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1

Effect of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Macrolides on Expression of Flagellin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we showed by molecular analysis that the inhibition of motility by macrolides in Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was well correlated with the loss of the expression of flagellin. Erythro- mycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin at subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) suppressed the expres- sion of flagellin dose dependently. Azithromycin had the strongest inhibitory effect on the expression of

KUMIKO KAWAMURA-SATO; YOSHITSUGU IINUMA; TADAO HASEGAWA; TOSHINOBU HORII; TAKAFUMI YAMASHINO; MICHIO OHTA

2000-01-01

2

Bacteriophage Typing of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Proteus morganii  

PubMed Central

A bacteriphage typing scheme for differentiating Proteus isolated from clinical specimens was developed. Twenty-one distinct patterns of lysis were seen when 15 bacteriophages isolated on 8 Proteus mirabilis, 1 P. vulgaris, and 1 P. morganii were used to type 162 of 189 (85.7%) P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates. Seven phages isolated on 3 P. morganii were used to type 13 of 19 (68.4%) P. morganii isolates. Overall, 84.1% of the 208 isolates were lysed by at least 1 phage at routine test dilution (RTD) or 1,000 × RTD. Fifty isolates, retyped several weeks after the initial testing, showed no changes in lytic patterns. The phages retained their titers after storage at 4 C for several months. A computer analysis of the data showed that there was no relationship between the source of the isolate and bacteriophage type. This bacteriophage typing system may provide epidemiological information on strains involved in human infections.

Schmidt, William C.; Jeffries, Charles D.

1974-01-01

3

Reduced Susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis to Triclosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis causing catheter encrustation and blockage are susceptible to the biocide triclosan (MICs of 0.2 mg\\/liter). Studies with laboratory models of the bladder have demonstrated that the inflation of catheter retention balloons with triclosan solutions rather than water results in the diffusion of triclosan from the balloons into the surrounding urine and the inhibition of catheter

David J. Stickler; Gwennan L. Jones

2008-01-01

4

Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of resistance to amoxicillin among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 10 TEM-type b-lacta- mases were characterized: (i) the well-known penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, the extended-spectrum b-lac- tamases (ESBLs) TEM-3 and TEM-24, and the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) TEM-44 and (ii) five novel enzymes, a penicillinase TEM-57 similar to TEM-1, an ESBL TEM-66 similar to TEM-3, and three IRTs,

R. BONNET; C. DE CHAMPS; D. SIROT; C. CHANAL; R. LABIA; J. SIROT

1999-01-01

5

Chlorhexidine resistance in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

A total of 104 clinical isolates of Pr. mirabilis from three hospitals were screened for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antiseptic for these strains ranged from 10 to 800 ?g/ml. Two strains sensitive to 20 ?g of chlorhexidine/ml were adapted to resistance by growth in subinhibitory concentrations of the antiseptic, their MIC values increasing to 200 and 800 ?g/ml. These derived strains exhibited slightly reduced sensitivity to cetrimide and benzalkonium chloride. The chlorhexidine-resistant clinical isolates also exhibited this partially decreased sensitivity to the quaternary ammonium compounds. Both the chlorhexidine-sensitive and -resistant strains were uniformly sensitive to chloroxylenol (Dettol), glutaraldehyde, and 2-phenoxyethanol.

Stickler, D. J.

1974-01-01

6

Chlorhexidine resistance in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

A total of 104 clinical isolates of Pr. mirabilis from three hospitals were screened for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antiseptic for these strains ranged from 10 to 800 mug/ml. Two strains sensitive to 20 mug of chlorhexidine/ml were adapted to resistance by growth in subinhibitory concentrations of the antiseptic, their MIC values increasing to 200 and 800 mug/ml. These derived strains exhibited slightly reduced sensitivity to cetrimide and benzalkonium chloride. The chlorhexidine-resistant clinical isolates also exhibited this partially decreased sensitivity to the quaternary ammonium compounds. Both the chlorhexidine-sensitive and -resistant strains were uniformly sensitive to chloroxylenol (Dettol), glutaraldehyde, and 2-phenoxyethanol. PMID:4211870

Stickler, D J

1974-04-01

7

Capsule structure of Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 49565).  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis 2573 (ATCC 49565) produces an acidic capsular polysaccharide which was shown from glycose analysis, carboxyl reduction, methylation, periodate oxidation, and the application of one dimensional and two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to be a high-molecular-weight polymer of branched trisaccharide units composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-galactose (N-acetyl-L-fucosamine), and D-glucuronic acid, having the structure: [formula: see text] P. mirabilis 2573 also produces an O:6 serotype lipopolysaccharide in which the O-chain component has the same structure as the homologous capsular polysaccharide. This is the first report of a defined capsular polysaccharide in this bacterial genus.

Beynon, L M; Dumanski, A J; McLean, R J; MacLean, L L; Richards, J C; Perry, M B

1992-01-01

8

Kinetic model of Proteus mirabilis swarm colony development  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Proteus mirabilis colonies display striking symmetry and periodicity. Based on experimental observations of cellular differentiation and group\\u000a motility, a kinetic model has been developed to describe the swarmer cell differentiation-dedifferentiation cycle and the\\u000a spatial evolution of swimmer and swarmer cells during Proteus mirabilis swarm colony development. A key element of the model is the age dependence of swarmer cell behaviour,

Sergei E. Esipov; J. A. Shapiro

1998-01-01

9

Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

In a survey of resistance to amoxicillin among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 10 TEM-type ?-lactamases were characterized: (i) the well-known penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, the extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-3 and TEM-24, and the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) TEM-44 and (ii) five novel enzymes, a penicillinase TEM-57 similar to TEM-1, an ESBL TEM-66 similar to TEM-3, and three IRTs, TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74. The penicillinase TEM-57 and the ESBL TEM-66 differed from TEM-1 and TEM-3, respectively, by the amino acid substitution Gly-92?Asp (nucleotide mutation G-477?A). This substitution could have accounted for the decrease in pIs (5.2 for TEM-57 and 6.0 for TEM-66) but did not necessarily affect the intrinsic activities of these enzymes. The IRT TEM-65 was an IRT-1-like IRT (Cys-244) related to TEM-2 (Lys-39). The two other IRTs, TEM-73 and TEM-74, were related to IRT-1 (Cys-244) and IRT-2 (Ser-244), respectively, and harbored the amino acid substitutions Leu-21?Phe and Thr-265?Met. In this study, the ESBLs TEM-66, TEM-24, and TEM-3 were encoded by large (170- to 180-kb) conjugative plasmids that exhibited similar patterns after digestion and hybridization with the TEM and AAC(6?)I probes. The three IRTs TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74 were encoded by plasmids that ranged in size from 42 to 70 kb but for which no transfer was obtained. The characterization of five new plasmid-mediated TEM-type ?-lactamases and the first report of TEM-24 in P. mirabilis are evidence of the wide diversity of ?-lactamases produced in this species and of its possible role as a ?-lactamase-encoding plasmid reservoir.

Bonnet, R.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Chanal, C.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

1999-01-01

10

Use of quorum sensing antagonists to deter the formation of crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilms.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis biofilms are a major cause of urinary catheter blockage. Antibiotic-impregnated catheters used to prevent catheter blockage have achieved limited success. Research has examined the efficacy of quorum sensing inhibitors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, but there are few reports of the effects of these compounds against crystalline P. mirabilis biofilms. This study examined the effect of two quorum sensing antagonists, p-nitrophenyl glycerol (PNPG) and tannic acid, against crystalline P. mirabilis biofilms. Tannic acid and PNPG were observed to inhibit the quorum sensing system and the formation of P. mirabilis biofilms grown in artificial urine. The success of these compounds provides a possible means of preventing urinary catheter encrustation. PMID:19619987

Jones, Steven M; Dang, Tammy T; Martinuzzi, Robert

2009-07-19

11

Influence of quorum sensing signal molecules on biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis O18.  

PubMed

The influence of basis of quorum sensing molecules on Proteus strains is much less known as compared to Pseudomonas or Escherichia. We have previously shown that a series of acylated homoserine lactones (acyl-HSL) does not influence the ureolytic, proteolytic, or hemolytic abilities, and that the swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis rods is strain specific. The aim of the presented study was to find out if the presence of a series of acyl-HSL influences biofilm formation of P. mirabilis laboratory strain belonging to O18 serogroup. This serogroup is characterized by the presence of a unique non-carbohydrate component, namely phosphocholine. Escherichia coli and P. mirabilis O18 strains used in this work contains cloned plasmids encoding fluorescent protein genes with constitutive gene expression. In mixed biofilms in stationary and continuous flow conditions, P. mirabilis O18 overgrow whole culture. P. mirabilis O18 strain has genetically proved a presence of AI-2 quorum sensing system. Differences in biofilm structure were observed depending on the biofilm type and culture methods. From tested acylated homoserine lactones (BHL, HHL, OHL, DHL, dDHL, tDHL), a significant influence had BHL on thickness, structure, and the amount of exopolysaccharides produced by biofilms formed by P. mirabilis O18 pDsRed(2). PMID:22198843

Stankowska, Dorota; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Rozalska, Sylwia; Grosicka, Michalina; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Kaca, Wieslaw

2011-12-24

12

Proteus mirabilis biofilms and the encrustation of urethral catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms were observed on 69 of 75 catheters taken from patients undergoing long-term bladder management. Ten catheters were colonized by pure cultures of Proteus mirabilis. In each of these cases the bacteria formed layers on the catheter surface, underlying encrustations of struvite and hydroxyapatite which partially or completely occluded the catheter lumen. Encrustation was also apparent on catheters colonized

D. Stickler; L. Ganderton; J. King; J. Nettleton; C. Winters

1993-01-01

13

Swarming and pathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis in the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis is best known for its pattern of swarming differentiation on agar plates, as well as for its association with the development of renal stones in patients with urinary tract infection. Urease and flagella appear to contribute most significantly to virulence, with fimbriae playing a more subtle role, whereas hemolysin does not appear to contribute significantly to pathogenesis.

Harry L. T. Mobley; Robert Belas

1995-01-01

14

Urinary virulence of Proteus mirabilis in two experimental mouse models.  

PubMed Central

Two experimental mouse models were tested for their suitability in measuring urinary virulence of Proteus mirabilis. In the first model, the kidney-infecting dose and lethal dose were measured. In the second model, the kinetics of the numbers of bacteria in the kidneys and other organs of the mouse were monitored for 13 h after injection.

Peerbooms, P G; Marian, A; Verweij, J J; MacLaren, D M

1982-01-01

15

Regulation of reductase formation in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prteus mirabilis can form four reductases after anaerobic growth: nitrate reductase A, chlorate reductase C, thiosulfate reductase and tetrathionate reductase. The last three enzymes are formed constitutively. Nitrate reductase is formed only after growth in the presence of nitrate, which causes repression of the formation of thiosulfate reductase, chlorate reductase C, tetrathionate reductase and hydrogenase. Formic dehydrogenase assayed with methylene

G. N. Groot; A. H. Stouthamer

1969-01-01

16

Evaluation of Proteus mirabilis structural fimbrial proteins as antigens against urinary tract infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) and produce several types of different fimbriae, including mannose-resistant\\/Proteus-like fimbriae, uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA), and P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF). Different authors have related these fimbriae with different aspects of P. mirabilis pathogenesis, although the precise role of fimbriae in UTI has not yet been elucidated. In this work we

Rafael Pellegrino; Umberto Galvalisi; Paola Scavone; Vanessa Sosa; Pablo Zunino

2003-01-01

17

Neonatal Meningoventriculitis Due to Proteus Mirabilis - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A five day old full term born baby was admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with seizures, opisthotonous posture and was icteric upto thigh. Baby had a three day history of poor feeding, lethargy and abnormal body movements. Mother was a 29 years old primigravida and had a normal vaginal delivery at home. Sepsis profile of the patient was requested, lumbar puncture and ventricular tap was performed. Patient was put on third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and phenobarbitone. Culture and sensitivity report of blood, Cerebro spinal fluid and ventricular fluid showed Proteus mirabilis. Computerized Tomography scan showed a large parenchymal lesion in the right frontal lobe and diffuse ependymal enhancement along both the lateral ventricles suggestive of meningoventriculitis. We hereby present a fatal case of neonatal meningoventriculitis due to Proteus mirabilis.

Juyal, Deepak; Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Sharma, Neelam

2013-01-01

18

Emerging Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

?-Lactamase production was detected in 147 (52%) of 282 consecutive nonduplicate Proteus mirabilis isolates obtained over a 1-year period from the S. Matteo Hospital of Pavia (northern Italy). Seventy isolates (48% of the ?-lactamase producers) were found to produce extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), identified as PER-1 (first report in this species) and TEM-52 in 52 and 18 isolates, respectively. Analysis of clonal diversity of the ESBL producers suggested different spreading patterns for the two ESBL determinants.

Pagani, Laura; Migliavacca, Roberta; Pallecchi, Lucia; Matti, Cecilia; Giacobone, Ernesto; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Romero, Egidio; Rossolini, Gian Maria

2002-01-01

19

Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single-species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections. PMID:23042564

Armbruster, Chelsie E; Mobley, Harry L T

2012-10-08

20

Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single- species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections.

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2013-01-01

21

Functional Identification of the Proteus mirabilis Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the identification of genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of two strains of Proteus mirabilis. Since P. mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. mirabilis genes was elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined mutants of K. pneumoniae. The functions of strain-specific outer-core genes were identified by using as surrogate acceptors LPSs from two well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. This approach allowed the identification of two new heptosyltransferases (WamA and WamC), a galactosyltransferase (WamB), and an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (WamD). In both strains, most of these genes were found in the so-called waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wabO) was found outside this cluster.

Aquilini, Eleonora; Azevedo, Joana; Jimenez, Natalia; Bouamama, Lamiaa; Tomas, Juan M.; Regue, Miguel

2010-01-01

22

Core region in Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Four R mutants of P. mirabilis were isolated. The composition of their degraded polysaccharides (PS) obtained from the respective lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as well as the composition and properties of the PS-fractions separated by column chromatography were examined. The results were compared with those obtained with PS of the wild type. One of the mutants could be classified as an Ra-type mutant, presenting a complete LPS core. This polysaccharide core contains: galacturonic acid, glucosamine, glucose, D-glycero-D-mannoheptose, L-glycero-D-mannoheptose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 2 and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. Taking into consideration the common sugars described previously in the LPS chemotypes of P. hauseri, the composition of the complete core region mentioned above represents the LPS core part of all the chemotypes, containing two different heptoses. PMID:342599

Kote?ko, K; Gromska, W; Papierz, M; Sidorczyk, Z; Krajewska, D; Szer, K

1977-01-01

23

Separate O-grouping schemes for serotyping clinical isolates of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

Antisera were prepared against type strains of the original scheme of B. Perch (Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 25:703-714, 1948) and against newly defined types to produce separate schemes for O-grouping Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. In assessing the schemes for their effectiveness it was found that 82% of 208 P. vulgaris isolates and 88% of 194 P. mirabilis isolates from two hospitals were typable. Only 3.4% of the P. vulgaris isolates agglutinated in P. mirabilis antisera, and 1.5% of the P. mirabilis agglutinated in P. vulgaris antisera, indicating that separation of the schemes would be more advantageous in routine typing. P. mirabilis of groups O3, O6, O10, O29, and O30 were most frequently isolated. Of the P. vulgaris isolates, 25% belonged to newly defined O-groups, and one of these was the largest with 14% of all isolates of this species. The application of serotyping using separate schemes for each species was advocated in epidemiological studies.

Penner, J L; Hennessy, J N

1980-01-01

24

Crystal structure of Proteus mirabilis lipase, a novel lipase from the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1.  

PubMed

Bacterial lipases from family I.1 and I.2 catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol between 25-45°C and are used extensively as biocatalysts. The lipase from Proteus mirabilis belongs to the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1 and is a promising catalyst for biodiesel production because it can tolerate high amounts of water in the reaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase, a member of the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of I.1lipases. The structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase was solved in the absence and presence of a bound phosphonate inhibitor. Unexpectedly, both the apo and inhibitor bound forms of P. mirabilis lipase were found to be in a closed conformation. The structure reveals a unique oxyanion hole and a wide active site that is solvent accessible even in the closed conformation. A distinct mechanism for Ca²? coordination may explain how these lipases can fold without specific chaperones. PMID:23300806

Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

2012-12-26

25

R factors from Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.  

PubMed

Eighty-nine R factors were transmitted by conjugation to Escherichia coli K12 from isolates of Proteus hauseri (P. mirabilis plus P vulgaris). More than half were non-selftranmissible. The remainder included plasmids assigned to the previously defined groups FII,A-C complex, J, N and P, as well as some not belonging to any knwon compatibility groups. R factors from strains isolated in India, Thailand and Japan carried plasmids whose inheritance was extremely unstable in E. coli K12. All belonged to a new compatibility group, V. PMID:1095684

Hedges, R W

1975-04-01

26

O antigens of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from patients with bacteremia.  

PubMed Central

During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia.

Larsson, P

1980-01-01

27

Identification of plasmid-encoded extended spectrum ?-lactamases produced by a clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergence and dissemination of multiresistant strain of Proteus mirabilis have made infections treatment more difficult that this bacterium is responsible. The aim of this study is to determine the implication of the enzymatic mechanism and to describe the properties of ESBLs (extended spectrum ?-lactamases). A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis SM514 isolated in the intensive care unit at the Military

S. Mahrouki; C. Chouchani; O. Belhadj

2009-01-01

28

Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Strain PR03, Isolated from a Local Hospital in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is one of the pathogenic agents that commonly causes urinary tract infections among elderly individuals and long-term catheterized patients. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Proteus mirabilis strain PR03 (3,932,623 bp, with a G+C content of 38.6%) isolated from a local hospital in Malaysia.

Khalid, M. I. H.; Teh, L. K.; Lee, L. S.; Zakaria, Z. A.

2013-01-01

29

Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies  

PubMed Central

Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies.

Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

2012-01-01

30

Detection and mutation of a luxS-encoded autoinducer in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing regulates the expression of virulence factors in a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. This study has shown that Proteus mirabilis harbours a homologue of luxS, a gene required for the synthesis of the quorum sensing autoinducer 2 (AI-2). AI-2 activity is expressed during and is correlated with the initiation of swarming migration on agar surfaces. The P. mirabilis

Rachel Schneider; C. Virginia Lockatell; David Johnson; Robert Belas

2002-01-01

31

The Special Affinity of Particular Types of Proteus Mirabilis for the Urinary Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

INFECTIONS of the urinary tract with strains of Proteus mirabilis are common and second only to Escherichia coli infections in the frequency with which they occur. However, whereas the majority of E. coli infections are confined to the bladder, Proteus strains have a special predilection for the upper urinary tract where they cause much greater kidney damage than E. coli

B. W. Senior

1979-01-01

32

The Complete Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Strain BB2000 Reveals Differences from the P. mirabilis Reference Strain.  

PubMed

We announce the complete genome sequence for Proteus mirabilis strain BB2000, a model system for self recognition. This opportunistic pathogen contains a single, circular chromosome (3,846,754 bp). Comparisons between this genome and that of strain HI4320 reveal genetic variations corresponding to previously unknown physiological and self-recognition differences. PMID:24009111

Sullivan, Nora L; Septer, Alecia N; Fields, Andrew T; Wenren, Larissa M; Gibbs, Karine A

2013-09-05

33

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

PubMed Central

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

Xue, Chuan; Budrene, Elena O.; Othmer, Hans G.

2011-01-01

34

MrpB Functions as the Terminator for Assembly of Proteus mirabilis Mannose-Resistant Proteus-Like Fimbriae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis, commonly associated with complicated uri- nary tract infections (UTIs), expresses several types of fimbrial structures that promote attachment to and colonization of host mucosal surfaces (8). Among them, mannose-resistant Proteus- like (MR\\/P) fimbria, a surface structure responsible for man- nose-resistant hemagglutination, has been shown to contribute significantly to the development of experimental UTIs. First, it was shown that

XIN LI; HARRY L. T. MOBLEY

1998-01-01

35

Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:This study investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC production in selected clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Proteus mirabilis, and compared the results of boronic acid disc screening with conventional susceptibility testing for the detection of AmpC-positive isolates.Methods:E coli, Klebsiella species and P mirabilis with reduced susceptibility to amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime and cephalexin, but without phenotypic evidence of extended-spectrum

T Y Tan; S Y Ng; L Teo; Y Koh; C H Teok

2008-01-01

36

Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated\\u000a how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal\\u000a formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent\\u000a stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal (Caco-2, HT29,\\u000a HT29-18N2, HT29-FU, and HT29-MTX) and one ureter cell line (SV-HUC-1) were\\u000a incubated in artificial urine with five Proteus mirabilis strains.\\u000a Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), laser

Rejiv B. Mathoera; Dik J. Kok; Cees M. Verduin; J. M. Nijman

2002-01-01

37

Proteus mirabilis Bloodstream Infections: Risk Factors and Treatment Outcome Related to the Expression of Extended-Spectrum  -Lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Proteus mirabilis strains is a relatively uncommon clinical entity, and its significance has received little attention. This study was initiated to evaluate risk factors and treatment outcome of BSI episodes due to P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). Twenty-five BSI episodes caused by P. mirabilis occurred at our hospital (Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi,

Andrea Endimiani; Francesco Luzzaro; Gioconda Brigante; Mariagrazia Perilli; Gianluigi Lombardi; Gianfranco Amicosante; Gian Maria Rossolini; Antonio Toniolo

2005-01-01

38

Lipopolysaccharide from Proteus mirabilis O29 induces changes in red blood cell membrane lipids and proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in red blood cell (RBC) plasma membranes, i.e. in lipids and proteins, and osmotic fragility of these cells after treatment with Proteus mirabilis O29 endotoxin (lipolysaccharide (LPS)) were examined using a spin labelling method. At the highest concentration of LPS, insignificantly decreased fluidity of membrane lipids was observed. Changes in conformation of membrane proteins were determined by two covalently

Krzysztof Gwo?dzi?ski; Anna Pieni; Wies?aw Kaca

2003-01-01

39

Identification of Proteus mirabilis Mutants with Increased Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides (APs) are important components of the innate defenses of animals, plants, and microorganisms. However, some bacterial pathogens are resistant to the action of APs. For example, Proteus mirabilis is highly resistant to the action of APs, such as polymyxin B (PM), protegrin, and the synthetic protegrin analog IB-367. To better understand this resistance, a transposon mutagenesis approach was

ANDREA J. MCCOY; HONGJIAN LIU; TIMOTHY J. FALLA; JOHN S. GUNN

2001-01-01

40

A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact

Zhiqiang Zhang; Siqing Xia; Xuejiang Wang; Aming Yang; Bin Xu; Ling Chen; Zhiliang Zhu; Jianfu Zhao; Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault; Didier Leonard

2009-01-01

41

Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the O-acetylated peptidoglycan of Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody (PmPG5-3) specific for the O-acetylated peptidoglycan of Proteus mirabilis 19 was produced by an NS-1 myeloma cell line and purified from ascites fluid by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography. The monoclonal antibody (an immunoglobulin M) was characterized by a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be equally specific for both insoluble and soluble O-acetylated peptidoglycan but weakly recognized chemically de-O-acetylated P. mirabilis peptidoglycan, the non-O-acetylated peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the peptidoglycan monosaccharide precursors N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid dipeptide. The monoclonal antibody did not react with D-alanine or lipopolysaccharide isolated from P. mirabilis. Based on this evidence, the binding epitope on the P. mirabilis peptidoglycan is predicted to be linear and to comprise the glycan backbone, including both the N- and O-acetyl moieties. Monoclonal antibody PmPG5-3 was used to localize the O acetylation of the P. mirabilis peptidoglycan by immunoelectron microscopy. Murein sacculi of P. mirabilis were heavily and randomly labelled with the immunogold, whereas very little labelling and no labelling were observed on the sacculi isolated from de-O-acetylated P. mirabilis and E. coli, respectively. Based on the apparent pattern of immunogold labelling, a physiological role for peptidoglycan O acetylation in P. mirabilis is proposed. Images

Gyorffy, S; Clarke, A J

1992-01-01

42

Immunofluorescent evidence of Proteus mirabilis swarm cell formation on sterilized rat feces.  

PubMed Central

Swarming Proteus spp. were detected with the use of proteometry (a most-probable-number technique) in the fecal material of selected animal species and in raw sewage from a local sewage treatment plant. Proteus spp. were not detected in any of several soil and freshwater samples examined. Since rat feces harbored high numbers of Proteus mirabilis compared with other habitats examined, we chose to examine it for the possibility of supporting swarming. Immunofluorescent studies with a strain-specific conjugate revealed the morphogenesis of short forms into elongated swarm cells upon the surface of sterilized rat feces that had been inoculated with short forms of P. mirabilis. the same phenomenon was not observed consistently when nonsterile rat feces were inoculated and examined with immunofluorescence. Images

Stahl, M L; Williams, F D

1981-01-01

43

Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

2013-02-27

44

Differentiation of Proteus mirabilis by bacteriophage typing and the Dienes reaction.  

PubMed Central

A provisional typing schema based on sensitivity to 23 bacteriophages has been established for Proteus mirabilis. Seventy-three bacteriophages were isolated on strains of P. mirabilis (64), P. vulgaris (1), P. morganii (7), and P. rettgeri (1), but those isolated on P. mirabilis were the most useful in differentiating other strains of . mirabilis. From the 73 phages studied, the best 23 were chosen by computer analysis for the provisional system, which was then used to study P. mirabilis infections in a 500-bed general hospital. All patient isolates for 19 months were saved and then compared by bacteriophage typing and the Dienes reaction in a retrospective study. There was evidence for only three instances of cross-infection or -colonization during this time. Bacteriophage typing was very sensitive in differentiating strains, since 200 strains were differentiated into 113 different lysis patterns and 94% were typable. The Dienes reaction was useful at times but often gave reactions that were difficult to read or that changed when the tests were repeated. The bacteriophages described by Schmidt and Jeffries were also evaluated and proved useful in combination with ours. The value of bacteriophage typing was clearly established, and work toward a standardized schema for P. mirabilis should continue. Images

Hickman, F W; Farmer, J J

1976-01-01

45

Innate immune responses to Proteus mirabilis flagellin in the urinary tract.  

PubMed

Flagella are bacterial virulence factors allowing microorganisms to move over surfaces. Flagellin, the structural component of flagella, is sensed by the host via Toll and NOD-like receptors and triggers pro-inflammatory responses. The use of Toll-like receptors agonists to modulate innate immune responses has aroused great interest as an alternative to improve the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. Proteus mirabilis is a Gram negative bacterium that causes urinary tract infections in humans. In the present work we used different approaches to study the ability of P. mirabilis flagellin to induce an innate immune response. We demonstrated that P. mirabilis flagellin has the ability to induce pro-inflammatory chemokines expression in T24 bladder cultures cells and in the mouse bladder after instillation. It was evidenced also that flagellin from different P. mirabilis strains differed in their capacity to induce an innate immune response in the CacoCCL20-Luc system. Also, flagellin elicited inflammation, with recruitment of leukocytes to the bladder epithelium. Flagellin instillation before an experimental P. mirabilis infection showed that the inflammatory response due to flagellin did not help to clear the infection but favored bacterial colonization. Thus, induction of inflammatory response in the bladder did not contribute to P. mirabilis infection neutralization. PMID:23817034

Umpiérrez, Ana; Scavone, Paola; Romanin, David; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Rumbo, Martín; Zunino, Pablo

2013-06-28

46

Ultrastructure of Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Rafts and Role of Swarming in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (C-UTI). It blocks in- dwelling urethral catheters through the formation of extensive crystalline biofilms. The obstruction of urine flow can induce episodes of pyelonephritis, septicemia, and shock. P. mirabilis exhibits a type of motility referred to as swarming, in which multicellular rafts of elongated, hyperflagellated swarmer cells form and

Brian V. Jones; Robert Young; Eshwar Mahenthiralingam; David J. Stickler

2004-01-01

47

Modulation of Swarming and Virulence by Fatty Acids through the RsbA Protein in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After sensing external signals, Proteus mirabilis undergoes a multicellular behavior called swarming which is coordinately regulated with the expression of virulence factors. Here we report that exogenously added fatty acids could act as signals to regulate swarming in P. mirabilis. Specifically, while oleic acid enhanced swarming, some saturated fatty acids, such as lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic

Shwu-Jen Liaw; Hsin-Chih Lai; Won-Bo Wang

2004-01-01

48

Properties of multidrug-resistant, ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates and possible role of ?-lactam\\/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

At our institution, isolation rates of clinical strains of ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis increased to 8.8% of all P. mirabilis isolates during the period 1997–1999. To evaluate the susceptibility of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis strains against commonly used drugs, we studied 50 non-duplicated isolates selected on the basis of synergy between clavulanate and ?-lactams (ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone). The presence of

Francesco Luzzaro; Mariagrazia Perilli; Gianfranco Amicosante; Gianluigi Lombardi; Renzo Belloni; Alessanro Zollo; Ciro Bianchi; Antonio Toniolo

2001-01-01

49

Production and characterization of a bioflocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioflocculant TJ-F1 with high flocculating activity, produced by strain TJ-1 from a mixed activated sludge, was investigated with regard to its production and characterization. By 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain TJ-1 was identified as Proteus mirabilis. The most preferred carbon source, nitrogen source and C\\/N ratio (w\\/w) for strain TJ-1 to produce the bioflocculant were

Siqing Xia; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xuejiang Wang; Aming Yang; Ling Chen; Jianfu Zhao; Didier Leonard; Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

2008-01-01

50

Genomic rearrangements in the flagellin genes of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Molecular analyses have revealed that Proteus mira- bilis possesses two genes, flaA and flaB, that are homologous to each other and to flagellin genes of many other species. Both swimmer and swarmer cells transcribe flaA , but not flaB . FlaA? mutants are non-motile and do not differentiate showing the essential role of flaA in swarmer cell differentiation and

Catherine A. Murphy; Robert Belas

1999-01-01

51

Development of an Intranasal Vaccine To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection by Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis commonly infects the complicated urinary tract and is associated with urolithiasis. Stone formation is caused by bacterial urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, causing local pH to rise, and leads to the subsequent precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium phosphate (apatite) crystals. To prevent these infections, we vaccinated CBA mice with formalin-killed bacteria or purified mannose-resistant, Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, a surface antigen expressed by P. mirabilis during experimental urinary tract infection, via four routes of immunization: subcutaneous, intranasal, transurethral, and oral. We assessed the efficacy of vaccination using the CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Subcutaneous or intranasal immunization with formalin-killed bacteria and intranasal or transurethral immunization with purified MR/P fimbriae significantly protected CBA mice from ascending urinary tract infection by P. mirabilis (P < 0.05). To investigate the potential of MrpH, the MR/P fimbrial tip adhesin, as a vaccine, the mature MrpH peptide (residues 23 to 275, excluding the signal peptide), and the N-terminal receptor-binding domain of MrpH (residues 23 to 157) were overexpressed as C-terminal fusions to maltose-binding protein (MBP) and purified on amylose resins. Intranasal immunization of CBA mice with MBP-MrpH (residues 23 to 157) conferred effective protection against urinary tract infection by P. mirabilis (P < 0.002).

Li, Xin; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Johnson, David E.; Lane, M. Chelsea; Warren, John W.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2004-01-01

52

New aspects of the role of MR/P fimbriae in Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), produces a number of different fimbriae including mannose-resistant Proteus-like fimbriae (MR/P). The precise role of different P. mirabilis fimbriae in ascending UTI has not yet been elucidated. In this study, a clinical isolate of P. mirabilis and an isogenic mutant unable to express MR/P were tested using different experimental approaches. They were tested for their ability to cause infection in an ascending co-infection model of UTI and in a haematogenous model in the mouse. In both models, the mutant was less able than the wild-type strain to colonise the lower and upper urinary tracts although infectivity was not abolished. In vitro adherence to uroepithelial cells was also assessed. Significant differences in adherence between both strains were observed at 1 h but not at 15 min post infection. We have also shown that a wild-type strain carries two copies of the mrpA gene. These data reinforce the importance of MR/P fimbriae in P. mirabilis UTI although other virulence factors may be necessary for efficient colonisation and development of infection. PMID:11549418

Zunino, P; Geymonat, L; Allen, A G; Preston, A; Sosa, V; Maskell, D J

2001-08-01

53

Molecular Detection of HpmA and HlyA Hemolysin of Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the bacterial infections frequently documented in humans. Proteus mirabilis is associated with UTI mainly in individuals with urinary tract abnormality or related with vesicular catheterism and it can be difficult to treat because of the formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. These stones are formed due to the presence of urease synthesized by the bacteria. Another important factor is that P. mirabilis produces hemolysin HpmA, used by the bacteria to damage the kidney tissues. Proteus spp. samples can also express HlyA hemolysin, similar to that found in Escherichia coli. A total of 211 uropathogenic P. mirabilis isolates were analyzed to detect the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes by the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot and hlyA by PCR. The hpmA and hpmB genes were expressed by the RT-PCR technique and two P. mirabilis isolates were sequenced for the hpmA and hpmB genes. The presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes was confirmed by PCR in 205 (97.15 %) of the 211 isolates. The dot blot confirmed the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes in the isolates that did not amplify in the PCR. None of the isolates studied presented the hlyA gene. The hpmA and hpmB genes that were sequenced presented 98 % identity with the same genes of the HI4320 P. mirabilis sample. This study showed that the PCR technique has good sensitivity for detecting the hpmA and hpmB genes of P. mirabilis. PMID:23884594

Cestari, Silvia Emanoele; Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Fernando Henrique; da Rocha, Sérgio Paulo Dejato; Elias, Waldir Pereira; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

2013-07-25

54

The Assessment of Proteus mirabilis Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin and the Impact of These Antibiotics at Subinhibitory Concentrations on Proteus mirabilis Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Rods of the Proteus genus are commonly isolated from patients, especially from the urinary tracts of the catheterised patients. The infections associated with biomaterials are crucial therapeutic obstacles, due to the bactericidal resistance of the biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of P. mirabilis planktonic forms to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime, the ability to form biofilm, and the impact of chosen sub-MIC concentrations of these antibiotics on biofilm at different stages of its formation. The research included 50 P. mirabilis strains isolated from wounds and the urinary tracts from patients of the University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz. The assessment of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime was conducted using micromethods. The impact of sub-MIC concentrations of the chosen antibiotics on the biofilm was measured using the TTC method. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was confirmed for 20 strains (40.0%) while to ceftazidime for 32 (64.0%) of the tested P. mirabilis strains. All of the tested strains formed biofilm: 24.0% weakly, 26.0% moderately, and 50.0% strongly. It was determined that ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime caused eradication of the biofilm. Moreover, the connection between origin of the strains, biofilm maturity level, and resistance to antibiotics was proved.

Kwiecinska-Pirog, Joanna; Zniszczol, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

2013-01-01

55

Cranberry impairs selected behaviors essential for virulence in Proteus mirabilis HI4320.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is an etiological agent of complicated urinary tract infections. North American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been considered to have protective properties against urinary tract infections. This work reports the effects of cranberry powder (CP) on the motility of P. mirabilis HI4320 and its expression of flaA, flhD, and ureD. Our results show that swimming and swarming motilities and swarmer-cell differentiation were inhibited by CP. Additionally, transcription of the flagellin gene flaA and of flhD, the first gene of the flagellar master operon flhDC, decreased during exposure of P. mirabilis to various concentrations of CP. Moreover, using ureD-gfp, a fusion of the urease accessory gene ureD with gfp, we show that CP inhibits urease expression. Because we demonstrate that CP does not inhibit the growth of P. mirabilis, the observed effects are not attributable to toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP hinders motility of P. mirabilis and reduces the expression of important virulence factors. PMID:23750959

McCall, Jennifer; Hidalgo, Gabriela; Asadishad, Bahareh; Tufenkji, Nathalie

2013-06-05

56

Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 ?-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1?% in 1998 to 23.1?% in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40?%. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 ?-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83?% or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 ?-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8?% of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers. PMID:22935848

Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

2012-08-30

57

Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis causes complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). While the urinary tract is an iron-limiting environment, iron acquisition remains poorly characterized for this uropathogen. Microarray analysis of P. mirabilis HI4320 cultured under iron limitation identified 45 significantly up-regulated genes (P ? 0.05) that represent 21 putative iron-regulated systems. Two gene clusters, PMI0229-0239 and PMI2596–2605, encode putative siderophore systems. PMI0229-0239 encodes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-independent siderophore (NIS) system for producing a novel siderophore, proteobactin. PMI2596-2605 are contained within the high-pathogenicity island, originally described in Yersinia pestis, and encodes proteins with apparent homology and organization to those involved in yersiniabactin production and uptake. Cross-feeding and biochemical analysis shows that P. mirabilis is unable to utilize or produce yersiniabactin, suggesting that this yersiniabactin-related locus is functionally distinct. Only disruption of both systems resulted in an in vitro iron-chelating defect; demonstrating production and iron-chelating activity for both siderophores. These findings clearly show that proteobactin and the yersiniabactin-related siderophore function as iron acquisition systems. Despite the activity of both siderophores, only mutants lacking the yersiniabactin-related siderophore reduce fitness in vivo. The fitness requirement for the yersiniabactin-related siderophore during UTI shows, for the first time, the importance of siderophore production in vivo for P. mirabilis.

Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Pearson, Melanie M.; Arewang, Carl J.; Nusca, Tyler D.; Sherman, David H.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2010-01-01

58

Molecular cloning and overexpression of a glutathione transferase gene from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

The structural gene of the Proteus mirabilis glutathione transferase GSTB1-1 (gstB) has been isolated from genomic DNA. A nucleotide sequence determination of gstB predicted a translational product of 203 amino acid residues, perfectly matching the sequence of the previously purified protein [Mignogna, Allocati, Aceto, Piccolomini, Di Ilio, Barra and Martini (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 211, 421-425]. The P. mirabilis GST sequence revealed 56% identity with the Escherichia coli GST at DNA level and 54% amino acid identity. Similarity has been revealed also with the translation products of the recently cloned gene bphH from Haemophilus influenzae (28% identity) and ORF3 of Burkholderia cepacia (27% identity). Putative promoter sequences with high similarity to the E. coli sigma 70 consensus promoter and to promoters of P. mirabilis cat and glnA genes preceded the ATG of the gstB open reading frame (ORF). gstB was brought under control of the tac promoter and overexpressed in E. coli by induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and growth at 37 degrees C. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of overexpressed protein were indistinguishable from those of the enzyme purified from P. mirabilis extract. Unlike the GST belonging to Mu and Theta classes, GSTB1-1 was unable to metabolize dichloromethane. The study of the interaction of cloned GSTB1-1 with a number of antibiotics indicates that this enzyme actively participates in the binding of tetracyclines and rifamycin.

