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1

Chlorhexidine resistance in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

A total of 104 clinical isolates of Pr. mirabilis from three hospitals were screened for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antiseptic for these strains ranged from 10 to 800 ?g/ml. Two strains sensitive to 20 ?g of chlorhexidine/ml were adapted to resistance by growth in subinhibitory concentrations of the antiseptic, their MIC values increasing to 200 and 800 ?g/ml. These derived strains exhibited slightly reduced sensitivity to cetrimide and benzalkonium chloride. The chlorhexidine-resistant clinical isolates also exhibited this partially decreased sensitivity to the quaternary ammonium compounds. Both the chlorhexidine-sensitive and -resistant strains were uniformly sensitive to chloroxylenol (Dettol), glutaraldehyde, and 2-phenoxyethanol.

Stickler, D. J.

1974-01-01

2

Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate C05028  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNA of Proteus mirabilis C05028 was sequenced by an Illumina HiSeq platform and was assembled to 39 scaffolds with a total length of 3.8 Mb. Next, open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and were annotated by the KEGG, COG, and NR databases. Finally, we found special virulence factors only existing in P. mirabilis C05028.

Shi, Xiaolu; Zhu, Yuanfang; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Chen, Qiongcheng; Yuan, Yanting; Ni, Peixiang

2014-01-01

3

Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis to Brown Tree Frogs (Litoria ewingii)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia liquifaciens. Here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) associated with an outbreak of fatal dermatosepticemia in New Zealand Litoria ewingii frogs. A bath challenge method was used to expose test frogs to individual bacterial species (2 × 107 cfu/mL in pond water); control frogs were exposed to uninfected pond water. None of the control frogs or those exposed to A. hydrophila or P. mirabilis showed any morbidity or mortality. Morbidity and mortality was 40% among frogs exposed to K. pneumonia, and the organism was reisolated from the hearts, spleens, and livers of affected animals.

Schadich, Ermin; Cole, Anthony LJ

2010-01-01

4

Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate C05028.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA of Proteus mirabilis C05028 was sequenced by an Illumina HiSeq platform and was assembled to 39 scaffolds with a total length of 3.8 Mb. Next, open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and were annotated by the KEGG, COG, and NR databases. Finally, we found special virulence factors only existing in P. mirabilis C05028. PMID:24675851

Shi, Xiaolu; Zhu, Yuanfang; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Chen, Qiongcheng; Yuan, Yanting; Ni, Peixiang; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

2014-01-01

5

The nature of colicin K from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The colicinogenic factor K has been transferred from E. coli K 235 to Proteus mirabilis. The DNA of the colicinogenic Proteus has been shown to contain a small amount of a satellite DNA which presumably harbors the Col K factor. In the presence of mitomycin C the colicinogenic Proteus secretes colicin K into the growth medium. The bacteriocin has been purified by chromatography and obtained as an immunologically homogeneous substance unconjugated with other antigens of the Proteus bacillus. Proteus colicin K is a protein of relatively low molecular weight. It contains all of the usual amino acids except cysteine and is free of lipids and polysaccharides. The bacteriocin can be separated by electrofocusing into two major components. The latter have the same biological properties but differ in their specific electrical charges. PMID:4986216

Jesaitis, M A

1970-05-01

6

Neonatal meningoventriculitis due to proteus mirabilis - a case report.  

PubMed

A five day old full term born baby was admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with seizures, opisthotonous posture and was icteric upto thigh. Baby had a three day history of poor feeding, lethargy and abnormal body movements. Mother was a 29 years old primigravida and had a normal vaginal delivery at home. Sepsis profile of the patient was requested, lumbar puncture and ventricular tap was performed. Patient was put on third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and phenobarbitone. Culture and sensitivity report of blood, Cerebro spinal fluid and ventricular fluid showed Proteus mirabilis. Computerized Tomography scan showed a large parenchymal lesion in the right frontal lobe and diffuse ependymal enhancement along both the lateral ventricles suggestive of meningoventriculitis. We hereby present a fatal case of neonatal meningoventriculitis due to Proteus mirabilis. PMID:23543669

Juyal, Deepak; Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Sharma, Neelam

2013-02-01

7

Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single- species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections.

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2013-01-01

8

Comparison of the binding specificity of two bacterial metalloproteases, LasB of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ZapA of Proteus mirabilis, using N-alpha mercaptoamide template-based inhibitor analogues.  

