Plaques were screened by hybridization with degenerate oligonucleotides designed using known amino acid sequences. A 1.5-kb SmaI fragment from a 15-kb primary clone was subcloned, sequenced, and shown to contain two successive open reading frames, designated pcaH and pcaG, corresponding to the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of 3,4-PCD. The amino acid sequences deduced from pcaHG matched the chemically determined sequence of 3,4-PCD in all except three positions. Cloning of pcaHG into broad-host-range expression vector pKMY319 allowed high levels of expression in P. putida strains, as well as in Proteus mirabilis after specific induction of the plasmid-encoded nahG promoter with salicylate. The recombinant enzyme was purified and crystallized from P. mirabilis, which lacks an endogenous 3,4-PCD. The physical, spectroscopic, and kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme were indistinguishable from those of the wild-type enzyme. Moreover, the same transient enzyme intermediates were formed during the catalytic cycle. These studies establish the methodology which will allow mechanistic investigations to be pursued through site-directed mutagenesis of P. putida 3,4-PCD, the only aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenase for which the three-dimensional structure is known. Images PMID:8407791

  8. Genetic analysis of Proteus mirabilis mutants defective in swarmer cell elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Belas, R; Goldman, M; Ashliman, K

    1995-01-01

    Swarmer cell differentiation is a complex process involving the activity of many gene products. In this report, we characterized the genetic locus of Tn5 insertion in each of 12 mutants defective in swarmer cell elongation. The mutations fell into four categories affecting either flagellar biosynthesis or energetics, lipopolysaccharide and cell wall biosynthesis, cellular division, or proteolysis of peptides. PMID:7836320

  9. Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1992-10-01

    Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

  10. Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1992-01-01

    Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

  11. Proteus syndrome: emphasis on the pulmonary manifestations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Newman; A. H. Urbach; D. Orenstein; P. S. Dickman

    1994-01-01

    Published articles on the radiologic aspects of Proteus syndrome are sparse. This report highlights the features of this disease with specific attention to the serious pulmonary manifestations that may occur at an early age. Two cases of Proteus syndrome and severe lung disease are presented, with complete autopsy in one case and correlative surgical pathologic data in the other. Multiple

  12. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Winnett, V.; Sirdaarta, J.; Matthews, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results: Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygiumaustrale, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 ?g/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 ?g/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus inhibitory activity were also shown to be nontoxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. Conclusions: The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential in blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26109767

  13. Actin dynamics in Amoeba proteus motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pomorski; P. Krzemi?ski; A. Wasik; K. Wierzbicka; J. Bara?ska; W. K?opocka

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  We studied the distribution of the endogenous Arp2\\/3 complex in Amoeba proteus and visualised the ratio of filamentous (F-actin) to total actin in living cells. The presented results show that in the\\u000a highly motile Amoeba proteus, Arp2\\/3 complex-dependent actin polymerisation is involved in the formation of the branching network of the contractile layer,\\u000a adhesive structures, and perinuclear cytoskeleton. The aggregation

  14. Spectral Characterisation and Mapping of Welwitschia Mirabilis in Namibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Kellenberger; Mathias Kneubühler; Tobias W. Kellenberger

    2009-01-01

    Remote Sensing bears the potential to contribute towards identification and mapping of endemic and endangered plant species. This study assesses the spatial distribution of Welwitschia mirabilis, an ancient desert plant species, in its natural habitat, Africa's Namib desert. Welwitschia mirabilis is one of the oldest plants in existence; some plants reach an age of up to 1500 years. Considered as

  15. CYTOPLASMIC FILAMENTS OF AMOEBA PROTEUS

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Thomas D.; Ito, Susumu

    1970-01-01

    The role of filaments in consistency changes and movement in a motile cytoplasmic extract of Amoeba proteus was investigated by correlating light and electron microscopic observations with viscosity measurements. The extract is prepared by the method of Thompson and Wolpert (1963). At 0°C, this extract is nonmotile and similar in structure to ameba cytoplasm, consisting of groundplasm, vesicles, mitochondria, and a few 160 A filaments. The extract undergoes striking ATP-stimulated streaming when warmed to 22°C. Two phases of movement are distinguished. During the first phase, the apparent viscosity usually increases and numerous 50–70 A filaments appear in samples of the extract prepared for electron microscopy, suggesting that the increase in viscosity in caused, at least in part, by the formation of these thin filaments. During this initial phase of ATP-stimulated movement, these thin filaments are not detectable by phase-contrast or polarization microscopy, but later, in the second phase of movement, 70 A filaments aggregate to form birefringent microscopic fibrils. A preparation of pure groundplasm with no 160 A filaments or membranous organelles exhibits little or no ATP-stimulated movement, but 50–70 A filaments form and aggregate into birefringent fibrils. This observation and the structural relationship of the 70 A and the 160 A filaments in the motile extract suggest that both types of filaments may be required for movement. These two types of filaments, 50–70 A and 160 A, are also present in the cytoplasm of intact amebas. Fixed cells could not be used to study the distribution of these filaments during natural ameboid movement because of difficulties in preserving the normal structure of the ameba during preparation for electron microscopy. PMID:4915451

  16. Cerebriform fibrous proliferation vs. proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yavuzer, R; Uluo?lu, O; Sari, A; Boyacio?lu, M; Sarigüney, Y; Latifo?lu, O; Celebi, M C

    2001-12-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare, congenital hamartomatous syndrome that presents with a wide range of abnormalities. Regardless of different manifestations found in different patients, there exists three mandatory criteria for the diagnosis of this syndrome: a mosaic distribution of the lesions, a progressive course, and sporadic occurrence. When these criteria are met, the presence of additional connective tissue nevi, which are encountered mostly on the plantar surface of the feet, suffices for the diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. The authors present a 48-year-old woman who had been evaluated for a lesion on the plantar aspect of her left foot that was diagnosed as keloid and was treated unsuccessfully. In the light of the literature and with the help of histopathological reevaluation, the authors thought this unique lesion may be a localized form of Proteus syndrome. PMID:11756840

  17. Proteus syndrome: what the anesthetist should know.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Divya

    2015-08-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS), a rare hamartomatous disorder, manifests itself in asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth of multiple body tissues. Because of complexity of the disorder, the anesthetic problems encountered during patients' perioperative management are very varied. We discuss the case of a 14-year-old adolescent boy diagnosed with PS who underwent corrective osteotomy of right knee joint under subarachnoid block. The salient points the anesthetists need to be aware of while caring for patients with PS are highlighted. PMID:25921368

  18. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

  19. Limited functional conservation of a global regulator among related bacterial genera: Lrp in Escherichia, Proteus and Vibrio

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Robert E; Mishra, Pankaj K; Srivastava, Poonam; Martinez-Vaz, Betsy M; Khodursky, Arkady B; Blumenthal, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacterial genome sequences are being determined rapidly, but few species are physiologically well characterized. Predicting regulation from genome sequences usually involves extrapolation from better-studied bacteria, using the hypothesis that a conserved regulator, conserved target gene, and predicted regulator-binding site in the target promoter imply conserved regulation between the two species. However many compared organisms are ecologically and physiologically diverse, and the limits of extrapolation have not been well tested. In E. coli K-12 the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) affects expression of ~400 genes. Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae have highly-conserved lrp orthologs (98% and 92% identity to E. coli lrp). The functional equivalence of Lrp from these related species was assessed. Results Heterologous Lrp regulated gltB, livK and lrp transcriptional fusions in an E. coli background in the same general way as the native Lrp, though with significant differences in extent. Microarray analysis of these strains revealed that the heterologous Lrp proteins significantly influence only about half of the genes affected by native Lrp. In P. mirabilis, heterologous Lrp restored swarming, though with some pattern differences. P. mirabilis produced substantially more Lrp than E. coli or V. cholerae under some conditions. Lrp regulation of target gene orthologs differed among the three native hosts. Strikingly, while Lrp negatively regulates its own gene in E. coli, and was shown to do so even more strongly in P. mirabilis, Lrp appears to activate its own gene in V. cholerae. Conclusion The overall similarity of regulatory effects of the Lrp orthologs supports the use of extrapolation between related strains for general purposes. However this study also revealed intrinsic differences even between orthologous regulators sharing >90% overall identity, and 100% identity for the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif, as well as differences in the amounts of those regulators. These results suggest that predicting regulation of specific target genes based on genome sequence comparisons alone should be done on a conservative basis. PMID:18405378

  20. Path planning in the Proteus rapid prototyping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos A. Tarabanis

    2001-01-01

    Presents algorithms for determining the paths employed by the Proteus rapid prototyping system when building three-dimensional parts. Proteus is a fused deposition modeling system that extrudes a thermoplastic in beads through a nozzle. Determines within each layer of the layered manufacturing process, the material deposition paths as well as the regions where local structures are required to support these paths.

  1. Characterization of two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the andean crop Mirabilis expansa.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, J M; Savary, B J; Flores, H E

    1999-04-01

    Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others. PMID:10198104

  2. Die hypopeltaten Sepalen von Viola arvensis und Viola mirabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irmgard Jäger

    1963-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Sepalen vonViola arvensis undViola mirabilis und möglicherweise allerViola-Arten sind, wie die Untersuchungen der äußeren Morphologie, der Ontogenie, der Histogenie und der Bündelmorphologie ergeben, hypopeltat-schildförmige bzw.-schlauchförmige Blätter, deren dorsale Querzone zu dem basalen Anhängsel auswächst. Durch diesen Spreitenbau, der beiViola nur bei den Kelchblättern auftritt, erweisen sich diese als laminale Kelchblätter.

  3. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigna Parekh; Sumitra Chanda

    The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinically important bacteria viz. Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC8750, Bacillus cereus ATCC11778, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIM2719, Proteus mirabilis NCIM224, Proteus vulgaris NCTC8313, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes ATCC17440, Salmonella

  4. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

  5. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

  6. Morphogenesis of the branching reef coral Madracis mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Kaandorp, Jaap A.; Sloot, Peter M. A.; Merks, Roeland M. H.; Bak, Rolf P. M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Maier, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    Understanding external deciding factors in growth and morphology of reef corals is essential to elucidate the role of corals in marine ecosystems, and to explain their susceptibility to pollution and global climate change. Here, we extend on a previously presented model for simulating the growth and form of a branching coral and we compare the simulated morphologies to three-dimensional (3D) images of the coral species Madracis mirabilis. Simulation experiments and isotope analyses of M. mirabilis skeletons indicate that external gradients of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) determine the morphogenesis of branching, phototrophic corals. In the simulations we use a first principle model of accretive growth based on local interactions between the polyps. The only species-specific information in the model is the average size of a polyp. From flow tank and simulation studies it is known that a relatively large stagnant and diffusion dominated region develops within a branching colony. We have used this information by assuming in our model that growth is entirely driven by a diffusion-limited process, where DIC supply represents the limiting factor. With such model constraints it is possible to generate morphologies that are virtually indistinguishable from the 3D images of the actual colonies. PMID:15695202

  7. Catharanthus mosaic virus: A potyvirus from a gymnosperm, Welwitschia mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Shu Hui; Li, Hua; Admiraal, Ryan; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    A virus from a symptomatic plant of the gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis Hook. growing as an ornamental plant in a domestic garden in Western Australia was inoculated to a plant of Nicotiana benthamiana where it established a systemic infection. The complete genome sequence of 9636 nucleotides was determined using high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. The genome sequence shared greatest identity (83% nucleotides and 91% amino acids) with available partial sequences of catharanthus mosaic virus, indicating that the new isolate belonged to that taxon. Analysis of the phylogeny of the complete virus sequence placed it in a monotypic group in the genus Potyvirus. This is the first record of a virus from W. mirabilis, the first complete genome sequence of catharanthus mosaic virus determined, and the first record from Australia. This finding illustrates the risk to natural and managed systems posed by the international trade in live plants and propagules, which enables viruses to establish in new regions and infect new hosts. PMID:25804761

  8. Mode of action of the protein, SP127, which enhances the activity of macrolide antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, M; Nakao, Y

    1977-03-01

    Antibiotics, the activity of which enhanced against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by SP127, were restricted to the basic macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, maridomycin and oleandomycin, the neutral macrolide antibiotics such as lankamycin and lankacidin C, vancomycin and enramycin. Synergistic activity of SP127 with the above antibiotics was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and several strains of Escherichia coli, but not against Proteus vulgaris and macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. SP127 had extremely weak proteolytic but no lytic activity. From the isotopic experiments, the action of SP127 was partially attributed to the promotion of antibiotic penetration to cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:405356

  9. Locomotion of Amoeba proteus after standardizing its body shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanda K?opocka; A. Grebecki

    1982-01-01

    Summary Amoeba proteus obliged to follow dark stripes in the form of Y may be studied in three repeatable simple configurations: 1. tail + 1 advancing front, 2. tail + 2 advancing pseudopodia, 3. tail +1 advancing pseudopodium + 1 contracting pseudopodium. Formation of two advancing pseudopodia and the later conversion of one of them into a contracting pseudopodium affect

  10. Imaging manifestations in Proteus syndrome: an unusual multisystem developmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaduthodil, M J; Prasad, D S; Lowe, A S; Punekar, A S; Yeung, S; Kay, C L

    2012-01-01

    In this review we use images from an 11-year-old male to describe Proteus syndrome, a complex disorder with multisystem involvement and great clinical variability. Our aim is to enhance recognition of the typical imaging findings, which can aid diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:22514103

  11. Dimethylsulphoxide and trimethylamine oxide respiration of Proteus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf B. Styrvold; Arne R. Strøm

    1984-01-01

    Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) sustained anaerobic growth of Proteus vulgaris with the non-fermentable substrate lactate. Cytoplasmic membrane vesicles energized by electron transfer from formate to DMSO displayed anaerobic uptake of serine, which was hindered by metabolic inhibitors known to destroy the proton motive force. This showed that DMSO reduction was coupled with a chemiosmotic mechanism of energy conversion;

  12. Resumption of locomotion by Amoeba proteus readhering to different substrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ko?odziejczyk; W. K?opocka; A. ?opatowska; L. Grebecka; A. Grebecki

    1995-01-01

    Summary Floating heterotactic cells ofAmoeba proteus were sedimented on untreated glass surfaces and on modified substrata, differing in their wettability and surface potential. About 95% of the amoebae readhere to the glass within 12 min and recover locomotive (polytactic) morphology within 13 min. The rate of locomotion resumption does not change significantly on styrene\\/methyl methacrylate co-polymers with contrasting hydrophilic sulfonic

  13. A locus coding for putative non-ribosomal peptide\\/polyketide synthase functions is mutated in a swarming-defective Proteus mirabilis strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gaisser; C. Hughes

    1997-01-01

    We describe a large bacterial locus that, unusually, encodes components typically required for both the non-ribosomal synthesis\\u000a of peptides and also polyketide\\/fatty acid synthase function. Two tandem ABC transporter genes in this putative nrp (non-ribosomal peptide\\/polyketide) operon suggest that the principal product may be secreted. Immediately distal to the nrp operon is a gene, irpP, encoding a small peptide similar

  14. Variations in photosynthetic characteristics of the Antarctic marine brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis in relation to thallus age and size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Gómez; C. Wiencke; D. N. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and dry weight were measured in 2- and 3-year-old plants of Ascoseira mirabilis (Ascoseirales), cultivated in the laboratory under changing daylengths which matched the seasonal variations in the Antarctic. Determinations were made in four thallus regions. Growth of A. mirabilis was seasonal, with higher rates in spring. Parameters such as net

  15. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVE AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SABAHAT SAEED; PERWEEN TARIQ

    A study was carried out to investigate the potential of using aqueous infusion, decoction and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) as natural antibacterial agents against 100 isolates belonging to 10 different species of Gram -ve bacilli viz., Escherichia coli (36), Proteus mirabilis (6), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Enterobacter aerogenes (5), Klebsiella ozaenae (2), Klebsiella pneumoniae (24), Serratia marcescens (4), Salmonella

  16. Flight of Sharovipteryx mirabilis: the world's first delta-winged glider.

    PubMed

    Dyke, G J; Nudds, R L; Rayner, J M V

    2006-07-01

    The 225 million-year-old reptile Sharovipteryx mirabilis was the world's first delta-winged glider; this remarkable animal had a flight surface composed entirely of a hind-limb membrane. We use standard delta-wing aerodynamics to reconstruct the flight of S. mirabilis demonstrating that wing shape could have been controlled simply by protraction of the femora at the knees, and by variation in incidence of a small forelimb canard. Our method has allowed us to address the question of how identifying realistic glide performance can be used to set limits on aerodynamic design in this small animal. Our novel interpretation of the bizarre flight mode of S. mirabilis is the first based directly on interpretation of the fossil itself and the first grounded in aerodynamics. PMID:16780505

  17. Demonstrating the destruction of the habitat of the Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clinton N. Jenkins; Robert D. Powell; Oron L. Bass Jr; Stuart L. Pimm

    2003-01-01

    The Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) is Federally protected under the Endangered Species Act of the United States of America. This legislation prohibits direct or indirect take - the killing or harming - of the protected species. In 1993 and 1995, the opening of floodgates into Everglades National Park during the normal dry season resulted in a direct

  18. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial...Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

  19. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial...Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis...aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis;...

  20. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella...Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus...Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated...

  1. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella...Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus...Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated...

  2. 2-methylbutanal, a volatile biomarker, for non-invasive surveillance of Proteus.

    PubMed

    Aarthi, Raju; Saranya, Raju; Sankaran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen detection needs a paradigm shift from time-consuming conventional microbiological and biochemical tests to much simpler identification methods with higher sensitivity and specificity. In this regard, a simple detection method for frequently isolated nosocomial uropathogen, Proteus spp., was developed using the characteristic volatile 2-methylbutanal released in Luria Bertani broth. The instant reaction of the compound with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylhydrazine (DNSH) has been adapted to develop a sensitive fluorescence assay named "ProteAl" (Prote, "Proteus" & Al, "Aldehyde"). The assay was performed by direct addition of the fluorescence reagent to the culture after 7 h of growth. The distinct green fluorescence by Proteus (other organisms show orange fluorescence) served as the simplest and quicker identification test available for Proteus. In the laboratory, it exhibited 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity during testing of 95 strains including standard and known clinical isolates representing frequently encountered uropathogens. PMID:24281757

  3. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3410 Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. (a)...

  4. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  5. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  6. Plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Höfte; PAUL DE VOS

    In the current taxonomy, plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are restricted to rRNA group I organisms belonging to the Gamma subclass of Proteobacteria. Currently, about 21 validly described plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are known. The most important species is P. syringae with more than 50 described pathovars. The pathovar concept is confusing and the taxonomy of P. syringae needs revision. P.

  7. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland M.; Koberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the 235U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3s uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3s) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4s. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3s of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  8. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland M.; Koberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the 235U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmarkmore »values but within 1% and also within the 3s uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3s) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4s. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3s of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  9. Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Baïda, Nader; Yazourh, Asmae; Singer, Elisabeth; Izard, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    The vernacular name 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' was coined for a group of 43 strains isolated from two French natural mineral waters. All these strains were gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They produced fluorescent pigment (pyoverdin) on King B medium, catalase and cytochrome oxidase. They were capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism. They were not able to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and possessed an arginine dihydrolase system. DNA-DNA relatedness studies (S1 nuclease method) showed that the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' formed a genetically homogeneous group (DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 70 to 100%). A total of 76 strains representing well-known or partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto had 7-56% DNA hybridization with strain CFML 97-514T. The highest DNA binding values were found with Pseudomonas veronii CIP 104663T (52%), Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 104664T (56%), Pseudomonas marginalis ATCC 10844T (56%), Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T (53%) and Pseudomonas cedrella CIP 105541T (52%). Their unrelatedness was confirmed by deltaTm values greater than 7 degrees C. On the basis of the results of phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, a novel Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov., is proposed for the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514'. The type strain is strain CFML 97-514T (= CIP 106645T = ATCC BAA-140T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 58 mol%. A comparison of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain CFML 97-514T and the sequence of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that the novel species fell within the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. Members of P. grimontii grew at 4 degrees C but not at 41 degrees C. They were able to use D-xylose, alpha-L-rhamnose, alpha-aminobutyrate, meso-erythritol and itaconate as sole sources of carbon and energy and formed levan from sucrose. Strains do not possess lecithinase or Tween esterase activities. The clinical significance of P. grimontii is unknown. PMID:12361251

  10. A Mosaic Activating Mutation in AKT1 Associated with the Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Teer, Jamie K.; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Finn, Erin M.; Peters, Kathryn; Turner, Joyce; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Bick, David; Blakemore, Laurel; Blumhorst, Catherine; Brockmann, Knut; Calder, Peter; Cherman, Natasha; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Everman, David B.; Golas, Gretchen; Greenstein, Robert M.; Kato, B. Maya; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Miyamoto, Richard T.; Newman, Kurt; Ng, David; O’Brien, Kevin; Rothenberg, Steven; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J.; Singhal, Virender; Tirabosco, Roberto; Upton, Joseph; Wientroub, Shlomo; Zackai, Elaine H.; Hoag, Kimberly; Whitewood-Neal, Tracey; Robey, Pamela G.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Tosi, Laura L.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Proteus syndrome is characterized by the overgrowth of skin, connective tissue, brain, and other tissues. It has been hypothesized that the syndrome is caused by somatic mosaicism for a mutation that is lethal in the nonmosaic state. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of DNA from biopsy samples obtained from patients with the Proteus syndrome and compared the resultant DNA sequences with those of unaffected tissues obtained from the same patients. We confirmed and extended an observed association, using a custom restriction-enzyme assay to analyze the DNA in 158 samples from 29 patients with the Proteus syndrome. We then assayed activation of the AKT protein in affected tissues, using phosphorylation-specific antibodies on Western blots. RESULTS Of 29 patients with the Proteus syndrome, 26 had a somatic activating mutation (c.49G?A, p.Glu17Lys) in the oncogene AKT1, encoding the AKT1 kinase, an enzyme known to mediate processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Tissues and cell lines from patients with the Proteus syndrome harbored admixtures of mutant alleles that ranged from 1% to approximately 50%. Mutant cell lines showed greater AKT phosphorylation than did control cell lines. A pair of single-cell clones that were established from the same starting culture and differed with respect to their mutation status had different levels of AKT phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS The Proteus syndrome is caused by a somatic activating mutation in AKT1, proving the hypothesis of somatic mosaicism and implicating activation of the PI3K–AKT pathway in the characteristic clinical findings of overgrowth and tumor susceptibility in this disorder. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute.) PMID:21793738

  11. The effects of ferrochrome lignosulfonate on the respiration and excretion of the coral, Madracis mirabilis 

    E-print Network

    Westerhaus, Mary Joanne

    1978-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF FERROCHR(ME LIGNOSULFONATE ON THE RESPIRATION AHD EZGHE'ZZGH DZ THE GGHAZ, HADHAGZE HZHAI!ZZZE A Thesis by NARY JOANNE MESTERHAUS Submitted to the Graduate CoIIsge of Texas A&H University in partial fulfi13ment... of the requirement for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE DecAsnber 1978 Hajor Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF FERROCHRCME LIGNOSULFONATE ON THE RESPIRATION AND THE EXCRETION OF THE CORAL& MkDRACIS MIRABILIS A Thesis by MARY JOANNE NESTERHAUS Approved...

  12. TWO-DIRECTIONAL PATTERN OF MOVEMENTS ON THE CELL SURFACE OF AMOEBA PROTEUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDRZEJ GREBECKI

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Particles of latex, glass and precipitated Alcian Blue were studied cinematographically on the surface of migrating Amoeba proteus and in the surrounding medium. The majority of the attached and all unattached particles flow steadily forward in the direction of the endoplasmic streaming and cell locomotion. Flow on the surface is faster than in suspension. Some particles stuck on the

  13. Fine structure and distribution of contractile layers in Amoeba proteus preincubated at high temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Klopocka; W. Stockem; A. Grebecki

    1988-01-01

    Summary Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies allow the localization and identification of a microfilament cortex in heat-shockedAmoeba proteus at different stages of recovery to room temperature. Immediately after heating the cortex is in close contact with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane; however, during cooling it detaches from the membrane and shifts toward the cell centre thus separating a region

  14. FUNCTIONAL INTERDEPENDENCE OF PSEUDOPODIA IN AMOEBA PROTEUS STIMULATED BY LIGHT-SHADE DIFFERENCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDRZEJ GREBECKI; WANDA KLOPOCKA

    SUMMARY Polytactic cells of Amoeba proteus were exposed to localised photic stimulation. When a pseudopodium is stimulated to advance, by shading ,it, other pseudopodia are retracted. Activation of the shaded front is the primary response, and contraction of other fronts the secondary one. When a pseudopodium is inhibited by illuminating its frontal segment, or when it is allowed to enter

  15. Dienes typing of Proteus strains isolated from barrier-maintalned animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Simpson; D. J. C. Simmons

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY The possible use of Dienes' phenomenon for typing proteus strains as an aid to bacteriological monitoring of barrier-maintained animal units was investigated. It was rare for more than I Dienes' type to be isolated from an individual animal. A persistent relationship between I or 2 Diene's types and each strain of animal was demonstrated, although these same types were

  16. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays follicular elevations of the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

  17. Effects of Aridity and Fog Deposition on C3/CAM Photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental controls on photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis are evaluated through ?13C and ?15N analyses of leaf material from 26 individuals in the southermost population of this long-lived gymnosperm, which is endemic to the Namib Desert. The coastal Namib Desert in southwestern Africa is hyperarid in terms of rainfall, but receives up to 100 days of fog each year. This climate regime leads to interesting water relations in the Namib flora and fauna. Among many enigmatic characteristics, photosynthesis in W. mirabilis has puzzled researchers since the 1970's. Although it is predominantly a C3 plant, ?13C ranges from -17.5 to -23.5‰ in natural habitats, and can be as enriched as -14.4‰ under artificial growing conditions. Recently the CAM pathway has been confirmed, but the driver for CAM utilization has not been identified. In this study we incorporate new ?13C compositions for plants in the middle of the 100 km aridity gradient which spans the natural distribution of W. mirabilis. Initial results show an enriched ?13C signal (-20‰) in the more exposed individuals compared with those in a sandy drainage depression (-22‰). In addition, the documented correlation between rainfall and ?15N found in Kalahari C3 plants (Swap et al. 2004) is used to interpret the ?15N values in this W. mirabilis population. Initial results indicate that the fog deposition may significantly affect the nutrition of these unusual plants from the Namib Desert.