Perito, B; Allocati, N; Casalone, E; Masulli, M; Dragani, B; Polsinelli, M; Aceto, A; Di Ilio, C

1996-01-01

59

Characterization and serological classification of O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis TG 276-90 from Proteus serogroup O34  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Proteus from the family Enterobacteriaceae are currently divided into the five species P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, P. hauseri, and P. myxofaciens and three unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5, and 6. They are important facultative human and animal pathogens which, under favorable conditions, cause\\u000a mainly intestinal and urinary tract infections, sometimes leading to

Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Ma?gorzata Siwi?ska; Krystyna Zych; Antoni Ró?alski; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2006-01-01

60

Chromosomally Encoded AmpC-Type bLactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis (CF09) isolated from urine specimens of a patient displayed resistance to amoxicillin (MIC >4,096 mg\\/ml), ticarcillin (4,096 mg\\/ml), cefoxitin (64 mg\\/ml), cefotaxime (256 mg\\/ml), and ceftazidime (128 mg\\/ml) and required an elevated MIC of aztreonam (4 mg\\/ml). Clavulanic acid did not act synergistically with cephalosporins. Two b-lactamases with apparent pIs of 5.6 and 9.0

L. BRET; C. CHANAL-CLARIS; D. SIROT; E. B. CHAIBI; R. LABIA; J. SIROT

1998-01-01

61

AcrAB Multidrug Efflux Pump Is Associated with Reduced Levels of Susceptibility to Tigecycline (GAR936) in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tigecycline has good broad-spectrum activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens with the notable exception of the Proteeae. A study was performed to identify the mechanism responsible for the reduced susceptibility to tigecycline in Proteus mirabilis. Two independent transposon insertion mutants of P. mirabilis that had 16-fold-increased susceptibility to tigecycline were mapped to the acrB gene homolog of the Escherichia

Melissa A. Visalli; Ellen Murphy; Steven J. Projan; Patricia A. Bradford

2003-01-01

62

Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi.  

PubMed Central

Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) calculi are a common complication of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infections. Although urease is a major virulence factor in calculus formation, the polysaccharide capsule (CPS) of this organism also enhances struvite crystallization and growth in vitro (L. Clapham, R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, J. Downey, and J. W. Costerton, J. Crystal Growth 104:475-484, 1990). We obtained purified CPS, of known structure and varying anionic character, from P. mirabilis ATCC 49565 and several other organisms. Artificial urine was added to CPS, and the pH was elevated from 5.8 to 8.5 by the addition of urease or titration with 0.25 M NH4OH to induce struvite crystallization. Crystallization was measured by particle counting (Coulter counter), and the morphology (crystal habit) was examined by phase-contrast microscopy. In the presence of partially anionic P. mirabilis CPS, struvite formation occurred at a lower pH than in the absence of CPS or in the presence of other neutral, partially anionic, or anionic CPS. At pH 7.5 to 8.0, significantly more struvite crystals formed in the presence of P. mirabilis CPS than under other experimental conditions. With the exception of one polymer (curdlan) which did not bind Mg2+, enhancement of struvite formation by CPS polymers was inversely proportional to their Mg2+ binding ability. We speculate that the structure and partial anionic nature of P. mirabilis CPS enable it to enhance struvite formation by weakly concentrating Mg2+ ions during struvite crystal formation. This illustrates a new virulence aspect of bacterial CPS during infection. Images

Dumanski, A J; Hedelin, H; Edin-Liljegren, A; Beauchemin, D; McLean, R J

1994-01-01

63

Serotyping and the Dienes reaction on Proteus mirabilis from hospital infections  

PubMed Central

The serotype of 320 strains of Proteus mirabilis from clinical material was determined. Using 20 O antisera and four H antisera 61% of strains could be fully identified and 90% partially identified. A large number of serotypes were recognized but no difference was found between the serotype of organisms infecting the urinary tract and those from other infections. Biochemically identical organisms found in the same ward generally differed in serology. Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the faeces of 84·5% of 84 patients with urinary infection and from none of 20 normal controls. By serology and the Dienes test 61% of the organisms isolated from the urine and faeces of a single patient were identical, indicating that infection arose from the intestine. Most groups of serologically identical strains could, by the Dienes test, be further divided into a number of subtypes indicating that the strains were different and that cross infection had not been responsible for their spread. With three serological groups, however, the majority of strains belonged to a single Dienes type and it was concluded that these organisms had been spread from a common reservoir or carrier. Because of the unreliability of the Dienes test when carried out on random organisms it is suggested that reliable results can only be obtained by combining the Dienes test with serotyping.

de Louvois, J.

1969-01-01

64

Sublethal ciprofloxacin treatment leads to resistance via antioxidant systems in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

This study investigates new aspects of the possible role of antioxidant defenses in the mechanisms of resistance to ciprofloxacin in Proteus mirabilis. Four ciprofloxacin-resistant variants (CRVs), selected in vitro by repeated cultures in a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) concentration of ciprofloxacin, attained different levels of antibiotic resistance and high Ferric reducing antioxidant power, with 10(-6) frequencies. However, no mutations occurred in positions 83 or 87 of gyrA, 464 or 466 of gyrB, or 78, 80 or 84 of parC, suggesting that resistance took place without these typical mutations in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV. Assays with ciprofloxacin and the pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone showed that in addition to the antioxidant mechanisms, the influx/efflux mechanism also contributed to the increase in the resistance to ciprofloxacin in one CRV. Moreover, lipid oxidation to malondialdehyde and protein oxidation to carbonyls and advanced oxidation protein products were higher in sensitive than in the resistant strains, as a new factor involved in the mechanisms of resistance in P. mirabilis. The oxidative stress cross-resistance to telluride in CRVs enhanced the role of the antioxidants in the ciprofloxacin resistance of P. mirabilis, which was reinforced during the assays of reduction of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin by glutathione and ascorbic acid. PMID:22092852

Aiassa, Virginia; Barnes, Ana I; Smania, Andrea M; Albesa, Inés

2011-11-23

65

Characteristics of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality. PMID:23371453

Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi

2013-02-01

66

Modified insulator semiconductor electrode with functionalized nanoparticles for Proteus mirabilis bacteria biosensor development.  

PubMed

The development of enzymatic sensors for biological purposes such as biomedicine, pharmacy, food industry, and environmental toxicity requires the purification step of the enzyme. To prevent the loss of the enzyme activity, a new strategy is held in order to immobilize the bacteria. It will constitute the biological sensing element leading to a high operational stability and multiple adaptations to various conditions such as temperature, pH and ionic strength changes. In this work we describe the development of a urea biosensor by immobilizing Proteus mirabilis bacteria onto an insulator-semiconductor electrode on functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), using cationic, Poly (allylamine hydrochloride) then anionic, Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) polyelectrolytes, BSA (serum bovin albumin), and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The response of P. mirabilis to urea addition is evaluated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Before the immobilization step, the activity of urease produced from the P. mirabilis bacteria was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs). Adhesion of the bacteria cells on IS electrodes have been studied using contact angle measurements. After immobilization of the bacteria, on the (Si/SiO2/Si3N4) and (Si/SiO2) substrates, the relationship between the evolution of the flat band potential ?VFB and the urea concentration is found to be linear for values ranging from 10(-2)M to 10(-5)M. PMID:24094152

Braham, Yosra; Barhoumi, Houcine; Maaref, Abderrazak; Bakhrouf, Amina; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

2013-06-28

67

Studies on ?-Galactoside Transport in a Proteus mirabilis Merodiploid Carrying an Escherichia coli Lactose Operon  

PubMed Central

Merodiploid derivatives bearing an F-linked lac operon (i+, o+, z+, y+, a+) from Escherichia coli were prepared from a Proteus mirabilis strain unable to utilize lactose and from a lac deletion strain of E. coli. A suitable growth medium was found in which the episomal element in the P. mirabilis derivative was sufficiently stable to allow induction of the episome-borne lac operon and thus to permit a comparison of the activities and properties of E. coli lac products in the intracellular environments of P. mirabilis and E. coli. In both derivatives the episomal lac operon was shown to be repressed in the absence of inducer. Kinetics of induction with gratuitous inducer (isopropyl-1-thio-?-d-galactoside) were similar for both ?-galactosidase activity (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.4.1.23) and ?-galactoside transport activity in both derivatives, although the ratio of galactoside transport to ?-galactosidase activity was approximately 1.6-fold higher in the E. coli derivative. Comparison of ?-galactosidase and M-protein (lac y gene product)-specific activities indicated coordinate expression of the induced lac operon in both derivatives. Quantitatively, the maximal ?-galactosidase specific activity was two or three times higher for the E. coli derivative. A significant sodium azide inhibition (65% inhibition by 10 mM sodium azide) of lactose permease-mediated transport of o-nitrophenyl-?-galactoside from an outside region of high concentration to an inside region of very low concentration (“downhill transport”) was observed for the P. mirabilis derivative. Identical conditions for the E. coli derivative yielded only about 15% inhibition. Active transport of thiomethyl-?-galactoside was similar for both derivatives, the major difference being that active transport was more sensitive to azide poisoning in the P. mirabilis derivative. Preliminary examination of the thiomethyl-?-galactoside derivatives following active transport did not demonstrate the accumulation of a phosphorylated product in either strain but did reveal an unidentified derivative present in the P. mirabilis merodiploid extract which was not detectable in the E. coli merodiploid. Images

Stubbs, John; Horwitz, Alan; Moses, V.

1973-01-01

68

Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Bloodstream Infections: Risk Factors and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Our aims were to identify (i) risk factors associated with the acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR, to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials) Proteus mirabilis isolates responsible for bloodstream infections (BSIs) and (ii) the impact on mortality of such infections. Risk factors for acquiring MDR P. mirabilis BSIs were investigated in a case-case-control study; those associated with mortality were assessed by comparing survivors and nonsurvivors in a cohort study. The population consisted of 99 adult inpatients with P. mirabilis BSIs identified by our laboratory over an 11-year period (1999 to 2009), 36 (33.3%) of which were caused by MDR strains, and the overall 21-day mortality rate was 30.3%. Acquisition of an MDR strain was independently associated with admission from a long-term care facility (odds ratio [OR], 9.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94 to 49.16), previous therapy with fluoroquinolones (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 1.30 to 23.43) or oxyimino-cephalosporins (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 1.31 to 16.99), urinary catheterization (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.50 to 10.09), and previous hospitalization (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 10.4 to 6.89). Patients with MDR P. mirabilis BSIs received inadequate initial antimicrobial therapy (IIAT, i.e., treatment with drugs to which the isolate displayed in vitro resistance) more frequently than those with non-MDR infections; they also had increased mortality and (for survivors) longer post-BSI-onset hospital stays. In multivariate regression analysis, 21-day mortality was associated with septic shock at BSI onset (OR, 12.97; 95% CI, 32.2 to 52.23), P. mirabilis isolates that were MDR (OR, 6.62; 95% CI, 16.4 to 26.68), and IIAT (OR, 9.85; 95% CI, 26.7 to 36.25), the only modifiable risk factor of the 3. These findings can potentially improve clinicians' ability to identify P. mirabilis BSIs likely to be MDR, thereby reducing the risk of IIAT—a major risk factor for mortality in these cases—and facilitating the prompt implementation of appropriate infection control measures.

Trecarichi, Enrico Maria; Fiori, Barbara; Losito, Angela Raffaella; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Campana, Lara; Ruggeri, Alberto; Di Meco, Eugenia; Liberto, Elvira; Fadda, Giovanni; Cauda, Roberto; Spanu, Teresa

2012-01-01

69

Alterations in human red blood cell membrane properties induced by the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus mirabilis S1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), isolated from Proteus mirabilis S1959 strain, on red blood cell (RBC) membranes in whole cells as well as on isolated membranes was studied. Lipid membrane fluidity, conformational state of membrane proteins and the osmotic fragility of RBCs were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectrophotometric method. Lipid membrane fluidity was determined using three

Krzysztof Gwozdzinski; Anna Pieniazek; Beata Sudak; Wieslaw Kaca

2003-01-01

70

A sensor to detect the early stages in the development of crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilm on indwelling bladder catheters.  

PubMed

A simple sensor has been developed to detect the early stages of urinary catheter encrustation and avoid the clinical crises induced by catheter blockage. In laboratory models of colonization by Proteus mirabilis, the sensor signaled encrustation at an average time of 43 h before catheters were blocked with crystalline biofilm. PMID:16597888

Stickler, D J; Jones, S M; Adusei, G O; Waters, M G

2006-04-01

71

A Sensor To Detect the Early Stages in the Development of Crystalline Proteus mirabilis Biofilm on Indwelling Bladder Catheters  

PubMed Central

A simple sensor has been developed to detect the early stages of urinary catheter encrustation and avoid the clinical crises induced by catheter blockage. In laboratory models of colonization by Proteus mirabilis, the sensor signaled encrustation at an average time of 43 h before catheters were blocked with crystalline biofilm.

Stickler, D. J.; Jones, S. M.; Adusei, G. O.; Waters, M. G.

2006-01-01

72

Detection of KPC2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC  Lactamase in P. mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from blood cultures of a diabetic patient was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole-cell and\\/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate with primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase gene produced an amplicon of the expected size which was confirmed to be blaKPC-2 by

R. Tibbetts; J. G. Frye; J. Marschall; D. Warren; W. Dunne

2008-01-01

73

Regulation of the swarming inhibitor disA in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The disA gene encodes a putative amino acid decarboxylase that inhibits swarming in Proteus mirabilis. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and deletion analysis were used to identify the disA promoter. The use of a disA-lacZ fusion indicated that FlhD(4)C(2), the class I flagellar master regulator, did not have a role in disA regulation. The putative product of DisA, phenethylamine, was able to inhibit disA expression, indicating that a negative regulatory feedback loop was present. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify regulators of disA and revealed that umoB (igaA) was a negative regulator of disA. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of disA by UmoB is mediated through the Rcs phosphorelay. PMID:23687266

Szostek, Bree A; Rather, Philip N

2013-05-17

74

Curing Action of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on a Proteus mirabilis R+ Strain  

PubMed Central

Growth of Proteus mirabilis harboring R100-1 (fi+drd strrcmlrtetrsulr) factors in Penassay broth containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) leads to the loss of all or part of the genetic elements in high frequencies. In media containing SDS at concentrations as low as 0.03%, both lysis of R+ cells and elimination of the R factors occur at high frequencies. Appearance of drug-susceptible cells in R+ cultures occurs during the exponential phase of growth; however, the frequencies of susceptible cells increase substantially after the culture reaches the stationary phase. Reconstruction experiments, coupled with other observations, suggest that the major factor in altering the frequency of drug-susceptible variants is the greater resistance of the variants to the lytic action of SDS. This resistance correlates in most cases with the loss of the transfer functions in the resistance transfer factor.

Tomoeda, Munemitsu; Inuzuka, Manabu; Anto, Shizuko; Konishi, Mariko

1974-01-01

75

Classification of Proteus mirabilis TG 115 and CCUG 10701 into the Proteus O23 serogroup based on chemical and serological studies of O-polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Bacteria of the genus Proteus are a common cause of urinary tract infections. The O-polysaccharide (OPS) chain of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) defines\\u000a the serological specificity of strains. Based on the OPS structures and the immunospecificity of the LPS, Proteus strains have been classified into 74 O-serogroups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  The OPS of P. mirabilis TG 115 was obtained by mild

Agnieszka Zab?otni; Andrei V. Perepelov; Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Krystyna Zych; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2006-01-01

76

Proteus mirabilisMannose-Resistant,Proteus-Like Fimbriae: MrpG Is Located at the Fimbrial Tip and Is Required for Fimbrial Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Themannose-resistant, Proteus-like(MR\\/P)fimbria,responsibleformannose-resistanthemagglutination,is a virulence factor for uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Based on knownfimbrial gene organization, we postu- lated that MrpG, a putative minor subunit of the MR\\/P fimbria, functions as an adhesin responsible for hemagglutination,whileMrpAservesasthemajorstructuralsubunitforthefilamentousstructure.Totestthis hypothesis, an mrpG mutant was constructed by allelic-exchange mutagenesis and verified by PCR and Southern blotting. The mrpG mutant was found to be negative for hemagglutination,

XIN LI; HUI ZHAO; LILIANA GEYMONAT; FARAH BAHRANI; DAVID E. JOHNSON; ANDHARRY L. T. MOBLEY

1997-01-01

77

Proteus mirabilis urease: genetic organization, regulation, and expression of structural genes.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a cause of serious urinary tract infection, produces urease, an important virulence factor for this species. The enzyme hydrolyzes urea to CO2 and NH3, which initiates struvite or apatite stone formation. Genes encoding urease were localized on a P. mirabilis chromosomal DNA gene bank clone in Escherichia coli by deletion analysis, subcloning, Bal31 nuclease digestion, transposon Tn5 mutagenesis, and in vitro transcription-translation. A region of DNA between 4.0 and 5.4 kilobases (kb) in length was necessary for urease activity and was located within an 18.5-kb EcoRI fragment. The operon was induced by urea and encoded a multimeric, cytoplasmic enzyme comprising subunit polypeptides of 8,000, 10,000, and 73,000 daltons that were encoded by a single polycistronic mRNA and transcribed in that order. Seventeen urease-negative transposon insertions were isolated that synthesized either none of the structural subunit polypeptides, the 8,000-dalton polypeptide alone, or both the 8,000- and 10,000-dalton subunit polypeptides. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 212,000 by Superose-6 chromatography. Homologous sequences encoding the urease of Providencia stuartii synthesized subunit polypeptides of similar sizes and showed a similar genetic arrangement. However, restriction maps of the operons from the two species were distinct, indicating significant divergence. Images

Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

1988-01-01

78

Proteus mirabilis urease: nucleotide sequence determination and comparison with jack bean urease.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. Six open reading frames were found within a region of 4,952 base pairs which were predicted to encode polypeptides of 31.0 (ureD), 11.0 (ureA), 12.2 (ureB), 61.0 (ureC), 17.9 (ureE), and 23.0 (ureF) kilodaltons (kDa). Each open reading frame was preceded by a ribosome-binding site, with the exception of ureE. Putative promoterlike sequences were identified upstream of ureD, ureA, and ureF. Possible termination sites were found downstream of ureD, ureC, and ureF. Structural subunits of the enzyme were encoded by ureA, ureB, and ureC and were translated from a single transcript in the order of 11.0, 12.2, and 61.0 kDa. When the deduced amino acid sequences of the P. mirabilis urease subunits were compared with the amino acid sequence of the jack bean urease, significant amino acid similarity was observed (58% exact matches; 73% exact plus conservative replacements). The 11.0-kDa polypeptide aligned with the N-terminal residues of the plant enzyme, the 12.2-kDa polypeptide lined up with internal residues, and the 61.0-kDa polypeptide matched with the C-terminal residues, suggesting an evolutionary relationship of the urease genes of jack bean and P. mirabilis.

Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

1989-01-01

79

Interaction of Proteus mirabilis urease apoenzyme and accessory proteins identified with yeast two-hybrid technology.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The apourease is comprised of three structural subunits, UreA, UreB, and UreC, assembled as a homotrimer of individual UreABC heterotrimers (UreABC)(3). To become catalytically active, apourease acquires divalent nickel ions through a poorly understood process involving four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG. While homologues of UreD, UreF, and UreG have been copurified with apourease, it remains unclear specifically how these polypeptides associate with the apourease or each other. To identify interactions among P. mirabilis accessory proteins, in vitro immunoprecipitation and in vivo yeast two-hybrid assays were employed. A complex containing accessory protein UreD and structural protein UreC was isolated by immunoprecipitation and characterized with immunoblots. This association occurs independently of coaccessory proteins UreE, UreF, and UreG and structural protein UreA. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, UreD was found to directly interact in vivo with coaccessory protein UreF. Unique homomultimeric interactions of UreD and UreF were also detected in vivo. To substantiate the study of urease proteins with a yeast two-hybrid assay, previously described UreE dimers and homomultimeric UreA interactions among apourease trimers were confirmed in vivo. Similarly, a known structural interaction involving UreA and UreC was also verified. This report suggests that in vivo, P. mirabilis UreD may be important for recruitment of UreF to the apourease and that crucial homomultimeric associations occur among these accessory proteins. PMID:11157956

Heimer, S R; Mobley, H L

2001-02-01

80

Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbrial operon: genetic organization, nucleotide sequence, and conditions for expression.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, an agent of urinary tract infection, expresses at least four fimbrial types. Among these are the MR/P (mannose-resistant/Proteus-like) fimbriae. MrpA, the structural subunit, is optimally expressed at 37 degrees C in Luria broth cultured statically for 48 h by each of seven strains examined. Genes encoding this fimbria were isolated, and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The mrp gene cluster encoded by 7,293 bp predicts eight polypeptides: MrpI (22,133 Da), MrpA (17,909 Da), MrpB (19,632 Da), MrpC (96,823 Da), MrpD (27,886 Da), MrpE (19,470 Da), MrpF (17,363 Da), and MrpG (13,169 Da). mrpI is upstream of the gene encoding the major structural subunit gene mrpA and is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of the rest of the operon. All predicted polypeptides share > or = 25% amino acid identity with at least one other enteric fimbrial gene product encoded by the pap, fim, smf, fan, or mrk gene clusters. Images

Bahrani, F K; Mobley, H L

1994-01-01

81

Studies of antibiotic resistance of rough and smooth Proteus mirabilis strains and influence of polymyxin E on their lipopolysaccharide composition.  

PubMed

The influence of type of bacterial culture media on antibiotic resistance of Proteus mirabilis R and S forms, was tested. P. mirabilis S1959 (S form), R45 and R110 strains (Re and Ra mutant, respectively) cultivated in media supplemented with 10% heat inactivated bovine serum were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and nitroxoline. Proteus strains cultivated in media without serum were sensitive to these antibacterial agents. The presence of serum did not change the polymyxin E (colistin) resistance of there Proteus strains tested. The effects of the presence of colistin (1000 U/ml) in culture media on Proteus lipopolysaccharide composition was studied. The content of uronic acids and phosphate residues in lipopolysaccharides isolated from bacteria cultivated in the presence of colistin (LPS-col), were lower than in control LPSs. The contents of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose decreases in S1959 LPS-col, increases in R110 LPS-col and remains unchanged in R45 LPS-col. These results indicate that the presence of colistin in cultivation media exerts an influence on the contents of charged components of LPSs isolated from polymyxin E-resistant Proteus R and S strains. PMID:8997693

Kaca, W; Ujazda, E

1996-01-01

82

Decrease in anti-Proteus mirabilis but not anti-Escherichia coli antibody levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with fasting and a one year vegetarian diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To measure Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli antibody levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during treatment by vegetarian diet. METHODS--Sera were collected from 53 RA patients who took part in a controlled clinical trial of fasting and a one year vegetarian diet. P mirabilis and E coli antibody levels were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence technique and an enzyme

J Kjeldsen-Kragh; T Rashid; A Dybwad; M Sioud; M Haugen; O Førre; A Ebringer

1995-01-01

83

Chromosomally Encoded AmpC-Type ?-Lactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis (CF09) isolated from urine specimens of a patient displayed resistance to amoxicillin (MIC >4,096 ?g/ml), ticarcillin (4,096 ?g/ml), cefoxitin (64 ?g/ml), cefotaxime (256 ?g/ml), and ceftazidime (128 ?g/ml) and required an elevated MIC of aztreonam (4 ?g/ml). Clavulanic acid did not act synergistically with cephalosporins. Two ?-lactamases with apparent pIs of 5.6 and 9.0 were identified by isoelectric focusing on a gel. Substrate and inhibition profiles were characteristic of an AmpC-type ?-lactamase with a pI of 9.0. Amplification by PCR with primers for ampC genes (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii) of a 756-bp DNA fragment from strain CF09 was obtained only with C. freundii-specific primers. Hybridization results showed that the ampC gene is only chromosomally located while the TEM gene is plasmid located. After cloning of the gene, analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence (1,146 bp) showed that this ampC gene is close to blaCMY-2, from which it differs by three point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions Glu ? Gly at position 22, Trp ? Arg at position 201, and Ser ? Asn at position 343. AmpC ?-lactamases derived from that of C. freundii (LAT-1, LAT-2, BIL-1, and CMY-2) have been found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes and have been reported to be plasmid borne. This is the first example of a chromosomally encoded AmpC-type ?-lactamase observed in P. mirabilis. We suggest that it be designated CMY-3.

Bret, L.; Chanal-Claris, C.; Sirot, D.; Chaibi, E. B.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

1998-01-01

84

Identification of virulence determinants in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis using signature-tagged mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis causes urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or those with functional or structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. Known virulence factors include urease, haemolysin, fimbriae, flagella, DsbA, a phosphate transporter and genes involved in cell-wall synthesis and metabolism, many of which have been identified using the technique of signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM). To identify additional virulence determinants and to increase the theoretical coverage of the genome, this study generated and assessed 1880 P. mirabilis strain HI4320 mutants using this method. Mutants with disruptions in genes vital for colonization of the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI were identified after performing primary and secondary in vivo screens in approximately 315 CBA mice, primary and secondary in vitro screens in both Luria broth and minimal A medium to eliminate mutants with minor growth deficiencies, and co-challenge competition experiments in approximately 500 CBA mice. After completion of in vivo screening, a total of 217 transposon mutants were attenuated in the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI. Following in vitro screening, this number was reduced to 196 transposon mutants with a probable role in virulence. Co-challenge competition experiments confirmed significant attenuation for 37 of the 93 transposon mutants tested, being outcompeted by wild-type HI4320. Following sequence analysis of the 37 mutants, transposon insertions were identified in genes including the peptidyl-prolyl isomerases surA and ppiA, glycosyltransferase cpsF, biopolymer transport protein exbD, transcriptional regulator nhaR, one putative fimbrial protein, flagellar M-ring protein fliF and hook protein flgE, and multiple metabolic genes. PMID:18719175

Himpsl, Stephanie D; Lockatell, C Virginia; Hebel, J Richard; Johnson, David E; Mobley, Harry L T

2008-09-01

85

Anaerobic respiration using a complete oxidative TCA cycle drives multicellular swarming in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. Bacterial locomotion and the existence of microbes were the first scientific observations that followed the invention of the microscope. A bacterium can swim through a fluid environment or coordinate motion with a group of bacteria and swarm across a surface. The flagellar motor, which propels the bacterium, is fueled by proton motive force. In contrast to the physiology that governs swimming motility, much less is known about the energy sources required for multicellular swarming on surfaces. In this study, we used Proteus mirabilis as a model organism to study vigorous swarming behavior and genetic and biochemical approaches to define energy pathways and central metabolism that contribute to multicellular motility. We found that swarming bacteria use a complete aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle but do not respire oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, suggesting that multicellular cooperation during swarming reduces the amount of energy required by individual bacteria to achieve rapid motility. PMID:23111869

Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Engstrom, Michael D; Mobley, Harry L T

2012-10-30

86

Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options.

Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

2008-01-01

87

Renal Lysozyme Levels in Animals Developing Proteus mirabilis-Induced Pyelonephritis  

PubMed Central

In animals developing experimentally induced unilateral pyelonephritis, both the infected kidney (IK) and the contralateral noninfected kidney (NIK) showed an immediate increase in renal lysozyme activity of about 5 days' duration after the unilateral injection of viable Proteus mirabilis into the renal cortex. Lysozyme activities of the NIK were consistently higher than those of the IK. This initial increase was followed by a second increase which lasted throughout the period of observation (17 days), and enzyme activities of the NIK were consistently higher than those of the IK. In saline punctured kidneys of control animals, both the saline punctured kidney (SP) and the non-saline punctured kidney (NSP) showed only the immediate increase in renal lysozyme activity, which persisted until the SP was completely healed. These enzyme activities were less than those observed in the infected animals, but the response of the NSP was greater than that of the SP. Trauma not directed to the kidney does not produce a similar response of renal lysozyme. The elevated renal lysozyme of the NIK could not be shown to protect it from bacterial infection.

Eudy, W. W.; Burrous, S. E.

1971-01-01

88

Ultrastructure of Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Rafts and Role of Swarming in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (C-UTI). It blocks indwelling urethral catheters through the formation of extensive crystalline biofilms. The obstruction of urine flow can induce episodes of pyelonephritis, septicemia, and shock. P. mirabilis exhibits a type of motility referred to as swarming, in which multicellular rafts of elongated, hyperflagellated swarmer cells form and move rapidly in concert over solid surfaces. It has been suggested that swarming is important in the pathogenesis of C-UTI. In this study we generated a set of stable transposon mutants deficient in swarming and used them to assess the role of swarming in the migration of P. mirabilis over urinary catheters. Swarming was found to be essential for migration over all-silicone catheters. Swarming-deficient mutants were attenuated in migration over hydrogel-coated latex catheters, but those capable of swimming motility were able to move over and infect these surfaces. A novel vapor fixation technique for the preparation of specimens and scanning electron microscopy were used to resolve the ultrastructure of P. mirabilis multicellular rafts. The flagellar filaments of P. mirabilis were found to be highly organized during raft migration and were interwoven in phase to form helical connections between adjacent swarmer cells. Mutants lacking these novel organized structures failed to swarm successfully. We suggest that these structures are important for migration and formation of multicellular rafts. In addition, the highly organized structure of multicellular rafts enables P. mirabilis to initiate C-UTI by migration over catheter surfaces from the urethral meatus into the bladder.

Jones, Brian V.; Young, Robert; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Stickler, David J.

2004-01-01

89

Characterization of a novel gene, wosA, regulating FlhDC expression in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe wosA, a Proteus mirabilis gene identified by its ability to increase swarming motility when overexpressed. At various times during the swarming cycle, the increased expression of wosA resulted in a 4- to 16-fold upregulation of the transcription of flhDC, encoding the master regulator of the flagellar cascade. In turn, the expression of flaA, encoding flagellin, was substantially increased in wosA-overexpressing strains. The overexpression of wosA also resulted in constitutive swarmer cell differentiation in liquid medium, a normally nonpermissive condition. However, in wosA-overexpressing strains, the onset of swarming was not altered. A null wosA allele resulted in a slight decrease in swarming motility. The expression of wosA was growth phase dependent during growth in liquid and on agar plates during swarmer cell differentiation. Increasing the viscosity of liquid medium by the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone induced swarmer cell differentiation and resulted in a fourfold increase in wosA transcription. A fliL mutation that results in constitutive swarmer cell elongation also increased wosA transcription. In this study, we discuss the possible role of the wosA gene product in signal transduction from solid surfaces to induce swarmer cell differentiation, possibly via alterations in the motor switch complex. This study also suggests that despite constitutive swarmer cell differentiation in wosA-overexpressing strains, there are additional regulatory and/or environmental conditions that may control the onset of swarming migration. PMID:18192389

Hatt, Janet K; Rather, Philip N

2008-01-11

90

Dynamic Aspects of the Structured Cell Population in a Swarming Colony of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis forms a concentric-ring colony by undergoing periodic swarming. A colony in the process of such synchronized expansion was examined for its internal population structure. In alternating phases, i.e., swarming (active migration) and consolidation (growth without colony perimeter expansion), phase-specific distribution of cells differing in length, in situ mobility, and migration ability on an agar medium were recognized. In the consolidation phase, the distribution of mobile cells was restricted to the inner part of a new ring and a previous terrace. Cells composing the outer part of the ring were immobile in spite of their ordinary swimming ability in a viscous solution. A sectorial cell population having such an internal structure was replica printed on fresh agar medium. After printing, a transplant which was in the swarming phase continued its ongoing swarming while a transplanted consolidation front continued its scheduled consolidation. This shows that cessation of migration during the consolidation phase was not due to substances present in the underlying agar medium. The ongoing swarming schedule was modifiable by separative cutting of the swarming front or disruption of the ring pattern by random mixing of the pattern-forming cell population. The structured cell population seemed to play a role in characteristic colony growth. However, separation of a narrow consolidation front from a backward area did not induce disturbance in the ongoing swarming schedule. Thus, cells at the frontal part of consolidation area were independent of the internal cell population and destined to exert consolidation and swarming with the ongoing ordinary schedule.

Matsuyama, Tohey; Takagi, Yuko; Nakagawa, Yoji; Itoh, Hiroto; Wakita, Junichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu

2000-01-01

91

Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components.

Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2012-01-01

92

Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

Jakab, G.J.

1987-02-01

93

Proteus mirabilis Bloodstream Infections: Risk Factors and Treatment Outcome Related to the Expression of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases  

PubMed Central

Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Proteus mirabilis strains is a relatively uncommon clinical entity, and its significance has received little attention. This study was initiated to evaluate risk factors and treatment outcome of BSI episodes due to P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs). Twenty-five BSI episodes caused by P. mirabilis occurred at our hospital (Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy) over a 7.5-year period. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to assess ESBL production. Clinical records of BSI patients were examined retrospectively. Demographic data, underlying diseases (according to McCabe and Jackson classification and Charlson weighted index), risk factors, and treatment outcome were investigated by comparing cases due to ESBL-positive strains to cases due to ESBL-negative strains. Eleven isolates were found to express ESBLs (TEM-52 or TEM-92). The remaining 14 isolates were ESBL negative and were uniformly susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams. Comparison of the two groups showed that previous hospitalization in a nursing home (P = 0.04) and use of bladder catheter (P = 0.01) were significant risk factors for infections due to ESBL-positive strains. In addition, cases due to ESBL-positive strains showed a significantly higher mortality attributable to BSI (P = 0.04). BSI cases due to ESBL-negative isolates uniformly responded to therapy, whereas 5/11 cases due to ESBL-positive isolates failed to respond (P < 0.01). Use of carbapenems was associated with complete response independently of ESBL production. Therapeutic failure and mortality may occur in BSI episodes caused by ESBL-positive P. mirabilis isolates. Thus, recognition of ESBL-positive strains appears to be critical for the clinical management of patients with systemic P. mirabilis infections.

Endimiani, Andrea; Luzzaro, Francesco; Brigante, Gioconda; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Toniolo, Antonio

2005-01-01

94

Emergence of Proteus mirabilis Harboring blaKPC-2 and qnrD in a Chinese Hospital  

PubMed Central

Nineteen carbapenem-nonsusceptible Proteus mirabilis isolates were recovered from intensive care units in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University during a 3-month period. The isolates showed a high level of resistance against ciprofloxacin, in addition to their resistance against the carbapenems. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that these isolates belonged to three clonal strains. PCRs and DNA sequence analysis of the carbapenemase and other ?-lactamase genes indicated that all the isolates harbored the blaKPC-2 gene. Twelve of 19 isolates harbored the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, both the qnrD and aac(6?)-Ib-cr genes. Eight representative isolates with high levels of quinolone resistance carried the similar mutation profiles of S83I in gyrA, E466D in gyrB, and S80I in parC. Reduced carbapenem susceptibility was transferred to Escherichia coli (EC600) in a conjugation experiment, while the quinolone resistance was not. DNA hybridization showed that qnrD was located on a plasmid of approximately 4.5 kb. In summary, large clonally related isolates of KPC-2-producing P. mirabilis emerged in a Chinese hospital, and qnrD was detected in KPC-producing P. mirabilis for the first time.

Hu, Yan-yan; Cai, Jia-chang; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong-wei; Sun, Qian

2012-01-01

95

Zinc Uptake Contributes to Motility and Provides a Competitive Advantage to Proteus mirabilis during Experimental Urinary Tract Infection?  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, represents a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections in catheterized patients or those with functional or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract. ZnuB, the membrane component of the high-affinity zinc (Zn2+) transport system ZnuACB, was previously shown to be recognized by sera from infected mice. Since this system has been shown to contribute to virulence in other pathogens, its role in Proteus mirabilis was investigated by constructing a strain with an insertionally interrupted copy of znuC. The znuC::Kan mutant was more sensitive to zinc limitation than the wild type, was outcompeted by the wild type in minimal medium, displayed reduced swimming and swarming motility, and produced less flaA transcript and flagellin protein. The production of flagellin and swarming motility were restored by complementation with znuCB in trans. Swarming motility was also restored by the addition of Zn2+ to the agar prior to inoculation; the addition of Fe2+ to the agar also partially restored the swarming motility of the znuC::Kan strain, but the addition of Co2+, Cu2+, or Ni2+ did not. ZnuC contributes to but is not required for virulence in the urinary tract; the znuC::Kan strain was outcompeted by the wild type during a cochallenge experiment but was able to colonize mice to levels similar to the wild-type level during independent challenge. Since we demonstrated a role for ZnuC in zinc transport, we hypothesize that there is limited zinc present in the urinary tract and P. mirabilis must scavenge this ion to colonize and persist in the host.

Nielubowicz, Greta R.; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2010-01-01

96

Serological and structural characterization of the O-antigens of the unclassified Proteus mirabilis strains TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:  Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin, LPS) is an important potential virulence factor of Proteus rods. The serological specificity of the bacteria is defined by the structure of the O-polysaccharide chain (O-antigen) of\\u000a the LPS. Until now, 76 O-serogroups have been differentiated among Proteus strains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:  LPSs were isolated from Proteus mirabilis TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA) strains by phenol\\/water

Agnieszka Zab?otni; Krystyna Zych; Anna N. Kondakova; Ma?gorzata Siwi?ska; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2007-01-01

97

Proteus mirabilis Genes That Contribute to Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection: Identification of 25 Signature-Tagged Mutants Attenuated at Least 100Fold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities or with long-term catheterization, forms bladder and kidney stones as a consequence of urease-mediated urea hydrolysis. Known virulence factors, besides urease, are hemolysin, fimbriae, metal- loproteases, and flagella. In this study we utilized the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI to evaluate the

Laurel S. Burall; Janette M. Harro; Xin Li; C. Virginia Lockatell; Stephanie D. Himpsl; J. Richard Hebel; David E. Johnson; Harry L. T. Mobley

2004-01-01

98

Structural studies of Proteus mirabilis catalase in its ground state, oxidized state and in complex with formic acid.  

PubMed

The structure of Proteus mirabilis catalase in complex with an inhibitor, formic acid, has been solved at 2.3 A resolution. Formic acid is a key ligand of catalase because of its ability to react with the ferric enzyme, giving a high-spin iron complex. Alternatively, it can react with two transient oxidized intermediates of the enzymatic mechanism, compounds I and II. In this work, the structures of native P. mirabilis catalase (PMC) and compound I have also been determined at high resolution (2.0 and 2.5 A, respectively) from frozen crystals. Comparisons between these three PMC structures show that a water molecule present at a distance of 3.5 A from the haem iron in the resting state is absent in the formic acid complex, but reappears in compound I. In addition, movements of solvent molecules are observed during formation of compound I in a cavity located away from the active site, in which a glycerol molecule is replaced by a sulfate. These results give structural insights into the movement of solvent molecules, which may be important in the enzymatic reaction. PMID:14646074

Andreoletti, Pierre; Pernoud, Anaïs; Sainz, Germaine; Gouet, Patrice; Jouve, Hélène Marie

2003-11-27

99

The first detection of CTX-M-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among diverse beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates.  