PubMed

The metalloproteases ZapA of Proteus mirabilis and LasB of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known to be virulence factors their respective opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and are members of the structurally related serralysin and thermolysin families of bacterial metalloproteases respectively. Secreted at the site of infection, these proteases play a key role in the infection process, contributing to tissue destruction and processing of components of the host immune system. Inhibition of these virulence factors may therefore represent an antimicrobial strategy, attenuating the virulence of the infecting pathogen. Previously we have screened a library of N-alpha mercaptoamide dipeptide inhibitors against both ZapA and LasB, with the aim of mapping the S1' binding site of the enzymes, revealing both striking similarities and important differences in their binding preferences. Here we report the design, synthesis, and screening of several inhibitor analogues, based on two parent inhibitors from the original library. The results have allowed for further characterization of the ZapA and LasB active site binding pockets, and have highlighted the possibility for development of broad-spectrum bacterial protease inhibitors, effective against enzymes of the thermolysin and serralysin metalloprotease families. PMID:22575503

Carson, Louise; Cathcart, George R; Ceri, Howard; Walker, Brian; Gilmore, Brendan F

2012-06-01

9

Microbial decolorization of azo dyes by Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

A bacterium identified as Proteus mirabilis was isolated from acclimated sludge from a dyeing wastewater treatment plant. This strain rapidly decolorized a deep red azo dye solution (RED RBN). Features of the decolorizing process related to biodegradation and biosorption were also studied. Although P. mirabilis displayed good growth in shake culture, color removal was best in anoxic static cultures. For color removal, the optimal pH and temperature were 6.5-7.5 and 30-35 degrees C, respectively. The organism exhibited a remarkable color removal capability, even at a high concentration of azo dye. More than 95% of azo dye was reduced within 20 h at a dye concentration of 1.0 g L-1. Decolorization appears to proceed primarily by enzymatic reduction associated with a minor portion, 13-17%, of biosorption to inactivated microbial cells. PMID:10455502

Chen, K C; Huang, W T; Wu, J Y; Houng, J Y

1999-07-01

10

Quantification of Proteus mirabilis virulence factors and modulation by acylated homoserine lactones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Measurement of the main Proteus mirabilis virulence factors would increase our understanding of how the organism infects and colonizes the urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to quantify the virulence factors of twelve P. mirabilis laboratory strains and to determine whether expression of virulence factors of P. mirabilis depends on the presence of homoserine-lactone derivatives.

Dorota Stankowska; Marek Kwinkowski; Wieslaw Kaca

2008-01-01

11

Frequent association with neurosurgical conditions in adult Proteus mirabilis meningitis: report of five cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Proteus (P.) mirabilis meningitis is relatively rare and has not been examined individually in the English-language literature. During a period of 15 years (January 1986–December 2000), four adult patients with P. mirabilis meningitis and one adult patient with mixed bacterial meningitis involving P. mirabilis were identified at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung. These five patients included one man and

Wen-Neng Chang; Yu-Chun Tsai; Chun-Chih Chien; Chi-Ren Huang; Cheng-Hsien Lu

2002-01-01

12

Vaccination with Proteus Toxic Agglutinin, a Hemolysin-Independent Cytotoxin In Vivo, Protects against Proteus mirabilis Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complicated urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are associated with severe pathology in the bladder and kidney. To investigate the roles of two established cytotoxins, the HpmA hemolysin, a secreted cytotoxin, and proteus toxic agglutinin (Pta), a surface-associated cytotoxin, mutant analysis was used in conjunction with a mouse model of ascending UTI. Inactivation of pta, but not inactivation

Praveen Alamuri; Kathryn A. Eaton; Stephanie D. Himpsl; Sara N. Smith; Harry L. T. Mobley

2009-01-01

13

Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies  

PubMed Central

Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies.

Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

2012-01-01

14

Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J.

2000-05-01

15

Molecular analysis of a metalloprotease from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is known for its ability to differentiate from swimmer to swarmer cells, a process crucial for the pathogenesis of these bacteria during urinary tract infections. Among the many virulence factors produced during swarmer cell differentiation is an extracellular metalloprotease. A cosmid containing a large fragment of P. mirabilis chromosomal DNA was obtained by measuring protease expression in recombinant Escherichia coli. The recombinant and native enzymes were purified to over 95% homogeneity from culture supernatants by use of phenyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography and found to be identical. The activity of the 55-kDa enzyme was stimulated by divalent cations (Ca2+ > Mg2+) and inhibited by a chelator of these cations. The enzyme possesses substrate specificity for both serum and secretory forms of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and IgA2 as well as IgG and, unlike classic IgA proteases, digested to completion both human and mouse IgA. Following subcloning, a 5-kb DNA fragment encoding recombinant protease activity was identified by insertional mutagenesis with Tn5. Four open reading frames were identified within this 5-kb region by limited nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA flanking the transposon. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the metalloprotease structural gene (zapA) were obtained. Computerized homology studies revealed that the P. mirabilis metalloprotein is a member of the serralysin family of proteases and may be part of an operon comprising genes encoding an ATP-dependent ABC transporter in addition to the metalloprotease. The relevance of the metalloprotease to swarmer cell differentiation and pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:7592325

Wassif, C; Cheek, D; Belas, R

1995-10-01

16

Outer membrane protein profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis for differentiation of clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris.  