  18. Functional gene losses occur with minimal size reduction in the plastid genome of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Zhang, Yan; Hansen, S Kellon; Roper, Jessie M; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Plock, Sheila A; Wolf, Paul G; DePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Goffinet, Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Aneura mirabilis is a parasitic liverwort that exploits an existing mycorrhizal association between a basidiomycete and a host tree. This unusual liverwort is the only known parasitic seedless land plant with a completely nonphotosynthetic life history. The complete plastid genome of A. mirabilis was sequenced to examine the effect of its nonphotosynthetic life history on plastid genome content. Using a partial genomic fosmid library approach, the genome was sequenced and shown to be 108,007 bp with a structure typical of green plant plastids. Comparisons were made with the plastid genome of Marchantia polymorpha, the only other liverwort plastid sequence available. All ndh genes are either absent or pseudogenes. Five of 15 psb genes are pseudogenes, as are 2 of 6 psa genes and 2 of 6 pet genes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cysT, ccsA, and ycf3 were also detected. The remaining complement of genes present in M. polymorpha is present in the plastid of A. mirabilis with intact open reading frames. All pseudogenes and gene losses co-occur with losses detected in the plastid of the parasitic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana, though the latter has functional gene losses not found in A. mirabilis. The plastid genome sequence of A. mirabilis represents only the second liverwort, and first mycoheterotroph, to have its plastid genome sequenced. We observed a pattern of genome evolution congruent with functional gene losses in parasitic angiosperms but suggest that its plastid genome represents a genome in the early stages of decay following the relaxation of selection pressures. PMID:18056074

  19. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  20. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    PubMed

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  1. In vitro synthesis of biogenic amines by Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates from meat and meat products and the influence of other microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Nowak; Agata Czyzowska

    2011-01-01

    Twenty Brochothrix thermosphacta strains tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, formed histamine (6.6–16.2mg\\/kg) and tyramine (18.7–35.4mg\\/kg) but neither putrescine nor cadaverine. Six of the twenty strains were also investigated in respect of their influence on the synthesis of BAs by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus mirabilis and Lactobacillus sakei. In pure culture Escherichia coli produced all of the studied amines

  2. Antimicrobial properties of the stem bark of Saraca indica (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sainath, R Shilpakala; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    Chloroform, methanol, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of Saraca indica were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pneumoniae and the fungi: Candida albicans and Cryptococcus albidus. Methanolic and aqueous extract exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 0.5-2% and 1-3% respectively. Methanolic extract exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. PMID:19961043

  3. Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

  4. Response to light-shade difference in anucleate and polynucleate specimens of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Grebecki, A; Kalinina, L V; Grebecka, L

    1978-08-01

    The enucleated specimens of Amoeba proteus, the anucleate fragments, and the polynucleate individuals which all are capable of cortical contraction but not of locomotion, may be reactivated by the light-shade difference established across their body. Individual cells or fragments migrate toward the shade. The motory polarity and coordinated movement disappear immediately after cessation of the stimulus. The results are interpreted according to the earlier hypothesis that the necessary to maintain the motory polarity of amoebae. It is suggested that the anucleate and polynucleate specimens are incapable of coordinated movements when non-stimulated, because of a deficiency or an excess, respectively, of the regulatory relaxing factor secreted by the nucleus of Amoeba proteus. PMID:689261

  5. Empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion associated with proteus species infection: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yauba, M S; Ahmed, H; Imoudu, I A; Yusuf, M O; Makarfi, H U

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  6. The Control of the Swarmina of Proteus vulgaris by Boric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. SYKES; R. REED

    1949-01-01

    SUMMARY: The swarming of Proteus vulgaris is inhibited on a heated blood-agar medium containing 0.1 % (w\\/v) boric acid. This boric acid concentration does not inhibit the growth of many organisms having more exacting metabolic requirements. The medium is equally successful in controlling certain swarming strains of Pseudo- mnm pyocyanea.. This inhibition of swarming is possibly due to the formation

  7. Movement of surface markers along the pinocytotic pseudopodia of Amoeba proteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K?opocka; J. Ko?odziejczyk; P. Pomorski; A. Gr?becki

    1994-01-01

    Summary The movement of latex beads over pinocytotic pseudopodia produced byAmoeba proteus was recorded in the presence of 117.65 mM EGTA as an inducer of pinocytosis. The results show that all particles flow in the direction of pseudopodial growth, with a slightly higher velocity than the advancing frontal edge. This means that markers are removed from the base of a

  8. Relative motion in Amoeba proteus in respect to the adhesion sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gr?becki

    1985-01-01

    Summary The whole ectoplasmic layer of polytactic and heterotactic forms ofA. proteus behaves as self-contractile structure. Depending on the configuration of cell body and on the cell-to-substrate attachment conditions it continuously retracts from each distal cell projection toward its centre and\\/or from each free body end toward the actual adhesion sites. As in the monotactic forms, it leads to the

  9. Characterization of Two Novel Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from the Storage Roots of the Andean Crop Mirabilis expansa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge M. Vivanco; Brett J. Savary; Hector E. Flores

    1999-01-01

    Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation- exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chro- matography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by

  10. Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.

    PubMed

    Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation. PMID:21361996

  11. Fibrinolytic serine protease isolation from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 grown on Mirabilis jalapa tuber powders.

    PubMed

    Agrebi, Rym; Hmidet, Noomen; Hajji, Mohamed; Ktari, Nawrez; Haddar, Anissa; Fakhfakh-Zouari, Nahed; Nasri, Moncef

    2010-09-01

    In this study, Mirabilis jalapa tuber powder (MJTP) was used as a new complex organic substrate for the growth and production of fibrinolytic enzymes by a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6. Maximum protease activity (1,057 U/ml) with casein as a substrate was obtained when the strain was grown in medium containing (grams per liter) MJTP 30, yeast extract 6, CaCl(2) 1, K(2)HPO(4) 0.1, and K(2)HPO(4) 0.1. The strain was also found to grow and produce extracellular proteases in a medium containing only MJTP, indicating that it can obtain its carbon, nitrogen, and salts requirements directly from MJTP. The B. amyloliquefaciens An6 fibrinase (BAF1) was partially purified, and fibrinolytic activity was assayed in a test tube with an artificial fibrin clot. The molecular weight of the partially purified BAF1 fibrinolytic protease was estimated to be 30 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The optimum temperature and pH for the caseinolytic activity were 60 degrees C and 9.0, respectively. The enzyme was highly stable from pH 6.0 to 11.0 and retained 62% of its initial activity after 1 h incubation at 50 degrees C. However, the enzyme was inactivated at higher temperatures. The activity of the enzyme was totally lost in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, suggesting that BAF1 is a serine protease. PMID:19842068

  12. Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

  14. Is the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus equiped for magnetic orientation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquerel, H.; Valet, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The Proteus anguinus is a blind cave salamander which can develop the ability of using the earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation. It has been shown that the strength of the geomagnetic field is not strong enough to excite the electroreceptors of these animals through induction mechanism so that the most likely hypothesis is that they would use cristals of magnetite as permanent magnets. We have been looking for evidence of remanent magnetism in several proteus collected from the underground CNRS laboratory at Moulis (France). Because the level of natural remanent magnetization, if any, was too low to be measured with confidence using a 3 axis squid 2G magnetometer (even bringing the animals as close as possible to the sensors), we stepwise remagnetized the samples between 0.2 and 1.2T. Measurements were performed in different parts of three proteus bodies. No significant magnetization was detected in the head, most of the signal being concentrated in the lower body of the animal. Saturation was attained after 0.2T while stepwise demagnetization by alternating field showed that most magnetization was removed after 40 mT (medium destructive field, MDF of about 10 mT), which is typical of magnetite. Independent measurements of clay soils taken from the surrounding immediate environment of the animals reveal a different magnetic signature for saturation, MDF and viscosity. Thus there is no apparent and direct link between food absorbed from their environment and the magnetic remamence of the animals. New experiments are currently in progress to determine whether magnetite is the unique magnetic carrier and also to provide better clue about the magnetic granulometry and its distribution.

  15. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  16. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts of the bark of Melia azedarach (China Berry).

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Ahmed, Manzoor; Naz, Sumaira; Ayaz, Musarrat

    2015-06-01

    Nature provides a variety of drugs and medicinal agents derived from plants. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Melia azedarach bark with methanol/water (9:1 v/v), chloroform, butanol, hexane, water and ethyl acetate. For the determination of the antimicrobial activities, the agar well diffusion method was employed. Cytotoxicity was studied by brine shrimp lethality assay; antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The chloroform extract was active against Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis, the ethyl acetate extract had highest antibacterial spectrum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the n-hexane extract had highest inhibition against E. aerogenes, the aqueous extract showed highest activities against P. mirabilis, the butanol fraction showed highest activities against E. aerogenes and the methanolic extract was highly active against P. mirabilis. PMID:25426766

  17. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm. PMID:24010505

  18. Advances in understanding Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Wiehlmann, Lutz; Klockgether, Jens; Cramer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the type species of pseudomonads, is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes a wide range of niches. Current genome sequencing projects are producing previously inconceivable detail about the population biology and evolution of P. aeruginosa. Its pan-genome has a larger genetic repertoire than the human genome, which explains the broad metabolic capabilities of P. aeruginosa and its ubiquitous distribution in aquatic habitats. P. aeruginosa may persist in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis for decades. The ongoing whole-genome analyses of serial isolates from cystic fibrosis patients provide the so far singular opportunity to monitor the microevolution of a bacterial pathogen during chronic infection over thousands of generations. Although the evolution in cystic fibrosis lungs is neutral overall, some pathoadaptive mutations are selected during the within-host evolutionary process. Even a single mutation may be sufficient to generate novel complex traits provided that predisposing mutational events have previously occurred in the clonal lineage. PMID:24592321

  19. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  20. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  1. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  2. Distribution and evolution of pseudogenes, gene losses, and a gene rearrangement in the plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida).

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Fan, Yu; Lewis, Paul O; Goffinet, Bernard

    2008-07-01

    The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made using comparisons with the distantly related liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. We sampled several populations of A. mirabilis and its photosynthetic sister groups to correlate functional gene losses with the evolution of a achlorophylly. The gene losses, pseudogenes, or the psbE-petL inversion were never detected in a photosynthetic Aneura but were detected in every population of A. mirabilis. One population of A. mirabilis revealed a unique deletion of 541 bp in the psbE-petL region; another is characterized by a unique deletion of 471 bp in the trnV(UAC)-ndhC region. The ratio of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution rates (omega) was estimated for eight pseudogenes and six ORFs to detect relaxed purifying selection. A significant increase in omega for the nonphotosynthetic liverwort was detected in six pseudogenes. Relaxation purifying selection, determined by a significant increase in omega, was detected for three intact ORFs: psbA, psbM, and rbcL. PMID:18594897

  3. Reversible changes in size of cell nuclei isolated from Amoeba proteus: role of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Pomorski, P; Grebecka, L; Grebecki, A; Makuch, R

    2000-01-01

    Micrurgically isolated interphasal nuclei of Amoeba proteus, which preserve F-actin cytoskeletal shells on their surface, shrink after perfusion with imidazole buffer without ATP, and expand to about 200% of their cross-sectional area upon addition of pyrophosphate. These changes in size may be reproduced several times with the same nucleus. The shrunken nuclei are insensitive to the osmotic effects of sugars and distilled water, whereas the expanded ones react only to the distilled water, showing further swelling. The shrinking-expansion cycles are partially inhibited by cytochalasins. They are attributed to the state of actomyosin complex in the perinuclear cytoskeleton, which is supposed to be in the rigor state in the imidazole buffer without ATP, and to dissociate in the presence of pyrophosphate. Inflow of external medium to the nuclei during dissociation of the myosin from the perinuclear F-actin may be due to colloidal osmosis depending on other macromolecular components of the karyoplasm. PMID:11012088

  4. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePLUS

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  5. Implementation\\/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional\\/axisymmetric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trong T. Bui

    1992-01-01

    The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the

  6. 21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...pseudintermedius , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis...Klebsiella pneumoniae , E. coli , Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter...susceptible strains of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. multocida ....

  7. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

  8. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  9. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  10. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

  11. Production of acylated homoserine lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-10-01

    A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter cultures was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production (5.675 µg l(-1)) at 24 h growth. The strain exhibited swarming, but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production and reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated protein during swarming, was considered as a possible target for these inhibitors, and docking of the two most active and two least active inhibitors to this protein suggested preferential binding of the former set of compounds. Apart from adding new evidence to AHL production in Proteus vulgaris, active inhibitors shortlisted from this study could help in identifying lead compounds to act against this opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25012967

  12. Organization and spatial arrangement of fluorescein-labeled native actin microinjected into normal locomoting and experimentally influenced Amoeba proteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Gawlitta; Wilhelm Stockem; Jfirgen Wehland; Klaus Weber

    1980-01-01

    Fully polymerization-competent fluorescein-labeled actin from skeletal muscle was microinjected into both normal moving and experimentally treated Amoeba proteus. Its intracellular distribution was followed by integral image intensification of the fluorescence on a television screen and compared with controls injected with rhodamine-labeled serum albumin. The labeled actin was incorporated into the endogenous actin pool and exhibited a characteristic redistribution depending on

  13. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of novel phytase from Obesumbacterium proteus.

    PubMed

    Zinin, Nickolay V; Serkina, Anna V; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Shevelev, Aleksei B; Sineoky, Sergei P

    2004-07-15

    The gene phyA encoding phytase was isolated from Obesumbacterium proteus genomic library and sequenced. The cleavage site of the PhyA signal peptide was predicted and experimentally proved. The PhyA protein shows maximum identity of 53% and 47% to phosphoanhydride phosphorylase from Yersinia pestis and phytase AppA from Escherichia coli, respectively. Based on protein sequence similarity of PhyA and its homologs, the phytases form a novel subclass of the histidine acid phosphatase family. To characterize properties of the PhyA protein, we expressed the phyA gene in E. coli. The specific activity of the purified recombinant PhyA was 310 U mg(-1) of protein. Recombinant PhyA showed activity at pH values from 1.5 through 6.5 with the optimum at 4.9. The temperature optimum was 40-45 degrees C at pH 4.9. The Km value for sodium phytate was 0.34 mM with a Vmax of 435 U mg(-1). PMID:15251209

  14. Proteus syndrome: Report of a case with AKT1 mutation in a dental cyst.

    PubMed

    Valéra, Marie-Cécile; Vaysse, Fréderic; Bieth, Eric; Longy, Michel; Cances, Claude; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle

    2015-05-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a sporadic and rare congenital disorder characterized by a patchy or mosaic postnatal overgrowth, sometimes involving the face. The onset of overgrowth typically occurs in infancy and can commonly involve skin, connective tissue, central nervous system, eyes and viscera. The progressive overgrowth causes severe complications, such as skeletal deformities, cystic lung disease, invasive lipomas, connective tissue hyperplasia, benign and malignant tumours and deep venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism, which can cause premature death. This disorder is caused by somatic mosaicism for a specific activating AKT1 mutation that would be lethal in a non-mosaic state. In this report, current knowledge of the aetiology, the diagnosis and the craniofacial manifestations of the disorder are reviewed. The short-term management of a 7-year-old patient with unusual oral manifestations is described. For the first time mutation of AKT1 (c.49G > A) gene was detected both in cranial exostosis and in central odontogenic fibroma of the lower jaw. PMID:25782637

  15. Two-directional pattern of movements on the cell surface of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Grebecki, A

    1986-07-01

    Particles of latex, glass and precipitated Alcian Blue were studied cinematographically on the surface of migrating Amoeba proteus and in the surrounding medium. The majority of the attached and all unattached particles flow steadily forward in the direction of the endoplasmic streaming and cell locomotion. Flow on the surface is faster than in suspension. Some particles stuck on the membrane move backwards from the frontal region. This retrograde transport is slower than the anterograde flow, and the rate decreases further when the particles approach cell regions adhering to the substratum, accurately following the pattern of the withdrawal of ectoplasm in the same zone. Both movements coexist in the same region and retrograde particles may pass anterograde ones at a distance less than their diameter. Transition from forward flow to backward transport occurs just behind the frontal cap, where the new ectoplasm is formed. The anterograde movement is interpreted as reflecting the general forward flow of the laterally mobile fluid membrane components, which become added to the frontal surface of the locomoting cell; the retrograde movement as retraction of membrane components that, externally, are linked to the transported material and, on the cytoplasmic side, to the contractile microfilamentous layer, as is postulated for cap formation in tissue cells. PMID:3805143

  16. "NEW MEMBRANE" FORMATION IN AMOEBA PROTEUS UPON INJURY OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Szubinska, Barbara

    1971-01-01

    Changes in the plasma membrane complex following the injury of single cells of Amoeba proteus were examined with the electron microscope. Two types of injury were employed in this study; cells were either pinched ("cut") in half or speared with a glass microneedle, and quickly fixed. Speared cells, when fixed in the presence of the ruthenium violet (a derivative of ruthenium red), revealed the presence of an extra trilaminar structure outside of each cell. This structure, called the "new membrane," was separated from the plasma membrane complex by a distance of less than a micron. The trilaminar structure of the new membrane strikingly resembled the image of the plasma membrane in all cells examined, except for its increased width (30%). This new membrane appeared nearly to surround the injured amebae. Attempts were made to demonstrate the possible origin of the new membrane, its reality, and its sensitivity to calcium. Also, some evidence is shown concerning the role of the small dense droplets (100–1200 A in diameter) normally present in the cytoplasm of amebae. Their frequent contact with the plasma membrane of the cell as the result of injury is interpreted as indicating their involvement in the formation and expansion of the plasma membrane. PMID:4103955

  17. Molecular characterization and post-transcriptional regulation of ME1, a type-I ribosome-inactivating protein from Mirabilis expansa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramarao Vepachedu; HarshPal Bais; Jorge M. Vivanco

    2003-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove a specific adenine from the sarcin\\/ricin (S\\/R) loop of the large rRNA, thus arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. In the present study, ME1, a type-1 RIP, was cloned and sequenced from storage roots of Mirabilis expansa (Ruiz & Pavon). The full-length cDNA sequence of ME1 has 1,129 nucleotides with an open

  18. Likely Population-Level Effects of Contaminants on a Resident Estuarine Fish Species: Comparing Gillichthys mirabilis Population Static Measurements and Vital Rates in San Francisco and Tomales Bays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine R. McGourty; James A. Hobbs; William A. Bennett; Peter G. Green; Hyun-Min Hwang; Naoaki Ikemiyagi; Levi Lewis; Jason M. Cope

    2009-01-01

    Gillichthys mirabilis population static measurements (abundance, age, and size class structures) and vital rates (growth, mortality, recruitment)\\u000a were monitored on an annual basis from 2002 to 2007. Population-level metrics were used to gauge habitat quality at two study\\u000a sites (a contaminated site and a reference site) in two large northern California estuaries (San Francisco and Tomales Bays).\\u000a San Francisco Bay

  19. Regulation of Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana S. Wade; M. Worth Calfee; Edson R. Rocha; Elizabeth A. Ling; Elana Engstrom; James P. Coleman; Everett C. Pesci

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed

  20. Phylogenomics and systematics in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Gomila, Margarita; Peña, Arantxa; Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudomonas currently contains 144 species, making it the genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains the largest number of species. Currently, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is the preferred method for establishing the phylogeny between species and genera. Four partial gene sequences of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD) were obtained from 112 complete or draft genomes of strains related to the genus Pseudomonas that were available in databases. These genes were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences of 133 Pseudomonas type strains of validly published species to assess their correct phylogenetic assignations. We confirmed that 30% of the sequenced genomes of non-type strains were not correctly assigned at the species level in the accepted taxonomy of the genus and that 20% of the strains were not identified at the species level. Most of these strains had been isolated and classified several years ago, and their taxonomic status has not been updated by modern techniques. MLSA was also compared with indices based on the analysis of whole-genome sequences that have been proposed for species delineation, such as tetranucleotide usage patterns (TETRA), average nucleotide identity (ANIm, based on MUMmer and ANIb, based on BLAST) and genome-to-genome distance (GGDC). TETRA was useful for discriminating Pseudomonas from other genera, whereas ANIb and GGDC clearly separated strains of different species. ANIb showed the strongest correlation with MLSA. The correct species classification is a prerequisite for most diversity and evolutionary studies. This work highlights the necessity for complete genomic sequences of type strains to build a phylogenomic taxonomy and that all new genome sequences submitted to databases should be correctly assigned to species to avoid taxonomic inconsistencies.

  1. Functional interdependence of pseudopodia in Amoeba proteus stimulated by light-shade difference.

    PubMed

    Grebecki, A; K?opocka, W

    1981-08-01

    Polytactic cells of Amoeba proteus were exposed to localized photic stimulation. When a pseudopodium is stimulated to advance, by shading it, other pseudopodia are retracted. Activation of the shaded front is the primary response, and contraction of other fronts the secondary one. When a pseudopodium is inhibited by illuminating its frontal segment, or when it is allowed to enter the bright zone in the course of migration, it slows down and stops but its eventual retraction depends on the existence of other possible directions for the endoplasmic flow. Therefore, if other active pseudopodia are lacking, the front suppressed by light cannot retreat effectively until new fronts arise in other body regions kept in shade. In all experimental situations the development of new fronts or the activation of forward flow in lateral pseudopodia precedes the contraction of the former leading pseudopodium. Also the reversal of direction of the endoplasmic streaming begins at the new front, and then it gradually extends until it reaches the former front. The results confirm the interdependence of different pseudopodia in the same individual and they contradict the concept that pseudopodia behave as separate functional units. On the other hand, they indicate that formation of new pseudopodia should not be explained as a simple secondary effect of contraction of the older ones but, on the contrary, as a phenomenon that initiates the changes in the pattern of flow in amoeba. The general interpretation is based on this variant of the pressure-flow theory of amoeboid movement, which attributes the motive power to the contractile activity of the whole cell cortex and the steering role to events taking place in the front of the migrating cell. PMID:7320068

  2. SU-E-T-200: IBA ProteusOne Compact Proton Therapy System Radiation Survey Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Syh, J; Syh, J; White, M; Patel, B; Song, X; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Cancer Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study summarizes the results of an initial radiation survey of the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center in Shreveport, Louisiana. The facility houses an IBA ProteusOne compact single room proton therapy unit coupled with a C230 cyclotron that operates at a maximum energy of 230 MeV. Methods: A calibrated survey meter was used for the photon measurements to obtain reliable results. A neutron detector was used as the measuring instrument for neutrons. The locations of the survey and measurements were planned carefully in order to get a proper evaluation of the facility shielding configuration. The walls, ceiling, vault entrance, and the adjacent environment were each surveyed with suitable measurement instruments. A total of 22 locations were chosen for radiation survey. Dose equivalent values were calculated for both the photon and the neutron radiation using measured data. Results: All measured dose values are presented in millisievert per year. The highest dose measured at the vault entrance is 0.34 mSv/year. A dedicated shielding door was not present at the time of the measurement. The vault entrance area is considered as a controlled area. The shielding design goals are not to exceed 5 mSv/year for the controlled area and 1 mSv/year the uncontrolled area. The total combined neutron and photon dose equivalent values were found to be compliant with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality radiation protection regulatory codes. Conclusion: In our efforts to evaluate the radiation levels at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center proton treatment facility, we have found that all the measured values of the radiation shielding are below the critical radiation limits per year. Since the total dose measured at the vault entrance is below the shielding design goal, a shielding door is not required at this proton treatment vault.

  3. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from carrageenan.

    PubMed

    El-Fawal, G

    2014-09-01

    Carrageenan films have been formulated as a packaging material. Films plasticized with glycerol were loaded with citric acid (1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 %) for enhanced antimicrobial effects. Blank and citric acid loaded films were characterized by mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle. In addition, swelling and antibacterial studies were conducted to further characterize the films. Both blank and citric acid loaded films showed different morphology, high elasticity and acceptable tensile (mechanical) properties. These citric acid loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Dickeya chrysanthemi strains compared to blank film. PMID:25190889

  4. Comparison of In Vitro Activity of Cephalexin, Cephradine, and Cefaclor

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Nancy J.; Washington, John A.

    1977-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor was compared by the WHO-ICS agar dilution technique. Cefaclor was substantially more active against staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci, Haemophilus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus mirabilis, salmonellae, and shigellae than was cephalexin, which in turn was more active than cephradine. Cefaclor appeared to be less resistant to staphylococcal penicillinase than did the other two agents. None of these cephalosporins was active against Enterobacter, Serratia, indole-positive Proteeae, Pseudomonas, or Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:301005

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Fe III , Cu II , Ag I , Zn II and Hg II complexes of 2-(2-hydroxy-5-bromo\\/nitro-phenyl)-1 H - and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methyl\\/chloro\\/nitro-1 H -benzimidazoles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ülküseven; A. Tavman; G. Ötük; S. Birteksöz

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-R5-1H-benzimidazoles, 2-(2-hydroxy-5-R5?-phenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles and their FeIII, CuII, AgI, ZnII and HgII nitrate complexes was tested towardStaphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella\\u000a typhi, Shigella flexneri, andProteus mirabilis. Antifungal activity was tested againstCandida albicans. Benzimidazole benzene ring substituents increase the antimicrobial activity, phenol ring substituents decrease it. The ligands\\u000a show an antibacterial effect against onlyS.

  6. The pyoverdins of Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas cichorii.

    PubMed

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Schäfer, Mathias; Budzikiewicz, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    The structure elucidation of the cyclic (lactonic) forms of the pyoverdins with a succinamide side chain originally produced by the closely related species Pseudomonas syringae and P. cichorii is reported. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses as well as the determination of the configuration of the amino acids after degradation indicate that these two pyoverdins differ only by the replacement of the first in-chain serine by glycine. The pyoverdins of P. syringae and P. cichorii and the dihydropyoverdin of P. syringae can be used by both species as siderophores. PMID:15540590

  7. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  8. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  9. Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Iris C; Vattuone, Marta A; Isla, Maria I

    2005-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 25 to 200 microg/mL. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values. Contact bioautography, indicated that Zuccagnia punctata extracts possess one major antibacterial component against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at least three components against. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Activity-guided fractionation of 1he ethanol extract on a silica gel column yielded a compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone), which exhibited strong antibacterial activity with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.00 microg/mL for Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These values are lower than imipenem (0.25-16 microg/mL). Zuccagnia punctata might provide promising therapeutic agents against infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16137849

  10. Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand Kyoung-Ho Kim,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 the name Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is J64T (5KCTC 22137T 5JCM 14963T that strain J64T belongs to the genus Pseudomonas, forming a monophyletic group with Pseudomonas pachastrellae

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Proteolysis of casein micelles by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , and especially the Pseudomonas sp., are particularly incriminated in this destabilisation. The Pseudomonas genusORIGINAL PAPER Proteolysis of casein micelles by Pseudomonas fluorescens CNRZ 798 contributes-high- temperature (UHT) milk during storage, the heat-resistant proteases of Pseudomonas are considered to play

  12. Pseudomonas--an opportunistic foe.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An honest account of some of the lessons learned in how to protect patients, staff, and visitors, against waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa by effectively monitoring a large healthcare facility's water supply, identifying potential 'trigger points', harnessing the expertise of a multidisciplinary team, encouraging all staff to 'go the extra mile' preventatively, and above all, 'going beyond compliance', was provided by George McCracken, head of Estates Risk and Environment at the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust--in whose Royal Jubilee Maternity Hospital three young babies died after an outbreak of the bacteraemia in early 2012--at a recent Water Management Society conference. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:24516937

  13. Recent developments for Pseudomonas vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Krause, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major health problem for immune-compromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. A vaccine against P. aeruginosa has long been sought after, but is so far not available. Several vaccine candidates have been assessed in experimental animals and humans, which include sub-cellular fractions, capsule components, purified and recombinant proteins. Unique characteristics of the host and the pathogen have complicated the vaccine development. This review summarizes the current state of vaccine development for this ubiquitous pathogen, in particular to provide mucosal immunity against infections of the respiratory tract in susceptible individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:21941090

  14. [The lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas solanacearum i Pseudomonas cichorii].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Kocharova, N A; Knirel', Iu A; Muras, V A; Moskalenko, N V; Brovarskaia, O S

    1990-01-01

    Structure analysis by the methods of methylation, 1H- and 13C-n. m. r. spectroscopy has shown that O-specific polysaccharides of typical strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum (biovar I) and P. cichorii are identical by their structure and constructed of branched pentasaccharide repeating links which include three residues of rhamnose (one of them is in the branching node), one residue of beta-xylose (it occupies terminal position) and one reside of N-acetyl-beta-glucosamine. The other strain of P. solanacearum of biovar I and two strains belonging to biovars III and IV also produce structure-similar O-specific polysaccharides, constructed of linear tetrasaccharide repeating links which include three residues of alpha-L-rhamnose and one residue of N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine. PMID:2273995

  15. Relative motion in Amoeba proteus in respect to the adhesion sites. I. Behavior of monotactic forms and the mechanism of fountain phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gr?becki

    1984-01-01

    Summary The unbranched ectoplasmic cylinder of monotacticA. proteus is always retracted toward the cell-substrate attachment sites. The retraction velocity increases from the adhesion sites toward any free distal body end in a linear way, which indicates the uniform contractility of the whole cylinder. Therefore, in the cells frontally attached all the ectoplasm moves forward, and in those adhering by the

  16. Implementation/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional/axisymmetric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    1992-04-01

    The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum L. From different populations of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Matasyoh, Lexa G; Matasyoh, Josphat C; Wachira, Francis N; Kinyua, Miriam G; Muigai, Anne W Thairu; Mukiama, Titus K

    2008-01-01

    Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) of 13 populations of different silvicultural zones were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aereus, Bacillus spp.) and gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Samonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans. All the essential oils are active to the tested microbiles with different strength. The highest antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosae and Proteus mirabilis) was observed from the eastern Kenya (Meru) oil. Meru oil was the best and its effectiveness was consistent on nearly all the microbes tested. The oil from the plant growing in the coastal region of Kenya (Mombasa) showed the best effect only on gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis). Both oils (Meru and Mombasa) were dominated by monoterpenes accounting for 92.48% and 81.37% respectively. The monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%) for Meru oil and 74.10% for Mombasa oil. The other major monoterpene was methyl eugenol (13.21%). Camphor (0.95%) was observed only in the Meru oil. (Cis)-Ocimene, (trans)-ocimene and beta-pinene were present in both Meru and Mombasa oils. The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts in both oils were germacrene D and (trans)-caryophyllene. The minor sesquiterpenes were alpha-farnesene (0.85%) and beta-bisabolene (0.74%) which were present in the Meru oil only. PMID:20161936

  18. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 5, 6, 7, & 8: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:2 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  19. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Do I Protect Myself and My Family? "Hot Tub Rash" ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) Below are answers ... hot tub rash and healthy swimming. What is Hot Tub Rash? Hot tub rash, or dermatitis, is ...