PubMed

CTX-M-14- and -2-like extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected in 5 and 1 Proteus mirabilis isolates, respectively, among 92 non-duplicate strains tested from December 2002 to September 2003. This is the first report of the CTX-M-14 enzyme in P. mirabilis to the best of our knowledge and suggests that the CTX-M-type enzyme is gradually spreading to this species. bla(TEM), bla(SHV-1), and/or bla(OXA-10) alleles were also detected in 35 ampicillin-resistant isolates tested. PMID:16427241

Yong, Dongeun; Lim, Young Sik; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Choi, Yeoung Seon; Park, Doe-Young; Yum, Jong Hwa; Kim, June Myung; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

2006-01-19

100

Chromosomal integration and location on IncT plasmids of the blaCTX-M-2 gene in Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Analysis of five CTX-M-2-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates in Japan demonstrated that bla(CTX-M-2) was located on the chromosome in four isolates and on IncT plasmids in three isolates, including two isolates that also carried the gene on the chromosome. In all four isolates with chromosomal bla(CTX-M-2), ISEcp1 was responsible for the integration of the gene into the chromosome. Three different sites in the P. mirabilis genomic sequence were utilized as integration sites. PMID:22106217

Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tomoo; Kouyama, Yuichi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2011-11-21

101

Chromosomal Integration and Location on IncT Plasmids of the blaCTX-M-2 Gene in Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Analysis of five CTX-M-2-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates in Japan demonstrated that blaCTX-M-2 was located on the chromosome in four isolates and on IncT plasmids in three isolates, including two isolates that also carried the gene on the chromosome. In all four isolates with chromosomal blaCTX-M-2, ISEcp1 was responsible for the integration of the gene into the chromosome. Three different sites in the P. mirabilis genomic sequence were utilized as integration sites.

Harada, Sohei; Saga, Tomoo; Kouyama, Yuichi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2012-01-01

102

Influence of hydrogen acceptors on growth and energy production of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation time ofP. mirabilis in defined and in complex medium is shorter in the presence of hydrogen acceptors than in their absence. In the presence\\u000a of hydrogen acceptors the molar growth yield for glucose and the acetate production are strongly increased. From the molar\\u000a growth yield and the acetate production YATP in defined medium was calculated as 5.5 g\\/mole,

A. H. Stouthamer; Corry Bettenhaussen

1972-01-01

103

Elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies to Proteus mirabilis and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli are associated with early rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Antibodies to Proteus mirabilis were previously detected in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the prevalence of antibodies to P. mirabilis and their associations with RA in early synovitis patients. Methods. Two hundred and forty-six patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than 1 yr were prospectively evaluated for 1 yr. Of these patients, 30% had rheumatoid factor

M. M. Newkirk; R. Goldbach-Mansky; B. W. Senior; J. Klippel; H. R. Schumacher Jr; H. S. El-Gabalawy

2005-01-01

104

Inhibitor-Based Methods for Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC -Lactamases in Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-beta-lactam inhibitor-based methods were evaluated for detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC -lacta- mases in Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Using CLSI methodology and disks containing cefotetan alone and in combination with 400 g of boronic acid, 9 of 10 positive control strains and 54 of 55 AmpC-PCR-positive clinical isolates were detected. Importantly 71% and 40% of these clinical isolates were

Philip E. Coudron

2005-01-01

105

mini-Tn7 insertion in bacteria with secondary, non-glmS-linked attTn7 sites: example Proteus mirabilis HI4320  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously constructed a series of mini-Tn7 chromosome integration vectors that, when provided only with the site-specific transposition machinery, generally transpose to a naturally evolved, neutral attTn7 site that is located 25-bp downstream of the glmS gene. Here we provide a protocol for application of the mini-Tn7 system in Proteus mirabilis as an example of a bacterium with a secondary

Kyoung-Hee Choi; Herbert P Schweizer

2006-01-01

106

Selective Amplification of Genes on the R Plasmid, NR1, in Proteus mirabilis: An Example of the Induction of Selective Gene Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug-resistance plasmid, NR1, is a 37-mu m circular DNA molecule that contains two components: the resistance transfer factor (29 mu m) carrying the transfer genes and the genes for tetracycline resistance, and the r-determinant (8 mu m) carrying the genes for resistance to several other antibiotics including chloramphenicol (Cm). In Proteus mirabilis, these two components are capable of independent

Daniel Perlman; Robert Stickgold

1977-01-01

107

Integration of a Transposon Tn1Encoded Inhibitor-Resistant  Lactamase Gene, blaTEM-67 from Proteus mirabilis, into the Escherichia coli Chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis NEL-1 was isolated from a urine sample of a patient hospitalized in a long-term care facility. Strain NEL-1 produced a -lactamase with a pI of 5.2 conferring resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Sequencing of a PCR amplicon by using TEM-specific primers revealed a novel blaTEM gene, blaTEM-67. TEM-67 was an IRT-1-like TEM derivative related to TEM-65 (Lys39,

Thierry Naas; Marie Zerbib; Delphine Girlich; Patrice Nordmann

2003-01-01

108

Occurrence and Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates at a Veterans Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

AmpC beta-lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of b-lactam drugs and that may thereby create serious therapeutic problems. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis remains unknown. We tested a total of 1,286 consecutive, nonrepeat isolates of these three species and found

PHILIP E. COUDRON; ELLEN S. MOLAND; KENNETH S. THOMSON

2000-01-01

109

Characterization and Sequence Analysis of Extended-Spectrum- -Lactamase-Encoding Genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Collected during Tigecycline Phase 3 Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In concert with the development of novel -lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded -lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum--lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were

C. Hal Jones; Margareta Tuckman; David Keeney; Alexey Ruzin; Patricia A. Bradford

2009-01-01

110

New Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Gene, qnrC, Found in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis?  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of qnrA in 1998, two additional qnr genes, qnrB and qnrS, have been described. These three plasmid-mediated genes contribute to quinolone resistance in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis was isolated from an outpatient with a urinary tract infection and was susceptible to most antimicrobials but resistant to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Plasmid pHS10, harbored by this strain, was transferred to azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 by conjugation. A transconjugant with pHS10 had low-level quinolone resistance but was negative by PCR for the known qnr genes, aac(6?)-Ib-cr and qepA. The ciprofloxacin MIC for the clinical strain and a J53/pHS10 transconjugant was 0.25 ?g/ml, representing an increase of 32-fold relative to that for the recipient, J53. The plasmid was digested with HindIII, and a 4.4-kb DNA fragment containing the new gene was cloned into pUC18 and transformed into E. coli TOP10. Sequencing showed that the responsible 666-bp gene, designated qnrC, encoded a 221-amino-acid protein, QnrC, which shared 64%, 42%, 59%, and 43% amino acid identity with QnrA1, QnrB1, QnrS1, and QnrD, respectively. Upstream of qnrC there existed a new IS3 family insertion sequence, ISPmi1, which encoded a frameshifted transposase. qnrC could not be detected by PCR, however, in 2,020 strains of Enterobacteriaceae. A new quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, was thus characterized from plasmid pHS10 carried by a clinical isolate of P. mirabilis.

Wang, Minghua; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaoying; Ye, Xinyu; Wu, Shi; Hooper, David C.; Wang, Minggui

2009-01-01

111

New plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, found in a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of qnrA in 1998, two additional qnr genes, qnrB and qnrS, have been described. These three plasmid-mediated genes contribute to quinolone resistance in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis was isolated from an outpatient with a urinary tract infection and was susceptible to most antimicrobials but resistant to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Plasmid pHS10, harbored by this strain, was transferred to azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 by conjugation. A transconjugant with pHS10 had low-level quinolone resistance but was negative by PCR for the known qnr genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA. The ciprofloxacin MIC for the clinical strain and a J53/pHS10 transconjugant was 0.25 microg/ml, representing an increase of 32-fold relative to that for the recipient, J53. The plasmid was digested with HindIII, and a 4.4-kb DNA fragment containing the new gene was cloned into pUC18 and transformed into E. coli TOP10. Sequencing showed that the responsible 666-bp gene, designated qnrC, encoded a 221-amino-acid protein, QnrC, which shared 64%, 42%, 59%, and 43% amino acid identity with QnrA1, QnrB1, QnrS1, and QnrD, respectively. Upstream of qnrC there existed a new IS3 family insertion sequence, ISPmi1, which encoded a frameshifted transposase. qnrC could not be detected by PCR, however, in 2,020 strains of Enterobacteriaceae. A new quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, was thus characterized from plasmid pHS10 carried by a clinical isolate of P. mirabilis. PMID:19258263

Wang, Minghua; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaoying; Ye, Xinyu; Wu, Shi; Hooper, David C; Wang, Minggui

2009-03-02

112

Proteus mirabilis glutathione S-transferase B1-1 is involved in protective mechanisms against oxidative and chemical stresses.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of several xenobiotics, including antimicrobial agents and general stress factors such as starvation, heat and osmotic shock, on the modulation of expression of Proteus mirabilis glutathione S-transferase B1-1 (PmGST B1-1). The level of expression of PmGST B1-1 was established by both Western- and Northern-blot experiments. Our results show that several compounds can modulate expression of PmGST B1-1. The level of PmGST B1-1 increased when bacterial cells were exposed to a variety of stresses such as 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, H(2)O(2), fosfomycin or tetracycline. A knock-out gst B gene was also constructed using the suicide vector pKNOCKlox-Ap. Successful inactivation of the wild-type gene was confirmed by PCR, DNA sequence analysis and Western blotting. Under normal culture conditions, this mutant was viable and displayed no significant phenotypic differences compared with the wild-type. However, viability tests revealed that the null mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress in the form of H(2)O(2) and to several antimicrobial drugs when compared with the wild-type. These results suggest that PmGST B1-1 has an active role in the protection against oxidative stress generated by H(2)O(2) and it appears to be involved in the detoxification of antimicrobial agents.

Allocati, Nerino; Favaloro, Bartolo; Masulli, Michele; Alexeyev, Mikhail F; Di Ilio, Carmine

2003-01-01

113

Expression and characterization of a second L-amino acid deaminase isolated from Proteus mirabilis in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

L-amino acid deaminases catalyze the deamination of natural L-amino acids. Two types of L-amino acid deaminase have been identified in Proteus species. One exhibits high levels of activity toward a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic L-amino acids, typically L-phenylalanine, whereas the other acts on a relatively narrow range of basic L-amino acids, typically L-histidine. In this study, we cloned, expressed, and characterized a second amino acid deaminase, termed Pm1, from P. mirabilis KCTC 2566. Homology alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of Pm1 demonstrated that the greatest similarity (96%) was with the L-amino acid deaminase (LAD) of P. vulgaris, and that homology with Pma was relatively low (72%). Also, similar to LAD, Pm1 was most active on L-histidine, indicating that Pm1 belongs to the second type of amino acid deaminase. In agreement with this conclusion, the V(max) and K(m) values of Pm1 were 119.7 (?g phenylpyruvic acid/mg/min) and 31.55 mM phenylalanine, respectively, values lower than those of Pma. The Pml deaminase will be very useful industrially in the preparation of commercially valuable materials including urocanic acid and ?-oxoglutarate. PMID:21298676

Baek, Jin-Oh; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Seong, Su-Il; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Kim, Chul Ho

2011-02-07

114

Epidemiology of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases from clinical samples in the Kinki Region of Japan.  

PubMed

In the present study, nonduplicate, clinical isolates of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Proteus mirabilis were collected during a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 at several hospitals in the Kinki region, Japan. The detection rate of E coli markedly increased from 0.24% to 7.25%. The detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae increased from 0% to 2.44% and that of P mirabilis from 6.97% to 12.85%. The most frequently detected genotypes were the CTX-M9 group for E coli, the CTX-M2 group for K pneumoniae, and the CTX-M2 group for P mirabilis. E coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15, which is spreading worldwide, was first detected in 2007. The most common replicon type of E coli was the IncF type, particularly FIB, detected in 466 strains (69.7%). Of the K pneumoniae strains, 47 (55.3%) were of the IncN type; 77 P mirabilis strains (96.3%) were of the IncT type. In the future, the surveillance of various resistant bacteria, mainly ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, should be expanded to prevent their spread. PMID:22431539

Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kenji; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Zikimoto, Takuya; Koike, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Hirai, Itaru; Takahashi, Hakuo; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

2012-04-01

115

Visualization of Proteus mirabilis Morphotypes in the Urinary Tract: the Elongated Swarmer Cell Is Rarely Observed in Ascending Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of nosocomial and catheter-associated urinary tract infection, colonizes the bladder and ascends the ureters to the proximal tubules of the kidneys, leading to the development of acute pyelonephritis. P. mirabilis is capable of swarming, a form of multicellular behavior in which bacteria differentiate from the short rod typical of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, termed the swimmer cell, into hyperflagellated elongated bacteria capable of rapid and coordinated population migration across surfaces, called the swarmer cell. There has been considerable debate as to which morphotype predominates during urinary tract infection. P. mirabilis(pBAC001), which expresses green fluorescent protein in both swimming and swarming morphotypes, was constructed to quantify the prevalence of each morphotype in ascending urinary tract infection. Transurethral inoculation of P. mirabilis(pBAC001) resulted in ascending urinary tract infection and kidney pathology in mice examined at both 2 and 4 days postinoculation. Using confocal microscopy, we were able to investigate the morphotypes of the bacteria in the urinary tract. Of 5,087 bacteria measured in bladders, ureters, and kidneys, only 7 (0.14%) were identified as swarmers. MR/P fimbria expression, which correlates with the swimmer phenotype, is prevalent on bacteria in the ureters and bladder. We conclude that, by far, the predominant morphotype present in the urinary tract during ascending infection is the short rod-the swimmer cell.

Jansen, Angela M.; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Johnson, David E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2003-01-01

116

Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: construction of an isogenic pmfA mutant and analysis of virulence in a CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a cause of urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis, produces a number of different fimbriae. An isogenic fimbrial mutant of P. mirabilis HI4320 was constructed by marker exchange with delta pmfA::aphA to determine the role of the P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF) in hemagglutination and in virulence in the CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. The pmfA mutant, which did not express the 19,500-Da major subunit of PMF, colonized the bladders of transurethrally challenged CBA mice (n = 20 in each group) in numbers 83-fold lower than those of the wild-type strain (mutant, log10 4.87 CFU/g; wild-type strain, log10 6.79 CFU/g; P = 0.023). However, the mutant colonized the kidneys in numbers similar to those of the wild-type strain. Hemagglutination patterns of the mutant ruled out the involvement of PMF in both mannose-resistant, Proteus-like and mannose-resistant, Klebsiella-like hemagglutination. Similarly, PMF does not appear to be involved in adherence to uroepithelial cells (UEC), since the mutant was as adherent as the wild-type strain (mutant, 14.1 +/- 11.7 mean bacteria per UEC, 60% of UEC with > or = 10 bacteria; wild-type strain, 18.1 +/- 16.2 mean bacteria per UEC, 68% of UEC with > or = 10 bacteria; not significantly different). These data suggest a role for PMF in colonization of the bladder but not in colonization of kidney tissue. PMF appear not to be responsible for mannose-resistant, Proteus-like or mannose-resistant, Klebsiella-like hemagglutination. Images

Massad, G; Lockatell, C V; Johnson, D E; Mobley, H L

1994-01-01

117

Application of 1D and 2D NMR techniques to the structure elucidation of the O-polysaccharide from Proteus mirabilis O: 57  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LPS O-polysaccharide (O-PS) produced by Proteus mirabilis serotype O: 57 (ATCC 49995) was shown by NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to be a high-molecular-weight acidic branched polymer of pentasaccharide repeating units, composed of d-glucose, d-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose and glycerophosphate residues (1:2:2:2:1). Application of one-and two-dimensional NMR methods allowed the complete assignment of notoriously crowded 1H and 13C spectra of the

Dušan Uhrín; Jean-Robert Brisson; Leann L. MacLean; James C. Richards; Malcolm B. Perry

1994-01-01

118

Spectroscopic description of an unusual protonated ferryl species in the catalase from Proteus mirabilis and density functional theory calculations on related models. Consequences for the ferryl protonation state in catalase, peroxidase and chloroperoxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalase from Proteus mirabilis peroxide-resistant bacteria is one of the most efficient heme-containing catalases. It forms a relatively stable compound\\u000a II. We were able to prepare samples of compound II from P. mirabilis catalase enriched in 57Fe and to study them by spectroscopic methods. Two different forms of compound II, namely, low-pH compound II (LpH II) and\\u000a high-pH compound II

O. Horner; J. M. Mouesca; P. L. Solari; M. Orio; J. L. Oddou; P. Bonville; H. M. Jouve

2007-01-01

119

Procaryotic Expression of Single-Chain Variable-Fragment (scFv) Antibodies: Secretion in L-Form Cells of Proteus mirabilis Leads to Active Product and Overcomes the Limitations of Periplasmic Expression in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it has been demonstrated that L-form cells of Proteus mirabilis (L VI), which lack a periplasmic com- partment, can be efficiently used in the production and secretion of heterologous proteins. In search of novel expression systems for recombinant antibodies, we compared levels of single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) production in Escherichia coli JM109 and P. mirabilis L VI, which express four

JORG F. RIPPMANN; MICHAELA KLEIN; CHRISTIAN HOISCHEN; BODO BROCKS; WOLFGANG J. RETTIG; JOHANNES GUMPERT; KLAUS PFIZENMAIER; RALF MATTES; DIETER MOOSMAYER

120

Proteus mirabilis Genes That Contribute to Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection: Identification of 25 Signature-Tagged Mutants Attenuated at Least 100-Fold  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities or with long-term catheterization, forms bladder and kidney stones as a consequence of urease-mediated urea hydrolysis. Known virulence factors, besides urease, are hemolysin, fimbriae, metalloproteases, and flagella. In this study we utilized the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI to evaluate the colonization of mutants of P. mirabilis HI4320 that were generated by signature-tagged mutagenesis. By performing primary screening of 2,088 P. mirabilis transposon mutants, we identified 502 mutants that ranged from slightly attenuated to unrecoverable. Secondary screening of these mutants revealed that 114 transposon mutants were reproducibly attenuated. Cochallenge of 84 of these single mutants with the parent strain in the mouse model resulted in identification of 37 consistently out-competed P. mirabilis transposon mutants, 25 of which were out-competed >100-fold for colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by the parent strain. We determined the sequence flanking the site of transposon insertion in 29 attenuated mutants and identified genes affecting motility, iron acquisition, transcriptional regulation, phosphate transport, urease activity, cell surface structure, and key metabolic pathways as requirements for P. mirabilis infection of the urinary tract. Two mutations localized to a ?42-kb plasmid present in the parent strain, suggesting that the plasmid is important for colonization. Isolation of disrupted genes encoding proteins with homologies to known bacterial virulence factors, especially the urease accessory protein UreF and the disulfide formation protein DsbA, showed that the CBA mouse model and mutant pools are a reliable source of attenuated mutants with mutations in virulence genes.

Burall, Laurel S.; Harro, Janette M.; Li, Xin; Lockatell, C.Virginia; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Hebel, J. Richard; Johnson, David E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2004-01-01

121

Four Variants of the Citrobacter freundii AmpC-Type Cephalosporinases, Including Novel Enzymes CMY-14 and CMY-15, in a Proteus mirabilis Clone Widespread in Poland  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine Proteus mirabilis isolates from 17 Polish hospitals were analyzed. The isolates were resistant to a variety of antimicrobials, and their patterns of resistance to ?-lactams resembled those of the constitutive class C cephalosporinase (AmpC) producers. Indeed, ?-lactamases with a pI of ?9.0 were found in all of the isolates, and they were subsequently identified as four AmpC-type cephalosporinases, CMY-4, -12, -14, and -15, of which the two last ones were novel enzyme variants. The enzymes were of Citrobacter freundii origin and were closely related to each other, with CMY-4 likely being the evolutionary precursor of the remaining ones. The blaCMY genes were located exclusively in chromosomal DNA, within EcoRI restriction fragments of the same size of ?10 kb. In the CMY-12- and -15-producing isolates, an additional fragment of ?4.5 kb hybridized with the blaCMY probe as well, which could have arisen from a duplication event during the evolution of the genes. In all of the isolates, the ISEcp1 mobile element, which most probably is involved in mobilization of the C. freundii ampC gene, was placed at the same distance from the 5? ends of the blaCMY genes, and sequences located between them were identical in isolates carrying each of the four genes. These data suggested that a single chromosome-to-chromosome transfer of the ampC gene from C. freundii to P. mirabilis could have initiated the spread and evolution of the AmpC-producing P. mirabilis in Poland. The hypothesis seems to be confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, which revealed several cases of close relatedness between the P. mirabilis isolates from distant centers and showed an overall similarity between the majority of the multiresistant isolates.

Literacka, Elzbieta; Empel, Joanna; Baraniak, Anna; Sadowy, Ewa; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Gniadkowski, Marek

2004-01-01

122

Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming.

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

2013-01-01

123

Chromosomal blaCTX-M-?? associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates. PMID:22683657

Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

2012-06-08

124

Community spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis: a long-term study in Japan.  

PubMed

Community-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, particularly CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli, are a rising concern worldwide. There are few data from Japan on the acquisition of ESBLs in the community or the influx of these bacteria into hospitals. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of ESBL carriage in outpatients, in order to estimate the spread of ESBLs in community settings. We analysed bacterial isolates from outpatient samples at our institution over a 9-year period from 2003 to 2011, with respect to epidemiological data on ESBL-producing bacteria and their genotypic features. Out of 5137 isolates, 321 (6.3?%) were ESBL producers, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The detection rates of the ESBL-producing isolates gradually increased and reached 14.3, 8.7 and 19.6?% for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis strains, respectively, in 2011. Genotyping analysis showed that many of the strains produced multiple ?-lactamases, including TEM, SHV and CTX-M, rather than just CTX-M. The CTX-M-9 group was dominant among the CTX-M genotypes; further, the CTX-M-1 and M-2 groups were also detected (~30?%). This is believed to be the first report from Japan showing a definite increase in ESBL detection in outpatients. In addition, our findings suggest the simultaneous community spread of diverse ESBL genotypes, not an expansion of particular ESBL genes. PMID:23538565

Chong, Yong; Shimoda, Shinji; Yakushiji, Hiroko; Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

2013-03-28

125

In vitro antibacterial activities of tosufloxacin against and uptake of tosufloxacin by outer membrane mutants of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activities of tosufloxacin and other quinolones against and apparent uptakes of tosufloxacin and other quinolones by outer membrane mutants of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella typhimurium were studied. The hydrophobicity of tosufloxacin was nearly equal to that of ofloxacin or lower than those of sparfloxacin and nalidixic acid. OmpF- and OmpC-deficient E. coli and 40-kDa porin-deficient P. mirabilis mutants were twofold more susceptible to tosufloxacin and sparfloxacin but two- to fourfold less susceptible to other quinolones than their parent strains. In S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide-deficient (rough) mutants, the differences in susceptibility to tosufloxacin were similar to those to sparfloxacin and nalidixic acid. The apparent uptake of tosufloxacin by intact cells was increased in porin-deficient mutants compared with that by their parent strain. These results suggest that the permeation route of tosufloxacin across the outer membrane is different from that of other fluoroquinolones and that tosufloxacin may permeate mainly through the nonporin pathway, presumably phospholipid bilayers. However, this characteristic is independent of the hydrophobicity of the molecule. Images

Mitsuyama, J; Itoh, Y; Takahata, M; Okamoto, S; Yasuda, T

1992-01-01

126

Occurrence and Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates at a Veterans Medical Center  

PubMed Central

AmpC beta-lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of ?-lactam drugs and that may thereby create serious therapeutic problems. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis remains unknown. We tested a total of 1,286 consecutive, nonrepeat isolates of these three species and found that, overall, 45 (3.5%) yielded a cefoxitin zone diameter less than 18 mm (screen positive) and that 16 (1.2%) demonstrated AmpC bands by isoelectric focusing. Based on the species, of 683 E. coli, 371 K. pneumoniae, and 232 P. mirabilis isolates tested, 13 (1.9%), 28 (7.6%), and 4 (1.7%), respectively, demonstrated decreased zone diameters and 11 (1.6%), 4 (1.1%), and 1 (0.4%), respectively, demonstrated AmpC bands. Cefoxitin resistance was transferred for all but 8 (E. coli) of the 16 AmpC producers. We also describe a three-dimensional extract test, which was used to detect phenotypically isolates that harbor AmpC beta-lactamase. Of the 45 cefoxitin-resistant isolates, the three-dimensional extract test accurately identified all 16 AmpC producers and 28 of 29 (97%) isolates as non-AmpC producers. Interestingly, most (86%) isolates in the latter group were K. pneumoniae isolates. These data confirm that, at our institution, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis harbor plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes.

Coudron, Philip E.; Moland, Ellen S.; Thomson, Kenneth S.

2000-01-01

127

Development of 3D architecture of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis batch culture biofilms-A quantitative confocal microscopy approach.  

PubMed

This work studies the development of the 3D architecture of batch culture P. mirabilis biofilms on the basis of morpho-topological descriptors calculated from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) stacks with image processing routines. A precise architectonical understanding of biofilm organization on a morpho-topological level is necessary to understand emergent interactions with the environment and the appearance of functionally different progeny swarmer cells. P. mirabilis biofilms were grown on glass coverslips for seven days on LB broth and subjected to in situ immunofluorescence. Confocal image stacks were deconvolved prior to segmentation of regions of interest (ROI) that identify individual bacteria and extracellular material, followed by 3D reconstruction and calculation of different morpho-topological key descriptors. Results showed that P. mirabilis biofilm formation followed a five stage process: (i) reversible adhesion to the surface characterized by slow growth, presence of elongated bacteria, and absence of extracellular material, (ii) irreversible bacterial adhesion concomitant to decreasing elongation, and the beginning of extracellular polymer production, (iii) accelerated bacterial growth concomitant to continuously decreasing elongation and halting of extracellular polymer production, (iv) maturation of biofilm defined by maximum bacterial density, volume, minimum elongation, maximum extracellular material, and highest compaction, and (v) decreased bacterial density and extracellular material through detachment and dispersion. Swarmer cells do not play a role in P. mirabilis biofilm formation under the applied conditions. Our approach sets the basis for future studies of 3D biofilm architecture using dynamic in vivo models and different environmental conditions that assess clinical impacts of P. mirabilis biofilm. PMID:21864585

Schlapp, G; Scavone, P; Zunino, P; Härtel, S

2011-08-12

128

Prevalence of ?-Lactamases among 1,072 Clinical Strains of Proteus mirabilis: a 2-Year Survey in a French Hospital  

PubMed Central

?-Lactam resistance was studied in 1,072 consecutive P. mirabilis clinical strains isolated at the Clermont-Ferrand teaching hospital between April 1996 and March 1998. The frequency of amoxicillin resistance was 48.5%. Among the 520 amoxicillin-resistant isolates, three resistance phenotypes were detected: penicillinase (407 strains [78.3%]), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (74 strains [14.2%]), and inhibitor resistance (39 strains [7.5%]). The penicillinase phenotype isolates were divided into three groups according to the level of resistance to ?-lactams, which was shown to be related to the strength of the promoter. The characterization of the different ?-lactamases showed that amoxicillin resistance in P. mirabilis was almost always (97%) associated with TEM or TEM-derived ?-lactamases, most of which evolved via TEM-2.

Chanal, C.; Bonnet, R.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

2000-01-01

129

Development of 3D architecture of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis batch culture biofilms—A quantitative confocal microscopy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work studies the development of the 3D architecture of batch culture P. mirabilis biofilms on the basis of morpho-topological descriptors calculated from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) stacks with image processing routines. A precise architectonical understanding of biofilm organization on a morpho-topological level is necessary to understand emergent interactions with the environment and the appearance of functionally different progeny

G. Schlapp; P. Scavone; P. Zunino; S. Härtel

2011-01-01

130

Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases in Proteus mirabilis in a Taiwanese university hospital, 1999 to 2005: identification of a novel CTX-M enzyme (CTX-M-66)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1574 nonduplicate Proteus mirabilis isolates collected at a Taiwanese hospital during 1999 to 2005 were analyzed for production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs). Forty-four ESBL-producing isolates including 22 CTX-M-14, 18 CTX-M-3, 2 CTX-M-24, and 2 CTX-M-66 producers were detected, and the proportion of ESBL producers increased from 0.7% in 1999 to approximately 6% after 2002. CTX-M-66 is a

Jiunn-Jong Wu; Hung-Mo Chen; Wen-Chien Ko; Hsiu-Mei Wu; Shu-Huei Tsai; Jing-Jou Yan

2008-01-01

131

Expression of the DisA amino acid decarboxylase from Proteus mirabilis inhibits motility and class 2 flagellar gene expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In Proteus mirabilis, a putative phenylalanine decarboxylase (DisA) acts in a regulatory pathway to inhibit class 2 flagellar gene expression and motility. In this study, we demonstrate that DisA expression in Escherichia coli blocked motility and resulted in a 50-fold decrease in the expression of class 2 (fliA) and class 3 (fliC) flagellar genes. However, the expression of flhDC encoding the class 1 activator of the flagellar cascade was unchanged by DisA expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Phenethylamine, a decarboxylation product derived from phenylalanine, was able to mimic DisA overexpression and decrease both motility and class 2/3 flagellar gene expression. In addition, both DisA overexpression and phenethylamine strongly inhibited biofilm formation in E. coli. DisA overexpression and exogenous phenethylamine could also reduce motility in other enteric bacteria, but had no effect on motility in non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria. It is hypothesized that phenethylamine or a closely related compound formed by the DisA decarboxylation reaction inhibits the formation or activity of the FlhD(4)C(2) complex required for activation of class 2 genes. PMID:22982608

Stevenson, Lindsay G; Szostek, Bree A; Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

2012-09-11

132

Chromosome-encoded AmpC and CTX-M extended-spectrum ?-lactamases in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis from Korea.  

PubMed

Among 222 Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates collected from 17 hospitals in Korea in 2008, 28 (12.6%) and 8 (3.6%) isolates exhibited extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC phenotypes, respectively. The most common type of ESBL gene identified by PCR and sequencing experiments was bla(CTX-M-14a) (n = 12). The bla(CTX-M-90) (n = 4), bla(CTX-M-15) (n = 3), bla(CTX-M-12) (n = 3), bla(CTX-M-2) (n = 2), bla(CTX-M-14b) (n = 1), bla(TEM-52) (n = 5), and bla(SHV-12) (n = 1) genes were also detected. Eight isolates carried an AmpC ?-lactamase gene, such as bla(CMY-2) (n = 6) or bla(DHA-1) (n = 2). All bla genes encoding CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-9-type enzymes and all bla(CMY-2) genes were preceded by ISEcp1-like elements. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene found in two isolates was located on a complex class 1 integron. The bla(DHA-1) gene was preceded by a transcriptional regulator gene and was followed by phage shock protein genes. The bla(CTX-M) genes were located on the chromosome in 21 isolates. A plasmid location for the bla(CTX-M) gene was found in only four isolates: the bla(CTX-M-14a) gene was located on ?150-kbp IncA/C plasmids in three isolates and on a ?50-kbp IncN plasmid in one isolate. The bla(TEM-52) gene was located on ?50-kbp IncN plasmids in all five isolates. The AmpC ?-lactamase genes were located on the chromosome in seven of eight isolates; one isolate carried the bla(CMY-2) gene on a ?150-kbp IncA/C plasmid. Our results show that a chromosomal location of CTX-M ESBL and AmpC ?-lactamase genes in P. mirabilis is no longer an unusual phenomenon in hospital environments. PMID:21282448

Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Juwon; Bae, Il Kwon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Seo, Young Hee; Shin, Jong Hee; Jang, Sook Jin; Uh, Young; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon

2011-01-31

133

Chromosome-Encoded AmpC and CTX-M Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Proteus mirabilis from Korea?  

PubMed Central

Among 222 Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates collected from 17 hospitals in Korea in 2008, 28 (12.6%) and 8 (3.6%) isolates exhibited extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC phenotypes, respectively. The most common type of ESBL gene identified by PCR and sequencing experiments was blaCTX-M-14a (n = 12). The blaCTX-M-90 (n = 4), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-12 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-14b (n = 1), blaTEM-52 (n = 5), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1) genes were also detected. Eight isolates carried an AmpC ?-lactamase gene, such as blaCMY-2 (n = 6) or blaDHA-1 (n = 2). All bla genes encoding CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-9-type enzymes and all blaCMY-2 genes were preceded by ISEcp1-like elements. The blaCTX-M-2 gene found in two isolates was located on a complex class 1 integron. The blaDHA-1 gene was preceded by a transcriptional regulator gene and was followed by phage shock protein genes. The blaCTX-M genes were located on the chromosome in 21 isolates. A plasmid location for the blaCTX-M gene was found in only four isolates: the blaCTX-M-14a gene was located on ?150-kbp IncA/C plasmids in three isolates and on a ?50-kbp IncN plasmid in one isolate. The blaTEM-52 gene was located on ?50-kbp IncN plasmids in all five isolates. The AmpC ?-lactamase genes were located on the chromosome in seven of eight isolates; one isolate carried the blaCMY-2 gene on a ?150-kbp IncA/C plasmid. Our results show that a chromosomal location of CTX-M ESBL and AmpC ?-lactamase genes in P. mirabilis is no longer an unusual phenomenon in hospital environments.

Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Juwon; Bae, Il Kwon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Seo, Young Hee; Shin, Jong Hee; Jang, Sook Jin; Uh, Young; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon

2011-01-01

134

A mutational analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of quinolone resistance proteins QnrA1 and QnrC from Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Background The first report on the transferable, plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinant qnrA1 was in 1998. Since then, qnr alleles have been discovered worldwide in clinical strains of Gram-negative bacilli. Qnr proteins confer quinolone resistance, and belong to the pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP) family. Several PRP crystal structures have been solved, but little is known about the functional significance of their structural arrangement. Results We conducted random and site-directed mutagenesis on qnrA1 and on qnrC, a newly identified quinolone-resistance gene from Proteus mirabilis. Many of the Qnr mutants lost their quinolone resistance function. The highly conserved hydrophobic Leu or Phe residues at the center of the pentapeptide repeats are known as i sites, and loss-of-function mutations included replacement of the i site hydrophobic residues with charged residues, replacing the i-2 site, N-terminal to the i residues, with bulky side-chain residues, introducing Pro into the ?-helix coil, deletion of the N- and C-termini, and excision of a central coil. Molecular dynamics simulations and homology modeling demonstrated that QnrC overall adopts a stable ?-helix fold and shares more similarities with MfpA than with other PRP structures. Based on homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, the dysfunctional point mutations introduced structural deformations into the quadrilateral ?-helix structure of PRPs. Of the pentapeptides of QnrC, two-thirds adopted a type II ?-turn, while the rest adopted type IV turns. A gap exists between coil 2 and coil 3 in the QnrC model structure, introducing a structural flexibility that is similar to that seen in MfpA. Conclusion The hydrophobic core and the ?-helix backbone conformation are important for maintaining the quinolone resistance property of Qnr proteins. QnrC may share structural similarity with MfpA.

2010-01-01

135

Serological classification and epitope specificity of Proteus vulgaris TG 251 from Proteus serogroup O65  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction:  \\u000a Proteus rods are currently subdivided into five named species, i.e. Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, P. hauseri, and P. myxofaciens, and three unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4 to 6. Based on the serospecificity of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O-antigen), strains of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris were divided into 49 O-serogroups and 11 additional O-serogroups were proposed later. About

Krystyna Zych; Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Dominika Drzewiecka; Andrey V. Perepelov; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2007-01-01

136

Prevalence and resistance patterns of extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella serovar Stanley in a Korean tertiary hospital.  

PubMed

A total of 100 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 63), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1), and Salmonella serovar Stanley (n = 1), showing resistance to cefoxitin, or returning positive in extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory method, were studied. The isolates were examined by the boronic acid (BA) disk test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate genetic similarities. The concurrence rates for ESBLs by the CLSI and the BA disk test were 97% for E. coli and 96.7% for K. pneumoniae. A total of 41 isolates showing cefoxitin resistance yielded all positive by the BA disk test. All the 33 K. pneumoniae isolates, which showed positive by the BA disk test, were carrying AmpC genes. The TEM and CTX-M types were predominant in E. coli and the SHV and the CIT and/or DHA types were predominant in K. pneumoniae. PFGE analysis showed almost 75% of genetic similarities among K. pneumoniae isolates producing ESBLs and/or AmpC ?-lactamases (AmpCs) as each K. pneumoniae carried variable genes and showed variable antibiotic patterns. Clearly, the BA disk test was a useful method for the detection of ESBLs and AmpCs. In particular, cefoxitin resistance and BA-positive trait of K. pneumoniae do reflect the presence of AmpC genes in the organism. PMID:20854475

Park, Soon Deok; Uh, Young; Lee, Gyusang; Lim, Kwanhun; Kim, Jong Bae; Jeong, Seok Hoon

2010-08-17

137

Nucleotide sequencing of the Proteus mirabilis calcium-independent hemolysin genes (hpmA and hpmB) reveals sequence similarity with the Serratia marcescens hemolysin genes (shlA and shlB).  

PubMed Central

We cloned a 13.5-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing the calcium-independent hemolysin determinant (pWPM110) from a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis (477-12). The DNA sequence of a 7,191-base-pair region of pWPM110 was determined. Two polypeptides are encoded in this region, HpmB and HpmA (in that transcriptional order), with predicted molecular masses of 63,204 and 165,868 daltons, respectively. A putative Fur-binding site was identified upstream of hpmB overlapping the -35 region of the proposed hpm promoter. In vitro transcription-translation of pWPM110 DNA and other subclones confirmed the assignment of molecular masses for the predicted polypeptides. These polypeptides are predicted to have NH2-terminal leader peptides of 17 and 29 amino acids, respectively. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of purified extracellular hemolysin (HpmA) confirmed the cleavage of the 29-amino-acid leader peptide in the secreted form of HpmA. Hemolysis assays and immunoblot analysis of Escherichia coli containing subclones expressing hpmA, hpmB, or both indicated that HpmB is necessary for the extracellular secretion and activation of HpmA. Significant nucleotide identity (52.1%) was seen between hpm and the shl hemolysin gene sequences of Serratia marcescens despite differences in the G+C contents of these genes (hpm, 38%; shl, 65%). The predicted amino acid sequences of HpmB and HpmA are also similar to those of ShlB and ShlA, the respective sequence identities being 55.4 and 46.7%. Predicted cysteine residues and major hydrophobic and amphipathic domains have been strongly conserved in both proteins. Thus, we have identified a new hemolysin gene family among gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5

Uphoff, T S; Welch, R A

1990-01-01

138

Proteus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of Proteus syndrome is presented, in which severe hemihypertrophy of the left trunk and left lower extremity, scoliosis, endometriosis and huge bizarre-shaped body tumors were observed. Up to 22.6 kg of tumorous tissue was excised. This syndrome was first described in 1983. The name Proteus comes from a Greek mythical sea god who was able to change his

Hiroshi Yasuda; Osamu Yamamoto; Hisatada Hirokawa; Masakazu Asahi; Masamichi Kashimura; Akinori Sakai

2001-01-01

139

[Proteus bacilli: features and virulence factors].  