PubMed

Outer membrane protein (MP) profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis were used as tools for differentiating clinical isolates of Proteus spp. Fourteen distinct MP profiles were established by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 54 clinical isolates of Proteus spp. (44 strains identified as P. mirabilis and 10 strains identified as P. vulgaris). Forty-one isolates of P. mirabilis and eight isolates of P. vulgaris were grouped within six and three MP profiles, respectively. The remaining P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates had unique profiles. MEE analysis was used to further discriminate among the strains belonging to the same MP groups. Thirty-five distinct electrophoretic types (ETs) were identified among P. mirabilis isolates. The isolates of P. mirabilis from the four most common MP groups were subgrouped into 30 ETs. All of the P. vulgaris strains had unique ETs. The results suggest that upon biochemical classification of Proteus isolates as P. mirabilis or P. vulgaris, further differentiation among strains of the same species can be obtained by the initial determination of MP profiles followed by MEE analysis of strains with identical MPs. PMID:1400963

Kappos, T; John, M A; Hussain, Z; Valvano, M A

1992-10-01

17

Outer membrane protein profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis for differentiation of clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris.  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane protein (MP) profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis were used as tools for differentiating clinical isolates of Proteus spp. Fourteen distinct MP profiles were established by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 54 clinical isolates of Proteus spp. (44 strains identified as P. mirabilis and 10 strains identified as P. vulgaris). Forty-one isolates of P. mirabilis and eight isolates of P. vulgaris were grouped within six and three MP profiles, respectively. The remaining P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates had unique profiles. MEE analysis was used to further discriminate among the strains belonging to the same MP groups. Thirty-five distinct electrophoretic types (ETs) were identified among P. mirabilis isolates. The isolates of P. mirabilis from the four most common MP groups were subgrouped into 30 ETs. All of the P. vulgaris strains had unique ETs. The results suggest that upon biochemical classification of Proteus isolates as P. mirabilis or P. vulgaris, further differentiation among strains of the same species can be obtained by the initial determination of MP profiles followed by MEE analysis of strains with identical MPs. Images

Kappos, T; John, M A; Hussain, Z; Valvano, M A

1992-01-01

18

Cloning, characterization and molecular analysis of a metalloprotease from Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis is an important pathogen that is usually found in complicated urinary tracts infection. It possesses a metalloprotease, ZapA,\\u000a that acts as a virulence factor. The gene encoding ZapA was cloned from P. mirabilis Pm7—a strain isolated from marine environments—and conditionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Zn2+ and Co2+ exhibited an apparently positive effect on the enzyme activity of the

Weiwei Zhang; Qingxi Han; Dongyan Liu; Lingxin Chen

19

Oxygen-Limiting Conditions Enrich for Fimbriate Cells of Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR\\/P fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis undergo invertible element-mediated phase variation whereby an individual bacterium switches between expressing fimbriae (phase ON) and not expressing fimbriae (phase OFF). Under different conditions, the percentage of fimbriate bacteria within a population varies and could be dictated by either selection (growth advantage of one phase) or signaling (preferentially converting one phase to the other

Xin Li; Melanie M. Pearson; Amy N. Simms; Harry L. T. Mobley

2009-01-01

20

Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

2013-03-01

21

Transcriptome of Proteus mirabilis in the Murine Urinary Tract: Virulence and Nitrogen Assimilation Gene Expression?†  

PubMed Central

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. In this study, microarrays were used to analyze P. mirabilis gene expression in vivo from experimentally infected mice. Urine was collected at 1, 3, and 7 days postinfection, and RNA was isolated from bacteria in the urine for transcriptional analysis. Across nine microarrays, 471 genes were upregulated and 82 were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro broth culture. Genes upregulated in vivo encoded mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, urease, iron uptake systems, amino acid and peptide transporters, pyruvate metabolism enzymes, and a portion of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Flagella were downregulated. Ammonia assimilation gene glnA (glutamine synthetase) was repressed in vivo, while gdhA (glutamate dehydrogenase) was upregulated in vivo. Contrary to our expectations, ammonia availability due to urease activity in P. mirabilis did not drive this gene expression. A gdhA mutant was growth deficient in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source, and loss of gdhA resulted in a significant fitness defect in the mouse model of urinary tract infection. Unlike Escherichia coli, which represses gdhA and upregulates glnA in vivo and cannot utilize citrate, the data suggest that P. mirabilis uses glutamate dehydrogenase to monitor carbon-nitrogen balance, and this ability contributes to the pathogenic potential of P. mirabilis in the urinary tract.