  20. Siderophore production by Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Yang, H M; Chaowagul, W; Sokol, P A

    1991-03-01

    Eighty-four strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from patients with melioidosis were examined for siderophore production. All the strains were shown to produce siderophore both on chrome azurol S agar plates and in liquid medium under iron-deficient conditions. Chemical assays indicated that the siderophore belongs to the hydroxamate class. Addition of iron to the culture medium resulted in increased culture growth with markedly decreased yield of siderophore. Siderophore produced by strain U7 was purified by gel filtration chromatography, and the molecular weight was estimated to be 1,000. When this partially purified siderophore was added to culture medium, it promoted iron uptake by P. pseudomallei in the presence of EDTA and enhanced growth of the organism in the presence of transferrin. We have given this siderophore the trivial name malleobactin. PMID:1825486

  1. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  2. Nomenclatural status of Pseudomonas oryzicola Klement 1955, Pseudomonas papaveris Lelliott & Wallace 1955, and Pseudomonas syringae var capsici (Orsini 1942) Klement 1956

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Luketina; J. M. Young

    1979-01-01

    Strains of Pseudomonas oryzicola Klement 1955, Pseudomonas papaveris Lelliott & Wallace 1955, and Pseudomonas syringae var. capsici (Orsini 1942) Klement 1956 were examined by the standard biochemical and cultural tests currently in use for characterising pseudomonads, and their pathogenicity was tested on selected plants. We conclude that P. oryzicola is a junior synonym of P. syringae pv. syringae van Hall

  3. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  4. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.T.; Cruden, D.L.; Haddock, J.D.; Zylstra, G.J.; Brand, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls that do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.

  5. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  6. THE ROLE OF IMMUNITY IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF EXPERIMENTAL RETROGRADE PYELONEPHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Betty W.; Akins, Lona L.; Sanford, Jay P.

    1964-01-01

    Retrograde pyelonephritis was produced in rats by the intravesical injection of Proteus mirabilis. When animals were preimmunized against Proteus mirabilis by (a) prior infection, (b) administration of antigen, or (c) passively transferred antiserum, they were resistant to infection by proteus when challenged by the retrograde route. The protective effect of specific preimmunization in retrograde pyelonephritis indicates that a major site of action is retardation of bacterial growth within the parenchyma of the kidney. PMID:14176291

  7. RESEARCH Open Access Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in nosocomial

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in nosocomial pneumonia: prevalence and Jean-Jacques Rouby1 Abstract Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently causes nosocomial and clinical outcome of nosocomial pneumonia caused by serotype-specific P. aeruginosa in critically ill

  8. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.).

    PubMed

    Jurkštien?, Vilma; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Garšvien?, Daiva; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Samsonien?, Laimut?; Daukšien?, Dalia; Jankauskien?, Konstancija; Simonien?-Kazlauskien?, Genovait?; Stankevi?ius, Edgaras

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial activity of rhaponticum and shrubby cinquefoil extracts. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Ethanol extract from the leaves of rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) was produced at the Department of Food Technology, Kaunas University of Technology. The antimicrobial activity of the viscous extract or rhaponticum and shrubby cinquefoil was evaluated using standard microorganism cultures (bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33499, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 8035 and fungi Candida albicans ATCC 60193). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the examined preparations was determined. RESULTS. Both studied preparations - rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) - demonstrated similar antimicrobial activity. The highest sensitivity to the studied preparations was observed in microbes with eukaryotic cell structure: Candida albicans, which is a fungus, and a spore-forming prokaryotic bacterium, Bacillus cereus. The highest resistance was observed in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS. The studied preparations - viscous extracts of rhaponticum and shrubby cinquefoil - are substances with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis) bacteria, spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus), and fungi (Candida albicans). PMID:21822040

  9. Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Cis tron Similarities of Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. DE VOS; M. GOOR; M. GILLIS; J. DE LEY

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) hybridizations were carried out between 23s 14C- or 3H-labeled rRNAs from type strains Pseudomonas jluorescens ATCC 13525, Pseudomonas acidovorans ATCC 15668, Pseudomonas solanacearum ATCC 11696, and Xanthomonas campestris NCPPB 528 and DNA from one or more strains of several taxonomically assigned or unassigned phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species. The strains were assigned to one of the

  10. [Immune evasion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takahiro; Matsumura, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an indigenous bacteria which inhabits on the surfaces of aqueous environments and is representative pathogen that causes opportunistic infection. P.aeruginosa is classified as low-virulence organism because it rarely causes infection in immunocompetent hosts, but in immunocompromised hosts it can cause a variety of severe infections leading to mortality. P.aeruginosa is also a representative pathogen of nosocomial infection. Emerging multidrug-resistant P.aeruginosa is now causing serious problems on clinical site. Regarding virulence factors, increasing number of studies using gene disrupted mutant bacterial strains revealed that P.aeruginosa possesses a variety of machinaries such as type 3 secretion system, exoenzyme, biofilm formation that impairs or evades host immune system. Also it is getting clarified that the virulence of P.aeruginosa is controlled by an inter-bacterial signal transduction system called quorum sensing. Meanwhile, studies on the host defense system using various gene targeting mice revealed the mechanisms by which host immune system detects and defends against invasion of P.aeruginosa. In this review, we describe these virulence factors, the mechanisms impairing host immune system, host's pathogen recognition system and immune evasion by P.aeruginosa. PMID:24598066

  11. Photochemical inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Grote, Gudrun; Niederwöhrmeier, Bärbel; Hülseweh, Birgit; Marschall, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Adaptability to a broad range of environments together with relatively high resistance to antibiotics and to disinfectants makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa a concern in hospitals and in public health. We investigated whether UVA-mediated photochemical inactivation of P. aeruginosa could be accomplished with high efficiency while at the same time preserving the sensitivity of subsequent diagnostic tests. We characterized dose responses and bactericidal kinetic rates of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (INA) and of amotosalen (AMO) as these substances exposed to UVA are known to inactivate germs with minimal impact to blood products or to viral antigens. Neither UVA without photochemicals nor INA or AMO in the dark inactivated bacteria. We found that AMO was ca 1000-fold more effective in inactivating P. aeruginosa cells than INA under similar conditions. Photoinactivation with either INA or AMO at conditions that abolished bacterial infectivity did not impair polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For comparison, similar titers of Bacillus atrophaeus spores (a surrogate for B. anthracis) remained unaffected at conditions that reduced the survival of P. aeruginosa below detection levels. The results presented in this study should assist in improved methods to inactivate P. aeruginosa in environmental, clinical and forensic samples without impairing subsequent nucleic acid- or immune-based analysis. PMID:22053910

  12. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  13. BACTERIA OF THE PSEUDOMONAS MIGULA GENUS ON STORED VEGETABLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albinas Lugauskas

    For the study on Pseudomonas bacteria, samples of vegetables with soft rot symptoms were collected in a market place and storage-rooms. The samples were exami- ned on selective media for Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Forty Pseudomonas strains were isolated from injured carrot roots, potato tubers, onions, leek leaves, beetroots, cabbages, radish. On the basis of biological tests the

  14. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

  15. New naphthalene-degrading marine Pseudomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Valdes, E.; Cozar, E.; Rotger, R. Lalucat, J. (Univ. de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)); Ursing, J. (Univ. of Lund, Malmo (Sweden))

    1988-10-01

    Over 100 strains that utilized naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source were isolated from samples of marine sediments taken from a heavily polluted area. The isolates were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. Most of these strains belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and seven of them did not fit any previous taxonomic description. They differed from type strains in a few biochemical characteristics and in the utilization of aromatic compounds. None had catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage. DNA hybridizations demonstrated a close relationship between two isolates and the Pseudomonas stutzeri type strain, and between five isolates and the Pseudomonas testosteroni type strain. On the basis of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, it was assumed that the seven isolates represent new biovars belonging to the species P. testosteroni and P. stutzeri that are able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae. PMID:25855348

  17. Respiratory energy transduction by membrane fragments of the phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas aptata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zannoni

    1984-01-01

    The energy transduction by respiratory membranes from the fluorescent phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas aptata has been examined. Both species have shown to perform ATP synthesis linked to oxidation of NADH with P\\/2e- ratios ranging between 0.25 and 0.42. This phosphorylation activity is largely insensitive to antimycin A (10-6 M) and KCN (5·10-6 M) in membranes from P. aptata,

  18. Development of a PCR probe test for identifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E M OCallaghan; M S Tanner; G J Boulnois

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To develop a system of species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA hybridisation based on 16s ribosomal RNA sequences for the identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) cepacia in sputum from children with cystic fibrosis. METHODS--Most of the 16s rRNA sequences from strains of Ps aeruginosa, Ps (Burkholderia) cepacia, and Ps putida were determined. PCR primers and DNA

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Regional Burns Centre

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, F.

    1971-01-01

    The construction of a Regional Burns Centre in Pinderfields General Hospital, Wakefield, presented an opportunity to study Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with extensive burns. During the first year (Barclay & Dexter, 1968) a system of disinfection and bacteriological control created conditions permitting more detailed studies to be undertaken which resulted in a significant reduction of infection and cross-infection. PMID:4996925

  20. ECF Sigma Factor regulation in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomanads are renowned for their capacity to adapt to diverse environments, a fact that is reflected by the proportion of their genomes dedicated to encoding transcription regulators. Members of the Pseudomonas genus include species that are adapted to pathogenic and symbiotic lifestyles in asso...

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

    2002-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

  2. Type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiaoling Jin; Roger Thilmony; Julie Zwiesler-Vollick; Sheng-Yang He

    2003-01-01

    The type III secretion system is an essential virulence system used by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to deliver effector proteins into host cells. This review summarizes recent advancements in the understanding of the type III secretion system of Pseudomonas syringae, including regulation of the type III secretion genes, assembly of the Hrp pilus, secretion signals, the putative type III effectors

  3. Autolysis of the Proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kumura; S. Murata; T. Hoshino; K. Mikawa; K. Shimazaki

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was cloned and sequenced in an effort to identify the cleavage sites involved in its autolysis at 50°C. A single open reading frame consisting of 1449 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 482 amino acids, was found. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified proteinase indicated the presence of a

  4. PSEUDOMONAS AND RELATED GENERA (XANTHOMONAS, SHEWANELLA, ETC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial genus Pseudomonas comprises a very large and important group of bacteria. They can be found abundantly as free-living organisms in soils, fresh water and marine environments, and in many other natural habitats. They can also be found in association with plants and animals as normal flo...

  5. Pseudomonas keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Namrata; Sinha, Rajesh; Singhvi, Arun; Tandon, Radhika

    2006-03-01

    We report a 32-year-old woman who presented with infectious keratitis in the right eye 3 weeks after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). On microbiological investigations, the microorganism isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa that was sensitive to ciprofloxacin. To our knowledge, this is the only case report in the literature of post-LASIK infectious keratitis caused by P aeruginosa. PMID:16631068

  6. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS5028

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Marqués; Xavier Roca; M. Dolores Simon-Pujol; M. Carmen Fuste; Francisco Congregado

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P. aeruginosa “core lineage” and typically exhibited the exoS+/exoU? genotype and group B oprL and oprD alleles. This is to our knowledge the first report of an MST analysis conducted on a polyphasic data set. PMID:19936230

  8. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  9. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  10. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  11. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  12. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  13. Biodegradation of Low Density Polythene (LDPE) by Pseudomonas Species.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Bhone Myint; Champakalakshmi, Ravi; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Lim, Chu Sing; Sakharkar, Kishore R

    2012-09-01

    Low density polythene (LDPE) is the most widely used packaging material primarily because of its excellent mechanical properties, barrier properties against water, light weight, low cost and high energy effectiveness. However, due to its ubiquitous nature, and resistance to biodegradability, the disposal strategies are crucial and need attention. Recently, microorganisms have become the focus of interest for environmental friendly disposal of plastic and polymer-based waste. This manuscript aims to investigate the extent of biodegradability of LDPE by four different strains of Pseudomonas bacteria-Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (ATCC 15729), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15692), Pseudomonas putida (KT2440 ATCC 47054) and Pseudomonas syringae (DC3000 ATCC 10862). Degradation of LDPE was determined by weight loss of the sample, morphological changes, mechanical and spectroscopic variations. The eluted compounds after degradation were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Our results show that Pseudomonas spp. can degrade LDPE films. PMID:23997333

  14. Oxidation of nitric oxide by a new heterotrophic Pseudomonas sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Koschorreck; Edward Moore; Ralf Conrad

    1996-01-01

    A new bacterial strain isolated from soil consumed nitric oxide (NO) under oxic conditions by oxidation to nitrate. Phenotypic\\u000a and phylogenetic characterization of the new strain PS88 showed that it represents a previously unknown species of the genus\\u000a Pseudomonas, closely related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. The heterotrophic, obligately aerobic strain PS88 was not able to denitrify or nitrify;

  15. MICREDOX--development of a ferricyanide-mediated rapid biochemical oxygen demand method using an immobilised Proteus vulgaris biocomponent.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Neil; Baronian, Keith; Jeffries, Cy; Webber, Judith; Hay, Joanne

    2004-10-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an international regulatory environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in wastewater and the current legislated standard test for BOD monitoring requires 5 days to complete (BOD5 test). We are developing a rapid microbial technique, MICREDOX, for measuring BOD by eliminating oxygen and, instead, quantifying an equivalent biochemical co-substrate demand, the co-substrate being a redox mediator. Elevated concentrations of Proteus vulgaris, either as free cells or immobilised in Lentikat disks, were incubated with an excess of redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) and organic substrate for 1h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the catabolic activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator, which was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. The recorded currents were converted to their BOD5 equivalent with the only assumption being a fixed conversion of substrate and known stoichiometry. Measurements are reported both for the BOD5 calibration standard solution (150 mg l(-1) glucose, 150 mg l(-1) glutamic acid) and for filtered effluent sampled from a wastewater treatment plant. The inclusion of a highly soluble mediator in place of oxygen facilitated a high ferricyanide concentration in the incubation, which in turn permitted increased concentrations of microorganisms to be used. This substantially reduced the incubation time, from 5 days to 1h, for the biological oxidation of substrates equivalent to those observed using the standard BOD5 test. Stoichiometric conversion efficiencies for the oxidation of the standard substrate by P. vulgaris were typically 60% for free cells and 35-50% for immobilised cells. PMID:15494235

  16. Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among some Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Palleroni, N J; Ballard, R W; Ralston, E; Doudoroff, M

    1972-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among a number of strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas were explored by the use of in vitro deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization. The fluorescent nomenspecies (P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. aeruginosa, P. cichorii, P. syringae, and related species), as well as the nonfluorescent species P. stutzeri, P. mendocina, P. alcaligenes, and P. pseudoalcaligenes, were shown to belong to a single DNA homology complex which is isolated from other Pseudomonas species that have been studied [P. cepacia (= P. multivorans), P. caryophylli, P. marginata (= P. alliicola), P. pseudomallei, P. acidovorans, P. testosteroni, P. solanacearum, P. diminuta, P. facilis, P. delafieldii, P. saccharophila, P. palleronii]. A limited numerical analysis of the phenotypic properties of the examined strains supported, with some exceptions, their previous allocation to nomenspecies and biotypes. The internal structure and nomenclature of the "P. fluorescens homology complex" are discussed. PMID:4622897

  17. ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION Differential Antibacterial Activity Against Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION Differential Antibacterial Activity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa spontaneously liberating CO. The nature of the metal in CO-RMs also modulates the anti-bacterial effect

  18. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a chronic pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a chronic pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  20. Antagonism of Pseudomonas cepacia against phytopathogenic fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Jayaswal; Marcel Fernandez; R. S. Upadhyay; Luisa Visintin; Michael Kurz; James Webb; K. Rinehart

    1993-01-01

    Two strains ofPseudomonas cepacia, RJ3 and ATCC 52796, have been identified as potential antagonists of fungal plant pathogens. We have compared the antagnonistic activity of these two strains against various fungal pathogens. Although both strains displayed high levels of antagonism, ATCC 52796 was slightly more antagonistic than RJ3. The antagonist from RJ3 has been identified as the antifungal compound pyrrolnitrin

  1. Massetolide A Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. de Bruijn; M. J. D. de Kock; P. de Waard; T. A. van Beek; J. M. Raaijmakers

    2008-01-01

    Massetolide A is a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotic produced by various Pseudomonas strains from diverse environments. Cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, and complementation showed that massetolide A biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SS101 is governed by three nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, designated massA, massB, and massC, spanning approximately 30 kb. Prediction of the nature and configura- tion of the amino acids

  2. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

  3. Regulation of urea uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Jahns

    1992-01-01

    The energy-dependent urea permease was studied in two strains ofPseudomonas aeruginosa, measuring the uptake (transport and metabolism) of14C-urea. In both strains urea uptakein vivo and urease activityin vitro differed significantly with respect to kinetic parameters, temperature and pH dependence and response to metabolic inhibitors. Ammonium strongly interfered both with the expression of the urea uptake system and its activity. The

  4. Shifting Paradigms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Tart; D. J. Wozniak

    Biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa have long been recognized as a challenge in clinical settings. Cystic fibrosis, endocarditis, device-related infections,\\u000a and ventilator-associated pneumonia are some of the diseases that are considerably complicated by the formation of bacterial\\u000a biofilms, which are resistant to most current antimicrobial therapies. Due to intense research efforts, our understanding\\u000a of the molecular events involved in P.

  5. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  6. Transfer of Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii sp. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TEIZI URAKAMI; CHIEKO ITO-YOSHIDA; HISAYA ARAKI; TOSHIO KIJIMA; KEN-ICHIRO SUZUKI

    Plant-associated bacteria were characterized and are discussed in relation to authentic members of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas rRNA group I1 are separated clearly from members of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto (Pseudomonasfluorescens rRNA group) on the basis of plant association characteristics, chemotaxonomic characteristics, DNA-DNA hybridization data, rRNA-DNA hy- bridization data, and the sequences of 5s

  7. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering effects during pebble loading. Core 4 was determined to be acceptable benchmark experiment.

  8. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  9. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  10. Protein Engineering of Toluene 4-Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Protein Engineering of Toluene 4-Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 for Synthesizing 4 of substrates and promotes more flexible orientations. B 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: protein engineering; toluene 4-monooxy- genase; Pseudomonas mendocina KR1; 4-nitrocatechol; nitrobenzene INTRODUCTION

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2.

    PubMed

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Suzuki, Haruo; Bashford, Kelsie; Heuer, Holger; Stragier, Pieter; De Vos, Paul; Settles, Matthew L; Top, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2, isolated from creek sediment in Moscow, ID, USA. The strain is most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. However, it has a slightly smaller genome that appears to have been impacted by horizontal gene transfer and poorly maintains IncP-1 plasmids. PMID:25838493

  12. Nitrogen Control of Atrazine Utilization in Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Garcia-Gonzalez; Fernando Govantes; Liz J. Shaw; Richard G. Burns; Eduardo Santero

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP uses the herbicide atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. We have devised a simple atrazine degradation assay to determine the effect of other nitrogen sources on the atrazine degradation pathway. The atrazine degradation rate was greatly decreased in cells grown on nitrogen sources that support rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP compared to cells cultivated

  13. Ornicorrugatin, a new siderophore from Pseudomonas fluorescens AF76.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Sandra; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Schäfer, Mathias; Wathelet, Bernard; Cornelis, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    From a pyoverdin-negative mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens AF76 a new lipopeptidic siderophore (ornicorrugatin) could be isolated. It is structurally related to the siderophore of Pseudomonas corrugata differing in the replacement of one Dab unit by Orn. PMID:18386480

  14. Recombineering using RecET from Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  15. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Mark Dp

    2012-01-01

    Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms "Pseudomonas" + "Keratitis" limit to "2007-2012", and ["Ulcerative" or "Microbial"] + "Keratitis" + "Contact lenses" limit to "2007-2012". These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin) fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin). In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (?95%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%. PMID:22791973

  16. Pseudomonas extremorientalis sp. nov., isolated from a drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sawabe, Tomoo; Hayashi, Karin; Kalinovskaya, Nataliya I; Lysenko, Anatolii M; Zhukova, Natalie V; Nicolau, Dan V; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Christen, Richard

    2002-11-01

    On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, a novel species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto was identified. The saprophytic, fluorescent bacterium, designated KMM 3447(T), was isolated from a drinking water reservoir near Vladivostok City, Russia. The novel organism was a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that produced a cyclic depsipeptide with surface-active properties. It degraded casein, but did not degrade gelatin, starch, agar or Tween 80. The bacterium was also haemolytic. Growth of the novel bacterium occurred between 4 and 35 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the novel pseudomonad were C16:0, C16:1(n-7), C18:1(n-7) and C17.0 cyclo; branched fatty acids were only found in trace amounts. The G+C content of the novel bacterium was 61.0 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the novel bacterium had a clear affiliation with Pseudomonas fluorescens and species closely related to this recognized pseudomonad. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the novel bacterium bound at low levels (27-53%) with the DNA of the type strains of its nearest phylogenetic relatives, namely Pseudomonas tolaasii, Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas orientalis and Pseudomonas rhodesiae, indicating that the novel bacterium represented a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas extremorientalis is proposed; the type strain is KMM 3447(T) (= LMG 19695(T)). PMID:12508877

  17. Computational Studies of Essential Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia Lipase

    E-print Network

    Suh, Se Won

    Computational Studies of Essential Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia Lipase http://www.adeninepress.com Abstract In order to investigate the interfacial activation of a lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia (Pc information concerning the structural changes involved in the activation of the lipases. It was found

  18. Genetic detection of Pseudomonas spp. in commercial Amazonian fish.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2013-09-01

    Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

  19. Pseudomonas pickettii, a New Species of Clinical Origin Related to Pseudomonas solanacearum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERICKA RALSTON; N. J. PALLERONI; M. DOUDOROFF

    1973-01-01

    Twenty strains of Pseudornonas isolated from clinical specimens were found to constitute a homogeneous group which we recognize as a species and name Pseudomonas pickettii. On the basis of deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization data, this species appears to be most closely related to the phytopathogenic species P. solanacearum. The type strain of P. pickettii is K-288 (ATCC 275 1 1). Thirty-five

  20. Comparative In Vitro Activity and Clinical Pharmacology of Ticarcillin and Carbenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Harold C.; Garvey, Glenda J.

    1975-01-01

    The in vitro activity and human pharmacology of ticarcillin, a semisynthetic penicillin more active than carbenicillin against Pseudomonas, were compared. There has been no increase in resistance to ticarcillin of Pseudomonas strains over the past 5 years, but resistance of indole-positive Proteus and Serratia strains has been documented. After intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 1 g of ticarcillin, mean peak levels occurred at 1 h (26.9 ?g/ml) with a decline over 6 h (6.8 ?g/ml). Serum half-life was 84 min. Dilution of ticarcillin lidocaine reduced pain on i.m. injection but did not alter serum levels. Blood levels after 1 g i.m. are adequate to treat infections produced by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and some Enterobacter, but not Pseudomonas. After rapid intravenous infusion of 3 and 5 g, mean peak serum levels of ticarcillin were slightly lower for 1 h than those achieved with carbenicillin. Probenecid administered before infusion produced increases in blood levels, half-lives, and volume of distribution. The biological half-life of ticarcillin was 72 min compared to 66 min with carbenicillin. There was a larger volume of distribution for ticarcillin than carbenicillin (15 liters versus 14 liters). The ticarcillin half-life when administered with probenecid was 108 min. Urinary recovery of ticarcillin was 77% against 95% of carbenicillin. However, approximately 10% of ticarcillin is recovered as penicilloic acid so that 95% of an intravenously administered dose is recovered. PMID:1190752

  1. 21 CFR 520.314 - Cefadroxil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Staphylococcus aureus . For the treatment of genitourinary tract infections (cystitis) due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis , and S. aureus . (ii) Cats . For the treatment of skin and soft tissue...

  2. 21 CFR 520.314 - Cefadroxil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Staphylococcus aureus . For the treatment of genitourinary tract infections (cystitis) due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis , and S. aureus . (ii) Cats . For the treatment of skin and soft tissue...

  3. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  4. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOAL-CALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. hese results are attributed to differences in the...

  5. Cytochrome b type oxidases in the respiratory chains of the phytopathogenic fluorescent bacteria Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas aptata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Zannoni

    1982-01-01

    Membrane fragments from the phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas aptata have been examined. A branched respiratory chain is operative in P. cichorii whereas a linear electron transport system characterizes the related bacterium P. aptata. Both species contain several b type cytochromes resolved by redox titration analysis, but no a type components may be detected. In contrast, only P. cichorii

  6. A giant Pseudomonas phage from Poland.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Olszak, Tomasz; Danis, Katarzyna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Ackermann, Hans-W

    2014-03-01

    A novel giant phage of the family Myoviridae is described. Pseudomonas phage PA5oct was isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, Poland. The virion morphology indicates that PA5oct differs from known giant phages. The phage has a head of about 131 nm in diameter and a tail of 136 × 19 nm. Phage PA5oct contains a genome of approximately 375 kbp and differs in size from any tailed phages known. PA5oct was further characterized by determination of its latent period and burst size and its sensitivity to heating, chloroform, and pH. PMID:24072472

  7. [Pseudomonas stutzeri osteitis: A case study].

    PubMed

    Elouennass, M; Frikh, M; Raissouni, Z; Bajjou, T; Ouaaline, M

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of osteitis in a 46-year-old patient, caused by Pseudomonas stutzeri following an open fracture of the left femur. The patient was treated with 1g ceftazidime every 8 hours for two weeks combined with 160 mg/day of amikacin for 10 days. A second-line ofloxacin oral treatment at 400 mg/day was then given during 4 weeks. Surgical treatment consisted in debridement of the fracture region. Sterilization of the fracture region led to an osteosynthesis by blade plate and bone graft. The result was favorable. PMID:17010550

  8. Population dynamics during swarming of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kamatkar, Nachiket G.; Sarna, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Swarming is a group motility behavior exhibited by bacteria that coordinate to spread over surfaces. Swarms of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa often develop tendril patterns and tendril development requires production of the surfactant rhamnolipid. We recently showed that harder surfaces limit induction of quorum sensing genes including those responsible for rhamnolipid synthesis, but it is not yet clear why similar populations of cells should behave differently on hard surfaces compared with soft (agar) surfaces. Here we explore the population dynamics during P. aeruginosa swarming. We find that the population of P. aeruginosa does not immediately increase as the swarm expands. We also detail three stages of population development during swarming. PMID:22446528

  9. Poly(3-Hydroxyvalerate) Depolymerase of Pseudomonas lemoignei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UTE SCHOBER; CHRISTIAN THIEL; DIETER JENDROSSEK

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas lemoignei is equipped with at least five polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) depolymerase structural genes (phaZ1 to phaZ5) which enable the bacterium to utilize extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV), and related polyesters consisting of short-chain-length hxdroxyalkanoates (PHASCL) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Four genes (phaZ1, phaZ2, phaZ3, and phaZ5) encode PHB depolymerases C, B, D, and A, respectively. It

  10. [Substrate specificity of lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens].

    PubMed

    Shabanova, E A; Inshakova, T A; Bishliaga, V T; Sergeeva, L N

    1978-01-01

    Substrate specificity of lipase isolated from the culture liquid filtrate of Pseudomonas fluorescens BKM-B-1151 was investigated with respect to vegetable oils and animal fats (olive, sunflower, cotton, mustard and soybean oils; beef and hog fats and their glycerides and fatty acid esters). The preparation showed a high specificity to the quantitative composition of the reaction mixture (substrate: enzyme ratio), chemical structure of the substrate, and the emulgator type (gelatine, gum arabic and Triton X-100). The lipase preparation hydrolyzed oils and water-insoluble fatty acid esters. The latter indicated an involvement of lipase. PMID:97652

  11. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Mahmoud, M. A. [Chem. Dept, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

    2007-02-14

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  12. Novel Type III Effectors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, David; Satanower, Shirley; Simovitch, Michal; Belnik, Yana; Zehavi, Meital; Yerushalmi, Gal; Ben-Aroya, Shay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and acute infections in immunocompromised patients. Most P. aeruginosa strains encode an active type III secretion system (T3SS), utilized by the bacteria to deliver effector proteins from the bacterial cell directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Four T3SS effectors have been discovered and extensively studied in P. aeruginosa: ExoT, ExoS, ExoU, and ExoY. This is especially intriguing in light of P. aeruginosa’s ability to infect a wide range of hosts. We therefore hypothesized that additional T3SS effectors that have not yet been discovered are encoded in the genome of P. aeruginosa. Here, we applied a machine learning classification algorithm to identify novel P. aeruginosa effectors. In this approach, various types of data are integrated to differentiate effectors from the rest of the open reading frames of the bacterial genome. Due to the lack of a sufficient learning set of positive effectors, our machine learning algorithm integrated genomic information from another Pseudomonas species and utilized dozens of features accounting for various aspects of the effector coding genes and their products. Twelve top-ranking predictions were experimentally tested for T3SS-specific translocation, leading to the discovery of two novel T3SS effectors. We demonstrate that these effectors are not part of the injection structural complex and report initial efforts toward their characterization. PMID:25784698

  13. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  14. Oxidation of substituted phenols by Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Gibson, D.T.