PubMed

In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli. PMID:17507868

Rózalski, Antoni; Kwil, Iwona; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Baranowska, Magdalena; Staczek, Pawe?

2007-01-01

140

Fimbriæ and Hæmagglutinating Properties in Strains of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIMBRIATION and the hæmagglutinating pattern of 21 strains of Proteus mirabilis, 10 of P. vulgaris and 20 strains each of P. morgani and P. rettgeri have been investigated. The strains of P. hauseri were those previously used1 and were either in the Y, W or R phases2. The morgani strains comprised 12 recently isolated local strains and 8 (Nos. 232,

J. N. Coetzee; Gabrielle Pernet; J. J. THERON

1962-01-01

141

[Protective properties of Proteus ribosomal vaccine].  

PubMed

The results of the study of the protective properties of Proteus ribosomal vaccine prepared from P. vulgaris museum strain F-30 are presented. The vaccine showed protective effect even in a dose of 0.0001 microgram of protein per mouse; when used in immunization doses of 1 and 10 micrograms of protein per mouse, the vaccine completely protected the animals, ensuring their survival. Experiments aimed at the determination of the maximum protective effect of the vaccine were carried out. The ribosomal vaccine injected in a dose of 1 microgram of protein per mouse protected 50% of mice challenged with 10 LD50; in a dose of 10 micrograms of protein per mouse the vaccine protected 100% of the animals challenged with 3.7 and 10 LD50. Proteus ribosomal vaccine prepared from P. vulgaris museum strain was shown to render protective effect with respect to P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis clinical strains. PMID:6367317

Ovetchin, P V; Tsyganenko, A Ia

1984-01-01

142

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni under Conditions of Atmospheric Oxygen Tension with the Support of Pseudomonas spp.?  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen. Despite causing enteritis in humans, it is a well-adapted intestinal microorganism in animals, hardly ever generating disease symptoms. Nevertheless, as a true microaerophilic microorganism it is still puzzling how Campylobacter cells can survive on chicken meat, the main source of human infection. In this study, we demonstrate that C. jejuni is able to withstand conditions of atmospheric oxygen tension when cocultured with Pseudomonas species, major food-spoiling bacteria that are frequently found on chicken meat in rather high numbers. Using an in vitro survival assay, interactions of 145 C. jejuni wild-type strains and field isolates from chicken meat, broiler feces, and human clinical samples with type strains and food isolates of Pseudomonas spp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Micrococcus luteus, and Enterococcus faecalis were studied. When inoculated alone or in coculture with Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Micrococcus luteus, or Enterococcus faecalis type strains, Campylobacter cells were able to survive ambient oxygen levels for no more than 18 h. In contrast, Campylobacter bacteria inoculated with type strains or wild-type isolates of Pseudomonas showed a prolonged aerobic survival of up to >48 h. This microbial commensalism was diverse in C. jejuni isolates from different sources; isolates from chicken meat and humans in coculture with Pseudomonas putida were able to use this survival support better than fecal isolates from broilers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the development of fiberlike structures braiding P. putida and C. jejuni cells. Hence, it seems that microaerophilic C. jejuni is able to survive ambient atmospheric oxygen tension by metabolic commensalism with Pseudomonas spp. This bacterium-bacterium interaction might set the basis for survival of C. jejuni on chicken meat and thus be the prerequisite step in the pathway toward human infection.

Hilbert, Friederike; Scherwitzel, Manuela; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.

2010-01-01

143

PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

144

The Proteus presentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development environments can increase user productivity by presenting information in more useful ways. This paper describes Proteus, the presentation system of Ensemble, a software development environment that supports a wide variety of language and document capabilities. Proteus provides a set of services which allow the appearance of software development documents, such as programs or design specifications, to be determined

Susan L. Graham; Michael A. Harrison; Ethan V. Munson

1992-01-01

145

Specific Activity of Phenylalanine Deaminase in Extracts of the Proteus-Providence Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE possession of a phenylalanine deaminase which converts phenylalanine to phenylpyruvic acid is one of a combination of five properties unique for the Proteus-Providence group of organisms1. Of a total of 185 P. hauseri (P. mirabilis + P. vulgaris), 155 P. morganii, 29 P. rettgeri and 239 Providence strains qualitatively examined for the presence of this enzyme2-4, all but two

J. A. Smit

1966-01-01

146

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease triggered by Proteus urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and disabling polyarthritic disease, which affects mainly women in middle and old age. Extensive evidence based on the results of various microbial, immunological and molecular studies from different parts of the world, shows that a strong link exists between Proteus mirabilis microbes and RA. We propose that sub-clinical Proteus urinary tract infections are the main triggering factors and that the presence of molecular mimicry and cross-reactivity between these bacteria and RA-targeted tissue antigens assists in the perpetuation of the disease process through production of cytopathic auto-antibodies. Patients with RA especially during the early stages of the disease could benefit from Proteus anti-bacterial measures involving the use of antibiotics, vegetarian diets and high intake of water and fruit juices such as cranberry juice in addition to the currently employed treatments. PMID:16603443

Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha

2006-03-01

147

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF PROTEUS AND PROVIDENCE ORGANISMS  

PubMed Central

Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria.

Falkow, Stanley; Ryman, I. R.; Washington, O.

1962-01-01

148

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Las quorum sensing autoinducer suppresses growth and biofilm production in Legionella species.  

PubMed

Bacteria commonly communicate with each other by a cell-to-cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). Recent studies have shown that the Las QS autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(12)-HSL) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa performs a variety of functions not only in intraspecies communication, but also in interspecies and interkingdom interactions. In this study, we report the effects of Pseudomonas 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL on the growth and suppression of virulence factors in other bacterial species that frequently co-exist with Ps. aeruginosa in nature. It was found that 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL, but not its analogues, suppressed the growth of Legionella pneumophila in a dose-dependent manner. However, 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL did not exhibit a growth-suppressive effect on Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. A concentration of 50 microM 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL completely inhibited the growth of L. pneumophila. Additionally, a significant suppression of biofilm formation was demonstrated in L. pneumophila exposed to 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL. Our results suggest that the Pseudomonas QS autoinducer 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL exerts both bacteriostatic and virulence factor-suppressive activities on L. pneumophila alone. PMID:19383702

Kimura, Soichiro; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Horikawa, Manabu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Gotoh, Naomasa; Ishiguro, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2009-04-21

149

77 FR 735 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalosporin Drugs; Extralabel Animal Drug Use; Order of Prohibition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes...

2012-01-06

150

In vitro activity of apalcillin compared with that of other new penicillins and anti-Pseudomonas cephalosporins.  

PubMed

Apalcillin, a naphthydridine derivative of ampicillin, was compared with ticarcillin, azlocillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial isolates and with cefsulodin and tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimal concentrations of apalcillin at which 50 and 90% of hospital isolates of Escherichia coli were inhibited were similar to those of mezlocillin and piperacillin (1.6 and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively). Apalcillin had minimal inhibitory concentrations similar to those of piperacillin against Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter diversus. Against Klebsiella, apalcillin inhibited 50% of organisms at a concentration of 6.3 micrograms/ml, similar to piperacillin. The activity of apalcillin against Enterobacter (E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, and E. agglomerans) was similar to that of mezlocillin and piperacillin and greater than that of ticarcillin. The activity of apalcillin against Proteus mirabilis was similar to that of the other agents, as was its activity against indole-positive Proteus and Providencia. Only 40% of Serratia were inhibited at an apalcillin concentration of 25 micrograms/ml. Apalcillin was as active as piperacillin but twofold less active than cefoxitin or moxalactam against Bacteroides fragilis. It was as active as piperacillin, cefoperazone, and cefsulodin against P. aeruginosa (apalcillin inhibited 90% of organisms at a concentration of 25 mg/ml). There was an inoculum effect and a difference in the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration with beta-lactamase strains. Apalcillin was hydrolyzed by plasmid beta-lactamase but not as well by cephalosporinases. PMID:6981375

Neu, H C; Labthavikul, P

1982-06-01

151

NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - Proteus  

NASA Website

Proteus is a unique aircraft designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform, with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth monitoring science missions as well.

152

Proteus Survey: Technical Manual and Codebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1987 Proteus Survey was based on the 1986 Proteus Survey designed by the United States Military Academy and administered by Michigan State University. The Proteus Survey was transferred to the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...

B. C. Harris K. Wochinger

1992-01-01

153

Surgical treatment of macrodactyly in Proteus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder composed of a wide variety of deformities including macrodactyly of the foot. A dearth of information on the surgical management of macrodatyly in Proteus syndrome exists in the literature. In this report, we present our experience in the surgical treatment of two patients with Proteus syndrome, both of whom suffered from disordered gait

R. Dikkers; J. J. van der Biezen; B. van der Lei

2005-01-01

154

Development Status of PROTEUS-MOC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PROTEUS-MOC solver is intended to resolve the outstanding computational challenges that the PROTEUS-SN is limited by and bridge the gap between PROTEUS-SN and existing homogenized structured grid solvers. The primary push behind all of this work is to...

A. Marin-Lafleche C. H. Lee E. E. Lewis M. A. Smith

2012-01-01

155

Structures and serology of the O-antigens of Proteus strains classified into serogroup O17 and former serogroup O35  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Bacteria of the genus Proteus are facultative pathogens which commonly cause urinary tract infections. Based on the serological specificity of the O-chain\\u000a polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, O-antigen), strains of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris have been classified into 60 serogroups. Studies on the chemical structure and serological specificity of the O-antigens\\u000a aim at the elucidation of the molecular

Agnieszka Torzewska; Sebastian Grabowski; Anna N. Kondakova; Filip V. Toukach; Sof’ya N. Senchenkova; Alexander S. Shashkov; Nikolay P. Arbatsky; Yuriy A. Knirel; Antoni Ró?alski; Wies?aw Kaca

2006-01-01

156

AFM imaging of proteus species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the fast development of scanning probe microscope, especially atomic force microscope (AFM), an imaging tool for life sciences researches is provided. Biological species imaging is one of the fundamental studies in life sciences, so it becomes one of the most important applications of AFM imaging. In this paper, AFM images of proteus species separately by contact-mode and intermittent-contact MacMode are obtained and investigated, and also are compared with its image of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Note that flagella are presented in SEM image while no evidence of flagella is observed when proteus species were imaged in AFM. This difference may be having something to do with sample preparation. The other possibility of this difference is that the proteus species which imaged was immature. Moreover, the images by MacMode in liquid medium show the outer surface of proteus species is smooth while the images by contact-mode in air show folding of the surface. The latter has clearly greater resolution than the former.

Pan, Shi; Sun, Wei; Song, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yi; Ning, Anhong

2005-02-01

157

The Proteus Syndrome: CNS Manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Proteus syndrome is a complex hamartomatous disorder characterized by multiple, diverse, somatic manifes- tations. We present a case in which severe, evolving CNS abnormalities were also exhibited. Imaging findings at presentation included hemimegalencephaly, subependymal calcified nodules, and periventricular cysts. Subsequently, du- ral sinus thrombosis developed. Eight previously reported patients may also have had hemimegalencephaly. When neuroimaging studies show hemimegalencephaly

Rosalind B. Dietrich; Dana E. Glidden; Gerald M. Roth; Rick A. Martin; Debra S. Demo

158

Group orientation in Neomysis mirabilis (Mysidacea: Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orientational behaviour of the neritic mysid Neomysis mirabilis in a swarm is considered under natural and experimental conditions. In nature, the swarms exhibit elements of inner integration, such as homogeneous age structure, collective behaviour, and relative constancy of inter-individual spacing. The mysids are guided by combined optomotor and vibrotactile cues, determining their disposition in aquaria of different shapes. Maximum

E. A. Zelickman; P. P. Shirshov

1974-01-01

159

Morphological Variants of Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cultures of Proteus hauseri may consist of one or more of five colonial variants. Population pressure experiments started with one variant eventually yielded all other variants. Y variants form raised non-swarming colonies on a MacConkey-type agar at 37O, but swarm in concentric step-like rings at room temperature on this medium; they swarm in step-like concentric rings on nutrient agar

J. N. COETZEE; T. G. SACKS

1960-01-01

160

Urease activity of Proteus penneri.  

PubMed Central

Ten strains of Proteus penneri isolated from geographically diverse laboratories were tested for urease activity. Cell lysates from urea-induced cells had a mean activity of 4.9 +/- 4.1 mumol of NH3 per min per mg of protein. On nondenaturing 6% polyacrylamide activity gels, the enzymes of P. penneri had very similar electrophoretic mobilities within species and within the Proteus genus but were distinct from the ureases of Providencia and Morganella species. On lower-percentage polyacrylamide, differences in mobilities of the ureases could be detected between the Proteus species. From representative strains, the P. penneri urease was found to be inducible by growth in urea and had an apparent molecular weight of 246,000 +/- 9,000, an isoelectric point of 5.1, and a Km for urea of 14 mM and was inhibitable by acetohydroxamic acid, hydroxyurea, and EDTA. In an in vitro model of struvite formation, a P. penneri strain produced abundant crystals on a glass rod submerged in synthetic urine in the absence but not presence of acetohydroxamic acid (500 micrograms/ml). Images

Mobley, H L; Jones, B D; Penner, J L

1987-01-01

161

Differentiation of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacteroides and Haemophilus species in gram-stained direct smears.  

PubMed

The accuracy of examination of the Gram-stained direct smear to classify presumptively Gram-negative rods into three morphotype groups, that is, (a) Enteric bacteria, (b) Pseudomonas, and (c) Bacteroides or Haemophilus, was evaluated. Randomly selected clinical strains (4-9) each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Ps. aeruginosa, B. fragilis, and H. influenzae were used to produce peritonitis or subcutaneous abscesses in mice. A Gram-stained direct smear was prepared from exudate collected from each animal. The direct smears were examined to classify bacteria observed into one of the three morphotype groups. The percent accuracy was 82, 56, and 95, respectively, and 76 overall. The assumption was made that classification was based primarily on differences in length and width of the organisms. To test this hypothesis, we prepared scanning electron photomicrographs from each specimen of exudate and measured the lengths and widths of bacteria. Examination of the Gram-stained direct smear was more accurate for classification of enteric bacteria, H. influenzae, or B. fragilis. Electron microscopy was more accurate for classification of Ps. aeruginosa. The higher length-width radio should be helpful in recognizing Ps. aeruginosa in direct smears. PMID:1716190

Bartlett, R C; Mazens-Sullivan, M F; Lerer, T J

162

Regeneration and transformation system in Mirabilis jalapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for in vitro regeneration and production of in vitro-propagated plants and a transformation system were developed for Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae). Among the types of explants and the different media tested, consistent shoot regeneration was obtained only from nodal segments grown in a regeneration medium consisting of Murshashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2mgl?1 6-benzyladenine, 2mgl?1 zeatin and 1mgl?1 indole

Michele Zaccai; Guixia Jia; Xinlu Chen; Oksana Genis; Danit Feibin; Revital Gesua

2007-01-01

163

Deciphering azo dye decolorization characteristics by indigenous Proteus hauseri: Chemical structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study selected indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 as a model bacterium to explore how chemical structure affected dye decolorization characteristics in comparison with other biodecolorizers. No matter what naturally-existing decolorizer strain was used (e.g., Pseudomonas luteola, Aeromonas hydrophila and P. hauseri), chemical structures of azo dyes (e.g., molecular isomers or the presence of different functional groups) apparently affected the performance

Bor-Yann Chen; Meng-Meng Zhang; Chang-Tang Chang; Yongtao Ding; Wen-Ming Chen; Chung-Chuan Hsueh

2011-01-01

164

1986 Proteus Survey: Technical Manual and Codebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Proteus Survey conducted by the United States Military Academy (USMA) is part of the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) continuing research on officer careers. In 1987, the Proteus Survey was administered by...

B. C. Harris K. Wochinger

1992-01-01

165

Systematic astrometric observations of Proteus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth based observations of Proteus are made highly difficult by the magnitude difference with Neptune, and the closeness to the planet. To overcome these difficulties, observation campaigns using a Hg-mask coronograph developed for astrometry are being pursued at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil. The observations are made at visible light wavelengths with the 1.6 m reflector telescope. The large 4 arcmin × 4 arcmin field of view of the camera makes it possible to image a sufficient number of background stars that are used to carry out the astrometric analysis of these data. The first results of the campaigns are presented in this paper. They include 45 independent observations made over 2 nights in 2002. The positions are referred to the Hipparcos/Tycho2 frame. The mean offsets relative to the JPL ephemeris are -0.083 arcsec (?=0.148 arcsec) in the x=7Delta;? cos ? direction, and -0.051 arcsec (?=0.115 arcsec) in the y=?? direction. Additional astrometric data need to be collected in order to investigate further the possible offset of Proteus with respect to the Voyager ephemerides. For the sake of completeness the early 2000 and 2001 campaigns, although less accurate, are also discussed. The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/425/1107 Based on observations made at Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica/MCT-Itajubá-Brazil.

Vieira Martins, R.; Veiga, C. H.; Bourget, P.; Andrei, A. H.; Descamps, P.

2004-10-01

166

Prototyping parallel and distributed programs in Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Proteus, an architecture-independent language suitable for prototyping parallel and distributed programs. Proteus is a high-level imperative notation based on sets and sequences with a single construct for the parallel composition of processes. Although a shared-memory model is the basis for communication between processes, this memory can be partitioned into shared and private variables. Parallel processes operate on

Peter H. Millst; Lars S. Nyland; Jan F. Prim; John H. Reift; Robert A. Wagnert

1991-01-01

167

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). [66 FR 712, Jan. 4, 2001, as amended...

2010-04-01

168

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). [66 FR 712, Jan. 4, 2001, as amended...

2013-04-01

169

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). [66 FR 712, Jan. 4, 2001, as amended...

2009-04-01

170

Host-range of Proteus morganii Bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLICINE H, which kills many Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella and a few Proteus hauseri1 also attacks many strains of P. morganii2. The relationship between P. morganii and the other genera mentioned has recently been strengthened by the finding3 that the guanidine + cytosine content of their deoxyribonucleic acids are very similar and differ from P. hauseri, P. rettgeri and Providence strains.

J. N. Coetzee

1963-01-01

171

Concurrent splenic lymphangiomatosis and Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old female presented with Proteus syndrome and was found to have an asymptomatic enlarged spleen. Pathology confirmed splenic lymphangiomatosis. We describe an association of these 2 disorders in the Middle Eastern population. Diagnosis and pathogenesis are discussed in this case report. PMID:24043010

Emran, Reja S; Anwar, Ihab M; Trudel, Michel; Bhatti, Adnan A

2013-09-01

172

Proteus syndrome with syringohydromyelia and arachnoid cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors make a good review of the main clinical and genetic aspects of Proteus syndrome. They also describe new neuroimaging findings with clinical significance that must be added to the variety of abnormalities in these rare multi-organic neurocutaneous syndrome. With regard to molecular genetics, Zhou et al. [3] reported a boy with congenital hemihypertrophy, epidermoid nevi, macrocephaly, lipomas, arteriovenous

Fernando Rueda-Franco

2007-01-01

173

Th e vital staining of Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of keeping Amoeba proteus in dilute basic dye solutions was studied. It was found that Nile blue, neutral red, and neutral violet in particular, and also brilliant cresyl blue, methylene blue, Bismarck brown, thionin, toluidine blue, and azures A and B act as vital dyes, while at comparable molarities crystal violet, dahlia, safranin, methyl green, Janus green,

JENNIFER M. BYRNE

1963-01-01

174

TEM72, a New Extended-Spectrum bLactamase Detected in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of enzymes that confer resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins and monobactams (7, 8, 11, 18). Most ESBLs found in clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae are plasmid-borne variants of the original TEM-1 and SHV-1 enzymes in which one or more amino acid substitutions expand the substrate specificity (2-4, 21). Currently, almost 100 of these variants have

MARIAGRAZIA PERILLI; BERNARDETTA SEGATORE; MARIA ROSARIA DE MASSIS; MARIA LETIZIA RICCIO; CIRO BIANCHI; ALESSANDRO ZOLLO; GIAN MARIA ROSSOLINI; GIANFRANCO AMICOSANTE

2000-01-01

175

Classification of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3 with recognition of Proteus hauseri sp. nov., nom. rev. and unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6.  

PubMed

Strains traditionally identified as Proteus vulgaris formed three biogroups. Biogroup 1, characterized by negative reactions for indole production, salicin fermentation and aesculin hydrolysis, is now known as Proteus penneri. Biogroup 2, characterized by positive reactions for indole, salicin and aesculin, was shown by DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) to be a genetic species separate from biogroup 1 and from biogroup 3 which is positive for indole production and negative for salicin and aesculin. In this study, 52 strains were examined, of which 36 strains were Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3, which included the current type strain of the species P. vulgaris (ATCC 29905T), and compared to seven strains of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 2 and nine type strains of other species in the genera Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. By DNA hybridization, these 36 strains were separated into four distinct groups, designated as Proteus genomospecies 3, 4, 5 and 6. DNAs within each separate Proteus genomospecies were 74-99% related to each other in 60 degrees C hybridization reactions with < or = 4.5% divergence between related sequences. Proteus genomospecies 3 contained the former P. vulgaris type strain and one other strain and was negative in reactions for salicin fermentation, aesculin hydrolysis and deoxyribonuclease, unlike the reactions associated with strains considered as typical P. vulgaris which are positive in reactions for salicin, aesculin and DNase. Genomospecies 3 can be distinguished from Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6 because it is negative for Jordan's tartrate. Proteus genomospecies 4, containing five strains, was differentiated from Proteus penneri, genomospecies 3 and 6 and most, but not all, strains of genomospecies 5, by its ability to ferment L-rhamnose. Proteus genomospecies 5 and 6, containing 18 and 11 strains, respectively, could not be separated from each other by traditional biochemical tests, by carbon source utilization tests or SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. In an earlier publication, a request was made to the Judicial Commission that the former type strain of P. vulgaris (ATCC 13315) be replaced by P. vulgaris biogroup 2 strain ATCC 29905T, a strain considered more biochemically typical of P. vulgaris strains. This would have the effect of assigning the name P. vulgaris to P. vulgaris biogroup 2. Since this request has been acceded to, the name Proteus hauseri is herein proposed for Proteus vulgaris genomospecies 3. Its type strain is ATCC 700826T. Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6 will remain unnamed until better phenotypic differentiation can be accomplished. All Proteus genomospecies were similar in their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Nineteen strains were isolated from urine, four from faeces, two from wounds, nine from other human sources and two from animals. PMID:11034498

O'Hara, C M; Brenner, F W; Steigerwalt, A G; Hill, B C; Holmes, B; Grimont, P A; Hawkey, P M; Penner, J L; Miller, J M; Brenner, D J

2000-09-01

176

HST BVI photometry of Triton and Proteus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BVI photometry of Triton and Proteus was derived from HST images taken in 1997. The VEGAMAG photometric technique was used. Triton was found to be brighter by a few percent than observations of the 1970's and 1980's, as expected due to the increasingly greater exposure of the bright south polar region. The leading side was also found to be brighter than the trailing side by 0.09 mag in all filters—50% larger than reported by Franz [Franz, O.G., 1981. Icarus 45, 602 606]. Contrary to our previous results [Pascu, D., et al., 1998. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1101], we found no episodic reddening. Our previous conclusions were based on an inaccurate early version of the Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) correction. The present result limits the start of the reddening event reported by Hicks and Buratti [Hicks, M.D., Buratti, B.J., 2004. Icarus 171, 210 218]. Our (B V) result of 0.70±0.01 supports the global blueing described by Buratti et al. [Buratti, B.J., Goguen, J.D., Gibson, J., Mosher, J., 1994. Icarus 110, 303 314]. Our observations of July 1997 agree with the Voyager results and are among the bluest colors seen. We found Proteus somewhat brighter than earlier studies, but in good agreement with the recent value given by Karkoschka [Karkoschka, E., 2003. Icarus 162, 400 407]. A leading/trailing brightness asymmetry was detected for Proteus, with the leading side 0.1 mag brighter. The unique differences in action of the endogenic and exogenic processes on Triton and Proteus provides an opportunity to separate the endogenic and exogenic effects on Triton.

Pascu, Dan; Storrs, Alex D.; Wells, Eddie N.; Hershey, John L.; Rohde, James R.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Currie, Douglas G.

2006-12-01

177

Proteus syndrome: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands.

Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

2012-01-01

178

Cellular Basis of Gastrulation in the Sand Dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of gastrulation in the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis are quite different from those in regular echinoids. In this study, we explored the cellular basis of gastrulation in this species with several methods. Cell-tracing experiments revealed that the prospective endodermal cells were convoluted throughout the invagina- tion processes. Histological observation showed that the ectodermal layer remained thickened, and the

TETSUYA KOMINAMI; HIROMI TAKATA

2000-01-01

179

[Response to antibiotics of Proteus strains isolated from different types of clinical material].  

PubMed

The data on the study of the antibiotic response to 42 Proteus strains isolated from different sources in the hospitals of Kharkov are presented. The isolates belonged to P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Many strains were resistant to gentamicin, ampicillin and carbenicillin irrespective of the isolation source. 58.0 and 90.3 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with intestinal infections, 66.6 and 100 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with otitis, 33.3 and 66.6 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with bronchopulmonary affections and 100 and 100 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with urological diseases were resistant to gentamicin and carbenicillin, respectively. As for ampicillin, the respective figures were 74.2, 66.6, 66.6 and 100 per cent. All the strains of P. vulgaris isolated from patients with otitis, urological diseases and bronchopulmonary affections were resistant to ampicillin. The MIC of carbenicillin for all the strains except 4 indole-positive strains of P. vulgaris isolated from the faeces and bronchial excreta was much higher than the borderline values. PMID:6378080

Ovetchin, P V; Tsyganenko, A Ia

1984-04-01

180

Fimbriae and Haemagglutinating Activity in Strains of Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Fimbriae were seen with the electron microscope on each of 79 strains of Proteus hauseri when these were in the haemagglutinating phase, but were absent from the non-haemagglutinating phase. All strains were variably fimbriate. The fimbriate mutant became dominant under anaerobic or relatively anaerobic cultural conditions. The non-fimbriate mutant became dominant under aerobic conditions. The properties of Proteus fimbriae

W. I. H. Shedden

1962-01-01

181

Transmission of Proteus syndrome from father to son?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a male infant with cranial hemi-hypertrophy, a lymphangioma, a lipoma, and epidermal naevi. A diagnosis of Proteus syndrome was made. His father had had a large lymphangioma resected from the right side of the face as a child. We propose that Proteus syndrome has been transmitted from father to son.

J Goodship; A Redfearn; D Milligan; D Gardner-Medwin; J Burn

1991-01-01

182

The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

Nield, Sophie

2008-01-01

183

Genes associated with opening and senescence of Mirabilis jalapa flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modest ethylene climacteric accompanies flower senescence in Mirabilis jalapa L., and exogenous ethylene accelerates the process. However, inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis have little effect on the life-span of these ephemeral flowers. Treatment with a-amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis, substantially delays the onset of senes- cence. This effect falls linearly between 7 h and 8 h

Xinjia Xu; Tim Gookin; Cai-Zhong Jiang; Michael Reid

2007-01-01

184

Genetic diversity among geographically separated populations of Nepenthes mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Nepenthes mirabilis ranges from Northeast (NE) to South (S) Thailand. Eleven individuals from NE, S and Suen Jatujak market in Bangkok, Central\\u000a (C) Thailand, were collected and divided into four populations according to their geographical areas. These four populations\\u000a were analyzed to determine a genetic diversity profile using thirteen inter-simple sequence repeat markers. The individuals\\u000a produced 75.18%

Arunrat Chaveerach; Alongkod Tanomtong; Runglawan Sudmoon; Tawatchai Tanee

2006-01-01

185

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising

Firas A. Al-Bayati

2008-01-01

186

Carbapenem-induced endotoxin release in Gram-negative bacterial sepsis rat models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbapenem-induced endotoxin release was evaluated using experimental models of Gram-negative bacterial sepsis in Wistar rats. Infections with Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis resulted in an increase of the plasma endotoxin concentration after treatment with ceftazidime and carbapenems including imipenem, panipenem, meropenem and biapenem. Except for P. aeruginosa, the plasma endotoxin concentrations

Toshinobu Horii; Miya Kobayashi; Masayuki Nadai; Satoshi Ichiyama; Michio Ohta

1998-01-01

187

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus is a high-performance simulator for MIMD multiprocessors. It is fast, accurate, and flexible:it is one to two orders of magnitude faster than comparable simulators, it can reproduce results from realmultiprocessors, and it is easily configured to simulate a wide range of architectures. Proteus providesa modular structure that simplifies customization and independent replacement of parts of architecture.There are typically multiple

Eric A. Brewer; Chrysanthos N. Dellarocas; Adrian Colbrook; William E. Weihl

1992-01-01

188

Morphogenesis of the branching reef coral Madracis mirabilis.  

PubMed

Understanding external deciding factors in growth and morphology of reef corals is essential to elucidate the role of corals in marine ecosystems, and to explain their susceptibility to pollution and global climate change. Here, we extend on a previously presented model for simulating the growth and form of a branching coral and we compare the simulated morphologies to three-dimensional (3D) images of the coral species Madracis mirabilis. Simulation experiments and isotope analyses of M. mirabilis skeletons indicate that external gradients of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) determine the morphogenesis of branching, phototrophic corals. In the simulations we use a first principle model of accretive growth based on local interactions between the polyps. The only species-specific information in the model is the average size of a polyp. From flow tank and simulation studies it is known that a relatively large stagnant and diffusion dominated region develops within a branching colony. We have used this information by assuming in our model that growth is entirely driven by a diffusion-limited process, where DIC supply represents the limiting factor. With such model constraints it is possible to generate morphologies that are virtually indistinguishable from the 3D images of the actual colonies. PMID:15695202

Kaandorp, Jaap A; Sloot, Peter M A; Merks, Roeland M H; Bak, Rolf P M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Maier, Cornelia

2005-01-22

189

Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

Rogers, S.; Waigh, T.; Lu, J.

2008-04-01

190

Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus  

PubMed Central

The motility of Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera, and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short timescales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long timescales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterized by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibers. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e., the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

Rogers, Salman S.; Waigh, Thomas A.; Lu, Jian R.

2008-01-01

191

Immunochemical properties of Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharides-one of the major Proteus sp. virulence factors.  

PubMed

Proteus penneri, like the other seven species from the genus, are Gram-negative, peritrichously flagellated rods capable of swarming growth on humid solid media. These bacteria are human opportunistic pathogens involved in many infections but they mainly affect the urinary tract of hospitalized, long-term catheterized patients. P. penneri rods produce a lot of virulence factors, among which the lipopolysaccharide seems to be the most interesting due to its structural and serological diversity. From the three LPS regions of P. penneri strains only the core region and O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) were structurally and serologically examined. P. penneri LPS core region is characterized by a common inner part representing the III glycoform and a diverse distal part (12 different structures). The P. penneri O-antigens contain sugar and non-sugar compounds and some of them rarely occur in nature. In both P. penneri LPS regions putative epitopes have been pointed out. Serospecificity of OPS allowed classifying many P. penneri isolates to different Proteus sp. O-serogroups, among which 12 contain P. penneri strains only. PMID:23896159

Palusiak, Agata

2013-07-10

192

A Case of Concurrent Proteus Syndrome and Hemophilia A  

PubMed Central

Background Proteus syndrome is a very rare condition with less than 100 confirmed cases reported worldwide. We report a case of Proteus syndrome in a two-year-old male who has hemophilia A comorbidity. Case Presentation A two-year-old male patient was admitted with the chief complaint of severe bleeding in mouth cavity after trauma for two weeks. At admission he was found to have petechiae on buccal mucosa and fecal discoloration due to GI bleeding. We noted multiple abnormalities in his musculoskeletal system and skin. He had lymph edema in left leg, hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly in both foots and macrocephaly. With the history of severe bleeding and recurrent blood product transfusion, we suspected a hemorrhagic disorder. The reduced level of Factor VIII activity confirmed the diagnosis of hemophilia A. Considering patient's various musculoskeletal abnormalities according to the diagnostic criteria and after ruling out similar disorders the diagnosis of Proteus syndrome was established. Conclusion Because of the variability of clinical features, Proteus syndrome can be confused with other disorders of multiple tissue overgrowth. Our case of Proteus syndrome, who had hemophilia A comorbidity outlines the challenges in diagnosis of such rare combination of diseases.

Hashemieh, Mozhgan; Mansoori, Bahar; Tavakoli, Reza; Sheibani, Koroush

2012-01-01

193

Characterization of Two Novel Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from the Storage Roots of the Andean Crop Mirabilis expansa1  

PubMed Central

Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others.

Vivanco, Jorge M.; Savary, Brett J.; Flores, Hector E.

1999-01-01

194

INFECTIVE ORGANISMS IN THE CYTOPLASM OF AMOEBA PROTEUS  

PubMed Central

Evidence from electron and phase microscopy is given which shows that infective organisms are present in the cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus. Vesicles containing living organisms have been observed after repeated washing and starvation of the amebae for a period of 2 weeks. Exposure to ?-radiation in conjunction with starvation, repeated washing, isolation of single amebae, refeeding with contaminant-free Tetrahymena, and clone selection has produced clones with reduced cytoplasmic infection. These findings are discussed in regard to the autoradiographic studies of other investigators on Amoeba proteus. The controversies over whether DNA and RNA are synthesized in the cytoplasm may be resolved by the finding of cytoplasmic infection.

Roth, L. E.; Daniels, E. W.

1961-01-01

195

Effect of Temperature on Flagellation, Motility and Swarming of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT was noted1 that the swarming of Proteus hauseri was more extensive at room temperature than at 37° C and variants were described which were motile at 37° C but formed swarming colonies only at room temperature. Apart from observations2 on a single strain of P. vulgaris there are no reports about the effects of temperature on flagellar synthesis by

J. N. Coetzee; H. C. de Klerk

1964-01-01

196

The challenges of Proteus syndrome: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a disorder of patchy or mosaic postnatal overgrowth of unknown etiology. The onset of overgrowth typically occurs in infancy and can involve any tissue of the body. Commonly involved tissues include connective tissue and bone, skin, central nervous system, the eye, but it apparently can affect any tissue. Diagnosing of PS is difficult and the diagnostic

Leslie Biesecker

2006-01-01

197

Dimethylsulphoxide and trimethylamine oxide respiration of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) sustained anaerobic growth of Proteus vulgaris with the non-fermentable substrate lactate. Cytoplasmic membrane vesicles energized by electron transfer from formate to DMSO displayed anaerobic uptake of serine, which was hindered by metabolic inhibitors known to destroy the proton motive force. This showed that DMSO reduction was coupled with a chemiosmotic mechanism of energy conversion;

Olaf B. Styrvold; Arne R. Strøm

1984-01-01

198

Design of thermostat system based on Proteus simulation software  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problem of precise temperature control, the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) principle widely used is analyzed for the design of the whole control process and selection of control parameters, and then accurate simulation model of the TEC is established in Proteus simulation software. Moreover, combined with the traditional circuit simulation model, the temperature control loop is designed,

Han Zhenwei; Song Kefei

2011-01-01

199

Susceptibilities of 45 clinical isolates of Proteus penneri.  

PubMed Central

Patterns of susceptibility of 45 Proteus penneri clinical isolates to 14 antimicrobial agents were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution method. All strains were highly susceptible to ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, moxalactam, cefoxitin, gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin, and, with few exceptions, to amikacin, piperacillin, and cefoperazone. Most strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. All strains were resistant to cefazolin and cefsulodin.

Fuksa, M; Krajden, S; Lee, A

1984-01-01

200

Imaging manifestations in Proteus syndrome: an unusual multisystem developmental disorder  

PubMed Central

In this review we use images from an 11-year-old male to describe Proteus syndrome, a complex disorder with multisystem involvement and great clinical variability. Our aim is to enhance recognition of the typical imaging findings, which can aid diagnosis of this rare condition.

Kaduthodil, M J; Prasad, D S; Lowe, A S; Punekar, A S; Yeung, S; Kay, C L

2012-01-01

201

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of the Putative Proteus O Antigen Gene Locus? †  

PubMed Central

Proteus species are well-characterized opportunistic pathogens primarily associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) of humans. The Proteus O antigen is one of the most variable constituents of the cell surface, and O antigen heterogeneity is used for serological classification of Proteus isolates. Even though most Proteus O antigen structures have been identified, the O antigen locus has not been well characterized. In this study, we identified the putative Proteus O antigen locus and demonstrated this region's high degree of heterogeneity by comparing sequences of 40 Proteus isolates using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). This analysis identified five putative Proteus O antigen gene clusters, and the probable functions of these O antigen-related genes were proposed, based on their similarity to genes in the available databases. Finally, Proteus-specific genes from these five serogroups were identified by screening 79 strains belonging to the 68 Proteus O antigen serogroups. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of the putative Proteus O antigen locus, and we describe a novel molecular classification method for the identification of different Proteus serogroups.

Wang, Quan; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ruan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaoting; Rozalski, Antoni; Shao, Zhujun; Guo, Xi; Zhou, Haijian; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

2010-01-01

202

Mode of action of the protein, SP127, which enhances the activity of macrolide antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Antibiotics, the activity of which enhanced against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by SP127, were restricted to the basic macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, maridomycin and oleandomycin, the neutral macrolide antibiotics such as lankamycin and lankacidin C, vancomycin and enramycin. Synergistic activity of SP127 with the above antibiotics was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and several strains of Escherichia coli, but not against Proteus vulgaris and macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. SP127 had extremely weak proteolytic but no lytic activity. From the isotopic experiments, the action of SP127 was partially attributed to the promotion of antibiotic penetration to cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:405356

Kikuchi, M; Nakao, Y

1977-03-01

203

Pseudomonas Folliculitis  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas folliculitis has been reported by several authors in recent literature. So far, most of the outbreaks involved whirlpools in motels, health spas and private homes. This communication may be the first report of whirlpool folliculitis occurring in an apartment complex. This new clinical entity, which may be misdiagnosed as other pruritic dermatoses, can spread to involve many individuals with significant epidemiologic implications. Imagesp[1425]-ap1424-ap1424-bp1424-c

Jen, Ivan

1982-01-01

204

Mechanics and control of the cytoskeleton in Amoeba proteus.  