Pearson, Melanie M.; Yep, Alejandra; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2011-01-01

22

Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: identification, isolation, and characterization of a new ambient-temperature fimbria.  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections involving Proteus mirabilis may lead to complications including bladder and kidney stones, acute pyelonephritis, and bacteremia. This bacterium produces a number of fimbriae, two of which, MR/P fimbria and P. mirabilis fimbria, have been shown to contribute to the ability of this pathogen to colonize the bladder and kidney. We have now purified and characterized a previously undescribed fimbria of P. mirabilis, named ambient-temperature fimbria (ATF). Electron microscopy of a pure preparation and immunogold labeling of cells demonstrated that ATF was fimbrial in nature. The major fimbrial subunit of ATF has an apparent molecular weight of 24,000. The N-terminal amino acid sequence, E-X-T-G-T-P-A-P-T-E-V-T-V-D-G-G-T-I-D-F, did not show significant similarity to that of any previously described fimbrial protein. ATF was expressed by all eight P. mirabilis strains examined. Culture conditions affected expression of ATF, with optimal expression observed in static broth cultures at 23 degrees C. This fimbria was not produced by cells grown at 42 degrees C or on solid medium. Expression of ATF did not correlate with mannose-resistant/Proteus-like (MR/P) or mannose-resistant/Klebsiella-like (MR/K) hemagglutination and represents a novel fimbria of P. mirabilis. Images

Massad, G; Bahrani, F K; Mobley, H L

1994-01-01

23

Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase  

PubMed Central

By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains.

Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regue, Miguel; Tomas, Juan M.

2014-01-01

24

Functional identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC gene encoding a core lipopolysaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase.  

PubMed

By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of L-glycero-D-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of L,D-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M

2014-01-01

25

Pathological and Therapeutic Significance of Cellular Invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an Enterocystoplasty Infection Stone Model  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal (Caco-2, HT29, HT29-18N2, HT29-FU, and HT29-MTX) and one ureter cell line (SV-HUC-1) were incubated in artificial urine with five Proteus mirabilis strains. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), laser scanning microscopy, and electron microscopy evaluated cellular adhesion and/or invasion, pathologic changes to mitochondria, and P. mirabilis-mucin colocalization (MUC2 and MUC5AC). An MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay and FACS analysis of caspase-3 evaluated the cellular response. Infected cells were incubated with antibiotics at dosages representing the expected urinary concentrations in a 10-year-old, 30-kg child to evaluate bacterial invasion and survival. All cell lines showed colocalization of P. mirabilis with human colonic mucin (i.e., MUC2) and human gastric mucin (i.e., MUC5AC). The correlation between membrane mucin expression and invasion was significant and opposite for SV-HUC-1 and HT29-MTX. Microscopically, invasion by P. mirabilis with intracellular crystal formation and mitochondrial damage was found. Double membranes surrounded bacteria in intestinal cells. Relative resistance to cotrimoxazole and augmentin was found in the presence of epithelial cells. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin remained effective. Membrane mucin expression was correlated with relative antibiotic resistance. Cell invasion by P. mirabilis and mucin- and cell type-related distribution and response differences indicate bacterial tropism that affects crystal formation and mucosal presence. Bacterial invasion seems to have cell type-dependent mechanisms and prolong bacterial survival in antibiotic therapy, giving a new target for therapeutic optimalization of antibiotic treatment.

Mathoera, Rejiv B.; Kok, Dik J.; Verduin, Cees M.; Nijman, Rien J. M.

2002-01-01

26

Molecular detection of HpmA and HlyA hemolysin of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the bacterial infections frequently documented in humans. Proteus mirabilis is associated with UTI mainly in individuals with urinary tract abnormality or related with vesicular catheterism and it can be difficult to treat because of the formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. These stones are formed due to the presence of urease synthesized by the bacteria. Another important factor is that P. mirabilis produces hemolysin HpmA, used by the bacteria to damage the kidney tissues. Proteus spp. samples can also express HlyA hemolysin, similar to that found in Escherichia coli. A total of 211 uropathogenic P. mirabilis isolates were analyzed to detect the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes by the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot and hlyA by PCR. The hpmA and hpmB genes were expressed by the RT-PCR technique and two P. mirabilis isolates were sequenced for the hpmA and hpmB genes. The presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes was confirmed by PCR in 205 (97.15 %) of the 211 isolates. The dot blot confirmed the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes in the isolates that did not amplify in the PCR. None of the isolates studied presented the hlyA gene. The hpmA and hpmB genes that were sequenced presented 98 % identity with the same genes of the HI4320 P. mirabilis sample. This study showed that the PCR technique has good sensitivity for detecting the hpmA and hpmB genes of P. mirabilis. PMID:23884594

Cestari, Silvia Emanoele; Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Fernando Henrique; da Rocha, Sérgio Paulo Dejato; Elias, Waldir Pereira; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

2013-12-01

27

Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The H2S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P>0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N?=?10) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N?=?5) and respiratory specimens of humans (N?=?5) (P>0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts.

Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

2012-01-01

28

Effects of sequential infections of Caenorhabditis elegans with Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans can be used to study the dynamics of polymicrobial infections, specifically those between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. With C. elegans, Proteus mirabilis acts as an opportunistic pathogen and does not kill this host. Hence, in the present study, C. elegans was immunochallenged by pre-infecting it with the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in order to study the subsequent effect of P. mirabilis on the host. It was found that 12 hrs of S. aureus and 80 hrs of subsequent P. mirabilis infection significantly reduced the life span of exposed C. elegans by 80%. However, preinfection with S. aureus for 8 and 4 hrs reduced the life span of C. elegans by only 60 and 30%, respectively. Further, there was greater production of reactive oxygen species in the sequentially infected samples than in the S. aureus and P. mirabilis controls. Real time PCR analysis indicated regulation of candidate immune regulatory genes, lysozyme (lys-7), CUB-like proteins (F08G5.6), neuropeptide-like factors (nlp-29), transcription factors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ATF-7) and daf-2-daf-16 (daf-16), insulin-like signaling pathways and C-type lectin (clec-60 and clec-87) family members during S. aureus and subsequent P. mirabilis-mediated infections, indicating possible roles of, and contributions by, the above factors during host immune responses against these sequential infections. The present findings demonstrate that S. aureus infections increase the vulnerability of the C. elegans host by subverting its immune system, which then permits the opportunistic pathogen P. mirabilis to be pathogenic to this host. PMID:22957781

JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

2012-12-01

29

Characterization of 17 chaperone-usher fimbriae encoded by Proteus mirabilis reveals strong conservation.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in patients with indwelling catheters. Sequencing of clinical isolate P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed the presence of 17 predicted chaperone-usher fimbrial operons. We classified these fimbriae into three groups by their genetic relationship to other chaperone-usher fimbriae. Sixteen of these fimbriae are encoded by all seven currently sequenced P. mirabilis genomes. The predicted protein sequence of the major structural subunit for 14 of these fimbriae was highly conserved (?95?% identity), whereas three other structural subunits (Fim3A, UcaA and Fim6A) were variable. Further examination of 58 clinical isolates showed that 14 of the 17 predicted major structural subunit genes of the fimbriae were present in most strains (>85?%). Transcription of the predicted major structural subunit genes for all 17 fimbriae was measured under different culture conditions designed to mimic conditions in the urinary tract. The majority of the fimbrial genes were induced during stationary phase, static culture or colony growth when compared to exponential-phase aerated culture. Major structural subunit proteins for six of these fimbriae were detected using MS of proteins sheared from the surface of broth-cultured P. mirabilis, demonstrating that this organism may produce multiple fimbriae within a single culture. The high degree of conservation of P. mirabilis fimbriae stands in contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, which exhibit greater variability in their fimbrial repertoires. These findings suggest there may be evolutionary pressure for P. mirabilis to maintain a large fimbrial arsenal. PMID:24809384

Kuan, Lisa; Schaffer, Jessica N; Zouzias, Christos D; Pearson, Melanie M

2014-07-01

30

Uptake pathways of clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis into human epithelial cell lines.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis isolates obtained from urine and faeces showed high invasion levels into several human epithelial cell lines in gentamicin assays. Invasion efficiencies of isolate 102 from a monkey with diarrhoea equalled or even exceeded those of Salmonella typhi strain Ty2 (6.3 to 13.8% of the inoculum). Vegetative, non-swarming P.mirabilis invaded epithelial cells efficiently and were found in endosomes and free in the cytoplasm. Although inhibition of eukaryotic protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not reduce bacterial uptake, inhibition with bacteriostatic antibiotics of bacterial protein-, RNA-, or DNA-synthesis reduced invasion drastically. Involvement of eukaryotic structures and processes in internalization was determined by using various inhibitors in the invasion assay. Uptake of P.mirabilis isolated from urine into gut (INT 407, HCT-8) cells and bladder (T24) cells was dramatically inhibited only by microfilament depolymerization. Internalization of faecal isolate 102 into gut or bladder epithelial cells was inhibited by depolymerization of microfilaments or microtubules. Engulfment of isolate 102 into T24 bladder cells was also reduced by inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interference with endosome acidification decreased the number of intracellular bacteria of isolate 102 in all three cell lines. These results suggest that P.mirabilis isolates from different sources are internalized by epithelial cells by different eukaryotic processes, and that these processes can vary between cell lines. PMID:8827702

Oelschlaeger, T A; Tall, B D

1996-07-01

31

Modeling and predicting the effect of temperature on the growth of Proteus mirabilis in chicken.  