    1988-06-01

    The biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida involves the initial conversion of the parent molecules to cis-dihydrodiols by dioxygenase enzyme systems. The cis-dihydrodiols are then converted to the corresponding catechols by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 uses a similar system for growth on toluene or dichlorobenzenes. We tested the wild-type organisms and a series of mutants for their ability to transform substituted phenols after induction with toluene. When grown on toluene, both wild-type organisms converted methyl-, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols. Mutant strains deficient in dihydrodiol dehydrogenase or catechol oxygenase activities also transformed the phenols. Oxidation of phenols was closely correlated with the induction and activity of the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

  15. Cloning of an endoglucanase gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens var. cellulosa into Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Lejeune; Charles Colson; Douglas E. Eveleigh

    1986-01-01

    Summary An endoglucanase chromosomal gene from the cellulolyticPseudomonas fluorescens var.cellulosa (NCIB 10462) was cloned inEscherichia coli. Chromosomal DNA was partially digested with the restriction enzymeEcoRI and ligated into the broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid pSUP104 that had been linearized with the same enzyme. After transformation ofEscherichia coli, and endoglucanase-positive clone was detected in situ by use of the Congo-red assay procedure.

  16. Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Grigor’eva; T. F. Kondrat’eva; E. N. Krasil’nikova; G. I. Karavaiko

    2006-01-01

    The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these\\u000a strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri

  17. 99m Tc(CO) 3 -tosufloxacin dithiocarbamate complexation and radiobiological evaluation in male Wister rat model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation tosufloxacin (TSN) was derivatized to its dithiocarbamate (TSND) derivative and its radiolabeling\\u000a with technetium-99m using [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ precursor. The labeled TSND (99mTc(CO)3-TSND) was radiochemically characterized in saline and serum and biologically its in vitro binding with Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and biodistribution in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with live and heat killed P. mirabilis. Radiochemically

  18. UTILIZATION OF FLUORANTHENE BY PSEUDOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS STRAIN EPA505

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, was previously purified from a 7-membered bacterial community originally isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil for its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote. The unique ability of this organism...

  19. DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACTERIOPHAGES IN LAKE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence and interaction between newly isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and resident bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater environment was monitored over 45 days in lake water microcosms. he interaction between susceptible and resistant bacteria with pure pha...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae NCPPB 2254.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Jiang, Hongshan; Tian, Qian; Hu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae is a pathogen that causes bacterial decline of stone fruit. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for P. syringae pv. persicae, which was isolated from Prunus persica. PMID:26044420

  1. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  2. Hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis mice to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa oropharyngeal

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis mice to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa oropharyngeal 02115 Contributed by Frederick M. Ausubel, December 24, 2002 No transgenic cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse lung disease. Cystic fibrosis (CF), a common and devastating human genetic disease, is caused

  3. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae NCPPB 2254

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenjun; Tian, Qian; Hu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae is a pathogen that causes bacterial decline of stone fruit. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for P. syringae pv. persicae, which was isolated from Prunus persica. PMID:26044420

  5. Maintenance of chromosome structure in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Rybenkov, Valentin V.

    2014-01-01

    Replication and segregation of genetic information is an activity central to the well-being of all living cells. Concerted mechanisms have evolved that ensure that each cellular chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle and then faithfully segregated into daughter cells. Despite remarkable taxonomic diversity, these mechanisms are largely conserved across eubacteria, although species specific distinctions can often be noted. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about maintenance of the chromosome structure in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We focus on global chromosome organization and its dynamics during DNA replication and cell division. Special emphasis is made on contrasting these activities in P. aeruginosa and other bacteria. Among unique P. aeruginosa features are the presence of two distinct autonomously replicating sequences and multiple condensins, which suggests existence of novel regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24863732

  6. Molecular determinants of rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, B J; Dekkers, L; Bloemberg, G V

    2001-01-01

    Rhizosphere colonization is one of the first steps in the pathogenesis of soilborne microorganisms. It can also be crucial for the action of microbial inoculants used as biofertilizers, biopesticides, phytostimulators, and bioremediators. Pseudomonas, one of the best root colonizers, is therefore used as a model root colonizer. This review focuses on (a) the temporal-spatial description of root-colonizing bacteria as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopal analysis of autofluorescent microorganisms, and (b) bacterial genes and traits involved in root colonization. The results show a strong parallel between traits used for the colonization of roots and of animal tissues, indicating the general importance of such a study. Finally, we identify several noteworthy areas for future research. PMID:11701873

  7. Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the phyllosphere of grasses; Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov., Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Schumann, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses, were analysed by a polyphasic approach in order to clarify their interspecific position. Classification on the basis of ribotyping revealed six genotypes; four of these, which could be differentiated clearly from each other and from Pseudomonas species with validly published names on the basis of phenotypic features, were chosen for detailed phylogenetic analysis. DNA-DNA hybridization studies among representative strains of the four genotypes and closely related Pseudomonas species, determined by comparison of 16S rDNA sequences, showed that three of the studied ribotypes represented novel species. Two of them were related to mainly saprophytic fluorescent pseudomonads and could be easily distinguished by a negative arginine dihydrolase reaction. One ribotype, also characterized by a negative arginine dihydrolase reaction, was closely related to potentially plant-pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads and differed in certain phenotypic features from its phylogenetic neighbours. As a consequence of the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov. (type strain: P 513/19(T)=DSM 14937(T)=LMG 21464(T)), Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. (type strain: P 527/13(T)=DSM 14936(T)=LMG 21465(T)) and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov. (type strain: P 538/23(T)=DSM 14939(T)=LMG 21466(T)) are proposed. PMID:13130034

  8. Bioactive substances produced by marine isolates of Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alim Isnansetyo; Yuto Kamei

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas is a genus of non-fermentative gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found both on land and in the water. Many terrestrial isolates of this genus have been studied extensively. While many produce\\u000a bioactive substances, enzymes, and biosurfactants, other Pseudomonas isolates are used for biological control of plant diseases and bioremediation. In contrast, only a few marine isolates of\\u000a this genus have been described

  9. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from intact triacylglycerols by genetically engineered Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Y. Solaiman; R. D. Ashby; T. A. Foglia

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida and P. oleovorans have been extensively studied for their production of medium-chain-length (mcl)-polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). These bacteria are incapable of metabolizing triacylglycerols (TAGs). We have constructed recombinant P. putida and P. oleovorans that can utilize TAGs as substrates for growth and mcl-PHA synthesis. A recombinant plasmid, pCN51lip-1, carrying Pseudomonas lipase genes was used to electrotransform these organisms. The transformants

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cyanogenic Phosphate-Solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. Strain CCOS 191, a Close Relative of Pseudomonas mosselii

    PubMed Central

    Pothier, Joël F.; Ruinelli, Michela; Blom, Jochen; Frasson, David; Koechli, Chantal; Fabbri, Carlotta; Brandl, Helmut; Duffy, Brion; Sievers, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the isolate Pseudomonas sp. CCOS 191. This strain is able to dissolve phosphate minerals and form cyanide. The genome sequence is used to establish the phylogenetic relationship of this species. PMID:26067963

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cyanogenic Phosphate-Solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. Strain CCOS 191, a Close Relative of Pseudomonas mosselii.

    PubMed

    Smits, Theo H M; Pothier, Joël F; Ruinelli, Michela; Blom, Jochen; Frasson, David; Koechli, Chantal; Fabbri, Carlotta; Brandl, Helmut; Duffy, Brion; Sievers, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the isolate Pseudomonas sp. CCOS 191. This strain is able to dissolve phosphate minerals and form cyanide. The genome sequence is used to establish the phylogenetic relationship of this species. PMID:26067963

  12. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  13. Synergy of nitric oxide and silver sulfadiazine against gram-negative, gram-positive, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Privett, Benjamin J; Deupree, Susan M; Backlund, Christopher J; Rao, Kavitha S; Johnson, C Bryce; Coneski, Peter N; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2010-12-01

    The synergistic activity between nitric oxide (NO) released from diazeniumdiolate-modified proline (PROLI/NO) and silver(I) sulfadiazine (AgSD) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using a modified broth microdilution technique and a checkerboard-type assay. The combination of NO and AgSD was defined as synergistic when the fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) was calculated to be <0.5. Gram-negative species were generally more susceptible to the individual antimicrobial agents than the Gram-positive bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to combination therapy. The in vitro synergistic activity of AgSD and NO observed against a range of pathogens strongly supports future investigation of this therapeutic combination, particularly for its potential use in the treatment of burns and chronic wounds. PMID:20939612

  14. Tobramycin: in vitro and clinical evaluation in 30 patients.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R L; Saslaw, S; Fass, R J; Prior, R B; Scholand, J F; Hodges, G R; Tight, R R; Gardner, W G

    1976-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of intramuscular tobramycin was accomplished in 30 patients with respiratory, soft tissue, urinary tract, bone or septicemic infections due to gram negative bacilli. Median sensitivity to tobramycin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (19 strains) was 0.62 mug/ml and range 0.31-2.5 mug/ml; less activity was observed for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter species isolates but median minimum inhibitory concentrations were less than or equal to 2.5 mug/ml. Therapy resulted in clinical and bacteriologic cures in 16 patients (53 per cent) including 13 of 16 (181 per cent) with urinary tract infections; 9 of the 14 patients who did not obtain bacteriologic cure had satisfactory clinical responses. Tobramycin was effective for selected gram negative bacillary infections and particularly for P. aeruginosa. PMID:820196

  15. In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new difluoro oxacephem, 6315-S.

    PubMed Central

    Neu, H C; Chin, N X

    1986-01-01

    6315-S, a novel difluoromethyl thioacetamido oxacephem, had in vitro activity comparable to that of cefotaxime and moxalactam against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter diversus, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp., inhibiting 90% at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml. It inhibited piperacillin- and cefoperazone-resistant isolates in these species. 6315-S did not inhibit cefotaxime- or moxalactam-resistant Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Enterobacter cloacae (MICs for 90% of the strains tested were greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml). Proteus vulgaris resistant to cefotaxime was inhibited. Pseudomonas species and Acinetobacter species were resistant (MICs greater than 64 micrograms/ml). MICs for 90% of the Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis isolates were 4 micrograms/ml. 6315-S was highly active against anaerobic species of Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, and peptostreptococci and was superior to other agents against these organisms. 6315-S was not hydrolyzed by the major plasmid and chromosomal beta-lactamases, but it induced chromosomal beta-lactamases in Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:3492172

  16. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment

    PubMed Central

    Remold, Susanna K.; Purdy-Gibson, Megan E.; France, Michael T.; Hundley, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms’ distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively). Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found. PMID:26023929

  17. Comparative sensitivity and resistance of some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri to antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A. D.; Mills, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the sensitivities to various antibiotic and non-antibiotic substances of some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. stutzeri, the latter including strains isolated from eye and other cosmetic products and from other sources. Whereas P. aeruginosa strains showed a high resistance to cetrimide and to benzalkonium chloride, the P. stutzeri strains were generally more sensitive to these and to chlorhexidine. The P. stutzeri strains were also more sensitive to the various antibiotics tested. The loss of the ability to transfer an R factor by two strains of P. aeruginosa caused no significant change in their drug sensitivity pattern. PMID:4369876

  18. Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil.

    PubMed

    Toro, Marcia; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a bacterial strain designated PCAVU11(T) in the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in rhizospheric soil of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Guárico state, Venezuela. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.2?% sequence similarity with respect to the most closely related species, Pseudomonas taiwanensis, and 99.1?% with respect to Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas monteilii, on the basis of which PCAVU11(T) was classified as representing a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation and showed sequence similarities lower than 95?% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Strain PCAVU11(T) showed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were 16?:?0 (25.7?%), 18?:?1?7c (20.4?%), 17?:?0 cyclo (11.5?%) and 16?:?1?7c/15?:?0 iso 2-OH in summed feature 3 (10.8?%). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, the arginine dihydrolase system was present but nitrate reduction, ?-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. Strain PCAVU11(T) grew at 44 °C and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 56?% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain PCAVU11(T) as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, which we propose to name Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov. The type strain is PCAVU11(T) (?=?LMG 27394(T)?=?CECT 8262(T)). PMID:23847284

  19. MEASURING THE DISPERSAL AND REENTRAINMENT OF RECOMBINANT PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE AT CALIFORNIA TEST SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersal of genetically engineered Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens was investigated during and after spray applications onto plants at Brentwood and Tulelake, California. ive different sampling devices were used to evaluate the dispersal within and around te...

  20. The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Lars

    The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation, France Abstract Chronic infections resulting from biofilm formation are difficult to eradicate surface-associated growth of the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both preventing biofilm

  1. Holdover inoculum of Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis from broccoli raab causes disease in subsequent plantings

    E-print Network

    Cintas, N A; Koike, S T; Bunch, R A; Bull, C T

    2006-01-01

    27. Leben, C. 1974. Survival of plant pathogenic bacteria.and survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in northern Tanzania. PlantSurvival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in soil, plant

  2. Surface attachment induces Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence

    PubMed Central

    Siryaporn, Albert; Kuchma, Sherry L.; O’Toole, George A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects every type of host that has been examined by deploying multiple virulence factors. Previous studies of virulence regulation have largely focused on chemical cues, but P. aeruginosa may also respond to mechanical cues. Using a rapid imaging-based virulence assay, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa activates virulence in response to attachment to a range of chemically distinct surfaces, suggesting that this bacterial species responds to mechanical properties of its substrates. Surface-activated virulence requires quorum sensing, but activating quorum sensing does not induce virulence without surface attachment. The activation of virulence by surfaces also requires the surface-exposed protein PilY1, which has a domain homologous to a eukaryotic mechanosensor. Specific mutation of the putative PilY1 mechanosensory domain is sufficient to induce virulence in non–surface-attached cells, suggesting that PilY1 mediates surface mechanotransduction. Triggering virulence only when cells are both at high density and attached to a surface—two host-nonspecific cues—explains how P. aeruginosa precisely regulates virulence while maintaining broad host specificity. PMID:25385640

  3. Heat shock response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, B; Linseman, M; MacDonald, L A; Lam, J S; Kropinski, A M

    1988-01-01

    The general properties of the heat shock response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were characterized. The transfer of cells from 30 to 45 degrees C repressed the synthesis of many cellular proteins and led to the enhanced production of 17 proteins. With antibodies raised against the Escherichia coli proteins, two polypeptides of P. aeruginosa with apparent molecular weights of 76,000 and 61,000 (76K and 61K proteins) were shown to be analogous to the DnaK and GroEL heat shock proteins of E. coli due to their immunologic cross-reactivity. The major sigma factor (sigma 87) of P. aeruginosa was shown to be a heat shock protein that was immunologically related to the sigma 70 of E. coli by using polyclonal antisera. A hybridoma was produced, and the monoclonal antibody MP-S-1 was specific for the sigma 87 and did not cross-react with sigma 70 of E. coli. A smaller 40K protein was immunoprecipitated with RNA polymerase antisera from cells that had been heat shocked. The 40K protein was also associated with RNA polymerase which had been purified from heat-shocked cells and may be the heat shock sigma factor of P. aeruginosa. Exposure to ethanol resulted in the production of seven new proteins, three of which appeared to be heat shock proteins. Images PMID:3136146

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: mechanisms of immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is implicated in many chronic infections and is readily isolated from chronic wounds, medical devices, and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa is believed to persist in the host organism due to its capacity to form biofilms, which protect the aggregated, biopolymer-embedded bacteria from the detrimental actions of antibiotic treatments and host immunity. A key component in the protection against innate immunity is rhamnolipid, which is a quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factor. QS is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism used to coordinate expression of virulence and protection of aggregated biofilm cells. Rhamnolipids are known for their ability to cause hemolysis and have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, for example, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In this chapter, the interplay between P. aeruginosa and the PMNs in chronic infections is discussed with focus on the role of rhamnolipids and extracellular DNA. PMID:24377853

  5. Standardized chemical synthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of the toxin pyocyanin from the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an exacting procedure. Pyocyanin is expensive to commercially purchase. The sellers do not give out the extraction procedure. Classically, pyocyanin preparation involves complicated multi-step P. aeruginosa culturing and solvent transfer extractions. The chemical synthesis first used (1979) has not been adequately described. We devised an easily reproducible protocol which consistently decreases the time taken for synthesis, extraction and purification of pyocyanin, and increases the pure pyocyanin proportion produced. Our procedure:•Involves more purification steps (chloroform/methanol/acidification/alkalinization).•Starts with a different pH (7.4 instead of 7), and lesser concentration of phenazine methosulfate; and retrenches a rotary evaporation step.•Removes 2 lyophilization steps, and entails different solvent proportions for thin layer chromatography. As we have extracted pyocyanin both from P. aeruginosa cultures, and via chemical synthesis; we know the procedural and product-quality differences. We endorse the relative ease, safety, and convenience of using the chemical synthesis described here. Crucially, our “naturally endotoxin-free” pyocyanin can be extracted easily without using infectious bacteria.

  6. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S is an adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, N R; Minor, V; Deal, C; Shahrabadi, M S; Simpson, D A; Woods, D E

    1991-01-01

    Exoenzyme S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied as an adhesion for glycosphingolipids and buccal cells. Binding of exoenzyme S to gangliotriosylceramide (GalNAc beta 1-4Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer), gangliotetraosylceramide (Gal beta 1-3 GalNAcT beta 1-4 Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer), and lactosylceramide (Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer) separated on thin-layer chromatograms was observed. Binding curves for exoenzyme S with dilutions of gangliotetraosylceramide immobilized on plastic plates were similar to previously reported results for the intact bacteria. Binding of exoenzyme S to sialylated counterparts of these glycosphingolipids was not seen, indicating that the addition of a sialic acid residue interferes with binding. Exoenzyme S and monoclonal antibody to exoenzyme S inhibit the binding of P. aeruginosa to buccal cells. The presence of exoenzyme S on the surface of P. aeruginosa was detected by immunogold labeling of bacteria with antibodies to exoenzyme S. Results of these studies led us to conclude that exoenzyme S is an important adhesion of P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:1679039

  8. Modern Therapeutic Approaches Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections.

    PubMed

    Dorotkiewicz-Jach, Agata; Augustyniak, Daria; Olszak, Tomasz; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous progress that has been made in the last few decades in the field of drug design as well as virulence of pathogenic bacteria, the gradual spread of drug resistance can be observed. Only two new classes of antibiotics have been brought to medicine in the last 30 years. The need for novel antibacterial drugs is especially pressing when considering infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The discovery and development of new anti-pseudomonal therapies is one of the main challenges of modern pharmaceutical sciences. The great variety of innovative approaches presented in the current literature is astonishing. In this review, modern, promising strategies against P. aeruginosa infections are described. Antimicrobials, including new antibiotics, ?-lactamase and efflux pump inhibitors, quorum quenching molecules and nanoparticles with antibacterial activity are currently being intensively studied. Methods of prevention of infection through vaccines, therapeutic antibodies and development of antimicrobial peptides are discussed as approaches that support the human immunological system. Finally, development of alternative/ supportive therapies such as phage therapy and photodynamic therapy, in which the mechanism of action is completely different from current antibiotic therapy, is of great importance. PMID:25882546

  9. Periplasmic glucans of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, P; Fournet, B; Bohin, J P

    1994-01-01

    We report the initial characterization of glucans present in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (strain R32). These compounds were found to be neutral, unsubstituted, and composed solely of glucose. Their size ranges from 6 to 13 glucose units/mol. Linkage studies and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses demonstrated that the glucans are linked by beta-1,2 and beta-1,6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to the periplasmic glucans found in other plant pathogenic bacteria, the glucans of P. syringae pv. syringae are not cyclic but are highly branched structures. Acetolysis studies demonstrated that the backbone consists of beta-1,2-linked glucose units to which the branches are attached by beta-1,6 linkages. These periplasmic glucans were more abundant when the osmolarity of the growth medium was lower. Thus, P. syringae pv. syringae appears to synthesize periplasmic glucans in response to the osmolarity of the medium. The structural characteristics of these glucans are very similar to the membrane-derived oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli, apart from the neutral character, which contrasts with the highly anionic E. coli membrane-derived oligosaccharides. PMID:7961404

  10. Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the phyllosphere of grasses; Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov., Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Undine Behrendt; Andreas Ulrich; Peter Schumann

    2003-01-01

    Strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses, were analysed by a polyphasic approach in order to clarify their interspecific position. Classification on the basis of ribotyping revealed six genotypes; four of these, which could be differentiated clearly from each other and from Pseudomonas species with validly published names on the basis of phenotypic features, were chosen for

  11. Treatment and prevention of relapses of CAPD Pseudomonas peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pasadakis, P; Thodis, E; Eftimimiadou, A; Panagoutsos, S; Papazoglou, D; Kaliengidou, M; Kartali, S; Vargemezis, V

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) can be difficult to eradicate, because it is frequently resistant to common antibiotics, inducing the loss of the peritoneal cavity in some cases. A total of 14 episodes of Pseudomonas peritonitis in 12 patients (6 male, 6 female) were treated with intraperitoneal (IP) administration of a combination of ceftazidime and tobramycin. All patients were hospitalized. The loading doses were 1000 mg/2 L of ceftazidime and 1.7 mg/kg of tobramycin, and the maintenance IP doses were 250 mg/2 L of ceftazidime and 16 mg/2 L of tobramycin. The therapy duration was 14 days. In 7 episodes (group A) no other antibiotic regimen was provided, while in the remaining 7 episodes (group B) therapy was continued with 500 mg b.i.d. of oral ciprofloxacin for the next 14 days. Pseudomonas species isolated in group A were P. alcaligenis (1), P. putida (1), P. maltophilia (1), R. cepacia (1), and unidentified (3). In group B the following Pseudomonas species were isolated: P. aeruginosa (4), P. diminuta (1), P. stutszeri (1), and unidentified (1). Recurrence of peritonitis was seen in 4 episodes of group A with 2 catheter removals, while all episodes were cured in group B. These results suggest that IP ceftazidime and tobramycin with the additional use of oral ciprofloxacin is successful in the treatment and prevention of relapses of Pseudomonas peritonitis. PMID:8105925

  12. Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov., isolated from a bird's nest.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu-Hua; Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Strain 78-123T was isolated from a sample of a bird's nest situated on the bank of Qiongtailan River in the region of Tuomuer Peak of Tianshan Mountain in the Xin-jiang Uygur Autonomous Region in north-western China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain 78-123T was related to members of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain 78-123T and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411T, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JCM 5968T and Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21T was 97.1, 97.4 and 97.5 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(12 : 0). The G+C content was 60.4 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the novel species Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 78-123T (=CGMCC 1.1365T =JCM 14085T). PMID:19126738

  13. Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans")

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, R G; DiChristina, T J; Hoffmann, M R

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic respiration and dissimilative iron reduction were studied in pure, batch cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans"). Specific respiratory inhibitors were used to identify elements of electron transport chains involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen and Fe(III). When cells were grown at a high oxygen concentration, dissimilative iron reduction occurred via an abbreviated electron transport chain. The induction of alternative respiratory pathways resulted from growth at low oxygen tension (less than 0.01 atm [1 atm = 101.29 kPa]). Induced cells were capable of O2 utilization at moderately increased rates; dissimilative iron reduction was accelerated by a factor of 6 to 8. In cells grown at low oxygen tension, dissimilative iron reduction appeared to be uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. Models of induced and uninduced electron transport chains, including a mathematical treatment of chemical inhibition within the uninduced, aerobic electron transport system, are presented. In uninduced cells respiring anaerobically, electron transport was limited by ferrireductase activity. This limitation may disappear among induced cells. PMID:2428308

  14. Definition of Plant-Pathogenic Pseudomonas Genomospecies of the Pseudomonas syringae Complex Through Multiple Comparative Approaches.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT A total of 34 phytopathogenic strain genomes belonging to the Pseudomonas syringae species complex and related species, including many pathotype strains, were assessed using average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis. Their taxonomic relationships were consistently confirmed by the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient (TETRA) values, multilocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) performed with seven housekeeping genes, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and split consensus network analyses. The ANI, MLSA, and split consensus analyses provided consistent and identical results. We confirmed the occurrence of the well-demarcated genomospecies inferred sensu Gardan et al. using DNA-DNA hybridization and ribotyping analyses. However, some P. syringae strains of the pathovars morsprunorum and lachrymans were placed in different genomospecies in our analyses. Genomospecies 1, 2, 4, 6, and 9 resulted well demarcated, whereas strains of genomospecies 3 and 8 had ANI values between 95 and 96% in some cases, confirming that this threshold reveals very closely related species that might represent cases of splitting entities or the convergence of different species to the same ecological niche. This study confirms the robustness of the combination of genomic and phylogenetic approaches in revealing taxonomic relationships among closely related bacterial strains and provides the basis for a further reliable demarcation of the phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species. Within each species, the pathovars might represent distinct ecological units. The possibility of performing extensive and standardized host range and phenotypic tests with many strains of different pathovars can assist phytobacteriologists for better determining the boundaries of these ecological units. PMID:24875383

  15. Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 (Pseudomonas ferrireductans)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.G.; DiChristina, T.J.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    Aerobic respiration and dissimilative iron reduction were studied in pure, batch cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 (Pseudomonas ferrireductans). Specific respiratory inhibitors were used to identify elements of electron transport chains involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen and Fe(III). When cells were grown at a high oxygen concentration, dissimilative iron reduction occurred via an abbreviated electron transport chain. The induction of alternative respiratory pathways resulted from growth at low oxygen tension (<0.01 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa)). Induced cells were capable of O/sub 2/ utilization at moderately increased rates; dissimilative iron reduction was accelerated by a factor of 6 to 8. In cells grown at low oxygen tension, dissimilative iron reduction appeared to be uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. Models of induced and uninduced electron transport chains, including a mathematical treatment of chemical inhibition within the uninduced, aerobic electron transport system, are presented. In uninduced cells respiring anaerobically, electron transport was limited by ferrireductase activity. This limitation may disappear among induced cells.

  16. Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment.

  17. Efflux as a Glutaraldehyde Resistance Mechanism in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Bibby, Kyle J

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in microbial biofilm control is biocide resistance. Phenotypic adaptations and physical protective effects have been historically thought to be the primary mechanisms for glutaraldehyde resistance in bacterial biofilms. Recent studies indicate the presence of genetic mechanisms for glutaraldehyde resistance, but very little is known about the contributory genetic factors. Here, we demonstrate that efflux pumps contribute to glutaraldehyde resistance in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The RNA-seq data show that efflux pumps and phosphonate degradation, lipid biosynthesis, and polyamine biosynthesis metabolic pathways were induced upon glutaraldehyde exposure. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of efflux pumps potentiates glutaraldehyde activity, suggesting that efflux activity contributes to glutaraldehyde resistance. Additionally, induction of known modulators of biofilm formation, including phosphonate degradation, lipid biosynthesis, and polyamine biosynthesis, may contribute to biofilm resistance and resilience. Fundamental understanding of the genetic mechanism of biocide resistance is critical for the optimization of biocide use and development of novel disinfection strategies. Our results reveal genetic components involved in glutaraldehyde resistance and a potential strategy for improved control of biofilms. PMID:25824217

  18. Author's personal copy Quorum sensing regulates electric current generation of Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    . In previous studies, Pseudomonas sp. in the anodic microbial community of an MFC was related to current genAuthor's personal copy Quorum sensing regulates electric current generation of Pseudomonas 18 January 2010 Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum sensing Bioelectrochemical systems Phenazine

  19. Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici LMG 2367

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Qiu, Hui; Zhao, Wenjun; Cui, Zhouqi; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Jin, Gulei; Li, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing brown stripe disease in economically important crops worldwide. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici LMG2367 to provide further valuable insights for comparison of the pathovars among species Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:23012277

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudomonas spp. AS AMOEBA-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN ISOLATES OF Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Corção, Gertrudes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a “Trojan horse” of the microbial world. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Pseudomonas as an amoeba-resistant microorganism in 12 isolates of Acanthamoeba. All isolates showed the genus Pseudomonas spp. as amoeba-resistant microorganisms. Thus, one can see that the Acanthamoeba isolates studied are hosts of Pseudomonas. PMID:25651331

  1. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-01-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ?sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  2. Metabolism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride in Pseudomonas strain B1.