PubMed Central

Many models of the cytoskeletal motility of Amoeba proteus can be formulated in terms of the theory of reactive interpenetrating flow (Dembo and Harlow, 1986). We have devised numerical methodology for testing such models against the phenomenon of steady axisymmetric fountain flow. The simplest workable scheme revealed by such tests (the minimal model) is the main preoccupation of this study. All parameters of the minimal model are determined from available data. Using these parameters the model quantitatively accounts for the self assembly of the cytoskeleton of A. proteus: for the formation and detailed morphology of the endoplasmic channel, the ectoplasmic tube, the uropod, the plasma gel sheet, and the hyaline cap. The model accounts for the kinematics of the cytoskeleton: the detailed velocity field of the forward flow of the endoplasm, the contraction of the ectoplasmic tube, and the inversion of the flow in the fountain zone. The model also gives a satisfactory account of measurements of pressure gradients, measurements of heat dissipation, and measurements of the output of useful work by amoeba. Finally, the model suggests a very promising (but still hypothetical) continuum formulation of the free boundary problem of amoeboid motion. by balancing normal forces on the plasma membrane as closely as possible, the minimal model is able to predict the turgor pressure and surface tension of A. proteus. Several dynamical factors are crucial to the success of the minimal model and are likely to be general features of cytoskeletal mechanics and control in amoeboid cells. These are: a constitutive law for the viscosity of the contractile network that includes an automatic process of gelation as the network density gets large; a very vigorous cycle of network polymerization and depolymerization (in the case of A. proteus, the time constant for this reaction is approximately 12 s); control of network contractility by a diffusible factor (probably calcium ion); and control of the adhesive interaction between the cytoskeleton and the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7

Dembo, M

1989-01-01

205

Oriented thick and thin filaments in amoeba proteus  

PubMed Central

Actin and myosin filaments as a foundation of contractile systems are well established from ameba to man (3). Wolpert et al. (19) isolated by differential centrifugation from Amoeba proteus a motile fraction composed of filaments which moved upon the addition of ATP. Actin filaments are found in amebas (1, 12, 13) which react with vertebrate heavy meromyosin (HMM), forming arrowhead complexes as vertebrate actin (3, 9), and are prominent within the ectoplasmic tube where some of them are attached to the plasmalemma (1, 12). Thick and thin filaments possessing the morphological characteristics of myosin and actin have been obtained from isolated ameba cytoplasm (18, 19). In addition, there are filaments exhibiting ATPase activity in amebas which react with actin (12, 16, 17). However, giant ameba (Chaos-proteus) shapes are difficult to preserve, and the excellent contributions referred to above are limited by visible distortions occurring in the amebas (rounding up, pseudopods disappearing, and cellular organelles swelling) upon fixation. Achievement of normal ameboid shape in recent glycerination work (15) led us to attempt other electron microscope fixation techniques, resulting in a surprising preservation of A. proteus with a unique orientation of thick and thin filaments in the ectoplasmic region.

Rinaldi, RA; Hrebenda, B

1975-01-01

206

Nuptial gift in the spider Pisaura mirabilis maintained by sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuptial prey gift in the spider Pisaura mirabilis has been suggested to function as a male protection against sexual canni- balism during courtship and mating. This hypothesis together with two alternatives—male mating effort and paternal investment hypotheses—were tested in a laboratory experiment with sexually inexperienced males and females. One group of males offered no gift to the female while

Pia Stalhandske

2001-01-01

207

Demonstrating the destruction of the habitat of the Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) is Federally protected under the Endangered Species Act of the United States of America. This legislation prohibits direct or indirect take - the killing or harming - of the protected species. In 1993 and 1995, the opening of floodgates into Everglades National Park during the normal dry season resulted in a direct

Clinton N. Jenkins; Robert D. Powell; Oron L. Bass Jr; Stuart L. Pimm

2003-01-01

208

Food web and fluid in pitchers of Nepenthes mirabilis in Zhuhai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a complex food web and special fluid properties in pitchers of Nepenthes mirabilis in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China. It attracts ants and flying insects with floral and exrafloral nectaries, color of pitcher and flower, and possibly flower odor. Its slippery rim and collar trap preys, but some wasps can hold legs on the outside of the rim.

Yuejin Huae; Hongqi Lie

2005-01-01

209

Genes associated with opening and senescence of the ephemeral flowers of Mirabilis jalapa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A modest ethylene climacteric accompanies flower senescence in Mirabilis jalapa L., and exogenous ethylene accelerates the process. However, inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis have little effect on the life-span of these ephemeral flowers. Treatment with a-amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-depe...

210

[Pseudomonas aeruginosa].  

PubMed

Moisture is a critical factor in hospital reservoirs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, such as respiratory equipment, medicines, disinfectants, sinks, mops, food and vegetables. P. aeruginosa, a nosocomial pathogen, is an important cause of infection in immunosuppressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia, burn, cancer, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, surgery, advanced age; presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use. Most common infections include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections and bacteremia. Resistance of P. aeruginosa in vitro to many antibiotics is widespread and increasing in frequency. For hospital infection control, appropriate sterilization of all equipment, hand washing after patient examination, avoiding unnecessary antibiotics use and contact isolation for multiple resistant P. aeruginosa should be performed. PMID:12440121

Ono, Yasuo

2002-11-01

211

[Antibiotic sensitivity of the main opportunistic pathogenic aerobic bacteria].  

PubMed

Antibiotic sensitivity of 1421 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. was studied. Gentamicin, levomycetin (chloramphenicol) and ristomycin proved to be the antibiotics of choice in treatment of purulent inflammatory diseases caused by S. epidermidis and S. aureus. For antibiotic therapy of infections caused by gram-negative organisms gentamicin and polymixin might be recommended. PMID:2113800

Minukhin, V V; Tsyganenko, A Ia; Kravtsova, V I; Arkushenko, L L; Stepanenko, T V

1990-03-01

212

Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extract of Aloe barbadensis to Clinically Isolated Bacterial Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,\\u000a Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured\\u000a by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations

Ruchi Pandey; Avinash Mishra

2010-01-01

213

Application of Proteus virtual system modelling (VSM) in teaching of microcontroller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcontrollers are widely applied in the field of industry to solve engineering control problems. The increased use of microcontrollers makes microcontroller course necessary for electricity related speciality. A new simulation software package for microcontroller, Proteus virtual system modelling (VSM), is introduced for industrial and educational use. Proteus VSM combines circuit simulation, animated components and microprocessor models to facilitate co-simulation of

Bo Su; Li Wang

2010-01-01

214

Proteus: A System for Dynamically Composing and Intelligently Executing Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations envision web services as an enabling component of Internet-scale computing. A final vision of web services is to realize a dynamic environment that identifies, composes and executes web services in response to a query. This vision shapes the design and implementation of Proteus. In addition to describing Proteus' novel components, this paper outlines its initial system design. A.

Shahram Ghandeharizadeh; Craig A. Knoblock; Christos Papadopoulos; Cyrus Shahabi; Esam Alwagait; José Luis Ambite; Min Cai; Ching-chien Chen; Parikshit Pol; Rolfe R. Schmidt; Saihong Song; Snehal Thakkar; Runfang Zhou

2003-01-01

215

Structure of a Kdo-containing O polysaccharide representing Proteus O79, a newly described serogroup for some clinical Proteus genomospecies isolates from Poland.  

PubMed

From 41 Proteus genomospecies strains isolated in Poland, seven displayed similar serospecificity in ELISA with intact and adsorbed O antisera as well as in Western blot. The cross-reacting strains were found to belong to Proteus genomospecies 5/6 and classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O79, which seems to be widespread among Proteus genomospecies clinical isolates in Lodz, Poland. The O polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide of a representative O79 strain, 11 B-r, was studied by chemical analyses and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the following structure of the repeating unit was established: ?4)-?-d-GlcpNAlaAc-(1?5)-?-Kdop-(2?2)-?-d-Glcp-(1?3)-?-d-GlcpNAc-(1? where AlaAc indicates N-acetyl-l-alanyl and Kdo indicates 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid. The O polysaccharide was unstable under mild acidic conditions and cleaved by acid-labile linkages of Kdo residues to yield a tetrasaccharide with Kdo at the reducing end. The structure established is unique among Proteus O polysaccharides, which is in agreement with the lack of any significant cross-reactivity for the lipopolysaccharide of strain 11 B-r and O antisera against strains of all known Proteus O serogroups and vice versa. PMID:23896084

Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Palusiak, Agata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zab?otni, Agnieszka; Siwi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Knirel, Yuriy A

2013-07-11

216

Prototyping parallel and distributed programs in PROTEUS. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Prototyping is an important technique in software development for early exploration and validation of requirements. When prototyping concurrent behavior, the authors must be able to embrace a wide spectrum of models used to construct parallel programs, reflecting a variety of underlying system architectures. In this paper we present Proteus, a language, suitable for prototyping parallel and distributed programs. Proteus starts with the high-level set-theoretic notations of SETL and REFINE. They then extend this base with the barrier-merge parallel construct, which partitions the variables used for communication in its shared memory model into shared and private sets. Each parallel process receives an independent copy of the private variables. These private copies are independently updated, and may be merged into the global state at specifiable barrier synchronization points: at these points a portion of the merged state may be reflected back into each private state. They envision a layered language structure to express the various programming models, such as communicating sequential processes and data-level parallelism, in terms of this common foundation. A common foundation also facilitates the prototyping of heterogeneous systems whose concurrent parts are programmed following different models.

Mills, P.H.; Nyland, L.S.; Prins, J.F.; Reif, J.H.; Wagner, R.A.

1990-10-01

217

Chitosan Acetate Bandage as a Topical Antimicrobial Dressing for Infected Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineered chitosan acetate bandage preparation (HemCon) is used as a hemostatic dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We previously showed that when a chitosan acetate bandage was applied to full-thickness excisional wounds in mice that had been infected with pathogenic bioluminescent bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus), it was able to

Tianhong Dai; George P. Tegos; Marina Burkatovskaya; Ana P. Castano; Michael R. Hamblin

2009-01-01

218

Justification for the use of Ocimum gratissimum L in herbal medicine and its interaction with disc antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimium gratisimum L. (Lamiaceae), used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as urinary tract, wound, skin and gastrointestinal infections, was evaluated for its antibacterial properties against four clinical bacteria isolates namely: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the antifungal properties using a clinical isolate

Emeka I Nweze; Elizabeth E Eze

2009-01-01

219

Use of PCR with Universal Primers and Restriction Endonuclease Digestions for Detection and Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed a universal PCR capable of amplifying a portion of the 16S rRNA gene of eubacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. The sizes of the

JANG-JIH LU; CHERNG-LIH PERNG; SHIH-YI LEE; CHIH-CHIENG WAN

2000-01-01

220

Characterization of Bacterial Strains Isolated Through Microbial Profiling of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine the microbial profile in urine samples. Differential and selective chromogenic culture media were used for the rapid detection, identification and enumeration of urinary tract pathogens namely, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis. Urine samples of normal healthy individuals as well as patients with Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Poulomi Nandy; A. R. Thakur; S. Ray Chaudhuri

2007-01-01

221

Bacteria classification based on feature extraction from sensor data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data evaluation and classification have been made on measurements by an electronic nose on the headspace of samples of different types of bacteria growing on petri dishes. The chosen groups were: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus saprophytica. An approximation of the response curve by time was made and the parameters in the curve fit were

Martin Holmberg; Fredrik Gustafsson; E. Gunnar Hörnsten; Fredrik Winquist; Lennart E. Nilsson; Lennart Ljung; Ingemar Lundström

1998-01-01

222

Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

223

Optical response of a disordered bicontinuous macroporous structure in the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis.  

PubMed

We studied the structural and optical properties of scales in the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis. Structural characterizations revealed that the scale interior possesses a disordered bicontinuous macroporous structure, resembling a phase-separated structure obtained by spinodal decomposition. Its optical response was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our results show that this structure has interesting optical properties due to the existence of only short-range order and the lack of well-defined local structures. PMID:21867221

Dong, B Q; Zhan, T R; Liu, X H; Jiang, L P; Liu, F; Hu, X H; Zi, J

2011-07-20

224

Antiviral action of Harpulia Cupanioides and Mirabilis Jalapa against tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infecting tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mirabilis jalapa and Harpulia cupanioides remain as an unexploited potential to be tapped, as sources of antiviral principles. The antiviral protein from M. jalapa (MAP) and H. cupanioides (HAP) were highly effective in inhibiting TSWV at 60 and 80% saturation. A minimum concentration of 400 ?g\\/ml of MAP was sufficient to inhibit TSWV. HAP at 800 ?g\\/ml recorded 98.41% inhibition

P Renuka Devi; Sabitha Doraiswamy; S Nakkeeran; R Rabindran; T Ganapathy; M Ramiah; S Mathiyazhagan

2004-01-01

225

Deciphering simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study disclosed how and why electron-shuttling mediators were capable to stimulate bioelectricity-generating capabilities of dye-bearing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Proteus hauseri. Due to significant biotoxicity of 4-aminophenol (4AP) and the absence of electron-mediating potential of 3AP, only 2AP among all isomers could work as an exogenous mediator to stimulate bioelectricity generation of P. hauseri. Dye toxicity to cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs apparently affected the performance of simultaneous bioelectricity production and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Plus, dose-response analysis upon toxicity potency of reactive blue 160 revealed that cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs had a higher tolerance to reactive blue 160 than suspended cells. Apparently, augmentation of electron mediator(s) with low toxicity was a feasible means to facilitate bioelectricity-generating capability of SBP&CR. PMID:22178022

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son; Liu, Shi-Qi; Hung, Jhao-Yin

2011-12-16

226

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3410 Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. (a)...

2013-04-01

227

Nyu: description of the proteus\\/pet system as used for muc-7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paper we discuss the system's performance on the MUC-7 Scenario Template task (ST). The topicscovered in the following sections are: the Proteus core extraction engine; the example-based PET interfaceto Proteus; a discussion of how these were used to accommodate the MUC-7 Space Launch scenario task.We conclude with the evaluation of the system's performance and observations regarding possible areas

R. Yangarber; R. Grishman

1998-01-01

228

A Severe and Rapidly Progressive Case of Proteus Syndrome in a Neonate Who Presented with Unilateral Hydrocephalus Apart from Other Typical Features of the Proteus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartomatous disorder affecting multiple tissues and manifesting itself in a variety of ways. The understanding of the complete spectrum of clinical features, the natural clinical course of the disease and the proper management of such a rare but highly variable syndrome depend heavily on experiences gathered by previously reported cases. We present an unusually severely affected and rapidly progressive case of proteus syndrome in a neonate who presented with craniofacial hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous masses, capillary hemangioma, varicose veins, epidermal nevi and macrodactyly. The cranial ultrasonogram revealed unilateral hydrocephalus with partial obstruction of the foramen of monro.

Kumar, Rakesh; Bhagat, Puja

2012-01-01

229

Progressive Overgrowth of the Cerebriform Connective Tissue Nevus in Patients with Proteus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Proteus syndrome is a rare overgrowth disorder that almost always affects the skin. Objective Our purpose was to evaluate progression of skin lesions in patients with Proteus syndrome. Methods Skin findings were documented in 36 patients with Proteus syndrome. Progression of skin lesions in 16 of these patients was assessed by comparing photographs obtained on repeat visits for an average total duration of 53 months. Results The skin lesion most characteristic of Proteus syndrome, the cerebriform connective tissue nevus showed progression in 13 children but not in 3 adults. The cerebriform connective tissue nevus progressed by expansion into previously uninvolved skin, increased thickness, and development of new lesions. Lipomas increased in size and/or number in 8/10 children with lipomas. In contrast, epidermal nevi and vascular malformations generally did not spread or increase in number. Limitations Only 3 adults with Proteus syndrome were evaluated longitudinally. Conclusion The cerebriform connective tissue nevus in Proteus syndrome grows throughout childhood but tends to remain stable in adulthood.

Beachkofsky, Thomas M.; Sapp, Julie C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Darling, Thomas N.

2011-01-01

230

Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

231

Plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current taxonomy, plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are restricted to rRNA group I organisms belonging to the Gamma subclass of Proteobacteria. Currently, about 21 validly described plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are known. The most important species is P. syringae with more than 50 described pathovars. The pathovar concept is confusing and the taxonomy of P. syringae needs revision. P.

Monica Höfte; PAUL DE VOS

232

Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

233

Computational protein design: The proteus software and selected applications.  

PubMed

We describe an automated procedure for protein design, implemented in a flexible software package, called Proteus. System setup and calculation of an energy matrix are done with the XPLOR modeling program and its sophisticated command language, supporting several force fields and solvent models. A second program provides algorithms to search sequence space. It allows a decomposition of the system into groups, which can be combined in different ways in the energy function, for both positive and negative design. The whole procedure can be controlled by editing 2-4 scripts. Two applications consider the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme and its successful redesign to bind both O-methyl-tyrosine and D-tyrosine. For the latter, we present Monte Carlo simulations where the D-tyrosine concentration is gradually increased, displacing L-tyrosine from the binding pocket and yielding the binding free energy difference, in good agreement with experiment. Complete redesign of the Crk SH3 domain is presented. The top 10000 sequences are all assigned to the correct fold by the SUPERFAMILY library of Hidden Markov Models. Finally, we report the acid/base behavior of the SNase protein. Sidechain protonation is treated as a form of mutation; it is then straightforward to perform constant-pH Monte Carlo simulations, which yield good agreement with experiment. Overall, the software can be used for a wide range of application, producing not only native-like sequences but also thermodynamic properties with errors that appear comparable to other current software packages.Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037756

Simonson, Thomas; Gaillard, Thomas; Mignon, David; Schmidt Am Busch, Marcel; Lopes, Anne; Amara, Najette; Polydorides, Savvas; Sedano, Audrey; Druart, Karen; Archontis, Georgios

2013-08-26

234

Infection of the cones and seeds of Welwitschia mirabilis by Aspergillus niger var. phoenicis in the Namib-Naukluft Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welwitschia mirabilis Hook. fil. is a unique and rare dioecious desert gymnosperm endemic to the Namib Desert. The female plants bear 90–100 megasporophylls, of which 50–60% may be fertile, but up to 80% of those fertile seeds may be infected by Aspergillus niger var. phoenicis. This contamination results in seed and seedling death, potentially negatively affecting recruitment of plants into

C. Whitaker; N. W. Pammenter; P. Berjak

2008-01-01

235

Effects of Aridity and Fog Deposition on C3/CAM Photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental controls on photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis are evaluated through ?13C and ?15N analyses of leaf material from 26 individuals in the southermost population of this long-lived gymnosperm, which is endemic to the Namib Desert. The coastal Namib Desert in southwestern Africa is hyperarid in terms of rainfall, but receives up to 100 days of fog each year. This climate regime leads to interesting water relations in the Namib flora and fauna. Among many enigmatic characteristics, photosynthesis in W. mirabilis has puzzled researchers since the 1970's. Although it is predominantly a C3 plant, ?13C ranges from -17.5 to -23.5‰ in natural habitats, and can be as enriched as -14.4‰ under artificial growing conditions. Recently the CAM pathway has been confirmed, but the driver for CAM utilization has not been identified. In this study we incorporate new ?13C compositions for plants in the middle of the 100 km aridity gradient which spans the natural distribution of W. mirabilis. Initial results show an enriched ?13C signal (-20‰) in the more exposed individuals compared with those in a sandy drainage depression (-22‰). In addition, the documented correlation between rainfall and ?15N found in Kalahari C3 plants (Swap et al. 2004) is used to interpret the ?15N values in this W. mirabilis population. Initial results indicate that the fog deposition may significantly affect the nutrition of these unusual plants from the Namib Desert.

Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

2008-12-01

236

Radiographic manifestations of the temporomandibular joint in a case of Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder with progressive asymmetrical and disproportionate overgrowth of various tissues of the body. The syndrome is characterized by a wide range of malformations, including craniofacial deformities. Extraoral examination revealed several of the classical craniofacial features of Proteus syndrome: pronounced hemifacial hypertrophy, macrodactyly and hyperostosis. Intraoral examination revealed a high arched palate and gingival hyperplasia. Other findings were unilateral enlargement of the tongue, alveolar growth and dilaceration of the roots of the teeth. There were severe degenerative changes and deformities in the left temporomandibular joint but the oversized condyle was asymptomatic; there was no pain, limitation and deviation at mouth opening. Treatment was not necessary owing to the asymptomatic situation but periodic follow-up with clinical and radiographic examination was considered. The aim of this article is to describe the radiographic manifestations of an asymptomatic condyle malformation and other craniofacial, oral and dental findings in a 33-year-old female patient with known Proteus syndrome. PMID:22241876

Yilmaz, E; Kansu, O; Ozgen, B; Akçiçek, G; Kansu, H

2012-01-12

237

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the PROTEUS reactor  

SciTech Connect

An extensive program of reactor physics experiments in GCFR fuel pin lattices has been completed recently at the PROTEUS critical facility located at EIR laboratory in Switzerland. The PROTEUS reactor consists of a central test zone surrounded by a uranium buffer and thermal driver region. The test lattices included a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fuel region with internal and axial blankets of UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and thorium metal. Detailed analysis of the thorium-bearing lattices has been performed at EIR and at ORNL in order to validate nuclear data and methods used for reactor physics analysis of advanced GCFR designs.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Schmocker, U.

1980-01-01

238

PROTEUS investigations for advanced thermal, fast, and intermediate-spectrum reactors  

SciTech Connect

The zero-power reactor, PROTEUS, has been used over the years for physics investigations concerning various types of advanced systems, namely gas-cooled fast reactors (GCFRs) in the seventies, light water high-conversion reactors (LWHCR) in the eighties and, currently, low-enriched-uranium high-temperature reactors (LEU-HTRs). The wide range of test neutron spectra cover underlines the versatility of the facility, the safety and operational limits for which have largely remained unaltered during the different experimental programs. This paper reviews the scope of the various PROTEUS investigations and includes evaluations of some of the most recent experiments.

Chawla, R.; Seiler, R.; Mathews, D. (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland))

1992-01-01

239

Serological studies of Proteus penneri strains determining qualification to appropriate O-serogroup.  

PubMed

Our Department of General Microbiology created a wide collection of P. penneri isolates and classified most of them into 19 different O-serogroups. This work describes the classification of 12 remaining P. penneri strains. The lipopolysaccharides extracted from P. penneri strains were tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with selected O-antisera against Proteus sp. strains. Homologous and cross-reacting systems were checked in: passive immunohemolysis (PIH), inhibition of ELISA and PIH and Western blot procedure. These studies led to the qualification of tested P. penneri strains to five Proteus sp. O-serogroups, thus completing the serological classification of the whole collection. PMID:24053026

Palusiak, Agata; Siwi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

2013-01-01

240

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rabbitfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Skin lesions with peculiar bluish-green discolouration and wet, matted appearance of the fur, occurred sporadically in a small rabbitry. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the skin lesion.

M. SCHOENBAUM

241

42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...group Clostridium perfringens Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter freundii Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Salmonella typhimurium Serratia...

2009-10-01

242

Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

Trell, Erik

2012-09-01

243

Physiological plasticity of cardiorespiratory function in a eurythermal marine teleost, the longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis.  

PubMed

An insufficient supply of oxygen under thermal stress is thought to define thermal optima and tolerance limits in teleost fish. When under thermal stress, cardiac function plays a crucial role in sustaining adequate oxygen supply for respiring tissues. Thus, adaptive phenotypic plasticity of cardiac performance may be critical for modifying thermal limits during temperature acclimation. Here we investigated effects of temperature acclimation on oxygen consumption, cardiac function and blood oxygen carrying capacity of a eurythermal goby fish, Gillichthys mirabilis, acclimated to 9, 19 and 26°C for 4 weeks. Acclimation did not alter resting metabolic rates or heart rates; no compensation of rates was observed at acclimation temperatures. However, under an acute heat ramp, warm-acclimated fish exhibited greater heat tolerance (CTmax=33.3, 37.1 and 38.9°C for 9°C-, 19°C- and 26°C-acclimated fish, respectively) and higher cardiac arrhythmia temperatures compared with 9°C-acclimated fish. Heart rates measured under an acute heat stress every week during 28 days of acclimation suggested that both maximum heart rates and temperature at onset of maximum heart rates changed over time with acclimation. Hemoglobin levels increased with acclimation temperature, from 35 g l(-1) in 9°C-acclimated fish to 60-80 g l(-1) in 19°C- and 26°C-acclimated fish. Oxygen consumption rates during recovery from acute heat stress showed post-stress elevation in 26°C-acclimated fish. These data, coupled with elevated resting metabolic rates and heart rates at warm temperatures, suggest a high energetic cost associated with warm acclimation in G. mirabilis. Furthermore, acclimatory capacity appears to be optimized at 19°C, a temperature shown by behavioral studies to be close to the species' preferred temperature. PMID:23678101

Jayasundara, Nishad; Somero, George N

2013-06-01

244

[The isolation of a pure culture of Proteus hauseri from associated bacteria].  

PubMed

A simple method for isolation of P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis pure culture from associations with other microorganisms has been developed. Medium for inoculation of a bacterial culture suspected of an association contains glycerin and asparaginic acid. The suggested method is simple and highly effective, reproducible at any bacteriologic laboratory, and is particularly valuable for improving the quality of etiologic diagnosis of pyoseptic diseases. PMID:1699046

Parkhomenko, L V; Open'ko, L V

1990-01-01

245

[Approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. This system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (pH-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (Uripret-G). A total of 130 cultures was investigated. The employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. They included the following species: Candida albicans, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus inconstans, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus morganii, Proteus rettgeri, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium. Employing coded cultures not only monoinfections but also multiinfections in urine samples were simulated. Under the circumstances of investigation it was possible with the help of the new system to reidentify the genera of all but two of the 130 employed microorganisms. PMID:11179

Abdou, M A

1976-10-01

246

Orbital resonances in the inner neptunian system. II. Resonant history of Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, and Despina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the orbital history of the small neptunian satellites discovered by Voyager 2. Over the age of the Solar System, tidal forces have caused the satellites to migrate radially, bringing them through mean-motion resonances with one another. In this paper, we extend our study of the largest satellites Proteus and Larissa [Zhang, K., Hamilton, D.P., 2007. Icarus 188, 386-399] by adding in mid-sized Galatea and Despina. We test the hypothesis that these moons all formed with zero inclinations, and that orbital resonances excited their tilts during tidal migration. We find that the current orbital inclinations of Proteus, Galatea, and Despina are consistent with resonant excitation if they have a common density 0.4Proteus, which helps constrain the tidal migration timescale and thus Neptune's tidal quality factor: 9000Proteus and Larissa, finding 36

Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.

2008-01-01

247

Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus1In

Zhi-Gang Feng; Efstathios E. Michaelides

2005-01-01

248

On the asymptotic convergence and numerical stability of the Proteus EVD trackers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymptotic convergence and numerical stability of the previously introduced subspace tracking algorithms Proteus-1 and -2 are investigated by means of the ODE method. It is shown that (1) under weak conditions, both algorithms globally converge with probability one to the desired eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) components of the data covariance matrix, and (2) they have a built-in mechanism that prevents

Benoît Champagne

2000-01-01

249

Summary of Tasks Completed on PROTEUS-Thermal Work, FY2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PROTEUS is a suite of the neutronics codes, both old and new, that can be used within the SHARP codes being developed under the NEAMS program. Discussion here is focused on updates and verification and validation activities of the SHARP neutronics code, D...

C. H. Lee M. A. Smith

2012-01-01

250

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays follicular elevations of the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

251

Does water activity rule P. mirabilis periodic swarming? I. Biochemical and functional properties of the extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

The dynamics of bacterial colonies is complex in nature because it correlates the behavior of numerous individual cells in space and time and is characterized by emergent properties such as virulence or antibiotics resistance. Because there is no clear-cut evidence that periodic swarming of P. mirabilis colonies is ruled by chemical triggers responsible for cell-to-cell signaling in most of the biofilms, we propose that the observed periodicity relies on the colony's global properties. Hence, the biochemical and functional properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of P. mirabilis colonies were investigated. A binary exopolysaccharide mixture (1 and 300 kDa), glycinebetaine, and a phenoglycolipid were identified. Rheology, calorimetry, and water sorption experiments performed on purified EPS bring evidence that these exoproducts exhibit marked viscoelasticity, which likely relies on large scale H bond networks. Such behavior is discussed in terms of water activity because the mechanical ECM properties were found to depend on hydration. PMID:17355120

Lahaye, Elodie; Aubry, Thierry; Kervarec, Nelly; Douzenel, Philippe; Sire, Olivier

2007-03-14

252

Hypoxia-induced gene expression profiling in the euryoxic fish Gillichthys mirabilis.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is important in both biomedical and environmental contexts and necessitates rapid adaptive changes in metabolic organization. Mammals, as air breathers, have a limited capacity to withstand sustained exposure to hypoxia. By contrast, some aquatic animals, such as certain fishes, are routinely exposed and resistant to severe environmental hypoxia. Understanding the changes in gene expression in fishes exposed to hypoxic stress could reveal novel mechanisms of tolerance that may shed new light on hypoxia and ischemia in higher vertebrates. Using cDNA microarrays, we have studied gene expression in a hypoxia-tolerant burrow-dwelling goby fish, Gillichthys mirabilis. We show that a coherent picture of a complex transcriptional response can be generated for a nonmodel organism for which sequence data were unavailable. We demonstrate that: (i) although certain shifts in gene expression mirror changes in mammals, novel genes are differentially expressed in fish; and (ii) tissue-specific patterns of expression reflect the different metabolic roles of tissues during hypoxia. PMID:11172064

Gracey, A Y; Troll, J V; Somero, G N

2001-02-13

253

Hypoxia-induced mobilization of stored triglycerides in the euryoxic goby Gillichthys mirabilis.  

PubMed

Environmental hypoxia is a common challenge that many aquatic organisms experience in their habitat. Responding to hypoxia requires metabolic reprogramming so that energy-demanding processes are regulated to match available energy reserves. In this study we explored the transcriptional control of metabolic reorganization in the liver of a hypoxia-tolerant burrow-dwelling goby, Gillichthys mirabilis. Gene expression data revealed that pathways associated with triglyceride hydrolysis were upregulated by hypoxia whereas pathways associated with triglyceride synthesis were downregulated. This finding was supported by tissue histology, which showed that the size of hepatic lipid droplets declined visibly during exposure to hypoxia. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis confirmed the mobilization of hepatic triglycerides, which declined 2.7-fold after 5 days of hypoxia. The enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase, was implicated in the mobilization of triglycerides because its expression increased at the level of both transcript and protein. This observation raises questions regarding the regulation of fat metabolism during hypoxia and the role played by the hypoxia-responsive gene leptin. PMID:21865512

Gracey, Andrew Y; Lee, Tsung-Han; Higashi, Richard M; Fan, Teresa

2011-09-15

254

Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by organic chemicals is a challenging problem in environmental science and engineering. On the basis of identifying remediation plants from ornamentals, the remediation capability of Mirabilis Jalapa L. to treat petroleum contaminated soil from the Shengli Oil Field in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China was further investigated using a field plot experiment carried out in a greenhouse. The results showed that the average efficiency of removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by M. jalapa over the 127-day culture period was high, up to 41.61-63.20%, when the removal rate by natural attenuation was only 19.75-37.92%. The maximum reduction occurred in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction compared with other components of petroleum contaminants. According to the qualitative and quantitative parameters including plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root weight and visual stress symptoms, it was indicated that M. jalapa had a peculiar tolerance to petroleum contamination and could effectively promote the degradation of TPHs when the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was equal to and lower than 10,000 mg/kg. The population of living microorganisms in the planted soil could be also adaptive to

Peng, Shengwei; Zhou, Qixing; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhineng

2009-03-18

255

[Comparative study of the antibiotic sensitivity of Proteus hauseri bacteria belonging to different serological groups].  

PubMed

Sensitivity to 9 antibiotics of 1040 strains of Proteus belonging to the serological groups 03, 05, 06, 07, 010, 011, 013, 023, 024, 026, 027, 028 and 030 was studied. It was found that the above strains were sensitive and highly sensitive to the aminoglycosides and streptomycin, slightly sensitive to levomycetin and resistant to tetracyclines, erythromycin and penicillin. All the strains were polyresistant and 99.6 per cent of them were resistant to 4--9 antibiotics. Ten types of resistance were found. Proteus strains with the resistance type PETOtCht were most common. No relation between the occurrence of the strains of various serological groups and the character and level of their resistance to the antibiotics was found. PMID:132135

Agaeva, R A

1976-01-01

256

Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air–cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically

Bor-Yann Chen; Yu-Min Wang; I-Son Ng

2011-01-01

257

Assessment upon azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation by Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. Chemical structures of azo dyes apparently affected the performance of dye biodecolorization. Additions of diazo dye C.I. reactive blue 160 (RBu160) stimulated simultaneous dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of ZMd44 in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, high-level additions of RBu160 repressed

Bor-Yann Chen; Meng-Meng Zhang; Chang-Tang Chang; Yongtao Ding; Kae-Long Lin; Chyow-San Chiou; Chung-Chuan Hsueh; Huizhong Xu

2010-01-01

258

Cell surface properties as factors involved in Proteus vulgaris adhesion to stainless steel under starvation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the influence of limited nutrient availability in the culture medium on\\u000a Proteus vulgaris biofilm formation on surfaces of stainless steel. The relationship between the P. vulgaris adhesion to the abiotic surfaces, the cellular ATP levels, cell surface hydrophobicity and changes in the profiles of extracellular\\u000a proteins and lipopolysaccharides was examined. In all

Kamila Myszka; Katarzyna Czaczyk; Marcin T. Schmidt; Anna M. Olejnik

2007-01-01

259

DETAILED ANALYSIS OF PEBBLE-BED HTR PROTEUS EXPERIMENTS WITH THE MONTE CARLO CODE TRIPOLI4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme (CRP), high temperature reactor experiments with low-enriched uranium fuel were carried out at the PROTEUS facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland.. High quality and well-documented experimental data were obtained from 13 pebble-bed arrangements, 9 of them were deterministic loaded core configurations. In this paper a calculation-to-experiment (C\\/E) comparison of

O. Köberl; R. Seiler

260

Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene\\u000a oocytes ranging from 100 to 600?µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were\\u000a divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology.

Lilijana Bizjak Mali; Boris Bulog

2010-01-01

261

Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding the Proteus vulgaris chondroitin ABC lyase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural gene encoding chondroitin ABC lyase from Proteus vulgariswas cloned and sequenced. This gene consists of a single open reading frame of 3,063?bp, including a sequence (72?bp) for a possible secretory protein leader peptide, preceded by a Shine-Dalgarno ribosomal binding site. Promoter-like and ?-independent terminator sequences were detected upstream and downstream of the open reading frame, respectively. The G+C

Nobuyuki Sato; Masahiko Shimada; Hiroshi Nakajima; Hiroshi Oda; Shoji Kimura

1994-01-01

262

Use of chitosan bandage to prevent fatal infections developing from highly contaminated wounds in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

HemCon® bandage is an engineered chitosan acetate preparation used as a hemostatic control dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We tested its ability to rapidly kill bacteria in vitro and in mouse models of infected wounds. We used the Gram-negative species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus that had all

Marina Burkatovskaya; George P Tegos; Emilia Swietlik; Tatiana N Demidova; Ana P Castano; Michael R. Hamblin

2006-01-01

263

The activity of amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid, ticarcillin\\/clavulanic acid and temocillin; an epidemiological multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) has an interesting activity against staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae forming [3-1actamase. The effect is due to the activity of clavulanic acid which is a potent inhibitor of many !3-1actamases including those found in Escherichia coli (plasmid-mediated), Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus. [3-Lactamases found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae as the chromosomally mediated [3-1actamase of E.

G. Th. J. Fabius; Y. Staak; S. M. Loriaux; D. A. L. G. Aelvoet

1985-01-01

264

In Vitro Activities of Doripenem and Six Comparator Drugs against 423 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates from Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds?  

PubMed Central

Against 182 anaerobe and 241 aerobe strains obtained from diabetic foot infections, doripenem was the most active carbapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 ?g/ml), more active than imipenem against Proteus mirabilis, and ertapenem was more active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The MIC50 and MIC90 values were ?0.125 ?g/ml for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and all streptococci and 0.25/1 for Bacteroides fragilis.

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2008-01-01

265

Antibacterial effect of phosphates and polyphosphates with different chain length  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to monitor the antibacterial effect of seven phosphate salts on selected strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, which could be considered responsible for food-borne diseases (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For these purposes, phosphates differing in

Eva Lorencová; Pavlína Vltavská; Pavel Budinský; Marek Koutný

2012-01-01

266

Crystallization of urine mineral components may depend on the chemical nature of Proteus endotoxin polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Formation of infectious urinary calculi is the most common complication accompanying urinary tract infections by members of the genus Proteus. The major factor involved in stone formation is the urease produced by these bacteria, which causes local supersaturation and crystallization of magnesium and calcium phosphates as carbonate apatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6).CO(3)] and struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O), respectively. This effect may also be enhanced by bacterial polysaccharides. Macromolecules of such kind contain negatively charged residues that are able to bind Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), leading to the accumulation of these ions around bacterial cells and acceleration of the crystallization process. The levels of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions bound by whole Proteus cells were measured, as well as the chemical nature of isolated LPS polysaccharides, and the intensity of the in vitro crystallization process was compared in a synthetic urine. The results suggest that the sugar composition of Proteus LPS may either enhance or inhibit the crystallization of struvite and apatite, depending on its chemical structure and ability to bind cations. This points to the increased importance of endotoxin in urinary tract infections. PMID:12748265

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Staczek, Pawe?; Rózalski, Antoni

2003-06-01

267

Identification and functional characterisation of genes and corresponding enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp.  

PubMed

Enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp. are encoded by the cai genes organised as the caiTABCDEF operon. The complete operon could be sequenced from the genomic DNA of Proteus sp. Amino acid sequence similarities and/or enzymatic analysis confirmed the function assigned to each protein involved in carnitine metabolism. CaiT was suggested to be an integral membrane protein responsible for the transport of betaines. The caiA gene product was shown to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA reductase catalysing the irreversible reduction of crotonobetainyl-CoA to gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA. CaiB and CaiD were identified to be the two components of the crotonobetaine hydrating system, already described. CaiB and caiD were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification of both proteins, their individual enzymatic functions were solved. CaiB acts as betainyl-CoA transferase specific for carnitine, crotonobetaine, gamma-butyrobetaine and its CoA derivatives. Transferase reaction proceeds, following a sequential bisubstrate mechanism. CaiD was identified to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA hydratase belonging to the crotononase superfamily. Because of amino acid sequence similarities, CaiC was suggested to be a betainyl-CoA ligase. Taken together, these results show that the metabolism of carnitine and crotonobetaine in Proteus sp. proceeds at the CoA level. PMID:15731894

Engemann, Claudia; Elssner, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sven; Krumbholz, Carsten; Maier, Thomas; Kleber, Hans-Peter

2005-02-25

268

40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1114...

2010-07-01

269

40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 23 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1114...