PubMed

A predictive model to study the effect of temperature on the growth of Proteus mirabilis was developed. The growth data were collected under several isothermal conditions (8, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45°C) and were fitted into three primary models, namely the logistic model, the modified Gompertz model, and the Baranyi model. The statistical characteristics to evaluate the models such as R(2), mean square error, and Sawa's Bayesian information criteria (BIC) were used. Results showed that the Baranyi model performed best, followed by the logistic model and the modified Gompertz model. R(2) values for the secondary model derived from logistic, modified Gompertz, and Baranyi models were 0.965, 0.974, and 0.971, respectively. Bias factor and accuracy factor indicated that both the modified Gompertz and Baranyi models fitted the growth data better. Therefore, the Baranyi model was proposed to be the best predictive model for the growth of P. mirabilis. PMID:24524853

Zhao, Jingjing; Gao, Jingxian; Chen, Fei; Ren, Fazheng; Dai, Ruitong; Liu, Yi; Li, Xingmin

2014-04-01

32

Effect of nutrient and stress factors on polysaccharides synthesis in Proteus mirabilis biofilm.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix in biofilm consists of water, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and phospholipids. Synthesis of these components is influenced by many factors, e.g. environment conditions or carbon source. The aim of the study was to analyse polysaccharides levels in Proteus mirabilis biofilms after exposure to stress and nutritional conditions. Biofilms of 22 P. mirabilis strains were cultivated for 24, 48, 72 hours, 1 and 2 weeks in tryptone soya broth or in modified media containing an additional amount of nutrients (glucose, albumin) or stress factors (cefotaxime, pH 4, nutrient depletion). Proteins and total polysaccharides levels were studied by Lowry and the phenol-sulphuric acid methods, respectively. Glycoproteins levels were calculated by ELLA with the use of selected lectins (WGA and HPA). For CLSM analysis dual fluorescent staining was applied with SYTO 13 and WGA-TRITC. In optimal conditions the levels of polysaccharides were from 0 to 442 ?g/mg of protein and differed depending on the strains and cultivation time. The agents used in this study had a significant impact on the polysaccharides synthesis in the P. mirabilis biofilm. Among all studied components (depending on tested methods), glucose and cefotaxime stimulated the greatest production of polysaccharides by P. mirabilis strains (more than a twofold increase). For most tested strains the highest amounts of sugars were detected after one week of incubation. CLSM analysis confirmed the overproduction of N-acetyloglucosamine in biofilms after cultivation in nutrient and stress conditions, with the level 111-1134%, which varied depending on the P. mirabilis strain and the test factor. PMID:24644556

Moryl, Magdalena; Kaleta, Aleksandra; Strzelecki, Kacper; Ró?alska, Sylwia; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-01-01

33

Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management.

Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

2014-01-01

34

Sublethal ciprofloxacin treatment leads to resistance via antioxidant systems in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

This study investigates new aspects of the possible role of antioxidant defenses in the mechanisms of resistance to ciprofloxacin in Proteus mirabilis. Four ciprofloxacin-resistant variants (CRVs), selected in vitro by repeated cultures in a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) concentration of ciprofloxacin, attained different levels of antibiotic resistance and high Ferric reducing antioxidant power, with 10(-6) frequencies. However, no mutations occurred in positions 83 or 87 of gyrA, 464 or 466 of gyrB, or 78, 80 or 84 of parC, suggesting that resistance took place without these typical mutations in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV. Assays with ciprofloxacin and the pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone showed that in addition to the antioxidant mechanisms, the influx/efflux mechanism also contributed to the increase in the resistance to ciprofloxacin in one CRV. Moreover, lipid oxidation to malondialdehyde and protein oxidation to carbonyls and advanced oxidation protein products were higher in sensitive than in the resistant strains, as a new factor involved in the mechanisms of resistance in P. mirabilis. The oxidative stress cross-resistance to telluride in CRVs enhanced the role of the antioxidants in the ciprofloxacin resistance of P. mirabilis, which was reinforced during the assays of reduction of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin by glutathione and ascorbic acid. PMID:22092852

Aiassa, Virginia; Barnes, Ana I; Smania, Andrea M; Albesa, Inés

2012-02-01

35

Putrescine Importer PlaP Contributes to Swarming Motility and Urothelial Cell Invasion in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437–446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant.

Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N.

2013-01-01

36

Inhibition of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis adhesion and biofilm formation on medical grade silicone surface.  

PubMed

Silicone has been utilized extensively for biomedical devices due to its excellent biocompatibility and biodurability properties. However, its surface is easily colonized by bacteria which will increase the probability of nosocomial infection. In the present work, a hydrophilic antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) layer has been grafted on medical grade silicone surface pre-treated with polydopamine (PDA). The increase in hydrophilicity was confirmed from contact angle measurement. Bacterial adhesion tests showed that the PDA-CMCS coating reduced the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis by ? 90%. The anti-adhesion property was preserved even after the aging of the functionalized surfaces for 21 days in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and also after autoclaving at 121°C for 20 min. Both E. coli and P. mirabilis readily form biofilms on the pristine surface under static and flow conditions but with the PDA-CMCS layer, biofilm formation is inhibited. The flow experiments indicated that it is more difficult to inhibit biofilm formation by the highly motile P. mirabilis as compared to E. coli. No significant cytotoxicity of the modified substrates was observed with 3T3 fibroblasts. PMID:21956834

Wang, Rong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Shi, Zhilong; Kang, En-Tang; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Chiong, Edmund

2012-02-01

37

Detection and analysis of the temperature-dependent growth characteristics of Proteus mirabilis using a bulk acoustic wave ammonia sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bulk acoustic wave ammonia sensor has been applied to monitor the growth of Proteus mirabilis based on the growth response equation. The influence of temperature on the bacterial growth has been investigated by using the Arrhenius law. A temperature-dependent model, called the Schoolfield model, has also been used to fit the maximum specific growth rates (?m) at different temperature.