    PubMed Central

    van Ginkel, C G; van Dijk, J B; Kroon, A G

    1992-01-01

    A bacterium (strain B1) utilizing hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride as a carbon and energy source was isolated from activated sludge and tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. This bacterium only grew on alkyltrimethylammonium salts (C12 to C22) and possible intermediates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride breakdown such as hexadecanoate and acetate. Pseudomonas strain B1 did not grow on amines. Simultaneous adaptation studies suggested that the bacterium oxidized only the alkyl chain of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric formation of trimethylamine from hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. The initial hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride oxygenase activity, measured by its ability to form trimethylamine, was NAD(P)H and O2 dependent. Finally, assays of aldehyde dehydrogenase, hexadecanoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in cell extracts revealed the potential of Pseudomonas strain B1 to metabolize the alkyl chain via beta-oxidation. PMID:1444422

  3. Recombineering using RecTE from Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Swingle, Bryan; Bao, Zhongmeng; Markel, Eric; Chambers, Alan; Cartinhour, Samuel

    2010-08-01

    In this report, we describe the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecET proteins encoded by the lambda and Rac bacteriophages of Escherichia coli. The ability of the pseudomonad-encoded proteins to promote recombination was tested in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 using a quantitative assay based on recombination frequency. The results show that the Pseudomonas RecT homolog is sufficient to promote recombination of single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides and that efficient recombination of double-stranded DNA requires the expression of both the RecT and RecE homologs. Additionally, we illustrate the utility of this recombineering system to make targeted gene disruptions in the P. syringae chromosome. PMID:20543050

  4. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-02-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ?sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  5. Microbial degradation of quinoline and methylquinolines. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Aislabie, J.; Bej, A.K.; Hurst, H.; Rothenburger, S.; Atlas, R.M. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Several bacterial cultures were isolated that are able to degrade quinoline and to transform or to degrade methylquinolines. The degradation of quinoline by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa QP and Pseudomonas. putida QP produced hydroxyquinolines, a transient pink compound, and other undetermined products. The quinoline-degrading strains of P. aeruginosa QP and P. putida QP hydroxylated a limited number of methylquinolines but could not degrade them, nor could they transform 2-methylquinoline, isoquinoline, or pyridine. Another pseudomonad, Pseudomonas sp. strain MQP, was isolated that could degrade 2-methylquinoline. P. aeruginosa QP was able to degrade or to transform quinoline and a few methylquinolines in a complex heterocyclic nitrogen-containing fraction of a shale oil. All of the quinoline- and methylquinoline-degrading strains have multiple plasmids including a common 250-kilobase plasmid. The 225-, 250-, and 320-kilobase plasmids of the P. aeruginosa QP strain all contained genes involved in quinoline metabolism.

  6. Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from saline and alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Juquan

    2015-03-01

    Strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was isolated from saline and alkaline soils in Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province, China. It was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile with a polar flagellum. It produced yellow-orange colonies with a smooth surface, and grew in the presence of 0-5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0?%, w/v), at temperatures of 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 7-11 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species is Pseudomonas xanthomarina, whose type strain (KMM 1447(T)) showed gene sequence similarities of 99.0?% for 16S rRNA, 81.8?% for gyrB and 85.0?% for rpoD with strain NEAU-ST5-21(T). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) and P. xanthomarina DSM 18231(T), Pseudomonas kunmingensis CGMCC 1.12273(T), Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 5190(T), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T), Pseudomomas chengduensis CGMCC 2318(T), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis DSM 26169(T) were 52±0?% to 25±2?%. The DNA G+C content of strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was 65 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10?%) were C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c and C16?:?0, the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9, and polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown lipid and a glycolipid. The proposed name is Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., NEAU-ST5-21(T) (?=?ACCC 06362(T)?=?DSM 27559(T)) being the type strain. PMID:25574037

  7. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Inhibits Biofilm Development of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Tomohiro; Oura, Hiromu; Morinaga, Kana; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria often thrive in natural environments through a sessile mode of growth, known as the biofilm. Biofilms are well-structured communities and their formation is tightly regulated. However, the mechanisms by which interspecies interactions alter the formation of biofilms have not yet been elucidated in detail. We herein demonstrated that a quorum-sensing signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS) inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Although the PQS did not affect cell growth, biofilm formation was markedly inhibited. Our results revealed a unique role for this multifunctional PQS and also indicated its application in the development of prophylactic agents against caries-causing S. mutans. PMID:25854411

  8. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA INFECTIONS OF THE EYE

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, William H.

    1953-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa seldom invades the body except in persons or in organs lacking natural defenses, and usually the infection is chronic rather than acute, evoking little systemic response. When introduced into the cornea, however, as in penetration by a foreign body or in contaminated medicines, it acts with extreme virulence, in many cases causing blindness and even necessitating enucleation. Although many attempts at control of Ps. aeruginosa, even with powerful antibiotics, have been unsuccessful, polymyxin B appeared to have good effect and was tested in experimental infection of the cornea in rabbits. It was demonstrated by preliminary studies in vitro that polymyxin B was effective against nine strains of Ps. aeruginosa which on inoculation caused rapidly progressive ulcers in the corneas of rabbits. A strain of proved virulence was introduced into both eyes of each of 18 rabbits. The left eyes only were treated with subconjunctival injections at 48-hour intervals of a solution of polymyxin B, to which epinephrine was added as a vasoconstrictor to prevent rapid dispersion. The right eyes remained untreated as controls. In five of the six rabbits treated immediately after inoculation, the treated eyes remained clear, while moderate infiltration developed in the sixth. In the six rabbits not treated for 24 hours after inoculation, ulcers developed but remained localized during therapy. In those not treated for 48 hours after inoculation, ulcers developed before treatment began but did not spread as rapidly as in the controls. Hyaluronidase was added to the preparation for half the rabbits in each group but had no perceptible beneficial effect. PMID:13106731

  9. A Genomic Redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species

    PubMed Central

    Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively. PMID:24086635

  10. Pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vincent H; Schilling, Amy N; Vo, Giao; Kabbara, Samer; Kwa, Andrea L; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lewis, Russell E

    2005-09-01

    Despite limited data, polymyxin B (PB) is increasingly used clinically as the last therapeutic option for multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacterial infections. We examined the in vitro pharmacodynamics of PB against four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clonal relatedness of the strains was assessed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Time-kill studies over 24 h were performed with approximately 10(5) and 10(7) CFU/ml of bacteria, using PB at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16x MIC. Dose fractionation studies were performed using an in vitro hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) against a wild-type and a MDR strain. Approximately 10(5) CFU/ml of bacteria were exposed to placebo and three regimens (every 8 h [q8 h], q12 h, and q24h) simulating the steady-state unbound PB pharmacokinetics resulting from a daily dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight and 20 mg/kg (8 times the clinical dose). Samples were obtained over 4 days to quantify PB concentrations, total bacterial population, and subpopulation with reduced PB susceptibility (>3x MIC). The bactericidal activity of PB was concentration dependent, but killing was significantly reduced with a high inoculum. In HFIM studies, a significant reduction in bacterial load was seen at 4 h in all active regimens, but selective amplification of the resistant subpopulation(s) was apparent at 24 h with the clinical dose (both strains). Regrowth was eventually observed in all dosing regimens with the MDR strain, but its occurrence was prevented in the wild-type strain by using 8 times the clinical dose (regardless of dosing intervals). Our results suggested that the bactericidal activity of PB was concentration dependent and appeared to be related to the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to the MIC. PMID:16127031

  11. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful clues for the improvement and optimization of chemotherapy in order to appropriately treat pseudomonal infections while minimizing the emergence of resistance. PMID:24409175

  12. Chromosomal Organization and Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Boccard, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic ?-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed. PMID:23658532

  13. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  14. Substrate specificities of the chloromuconate cycloisomerases from Pseudomonas sp. B13, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 and Pseudomonas sp. P51

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Vollmer; U. Schell; V. Seibert; S. Lakner; M. Schlömann

    1999-01-01

    The chloromuconate cycloisomerase of Pseudomonas sp. B13 was purified from 3-chlorobenzoate-grown wild-type cells while the chloromuconate cycloisomerases of Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 (pJP4) and Pseudomonas sp. P51 (pP51) were purified from Escherichia coli strains expressing the corresponding gene. Kinetic studies were performed with various chloro-, fluoro-, and methylsubstituted\\u000a cis,cis-muconates. 2,4-Dichloro-cis,cis-muconate proved to be the best substrate for all three chloromuconate cycloisomerases.

  15. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in soil by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and two modified Pseudomonas strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROLF U. HALDEN; SANDRA M. TEPP; BARBARA G. HALDEN; DARYL F. DWYER

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Pseudomonas sp. strains B13-D5(pD30.9) and B13-ST1 (pPOB) were introduced into soil microcosms containing 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-POB) in order to evaluate and compare bacterial survival, degradation of 3-POB, and transfer of plasmids to a recipient bacterium. Strain POB310 was isolated for its ability to use 3-POB as a growth substrate; degradation is initiated by POB-dioxygenase, an enzyme

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections associated with use of contaminated medicaments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R M Baird; R A Shooter

    1976-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recovered from three hospital-prepared medicaments being used on the wards. Sixty-six patients were studied to observe the effect of using these contaminated medicaments. Psaeruginosa was recovered from 29 patients; in five the strains recovered bore a close resemblance to strains previously isolated from the contaminated medicaments.

  17. Metabolism of volatile chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbergh, P A; Kunka, B S

    1988-01-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain designated PFL12 was isolated from soil and water that were contaminated with various chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons. The isolate was able to metabolize 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2,2-dichloropropane, and trichloroethylene. PMID:3144246

  18. Immunization of Mice and Chinchillas Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lusis, P. I.; Soltys, M. A.

    1971-01-01

    The possibility of production of an effective vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in fur-bearing animals was investigated. Twenty-three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from diseased chinchillas and mink were tested in mice for their immunogenic properties. Nineteen of these strains produced good immunity against homologous strains, and three of these produced also good immunity against heterologous strains. Of the remaining four strains two produced moderate immunity and two no immunity. It was found that 0.05% or 0.5% formalin added to suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or ultrasonification of the suspension produced better results than 0.5% phenol, 0.3% alcohol or heat at 100°C for half an hour. Chinchillas vaccinated with two doses of formolized Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterins were immune for 36 weeks after the second dose, while all controls died within 48 hours after being challenged. It was found that the protection afforded by the polyvalent bacterin extended beyond the strains included in the vaccine. A field survey on 34 ranches which included over 7,700 chinchillas showed very promising and encouraging results. PMID:4251417

  19. Immunization of mice and chinchillas against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lusis, P I; Soltys, M A

    1971-01-01

    The possibility of production of an effective vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in fur-bearing animals was investigated. Twenty-three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from diseased chinchillas and mink were tested in mice for their immunogenic properties. Nineteen of these strains produced good immunity against homologous strains, and three of these produced also good immunity against heterologous strains. Of the remaining four strains two produced moderate immunity and two no immunity. It was found that 0.05% or 0.5% formalin added to suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or ultrasonification of the suspension produced better results than 0.5% phenol, 0.3% alcohol or heat at 100 degrees C for half an hour. Chinchillas vaccinated with two doses of formolized Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterins were immune for 36 weeks after the second dose, while all controls died within 48 hours after being challenged. It was found that the protection afforded by the polyvalent bacterin extended beyond the strains included in the vaccine.A field survey on 34 ranches which included over 7,700 chinchillas showed very promising and encouraging results. PMID:4251417

  20. Heavy Metal Resistance of Biofilm and Planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail M. Teitzel; Matthew R. Parsek

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc on biofilm and planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A rotating-disk biofilm reactor was used to generate biofilm and free- swimming cultures to test their relative levels of resistance to heavy metals. It was determined that biofilms were anywhere from 2 to 600 times more resistant to

  1. Engineering the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida for arsenic methylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Rosen, Barry P

    2013-07-01

    Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Recombinant bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenicals. This has the potential for bioremediation of environmental arsenic and reducing arsenic contamination in food. PMID:23645194

  2. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL-PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (phlD+) are biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens and play a key role in the disease suppressiveness of some soils. Considerable variation among isolates has been observed by using genomic fingerprinting techn...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM 223

    PubMed Central

    Roquigny, Roxane; Arseneault, Tanya; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Novinscak, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM 223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. It produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of Streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. fluorescens LBUM 223. PMID:25953163

  4. The evolution of pathways for aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation in Pseudomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Williams; Jon R. Sayers

    1994-01-01

    The organisation and nucleotide sequences coding for the catabolism of benzene, toluene (and xylenes), naphthalene and biphenylvia catechol and the extradiol (meta) cleavage pathway inPseudomonas are reviewed and the various factors which may have played a part in their evolution are considered. The data suggests that the complete pathways have evolved in a modular way probably from at least three

  5. Dtection de Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkh.) Dowson par la technique ELISA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Détection de Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkh.) Dowson par la technique ELISA Marie-Renée BARZIC des feuilles contaminées de haricot. ELISA, Le test EusA a été réalisé selon la méthode sandwich d. phaseolicola comme ligand (fig. 1). Métabolites, ' Des études préalables ont montré que la technique ELISA

  6. Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Collmer; Jorge L. Badel; Amy O. Charkowski; Wen-Ling Deng; Derrick E. Fouts; Adela R. Ramos; Amos H. Rehm; Deborah M. Anderson; Olaf Schneewind; Karin van Dijk; James R. Alfano

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a member of an important group of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals that depend on a type III secretion system to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells. In P. syringae, hrpyhrc genes encode the Hrp (type III secretion) system, and avirulence (avr) and Hrp- dependent outer protein (hop) genes encode effector proteins. The hrpyhrc

  7. Pseudomonas prosekii sp. nov., a novel psychrotrophic bacterium from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Barták, Miloš; Mašla?ová, Ivana; Pascutti, Andrea Vávrová; Sedo, Ondrej; Lexa, Matej; Sedlá?ek, Ivo

    2013-12-01

    During Czech expeditions at James Ross Island, Antarctica, in the years 2007-2009, the bacterial diversity of the genus Pseudomonas was studied. Twelve fluorescent Pseudomonas strains were isolated from various samples and were subjected to a detailed taxonomic study. A polyphasic approach included genotypic and phenotypic analyses. The genotypic analysis involved sequencing of rrs, rpoB and rpoD genes, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) studies as well as manual ribotyping using HindIII endonuclease. The phenotypic characterization included conventional tests as well as biotyping using the Biolog system, protein profiling by SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Our taxonomic study revealed that all isolates belonged to the same Pseudomonas species with psychrotrophic growth not exceeding 37 °C. The cultures showed a unique position among the phylogenetically related pseudomonads. DDH experiment between the proposed type strain of the antarctic isolates and the closest neighbour P. arsenicoxydans CCM 8423(T) showed only 40.9-50.1 % similarity, thus confirming that the characterized strains do not belong to the P. arsenicoxydans species. According to the results obtained we propose the name P. prosekii sp. nov. for this novel Pseudomonas taxon with type strain AN/28/1(T) (=CCM 7990(T) and LMG 26867(T)). PMID:23794042

  8. Syndecan 1 Shedding Contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Haynes; Frank Ruda; Jeffrey Oliver; Abdul N. Hamood; John A. Griswold; Pyong Woo Park; Kendra P. Rumbaugh

    2005-01-01

    The innate immune system is comprised of many components that function coordinately to prevent bacterial sepsis. However, thermal injury suppresses many of these factors, and the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa takes advantage of this condition, making it one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the setting of thermal injury. P. aeruginosa is extremely efficient at colonizing burn

  9. A case of necrotising fasciitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lota, A S; Altaf, F; Shetty, R; Courtney, S; McKenna, P; Iyer, S

    2010-02-01

    Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but severe infection of soft-tissue associated with rapid progression, systemic toxicity and high mortality. Monomicrobial necrotising fasciitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exceptionally uncommon with only 12 cases reported in the literature. We describe a fatal case with an atypical presentation in a patient following spinal decompression for a metastasis from prostate cancer. PMID:20130324

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

  11. Phosphate starvation promotes swarming motility and cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bains, Manjeet; Fernández, Lucía; Hancock, Robert E W

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity. PMID:22773629

  12. Phosphate Starvation Promotes Swarming Motility and Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Manjeet; Fernández, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity. PMID:22773629

  13. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation in Different Environments Mehdi Shadmand1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation in Different Environments Mehdi Shadmand1 , Gregory G materials. These structures are called biofilms. The goal of this research is to isolate P. aeruginosa from several soil samples and determine whether they are able to form biofilms in those environments. Another

  14. Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hentzer; GAIL M. TEITZEL; GRANT J. BALZER; A. Heydorn; S. Molin; M. Givskov; MATTHEW R. PARSEK

    2001-01-01

    During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them

  15. Genetic analysis of exoenzyme S expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Goranson; Dara W Frank

    1996-01-01

    The dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the bloodstream increases the likelihood of developing fatal sepsis. In experimental models, the ability to disseminate is linked to expression of the exoenzyme S pathway. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the pathway has led to the identification of the two structural genes encoding exoenzyme S, exoS and exoT. A key regulator of several loci

  16. Impact of Multidrug Resistance on Experimental Empyema by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Ira Tzepi; Irini Tsovolou; Aikaterini Spyridaki; Thomas Tsaganos; Ilia Vaki; Antigone Kotsaki; Vlasios Polychronopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of infections of the lower respiratory tract among patients with chronic lung disorders. It is questionable whether virulence of this species may be influenced by multidrug resistance (MDR). Objectives: To define the impact of MDR in experimental lung infection. Methods: Experimental empyema was induced in rabbits by MDR (group A, n = 16) and by

  17. Genetic structure of a lotic population of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Wise; L. J. Shimkets; J. V. McArthur

    1995-01-01

    The genetic structure of a population of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia isolated from a southeastern blackwater stream was investigated by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis to examine the allelic variation in eight structural gene loci. Overall, 213 isolates were collected at transect points along the stream continuum, from both the sediments along the bank and the water column. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis

  18. Penetration and growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in chicken eggs

    E-print Network

    Mountney, George Joseph

    1957-01-01

    the shells to crack* They also demonstrated that immer? sing eggs in a suspension of Pseudomonas at temperatures lower than the egg caused a high proportion of rots* Romanoff (1942) in attempting to use this method found it to be slow and inaccurate...

  19. Pseudomonas sp. Strain 273, an Aerobic ?,?-DichloroalkaneDegrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Wischnak, Catrin; Löffler, Frank E.; Li, Jieran; Urbance, John W.; Müller, Rudolf

    1998-01-01

    A gram-negative, aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil; this bacterium grew in 50% (vol/vol) suspensions of 1,10-dichlorodecane (1,10-DCD) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenotypic and small-subunit ribosomal RNA characterizations identified the organism, designated strain 273, as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. After induction with 1,10-DCD, Pseudomonas sp. strain 273 released stoichiometric amounts of chloride from C5 to C12 ?,?-dichloroalkanes in the presence of oxygen. No dehalogenation occurred under anaerobic conditions. The best substrates for dehalogenation and growth were C9 to C12 chloroalkanes. The isolate also grew with nonhalogenated aliphatic compounds, and decane-grown cells dechlorinated 1,10-DCD without a lag phase. In addition, cells grown on decane dechlorinated 1,10-DCD in the presence of chloramphenicol, indicating that the 1,10-DCD-dechlorinating enzyme system was also induced by decane. Other known alkane-degrading Pseudomonas species did not grow with 1,10-DCD as a carbon source. Dechlorination of 1,10-DCD was demonstrated in cell extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 273. Cell-free activity was strictly oxygen dependent, and NADH stimulated dechlorination, whereas EDTA had an inhibitory effect. PMID:9726906

  20. Green fluorescent protein as a marker for Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Bloemberg, G V; O'Toole, G A; Lugtenberg, B J; Kolter, R

    1997-11-01

    The development of sensitive methods for observing individual bacterial cells in a population in experimental models and natural environments, such as in biofilms or on plant roots, is of great importance for studying these systems. We report the construction of plasmids which constitutively express a bright mutant of the green fluorescent protein of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and are stably maintained in Pseudomonas spp. We demonstrate the utility of these plasmids to detect individual cells in two experimental laboratory systems: (i) the examination of a mixed bacterial population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia attached to an abiotic surface and (ii) the association of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 with tomato seedling roots. We also show that two plasmids, pSMC2 and pGB5, are particularly useful, because they are stable in the absence of antibiotic selection, they place an undetectable metabolic burden on cells that carry the plasmids, and cells carrying these constructs continue to fluoresce even after 7 days in culture without the addition of fresh nutrients. The construction of improved Escherichia coli-Pseudomonas shuttle vectors which carry multiple drug resistance markers also is described. PMID:9361441

  1. Size of the Chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Electron microscope examination and velocity sedimentation analysis of the deoxyribonucleic acid released from Pseudomonas aeruginosa spheroplasts indicate that this organism carries the bulk of its genetic determinants in a single duplex deoxyribonucleic acid molecule having a molecular mass of 2.1 × 109 daltons. Images PMID:4212339

  2. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Archetypal analysis of diverse Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    Analysis" of global gene expression. The analysis is based on microarray data from five integrated studiesRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Archetypal analysis of diverse Pseudomonas aeruginosa transcriptomes1 , Søren Molin1 and Lars Jelsbak1* Abstract Background: Analysis of global gene expression by DNA

  3. Subinhibitory Bismuth-Thiols Reduce Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chieh-Liang Wu; Philip Domenico; Daniel J. Hassett; Terry J. Beveridge; Alan R. Hauser; Jeffrey A. Kazzaz

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in mechani- cally ventilated patients and produces a wide array of virulence factors. Bismuth-thiols (BTs) are active in vitro against all bacte- rial lung pathogens, including P. aeruginosa . The objective of these studies was to examine the biochemical and morphologic effects of sublethal BT concentrations on P. aeruginosa and to evaluate virulence in

  4. Early Cutaneous Alterations in Experimental Sepsis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haritini Petropoulou; Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Nicolaos Kavatzas; Alexandros Stratigos; Maria Mouktaroudi; Theodoros Adamis; Fotini Baziaka; Andreas D. Katsambas; Nicolaos G. Stavrianeas

    2004-01-01

    Background: To evaluate whether histopathologic findings of skin in sepsis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the clinical course. Methods: Histological alterations after bacterial challenge by one susceptible (A) and two multidrug-resistant isolates (B and C) of P. aeruginosa were studied in 18 rabbits. Sepsis was induced by the intravenous infusion of 1 × 108 CFU by a catheter in the

  5. Molecular cloning of the Pseudomonas carboxypeptidase G2 gene and its expression in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N P; Atkinson, T; Sherwood, R F

    1983-01-01

    The gene coding for carboxypeptidase G2 was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. strain RS-16 into Escherichia coli W5445 by inserting Sau3A-generated DNA fragments into the BamHI site of pBR322. The plasmid isolated, pNM1, was restriction mapped, and the position of the gene on the 5.8-megadalton insert was pinpointed by subcloning. The expression of carboxypeptidase in E. coli was 100-fold lower than in the Pseudomonas sp. strain. When the cloned gene was subcloned into the Pseudomonas vector pKT230 and introduced into Pseudomonas putida 2440, a 30-fold increase in expression over that obtained in E. coli was observed. High expression (up to 5% soluble protein) was obtained in E. coli by subcloning a 3.1-megadalton Bg/II fragment into the BamHI site of pAT153. The increased expression was orientation dependent and is presumed to be due to transcriptional readthrough from the Tc promoter of the vector. Production of carboxypeptidase was shown to be induced (two-fold) by the presence of folic acid, and the mature protein was shown to be located in the periplasmic space of E. coli. Images PMID:6358192

  6. Alpha-keto acids are novel siderophores in the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella and are produced by amino acid deaminases.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, H; Thieken, A; Reissbrodt, R; Jung, G; Winkelmann, G

    1993-05-01

    Growth promotion and iron transport studies revealed that certain alpha-keto acids generated by amino acid deaminases, by enterobacteria of the Proteus-Providencia-Morganella group (of the tribe Proteeae), show significant siderophore activity. Their iron-binding properties were confirmed by the chrome azurol S assay and UV spectra. These compounds form ligand-to-metal charge transfer bands in the range of 400 to 500 nm. Additional absorption bands of the enolized ligands at 500 to 700 nm are responsible for color formation. Siderophore activity was most pronounced with alpha-keto acids possessing an aromatic or heteroaromatic side chain, like phenylpyruvic acid and indolylpyruvic acid, resulting from deamination of phenylalanine and tryptophan, respectively. In addition, alpha-keto acids possessing longer nonpolar side chains, like alpha-ketoisocaproic acid or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid and even alpha-ketoadipic acid, also showed siderophore activity which was absent or negligible with smaller alpha-keto acids or those possessing polar functional groups, like pyruvic acid, alpha-ketobutyric acid, or alpha-ketoglutaric acid. The fact that deaminase-negative enterobacteria, like Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., could not utilize alpha-keto acids supports the view that specific iron-carboxylate transport systems have evolved in members of the tribe Proteeae and are designed to recognize ferric complexes of both alpha-hydroxy acids and alpha-keto acids, of which the latter can easily be generated by L-amino acid deaminases in an amino acid-rich medium. Exogenous siderophores, like ferric hydroxamates (ferrichromes) and ferric polycarboxylates (rhizoferrin and citrate), were also utilized by members of the tribe Proteeae. PMID:8478334

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of pyoverdin siderophores differentiate among phytopathogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas Species.