2009-07-01

270

Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation. PMID:21361996

Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

2011-03-25

271

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2007-12-14

272

The 2:1 Mean-motion Resonance between Proteus and Larissa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyager 2 discovered six small satellites orbiting near Neptune; Proteus and Larissa, the two largest and outermost ones, display larger eccentricities than average, as well as non-zero inclinations. These satellites formed in a thin debris disk resulting from the catastrophic destruction of the original Neptunian satellites shortly after the capture of Triton. The slim debris disk suggests that moonlet orbits should not acquire significant tilts at formation, and any initial eccentricities should damp away rapidly due to tides. Hence, the non-zero eccentricities and inclinations of these two satellites require an explanation. We investigate the possibility of mean-motion resonance passages as an excitation mechanism for the orbital eccentricities and inclinations of Proteus and Larissa. The most recent strong resonance between these two satellites, the 2:1, is located only 600 km outside Larissa's orbit, or 900 km inside Proteus'. This resonance probably occurred only a few hundred million years ago. We find that not only is this resonance partially responsible for the current orbital shapes and orientations of the moons, but it also provides interesting constraints on their physical properties. Our study of this resonance limits the average density of the moons to 0.05 g/cc < ? < 1.5 g/cc, and puts a lower limit on their tidal quality factors, which parameterize energy loss due to tides: Q > 10. Through numerical simulations, we identify a new type of three-body resonance between the small satellite pair and Triton. These resonances occur near the traditional 2:1 mean-motion resonances and, surprisingly, are much stronger than their two-body counterparts, presumably due to Triton's large mass and orbital inclination. We derive a mathematical framework to analyze resonances in this system, and discuss applications to extra-Solar planetary systems.

Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, D. P.

2006-06-01

273

Assessment upon azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation by Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This study explored dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. Chemical structures of azo dyes apparently affected the performance of dye biodecolorization. Additions of diazo dye C.I. reactive blue 160 (RBu160) stimulated simultaneous dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of ZMd44 in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, high-level additions of RBu160 repressed capabilities of power production in MFC due to competition of electrons used for reductive decolorization. Decolorized intermediates of RBu160-phenyl methadiamine and 5-sulfoanthranilic acid as electron shuttles might mediate electron transport for current generation in MFC. PMID:20156682

Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Chang, Chang-Tang; Ding, Yongtao; Lin, Kae-Long; Chiou, Chyow-San; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Xu, Huizhong

2010-02-13

274

K mechanismu vzniku velkých kulatých t?lísek u Proteus vulgaris pod vlivem penicilinu  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Souhrn  Sledovali jsme zm?ny sušiny, obsahu DNK, celkového dusíku a po?tu zárodk? v po?áte?ních fázích neúplného L-cykluProteus vulgaris vyvolaného penicilinem.\\u000a \\u000a Výsledky pokus? ukázaly, ze r?st protoplasmy ani syntéza DNK nejsou penicilinem ve sledovaném ?asovém úseku (0–4 hodin) inhibovány.\\u000a Tím je podep?en jiz d?íve vyslovený názor, ze penicilin zasahuje rušiv? do biosyntézy morfologické blány bun??né. Sou?asn?\\u000a se ukazuje, ze vznik VKT není

Milan Nermut; Vladimír Drášil

1958-01-01

275

Rapid detection of urinary tract infections caused by Proteus spp. using PNA-FISH.  

PubMed

We developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for the rapid detection of Proteus spp. in urine, using a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Testing on 137 urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections has shown specificity and sensitivity values of 98 % (95 % CI, 93.2-99.7) and 100 % (95 % CI, 80,8-100), respectively, when compared with CHROMagar Orientation medium. Results indicate that PNA-FISH is a reliable alternative to traditional culture methods and can reduce the diagnosis time to approximately 2 h. PMID:23288291

Almeida, C; Azevedo, N F; Bento, J C; Cerca, N; Ramos, H; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

2013-01-04

276

Sodium dependency of active chloride transport across isolated fish skin (Gillichthys mirabilis).  

PubMed

1. The effects of thiocyanate, ouabain, ion-substituted Ringer solution and electrochemical gradients on Na+ and Cl- transport were examined using the isolated skin of the marine teleost, Gillichthys mirabilis. 2. Bilateral replacement of Na+ with choline in the bathing solutions reduces net Cl- flux by 93%, indicating that active Cl- transport by the skin is Na-dependent. 3. Thiocyanate inhibits short-circuit current with an ED50 of 6.4 x 10(-4)M, and, at 10(-2)M, decreases Cl-efflux, influx, net flux and short-circuit current by 68, 33, 74 and 81%, respectively. 4. Ouabain (10(-5)M) reduces Cl- efflux and net flux by 56 and 86%, respectively, indicating that the Cl- transport requires Na,K-ATPase. 5. Subsequent addition of thiocyanate to ouabain-treated skin reduces Cl- efflux, net flux and short-circuit current, suggesting that the two agents operate at different sites involved in Cl- transport. 6. Unilateral substitution of gluconate for Cl- on the serosal side does not affect Cl- influx, indicating that Cl- passive transport is via Fickean diffusion, not Cl-Cl exchange diffusion. 7. The addition of NaCl to the mucosal side, which mimics the in vivo sea-water condition, increases Cl- influx and transepithelial potential and decreases tissue resistance. The net flux (secretion) of Cl- with hypertonic saline on the mucosal side (0.51 +/- 0.06 muequiv/cm2 . hr) demonstrates that the skin could secrete Cl- in vivo. 8. Na+ fluxes across the skin are passive, as the observed flux ration (efflux/influx) is similar to that predicted by the Ussing-Teorell equation under both closed- and open-circuit conditions. 9. The permeability ratio (PNa:PCl) in approximately 5.4:1.0, indicating that the skin is more permeable to Na+, and that at least part of the serosa-positive transepithelial potential may be a Na+ diffusion potential. 10. The results suggest that Cl- secretion by Gillichthys skin is secondary active transport involving Na,K-ATPase and serosal Na+. PMID:7320911

Marshall, W S

1981-01-01

277

Sodium dependency of active chloride transport across isolated fish skin (Gillichthys mirabilis).  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of thiocyanate, ouabain, ion-substituted Ringer solution and electrochemical gradients on Na+ and Cl- transport were examined using the isolated skin of the marine teleost, Gillichthys mirabilis. 2. Bilateral replacement of Na+ with choline in the bathing solutions reduces net Cl- flux by 93%, indicating that active Cl- transport by the skin is Na-dependent. 3. Thiocyanate inhibits short-circuit current with an ED50 of 6.4 x 10(-4)M, and, at 10(-2)M, decreases Cl-efflux, influx, net flux and short-circuit current by 68, 33, 74 and 81%, respectively. 4. Ouabain (10(-5)M) reduces Cl- efflux and net flux by 56 and 86%, respectively, indicating that the Cl- transport requires Na,K-ATPase. 5. Subsequent addition of thiocyanate to ouabain-treated skin reduces Cl- efflux, net flux and short-circuit current, suggesting that the two agents operate at different sites involved in Cl- transport. 6. Unilateral substitution of gluconate for Cl- on the serosal side does not affect Cl- influx, indicating that Cl- passive transport is via Fickean diffusion, not Cl-Cl exchange diffusion. 7. The addition of NaCl to the mucosal side, which mimics the in vivo sea-water condition, increases Cl- influx and transepithelial potential and decreases tissue resistance. The net flux (secretion) of Cl- with hypertonic saline on the mucosal side (0.51 +/- 0.06 muequiv/cm2 . hr) demonstrates that the skin could secrete Cl- in vivo. 8. Na+ fluxes across the skin are passive, as the observed flux ration (efflux/influx) is similar to that predicted by the Ussing-Teorell equation under both closed- and open-circuit conditions. 9. The permeability ratio (PNa:PCl) in approximately 5.4:1.0, indicating that the skin is more permeable to Na+, and that at least part of the serosa-positive transepithelial potential may be a Na+ diffusion potential. 10. The results suggest that Cl- secretion by Gillichthys skin is secondary active transport involving Na,K-ATPase and serosal Na+.

Marshall, W S

1981-01-01

278

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the proteus reactor  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analysis has been completed for the ThO/sub 2/ and Th-metal axial blanket experiments performed at the Swiss PROTEUS critical facility in order to compare reaction rates and neutron spectra measured in prototypic GCFR configurations with calculated results. The PROTEUS configurations allowed the analysis of infinitely dilute thorium data in a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fast lattice spectrum at core center as well as the analysis of resonance self-shielding effects in the thorium-bearing axial blankets. These comparisons indicate that significant deficiencies still exist in the latest evaluated infinitely dilute thorium data file. Specifically, the analysis showed that the /sup 232/Th capture is underpredicted by ENDF/B-IV data, and the discrepancies are further exaggerated by ENDF/B-V data. On the other hand, ENDF/B-V /sup 232/Th fission data appear to be significantly improved relative to ENDF/B-IV data, while discrepancies are extremely large for the (n,2n) process in both data files. Finally, the (n,n') cross sections for thorium also appear improved in ENDF/B-V, except for a small energy range just above the 50 keV threshold. Therefore, these combined data deficiencies suggest that relatively large uncertainties should be associated with many of the results obtained from recent fast reactor alternate fuel cycle analyses. 38 figures, 12 tables.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1980-12-01

279

Calcium and initial surface binding phase of pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of membrane-bound solute and external medium by bulk-phase pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus is influenced by the level of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the external medium. Increasing external Ca/sup 2 +/ to approx.10/sup -4/ M increases pinocytotic intensity, while increases in Ca/sup 2 +/ above this level decrease the intensity of pinocytosis. The initial interaction of pinocytotic inducers and Ca/sup +2/ at the surface of A moeba proteus was therefore examined. Alcain blue and Na/sup +/, both inducers of pinocytosis, differ in the manner with which they associate with the amoeba surface, suggesting the possibility of different pinocytosis-inducing sites on the amoeba surface. Low levels of external Ca/sup 2 +/ in the range of 3 x 10/sup -5/ to 4.5 x 10/sup -4/ M increase the amount of cationic inducer associated with the cell surface while, at the same time, decreasing anion association with the cell surface. It is suggested that Ca/sup 2 +/ influences ion association with the cell surface by controlling the availability of negative surface sites, which in turn influences pinocytotic intensity. Surface binding of Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Cl/sup -/ was determined by adding /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca or /sup 36/Cl.

Prusch, R.D.

1986-08-01

280

Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of metabolic rate. enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms (Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A. Tomopteris nisseni. Tomopteris pacijca, Tomopteris species A. and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison

ERIK V. THUESEN; JAMES J. CHILDRESS

1993-01-01

281

Biotesting of water quality in Peter the Great Bay with the use of the microalga Dunaliella salina and embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biotesting was performed using embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis and the microalga Dunaliella salina. These two species were taken as test organisms for estimating water quality in areas of various anthropogenic loads. Seawater\\u000a from Nakhodka and Vostok bays, as well as from the southwestern part of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) near the

E. V. Zhuravel; Zh. V. Markina; N. K. Khristoforova; N. A. Aizdaicher

2006-01-01

282

Ammonium enhancement of dark carbon fixation and nitrogen limitation in zooxanthellae symbiotic with the reef corals Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea annularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient status (limitation vs sufficiency) of dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) symbiotic with reef corals in Bermuda was assessed in 1989 and 1990 by measuring the enhancement of dark carbon fixation with 20 µM ammonium by isolated symbionts. A colony ofMadracis mirabilis was kept in the laboratory and fed daily or starved for one month. Symbionts from fed portions of the colony

C. B. Cook; G. Muller-Parker; Co D. Orlandini

1994-01-01

283

Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri.

Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; Garcia-Valdes, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

2006-01-01

284

Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system,

S. Pelloni; J. Stepanek; P. Vontobel

1989-01-01

285

[Antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria. 22. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus hauseri lipopolysaccharide].  

PubMed

The following structure of the repeating unit of the Proteus hauseri O-specific polysaccharide was established on the basis of monosaccharide composition and 13C NMR data of the polysaccharide and products of its Smith degradation and partial cleavage with hydrogen fluoride: (Formula: see text). PMID:2441707

Vinogradov, E V; Shashkov, A S; Knirel', Iu A; Kochetkov, N K; Kholodkova, E V

1987-05-01

286

21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological...used to identify Pseudomonas spp. from clinical...the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a...

2010-04-01

287

21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological...used to identify Pseudomonas spp. from clinical...the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a...

2009-04-01

288

Biochemical Identification and Characterization of DNA Groups within the Proteus vulgaris Complex  

PubMed Central

We placed 43 isolates belonging to the Proteus vulgaris complex into proposed DNA groups (genomovars) using five previously recommended tests (tests for esculin hydrolysis, production of acid from salicin, l-rhamnose fermentation, and elaboration of DNase and lipase). On the basis of the results of these five tests, 49% of the isolates fell into DNA groups 5 and 6, 37% fell into DNA group 2, and the remaining 14% fell into DNA groups 3 and 4. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of 11 members of DNA groups 5 and 6 indicated that 10 of these isolates (91%) could be unambiguously assigned to one of these two genomospecies. Overall expression of selected enzymatic and virulence-associated characteristics did not differ significantly among DNA groups.

Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.; Khashe, Shideh; Probert, Will

2001-01-01

289

Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30 days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically active anodic biofilm played a crucial role to enhance the performance of SBP&CR in MFCs. Gradually increased supplementations of C.I. reactive blue 160 resulted in progressively decreased decay rate of bioelectricity generation. That is, a dye decolorized in a faster rate would result in a lower capability for bioelectricity generation and vice versa. In addition, a reduced dye with less toxicity potency (e.g., 2-aminophenol) might work as a redox mediator of electron transport to anodic biofilm for bioelectricity generation in MFCs. PMID:20932743

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son

2010-09-17

290

40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. The biological pesticides Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas...commodities when applied as a frost protection agent or biological control agent to growing agricultural crops in...

2013-07-01

291

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... is often caused by infection with the germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa . This germ is common in the environment (for ... or other disinfectants used to kill germs (like Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) break down faster. This can increase the risk ...

292

Defense function of pigment granules in the ciliate Blepharisma japonicum against two predatory protists, Amoeba proteus (Rhizopodea) and Climacostomum virens (Ciliata).  

PubMed

The defense function of pigment granules in the red ciliate Blepharisma japonicum against two predatory protists, Amoeba proteus and Climacostomum virens, was investigated by (1) comparing normally-pigmented and albino mutant cells of B. japonicum as the prey of these predators and (2) comparing resistance of the predators to blepharismin, the toxic pigment contained in the pigment granules of B. japonicum. Normally pigmented cells which contained more blepharismin than albino cells were less vulnerable to A. proteus than albino cells, but not to C. virens. C. virens was more resistant than A. proteus to the lethal effect of blepharismin. The results indicate that pigment granules of B. japonicum function as defense organelles against A. proteus but not against C. virens and suggest that successful defense against a predator depends on the susceptibility of the predator to blepharismin. PMID:15333994

Terazima, Masayo Noda; Harumoto, Terue

2004-08-01

293

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

... is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh-MOH-nass) aeruginosa is a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ... (Pseudomonas dermatitis) > Itchy spots on the skin that become ...

294

Seasonal changes in C, N and major organic compounds and their significance to morpho-functional processes in the endemic Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal and intra-thallus variations in the contents of C, N, proteins and amino acids, as well as in the storage carbohydrates\\u000a mannitol and laminaran, were measured in the endemic Antarctic brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis between September and February and related to seasonal changes in dark respiration and photosynthesis. Carbon contents between\\u000a 31 and 37% DW were relatively constant throughout

I. Gómez; C. Wiencke

1998-01-01

295

Distribution and Evolution of Pseudogenes, Gene Losses, and a Gene Rearrangement in the Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made

Norman J. Wickett; Yu Fan; Paul O. Lewis; Bernard Goffinet

2008-01-01

296

Likely Population-Level Effects of Contaminants on a Resident Estuarine Fish Species: Comparing Gillichthys mirabilis Population Static Measurements and Vital Rates in San Francisco and Tomales Bays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gillichthys mirabilis population static measurements (abundance, age, and size class structures) and vital rates (growth, mortality, recruitment)\\u000a were monitored on an annual basis from 2002 to 2007. Population-level metrics were used to gauge habitat quality at two study\\u000a sites (a contaminated site and a reference site) in two large northern California estuaries (San Francisco and Tomales Bays).\\u000a San Francisco Bay

Catherine R. McGourty; James A. Hobbs; William A. Bennett; Peter G. Green; Hyun-Min Hwang; Naoaki Ikemiyagi; Levi Lewis; Jason M. Cope

2009-01-01

297

Environmental control of crassulacean acid metabolism in Welwitschia mirabilis Hook. Fil. in its range of natural distribution in the Namib desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the area of its natural distribution in South West Africa, Welwitschia mirabilis has a less negative d13C value than C3 plants and a more negative d13C value than C4 species. This indicates that Welwitschia m. assimilates CO2 partially via CAM when growing in its natural habitat. The difference between the d13C values of Welwitschia m. and of the C3

E. D. Schulze; H. Ziegler; W. Stichler

1976-01-01

298

Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

1993-05-01

299

Effects of the actin-binding protein DNAase I on cytoplasmic streaming and ultrastructure of Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microinjection of DNAase I, which is known to form a specific complex with G-actin, induces characteristic changes in cytoplasmic streaming, locomotion and morphology of the contractile apparatus of A. proteus. Light microscopical studies show pronounced streaming originating from the uroid and\\/or the retracting pseudopods, which ceases 10–15 min after injection of DNAase I, at a time when ultrastructural studies show

Jiirgen Wehland; Klaus Weber; Wolfgang Gawlitta; Wilhelm Stockem

1979-01-01

300

Depolarization of the cell membrane causes inhibition of cell locomotion and pinocytosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii and Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 10 µM CCCP protonophore in an acidic medium causes depolarization of the cell membrane and immediate cessation of locomotion inAcanthamoeba castellanii andAmoeba proteus. In the basic media there is no depolarization or inhibition of cell locomotion. Other depolarizing agents (alkali cations, crown molecules) also stop locomotion and induce pinocytosis in amoeba. Pinocytotic uptake of horseradish peroxidase byAcanthamoeba castellanii is

K. Dolowy

1990-01-01

301

Genetic Recombination in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Genetic recombination has been shown to occur in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crosses between 18 biochemical mutants of 4 strains were studied and, although non-random segregation was found for non-selective markers, it has not yet been possible to draw conclusions concerning gene order or linkage. The progeny obtained from crosses tended to resemble one parent more than the other. The 4

B. W. HOLLOWAY

1955-01-01

302

Analysis of Stomatal and Nonstomatal Components in the Environmental Control of CO2 Exchange in Leaves of Welwitschia mirabilis1  

PubMed Central

In well-watered plants of Welwitschia mirabilis, grown in the glass-house under high irradiance conditions, net CO2 assimilation was almost exclusively observed during the daytime. The plants exhibited a very low potential for Crassulacean acid metabolism, which usually resulted in reduced rates of net CO2 loss for several hours during the night. In leaves exposed to the diurnal changes in temperature and humidity typical of the natural habitats, CO2 assimilation rates in the light were markedly depressed under conditions resembling those occurring during midday, when leaf temperatures and the leaf-air vapor pressure differences were high (36°C and 50 millibars bar?1, respectively). Studies on the relationship between CO2 assimilation rate and intercellular CO2 partial pressure at various temperatures and humidities showed that this decrease in CO2 assimilation was largely due to stomatal closure. The increase in the limitation of photosynthesis by CO2 diffusion, which is associated with the strong decline in stomatal conductance in Welwitschia exposed to midday conditions, may significantly contribute to the higher 13C content of Welwitschia compared to the majority of C3 species.

Winter, Klaus; Schramm, Michael J.

1986-01-01

303

Detection of UDP-glucose:cyclo-DOPA 5-O-glucosyltransferase activity in four o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa L.).  

PubMed

Although a pathway for betacyanin biosynthesis has been postulated, most of the catalytic steps have not yet been identified or demonstrated with biochemical evidence. In the postulated pathway, the glucose moiety of betanin is conjugated to the aglycone, betanidin, because the glucosyltransferase (GT) activity that produces betanin has been reported and its cDNA isolated. However, another pathway for betacyanin biosynthesis is proposed in which betanin is formed by GT acting at the 5,6-dihydroxyindoline-2-carboxylic acid (cyclo-DOPA) step, followed by condensation of the product with betalamic acid. Here, we show that GT activity acts upon cyclo-DOPA in the betacyanin synthetic pathway. A crude extract from the petals of four o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa L.) was mixed with cyclo-DOPA and UDP-glucose. After the reaction was stopped with phosphoric acid, the product was chemically reacted with betalamic acid. In the final reaction mixture, betanin formation was confirmed by HPLC analysis, demonstrating cyclo-DOPA 5-O-glucosyltransferase activity. This activity was correlated with the accumulation of betanin during the development of four o'clock flowers and was detected in another five species of Centrospermae. These results indicate that the glucose moiety of betanin is introduced at the cyclo-DOPA step, which is followed by condensation with betalamic acid, and not at the betanidin aglycone step. PMID:15196939

Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Adachi, Taiji; Koda, Takatoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

2004-06-18

304

21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... , Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis and skin and soft tissue infections (wounds...Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., E. faecalis , β-hemolytic streptococci (Group G),...

2013-04-01

305

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)|

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

306

21 CFR 520.314 - Cefadroxil tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. (ii) Amount. Ten milligrams...susceptible strains of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus spp....

2009-04-01

307

Burnup calculations and chemical analysis of irradiated fuel samples studied in LWR-PROTEUS phase II  

SciTech Connect

The isotopic compositions of 5 UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR power plant, which were investigated in the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme, were calculated using the CASMO-4 and BOXER assembly codes. The burnups of the samples range from 50 to 90 MWd/kg. The results for a large number of actinide and fission product nuclides were compared to those of chemical analyses performed using a combination of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry. A good agreement of calculated and measured concentrations is found for many of the nuclides investigated with both codes. The concentrations of the Pu isotopes are mostly predicted within {+-}10%, the two codes giving quite different results, except for {sup 242}Pu. Relatively significant deviations are found for some isotopes of Cs and Sm, and large discrepancies are observed for Eu and Gd. The overall quality of the predictions by the two codes is comparable, and the deviations from the experimental data do not generally increase with burnup. (authors)

Grimm, P.; Guenther-Leopold, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Berger, H. D. [AREVA NP GmbH, FEEP, Bunsenstrasse 43, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2006-07-01

308

Monte Carlo Calculations of Pebble Bed Benchmark Configurations of the PROTEUS Facility  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, a series of well-documented benchmark experiments were performed at the Proteus facility of the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute. Thirteen critical pebble bed reactor configurations were assembled, with ten of them deterministic with a precise location of the low-enriched fuel and moderator pebbles. Seven of these configurations were modeled with a very high spatial resolution with the Monte Carlo code MCNP with details that go from the fuel kernel (0.5 mm in diameter) to the walls surrounding the facility. The calculations of the k's of the configurations agree quite well with the experiments (within a fraction of a dollar). A sensitivity analysis is included to discuss the possibility of a small bias; also biases introduced by customary approximations of production codes were calculated. The experiments and the analysis of this paper might be very useful tools to check the calculational accuracy of procedures used in the emerging work related to pebble bed modular gas-cooled reactors.

Difilippo, Felix C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2003-03-15

309

Typing methods for Proteus rettgeri: comparison of biotype, antibiograms, serotype, and bacteriocin production.  

PubMed Central

Two hunderd five strains of Proteus rettgeri from epidemic and nonepidemic sources were differentiated by a new biotyping scheme, agglutination in O antisera, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and a new scheme based on bacteriocin production. The P. rettgeri were divided into 10 groups by their fermentation of lactose, sucrose, D-mannitol, and salicin. These groups were then subdivided into 19 biotypes by other biochemical reactions. Bacteriocin production was tested by the cross-streak method. Thirty-four bacteriocin-sensitive indicator strains were evaluated, and 16 were selected for the final scheme and used to type the 205 P. rettgeri, which were divided into 15 bacteriocin types. Serologically, 43% of the P. rettgeri were O42, 13% were untypable, 4% were O15, and 3% each were O33, O64, and O84 in addition to 31 remaining serotypes. Strains of P. rettgeri from known outbreaks contained fewer biotypes, O groups, and bacteriocin types and were more resistant to antimicrobial agents than endemic strains. Strains with common patterns with all four marker systems were frequently associated with outbreaks. A strong correlation between multiple antibiotic resistance and bacteriocin production was shown.

Anderson, R L; Engley, F B

1978-01-01

310

Characterization of a cryptic plasmid from an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont of Amoeba proteus.  

PubMed

A new cryptic plasmid pAP3.9 was discovered in symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria present in the cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus. The plasmid is 3869bp with a GC content of 34.66% and contains replication origins for both double-strand (dso) and single-strand (sso). It has three putative ORFs encoding Mob, Rep and phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGPase). The pAP3.9 plasmid appears to propagate by the conjugative rolling-circle replication (RCR), since it contains all required factors such as Rep, sso and dso. Mob and Rep showed highest similarities to those of the cryptic plasmid pBMYdx in Bacillus mycoides. The PGPase was homologous to that of Bacillus cereus and formed a clade with those of Bacillus sp. in molecular phylogeny. These results imply that the pAP3.9 plasmid evolved by the passage through Bacillus species. We hypothesize that the plasmid-encoded PGPase may have contributed to the establishment of bacterial symbiosis within the hostile environment of amoeba cytoplasm. PMID:18951917

Park, Miey; Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Hwang, Sue-Yun; Ahn, Tae In

2008-11-04

311

Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.  

SciTech Connect

A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-02-01

312

Penile reconstruction for a case of genital lymphoedema secondary to proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

To our knowledge penile lymphoedema secondary to Proteus syndrome has not previously been reported. Hence we report a case of a 16-year-old male who was referred with features of right hemi-hypertrophy and severe lymphoedema affecting his scrotum and penis. He had previously undergone scrotal reduction surgery at the age of 13, but had since developed worsening penile oedema. His main concern was that of cosmetic appearance prior to sexual debut, and he also complained of erectile dysfunction. An MRI confirmed gross oedema of the penile skin, but normal underlying cavernosal structure, and no other anatomical abnormality. Under general anaesthesia, the entire diseased penile skin was excised. Two full thickness skin grafts were harvested from the axillae, and grafted onto the dorsal and ventral penile shaft respectively. A compressive dressing and urinary catheter was applied for 7 days. Follow-up at 4 months confirmed complete graft take with minimal scarring, and the patient was very satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. He had also noticed a recovery in erectile activity, and feels psychologically and physically more prepared for sexual relations. PMID:22084799

Ashouri, F; Manners, J; Rees, R

2011-03-30

313

Penile Reconstruction for a Case of Genital Lymphoedema Secondary to Proteus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

To our knowledge penile lymphoedema secondary to Proteus syndrome has not previously been reported. Hence we report a case of a 16-year-old male who was referred with features of right hemi-hypertrophy and severe lymphoedema affecting his scrotum and penis. He had previously undergone scrotal reduction surgery at the age of 13, but had since developed worsening penile oedema. His main concern was that of cosmetic appearance prior to sexual debut, and he also complained of erectile dysfunction. An MRI confirmed gross oedema of the penile skin, but normal underlying cavernosal structure, and no other anatomical abnormality. Under general anaesthesia, the entire diseased penile skin was excised. Two full thickness skin grafts were harvested from the axillae, and grafted onto the dorsal and ventral penile shaft respectively. A compressive dressing and urinary catheter was applied for 7 days. Follow-up at 4 months confirmed complete graft take with minimal scarring, and the patient was very satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. He had also noticed a recovery in erectile activity, and feels psychologically and physically more prepared for sexual relations.

Ashouri, F.; Manners, J.; Rees, R.

2011-01-01

314

"NEW MEMBRANE" FORMATION IN AMOEBA PROTEUS UPON INJURY OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

Changes in the plasma membrane complex following the injury of single cells of Amoeba proteus were examined with the electron microscope. Two types of injury were employed in this study; cells were either pinched ("cut") in half or speared with a glass microneedle, and quickly fixed. Speared cells, when fixed in the presence of the ruthenium violet (a derivative of ruthenium red), revealed the presence of an extra trilaminar structure outside of each cell. This structure, called the "new membrane," was separated from the plasma membrane complex by a distance of less than a micron. The trilaminar structure of the new membrane strikingly resembled the image of the plasma membrane in all cells examined, except for its increased width (30%). This new membrane appeared nearly to surround the injured amebae. Attempts were made to demonstrate the possible origin of the new membrane, its reality, and its sensitivity to calcium. Also, some evidence is shown concerning the role of the small dense droplets (100–1200 A in diameter) normally present in the cytoplasm of amebae. Their frequent contact with the plasma membrane of the cell as the result of injury is interpreted as indicating their involvement in the formation and expansion of the plasma membrane.

Szubinska, Barbara

1971-01-01

315

Proteus syndrome: Clinical profile of six patients and review of literature  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by patchy or segmental overgrowth and hyperplasia of multiple tissues and organs, along with susceptibility to development of tumors. Very few cases are reported in literature from developing countries. Due to certain overlapping features with other overgrowth syndromes, diagnosis is usually delayed. Our aim was to describe clinical profile of this rare condition in six patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case sheet review of patients followed in a Pediatric Genetic and Metabolic clinic at a tertiary care institute of North India with a diagnosis of hemihypertrophy/overgrowth syndrome. RESULTS: Six cases presented with asymmetric overgrowth and peculiar features suggestive of PS were included in this study. Age at presentation was 2 months to 10 years; two were males and four were females. Hemihypertrophy was noticed in only one case at birth, and focal overgrowths in rest of other patients were seen later during childhood. CONCLUSION: Due to certain overlapping features with other overgrowth syndromes, diagnosis of PS is usually delayed. Pediatricians are the first persons who come across such patients and they should be aware about this rare condition.

Angurana, Suresh Kumar; Angurana, Renu Suthar; Panigrahi, Inusha; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

2013-01-01

316

Development of an oregano-based ointment with anti-microbial activity including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Increasing antibiotic resistance has prompted a search for new compounds with anti-microbial activity. In the authors' previous study, oregano extract was identified as one of the most potent anti-microbial compounds. The disk diffusion method was employed to assess the degree of inhibition against various microorganisms, and the bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism of action. Disk diffusion studies showed that oregano was found to be bacteriostatic for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, (MRSA) but bacteriocidal for seven other microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be inhibited by oregano. An ointment consisting of 1-10% oregano could inhibit most organisms except for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris, which required 20% and Pseudomonas which could not be inhibited even at the highest concentration of 80%. Oregano extracts can be formulated into an ointment that shows broad antimicrobial activity. Additional testing to assess tissue toxicity and other adverse reactions would be needed prior to human testing. PMID:20514796

Eng, William; Norman, Robert

2010-04-01

317

Application of Proteomics to Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent completion of the Pseudomonas Genome Project, in conjunction with the Pseudomonas Community Annotation Project (PseudoCAP) has fast-tracked our ability to apply the tools encompassed under the term 'proteomics' to this pathogen. Such global approaches will allow the research community to answer long-standing questions regarding the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to survive diverse habitats, its high intrinsic resistance to

Amanda S. Nouwens; Bradley J. Walsh; Stuart J. Cordwell

318

Application of Proteomics to Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent completion of the Pseudomonas Genome Project, in conjunction with the Pseudomonas Community Annotation Project (PseudoCAP) has fast-tracked our ability to apply the tools encompassed under the term ‘proteomics’\\u000a to this pathogen. Such global approaches will allow the research community to answer long-standing questions regarding the\\u000a ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to survive diverse habitats, its high intrinsic resistance to

Amanda Nouwens; Bradley Walsh; Stuart Cordwell

319

Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific.  

PubMed

Chthamalus proteus, a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic, was introduced to the Pacific within the last few decades. Using direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (COI), we characterized genetic variation in native and introduced populations and searched for genetic matches between regions to determine if there were multiple geographical sources and introduction points for this barnacle. In the native range, we found great genetic differences among populations (max. F(ST) = 0.613) encompassing four lineages: one endemic to Panama, one endemic to Brazil, and two occurring Caribbean-wide. All four lineages were represented in the Pacific, but not equally; the Brazilian lineage was most prevalent and the Panamanian least common. Twenty-one individuals spread among nearly every island from where the barnacle is known in the Pacific, exactly matched six haplotypes scattered among Curaçao, the Netherlands Antilles; St John, US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; and Brazil, confirming a multigeographical origin for the Pacific populations. Significant genetic differences were also found in introduced populations from the Hawaiian Islands (F(CT) = 0.043, P < 0.001), indicating introduction events have occurred at more than one locality. However, the sequence, timing and number of arrival events remains unknown. Possible reasons for limited transport of this barnacle through the Panama Canal are discussed. This and a preponderance of Brazilian-type individuals in the Pacific suggest an unexpected route of entry from around Cape Horn, South America. Unification in the Pacific of historically divergent lineages of this barnacle raises the possibility for selection of 'hybrids' with novel ecological adaptations in its new environment. PMID:16202091

Zardus, John D; Hadfield, Michael G

2005-10-01

320

Chemical structure, surface properties and biological activities of the biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI from soapstock.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil produced rhamnolipids (RL(LBI)) when cultivated on soapstock as the sole carbon source. HPLC-MS analysis of the purified culture supernatant identified 6 RL homologues (%): R(2) C(10) C(10) 28.9; R(2) C(10) C(12:1) 23.0; R(1) C(10) C(10) 23.4; R(2) C(10) C(12) 11.3; R(2) C(10) C(12) 7.9; R(2) C(10) C(12) 5.5. To assess the potential antimicrobial activity of the new rhamnolipid product, RL(LBI), its physicochemical properties were studied. RL(LBI) had a surface tension of 24 mN m(-1) and an interfacial tension of 1.31 mN m(-1); the cmc was 120 mg l(-1). RL(LBI) produced stable emulsions with hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. This product showed good antimicrobial behaviour against bacteria: MIC for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was 8 mg l(-1), for Streptococcus faecalis 4 mg l(-1), and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 32 mg l(-1). RL(LBI) was active against phytopathogenic fungal species, MIC values of 32 mg l(-1) being found against Penicillium, Alternaria, Gliocadium virens and Chaetonium globosum. Due to its physicochemical properties and antimicrobial behaviour, RL(LBI) could be used in bioremediation treatment and in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:15028876

Benincasa, M; Abalos, A; Oliveira, I; Manresa, A

2004-01-01

321

Declination of Copper Toxicity in Pigeon Pea and Soil System by Growth-Promoting Proteus vulgaris KNP3 Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copper-resistant (1318 ?M CuSO4·5H2O) strain KNP3 of Proteus vulgaris was isolated from soil near the Panki power plant, Kanpur, India, and was used to inoculate pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan var. UPS-120) seeds grown in soil for 60 days in the presence of 600 ?M CuSO4·5H2O. A study of siderophore production (126.34 ± 0.52 ?g ml?1) and its subsequent effects on plant growth

Anju Rani; Yogesh S. Shouche; Reeta Goel

2008-01-01

322

[Sensitivity of Proteus hauseri bacteria to chemotherapeutic preparations depending on the cultivation conditions and on the composition of the nutrient medium].  

PubMed

Sensitivity of 227 Proteus strains isolated from patients was studied comparatively using the agar-diffusion method (disks) and the method of serial dilutions. Marked differences in the numbers of the strains resistant to benzylpenicillin and chloramphenicol were found with the above methods. It was shown that the ingredients of Ploskirev's medium significantly (by 2.8--13.5 times) inhibited the antibacterial activity of streptomycin, neomycin, monomycin, kanamycin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid and had practically no effect on the activity of benzylpenicillin, chloramphenicol and furazolidone. The values of the MIC of the drugs used in the experiment with liquid media correlated with those obtained with Sabouro's medium, which provided recommendation of the latter for determination of Proteus sensitivity by the method of serial dilutions in the solid medium, Cultivation of Proteus at a temperature of 40 degrees C resulted in a decrease of the resistance to most of the drugs tested by (by 3--12.4 times). PMID:327915

Shvidenko, I G

1977-05-01

323

Ferrofluid effect on Pseudomonas pyoverdine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fluid effect on some pigmented pathogen germs has been investigated. The fluorescence of the pyoverdine pigment obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, cultivated in the presence of different magnetic fluid concentrations, was enhanced by magnetic fluid concentrations of 0.0015 1 ml/l. The antimicrobial activity of pyoverdine, when tested by means of agar diffusimetric method against Sarcina lutea, was found increased for relatively high concentrations of magnetic fluid; in the case of Staphylococcus aureus the pyoverdine antimicrobial activity was not dependent on the magnetic fluid concentration.

Poiata, Antoniea; Vlahovici, Al.; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

2005-03-01

324

Addressing problems set by Pseudomonas.  

PubMed

IHEEM's recent seminar in Birmingham, 'Dirty Little Secrets', not only focused on the key priorities for keeping surgical instruments clean and sterile (HEJ--April 2012), but also featured a timely presentation by Dr Jimmy Walker, principal investigator, Decontamination, HPA Microbiology Services, at the Health Protection Agency, in which the highly experienced microbiologist shared his expertise on what appears to be becoming an increasingly prevalent problem for healthcare estates and engineering personnel--how to ensure that levels of Pseudomonas, a waterborne bacterium potentially particularly harmful to immunocompromised patients, and often found in hospital water supplies, are rapidly detected, kept to a minimum, and, wherever possible, eliminated. PMID:22690511

2012-05-01

325

Codon usage in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

We have generated a codon usage table for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Codon usage in P. aeruginosa is extremely biased. In contrast to E. coli and yeast, P. aeruginosa preferentially uses those codons within a synonymous codon group with the strongest predicted codon-anticodon interaction. We were unable to correlate a particular codon usage pattern with predicted levels of mRNA expressivity. The choice of a third base reflects the high guanine plus cytosine content of the P. aeruginosa genome (67.2%) and cytosine is the preferred nucleotide for the third codon position.

West, S E; Iglewski, B H

1988-01-01

326

Pseudomonas mesophilica infections in humans.  

PubMed Central

Reported here is the case of a patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung who had bacteremia involving Pseudomonas mesophilica. Of the common laboratory media tested at 35 degrees C, buffered charcoal yeast extract agar and nutrient agar provided the best growth; however, other media supported growth at lower temperatures. Since blood cultures are routinely subcultured onto chocolate agar and then incubated at 35 degrees C, awareness of the characteristics of P. mesophilica and of the isolation techniques as outlined may enhance the recovery of this and related bacterial species. Images

Smith, S M; Eng, R H; Forrester, C

1985-01-01

327

Surface characteristics of Pseudomonas cepacia.  