Huwei Tan; Ronghui Wang; Hong Zhang; Lihua Nie; Shouzhuo Yao

1997-01-01

38

The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection of the rats. In this regard, we found the hfq mutant induced higher IL-8 and MIF levels of uroepithelial cells and displayed reduced intra-macrophage survival. The loss of hfq affected bacterial abilities to handle H2O2 and osmotic pressures and to grow at 50°C. Relative to wild-type, the hfq mutant had reduced motility, fewer flagella and less hemolysin expression and was less prone to form biofilm and to adhere to and invade uroepithelial cells. The MR/P fimbrial operon was almost switched to the off phase in the hfq mutant. In addition, we found the hfq mutant exhibited an altered outer membrane profile and had higher RpoE expression, which indicates the hfq mutant may encounter increased envelope stress. With the notion of envelope disturbance in the hfq mutant, we found increased membrane permeability and antibiotic susceptibilities in the hfq mutant. Finally, we showed that Hfq positively regulated the RpoS level and tolerance to H2O2 in the stationary phase seemed largely mediated through the Hfq-dependent RpoS expression. Together, our data indicate that Hfq plays a critical role in P. mirabilis to establish UTIs by modulating stress responses, surface structures and virulence factors. This study suggests Hfq may serve as a scaffold molecule for development of novel anti-P. mirabilis drugs and P. mirabilis hfq mutant is a vaccine candidate for preventing UTIs.

Wang, Min-Cheng; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

2014-01-01

39

Comprehensive inhibitor profiling of the Proteus mirabilis metalloprotease virulence factor ZapA (mirabilysin).  

PubMed

In this study we report for the first time the comprehensive inhibitor profiling of the Proteus mirabilis metalloprotease virulence factor ZapA (mirabilysin) using a 160 compound focused library of N-alpha mercaptoamide dipeptides, in order to map the S(1)(') and S(2)(') binding site preferences of this important enzyme. This study has revealed a preference for the aromatic residues tyrosine and tryptophan in P(1)(') and aliphatic residues in P(2)('). From this library, six compounds were identified which exhibited sub- to low-micromolar K(i) values. The most potent inactivator, SH-CO(2)-Y-V-NH(2) was capable of preventing ZapA-mediated hydrolysis of heat-denatured IgA, indicating that these inhibitors may be capable of protecting host proteins against ZapA during colonisation and infection. PMID:21762758

Carson, Louise; Cathcart, George R; Scott, Christopher J; Hollenberg, Morley D; Walker, Brian; Ceri, Howard; Gilmore, Brendan F

2011-10-01

40

ZapA, a possible virulence factor from Proteus mirabilis exhibits broad protease substrate specificity.  

PubMed

The opportunistic bacterium Proteus mirabilis secretes a metalloprotease, ZapA, considered to be one of its virulence factors due to its IgA-degrading activity. However, the substrate specificity of this enzyme has not yet been fully characterized. In the present study we used fluorescent peptides derived from bioactive peptides and the oxidized beta-chain of insulin to determine the enzyme specificity. The bradykinin- and dynorphin-derived peptides were cleaved at the single bonds Phe-Ser and Phe-Leu, with catalytic efficiencies of 291 and 13 mM/s, respectively. Besides confirming already published cleavage sites, a novel cleavage site was determined for the beta-chain of insulin (Val-Asn). Both the natural and the recombinant enzyme displayed the same broad specificity, demonstrated by the presence of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, charged and uncharged amino acid residues at the scissile bonds. Native IgA, however, was resistant to hydrolysis by ZapA. PMID:11668347

Anéas, M A; Portaro, F C; Lebrun, I; Juliano, L; Palma, M S; Fernandes, B L

2001-11-01

41

Regulation of the swarming inhibitor disA in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The disA gene encodes a putative amino acid decarboxylase that inhibits swarming in Proteus mirabilis. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and deletion analysis were used to identify the disA promoter. The use of a disA-lacZ fusion indicated that FlhD(4)C(2), the class I flagellar master regulator, did not have a role in disA regulation. The putative product of DisA, phenethylamine, was able to inhibit disA expression, indicating that a negative regulatory feedback loop was present. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify regulators of disA and revealed that umoB (igaA) was a negative regulator of disA. Our data demonstrate that the regulation of disA by UmoB is mediated through the Rcs phosphorelay. PMID:23687266

Szostek, Bree A; Rather, Philip N

2013-07-01

42

Characterization of multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis isolated from chicken carcasses.  