    PubMed

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2003-02-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two beta-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

  8. Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., a novel species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Singer, Elisabeth; Geoffroy, Valerie; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Izard, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    Twenty-two fluorescent pseudomonad strains of clinical origin received as Pseudomonas fluorescens (10 strains), Pseudomonasputida (10 strains) and Pseudomonas sp. (2 strains), and 33 type strains of the genus Pseudomonas were studied by numerical analysis based on 280 phenotypic characters. Twelve of the 22 clinical isolates clustered within a specific group, cluster IV. The other strains clustered within groups containing well-characterized fluorescent Pseudomonas species or did not cluster. Strains belonging to cluster IV were phenotypically different from all other clusters and subclusters of fluorescent pseudomonads. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that cluster IV corresponded to a genomic group sharing 72-100% DNA relatedness. DNA-DNA hybridization values with 67 strains representing 30 species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto, including six recently described species (Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas rhodesiae, Pseudomonas libanensis, 'Pseudomonas orientalis', 'Pseudomonas cedrella' and Pseudomonas monteilii), were below 49%, the value found for P. monteilii. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 63 mol%. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain of cluster IV (CFML 90-83T) with sequences of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that strain CFML 90-83T was part of the P. fluorescens intrageneric cluster. On the basis of phenotypic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel species, Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., is proposed for the 12 strains of cluster IV. The type strain is P. mosselii CFML 90-83T (= ATCC BAA-99T = CIP 105259T). The P. mosselii strains are phenotypically homogeneous and can be differentiated from other fluorescent species by several phenotypic features, including pyoverdine typing. PMID:11931144

  9. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses of Pyoverdin Siderophores Differentiate among Phytopathogenic Fluorescent Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two ?-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

  10. Succession of Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. and Actinomycetes on Barley Roots Affected by the Antagonistic Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and the Fungicide Imazalil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAILA THIRUP; KAARE JOHNSEN; ANNE WINDING

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of bacteria for biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi has increased. We studied the possible side effects of coating barley seeds with the antagonistic strain Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 or a commercial fungicide, imazalil. This was done by monitoring the number of indigenous Pseudomonas organisms and actinomycetes on barley roots during growth in soil,

  11. The fate and origin of the nuclear envelope during and after mitosis in Amoeba proteus. I. Synthesis and behavior of phospholipids of the nuclear envelope during the cell life cycle

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and behavior of Amoeba proteus nuclear envelope (NE) phospholipids were studied. Most NE phospholipid synthesis occurs during G2 and little during mitosis or S. (A. proteus has no G1 phase). Autoradiographic observations after implantation of [3-H] choline nuclei into unlabeled cells reveal little turnover of NE phospholipid during interphase but during mitosis all the label is dispersed through the cytoplasm. Beginning at telophase all the label is dispersed through the cytoplasm. Beginning at telophase all the NE phospholipid label returns to the daughter NEs. This observation, along with the finding that no NE phospholipid synthesis occurs during mitosis or S, indicates that no de novo NE phospholipid production is required for newly forming NEs. Similarlyemetine, at concentrations that inhibit 97 percent of protein synthesis, does not prevent the post mitotic formation of NEs, suggesting that previously manufactured proteins are used in making new NEs. If a nucleus containing labeled NE phospholipids is transplanted into an unlabeled nucleate cell and the cell is allowed to grow and divide, the resultant four nuclei are equally labeled. This finding supports, but does not prove (see next paragraph), the conclusion that there probably is no continuity of the A. proteus NE during mitosis. When a phospholipid-labeled nucleus is implanted into a cell in mitosis, the grafted nucleus is not induced to enter mitosis. There is, however, a marked increase in the turnover of that nucleus's NE phospholipids with no apparent breakdown of the NE; this indicated that the mitotic cytoplasm possesses a factor that stimulates NE phospholipid exchange with the cytoplasm. That enhanced turnover is not accompanied by visible structural alteration makes less certain the earlier conclusion that no NE continuity exists during mitosis. Perhaps the most important finding in this study is that there are present, at restricted times in the cell cycle, factors capable of inducing accelerated exchange of structural components without microscopically detectable disruptions of structure. PMID:805790

  12. Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    McClay, K.; Streger, S.H.; Steffan, R.J. [Envirogen Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Posttranslational modification of myxobacterial carrier protein domains in Pseudomonas sp. by an intrinsic phosphopantetheinyl transferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Gross; Daniela Gottschalk; Rolf Müller

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM10701 to posttranslationally activate carrier protein (CP) domains of various polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and fatty acid synthase by their intrinsic phosphopantetheinyl transferase. The apo-form is modified to the holo-form of the CP by attaching a phosphopantetheine moiety from coenzymeA to a conserved

  14. Biodegradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 NC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robertcyril S. Hoskeri; Sikandar I. Mulla; Yogesh S. Shouche; Harichandra Z. Ninnekar

    2011-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of degrading chloroaromatic compounds was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluents by selective\\u000a enrichment on 4-chlorobenzoic acid as sole source of carbon and energy. The four different bacterial isolates obtained from\\u000a bacterial consortium were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa AY792969 (A), P.\\u000a aeruginosa PA01 NC (B), Pseudomonas sp. ZZ5 DQ113452 (C) and Pseudomonas sp. AY762360 (D)

  15. Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas strain promoting rice growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sajjad Mirza; Samina Mehnaz; Philippe Normand; Claire Prigent-Combaret; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; René Bally; Kauser A. Malik

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the genus Pseudomonas have received little attention so far. In the present study, a nitrogen-fixing phytohormone-producing bacterial isolate from kallar grass (strain K1) was identified as Pseudomonas sp. by rrs (16S ribosomal RNA gene) sequence analysis. rrs identity level was high with an uncharacterized marine bacterium (99%), Pseudomonas sp. PCP2 (98%), uncultured bacteria (98%),

  16. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses of Pyoverdin Siderophores Differentiate among Phytopathogenic Fluorescent Pseudomonas Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Bultreys; Isabelle Gheysen; Bernard Wathelet; Henri Maraite; E. de Hoffmann

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differen- tiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali,

  17. Intra- and Intergeneric Similarities of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Cistrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. DE VOS; J. DE LEY

    1983-01-01

    We hybridized 23s 2- 14C-labeled ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) from type strains Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Pseudomonas acidovorans ATCC 15668, Pseudomonas solanacearum NCPPB 325, and Xanthomonas campestris NCPPB 528 with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) from 65 Pseudomo- nus strains, 23 Xanthomonas strains, and 148 mostly gram-negative strains belonging to 43 genera and 93 species and subspecies including more than 60 type

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomass yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Abdul Jaleel; P. Manivannan; B. Sankar; A. Kishorekumar; R. Gopi; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

    2007-01-01

    The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) like Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth parameters and the production of ajmalicine were investigated in Catharanthus roseus under drought stress. The plants under pot culture were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 1mgl?1 and 1mgl?1Pseudomonas fluorescens alone from 30 days after

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in an intrathecal baclofen pump: successful treatment with adjunct intra-reservoir gentamicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Galloway; FZ Falope

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the use of intra-reservoir gentamicin for the treatment of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected baclofen pump.Setting: Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Hexham, Northumberland, England.Subject: Male patient aged 32 years with progressive multiple sclerosis and severe bilateral spasticity.Results: Intra-reservoir gentamicin proved successful in treating infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Conclusion: Intra-reservoir gentamicin may be successful in treating pump infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  20. DNA hybridization probe for the Pseudomonas fluorescens group.

    PubMed Central

    Festl, H; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H

    1986-01-01

    Plasmid pHF360 was constructed from cloned rRNA genes (rDNA) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and used as hybridization probe for the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The probe was tested by dot and in situ colony hybridizations to chromosomal DNAs from a wide variety of organisms. pHF360 DNA hybridized exclusively to chromosomal DNAs from bacteria representing the P. fluorescens group and separated them clearly from all other bacteria tested in the present study. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA showed that it is a fragment from a 23S rRNA gene of P. aeruginosa. It was compared with the published 23S RNA sequence from Escherichia coli. Images PMID:3098169

  1. Genomic plasticity and catabolic potential of Pseudomonas cepacia

    SciTech Connect

    Lessie, T.G.

    1996-04-01

    The primary goal of this project was to gain information about the size and organization of the genome of Burkholderia cepacia (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia), a microbe which continues to attract attention because of its extraordinary degradative abilities and potential as an agent of bioremediation. This bacterium is no longer considered to be a member of genus Pseudomonas nor does it belong in the gamma-subclass of the proteobacteria, in which the authentic pseudomonads are grouped. It belongs in the less well characterized beta-subclass of the proteobacteria. Technology for manipulation of large DNA fragments developed by Cantor was used to demonstrate that chromosomal multiplicity, a characteristic yet to be observed in a gamma-subclass bacterium, is common among B. cepacia strains. A derivative of Tn5 suitable for determining the chromosomal locations of various B. cepacia genes was also constructed.

  2. Branched chain amino acid aminotransferase isoenzymes of Pseudomonas cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Wong; T. G. Lessie

    1979-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia grew rapidly using a mixture of all three branched chain amino acids as carbon source, but failed to use individual branched chain amino acids as sole carbon source. Extracts of bacteria grown on branched chain amino acids had between 2- and 3-fold higher levels of a-ketoglutarate-dependent branched chain amino acid aminotransferase activity than extracts of glucose-grown bacteria. The

  3. Latent infection of potato tubers by Pseudomonas solanacearum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Ciampi; Luis Sequeira; E. R. French

    1980-01-01

    Strains ofPseudomonas solanacearum differed in their ability to infect tubers of different resistant potato clones grown in infested soil. When eight resistant\\u000a clones (Solanum phureja orS.phureja ×S. tuberosum hybrids) were grown at 24–28°C in soil infested with a race 1 or a race 3 strain of the bacterium, relatively few plants\\u000a had wilt symptoms at harvest, but 26.7% and 9.2%

  4. Measuring antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Poloxamer 407 gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Yamada; Naohito Koike; Tomoko Ehara; Tetsuya Matsumoto

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes various opportunistic infections. Chronic and intractable infections with P. aeruginosa are closely related to the high levels of resistance displayed by this organism to antimicrobial agents and its ability to\\u000a form biofilms. Although the standard method for examining antimicrobial resistance involves susceptibility testing using Mueller–Hinton\\u000a agar or broth, this method does not

  5. Treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation in cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Steinkamp; B Tümmler; R Malottke; H von der Hardt

    1989-01-01

    To test whether early treatment could postpone the chronic colonisation of the respiratory tract with mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis, we performed a pilot study in 28 patients aged 2 to 18 years. A two week course of azlocillin (150 mg\\/kg\\/day) and tobramycin (10 to 15 mg\\/kg\\/day) was given after a mean duration of P

  6. Detection of Pseudomonas pseudomallei by PCR and hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Lew, A E; Desmarchelier, P M

    1994-01-01

    A molecular method for the detection of Pseudomonas pseudomallei was developed on the basis of the differences in the 23S rRNA sequences of related species of the genus Pseudomonas. An 18-base oligonucleotide probe, designed following partial sequencing of 23s ribosomal DNA (rDNA), was used for the identification and detection of P. pseudomallei either by hybridization or by direct PCR. Optimal detection was obtained by hybridization of the probe with PCR-amplified rDNA rather than with total genomic DNA or colony blots. One nanogram of template DNA amplified in a PCR mixture containing 14% glycerol could be detected in slot blots hybridized with the digoxigenin-labelled probe and the lumigen PPD detection system. Amplified rDNA sequences from 41 P. pseudomallei strains of various origins hybridized with the probe. The probe also hybridized with three Pseudomonas mallei reference strains under conditions of high stringency but failed to hybridize with amplified rDNA sequences from other closely related Pseudomonas spp. PCR with a conserved primer and the 18-base oligonucleotide probe (direct PCR) specifically amplified P. pseudomallei and P. mallei. By using these methods, approximately 10(4) P. pseudomallei cells per ml could be detected in artificially inoculated blood samples and in blood dried on filter paper following Chelex extraction. The detection limit in blood was increased to 10(2) cells per ml by concentration of bacteria from 0.5 ml of blood or by a 24-h blood culture enrichment prior to PCR. Approximately 10(3) cells per ml were detected in seeded sputum samples. The detection times by direct PCR and indirect PCR and then probe hybridization were approximately 5 h and 24 h, respectively. These results indicate that amplification of conserved rDNA sequences by PCR directly or by hybridization with a probe to PCR fragments offers promise for the detection of P. pseudomallei and P. mallei. Images PMID:7519629

  7. RecTE(Psy)-mediated recombineering in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Swingle, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed Pseudomonas syringae recombineering system simplifies the procedure for installing specific mutations at a chosen genomic locus. The procedure involves transforming P. syringae cells expressing recombineering functions with a PCR product that contains desired changes flanked by sequences homologous to a target location. Cells transformed with the substrate undergo homologous recombination between the genomic DNA and the recombineering substrate. The recombinants are found by selection for traits carried by the recombineering substrate, usually antibiotic resistance. PMID:24557893

  8. Regulation of las and rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVERETT C. PESCI; JAMES P. PEARSON; PATRICK C. SEED; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI

    1997-01-01

    The production of several virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is controlled according to cell density through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is comprised of the transcriptional activator protein LasR and of LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer PAI-1. Similarly, the rhl system consists of the transcriptional activator protein RhlR and of RhlI, which directs

  9. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Larkin; Marga Wilkens; Gerrit J. Poelarends; Jan Dirk van Elsas; Dick B. Janssen

    1998-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii 170, isolated from soil that was repeatedly treated with the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, could utilize low concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain 170 was also able to grow on 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3-chloroacrylic acid, and several 1-halo-n-alkanes. This organism produced at least three different dehalogenases: a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase specific for haloalkanes

  10. Biodegradation of 4-nitrotoluene by pseudomonas sp. strain 4NT

    SciTech Connect

    Haigler, B.E.; Spain, J.C. (Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds, common intermediates or by-products in synthesis of dyes, solvents, and explosives, has resulting in their emergence as environmental contaminants. Bacterial strains able to degrade 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT) have been isolated. The present study reports the complete degradative pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain 4NT that uses 4-NT as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Degradation of phenol and phenolic compounds by Pseudomonas putida EKII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christel Hinteregger; Raimund Leitner; Michael Loidl; Andreas Ferschl; Franz Streichsbier

    1992-01-01

    The phenol-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida EKII was isolated from a soil enrichment culture and utilized phenol up to 10.6 mM (1.0 g·1 -1) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Furthermore, cresols, chlorophenols, 3,4-dimethylphenol, and 4-chloro-m-cresol were metabolized as sole substrates by phenol-grown resting cells of strain EKII. Under conditions of cell growth, degradation of these xenobiotics was achieved

  12. Phospholipid Biosynthesis and Solvent Tolerance in Pseudomonas putida Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOLLY C. PINKART; DAVID C. WHITE

    1997-01-01

    The role of the cell envelope in the solvent tolerance mechanisms of Pseudomonas putida was investigated. The responses of a solvent-tolerant strain, P. putida Idaho, and a solvent-sensitive strain, P. putida MW1200, were examined in terms of phospholipid content and composition and of phospholipid biosynthetic rate following exposure to a nonmetabolizable solvent, o-xylene. Following o-xylene exposure, P. putida MW1200 exhibited

  13. Molecular analysis of the soluble butane monooxygenase from 'Pseudomonas butanovora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam K. Sluis; Luis A. Sayavedra-Soto; Daniel J. Arp

    2002-01-01

    'Pseudomonas butanovora' is capable of growth with butane via the oxidation of butane to 1-butanol, which is catalysed by a soluble butane monooxygenase (sBMO). In vitro oxidation of ethylene (an alternative substrate for sBMO) was reconstituted in the soluble portion of cell extracts and was NADH-dependent. Butane monooxygenase was separated into three components which were obligately required for substrate oxidation.

  14. Membrane proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Dé, E; Cosette, P; Coquet, L; Siroy, A; Alexandre, S; Duncan, A; Naudin, B; Rihouey, C; Schaumann, A; Junter, G A; Jouenne, T

    2011-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known for their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Between mechanisms involved in this resistance, diminished expression of outer membrane proteins and up-regulation of efflux pumps play an important role. The characterization of membrane proteins is consequently necessary because of their importance in the antibiotic resistance but also in virulence. This review presents proteomic investigations aiming to describe the protein content of the membranes of these two bacterial species. PMID:19942379

  15. Wettability of Aqueous Rhamnolipids Solutions Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha G. V. A. O. Costa; Sandro R. de Souza; Marcia Nitschke; Sandra Mara M. Franchetti; Miguel Jafelicci; Roberta B. Lovaglio; Jonas Contiero

    2009-01-01

    The wetting behavior of rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI strain grown on waste oil substrate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), poly(vinyl\\u000a chloride) (PVC), poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and polymer blend (PVC–PCL) was investigated by the measuring contact angle of\\u000a sessile drops, to determine the wetting characteristics of rhamnolipids. The comparison of the wetting profiles showed that

  16. Bilateral Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis following bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Salimi, Shabnam; Aghaee, Hossein; Naseripour, Masood

    2007-01-01

    A bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery (BSCS) was performed on a 67-year-old man. The surgeon had not changed the surgical settings in between the two procedures for the two eyes. The patient developed fulminant bilateral endophthalmitis a day following the BSCS. Intravitreal culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The source of infection was not found. Immediate bilateral vitrectomy and intravitreal, subconjunctival, topical and systemic antibiotic did not save the eyes. Patient ended up with bilateral visual loss. PMID:17699948

  17. Bilateral Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis following bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Shabnam; Aghaee, Hossein; Naseripour, Masood

    2007-01-01

    A bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery (BSCS) was performed on a 67-year-old man. The surgeon had not changed the surgical settings in between the two procedures for the two eyes. The patient developed fulminant bilateral endophthalmitis a day following the BSCS. Intravitreal culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The source of infection was not found. Immediate bilateral vitrectomy and intravitreal, subconjunctival, topical and systemic antibiotic did not save the eyes. Patient ended up with bilateral visual loss. PMID:17699948

  18. Secretins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : large holes in the outer membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilbert Bitter

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a large number of exoproteins, ranging from the ADP-ribosyltransferases exotoxin A and ExoS to degradative enzymes, such as elastase and chitinase. As it is a gram-negative bacterium, P. aeruginosa must be able to transport these exoproteins across both membranes of the cell envelope. In addition, also proteins that are part of cellular appendages, such as type IV

  19. Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghosh; A. Ganguli; A. K. Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to\\u000a conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin\\u000a polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent

  20. Biotransformation of nicotine by microorganism: the case of Pseudomonas spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjuan Li; Xuemei Li; Yanqing Duan; Ke-Qin Zhang; Jinkui Yang

    2010-01-01

    Several bacterial species are capable of using nicotine, the main alkaloid in tobacco plants, as a substrate for growth. The\\u000a dominant species include members of two genera, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. The degradation pathway and genetic structure of nicotine catabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans were recently reviewed (Brandsch Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:493–498, 2006). Here, we present up-to-date information on\\u000a biodegradation of nicotine

  1. Capability of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa to survive in chlorinated water.

    PubMed

    Grobe, S; Wingender, J; Flemming, H C

    2001-11-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are characterized by an overproduction of the extracellular polysaccharide alginate. When suspended into chlorinated swimming-pool water or drinking water samples, mucoid bacteria revealed enhanced survival compared with isogenic nonmucoid cells. Removal of slime from mucoid bacteria abolished chlorine resistance, addition of purified alginate to washed bacteria again enhanced survival. Thus, alginate-containing slime confers protection on P. aeruginosa against chlorine and may contribute to survival of these bacteria in chlorinated water systems. PMID:11759157

  2. A genetic basis for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm antibiotic resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thien-Fah Mah; Betsey Pitts; Brett Pellock; Graham C. Walker; Philip S. Stewart; George A. O'Toole

    2003-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached microbial communities with characteristic architecture and phenotypic and biochemical properties distinct from their free-swimming, planktonic counterparts. One of the best-known of these biofilm-specific properties is the development of antibiotic resistance that can be up to 1,000-fold greater than planktonic cells. We report a genetic determinant of this high-level resistance in the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We

  3. Genome sequence of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A; Giddens, Stephen R; Coppoolse, Eric R; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J; Rainey, Paul B; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765

  4. Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P.; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A.; Giddens, Stephen R.; Coppoolse, Eric R.; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J.; Rainey, Paul B.; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765

  5. Pseudomonas lundensis, a New Bacterial Species Isolated from Meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. MOLIN; A. TERNSTROM; J. URSING

    We propose the name Pseudomonas lundensis for a new species of gram-negative, polarly flagellated, chemoorganotrophic, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated from refrigerated meat. Strains of P. lundensis are capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism; they grow at O'C, produce fluorescent pigments, catalase, and cytochrome c oxidase, and possess an arginine dihydrolase system. The mean guanine-plus- cytosine content of the

  6. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infections in Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Davidson; Andrew J. Currie; David P. Speert

    \\u000a In Canada and the United States, more than 30,000 people suffer from cystic fibrosis (CF); it is therefore the most common\\u000a potentially fatal inherited disease among Caucasians in those North American countries. Infection of the lung is the leading\\u000a cause of death in patients with CF, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant infectious agent. Whereas CF patients may become infected

  7. Structural genes for salicylate biosynthesis from chorismate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Serino; Cornelia Reimmann; Heinz Baur; Markus Beyeler; Paolo Visca; Dieter Haas

    1995-01-01

    Salicylate is a precursor of pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both compounds display siderophore activity. To elucidate the salicylate biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal region of P. aeruginosa PAO1 containing two adjacent genes, designated pchB and pchA, which are necessary for salicylate formation. The pchA gene encodes a protein of 52 kDa with extensive similarity to

  8. Inhibitor Complexes of the Pseudomonas Serine-Carboxyl Proteinase Alexander Wlodawer,*, Mi Li,, Alla Gustchina, Zbigniew Dauter,| Kenichi Uchida, Hiroshi Oyama,#

    E-print Network

    ceroid lipofuscinosis (11). Lys60 and Lys45, markers for late lysosomes in Amoeba proteus (12), are also, when mutated, leads to a fatal human neurodegenerative disease, classical late-infantile neuronal

  9. Siderophore production and utilization by milk spoilage Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Luke, R K J

    2010-04-01

    Many bacteria respond to potentially growth-limiting availability of iron by producing low-molecular-weight iron chelators (siderophores). The aim of this work was to examine the siderophores synthesized and utilized by Pseudomonas spp. implicated in milk spoilage. Twenty isolates of Pseudomonas spp. previously shown to have significant milk spoilage potential were tested for the ability to produce siderophores. Of these, 14 produced pyoverdin and 2 of these also produced pyochelin; 1 produced only pyochelin; 1 produced only salicylate; 2 produced non-pyoverdin, hydroxamate-containing siderophore; and 2 produced chrome azurol sulfonate reactive material that was neither pyoverdin nor pyochelin. There was considerable diversity among the pyoverdins produced. All isolates were shown to utilize iron complexed with exogenous pyoverdin, but usage of particular exogenous pyoverdins differed among isolates. Interference with the iron-uptake systems of the Pseudomonas spp. may be a means by which food spoilage can be slowed, and the pyoverdin system would appear to be a potential target. However, given the diversity of pyoverdins produced and utilized, and the presence of other siderophores, successful interference with bacterial iron acquisition in this context may be challenging. PMID:20338412

  10. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  11. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  12. Aerobic Microbial Community of Insectary Population of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hajikhani, Sara; Saeidi, Zahra; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Gerami-Shoar, Mohsen; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan; Yakhchali, Bagher; Rassi, Yavar; Afshar, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbes particularly bacteria presenting in the gut of haematophagous insects may have an important role in the epidemiology of human infectious disease. Methods: The microbial flora of gut and surrounding environmental of a laboratory strain of Phlebotomus papatasi, the main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the old world, was investigated. Biochemical reactions and 16s rDNA sequencing of the isolated bacteria against 24 sugars and amino acids were used for bacteria species identification. Common mycological media used for fungi identification as well. Results: Most isolates belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae, a large, heterogeneous group of gram-negative rods whose natural habitat is the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Enterobacteriaceae groups included Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Leminorella, Pantoea, Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella, Serratia, Shigella, Tatumella, and Yersinia and non Enterobacteriaceae groups included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. The most prevalent isolates were Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. These saprophytic and swarming motile bacteria were isolated from all immature, pupae, and mature fed or unfed male or female sand flies as well as from larval and adult food sources. Five fungi species were also isolated from sand flies, their food sources and colonization materials where Candida sp. was common in all mentioned sources. Conclusion: Midgut microbiota are increasingly seen as an important factor for modulating vector competence in insect vectors so their possible effects of the mirobiota on the biology of P. papatasi and their roles in the sandfly-Leishmania interaction are discussed. PMID:25629067

  13. A Novel Alginate Lyase with High Activity on Acetylated Alginate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 from Pseudomonas sp. QD03

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Xiao; Feng Han; Zhao Yang; Xin-zhi Lu; Wen-gong Yu

    2006-01-01

    Summary  To exploit alginate lyase which could degrade bacterial alginates, degenerate PCR and long range-inverse PCR (LR-IPCR) were\\u000a used to isolate alginate lyase genes from soil bacteria. Gene algL, an alginate lyase-encoding gene from Pseudomonas sp. QD03 was cloned, and it was composed of a 1122 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 373 amino acid residues with the\\u000a calculated molecular mass of

  14. Succession of Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. and Actinomycetes on Barley Roots Affected by the Antagonistic Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and the Fungicide Imazalil

    PubMed Central

    Thirup, Laila; Johnsen, Kaare; Winding, Anne

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of bacteria for biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi has increased. We studied the possible side effects of coating barley seeds with the antagonistic strain Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 or a commercial fungicide, imazalil. This was done by monitoring the number of indigenous Pseudomonas organisms and actinomycetes on barley roots during growth in soil, harvest after 50 days, and subsequent decomposition. Bacteria were enumerated by traditional plate spreading on Gould's S1 agar (Pseudomonas) and as filamentous colonies on Winogradsky agar (actinomycetes) and by two quantitative competitive PCR assays. For this we developed an assay targeting Streptomyces and closely related genera. DR54 constituted more than 75% of the Pseudomonas population at the root base during the first 21 days but decreased to less than 10% at day 50. DR54 was not successful in colonizing root tips. Initially, DR54 affected the number of indigenous Pseudomonas organisms negatively, whereas imazalil affected Pseudomonas numbers positively, but the effects were transient. Although plate counts were considerably lower than the number of DNA copies, the two methods correlated well for Pseudomonas during plant growth, but after plant harvest Pseudomonas-specific DNA copy numbers decreased while plate counts were in the same magnitude as before. Hence, Pseudomonas was 10-fold more culturable in a decomposition environment than in the rhizosphere. The abundance of actinomycetes was unaffected by DR54 or imazalil amendments, and CFU and quantitative PCR results correlated throughout the experiment. The abundance of actinomycetes increased gradually, mostly in numbers of DNA copies, confirming their role in colonizing old roots. PMID:11229904

  15. A HIGHLY SELECTIVE PCR PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING 16S RRNA GENES OF THE GENUS PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas species are plant, animal, and human pathogens; exhibit plant pathogen-suppressing properties useful in biological control; or express metabolic versatilities valued in biotechnology and bioremediation. Specific detection of Pseudomonas species in the environment may ...

  16. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Flavonoids of Withania Somnifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Kumar, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study antimicrobial activity of Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae) has been evaluated against selected pathogens. Free and bound flavonoids of different parts (root, stem, leaf and fruit) of W. somnifera have been studied for their antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion assay against three Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 46, Proteus mirabilis MTCC 3310 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1934), one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160) and three fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183, Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 282). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by sub culturing the relevant samples. C. albicans was found to be the most susceptible organism followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Out of the tested organisms, A flavus and A. niger were observed to be resistant as none of the tested extracts showed activity against them. Total activity (TA) of extracts (ml/g) against each sensitive pathogens was also evaluated. Bound flavonoid extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (IZ 30, MIC 0.039, MFC 0.039, respectively). However all the microorganisms were found to be sensitive against the extracts tested. Total activity of bound flavonoid extract of root was found to be same for E.coli, P. mirabilis, S. aureus and C. albicans (153.84 ml/g). Results of the present study reveal that extracts of W. somnifera showing great antimicrobial potential against test microorganisms may be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs. PMID:22707839

  17. Growth promotion of Vigna mungo (L.) by Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahzadi Noreen; Basharat Ali; Shahida Hasnain

    Auxin production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of rhizobacteria are very important plant growth promoting\\u000a attributes. In the present study, Pseudomonas strains exhibiting these traits were evaluated for their growth promoting effects on Vigna mungo (L.). Colorimetric analysis revealed that Pseudomonas alcaliphila AvR-2, Pseudomonas sp. AvH-4 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa As-17, respectively, produced 40.30, 32.90 and 36.50 ?g auxin ml?1 in the presence

  18. Inducible AmpC Beta-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated In A Rural Hospital Of Central India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BASAK S; KHODKE M; BOSE S; MALLICK SK

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most common pathogen causing nosocomial infections, shows increasing resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics especially by producing AmpC ?-lactamase. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of inducible AmpC ?-lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in our hospital and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to newer antipseudomonal antibiotics. Consecutive 244 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were studied. Isolates showing blunting

  19. Dual inoculation of pretransplant stage Oryza sativa L. plants with indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivcharn S. Dhillion

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants at the pretransplant\\/nursery stage to inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., singly or in combination. The VAM fungi and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice plants. In the plants grown in soil inoculated with fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. alone, I found increases

  20. A Mathematical model to investigate quorum sensing regulation and its heterogenecity in pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a plant-pathogen, which through quorum sensing (QS), controls virulence. In this paper, by means of mathematical modeling, we investigate QS of this bacterium when living on leaf surfaces. We extend an existing stochastic model for the formation of Pseudomonas s...

  1. Genome and Transcriptome Sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B301D-R.

    PubMed

    Dudnik, Alexey; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Strains of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are commonly found in the phylosphere and are able to infect a number of agriculturally important crops. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B301D-R, isolated from pears, which is a model strain for phytotoxin research in P. syringae. PMID:24723725

  2. Genome and Transcriptome Sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B301D-R

    PubMed Central

    Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Strains of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are commonly found in the phylosphere and are able to infect a number of agriculturally important crops. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B301D-R, isolated from pears, which is a model strain for phytotoxin research in P. syringae. PMID:24723725

  3. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Syringae Strain SM, Isolated from Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Dudnik, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is one of the most widespread plant pathogens that can cause significant damage to crop plantations. Here, we announce a noncontiguous finished genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain SM, isolated from hexaploid wheat. The genome sequence revealed the smallest described complement of type III effectors. PMID:23950121

  4. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elastase, Alkaline Protease, and Exotoxin A on Corneal Proteinases and Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally S. Twining; Susan E. Kirschner; Lisa A. Mahnke; Dara W. Frankf

    Purpose. To determine the effects of exoproducts from the corneal pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa on corneal proteinases and proteins. Methods. Whole rabbit corneas were cultured in the presence or absence of broths conditioned with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elastase, alkaline protease, and exotoxin A. Protein synthesis was assayed by adding 35S-methionine during the last 6 hours of culture. Caseinolytic assays and zymography on

  5. Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov., isolated from soil at a coal gasification site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren M. Andersen; Kaare Johnsen; Jan Sørensen; Preben Nielsen; Carsten S. Jacobsen

    2000-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that a group of 29 closely related phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from a coal gasification site in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. The strains were isolated at two sampling occasions 2 years apart. The isolates were phenotypically different from any known species of the genus Pseudomonas and were therefore subject to further identification. Colonies

  6. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genomic sequences of several Pseudomonas spp. that live in a commensal relationship with plants are now available. Among these is the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Nearly 6% of the 7.07 Mb genome of Pf-5 is devoted to the biosynthesis of secondary metaboli...