PubMed

Two major surface characteristics of Pseudomonas cepacia were examined in this study: reactivity with lectins and hydrophobicity. The results indicated that the surfaces of P. cepacia strains are heterogeneous with regard to the distribution of lectin receptors. Only lima bean agglutinin was found to strongly agglutinate all strains. The strains were also heterogeneous with regard to hydrophobicity as determined by adhesion to hexadecane. The degree of hydrophobicity, however, was not significantly altered when selected strains were mixed with either fibronectin or bovine serum albumin. In addition, the strains exhibited no apparent affinities for buccal epithelial cells and gave no evidence for an ability to haemagglutinate human red cells. PMID:3374397

Eaves, D J; Doyle, R J

1988-01-01

328

Bromoalkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains.  

PubMed Central

Two Pseudomonas isolates, named ES-1 and ES-2, were shown to possess a wide degradative spectrum for haloalkanes in general and bromoalkanes in particular but did not degrade nonsubstituted alkanes. The utilization of water-insoluble haloalkanes, such as 1-bromooctane, appeared to consist of three phases: (i) extracellular emulsification by a constitutively excreted, broad-spectrum surface-active agent, (ii) dehalogenation by an inducible hydrolytic dehalogenase (possibly periplasmic), and (iii) intracellular degradation of the residual carbon skeleton. Several observations suggest the existence of more than one dehalogenase in strain ES-2.

Shochat, E; Hermoni, I; Cohen, Z; Abeliovich, A; Belkin, S

1993-01-01

329

Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices  

SciTech Connect

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Girardin, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

330

Reanalysis of the Gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility Proteus - Spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PROTEUS is a zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute which has been employed during the 1970's to study experimentally the physics of the gas-cooled fast reactor. Reaction rate distributions, flux spectrum and reactivity effects have been measured in several configurations featuring PuO2/UO2 fuel, absorbers, large iron shields, and thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasihomogeneously in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. This papers focus on the spectral indices - including fission and capture in 232Th and 237Np - measured in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattices and their predictions with an MCNPX model specially developed for the PROTEUS-GCFR core. Predictions were obtained with JEFF-3.1 and -3.11, ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, and JENDL-3.3 and -4.0. A general good agreement was demonstrated. The ratio of 232Th fission to 239Pu fission, however, was under-predicted by 8.7±2.1% and 6.5±2.1% using ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, respectively. Finally, the capture rates in 237Np tended to be underpredicted by the JEFF and JENDL libraries, although the new cross section in JEFF-3.1.1 slightly improved the 237Np capture to 239Pu fission results (3.4±2.4%).

Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

2013-03-01

331

An ethnobotanical survey of Bauchi State herbal plants and their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

A survey of medicinal plants used locally in the treatment of various diseases was carried out in Bauchi State-Nigeria. A total of 84 medicinal plants were listed. Preliminary antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extracts of the plants was investigated. The results indicated that out of 84 plants, 75 exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more of the test organisms at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. The extracts were found to show potentially interesting activity against Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. PMID:15848012

Adamu, Harami M; Abayeh, O J; Agho, M O; Abdullahi, A L; Uba, A; Dukku, H U; Wufem, B M

2005-05-13

332

Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.  

PubMed

Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens. PMID:17337425

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2007-01-01

333

Characterization and recovery rates of food-indicator microorganisms from home-made oral rehydration solutions in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1.07%), Clostridium perfringes (14.75%), Enterobacter aerogenes (6.13%), Escherichia coli (7.44%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.0%), Morganella morganii (0.78%), Proteus mirabilis (6.74%), P. vulgaris (1.68%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.67%), Salmonella entrica serovar Typhi (3.89%), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (0.99%), Shigella dysentariae (11.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.98%) and Vibrio cholerae (2.57%). The isolated fungal species from the table salt and granulated sugar samples were Aspergillus flavus,

Adenike A. O. Ogunshe; Nonye I. Iheanacho; Olukayode M. Oduyoye

334

Control of Clinical Pathogens by the Haemolymph of Paratelphusa hydrodromous, a Freshwater Crab  

PubMed Central

In the present study, effort has been made to find the antimicrobial activity of haemolymph collected from freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The haemolymph collected was tested for antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method against clinical pathogens. Five bacterial species, namely, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and five fungal strains, namely and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., and Mucor sp., were selected for the study. The result shows a strong response of haemolymph against the clinical pathogens which confirms the immune mechanism of the freshwater crab.

Arul Prakash, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Gunasekaran, G.; Prakash, M.; Senthil Raja, P.

2011-01-01

335

Bacterial agents causing chronic suppurative otitis media.  

PubMed

Ear swabs from 350 patients with chronic otitis media attending different orthorhinolaryngological clinics at different hospitals and health centres in Benin City and Ekpoma in Edo State were screened for the presence of bacterial agents of chronic otitis media. Results revealed the presence of 19 different species indicating polymicrobial infections. Species isolated comprised Staphylococcus aureus (33.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.3%), Proteus mirabilis (17%), Alcaligenes faecalis (6.2%) and Klebsiella aerogenes (4.3%). Others included Escherichia coli (3.3%), Proteus rettgeri (2.8%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Proteus morgani, Haemophilus influenzae, Providencia spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus faecalis, non-haemolytic streptococci and Diphotheroids, each accounted for less than 2% of isolates. The study also showed a higher prevalence of chronic otitis media among males (55.7%) than females (44.3%). Cases of chronic otitis media were highest among the age groups (0-5 years) with a prevalence rate of 50% and least among the 6-10 year age group with a prevalence rate of 14.9%. Antibiogram of isolates revealed marked sensitivities (over 90% of the isolates) to ciproxin, tarivid, rocephin and fortum whereas over 70% were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Results have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis are leading bacterial agents of otitis media and highlights the high risk involved in the use of penicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, cloxacillin and septrin in the management of chronic otitis media in our locality. PMID:7498006

Obi, C L; Enweani, I B; Giwa, J O

1995-06-01

336

Sequence heterogeneity of the ferripyoverdine uptake (fpvA), but not the ferric uptake regulator (fur), genes among strains of the fluorescent pseudomonads Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aureofaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aureofaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida are of importance to medicine, agriculture and biocycling. These microbes acquire ferric ion via the use of the siderophores pyochelin and the family known as the pyoverdines or pseudobactins. The ferric uptake regulator (fur) gene is responsible, at least in part, for the regulation of siderophore synthesis and uptake in P. aeruginosa.

Taratip Thupvong; Andrea Wiideman; Debra Dunn; Kurt Oreschak; Beata Jankowicz; Jeffrey Doering; Domenic Castignetti

1999-01-01

337

ldentif ication of protease and rpoN-associated genes of uropathogenic Proteus rnirabilis by negative selection in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus rnirabilis, a motile Gram-negative bacterium, is a principal cause of urinary tract infections in patients with functional or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract or those with urinary catheters in place. Thus far, virulence factors including urease, flagella, haemolysin, various fimbriae, IgA protease and a deaminase have been characterized based on the phenotypic traits conferred by these proteins. In

Hui Zhao; Xin Li; David E. Johnson; Harry L. T. Mobleyl

1999-01-01

338

Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed of RhlR and the signal N-butyryl homoserine lactone. A third intercellular signal, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), also regulates numerous virulence factors. PQS synthesis requires the expression of multiple operons, one of which is pqsABCDE. Previous experiments showed that the transcription of this operon, and therefore PQS production, is negatively regulated by the rhl quorum-sensing system and positively regulated by the las quorum-sensing system and PqsR (also known as MvfR), a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. With the use of DNA mobility shift assays and beta-galactosidase reporter fusions, we have studied the regulation of pqsR and its relationship to pqsA, lasR, and rhlR. We show that PqsR binds the promoter of pqsA and that this binding increases dramatically in the presence of PQS, implying that PQS acts as a coinducer for PqsR. We have also mapped the transcriptional start site for pqsR and found that the transcription of pqsR is positively regulated by lasR and negatively regulated by rhlR. These results suggest that a regulatory chain occurs where pqsR is under the control of LasR and RhlR and where PqsR in turn controls pqsABCDE, which is required for the production of PQS. PMID:15968046

Wade, Dana S; Calfee, M Worth; Rocha, Edson R; Ling, Elizabeth A; Engstrom, Elana; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

2005-07-01

339

Growth of genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere.  

PubMed Central

The effect of the addition of a recombinant plasmid containing the pglA gene encoding an alpha-1,4-endopolygalacturonase from Pseudomonas solanacearum on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere was determined. Despite a high level of polygalacturonase production by genetically engineered P. putida and P. aeruginosa, the results suggest that polygalacturonase production had little effect on the growth of these strains in soil or rhizosphere.

Yeung, K H; Schell, M A; Hartel, P G

1989-01-01

340

Comparison of denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paracoccus denitrificans  

SciTech Connect

A comparision was made of denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Although all three organisms reduced nitrate to dinitrogen gas, they did so at different rates and accumulated different kinds and amounts of intermediates. Their rates of anaerobic growth on nitrate varied about 1.5-fold; concomitant gas production varied more than 8-fold. Cell yields from nitrate varied threefold. Rates of gas production by resting cells incubated with nitrate, nitrite, or nitrous oxide varied 2-, 6-, and 15-fold, respectively, among the three species. The composition of the gas produced also varied markedly: Pseudomonas stutzeri produced only dinitrogen; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Paracoccus denitrificans produced nitrous oxide as well; and under certain conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced even more nitrous oxide than dinitrogen. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Paracoccus dentrificans rapidly reduced nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide and were able to grow anaerobically when any of these nitrogen oxides were present in the medium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa reduced these oxides slowly and was unable to grow anaerobically at the expense of nitrous oxide. Futhermore, nitric and nitrous oxide reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exceptionally sensitive to inhibition by nitrite. Thus, although it has been well studied physiologically and genetically, Pseudomonas aeruginosa may not be the best species for studying the later steps of the denitrification pathway.

Carlson, C.A.; Ingraham, J.L.

1983-04-01

341

Investigation into the microbial flora of healing and non-healing decubitus ulcers.  

PubMed Central

Seventy-four pressure lesions in fifty-three geriatric patients were observed at weekly intervals to determine the bacterial flora and the healing index of each lesion, expressed as initial area of lesion (cm2) - final area of lesion (cm2) divided by time in days. The micro-organisms which caused infection included Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus. Many lesions contained a mixed flora. P mirabilis and Ps aeruginosa were associated with necrotic (p less than 0.005) and enlarging (p less than 5 x 10(-7)) lesions. Bacteroides spp were associated with necrotic lesions (p less than 0.05). The presence of S aureus in a lesion was not associated with any particular trend in healing index. The implications of the microbiological findings are discussed.

Daltrey, D C; Rhodes, B; Chattwood, J G

1981-01-01

342

Salmonella Suppression by Known Populations of Bacteria in Flies  

PubMed Central

Survivorship of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in dibiotic and tribiotic interactions in vitro and in various regions of the digestive tract of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina. In dibiotic interactions, Salmonella typhimurium dominated Streptococcus faecalis and was dominated by P. mirabilis, but in neither case was it eliminated from the larval gut. In tribiotic interactions, there was synergic suppression and a definite trend toward elimination of Salmonella typhimurium from the gut. This trend approaches but does not match the total exclusion of S. typhimurium from the gut of maggots with a normal flora. Bacterial survival in the gut of the fly is discussed in relation to doubling time, sweep-out rate of the maggot and prepupal gut, and the midgut bactericide. Images

Greenberg, Bernard

1969-01-01

343

In vitro synthesis of biogenic amines by Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates from meat and meat products and the influence of other microorganisms.  

PubMed

Twenty Brochothrix thermosphacta strains tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, formed histamine (6.6-16.2 mg/kg) and tyramine (18.7-35.4 mg/kg) but neither putrescine nor cadaverine. Six of the twenty strains were also investigated in respect of their influence on the synthesis of BAs by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus mirabilis and Lactobacillus sakei. In pure culture Escherichia coli produced all of the studied amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) with a total concentration of 167.7 mg/kg, P. mirabilis produced a total of 56.7 mg/kg histamine, tyramine and cadaverine, while Lactobacillus sakei and Pseudomonas sp. produced histamine and tyramine, totaling 37.9 and 35.2 mg/kg respectively. All B. thermosphacta promoted cadaverine production by Escherichia coli which increased by 12-68%, and some of them contributed to the appearance of this amine among the metabolites of Pseudomonas. The presence of B. thermosphacta decreased the potential ability of P. mirabilis to produce BAs. PMID:21382674

Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata

2011-02-23

344

Analysis of test-lattice experiments in the light-water high-conversion reactor PROTEUS. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the preliminary analysis of a series of tight-pitch lattice experiments. The first phase of an experimental program was recently completed at the PROTEUS zero-power reactor facility. The primary purpose of the program was to obtain experimental data on a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/-fueled test lattice with a fuel-to-moderator ratio of approximately 2.0. Reaction rate ratios were measured in the center of the test lattice. Measurements included the capture rates in U-238 and fission rates in U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241. Radial and axial reaction-rate traverses across the test lattice were also measured to determine material buckling. EPRI-CPM and its associated production library CPMLIB3 were used in the calculations of the lattice parameters (reaction rate ratios and k/sub infinity/), the results of which were subsequently compared to the measured parameters.

Hettergott, E.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.

1983-07-01

345

Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries  

SciTech Connect

The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k {infinity} void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations.

Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland))

1989-11-01

346

Use of an Amoeba proteus model for in vitro cytotoxicity testing in phytochemical research. Application to Euphorbia hirta extracts.  

PubMed

Amoeba proteus is proposed as a low-cost multi-purpose biochemical tool for screening and standardizing cytotoxic plant extracts with possible application in the laboratories of developing countries. Advantages and limitations of this test are examined and different mathematical treatments (probit analysis versus curve fitting to Von Bertalanffy and Hill functions) are investigated. Known anti-cancer (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil) and antiparasitic (emetine, dehydroemetine, metronidazole, cucurbitine, chloroquine) drugs were tested using this method and only metronidazole appeared inactive. Application of this model to Euphorbia hirta established that a 100 degrees C aqueous extraction of fresh aerial parts allows efficient extraction of active constituents and that drying the plant material before extraction considerably reduces activity. PMID:1686625

Duez, P; Livaditis, A; Guissou, P I; Sawadogo, M; Hanocq, M

1991-09-01

347

Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate ...  

Treesearch

... do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. ... product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of ... disease resistance, pest resistance, plant chemical defenses, Pseudomonas sax,  ...

348

Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.|

Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

2004-01-01

349

Cytokinin production by Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed Central

The production of cytokinins by plant-associated bacteria was examined by radioimmunoassay. Strains producing trans-zeatin were identified in the genera Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing nopaline tumor-inducing plasmids, A. tumefaciens Lippia isolates, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains produced trans-zeatin in culture at 0.5 to 44 micrograms/liter. Pseudomonas solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi produced trans-zeatin at levels of up to 1 mg/liter. In vitro cytokinin biosynthetic activity was measured for representative strains and was found to correlate with trans-zeatin production. The genetic locus for trans-zeatin secretion (tzs) was cloned from four strains: A. tumefaciens T37, A. rhizogenes A4, P. solanacearum K60, and P. syringae pv. savastanoi 1006. Southern blot analysis showed substantial homology of the Agrobacterium tzs genes to each other but not to the two Pseudomonas genes. Images

Akiyoshi, D E; Regier, D A; Gordon, M P

1987-01-01

350

'Pseudomonas aeruginosa' Exotoxin: Effect on Cell Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exotoxin, toxic to both mice and cultured cells, was isolated from cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Relatively small amounts of the exotoxin inhibited the uptake of uridine and amino acids by Vero cells. Within limits, this toxic action was reversib...

O. R. Pavlovskis F. B. Gordon

1972-01-01

351

Studies on microbial aerobic flora of skin in leprosy patients.  

PubMed

This study reports the isolation and identification of aerobic organisms from biopsies/slit-skin smears/scrapings from 129 leprosy patients and 50 healthy controls. These include 56 paucibacillary (PB) and 73 multibacillary (MB) cases. Thirty-six isolates from the specimens from 21 patients and 15 healthy controls were grown. The non-mycobacterial isolates from clinically PB leprosy (TT/BT/I) patients were: (1) Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus aureus(1), Staphylococcus albus(1); (b) Gram-positive bacilli: Bacillus subtilis(1), Corynebacterium xerosis(1); (c) Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli(1), Proteus mirabilis(2), Klebsiella pneumoniae(1) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(1). The isolates from clinically MB leprosy (BB/BL/LL) patients were: (a) Gram-positive cocci: Micrococci(1), Staphylococcus aureus(1) and Staphylococcus albus(1); (b) Gram-positive bacilli: Corynebacterium xerosis(1); Corynebacterium hofmanni(1) and Bacillus cereus(1). (c) Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli(2), Klebsiella pneumoniae(1) and Proteus mirabilis(2). The specimens from healthy controls yielded similar organisms. These were (a) Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus albus(2), Staphylococcus aureus(2) and Micrococci(2); (b) Gram-positive bacilli: Corynebacterium xerosis(1), Bacillus subtilis(2), Corynebacterium hofmanni(1) and Bacillus cereus(1); (c) Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli(3), Proteus vulgaris(1) and Proteus mirabilis(1). While these results show no significant differences in the species types of non-mycobacterial aerobic organisms isolated from healthy skin and PB/MB types of leprosy, these isolates need to be characterized by immunological/molecular methods to find out subtypes if any. PMID:8576610

Sharma, R K; Katoch, K; Sharma, V D; Shivannavar, C T; Natarajan, M; Katoch, V M

352

Within-Pin Reaction Rate Distributions: CASMO-4 and HELIOS Compared Against Tomographic Measurements at the PROTEUS Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS project - an extended validation program for advanced light water reactor core analysis tools conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute - the radial, internal variations of the total fission rate (F{sub tot}) and the capture rate in {sup 238}U (C{sub 8}) have been calculated for zero-burnup pins of a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ boiling water reactor fuel assembly using two codes, namely, CASMO-4 and HELIOS. While F{sub tot} distributions predicted by CASMO-4 and HELIOS are in good agreement, C{sub 8} distributions show significant inconsistencies (20 to 30%). The calculations are compared with experimental results obtained using single photon emission computerized tomography for several SVEA-96+ pins irradiated in the zero-power reactor PROTEUS. The comparisons confirm the predicted shape of the F{sub tot} distributions within UO{sub 2} pins and clearly indicate that HELIOS within-pin predictions for C{sub 8} are more reliable than CASMO-4 results. This is important for the derivation of gamma-ray self-absorption corrections when pin-integrated reaction rates are to be determined using the gamma-scanning technique. Thus, the use of CASMO-4-type within-pin distributions would lead to 3 to 4% discrepancies in the absolute, self-absorption-corrected pin-integrated values deduced for C{sub 8} and hence for C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}. For relative C{sub 8} distributions, the discrepancy would be much smaller, namely, up to {approx}1% if pins containing a burnable absorber are involved.

Fauchere, C. Pralong; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

2005-05-15

353

Strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens from clinical material.  

PubMed Central

Eight strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens have been received from among 466 strains of Pseudomonas submitted to the Computer Trials Laboratory for identification over the last eight years. Two of the strains of P. putrefaciens from patients with otitis media and otitis externa respectively appear to have played a pathogenic role. The biochemical characteristics of these eight strains were compared with those of seven culture collection strains.

Holmes, B; Lapage, S P; Malnick, H

1975-01-01

354

Kinetics of BTEX biodegradation by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens under hypoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens present as a coculture were studied for their abilities to degrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively known as BTEX) under various growth conditions. The coculture effectively degraded various concentrations of BTEX as sole carbon sources. However, all BTEX compounds showed substrate inhibition to the bacteria, in terms of specific growth, degradation rate, and cell

Hojae Shim; Byungho Hwang; Sang-Seob Lee; Sung-Ho Kong

2005-01-01

355

KINETICS OF BTEX BIODEGRADATION BY A COCULTURE OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA AND PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens present as a coculture were studied for their abilities to degrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively known as BTEX) under various growth conditions. The coculture effectively degraded various concentrations of BTEX as sole carbon sources. However, all BTEX compounds showed substrate inhibition to the bacteria. Cell growth was completely inhibited at ~500 mg L-1

Hojae Shim; Shang-Tian Yang

356

Controlled study of Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas maltophilia in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study, children with cystic fibrosis who were colonised with Pseudomonas cepacia were compared with a control group who were colonised with Pseudomonas maltophilia. Out of 216 children with cystic fibrosis seen between 1983 and 1990, P cepacia was recovered from 13 (median age at colonisation 12.2 years) and P maltophilia from 23 (median age at first colonisation

G Gladman; P J Connor; R F Williams; T J David

1992-01-01

357

Pseudomonas Genome Database: improved comparative analysis and population genomics capability for Pseudomonas genomes.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas is a metabolically-diverse genus of bacteria known for its flexibility and leading free living to pathogenic lifestyles in a wide range of hosts. The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) integrates completely-sequenced Pseudomonas genome sequences and their annotations with genome-scale, high-precision computational predictions and manually curated annotation updates. The latest release implements an ability to view sequence polymorphisms in P. aeruginosa PAO1 versus other reference strains, incomplete genomes and single gene sequences. This aids analysis of phenotypic variation between closely related isolates and strains, as well as wider population genomics and evolutionary studies. The wide range of tools for comparing Pseudomonas annotations and sequences now includes a strain-specific access point for viewing high precision computational predictions including updated, more accurate, protein subcellular localization and genomic island predictions. Views link to genome-scale experimental data as well as comparative genomics analyses that incorporate robust genera-geared methods for predicting and clustering orthologs. These analyses can be exploited for identifying putative essential and core Pseudomonas genes or identifying large-scale evolutionary events. The Pseudomonas Genome Database aims to provide a continually updated, high quality source of genome annotations, specifically tailored for Pseudomonas researchers, but using an approach that may be implemented for other genera-level research communities. PMID:20929876

Winsor, Geoffrey L; Lam, David K W; Fleming, Leanne; Lo, Raymond; Whiteside, Matthew D; Yu, Nancy Y; Hancock, Robert E W; Brinkman, Fiona S L

2010-10-06

358

Pseudomonas Genome Database: improved comparative analysis and population genomics capability for Pseudomonas genomes  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas is a metabolically-diverse genus of bacteria known for its flexibility and leading free living to pathogenic lifestyles in a wide range of hosts. The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) integrates completely-sequenced Pseudomonas genome sequences and their annotations with genome-scale, high-precision computational predictions and manually curated annotation updates. The latest release implements an ability to view sequence polymorphisms in P. aeruginosa PAO1 versus other reference strains, incomplete genomes and single gene sequences. This aids analysis of phenotypic variation between closely related isolates and strains, as well as wider population genomics and evolutionary studies. The wide range of tools for comparing Pseudomonas annotations and sequences now includes a strain-specific access point for viewing high precision computational predictions including updated, more accurate, protein subcellular localization and genomic island predictions. Views link to genome-scale experimental data as well as comparative genomics analyses that incorporate robust genera-geared methods for predicting and clustering orthologs. These analyses can be exploited for identifying putative essential and core Pseudomonas genes or identifying large-scale evolutionary events. The Pseudomonas Genome Database aims to provide a continually updated, high quality source of genome annotations, specifically tailored for Pseudomonas researchers, but using an approach that may be implemented for other genera-level research communities.

Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Lam, David K. W.; Fleming, Leanne; Lo, Raymond; Whiteside, Matthew D.; Yu, Nancy Y.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

2011-01-01

359

Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

Lynn, A.R.

1984-01-01

360

21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to the genus Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, and has been associated with urinary tract infections, eye infections, burn and wound infections, blood poisoning, abscesses, and...

2013-04-01

361

Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing as a potential antimicrobial target  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two complete quorum-sensing systems. Both of these systems have been shown to be important for Pseudomonas virulence in multiple models of infection. Thus, these systems provide unique targets for novel antimicrobial drugs.

Smith, Roger S.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

2003-01-01

362

Gene cloning and characterization of a novel highly organic solvent tolerant lipase from Proteus sp. SW1 and its application for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Proteus sp. SW1 was found to produce an extracellular solvent tolerant lipase. The gene, lipA, encoding a bacterial lipase, was cloned from total Proteus sp. SW1 DNA. lipA was predicted to encode a 287 amino acid protein of 31.2 kDa belonging to the Group I proteobacterial lipases. Purified His-tagged LipA exhibited optimal activity at pH 10.0 and 55°C. It was highly stable in organic solvents retaining 112% of its activity in 100% isopropanol after 24 h, and exhibited more than 200% of its initial activity upon exposure to 60% acetone, ethanol, and hexane for 18 h. Biodiesel synthesis reactions, using a single step addition of 13% an acyl acceptor ethanol, showed that LipA was highly effective at converting palm oil into biodiesel. PMID:22371263

Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Sungkeeree, Pareenart; Thiengmag, Sirinthra; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Loprasert, Suvit

2013-01-01

363

Volatile Compounds Produced in Sterile Fish Muscle ('Sebastes melanops') by 'Pseudomonas putrefaciens', 'Pseudomonas fluorescens', and an 'Archromobacter' Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and an Achromobacter species in sterile fish muscle (Sebastes melanops) were identified by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Compounds produced by P....

A. Miller R. A. Scanlan J. S. Lee L. M. Libbey

1973-01-01

364

Azithromycin Blocks Neutrophil Recruitment in Pseudomonas Endobronchial Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolides exert their effects on the host by modulation of immune responses. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin in a murine model of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa endobronchial infection. The clearance of Pseudomonas from the airway of mice treated with the macrolide azithromycin was not different than untreated mice challenged with Pseudomonas beads. However, the azithromycin-treated mice

Wan C. Tsai; Michael L. Rodriguez; Katherine S. Young; Jane C. Deng; Victor J. Thannickal; Kazuhiro Tateda; Marc B. Hershenson; Theodore J. Standiford

2004-01-01

365

Pseudomonas: Biotransformations, pathogenesis, and evolving biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

This monograph originated with the papers presented at the second of a series of international symposia on the molecular biology of Pseudomonas. The first of these meetings was held in 1986 in Geneva, Switzerland, and the second in Chicago, Illinois, in July 1989. The science of Pseudomonas has reached a maturity that speaks for itself through the papers in this book. Molecular biology is having an impact on understanding of metabolic biotransformations in Pseudomonas, its mechanisms of pathogenicity (in both humans and plants), and its use in the exciting world of biotechnology. Information is included for the following topics: pathogenesis; plant-bacterial interactions; biotransformations; plasmids, vectors, gene mapping, and cloning; cell envelope and transport; and honorary pseudomonads. This volume contains 38 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

Silver, S.; Chakrabarty, A.M. (Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology); Iglewski, B. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology); Kaplan, S. (eds.) (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

1990-01-01

366

Metabolism of dodecyldimethylamine by Pseudomonas MA3.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas MA3 was isolated from activated sludge on the basis of its capacity to use dodecyldimethylamine as a sole carbon (C) and energy source. Dodecylamine, dodecanal, dodecanoic acid and acetic acid also supported growth of Pseudomonas MA3. Dodecyldimethylamine-grown cells oxidized a wide range of alkylamine derivatives, dodecanal, dodecanoic acid and acetic acid. Degradation of the alkyl chain of dodecyldimethylamine by Pseudomonas MA3 appeared from the stoichiometric liberation of dimethylamine. A dehydrogenase catalysed the cleavage of the Calkyl-N bond. The first intermediate of the proposed degradation pathway, dodecanal, accumulated in the presence of decanal used as a competitive inhibitor. The second intermediate, dodecanoic acid, was formed in the presence of acrylic acid during the degradation of dodecyldimethylamine. Dodecanal was converted into dodecanoic acid by a dehydrogenase and dodecanoic acid was then degraded via the beta oxidation pathway. PMID:7765813

Kroon, A G; Pomper, M A; van Ginkel, C G

1994-10-01

367

Copper ion-stimulated McoA-laccase production and enzyme characterization in Proteus hauseri ZMd44.  

PubMed

The novel bioelectricity-generating bacterium of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 has been first identified to produce McoA-laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) induced by copper sulphate. The optimal concentration of copper is 3 mM as supplementation at the beginning of culture or early exponential growth phase, during which laccase is predominantly synthesized. Moreover, the whole cellular and intracellular activities of laccase increase in the degrees of inducible copper concentrations. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is that copper ions enhance the laccase genetic transcription level during the laccase synthesis thus granting this strain in copper tolerance. McoA-laccase belongs to typical type 1 (T1) Cu site laccase by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of intracellular enzyme. From our results, the optimal temperature and pH are 60°C and pH 2.2, respectively. The kinetic profiles show that this enzyme is stable under 50°C and in the slightly acidic environment, making it a potentially useful enzyme in dye decolorization, paper-pulp bleaching and bioremediation industries. PMID:23153927

Zheng, Xuesong; Ng, I-Son; Ye, Chiming; Chen, Bor-Yann; Lu, Yinghua

2012-11-13

368

Orbital resonances in the inner neptunian system. I. The 2:1 Proteus Larissa mean-motion resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the orbital resonant history of Proteus and Larissa, the two largest inner neptunian satellites discovered by Voyager 2. Due to tidal migration, these two satellites probably passed through their 2:1 mean-motion resonance a few hundred million years ago. We explore this resonance passage as a method to excite orbital eccentricities and inclinations, and find interesting constraints on the satellites' mean density ( 0.05 g/cm10). Through numerical study of this mean-motion resonance passage, we identify a new type of three-body resonance between the satellite pair and Triton. These new resonances occur near the traditional two-body resonances between the small satellites and, surprisingly, are much stronger than their two-body counterparts due to Triton's large mass and orbital inclination. We determine the relevant resonant arguments and derive a mathematical framework for analyzing resonances in this special system.

Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.

2007-06-01

369

Investigation of the void coefficient and other integral parameters in the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II program  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of calculated and measured neutron balance components are reported for the 7.5% fissile plutonium reference test lattice of the PROTEUS-light water high conversion reactor (LWHCR) phase II program, both wet (with H/sub 2/O) and dry (100% void). Special experimental techniques have been developed and applied, particularly for kappa/sub infinity/, and the range of directly measured reaction rate ratios has been extended. For the two cell codes tested, WIMS-D/1981 library and KARBUS/KEDAK-4, specific shortcomings have been identified; the new measurements have been found to be significantly more representative and accurate than the earlier phase I experiments. The kappa/sub infinity/ void coefficient for the phase II reference lattice between 0 and 100% void has been found to be qualitatively different from those assessed for the earlier phase I test lattices. Consideration of the individual void coefficient components show this to be largely a consequence of the more LWHCR-representative fuel rod diameter and plutonium isotopic composition of the fuel currently being used. Results of control rod studies conducted for the phase II reference lattice - both wet and dry - serve to illustrate the efforts being made toward investigations of special power reactor features.

Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.; Hager, H.; Berger, H.D.; Bohme, R.

1988-02-01

370

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-10-01

371

Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-10-01

372

Program PROTEUS for adding hydrogens to a protein structure and electrostatic field across carotenoids in light harvesting complexes and reaction centers from bacterial sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogen construction method presented in the program PROTEUS treats hydrogens depending on their torsional degrees of freedom. The positions of hydrogens with restricted torsional degrees of freedom are completely determined by the heavy atoms positions in the structure. The hydroxyl and water hydrogens are the only hydrogens that PROTEUS accepts as movable hydrogens (having rotational degrees of freedom). Their positions are determined by the interactions with neighboring atoms. PROTEUS interaction energy corresponds to a view that the hydrogen bond is affected, besides electrostatic effects and steric constraints of neighboring groups, by an inherent energy barrier that opposes free rotation of the hydroxyl hydrogen. For the water hydrogens that barrier is zero. The hydroxyl and water hydrogens are minimized within a short distance using the Threshold Accepting (TA) energy minimization method. PROTEUS can provide reasonable positions of movable hydrogens and a good initial protein structure for further investigations. We applied the program PROTEUS to place hydrogens in several resolved three-dimensional crystal structures of light harvesting complexes (LHCs) and reaction centers (RCs) from bacterial sources. Using program DelPhi we calculated the local electrostatic field across carotenoid generated by the protein's charges. In each structure we identified amino acids responsible for the field. Much of the field is generated by the charged residues. There are different ways that a RC or LHC uses charged residues. A nearby dipole consisting of the charged residues which are ionized in the physiological pH range (like Arg-Asp), is often used. Clusters of charged residues or scattered isolated charged residues around the carotenoid molecule also contribute. The polarizable field is not necessarily along the carotenoid molecule principal axis. For soluble LHCs the contribution of polar residues to the field cannot be neglected. Our calculations indicate an important relation between the field and the protein's overall structure: the minimum value of the field arises from the backbone dipoles. In contrast to the charged residues, hydroxyl and water dipoles are responsible for a fine tuning of the field in a response to the protein's environment.

Lipovaca, Samir

373

Production of exopolysaccharide by Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31461 ( Pseudomonas elodea ?) using whey as fermentation substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved strain of Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31461 (Pseudomonas elodea), capable of producing broth viscosities of 11?000 and 4700 mPa s (cP) when grown in enriched whey permeate and enriched\\u000a sweet whey broths respectively, was isolated. The isolation was by serial transfers of the parent on lactose-rich and sweet\\u000a whey broths. Maximum viscosities and biopolymer production were observed in 25%

A. M. Dlamini; P. S. Peiris

1997-01-01

374

Infectious Pseudomonas scleritis after strabismus surgery.  

PubMed

Scleral inflammation and necrosis are rare but serious complications of ocular surgery. We present a case of Pseudomonas infectious scleritis following strabismus surgery with an exuberant, presumably sterile endophthalmitis in an immunocompromised 62-year-old man that was responsive to topical and oral antibiotics. PMID:23871294

Chao, Daniel L; Albini, Thomas A; McKeown, Craig A; Cavuoto, Kara M

2013-07-17

375

STAPHYLOLYTIC SUBSTANCE FROM A SPECIES OF PSEUDOMONAS.  

PubMed

A substance that rapidly lyses living cells of Staphylococcus aureus, S. roseus, Gaffkya tetragena, and Sarcina lutea has been partially purified. The substance is produced extracellularly by a species of Pseudomonas which was isolated from soil by an enrichment procedure. PMID:14263759

ZYSKIND, J W; PATTEE, P A; LACHE, M

1965-03-19

376

Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas luteola  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas luteola has been recognized as an uncommon cause of bacteremia and of infections in patients with underlying medical disorders Case presentation We isolated P. luteola from blood cutures in a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis developed 16 months after cardiac surgery. Conclusion P. luteola is a rare opportunistic agent, with a propensity of infecting valvular prostheses.

Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Habib, Gilbert; Riberi, Alberto; Raoult, Didier

2005-01-01

377

Pseudomonas pickettii as a cause of pseudobacteremia.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of pseudobacteremia caused by Pseudomonas pickettii biovariant 1 is reported. The common source was the aqueous chlorhexidine solution prepared by the hospital pharmacy. The contamination problem caused by the antiseptic solution was eventually solved by a series of preventive measures.

Verschraegen, G; Claeys, G; Meeus, G; Delanghe, M

1985-01-01

378

Autolysis of the Proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding the proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was cloned and sequenced in an effort to identify the cleavage sites involved in its autolysis at 50°C. A single open reading frame consisting of 1449 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 482 amino acids, was found. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified proteinase indicated the presence of a

H. Kumura; S. Murata; T. Hoshino; K. Mikawa; K. Shimazaki

1999-01-01

379

New Pseudomonas esterases by genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two new esterases, EP6 and EP10, from Pseudomonas marginata were studied with respect to their substrate specificities and selectivities. Esters of aliphatic and cyclic secondary alcohols were shown to be substrates for EP10, which could be accepted stereoselectively in hydrolysis and transesterification reactions. EP6 showed no selectivity in hydrolysis of the studied substrates.

A. Schlacher; T. Stanzer; B. Soelkner; E. Klingsbichel; E. Petersen; M. Schmidt; N. Kiempier; H. Schwab

1997-01-01

380

Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS5028  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution

Ana M. Marqués; Xavier Roca; M. Dolores Simon-Pujol; M. Carmen Fuste; Francisco Congregado

1991-01-01

381

Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates  

SciTech Connect

The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1990-05-01

382

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

2002-01-01

383

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteome during Anaerobic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotope-coded affinity tag analysis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spec- trometry were used to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins expressed during anaerobic growth. Out of the 617 proteins identified, 158 were changed in abundance during anaerobic growth compared to during aerobic growth, including proteins whose increased expression was expected based on their role in anaerobic metab- olism. These

Manhong Wu; Tina Guina; Mitchell Brittnacher; Hai Nguyen; Jimmy Eng; Samuel I. Miller

2005-01-01

384

ECF Sigma Factor regulation in Pseudomonas syringae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomanads are renowned for their capacity to adapt to diverse environments, a fact that is reflected by the proportion of their genomes dedicated to encoding transcription regulators. Members of the Pseudomonas genus include species that are adapted to pathogenic and symbiotic lifestyles in asso...

385

Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation

Julien Tremblay; Eric Déziel

2010-01-01

386

Naphthalene association and uptake in Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for bacterial membrane transport, filtration and flow dialysis, were used to study cellular association of Pseudomonas putida with naphthalene. It is not technically possible to determine the exact cellular or vesicular location of the naphthalene, and because it is hydrophobic, it could be at the membrane(s) rather than inside the cells. As an index of naphthalene having crossed

J. N. Bateman; B. Speer; L. Feduik; R. A. Hartline

1986-01-01

387

Pseudomonas septicaemia following tribal tatoo marks.  

PubMed

It is tradition in Northern Nigeria to make tribal tatoo marks on the face of a newborn, commonly on both sides of the angle of the mouth. A case of fatal septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following such tribal tatoo marks is reported. PMID:6506210

Mathur, D R; Sahoo, A

1984-09-01

388

Demonstration of R Factors from 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixty strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected from our clinical stock cultures and used as donors of drug resistance to examine the presence of R factors. They were highly resistant to one or more of six drugs including tetracycline (TC), chloramp...

S. Iyobe K. Hasuda A. Fuse S. Mitsuhashi

1974-01-01

389

The Spectrum of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of infecting a remarkable number of body sites and is therefore part of the differential diagnosis for many types\\u000a of infections. In this chapter we will review the manifestations of P. aeruginosa infections both in the thorax and at other anatomic locations.

Jorge Roig; Miquel Sabria

390

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induces Localized Immunosuppression during Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia is a common and serious complication of modern medical care. Many aspects of such infections remain unclear, including the mechanisms by which invading pathogens resist clearance by the innate immune response and the tendency of the infections to be polymicrobial. Here, we used a mouse model of infection to show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of

Maureen H. Diaz; Ciara M. Shaver; John D. King; Srinidhi Musunuri; Jeffrey A. Kazzaz; Alan R. Hauser

2008-01-01

391

Innate immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection  

PubMed Central

Innate immune responses play a critical role in controlling acute infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both mice and in humans. In this review we focus on innate immune recognition and clearance mechanisms that are important for controlling P. aeruginosa in the mammalian lung, with particular attention to those that influence the outcome of in vivo infection in murine models.

Lavoie, Elise G.; Wangdi, Tamding; Kazmierczak, Barbara I.