  7. Genomic diversity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from aerial or root surfaces of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the diverse strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas chlororaphis inhabiting plant surfaces are those that protect plants from infection by pathogens. To explore the diversity of these bacteria, we derived genomic sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. Along with t...

  8. Loss of Social Behaviours in Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Lungs of Patients with Cystic

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Loss of Social Behaviours in Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Lungs of Patients, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing the behaviour of P. aeruginosa in lung infections. Citation: Jiricny N, Molin S, Foster K, Diggle SP, Scanlan PD

  9. Effector Mechanisms of Protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis in Immunized Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Thakur; J. Kyd; M. Xue; M. D. P. Willcox; A. Cripps

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which causes sight-threatening corneal infections in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various immunization routes that may provide protection against Pseudomonas keratitis and to define the molecular mechanisms involved in the protection. Sprague- Dawley rats (10 to 12 weeks old) were immunized using paraformaldehyde-killed P. aeruginosa (strain 6206) via oral, nasal,

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phenanthrene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas biovars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Johnsen; S. Andersen; C. S. Jacobsen

    1996-01-01

    The genus Pseudomonas is a group of gram-negative motile rods know for large metabolic versatility as well as pathogenicity to plants, animals and humans. A large number of bacteria from this group capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been isolated in soils and aquifers, but the identification is often conducted only to the Pseudomonas sp. level. This study aims

  11. Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

  12. Immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Noureddini; X. Gao; R. S. Philkana

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was studied. Of the nine lipases that were tested in the initial screening, lipase PS from Pseudomonas cepacia resulted in the highest yield of alkyl esters. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was further investigated in immobilized form within a chemically inert, hydrophobic sol–gel support. The gel-entrapped lipase was prepared by polycondensation of

  13. Regioselective acylation of nucleosides and their analogs catalyzed by Pseudomonas cepacia lipase: enzyme substrate recognition

    E-print Network

    Bao, Xinhe

    Regioselective acylation of nucleosides and their analogs catalyzed by Pseudomonas cepacia lipase: Floxuridine Lipase Nucleosides Regioselective acylation Substrate recognition a b s t r a c t The substrate recognition of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in the acylation of nucleosides was investigated by means

  14. [Mastitis following drying up associated with teat wipes contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Sol, J; Barkema, H W; Berghege, I M; Borst, G H; Hoornick, L J; Sampimon, O C

    1998-02-15

    On 6 Dutch dairy farms cows died of an acute, very serious mastitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This happened shortly after drying off with antibiotics. Before drying off the teat ends were cleaned with teat wipes contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:9537087

  15. Genomic Plasticity Enables Phenotypic Variation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    E-print Network

    Myers, Chris

    Genomic Plasticity Enables Phenotypic Variation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Zhongmeng University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America Abstract Whole genome sequencing revealed the presence of a genomic anomaly in the region of 4.7 to 4.9 Mb of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 genome

  16. Hearing loss and extent of labyrinthine injury in pseudomonas otitis media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Antonelli; John Malaty presenter; James Lee; Mei Zhang; Gary R. Stevens

    2004-01-01

    Problem: Semicircular canal transection (SCT), in the presence of chronic suppurative otitis media (OM), usually leads to permanent, profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Models have suggested that pseudomonas or its toxins may be responsible, but SCT, in the presence of pseudomonas OM in the guinea pig, usually does not result in profound SNHL. The purpose of this study was to

  17. The Nitrogen-Fixation Island Insertion Site Is Conserved in Diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Distal and Close Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Vamvakas, Alexandros; Katinaki, Pagona-Artemis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI) in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS) and glutathione peroxidise (gshP). The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution. PMID:25251496

  18. Effects of myxothiazol and 5-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole on the respiratory pathways of the phytopathogenic fluorescent bacteria Pseudomonas cichorii and Pseudomonas aptata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cocchi; D. Zannoni

    1985-01-01

    Myxothiazol inhibited the electron transport in the cytochrome b\\/c segment of membrane particles from Pseudomonas cichorii. A residual NADH-oxidation due to the presence of an alternative pathway via cytochrome o (Em,7=+250 mV) was sensitive to the quinone analog 5-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). This latter inhibitor was equally effective in blocking the linear respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aptata, a strain deficient in cytochromes

  19. Degradation of 3-phenylbutyric acid by Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Sariaslani, F S; Sudmeier, J L; Focht, D D

    1982-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. isolated by selective culture with 3-phenylbutyrate (3-PB) as the sole carbon source metabolized the compound through two different pathways by initial oxidation of the benzene ring and by initial oxidation of the side chain. During early exponential growth, a catechol substance identified as 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)butyrate (2,3-DHPB) and its meta-cleavage product 2-hydroxy-7-methyl-6-oxononadioic-2,4-dienoic acid were produced. These products disappeared during late exponential growth, and considerable amounts of 2,3-DHPB reacted to form brownish polymeric substances. The catechol intermediate 2,3-DHPB could not be isolated, but cell-free extracts were able only to oxidize 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate of all dihydroxy aromatic acids tested. Moreover, a reaction product caused by dehydration of 2,3-DHPB on silica gel was isolated and identified by spectral analysis as (--)-8-hydroxy-4-methyl-3,4-dihydrocoumarin. 3-Phenylpropionate and a hydroxycinnamate were found in supernatants of cultures grown on 3-PB; phenylacetate and benzoate were found in supernatants of cultures grown on 3-phenylpropionate; and phenylacetate was found in cultures grown on cinnamate. Cells grown on 3-PB rapidly oxidized 3-phenylpropionate, cinnamate, catechol, and 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate, whereas 2-phenylpropionate, 2,3-dihydroxycinnamate, benzoate, phenylacetate, and salicylate were oxidized at much slower rates. Phenylsuccinate was not utilized for growth nor was it oxidized by washed cell suspensions grown on 3-PB. However, dual axenic cultures of Pseudomonas acidovorans and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which could not grow on phenylsuccinate alone, could grow syntrophically and produced the same metabolites found during catabolism of 3-PB by Pseudomonas sp. Washed cell suspensions of dual axenic cultures also immediately oxidized phenylsuccinate, 3-phenylpropionate, cinnamate, phenylacetate, and benzoate. PMID:7118830

  20. Biocontrol traits of Pseudomonas spp. are regulated by phase variation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Daan; Chin-A-Woeng, Thomas F C; Eijkemans, Kevin; Mulders, Ine H M; Bloemberg, Guido V; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

    2003-11-01

    Of 214 Pseudomonas strains isolated from maize rhizosphere, 46 turned out to be antagonistic, of which 43 displayed clear colony phase variation. The latter strains formed both opaque and translucent colonies, designated as phase I and phase II, respectively. It appeared that important biocontrol traits, such as motility and the production of antifungal metabolites, proteases, lipases, chitinases, and biosurfactants, are correlated with phase I morphology and are absent in bacteria with phase II morphology. From a Tn5luxAB transposon library of Pseudomonas sp. strain PCL1171 phase I cells, two mutants exhibiting stable expression of phase II had insertions in gacS. A third mutant, which showed an increased colony phase variation frequency was mutated in mutS. Inoculation of wheat seeds with PCL1171 bacteria of phase I morphology resulted in efficient suppression of take-all disease, whereas disease suppression was absent with phase II bacteria. Neither the gacS nor the mutS mutant was able to suppress take-all, but biocontrol activity was restored after genetic complementation of these mutants. Furthermore, in a number of cases, complementation by gacS of wild-type phase II sectors to phase I phenotype could be shown. A PCL1171 phase I mutant defective in antagonistic activity appeared to have a mutation in a gene encoding a lipopeptide synthetase homologue and had lost its biocontrol activity, suggesting that biocontrol by strain PCL1171 is dependent on the production of a lipopeptide. Our results show that colony phase variation plays a regulatory role in biocontrol by Pseudomonas bacteria by influencing the expression of major biocontrol traits and that the gacS and mutS genes play a role in the colony phase variation process. Therefore phase variation not only plays a role in escaping animal defense but it also appears to play a much broader and vital role in the ecology of bacteria producing exoenzymes, antibiotics, and other secondary metabolites. PMID:14601668

  1. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Milk

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, Martin; Weilmeier, Denise; Dineen, Sean S.; Ralyea, Robert; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2000-01-01

    Putative Pseudomonas spp. isolated predominantly from raw and processed milk were characterized by automated ribotyping and by biochemical reactions. Isolates were biochemically profiled using the Biolog system and API 20 NE and by determining the production of proteases, lipases, and lecithinases for each isolate. Isolates grouped into five coherent clusters, predominated by the species P. putida (cluster A), P. fluorescens (cluster B), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. fluorescens (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster C), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. putida (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster D), and P. fluorescens (cluster E). Isolates within each cluster also displayed similar enzyme activities. Isolates in clusters A, C, and D were generally negative for all three enzyme activities; isolates in cluster B were predominantly positive for all three enzyme activities; and isolates in cluster E were negative for lecithinase but predominantly positive for protease and lipase activities. Thus, only isolates from clusters B and E produced enzyme activities associated with dairy product flavor defects. Thirty-eight ribogroups were differentiated among the 70 isolates. Ribotyping was highly discriminatory for dairy Pseudomonas isolates, with a Simpson's index of discrimination of 0.955. Isolates of the same ribotype were never classified into different clusters, and ribotypes within a given cluster generally showed similar ribotype patterns; thus, specific ribotype fragments may be useful markers for tracking the sources of pseudomonads in dairy production systems. Our results suggest that ribogroups are generally homogeneous with respect to nomenspecies and biovars, confirming the identification potential of ribotyping for Pseudomonas spp. PMID:10788386

  2. The case for the defense: plants versus Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Rathjen, John P

    2010-06-01

    Incredible progress has been made over the last 20 years in understanding the components and mechanisms governing plant innate immunity. The most important discoveries concern pathogen recognition mechanisms, which divide perception of conserved elicitors at the cell periphery, and recognition of variable elicitors within the host cytoplasm. The underlying mechanisms of immunity post elicitation are complex and poorly defined. This review highlights emergent themes in plant-microbe interactions with a particular focus on the plant immune responses against infection by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:20214999

  3. Genetic Control of the ?-Ketoadipate Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.; Hegeman, G. D.

    1968-01-01

    The regulation and genetic control of the ?-ketoadipate pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The pattern of enzyme induction is apparently the same as in P. putida. Mutants were obtained for all but 1 of the 11 structural genes; the proximity of these genes on the chromosome was examined by transduction of the mutants with phage F116. If a group of enzymes was induced by the same compounds, the corresponding genes were closely clustered. Surprisingly, some locispecifying enzymes not sharing a common inducer were also clustered. It is suggested that this latter finding may indicate a degree of chromosomal specialization. PMID:4973125

  4. Early Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Bridget; Lin, Jenny H.; Mogayzel, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant organism infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This organism has an armamentarium of survival mechanisms that allows it to survive in the CF airway. Since colonization and chronic infection with Pa is associated with poorer lung function and increased morbidity and mortality, therapies that can prevent infection could significantly improve the lives of patients with CF. Numerous studies have examined the effects of treatment on the eradication of Pa as a means to ameliorate disease. This article outlines the pathophysiology and clinical implication of Pa acquisition, and reviews the existing treatment regimens aimed at early eradication of Pa in patients with CF. PMID:20692633

  5. Reliable protein production in a Pseudomonas fluorescens expression system.

    PubMed

    Retallack, Diane M; Jin, Hongfan; Chew, Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    A bottleneck to product development can be reliable expression of active target protein. A wide array of recombinant proteins in development, including an ever growing number of non-natural proteins, is being expressed in a variety of expression systems. A Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform has been developed specifically for recombinant protein production. The development of an integrated molecular toolbox of expression elements and host strains, along with automation of strain screening is described. Examples of strain screening and scale-up experiments show rapid development of expression strains producing a wide variety of proteins in a soluble active form. PMID:21968453

  6. Degradation of 2-Chloroallylalcohol by a Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Waarde, J.J. van der; Kok, R.; Janssen, D.B. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1993-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants. Biodegradation can be useful in clean-up of contaminated water and soil, provided efficient microorganisms are available. This study describes microbial growth on 2-chloroallylalcohol and proposes a degradation pathway. Bacteria cultures able to grow on this substrate were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp. Degradation of the chemical (via 2-chloroacrylic acid) was accompanied by dechlorination, indicating detoxication. The results suggest that the catabolic pathway of chloroallyalcohol and its dechlorination are specific for this chlorinated compound.

  7. Penetration and growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in chicken eggs 

    E-print Network

    Mountney, George Joseph

    1957-01-01

    with these organisms aoquire an odor described as "sour", "fruity? , "fishy?, "cheesy?, or "cabbage water", and are inedible* There is as yet no practical means for detecting such eggs in the early stages of infection but by the use of an ultraviolet candler... the shells to crack* They also demonstrated that immer? sing eggs in a suspension of Pseudomonas at temperatures lower than the egg caused a high proportion of rots* Romanoff (1942) in attempting to use this method found it to be slow and inaccurate...

  8. Biodegradation of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Valli Nachiyar, C; Suseela Rajakumar, G

    2006-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from soil near tannery effluent was able to degrade 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANSA), a sulfonated aromatic amine. The organism degraded this amine up to a concentration of 1,200 mg l(-1) using glucose and ammonium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. The degradation started when the organism reached its late exponential growth phase. Salicylic acid and beta-ketoadipic acid were identified as intermediate compounds using HPLC and GC-MS and provide evidence for ortho pathway reactions. Further proof for the pathway is obtained from the dioxygenase activity of the strain growing exponentially in medium with ANSA and glucose. PMID:16683126

  9. Monitoring for genetically engineered pseudomonas species in monterey county

    SciTech Connect

    Supkoff, D.; Opgenorth, D.; Lai, C.; Segawa, R.; Koehler, D.

    1987-01-01

    A field monitoring study was conducted to determine if genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens or P. syringae had been applied to sites in Monterey County. A series of diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance, fluorescence ability, oxidase and arginine dihydrolase activities, hypersensitivity reaction and ice nucleation ability were conducted to screen bacteria isolated from field and control samples. No bacteria were detected from field samples which matched the expected test profiles of genetically altered bacterial products. In contrast, bacteria were consistently isolated from positive control samples with the expected characteristics of genetically altered bacteria.

  10. Crystal Structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factor Regulator ?†

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Timothy J.; Worzalla, Gregory A.; Ginster, Aaron M.; Forest, Katrina T.

    2011-01-01

    Virulence factor regulator (Vfr) enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity through its role as a global transcriptional regulator. The crystal structure of Vfr shows that it is a winged-helix DNA-binding protein like its homologue cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). In addition to an expected primary cyclic AMP-binding site, a second ligand-binding site is nestled between the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal helix-turn-helix domain. Unlike CRP, Vfr is a symmetric dimer in the absence of DNA. Removal of seven disordered N-terminal residues of Vfr prevents the growth of P. aeruginosa. PMID:21665969

  11. Genetic circularity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Royle, P L; Matsumoto, H; Holloway, B W

    1981-01-01

    Genetic circularity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO chromosome was demonstrated by a series of two- and three-factor crosses and double-selection experiments with Cma plasmids FP2, FP5, FP110, and R68.45. A range of additional markers, including catabolic markers, were located on the chromosome map. Plasmid FP2, known to have a major origin of chromosome transfer (0 min) was shown to have at least one other minor origin from which it can transfer the chromosome in the direction opposite to that found for the major origin. PMID:6780510

  12. Fatal suppurative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas in a chimpanzee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaki, G.; Asher, D.M.; Casey, H.W.; Locke, L.N.; Gibbs, C.J.; Gajdusek, C.

    1979-01-01

    Reports of nephritis in chimpanzees are relatively rare, compared with those in other nonhuman primates. McClure and Guilloud reported chronic pyelonephritis in a 35-year-old female chimpanzee; Schmidt and Butler reported glomerulonephritis in an 11-year-old female chimpanzee, and Kim reported on a 12-year-old male with subacute interstitial nephritis in a chimpanzee after the animal had recurrent hemolysis due to phenolic intoxication. The present report deals with supprative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas resulting in renal failure in a chimpanzee.

  13. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Production Is More Common among Plant-Associated Pseudomonas spp. than among Soilborne Pseudomonas spp.†

    PubMed Central

    Elasri, Miena; Delorme, Sandrine; Lemanceau, Philippe; Stewart, Gordon; Laue, Bridget; Glickmann, Eric; Oger, Phil M.; Dessaux, Yves

    2001-01-01

    A total of 137 soilborne and plant-associated bacterial strains belonging to different Pseudomonas species were tested for their ability to synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones (NAHL). Fifty-four strains synthesized NAHL. Interestingly, NAHL production appears to be more common among plant-associated than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp. Indeed, 40% of the analyzed Pseudomonas syringae strains produced NAHL which were identified most often as the short-chain NAHL, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone, and N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (no absolute correlation between genomospecies of P. syringae and their ability to produce NAHL could be found). Six strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, belonging to the species P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida, isolated from the plant rhizosphere produced different types of NAHL. In contrast, none of the strains isolated from soil samples were shown to produce NAHL. The gene encoding the NAHL synthase in P. syringae pv. maculicola was isolated by complementation of an NAHL-deficient Chromobacterium mutant. Sequence analysis revealed the existence of a luxI homologue that we named psmI. This gene is sufficient to confer NAHL synthesis upon its bacterial host and has strong homology to psyI and ahlI, two genes involved in NAHL production in P. syringae pv. tabaci and P. syringae pv. syringae, respectively. We identified another open reading frame that we termed psmR, transcribed convergently in relation to psmI and partly overlapping psmI; this gene encodes a putative LuxR regulatory protein. This gene organization, with luxI and luxR homologues facing each other and overlapping, has been found so far only in the enteric bacteria Erwinia and Pantoea and in the related species P. syringae pv. tabaci. PMID:11229911

  14. ppGpp accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens subjected to nutrient limitation and biocide exposure.

    PubMed

    Greenway, D L; England, R R

    1999-11-01

    The effect of a commonly used biocide, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) on ppGpp accumulation in the pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and an environmental isolate, Ps. fluorescens, was examined. It is concluded that BIT is able to induce a stringent response in Ps. aeruginosa and Ps. fluorescens, determined by the rapid accumulation of ppGpp following addition of BIT to exponentially-growing cells. Western blot analysis of whole-cell extracts with anti-RelA antibody demonstrated that both species contain a RelA homologue. This is the first report of a RelA-like protein in pseudomonads. PMID:10664969

  15. Denitration of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Pseudomonas savastanoi.

    PubMed

    Martin, J L; Comfort, S D; Shea, P J; Kokjohn, T A; Drijber, R A

    1997-05-01

    Past disposal of wastewaters containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) at the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant has resulted in numerous acres of TNT-contaminated soil. Examining the microbial population of these soils revealed several TNT-tolerant Pseudomonas spp. We selected one species, P. savastanoi, to determine its ability to transform TNT. Pure culture experiments were performed in pseudomonas minimal medium containing 0.31 mM TNT (70 mg TNT . L(-1)) under varied nutrient and cell density regimes. Experiments with TNT as a sole C or N source showed that P. savastanoi has the ability to denitrate TNT, as evidenced by production of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and NO2- with time. TNT denitration and formation of 2,4-DNT were enhanced by removing NH4+ and adding NO2- to the growth medium. In all experiments, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) appeared as incidental reduction products. Glucose addition to the medium enhanced 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT production and decreased denitration of TNT. Mid-log phase cells rapidly transformed [ring-14C(U)]TNT but were unable to mineralize significant quantities of TNT, as evidenced by conversion of less than 1% of the label to 14CO2. These results indicate that P. savastanoi is a TNT-tolerant pseudomonad that can promote TNT degradation through reductive denitration and nitro moiety reduction. PMID:9198535

  16. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    PubMed

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-07-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  17. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    PubMed Central

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-01-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  18. MexXY multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Anti-pseudomonas aminoglycosides, such as amikacin and tobramycin, are used in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. However, their use is linked to the development of resistance. During the last decade, the MexXY multidrug efflux system has been comprehensively studied, and numerous reports of laboratory and clinical isolates have been published. This system has been increasingly recognized as one of the primary determinants of aminoglycoside resistance in P. aeruginosa. In P. aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates, upregulation of the pump is considered the most common mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance. Non-fermentative Gram-negative pathogens possessing very close MexXY orthologs such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and various Burkholderia species (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. cepacia complexes), but not B. gladioli, are intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides. Here, we summarize the properties (e.g., discovery, mechanism, gene expression, clinical significance) of the P. aeruginosa MexXY pump and other aminoglycoside efflux pumps such as AcrD of Escherichia coli, AmrAB-OprA of B. pseudomallei, and AdeABC of Acinetobacter baumannii. MexXY inducibility of the PA5471 gene product, which is dependent on ribosome inhibition or oxidative stress, is noteworthy. Moreover, the discovery of the cognate outer membrane component (OprA) of MexXY in the multidrug-resistant clinical isolate PA7, serotype O12 deserves special attention. PMID:23233851

  19. Analysis of the structure of Pseudomonas glumae lipase.

    PubMed

    Noble, M E; Cleasby, A; Johnson, L N; Egmond, M R; Frenken, L G

    1994-04-01

    The lipase produced by Pseudomonas glumae is monomeric in the crystalline state and has a serine protease-like catalytic triad; Ser87-His285-Asp263. The largest domain of the protein resembles closely a subset of the frequently observed alpha/beta-hydrolase fold and contains a well-defined calcium site. This paper describes structural analysis of this protein, focusing on (i) structural comparison with the lipase from Geotrichum candidum, (ii) the probable nature of the conformational change involved in substrate binding and (iii) structural variations amongst the family of Pseudomonas lipases. This analysis reveals similarities between P. glumae lipase and G. candidum lipase involving secondary structural elements of the hydrolase core and the loops carrying the catalytic serine and histidine residues. A possible functional equivalence has also been identified between parts of the two molecules thought to be involved in a conformational change. In addition, determination of the structure of P. glumae lipase has allowed rationalization of previously reported protein engineering experiments, which succeeded in improving the stability of the enzyme with respect to proteolysis. PMID:8029212

  20. A Lung Segmental Model of Chronic Pseudomonas Infection in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Collie, David; Govan, John; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth; Tennant, Peter; Smith, Sionagh; Doherty, Catherine; McLachlan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity, mortality and premature death in cystic fibrosis. A new paradigm for managing such infections is needed, as are relevant and translatable animal models to identify and test concepts. We sought to improve on limitations associated with existing models of infection in small animals through developing a lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep. Methodology/Principal Findings Using local lung instillation of P. aeruginosa suspended in agar beads we were able to demonstrate that such infection led to the development of a suppurative, necrotising and pyogranulomatous pneumonia centred on the instilled beads. No overt evidence of organ or systemic compromise was apparent in any animal during the course of infection. Infection persisted in the lungs of individual animals for as long as 66 days after initial instillation. Quantitative microbiology applied to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid derived from infected segments proved an insensitive index of the presence of significant infection in lung tissue (>104 cfu/g). Conclusions/Significance The agar bead model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in sheep is a relevant platform to investigate both the pathobiology of such infections as well as novel approaches to their diagnosis and therapy. Particular ethical benefits relate to the model in terms of refining existing approaches by compromising a smaller proportion of the lung with infection and facilitating longitudinal assessment by bronchoscopy, and also potentially reducing animal numbers through facilitating within-animal comparisons of differential therapeutic approaches. PMID:23874438

  1. Farnesol, a common sesquiterpene, inhibits PQS production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cugini, Carla; Calfee, M Worth; Farrow, John M; Morales, Diana K; Pesci, Everett C; Hogan, Deborah A

    2007-08-01

    Farnesol is a sesquiterpene produced by many organisms, including the fungus Candida albicans. Here, we report that the addition of farnesol to cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen, leads to decreased production of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and the PQS-controlled virulence factor, pyocyanin. Within 15 min of farnesol addition, decreased transcript levels of pqsA, the first gene in the PQS biosynthetic operon, were observed. Transcript levels of pqsR (mvfR), which encodes the transcription factor that positively regulates pqsA, were unaffected. An Escherichia coli strain producing PqsR and containing the pqsA promoter fused to lacZ similarly showed that farnesol inhibited PQS-stimulated transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that, like PQS, farnesol stimulated PqsR binding to the pqsA promoter at a previously characterized LysR binding site, suggesting that farnesol promoted a non-productive interaction between PqsR and the pqsA promoter. Growth with C. albicans leads to decreased production of PQS and pyocyanin by P. aeruginosa, suggesting that the amount of farnesol produced by the fungus is sufficient to impact P. aeruginosa PQS signalling. Related isoprenoid compounds, but not other long-chain alcohols, also inhibited PQS production at micromolar concen-trations, suggesting that related compounds may participate in interspecies interactions with P. aeruginosa. PMID:17640272

  2. Biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Spanggord, R.J.; Mortelmans, K.E. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Spain, J.C.; Nishino, S.F. (Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Previous studies of the biodegradation of nonpolar nitroaromatic compounds have suggested that microorganism can reduce the nitro groups but cannot cleave the aromatic ring. The authors report here the initial steps in a pathway for complete biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from a four-member consortium enriched with DNT. The Pseudomonas sp. degraded DNT as the sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions with stoichiometric release of nitrite. During induction of the enzymes required for growth on DNT, 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC) accumulated transiently in the culture fluid when cells grown on acetate were transferred to medium containing DNT as the sole carbon and energy source. Conversion of DNT to MNC in the presence of {sup 18}O{sub 2} revealed the simultaneous incorporation of two atoms of molecular oxygen, which demonstrated that the reaction was catalyzed by a dioxygenase. Fully induced cells degraded MNC rapidly with stoichiometric release of nitrite. The results indicate an initial dioxygenase attack at the 4,5 position of DNT with the concomitant release of nitrite. Subsequent reactions lead to complete biodegradation and removal of the second nitro group as nitrite.

  3. Interspecies Interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yosuke; Yawata, Yutaka; Toyofuku, Masanori; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Microbes interact with each other in multicellular communities and this interaction enables certain microorganisms to survive in various environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly adaptable bacterium that ubiquitously inhabits diverse environments including soil, marine habitats, plants and animals. Behind this adaptivity, P. aeruginosa has abilities not only to outcompete others but also to communicate with each other to develop a multispecies community. In this review, we focus on how P. aeruginosa interacts with other microorganisms. P. aeruginosa secretes antimicrobial chemicals to compete and signal molecules to cooperate with other organisms. In other cases, it directly conveys antimicrobial enzymes to other bacteria using the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) or membrane vesicles (MVs). Quorum sensing is a central regulatory system used to exert their ability including antimicrobial effects and cooperation with other microbes. At least three quorum sensing systems are found in P. aeruginosa, Las, Rhl and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) systems. These quorum-sensing systems control the synthesis of extracellular antimicrobial chemicals as well as interaction with other organisms via T6SS or MVs. In addition, we explain the potential of microbial interaction analysis using several micro devices, which would bring fresh sensitivity to the study of interspecies interaction between P. aeruginosa and other organisms. PMID:23363620

  4. Influence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa on Exacerbation in Patients with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Kiran; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Manu, Mohan K; Lazer, Bernaitis

    2015-01-01

    Background: A majority of the studies done on the western population have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many severe infections in patients with bronchiectasis as compared to other pathogens. There is scarcity of similar data from the Asian population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was undertaken to identify the various pathogens isolated from the respiratory samples of 117 patients with bronchiectasis from south India and to compare the clinicomicrobiological profile of infections caused by P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens. Results: The respiratory pathogens were isolated from 63 (53.8%) patients. P. aeruginosa was the most common isolate (46.0%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%) and other pathogenic bacteria. Patients included in the P. aeruginosa group had a higher number of exacerbations (p: 0.008), greater number of hospital admissions (p: 0.007), a prolonged hospital stay (p: 0.03), and poor lung function, compared to the patients infected with the non-Pseudomonas group. Conclusion: It is necessary to investigate the etiology of respiratory tract infections among bronchiectasis patients followed by the prompt management of cases diagnosed with P. aeruginosa infections, so as to lower the morbidity and have a better prognosis. PMID:25722615

  5. Imipenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: The fall of the final quarterback

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Nadya; Memon, Zahida; Shaheen, Shehla; Fatima, Ghulam; Ahmed, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate, determine the frequency, and study the demographic trends of MBL positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa from imipenem resistant isolates collected from clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 230 strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from various clinical specimens on the basis of culture and biochemical tests. Imipenem resistant isolates were selected by Kirby Bauer Diffusion technique, followed by screening for MBL production by Imipenem EDTA Combined Disk Test. Demographic details of each patient were recorded on a separate questionnaire. Chi-Square goodness-of-fit test was computed to review the isolation of MBL positive isolates (P-value ? 0.05) in different specimen. Results: Out of 230 strains of P. aeruginosa 49.5% were imipenem resistant; MBL production was confirmed in 64.9% of the resistant isolates. Resistance to polymyxin B (12.5%) was notable. Majority of the MBL positive strains were isolated from patients aged between 20-39 years (45.9%) and the predominant source was pus (43.24%) which was found to be statistically significant (P-value=0.04). Outpatient departments (24.3%) and burn unit (21.6%) were the major places for resistant isolates. Conclusion: MBL production is one of the major causes of IRPA. Increasing resistance to polymyxin B is grave. Due to acquisition of MBL strains MDR P. aeruginosa has become endemic in tertiary setups.