2011-01-01

392

Pulmonary Pseudomonas Colonization in Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Respiratory tract mucus plugging and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) colonization in cystic fibrosis patients can influence the health indices, morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate the relation between pulmonary infection with PA and its effects on respiratory function test and some health-related parameters. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. Thirty CF patients, who were admitted

Ahmad Khodadad; Mehri Najafi; Fatemeh Daneshjoo; Mohammad Taghi Ashtiani; Makan Sadr; Alireza Almasi

393

Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates.  

PubMed

The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by beta-ketoadipate, an intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds. PMID:2339899

Harwood, C S; Parales, R E; Dispensa, M

1990-05-01

394

Trypsin inhibitors from the garden four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seeds: isolation, characterization and chemical synthesis.  

PubMed

Five serine proteinase inhibitors (Mirabilis jalapa trypsin inhibitors, MJTI I and II and Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitors, SOTI I, II, and III) from the garden four-o'clock (M. jalapa) and spinach (S. oleracea) seeds were isolated. The purification procedures included affinity chromatography on immobilized methylchymotrypsin in the presence of 5M NaCl, ion exchange chromatography and/or preparative electrophoresis, and finally RP-HPLC on a C-18 column. The inhibitors, crosslinked by three disulfide bridges, are built of 35 to 37 amino-acid residues. Their primary structures differ from those of known trypsin inhibitors, but showed significant similarity to the antimicrobial peptides isolated from the seeds of M. jalapa (MJ-AMP1, MJ-AMP2), Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (AMP1), and Phytolacca americana (AMP-2 and PAFP-S) and from the hemolymph of Acrocinus longimanus (Alo-1, 2 and 3). The association equilibrium constants (K(a)) with bovine beta-trypsin for the inhibitors from M. jalapa (MJTI I and II) and S. oleracea (SOTI I-III) were found to be about 10(7)M(-1). Fully active MJTI I and SOTI I were obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The disulfide bridge pattern in both inhibitors (Cys1-Cys4, Cys2-Cys5 and Cys3-Cys6) was established after their digestion with thermolysin and proteinase K followed by the MALDI-TOF analysis. PMID:17481678

Kowalska, Jolanta; Pszczo?a, Katarzyna; Wilimowska-Pelc, Anna; Lorenc-Kubis, Irena; Zuziak, Ewa; ?ugowski, Mateusz; ?egowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Sleszy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Lesner, Adam; Walewska, Aleksandra; Zab?otna, Ewa; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wilusz, Tadeusz

2007-05-03

395

LWR-PROTEUS Verification of Reaction Rate Distributions in Modern 10 x 10 Boiling Water Reactor Fuel  

SciTech Connect

HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B calculations of reaction rate distributions in a modern, fresh 10 x 10 boiling water reactor fuel element have been validated using the experimental results of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project corresponding to full-density water moderation conditions (core 1B). The reaction rate distributions measured with a special gamma-scanning machine employing twin germanium detectors consisted of total fission F{sub tot} and {sup 238}U-capture C{sub 8}. The average statistical errors for the gamma scans were better than 0.5% for F{sub tot} and 0.9% for C{sub 8}. The rod-by-rod measurements were performed on 60 different fuel rods selected from the central part of a test zone consisting of actual, fresh SVEA-96+ fuel elements, thus gaining in realism by departing from conventional fuel rod mockups. In the case of F{sub tot}, the root-mean-square (rms) of the rod-by-rod distribution of differences between calculational and experimental (C-E) values has been found to be 1.1% for HELIOS and for CASMO-4, and 1.3% for MCNP4B. For C{sub 8}, the rms values of the (C-E) distributions are 1.0, 1.3, and 1.4% as obtained with HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B, respectively. The effects of using different data libraries (ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, and JEF-2.2) with MCNP4B were also studied and have been found to be small.

Jatuff, F. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Grimm, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Joneja, O. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Murphy, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Luethi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Seiler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Brogli, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft Laufenburg AG (Switzerland); Williams, T. [Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft Laufenburg AG (Switzerland); Helmersson, S. [Westinghouse Atom AB (Sweden); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

2001-11-15

396

HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio  

SciTech Connect

In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

2012-03-01

397

Cervical canal stenosis caused by progressive fusion and enlargement of cervical vertebrae with features of Proteus syndrome and Klippel-Feil syndrome.  

PubMed

We report the case of a female who presented with progressive fusion and an enlargement of the cervical vertebrae. Her cervical deformity gradually progressed with age, and the abnormal bony protrusion into the spinal canal caused myelopathy. We resected the affected vertebrae to decompress the spinal cord and performed combined anterior-posterior spinal fusion. The progression of the spinal deformity and enlargement of vertebrae stopped after surgery. The enlargement of vertebrae in the present case resembled that observed in Proteus syndrome; however, autonomous vertebral fusion has not been reported previously in patients with this condition. Our report may help expand the knowledge on developmental spine disorders. PMID:23760594

Sugita, Shurei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Taniguchi, Yuki; Takeshita, Katsushi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Sakae

2013-06-13

398

Multifunctional membrane vesicles in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacteria secrete small particles called membrane vesicles (MVs) into the extracellular milieu. While MVs have important roles in delivering toxins from pathogenic bacteria to eukaryotic cells, these vesicles also play ecological roles necessary for survival in various environmental conditions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which lives in soil, ocean, plant, animal and human environments, has become a model organism for studying these small extracellular particles. Such studies have increased our understanding of the function and biogenesis of bacterial MVs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MVs possess versatile components and chemical substances with unique structures. These characteristics allow MVs to play their multifunctional biological roles, including microbial interaction, maintenance of biofilm structure and host infection. This review summarizes the comprehensive biochemical and physiochemical properties of MVs derived from P.?aeruginosa. These studies will help us understand their biological roles of MVs not only in pathogenicity but also in microbial ecology. Also, the mechanisms of MV production, as currently understood, are discussed. PMID:22103313

Tashiro, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

2011-11-21

399

Pseudomonas infection, allergy, and cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

The clinical significance of the high prevalence of positive immediate skin tests in cystic fibrosis is unclear. Using analysis of variance, we have tested the hypothesis that patients with allergic cystic fibrosis have worse lung disease than non-allergic patients. Clinical data, skin prick tests, total or specific IgE antibody levels, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained in 104 cystic fibrosis patients. Patients with positive immediate skin reactions to at least one allergen were more likely to be persistently colonised by Pseudomonas aeruginosa than skin test negative patients. The skin test positive patients were also significantly older (mean difference 2.15 years). Analysis of variance showed that pseudomonas infection was the most significant factor contributing to lung damage and the effect of allergy was not significant. Similar longitudinal analysis of pulmonary function over 5 years and study of the hospital admission rate showed that the only statistically significant factor associated with deterioration was colonisation with P. aeruginosa.

Pitcher-Wilmott, R W; Levinsky, R J; Gordon, I; Turner, M W; Matthew, D J

1982-01-01

400

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2009-07-01

401

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2010-07-01

402

40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

2010-07-01

403

Cell-Surface Signalling in Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Next to the two-component and quorum sensing systems, cell-surface signalling (CSS) has been recently identified as an important\\u000a regulatory system in Pseudomonas. CSS senses signals from outside the cell and transmits them into the cytoplasm. This regulatory\\u000a system generally consists of three components, an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor in the cytoplasm, a sigma factor\\u000a regulator (or anti-sigma factor) located

María A. Llamas; Wilbert Bitter

404

Silver accumulation and resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver (Ag) resistance and accumulation were investigated in Ag-resistant Pseudomonas stutzeri strain AG259 and Ag-sensitive P. stutzeri strain JM303. Both strains exhibited a similar pattern of silver accumulation although to different final concentrations. Energy-dispersive X-ray analyses revealed the association of dense silver deposits with the Ag-resistant strain, but not the Ag-sensitive strain. Toluene permeabilization or incubation of cells at 2°C

Robin M. Slawson; Jack T. Trevors; Hung Lee

1992-01-01

405

Prodigiosin metabolites of a marine Pseudomonas species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major pigment of a marine micro-organism was identified as prodigiosin on the basis of analytical and spectral data. Two minor pigments were tentatively assigned structures, from thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectral data, as prodigiosin homologs with 3-n-hexyl and 3-n-heptyl side-chains. The micro-organism was classified as a new Pseudomonas species on the basis of its morphological and biochemical characteristics.

N. M. Gandhi; J. R. Patell; J. Gandhi; N. J. De Souza; H. Kohl

1976-01-01

406

Experimental Eye Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were titered (1.0× 104–1.0× 108 cells) to determine the minimum number required to initiate corneal infection in Swiss-Webster and BALB\\/c mice. No infection was produced in either strain of mouse by direct application of the organisms to unwounded corneas. However, wounding the cornea in either strain followed by application of the bacteria (1 × 107–1 ×

L. D. Hazlett; D. Rosen; R. S. Berk

1976-01-01

407

Genetic transformation of Pseudomonas oleovorans by electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electroporation procedure for the transformation of Pseudomonas oleovorans was developed using a model plasmid, pCN51. The optimal electrotransformation was achieved with cells harvested at 45 to 60 min of growth and concentrated to a cell density of 5 OD600nm, plasmid concentration of 6 µg per 100 µl of cell suspension, and a 0.1-cm gap-width cuvette. Electroporation was performed at

Daniel K. Y. Solaiman

1998-01-01

408

Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.  

PubMed

During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

2012-09-21

409

Azithromycin Inhibits Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that 2 mg of azithromycin\\/ml inhibits the quorum-sensing circuitry of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Addition of synthetic autoinducers partially restored the expression of the trancriptional acti- vator-encoding genes lasR and rhlR but not that of the autoinducer synthase-encoding gene lasI. We propose that azithromycin interferes with the synthesis of autoinducers, by an unknown mechanism, leading to a reduction

KAZUHIRO TATEDA; RACHEL COMTE; JEAN-CLAUDE PECHERE; THILO KOHLER; KEIZO YAMAGUCHI; CHRISTIAN VAN DELDEN

2001-01-01

410

Tryptophan Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been implicated in the pathology of chronic wounds. Both the d and l isoforms of tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on tissue culture plates, with an equimolar ratio of d and l isoforms producing the greatest inhibitory effect. Addition of d-/l-tryptophan to existing biofilms inhibited further biofilm growth and caused partial biofilm disassembly. Tryptophan significantly increased swimming motility, which may be responsible in part for diminished biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa.

Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Rodriguez, Karien J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.

2013-01-01

411

Properties of ?-Lactamase from Pseudomonas syringae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Pseudomonas syringae isolate BR2R produces tabtoxin, a ?-lactam-containing antibiotic, and the causative agent of wildfire disease of green bean\\u000a (Phaseolus vulgaris). ?-Lactamase production has been suggested as the mechanism that protects P. syringae from tabtoxin. We sought to determine whether the organism produces ?-lactamase and whether the enzyme plays a role in protection\\u000a from this antibiotic. P. syringae and

Rebecca H. Coleman; Jim Shaffer; Heather True

1996-01-01

412

Bacterial infections of the cornea (Pseudomonas aeruginosa).  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common organism associated with bacterial keratitis, especially in extended wear contact lens users. Recent advances in the field have been made using animal models, including inbred murine models that are classed as resistant (cornea heals) versus susceptible (cornea perforates). Overall, studies with these inbred mice provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of innate immune responsiveness and abrogation of immune privilege operative after P. aeruginosa corneal infection. PMID:17264494

Hazlett, Linda D

2007-01-01

413

Degradative capability of Pseudomonas putida on acetonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida, capable of utilizing acetonitrile as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, was isolated from contaminated soil and water\\u000a samples collected from industrial sites. TheP. putida cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The degradation of acetonitrile by the immobilized cells ofP. putida was investigated. The immobilized cells degraded different concentrations of acetonitrile into ammonia and carbon dioxide.

Kirit D. Chapatwala; G. R. V. Babu; Charles Dudley; Rita Williams; Kazeem Aremu

1993-01-01

414

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Initial Antibiotic Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The guidelines of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) for the initial management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia\\u000a (CAP) include the recommendation to cover Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the initial empiric antimicrobial regimen of patients with CAP and suspected structural lung disease (e.g. bronchiectasis)\\u000a and in those with severe CAP (1). This view might be challenged by concerns whether the incidence of

Santiago Ewig; Antoni Torres

415

Vfr Controls Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa controls several genes in a cell density-dependent manner through a phenomenon termed quorum sensing. The transcriptional activator protein of the las quorum-sensing system is encoded for by the lasR gene, which is at the top of a quorum-sensing hierarchy. The activation of LasR as a transcriptional activator induces the expression of multiple genes that code for factors important

ANNE M. ALBUS; EVERETT C. PESCI; LAURA J. RUNYEN-JANECKY; SUSAN E. H. WEST; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI

1997-01-01

416

Glycine Betaine Transmethylase Mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The gene for glycine betaine transmethylase (gbt) was identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Fildes III by biochemical, physiological, and molecular approaches. Based on sequence analysis, the knockout gene corresponded to an open reading frame (ORF) named PA3082 in the genome of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The translated product of this ORF displayed similarity to transferases of different microorganisms. Mutation in gbt blocked the utilization of choline and glycine betaine as carbon and nitrogen sources.

Serra, Ana L.; Mariscotti, Javier F.; Barra, Jose L.; Lucchesi, Gloria I.; Domenech, Carlos E.; Lisa, Angela T.

2002-01-01

417

Ice nucleation induced by pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed

Broth cultures of suspensions of Pseudomonas syringae isolated from decaying alder leaves (Alnus tenuifolia) were found to freeze at very warm (-1.8 to -3.8 C) temperatures. The initiation of freezing appears associated with the intact cell and not with extracellular material. Chemical treatments and physical destruction of the cell destroy activity. Bacteria must be in concentrations of approximately 10(6)/ml before freezing at warm temperatures occurs. PMID:4371331

Maki, L R; Galyan, E L; Chang-Chien, M M; Caldwell, D R

1974-09-01

418

Inhibition of proteases in Pseudomonas otitis media in chinchillas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains a challenging problem. The virulence of Pseudomonas is related to its secretion of two matrix metalloproteinases, alkaline protease and elastase. This experiment examines the effects of a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases GM 6001, or N-[2(R)-2-(hydroxyamido carbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl]-L-tryptophane methylamide), in a chinchilla Pseudomonas otitis media model. Thirty chinchillas underwent

CHERYL S. COTTER; MICHAEL A. AVIDANO; SCOTT P. STRINGER; GREGORY S. SCHULTZ

1996-01-01

419

The nationwide study of bacterial pathogens associated with urinary tract infections conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.  

PubMed

This study was conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and is the first nationwide study on bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with urinary tract infections at 28 hospitals throughout Japan between January 2008 and June 2008. A total of 688 bacterial strains were isolated from adult patients with urinary tract infections. The strains investigated in this study are as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (n = 140), Escherichia coli (n = 255), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 93), Proteus mirabilis (n = 42), Serratia marcescens (n = 44), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 114). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 39 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) manual. All Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Although a majority of the E. faecalis strains were susceptible to linezolid, 11 strains (7.8%) were found to be intermediately resistant. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and S. marcescens strains were 35.7%, 29.3%, 18.3%, and 15.2%, respectively. The proportions of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and S. marcescens strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase were 5.1%, 11.9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones were 9.2%, 4.4%, and 34.8%, respectively, and among them, 2 strains (1.8%) were found to be multidrug resistant. These data present important information for the proper treatment of urinary tract infections and will serve as a useful reference for periodic surveillance studies in the future. PMID:21174142

Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Uehara, Shinya; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Sato, Junko; Niki, Yoshihito; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki; Hattori, Rikizo; Terada, Michinori; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Maruo, Akinori; Morita, Kohei; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Matsuda, Kenji; Hirose, Takaoki; Miyao, Noriomi; Hayashi, Tasuku; Takeyama, Koh; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Tomita, Masayuki; Yusu, Hisashi; Koide, Haruhisa; Kimura, Shoji; Yanaoka, Masanori; Sato, Hajime; Ito, Toru; Deguchi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Komeda, Hisao; Asano, Yuko; Takahashi, Yoshito; Ishihara, Satoshi; Arakawa, Soichi; Nakano, Yuzo; Tanaka, Kazushi; Fujisawa, Masato; Matsui, Takashi; Fujii, Akira; Yamamoto, Shingo; Nojima, Michio; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Ueda, Yasuo; Kanamaru, Sojun; Monden, Koichi; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Seno, Yuko; Tsugawa, Masaya; Takenaka, Tadasu; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Sho, Takehiko; Takahashi, Koichi; Inatomi, Hisato; Takahashi, Naoya; Ikei, Yoshihiko; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yamane, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kariya, Satoru; Arima, Takashi

2010-12-21

420

Experimental contamination of Minims of fluorescein by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Contamination of fluorescein solutions by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a concern of ophthalmologists for many years because of the severity of pseudomonas keratitis. Attempts to prevent contamination have been directed at stringent sterility control during manufacture and the introduction of single-dose disposable containers such as Minims. Deliberate contamination of Minims fluorescein with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was attempted. Under conditions likely to be met with in clinical practice the contents remained sterile. However, under extreme conditions of immersion in pure broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination could be achieved. The relevance of these results to clinical practice is discussed.

Claoue, C

1986-01-01

421

Bicyclic compounds repress membrane vesicle production and Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes membrane vesicles (MVs) that deliver several virulence factors as a cargo. We found that indole and its derivative compounds, including 4-hydroxyindole, 5-hydroxyindole, 6-hydroxyindole and isatin, repress MV production significantly. These compounds also repressed the synthesis of Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), which is one of the quorum-sensing signals that upregulate virulence gene expression and positively control MV production. Moreover, we showed that other bicyclic compounds, including 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, 1-aminonaphthalene and 8-quinolinol, significantly repress MV production and PQS synthesis. In conclusion, we provide new information about the chemical structures that inhibit P. aeruginosa virulence. PMID:20146747

Tashiro, Yosuke; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

2010-01-11

422

Genetic detection of Pseudomonas spp. in commercial Amazonian fish.  

PubMed

Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2013-08-29

423

Genetic Detection of Pseudomonas spp. in Commercial Amazonian Fish  

PubMed Central

Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood.

Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2013-01-01

424

Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated J64T, was isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju Island, Korea. Cells grew at 4-37 degrees C, at pH 5.5-10.0 and with 0-10 % NaCl. The strain was found to be oxidase- and catalase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain J64T belongs to the genus Pseudomonas, forming a monophyletic group with Pseudomonas pachastrellae, Pseudomonas pertucinogena and 'Pseudomonas denitrificans'. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain J64T and type strains of all Pseudomonas species with validly published names was below 96.6 %. Low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness were found with respect to type strains of P. pachastrellae and P. pertucinogena, supporting the classification of strain J64T within a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain J64T contained C(18 : 1)omega7c (37.2 %), C(16 : 0) (20.4 %), summed feature 3 (17.4 %; comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c) and C(12 : 0) (7.6 %) as major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain J64T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is J64T (=KCTC 22137T =JCM 14963T). PMID:19126720

Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Roh, Seong Woon; Chang, Ho-Won; Nam, Young-Do; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Oh, Hee-Mock; Bae, Jin-Woo

2009-01-01

425

Functions Required for Extracellular Quinolone Signaling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 30 mutants exhibiting reduced production of the phenazine poison pyocyanin were isolated following transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The mutants could be subdivided into those with defects in the primary phenazine biosynthetic pathway and those with more pleiotropic defects. The largest set of pleiotropic mutations blocked the production of the extracellular Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a

Larry A. Gallagher; Susan L. McKnight; Marina S. Kuznetsova; Everett C. Pesci; Colin Manoil

2002-01-01

426

Recombineering using RecET from Pseudomonas syringae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

427

Complete genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PA26.  

PubMed

PA26, a novel lytic bacteriophage infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was isolated, and the whole genome was sequenced. It was found to belong to the myoviridae by an electron microscopic observation. It had a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 72,321 bp. Genomic analysis showed that it resembled another Pseudomonas phage, LIT1. PMID:22923802

Kim, Min Soo; Cha, Kyung Eun; Myung, Heejoon

2012-09-01

428

A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes) from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with \\

Adhikarla Haritha; Agnes Rodrigue; Pamarthi Maruthi Mohan

2008-01-01

429

Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, and the availability of genomic sequences now opens the door for discovery of novel natural products with potential roles in the ecology and plant growth promoting properties of these bacteria. The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas f...

430

Distribution, diversity, and activity of antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

<\\/strong>Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases caused by various fungi and oomycetes. Antibiotic production is an important trait responsible for the activity of several Pseudomonas strains against plant pathogens. Despite the amount of information obtained during the past decades on biosynthesis and regulation of antibiotics, little is known about the distribution and diversity of

Souza de J. T

2002-01-01

431

The proteus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four boys are described with partial gigantism of the hands and\\/or feet, pigmented nevi, hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors and macrocephaly, and\\/or other skull anomalies. Three of these patients showed an accelerated growth in their first years of life. Two suffered from cystiform pulmonary abnormalities. The children showed normal mental development with the exception of one with traumatic brain damage. Parental

H.-R. Wiedemann; G. R. Burgio; P. Aldenhoff; J. Kunze; H. J. Kaufmann; E. Schirg

1983-01-01

432

Viper metalloproteinase (Agkistrodon halys pallas) with antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens.  

PubMed

Metalloproteinases are abundant enzymes in crotalidae and viperidae snake venoms. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) comprise a family of zinc-dependent enzymes, which display many different biological activities. A 23.1 kDa protein was isolated from Agkistrodon halys (pallas, Chinese viper) snake venom. The toxin is a single chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 23146.61 and an N-terminal sequence (MIQVLLVTICLAVFPYQGSSIILES) relatively similar to that of other metalloprotein-like proteases isolated from the snake venoms of the Viperidae family. The antibacterial effect of Agkistrodon halys metalloproteinase (AHM) on Burkholderia pseudomallei (strains TES and KHW), Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) was studied at a concentration 120 microM. Interestingly, we found that the metalloproteinase exhibited antibacterial properties and was more active against S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis and multi-drug resistant B. pseudomallei (strain KHW) bacteria. AHM variants with high bacteriostatic activity (MIC 1.875-60 microM) also tended to be less cytotoxic against U-937 human monocytic cells up to 1 mM concentrations. These results suggest that this metalloprotein exerts its antimicrobial effect by altering membrane packing and inhibiting mechanosensitive targets. PMID:18297685

Samy, Ramar Perumal; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Chow, Vincent T K; Ho, Bow

2008-07-01

433

In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).  

PubMed

Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results. PMID:20067867

Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

2010-01-01

434

The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging.

Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

2010-01-01

435

Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate homopolymers by Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida KT2442 has been a well-studied producer of medium-chain-length (mcl) polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers containing C6?~?C14\\u000a monomer units. A mutant was constructed from P. putida KT2442 by deleting its phaG gene encoding R-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP-CoA transacylase and several other ?-oxidation related genes including fadB, fadA, fadB2x, and fadAx. This mutant termed P. putida KTHH03 synthesized mcl homopolymers including poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHHx) and poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate)

Hong-hui Wang; Xin-rong Zhou; Qian Liu; Guo-Qiang Chen

2011-01-01

436

Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Mahmoud, M. A. [Chem. Dept, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

2007-02-14

437

[Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida plasmid DNAs].  

PubMed

Physico-chemical characteristics of plasmid DNAs isoalted from Pseudomonas putida G7 were studied as well as the behavior of these DNAs in th eourse of chromatography on columns with Sepharose 4B and kieselguhr with methylated albumin (MAC). This strain was found to contain several plasmid DNAs having molecular weights of 33-36X10(6), 15-18X10(6), and 3-5X10(6) dalton. The plasmid DNAs of biodegradation are supposed to be located in the vicinity of chromosomes, and only a small part of them is characterized by extrachromosomal localization. PMID:651695

Agabalian, A S; Zakharian, R A; Akopian, S M; Bakunts, K A; Israelian, Iu A

438

Production and Comparison of Peptide Siderophores from Strains of Distantly Related Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava LMG 2352  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of peptide siderophores and the variation in siderophore production among strains of Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava were investigated. An antibiose test was used to select a free amino acid-containing agar medium favorable for production of fluorescent siderophores by two P. syringae strains. A culture technique in which both liquid and solid asparagine-containing culture media were used proved

ALAIN BULTREYS; ISABELLE GHEYSEN

2000-01-01

439

Inability of Pseudomonas stutzeri denitrification mutants with the phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to grow in nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 reduced nitrous oxide to dinitrogen but did not grow anaerobically in nitrous oxide. Two transposition insertion Nos/sup -/ mutants of Pseudomonas stutzeri exhibited the P. aeruginosa phenotype. Growth yield studies demonstrated that nitrous oxide produced in vivo was productively respired, but nitrous oxide supplied exogenously was not. The defect may be in electron transport or in nitrous oxide uptake.

Bryan, B.A.; Jeter, R.M.; Carlson, C.A.

1985-11-01

440

Differential Habitat Use and Niche Partitioning by Pseudomonas Species in Human Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide

Susanna K. Remold; Christopher K. Brown; Justin E. Farris; Thomas C. Hundley; Jessica A. Perpich; Megan E. Purdy

441

21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mortality associated with Escherichia coli organisms susceptible to ceftiofur...of early mortality associated with E. coli organisms susceptible to ceftiofur...urinary tract infections associated with E. coli and Proteus mirabilis ....

2013-04-01

442

Biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Background Dihydrolinalool and terpineol are sources of fragrances that provide a unique volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity and thus are widely used in the perfumery industry, in folk medicine, and in aromatherapy. They are important chemical constituents of the essential oil of many plants. Previous studies have concerned the biotransformation of limonene by Pseudomonas putida. The objective of this research was to study biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The culture preparation was done using such variables as different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain maximum cells of P. aeruginosa for myrcene biotransformation. Results It was found that myrcene was converted to dihydrolinalool and 2,6-dimethyloctane in high percentages. The biotransformation products were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet (UV) analysis, gas chromatography (GC), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Comparison of the different incubation times showed that 3 days was more effective, the major products being 2,6-dimethyloctane (90.0%) and ?-terpineol (7.7%) and comprising 97.7%. In contrast, the main compounds derived for an incubation time of 1.5 days were dihydrolinalool (79.5%) and 2,6-dimethyloctane (9.3%), with a total yield of 88.8%.

2011-01-01

443

Whitening Effects of Marine Pseudomonas Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria associated with marine invertebrates are a rich source of bioactive metabolites. Objective The effects of marine bacteria extracts on pigmentation were investigated to find novel whitening agents. Methods The marine bacteria collected near Gangwha Island in Korea were isolated and extracted using organic solvent. The organic extracts were screened and selected using the cell free tyrosinase activity. The whitening effects of the selected extract were further investigated using cultured melanocytes, cultured skin and in vivo zebrafish. The whitening mechanism of the marine extract was also investigated. Results The marine bacterial methylene chloride extract reduced the pigmentation of Melan-a cells, human melanocytes, cultured skin and in vivo zebrafish. The decrease in pigmentation was due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity and the expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor protein. These bacteria were identified as a novel Pseudomonas species. Conclusion The methylene chloride extract of marine pseudomonas species possesses a whitening effect. Further chemical isolation and characterization of the active compounds from this marine bacterial extract are needed.

Yoon, Tae-Jin; Lee, Gyong Jae

2011-01-01

444

Arginine decarboxylase from a Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed Central

An arginine decarboxylase has been isolated from a Pseudomonas species. The enzyme is constitutive and did not appear to be repressed by a variety of carbon sources. After an approximately 40-fold purification, the enzyme appeared more similar in its properties to the Escherichia coli biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase than to the E. coli inducible (biodegradative) enzyme. The Pseudomonas arginine decarboxylase exhibited a pH optimum of 8.1 and an absolute requirement of Mg2+ and pyridoxal phosphate, and was inhibited significantly at lower Mg2+ concentrations by the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and cadaverine. The Km for L-arginine was about 0.25 mM at pH 8.1 AND 7.2. The enzyme was completely inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. The inhibition was prevented by dithiothreitol, a feature that suggests the involvement of an -SH group. Of a variety of labeled amino acids tested, only L-arginine, but not D-arginine was decarboxylated. D-Arginine was a potent inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase with a Ki of 3.2 muM.

Rosenfeld, H J; Roberts, J

1976-01-01

445

Comparison of the exoproducts of gram-negative bacteria by SDS-Page.  

PubMed

The protein exoproducts released during exponential growth of Gram-negative bacteria were analysed and compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page). The following bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia rubidaea, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella minnesota, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens. It is demonstrated by SDS-Page that members of one species show identical protein pattern, whereas different species show besides comparable protein bands a species characteristic pattern. All members of Enterobacteriaceae were shown to release proteins whose molecular weights fell into the following size regions: Each strain was shown to synthesize a polypeptide of molecular weight 34,000 and one or more polypeptides within the molecular weight range 25,000-29,000. This profile was shown to be clearly different from that of Pseudomonas strains where 20 or more distinct polypeptides ranging from 12,500 to 160,000 Mr were detectable. PMID:2408403

Euteneuer, B; Loos, M

1985-02-01

446

An interactive web-based Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome database: discovery of new genes, pathways and structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, sequenced by the Pseudomonas Genome Project (ftp:\\/\\/ftp.pseudomonas.com\\/data\\/pacontigs.121599), a genome database (http:\\/\\/pseudomonas.bit.uq.edu.au\\/) has been developed containing information on more than 95% of all ORFs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The database is searchable by a variety of means, including gene name, position, keyword, sequence similarity and Pfam domain. Automated and manual annotation, nucleotide and

Larry Croft; Scott A. Beatson; Cynthia B. Whitchurch; Bixing Huang; Robert L. Blakeley; John S. Mattick

2000-01-01

447

Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase in Pseudomonas putida and characterization of the recombinant protein.  

PubMed Central

Nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been successfully expressed in Pseudomonas putida. The purified recombinant enzyme contains haem c but no haem d1. Nonetheless, like the holoenzyme from Ps. aeruginosa, it is a stable dimer (molecular mass 120 kDa), and electron transfer to oxidized azurin is biphasic and follows bimolecular kinetics (k1 = 1.5 x 10(5) and k2 = 2.2 x 10(4) M-1.s-1). Unlike the chemically produced apoenzyme, recombinant nitrite reductase containing only haem c is water-soluble, stable at neutral pH and can be quantitatively reconstituted with haem d1, yielding a holoenzyme with the same properties as that expressed by Ps. aeruginosa (namely optical and c.d. spectra, molecular mass, cytochrome c551 oxidase activity and CO-binding kinetics). Images Fig. 1.

Silvestrini, M C; Cutruzzola, F; D'Alessandro, R; Brunori, M; Fochesato, N; Zennaro, E

1992-01-01

448

Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these\\u000a strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri

N. V. Grigor’eva; T. F. Kondrat’eva; E. N. Krasil’nikova; G. I. Karavaiko

2006-01-01

449

The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Regulates rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses intercellular signals to control the density-depen- dent expression of many virulence factors. The las and rhl quorum-sensing systems function, respectively, through the autoinducers N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4- HSL), which are known to positively regulate the transcription of the elastase-encoding gene, lasB. Recently, we reported that a second type of intercellular signal is

SUSAN L. MCKNIGHT; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI; EVERETT C. PESCI

2000-01-01

450

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quinolone quorum sensing signal alters the multicellular behaviour of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.  

PubMed

The molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, or PQS) is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as part of its quorum sensing circuit, and has been shown to influence a variety of processes in this bacterium, including the production of siderophores and secondary metabolites, virulence determinants and biofilm development. In this report we present evidence of the effect of PQS as an interspecies signal with a negative impact on the multicellular behaviour of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. PQS reduces biofilm formation and swarming motility, and interferes with iron uptake by this bacterium. Addition of PQS also causes changes in the transcription of several P. putida genes, indicating a specific response to the signal molecule, which is not produced by strain KT2440. Among the genes with increased expression in response to PQS is PP1563, which forms part of a large prophage cluster (PP1532-PP1584); consistently, phage-mediated lysis of some cells in the population was observed in the presence of PQS. Overall, these data indicate that PQS may be used by P. aeruginosa as a chemical weapon against potential competitors. PMID:21742029

Fernández-Piñar, Regina; Cámara, Miguel; Dubern, Jean-Frédéric; Ramos, Juan L; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

2011-06-26

451

Doripenem vs meropenem against Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter.  

PubMed

Recently, doripenem has been approved for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia (NP), including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The E-test was performed to determine the MICs of doripenem and meropenem in 203 endotracheal aspirate isolates that consisted of 140 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complexes and 63 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Doripenem showed minimum concentration necessary for inhibition of 50% (MIC 50 ) of P. aeruginosa isolates at 0.38 mg/L which is several times (84.2 times) lower than the corresponding MIC 50 value of >32 mg/L for meropenem. The MIC 50 and MIC 90 were similar for both the drugs against A. baumannii. Thus, P. aeruginosa was consistently more susceptible than the A. baumannii. PMID:22885206

Goyal, K; Gautam, V; Ray, P

452

Metabolism of carbohydrate derivatives by Pseudomonas acidovorans.  

PubMed Central

Wild-type Pseudomonas acidovorans strain A1 was unable to grow on glycerol or glucose as sole source of carbon and energy although it grew well on gluconate. Spontaneous glycerol-positive mutants, which apparently had become permeable to glycerol, were readily isolated, but glucose-positive mutants did not occur. P. acidovorans lacked glucose dehydrogenase and glucokinase, which were sufficient to account for its inability to grow on glucose. Gluconate was degraded exclusively via a noncoordinately induced Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was undetectable. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, P. acidovorans possessed a single glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, which was NAD+ specific and constitutive, and an inducible pyruvate kinase. Moreover, growth of glycerol-positive strain K2 on glycerol did not induce any of the enzymes related to metabolism of hexosephosphate derivatives as occurs in fluorescent pseudomonads.

Wettermark, M H; Taylor, J R; Rogers, M L; Heath, H E

1979-01-01

453

Metabolism of carbohydrate derivatives by Pseudomonas acidovorans.  

PubMed

Wild-type Pseudomonas acidovorans strain A1 was unable to grow on glycerol or glucose as sole source of carbon and energy although it grew well on gluconate. Spontaneous glycerol-positive mutants, which apparently had become permeable to glycerol, were readily isolated, but glucose-positive mutants did not occur. P. acidovorans lacked glucose dehydrogenase and glucokinase, which were sufficient to account for its inability to grow on glucose. Gluconate was degraded exclusively via a noncoordinately induced Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was undetectable. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, P. acidovorans possessed a single glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, which was NAD+ specific and constitutive, and an inducible pyruvate kinase. Moreover, growth of glycerol-positive strain K2 on glycerol did not induce any of the enzymes related to metabolism of hexosephosphate derivatives as occurs in fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:220214

Wettermark, M H; Taylor, J R; Rogers, M L; Heath, H E

1979-05-01

454

Vesiculation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa under SOS.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity. PMID:22448133

Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F; Yu, Jiehjuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E; Weitao, Tao

2012-02-14

455

Siderophore activity of pyoverdin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces an extracellular compound with yellowish green fluorescence, called pyoverdin, which functions as a siderophore. The production of pyoverdin, formerly called fluorescein, is concomitant with the production of another siderophore, pyochelin. Pyoverdin is produced by P. aeruginosa in several forms, some of which were separated on gel filtration columns and on reverse-phase, high-pressure liquid chromatography columns. An active form of iron-free pyoverdin was purified to homogeneity. The elution of pyoverdin from the columns was monitored for absorbance, fluorescence, and siderophore activities. These activities, iron binding, and the stimulation of bacterial iron transport indicated that pyoverdin can function as a siderophore for P. aeruginosa. The siderophore function of pyoverdin may be related to the pathogenicity of this bacterium because pyoverdin stimulated growth not only in iron-deficient culture medium, but also in defined medium containing transferrin and in human serum or plasma.

Cox, C D; Adams, P

1985-01-01

456

Human targets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces copious amounts of the redoxactive tricyclic compound pyocyanin that kills competing microbes and mammalian cells, especially during cystic fibrosis lung infection. Cross-phylum susceptibility to pyocyanin suggests the existence of evolutionarily conserved physiological targets. We screened a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library to identify presumptive pyocyanin targets with the expectation that similar targets would be conserved in humans. Fifty S. cerevisiae targets were provisionally identified, of which 60% have orthologous human counterparts. These targets encompassed major cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, electron transport and respiration, epidermal cell growth, protein sorting, vesicle transport, and the vacuolar ATPase. Using cultured human lung epithelial cells, we showed that pyocyanin-mediated reactive oxygen intermediates inactivate human vacuolar ATPase, supporting the validity of the yeast screen. We discuss how the inactivation of VATPase may negatively impact the lung function of cystic fibrosis patients.

Ran, Huimin; Hassett, Daniel J.; Lau, Gee W.

2003-01-01

457

Comparative transcriptome analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

One of the hallmarks of bacterial survival is their ability to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Niche adaptation is a response to the signals received that are relayed, often to regulators that modulate gene expression. In the post-genomic era, DNA microarrays are used to study the dynamics of gene expression on a global scale. Numerous studies have used Pseudomonas aeruginosa--a Gram-negative environmental and opportunistic human pathogenic bacterium--as the model organism in whole-genome transcriptome analysis. This paper reviews the transcriptome studies that have led to immense advances in our understanding of the biology of this intractable human pathogen. Comparative analysis of 23 P. aeruginosa transcriptome studies has led to the identification of a unique set of genes that are signal specific and a core set that is differentially regulated. The 303 genes in the core set are involved in bacterial homeostasis, making them attractive therapeutic targets.

2009-01-01

458

Molecular determinants of rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas.  

PubMed

Rhizosphere colonization is one of the first steps in the pathogenesis of soilborne microorganisms. It can also be crucial for the action of microbial inoculants used as biofertilizers, biopesticides, phytostimulators, and bioremediators. Pseudomonas, one of the best root colonizers, is therefore used as a model root colonizer. This review focuses on (a) the temporal-spatial description of root-colonizing bacteria as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopal analysis of autofluorescent microorganisms, and (b) bacterial genes and traits involved in root colonization. The results show a strong parallel between traits used for the colonization of roots and of animal tissues, indicating the general importance of such a study. Finally, we identify several noteworthy areas for future research. PMID:11701873

Lugtenberg, B J; Dekkers, L; Bloemberg, G V

2001-01-01

459

Dynamic Interactions of 'Pseudomonas aeruginosa' and Bacteriophages in Lake Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistence and interaction between newly isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and resident bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater environment was monitored over 45 days in lake water microcosms. The interaction between susceptible and resist...

O. A. Ogunseitan G. S. Sayler R. V. Miller

1990-01-01

460

UTILIZATION OF FLUORANTHENE BY PSEUDOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS STRAIN EPA505  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, was previously purified from a 7-membered bacterial community originally isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil for its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote. The unique ability of this organism...