  6. Full virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires OprF.

    PubMed

    Fito-Boncompte, Laurène; Chapalain, Annelise; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Chaker, Hichem; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Gicquel, Gwendoline; Bazire, Alexis; Madi, Amar; Connil, Nathalie; Véron, Wilfried; Taupin, Laure; Toussaint, Bertrand; Cornelis, Pierre; Wei, Qing; Shioya, Koki; Déziel, Eric; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Orange, Nicole; Dufour, Alain; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2011-03-01

    OprF is a general outer membrane porin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a well-known human opportunistic pathogen associated with severe hospital-acquired sepsis and chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients. A multiphenotypic approach, based on the comparative study of a wild-type strain of P. aeruginosa, its isogenic oprF mutant, and an oprF-complemented strain, showed that OprF is required for P. aeruginosa virulence. The absence of OprF results in impaired adhesion to animal cells, secretion of ExoT and ExoS toxins through the type III secretion system (T3SS), and production of the quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors pyocyanin, elastase, lectin PA-1L, and exotoxin A. Accordingly, in the oprF mutant, production of the signal molecules N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone was found to be reduced and delayed, respectively. Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) production was decreased, while its precursor, 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ), accumulated in the cells. Taken together, these results show the involvement of OprF in P. aeruginosa virulence, at least partly through modulation of the quorum-sensing network. This is the first study showing a link between OprF, PQS synthesis, T3SS, and virulence factor production, providing novel insights into virulence expression. PMID:21189321

  7. The role of phenotypic variation in rhizosphere Pseudomonas bacteria.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Daan; Bloemberg, Guido V; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2005-11-01

    Colony phase variation is a regulatory mechanism at the DNA level which usually results in high frequency, reversible switches between colonies with a different phenotype. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying phase variation are known: slipped-strand mispairing, genomic rearrangements, spontaneous mutations and epigenetic mechanisms such as differential methylation. Most examples of phenotypic variation or phase variation have been described in the context of host-pathogen interactions as mechanisms allowing pathogens to evade host immune responses. Recent reports indicate that phase variation is also relevant in competitive root colonization and biological control of phytopathogens. Many rhizospere Pseudomonas species show phenotypic variation, based on spontaneous mutation of the gacA and gacS genes. These morphological variants do not express secondary metabolites and have improved growth characteristics. The latter could contribute to efficient root colonization and success in competition, especially since (as shown for one strain) these variants were observed to revert to their wild-type form. The observation that these variants are present in rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas bacteria suggests the existence of a conserved strategy to increase their success in the rhizosphere. PMID:16232284

  8. Anthranilate degradation by a cold-adapted Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Kim, Eungbin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-03-01

    An alpine soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25931 was characterized as eurypsychrophilic (both psychrophilic and mesotolerant) with a broad temperature range of 5-30?°C both for anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) degradation and concomitant cell growth. Two degradative gene clusters (antABC and catBCA) were detected from a fosmid clone in the PAMC 25931 genomic library; each cluster was confirmed to be specifically induced by anthranilate. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant AntABC (anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase, AntDO) converted anthranilate into catechol, exhibiting strict specificity toward anthranilate. Recombinant CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, C12O) from the organism was active over a broad temperature range (5-37?°C). However, CatA rapidly lost the enzyme activity when incubated at above 25?°C. For example, 1?h-preincubation at 37?°C resulted in 100% loss of enzyme activity, while a counterpart from mesophilic Pseudomonas putida mt-2 did not show any negative effect on the initial enzyme activity. These results suggest that CatA is a new cold-adapted thermolabile enzyme, which might be a product through the adaptation process of PAMC 25931 to naturally cold environments and contribute to its ability to grow on anthranilate there. PMID:23720227

  9. Comparative ribosomal protein sequence analyses of a phylogenetically defined genus, Pseudomonas, and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Ochi, K

    1995-04-01

    I analyzed various families of ribosomal proteins obtained from selected species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto and allied organisms which were previously classified in the genus Pseudomonas. Partial amino acid sequencing of L30 preparations revealed that the strains which I examined could be divided into three clusters. The first cluster, which was assigned to the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto, included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas mendocina, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The second cluster included Burkholderia pickettii and Burkholderia plantarii. The third cluster, which was a deeply branching cluster in the stem of gram-negative bacteria, included Brevundimonas diminuta and Brevundimonas vesicularis. Despite the different levels of conservation of the N-terminal sequences of ribosomal protein families (the highest level of similarity was 74% for L27 proteins and the lowest level of similarity was 42% for L30 proteins), similar phylogenetic trees were constructed by using data obtained from sequence analyses of various ribosomal protein families, including the S20, S21, L27, L29, L31, L32, and L33 protein families. Thus, I demonstrated the efficacy of ribosomal protein analysis in bacterial taxonomy. PMID:7727274

  10. Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ovine fleece washings by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, N M; Raadsma, H W

    1995-11-01

    Two oligonucleotides were selected from the variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene of P. aeruginosa and used as PCR primers for the detection of P. aeruginosa. The specificity of the primers was tested against the following bacterial species; Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas cepacia, Xanthamonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas diminuta. These primers had a sensitivity of detection of 1 pg of chromosomal DNA or 1 x 10(5) cfu/microliters and were species-specific. The sensitivity of detection was increased to 1 fg or less than 10 cfu/microliters using a non-radioactively labelled probe. Using these PCR primers it was possible to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa from fleece washings collected from a flock of 100 sheep. Correlation between single PCR and bacteriological isolation showed agreement in 89% of fleece samples tested, 2% of the samples contained organic PCR inhibitors in the fleece washings, 3% were below the level of sensitivity of the test and the remaining 6% were culture negative for P. aeruginosa but PCR positive. Use of nested PCR did not increase the sensitivity of detection over single round PCR combined with the use of non-radioactively labelled probe. PMID:8604555

  11. Chemical and Metabolic Aspects of Antimetabolite Toxins Produced by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars

    PubMed Central

    Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M.; Perez-García, Alejandro; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium present in a wide variety of host plants where it causes diseases with economic impact. The symptoms produced by Pseudomonas syringae include chlorosis and necrosis of plant tissues, which are caused, in part, by antimetabolite toxins. This category of toxins, which includes tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, is produced by different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. These toxins are small peptidic molecules that target enzymes of amino acids’ biosynthetic pathways, inhibiting their activity and interfering in the general nitrogen metabolism. A general overview of the toxins’ chemistry, biosynthesis, activity, virulence and potential applications will be reviewed in this work. PMID:22069758

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phenanthrene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas biovars

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, K.; Andersen, S.; Jacobsen, C.S. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1996-10-01

    The genus Pseudomonas is a group of gram-negative motile rods know for large metabolic versatility as well as pathogenicity to plants, animals and humans. A large number of bacteria from this group capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been isolated in soils and aquifers, but the identification is often conducted only to the Pseudomonas sp. level. This study aims to characterize a group of bacteria from the fluorescent Pseudomonas group degrading phenanthrene by four different methods to assess the bacterial diversity of the closely related group. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC under denitrification conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, C.S.; DeWitt, J.T.; Grbic-Galic, D.; McCarty, P.L. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. (strain KC) capable of transforming carbon tetrachloride (CT) was isolated from groundwater aquifer solids. Major products of the transformation of {sup 14}C-labeled CT by Pseudomonas strain KC under denitrification conditions were {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and an unidentified water-soluble fraction. Little or no chloroform was produced. Addition of dissolved trace metals, notably, ferrous iron and cobalt, to the growth medium appeared to enhance growth of Pseudomonas strain KC while inhibiting transformation of CT. It is hypothesized that transformation of CT by this organism is associated with the mechanism of trace-metal scavenging.

  14. Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposable phages in Pseudomonas putida cells. I. Establishment of lysogeny and lytic growth efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunova, S.A.; Yanenko, A.S.; Akhverdyan, V.Z.; Reulets, M.A.; Krylov, V.N.

    1986-03-01

    Expression of the genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposable phages (TP) in the cells of a heterologous host, P. putida PpGl, was studied. A high efficiency of TP lytic growth in PpGl cells was obtained both after zygotic induction following RP4::TP plasmid transfer and after thermoinduction of PpGl cells lysogenic for thermoinducible prophage D3112cts15. Characteristic for PpGl cells was a high TP yield (20-25 phage D3112cts15 particles per cell), which was evidence of a high level of TP transposition in cells of this species. The frequency of RP4::TP transfer into PpGl and PA01 cells was equal, but the lysogeny detection rat was somewhat lower in PpGl. Pseudomonas aeruginosa TP can integrate into the PpGl chromosome, producing inducible lysogens. The presence of RP4 is not necessary for the expression of the TP genome in PpGl cells. The D3112cts15 TP may be used for interspecific transduction of plasmids and chromosomal markers.

  15. Expression of recombinant exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, S M; Frank, D W; Barbieri, J T

    1995-01-01

    The structural gene for the 49-kDa form of exoenzyme S (exoS) isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 388 was expressed in both Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa PA103. Expression of exoS in E. coli under the transcriptional regulation of the T7 promoter yielded a soluble cytosolic protein with an apparent molecular mass of 49 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Expression of exoS in P. aeruginosa PA103 under the transcriptional regulation of the 0.9 kbp of Pseudomonas chromosomal DNA flanking the 5' end of exoS yielded a nitrilotriacetic acid-inducible extracellular protein with an apparent molecular mass of 49 kDa. Recombinant ExoS (rExoS) reacted with the anti-49-kDa form of exoenzyme S immunoglobulin G, existed as an aggregate as determined by gel filtration chromatography, and ADP-ribosylated soybean trypsin inhibitor at a specific activity that was similar (within twofold) to that of native exoenzyme S. Allelic exchange of exoS with a tetracycline gene cartridge yielded a strain of P. aeruginosa 388 that did not express detectable amounts of either ExoS in an immunoblot analysis using the anti-49-kDa form of exoenzyme S immunoglobulin G or ADP-ribosyltransferase activity under standard enzyme assay conditions. Expression of catalytically active rExoS in E. coli demonstrated that exoS was necessary and sufficient for the factor-activating exoenzyme S-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of exoenzyme S. Expression of nitrilotriacetic acid-inducible rExoS in P. aeruginosa PA103 demonstrated that the 0.9 kbp of Pseudomonas chromosomal DNA flanking the 5' end of exoS encoded a functional exoenzyme S promoter. Expression analysis and allelic exchange experiments suggest that the 49- and 53-kDa forms of exoenzyme S are encoded by separate genes. PMID:7806344

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata.

    PubMed

    Murugan, T; Wins, J Albino; Murugan, M

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. 'For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by 'Zone of inhibition ?12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols' and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata. PMID:23901174

  17. Mep72, a Metzincin Protease That Is Preferentially Secreted by Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-print Network

    Passmore, Ian J.; Nishikawa, Kahoko; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Bowden, Steven D.; Chung, Jade C. S.; Welch, Martin

    2014-12-08

    of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdoma; Department of Traumatology and Critical Care Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japanb In this work, we compared the profile of proteins secreted by planktonic and biofilm cultures of Pseudomonas...

  18. Characterization of a type vi secretion system and related proteins of pseudomonas syringae 

    E-print Network

    Records, Angela Renee

    2009-05-15

    Pseudomonas syringae is a pathogen of numerous plant species, including several economically important crops. P. syringae pv. syringae B728a is a resident on leaves of common bean, where it utilizes several well-studied virulence factors, including...

  19. Improved Degradation of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents and p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida JS444 with

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Improved Degradation of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents and p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida JS444, and chemical warfare agents (1-3), and their widespread contamination of soil, sedi- ments, and groundwater

  20. Characterization of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, useful for bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food, requires economical methods for disease prevention and control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and adherent soil to identify isolates that inhibited sorghum fungal pathogens. Pseudomonads were collected fr...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3,...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3,...

  3. Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas geniculata N1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kaiming; Wang, Weiwei; Nie, Xueling; Jiang, Yi; Li, Pengpeng; Liu, Shanshan; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Management of solid wastes with high nicotine content, such as those accumulated during tobacco manufacturing, poses a major challenge, which can be addressed by using bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. In this study, a new species of Pseudomonas geniculata, namely strain N1, which is capable of efficiently degrading nicotine, was isolated and identified. The optimal growth conditions for strain N1 are a temperature of 30°C, and a pH 6.5, at a rotation rate of 120 rpm min?1 with 1 g l?1 nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Myosmine, cotinine, 6-hydroxynicotine, 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, and 6-hydroxy-pseudooxynicotine were detected as the five intermediates through gas chromatography-mass and liquid chromatography-mass analyses. The identified metabolites were different from those generated by Pseudomonas putida strains. The analysis also highlighted the bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation by different Pseudomonas strains. PMID:24416227

  4. Cytokinin inhibition of senescence and its effect on Nicotiana-Pseudomonas interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of cytokinin overproducing transgenic Nicotiana plants to infections with compatible and incompatible Pseudomonas syringae pathovars were compared. Plants used were transformed with the ipt (isopentenyl transferase) gene that catalyzes the synthesis of cytokinin. In cytokinin overproduci...

  5. Photoactivation of urocanase in Pseudomonas putida: possible role in photoregulation of histidine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hug, D H; Hunter, J K

    1970-06-01

    Irradiation by near-ultraviolet light of cells or extracts of Pseudomonas putida increased the urocanase activity. Irradiated cells exhibited enhanced catabolic activity on histidine and urocanate. PMID:5429726

  6. Consequences of redox-active phenazines on the physiology of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-print Network

    Kern, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    Phenazines are redox-active small molecules produced by bacteria. Although phenazines have been studied extensively for their roles as toxins, how phenazines benefit producing organisms is still being uncovered. Pseudomonas ...

  7. A physical genome map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    PubMed Central

    Römling, U; Grothues, D; Bautsch, W; Tümmler, B

    1989-01-01

    A complete macrorestriction map of the 5.9 Mb genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO (DSM 1707) was constructed by the combination of various one- and two-dimensional pulsed field gel electrophoresis techniques. A total of 51 restriction sites (36 SpeI sites, 15 DpnI sites) were placed on the physical map yielding an average resolution of 110 kb. Several genes encoding virulence factors and enzymes of metabolic pathways were located on the anonymous map by Southern hybridization. Distances between the gene loci were similar on the genetic and physical maps, suggesting an even distribution of genome mobility throughout the bacterial chromosome. The four rRNA operons were organized in pairs of inverted repeats. The two-dimensional macro-restriction techniques described herein are generally applicable for the genome mapping of any prokaryote and lower eukaryote which yields resolvable fragment patterns on two-dimensional pulsed field gels. Images PMID:2512121

  8. Degradation of 2-chloroallylalcohol by a Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    van der Waarde, J J; Kok, R; Janssen, D B

    1993-01-01

    Three Pseudomonas strains capable of utilizing 2-chloroallylalcohol (2-chloropropenol) as the sole carbon source for growth were isolated from soil. The fastest growth was observed with strain JD2, with a generation time of 3.6 h. Degradation of 2-chloroallylalcohol was accompanied by complete dehalogenation. Chloroallylalcohols that did not support growth were dechlorinated by resting cells; the dechlorination level was highest if an alpha-chlorine substituent was present. Crude extracts of strain JD2 contained inducible alcohol dehydrogenase activity that oxidized mono- and dichloroallylalcohols but not trichloroallylalcohol. The enzyme used phenazine methosulfate as an artificial electron acceptor. Further oxidation yielded 2-chloroacrylic acid. The organism also produced hydrolytic dehalogenases converting 2-chloroacetic acid and 2-chloropropionic acid. PMID:8434917

  9. Chemistry and biology of pyoverdines, Pseudomonas primary siderophores.

    PubMed

    Cézard, C; Farvacques, N; Sonnet, P

    2015-01-01

    Pyoverdine is the generic name given to a vast family of fluorescent green-yellowish pigments produced by Pseudomonas species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, particularly infecting humans with compromised natural defenses. These infections result in significantly higher morbidity, longer hospitalization, increased mortality rates and excess health care costs. P. aeruginosa is very difficult to eradicate because of an intrinsic coupled with an adaptive resistance to a wide variety of classical antibiotics. When subjected to iron starvation conditions, Pseudomonas bacteria synthesize pyoverdines, their primary siderophores, to acquire iron from the extracellular medium. These molecules are not only powerful iron(III) scavengers but efficient iron(III) transporters as well. Three distinct structural parts constitute pyoverdines, i.e. (i) the fluorescent chromophore, deriving from a dihydroxyquinoline, attached via its carbonyl group to (ii) a type-specific peptide composed of 6 to 14 amino acids and (iii) a small side chain corresponding to a carboxylic acid derivative. Their chemical structure show three bidentate chelating sites including a catechol and two hydroxamates, leading to an octahedral geometry when complexed to iron(III). While the chromophore group is common to all pyoverdines, their peptide moiety differs among strains and species by the number, length, composition and configuration of amino acids. Following chelation with iron(III), the newly formed pyoverdine-Fe complex is recognized by a specific outer membrane transporter, namely FpvA, and reenters the cell where the iron is released from the pyoverdine into the periplasm for further incorporation into bacterial proteins. The remaining apo-pyoverdine is then recycled and secreted back to the extracellular medium by efflux pumps. Besides, the role of pyoverdines in P. aeruginosa is not only limited to scavenge iron from the bacterial environment. Indeed, these siderophores act as signal molecules for the production of acute virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation as well. The ongoing expanding pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa has become a major public health problem, and finding alternative strategies to classical antibiotics is urgently needed. Pyoverdines along with the iron pathway recently gained interest among academical researchers as potential new approaches to "fight" the bacteria. This review describes the classification of the nearly 60 pyoverdines identified so far, their structural and chemical properties and their (bio)synthesis. The different mechanisms underlying the steps of a pyoverdine's life in Pseudomonas are detailed as well: the affinity by which a pyoverdine chelates iron(III), the description of the interactions inducing the siderophore-receptor recognition, the specific transport of the pyoverdine-Fe(III) complex. As pyoverdine production and severe infections are linked, we will also report on situations where pyoverdines are considered as being P. aeruginosa Achilles heel: the propensity of FpvA to transport exo-pyoverdines, organic synthesis of pyoverdines and analogs, grafting of antibiotics on pyoverdines in a Trojan Horse strategy. PMID:25312210

  10. Dampening Host Sensing and Avoiding Recognition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Cigana, Cristina; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Bernardini, Maria Lina; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and causes a wide range of acute and chronic infections. P. aeruginosa infections are kept in check by an effective immune surveillance in the healthy host, while any imbalance or defect in the normal immune response can manifest in disease. Invasive acute infection in the immunocompromised patients is mediated by potent extracellular and cell bound bacterial virulence factors. Life-threatening chronic infection in cystic fibrosis patients is maintained by pathogenic variants that contribute to evade detection and clearance by the immune system. Here, we reviewed the molecular basis of receptor-mediated recognition of P. aeruginosa and their role in initiating inflammation and the colonization. In addition, the consequence of the P. aeruginosa genetic adaptation for the antibacterial defence and the maintaining of chronic infection are discussed. PMID:21785567

  11. Mandibular osteomyelitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, S; Tanteri, L; Brutto, D; Marescalco, M; Carlino, V; Consolo, G; Mauro, M; Cappello, V

    2008-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a relatively frequent bacterial infection of the jaw bones. This report describes a case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a surgical site after enucleation of a follicular cyst and extraction of the associated tooth. This case is unusual because maxillary osteomyelitis generally results from polymicrobial infection. In our patient, however, laboratory analysis identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the etiologic agent, an opportunistic pathogen normally found on moist surfaces and vegetation. Notorious for its antibiotic multiresistance, P. aeruginosa is increasingly recognized as a serious problem in hospitalized patients. Isolation of the responsible microbe permitted specific antibiotic treatment with a 10-day course of ciprofloxacin (250 mg/12 h), which fully cleared the infection. PMID:18617880

  12. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Resistance Phenotypes and Phenotypic Highlighting Methods

    PubMed Central

    B?L??OIU, MARIA; B?L??OIU, A.T.; M?NESCU, RODICA; AVRAMESCU, CARMEN; IONETE, OANA

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa genus bacteria are well known for their increased drug resistance (phenotypic ang genotypic resistance). The most important resistance mechanisms are: enzyme production, reduction of pore expression, reduction of the external membrane proteins expression, efflux systems, topoisomerase mutations. These mechanisms often accumulate and lead to multidrug ressitance strains emergence. The most frequent acquired resistance mechanisms are betalactamase-type enzyme production (ESBLs, AmpC, carbapenemases), which determine variable phenotypes of betalactamines resistance, phenotypes which are associated with aminoglycosides and quinolones resistance. The nonenzymatic drug resistance mechanisms are caused by efflux systems, pore reduction and penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) modification, which are often associated to other resistance mechanisms. Phenotypic methods used for testing these mechanisms are based on highlighting these phenotypes using Kirby Bauer antibiogram, clinical breakpoints, and “cut off” values recommended by EUCAST 2013 standard, version 3.1. PMID:25729587

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance phenotypes and phenotypic highlighting methods.

    PubMed

    B?l??oiu, Maria; B?l??oiu, A T; M?nescu, Rodica; Avramescu, Carmen; Ionete, Oana

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa genus bacteria are well known for their increased drug resistance (phenotypic ang genotypic resistance). The most important resistance mechanisms are: enzyme production, reduction of pore expression, reduction of the external membrane proteins expression, efflux systems, topoisomerase mutations. These mechanisms often accumulate and lead to multidrug ressitance strains emergence. The most frequent acquired resistance mechanisms are betalactamase-type enzyme production (ESBLs, AmpC, carbapenemases), which determine variable phenotypes of betalactamines resistance, phenotypes which are associated with aminoglycosides and quinolones resistance. The nonenzymatic drug resistance mechanisms are caused by efflux systems, pore reduction and penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) modification, which are often associated to other resistance mechanisms. Phenotypic methods used for testing these mechanisms are based on highlighting these phenotypes using Kirby Bauer antibiogram, clinical breakpoints, and "cut off" values recommended by EUCAST 2013 standard, version 3.1. PMID:25729587

  14. Effect of methylglyoxal on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Fukushima, Aiko; Hayashi-Nishino, Mitsuko; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Honey has a complex chemistry, and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity varies with floral source, climate, and harvesting conditions. Methylglyoxal was identified as the dominant antibacterial component of manuka honey. Although it has been known that methylglyoxal has antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, there is not much information describing its activity against gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report the effect of methylglyoxal against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) using 53 clinically isolated strains. We also assessed the effect of deleting the five multidrug efflux systems in P. aeruginosa, as well as the efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, on MICs of methylglyoxal. Our results indicate that methylglyoxal inhibits the growth of MDRP at concentrations of 128–512 ?g/ml (1.7–7.1 mM) and is not recognized by drug efflux systems. PMID:24860556

  15. [Water used for hemodialysis equipment: where is Pseudomonas aeruginosa?].

    PubMed

    Ducki, Sébastien; Francini, Nicolas; Blech, Marie-Françoise

    2005-05-01

    The water used in dilution of the dialysis solutions constitutes an essential element of the efficiency and the safety of this therapeutics. Water must be specifically treated, and some technical rules must be respected, such as disinfection of the equipment for water treatment, to guarantee a satisfying level for whole the installation. This article reports the investigations, which were led to find the spring of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which contamined in a recurring way the water feeding dialysis equipment. The observation of samples'chronology and an analysis of the sanitary pad suggested a contamination during disinfection. Sample of residual water from the pump used for the injection of Dialox identified this reservoir as origin of the contamination. To stop this contamination by P. aeruginosa, a pump maintenance revision and purges of the system were used. PMID:16895676

  16. Plate-based assay for swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dae-Gon; Kuchma, Sherry L; O'Toole, George A

    2014-01-01

    Swarming motility is one of three distinct modes of motility observed in the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Swarming motility is defined as the movement across a semisolid surface, and in P. aeruginosa requires flagellar motility and the production of biosurfactants. Swarming motility is thought to occur on gelatinous/viscous surfaces inside a host, such as on epithelial cells. There is currently no standardized in vitro assay to visualize and study swarming motility, and the assays used can vary greatly between laboratory groups. Here, we describe a detailed, reproducible in vitro swarming motility assay for P. aeruginosa. While different protocols have previously been reported in the literature, we hope that adopting this method will improve the reproducibility of these swarming motility assays and allow comparisons of swarming motility findings between and among groups. PMID:24818898

  17. Synergistic combination of marine oligosaccharides and azithromycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaojia; Hwang, Huey-min; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng; Lin, Yunfeng; Jiang, Xiaolu; He, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe how utilization of low molecular weight alginate-derived oligosaccharide (ADO) and chito-oligosaccharide (COS) in conjunction with antibiotics, could more effectively inhibit the growth of wild-type and resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition is effected by modulating the bacteria's quorum sensing (QS) system, thus regulating biofilm formation and reducing resistance to antibiotic treatment. This can be demonstrated by using conventional MIC screening. COS showed synergistic effects with azithromycin, whereas ADO indicated additive effects against wild-type P. aeruginosa. Using electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flightmass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the chemical structure of ADO and of COS was characterized. The wild-type and resistant strains were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. This report demonstrates the feasibility of attenuating the tolerance of P. aeruginosa to azithromycin by using specific marine oligosaccharides. PMID:24529598

  18. Epidemiology and Characteristics of Metallo-?-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Jang, In-Ho; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-?-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPPA) is an important nosocomial pathogen that shows resistance to all ?-lactam antibiotics except monobactams. There are various types of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa including Imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-?-lactamase (VIM), Sao Paulo metallo-?-lactamase (SPM), Germany imipenemase (GIM), New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM), Florence imipenemase (FIM). Each MBL gene is located on specific genetic elements including integrons, transposons, plasmids, or on the chromosome, in which they carry genes encoding determinants of resistance to carbapenems and other antibiotics, conferring multidrug resistance to P. aeruginosa. In addition, these genetic elements are transferable to other Gram-negative species, increasing the antimicrobial resistance rate and complicating the treatment of infected patients. Therefore, it is essential to understand the epidemiology, resistance mechanism, and molecular characteristics of MPPA for infection control and prevention of a possible global health crisis. Here, we highlight the characteristics of MPPA.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Treated with Azithromycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Vanessa V.; Fang, Jinshu; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-06-01

    In microbiology, changes in specialized metabolite production (cell-to-cell signaling metabolites, virulence factors, and natural products) are measured using phenotypic assays. However, advances in mass spectrometry-based techniques including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) now allow researchers to directly visualize the production of specialized metabolites from microbial colony biofilms. In this study, a combination of IMS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to visualize the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) on colony biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although previous research suggested that AZM may inhibit cell-to-cell signaling of P. aeruginosa and thereby reduce pathogenicity, we observed no clear decrease in specialized metabolite production.

  20. Scanning electron microscope study of Pseudomonas putida colonies.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J A

    1985-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida colonies were examined by scanning electron microscope. A variety of cell morphologies, multicellular arrangements, and extracellular materials were observed in the fixed material. Different regions of a single colony showed characteristic organizations of these architectural elements. In some cases, the detailed microstructure of the fixed colony surfaces observed by scanning electron microscopy could be correlated with macroscopic patterns visualized by histochemical staining and surface relief photography of live colonies. Extracellular materials were seen to extend onto the agar surface beyond the boundaries of the cell mass, and the final structures of these materials, after fixation and desiccation, were colony specific. The significance of these features of colony microstructure for formulating hypotheses about the control of colony morphogenesis is discussed. Images PMID:4066611