PubMed

This study investigated genotypic and phenotypic features of antimicrobial resistance of Proteus mirabilis isolated from chicken products. Resistance to a broad spectrum of antimicrobial agents was commonly observed in the test isolates: tetracycline (100%), sulfamethoxazole (80%), chloramphenicol (66%), nalidixic acid (66%), ampicillin (60%), streptomycin (56%), ciprofloxacin (52%), kanamycin (46%), gentamicin (38%), ceftriaxone (36%), cefotaxime (34%), ceftiofur (22%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%). The ?-lactamases TEM-1 and OXA-1, and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases CTX-M-9 and CMY-2 were detected in ?-lactam-resistant isolates. Single mutations in gyrA and parC were found to be contributing factors for fluoroquinolone resistance. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA and qnrD were detected in six fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates and a superintegron element, SXT, was detected in 14 out of 50 isolates. The high-level of antimicrobial resistance of P. mirabilis isolated from food products may pose a potential threat to public health. PMID:23351030

Wong, Marcus Ho Yin; Wan, Hoi Ying; Chen, Sheng

2013-02-01

43

Macromolecular oxidation in planktonic population and biofilms of Proteus mirabilis exposed to ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

Diverse chemical and physical agents can alter cellular functions associated with the oxidative metabolism, thus stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proteins and lipids may be important targets of oxidation, and this may alter their functions in planktonic bacterial physiology. However, more research is necessary to determine the precise role of cellular stress and macromolecular oxidation in biofilms. The present study was designed to evaluate whether ciprofloxacin (CIP) could oxidize the lipids to malondialdehyde (MDA) and the proteins to carbonyl residues and to advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in planktonic populations and biofilms of Proteus mirabilis. Incubation with CIP generated an increase of lipid and protein oxidation in planktonic cells, with a greater effect found in sensitive strains than resistant ones. Biofilms showed higher basal levels of oxidized macromolecules than planktonic bacteria, but there was no significant enhancement of MDA, carbonyl, or AOPP with antibiotic. The results described in this article show the high basal levels of MDA, carbonyls, and AOPP, with aging and loss of proliferation of biofilms cells. The low response to the oxidative stress generated by CIP in biofilms helps to clarify the resistance to antibiotics of P. mirabilis when adhered to surfaces. PMID:23771722

Aiassa, Virginia; Barnes, Ana I; Albesa, Inés

2014-01-01

44

Integrons, ?-lactamase and qnr genes in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.  

PubMed

Thirty-three isolates of Proteus mirabilis and two P. vulgaris were examined for their antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons with regard to gene cassette content, and genetic determinants of ?-lactam and low-level quinolone resistance. Integrons were detected in 23 (69.7%) P. mirabilis isolates; six (18.2%) of them had class 1 integrons, 11 (33.3%) possessed class 2 integrons and six (18.2%) carried integrons of both classes. One P. vulgaris strain possessed class 1 and class 2 integrons. The presence of integrons was associated with increased frequency of resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and co-trimoxazole. Moreover, integron presence was associated with increased resistance range in terms of both the number of antimicrobials and the number of classes of antimicrobials to which a strain was resistant. Class 1 integrons contained aadA1, aadB-aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, bla(PSE-1) -aadA1 and aacA4-orfA-orfB-aadA1 gene cassette arrays, whereas all class 2 integrons had a dfrA1-sat2-aada1 array. ?-lactamase genes not associated with integrons comprised bla(TEM-2) , bla(DHA-1) and bla(CMY-15) . Plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance was determined by qnrD and qnrS1 genes. This is the first report of P. vulgaris strains harbouring qnrD genes in Europe. PMID:23030307

Mokracka, Joanna; Gruszczy?ska, Beata; Kaznowski, Adam

2012-12-01

45

Decolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue 13 by Proteus mirabilis LAG.  

PubMed

The decolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue 13 (RB13), a sulphonated reactive azo dye, was achieved under static anoxic condition with a bacterial strain identified as Proteus mirabilis LAG, which was isolated from a municipal dump site soil near Lagos, Nigeria. This strain decolorized RB13 (100mg/l) within 5h. The formation of aromatic amine prior to mineralization was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), which revealed the disappearance of certain peaks, particularly those of the aromatic C-H bending at 600-800 cm(-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GCMS) analysis of the dye metabolite showed the presence of sodium-2(2-formyl-2-hydroxyvinyl) benzoate, with a tropylium cation as its base peak, this suggested the breakage of naphthalene rings in RB13. The detection of azoreductase and laccase activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. In addition, phytotoxicity studies indicated the detoxification of RB13 to non-toxic degradation products by this strain of P. mirabilis LAG. PMID:20832936

Olukanni, O D; Osuntoki, A A; Kalyani, D C; Gbenle, G O; Govindwar, S P

2010-12-15

46

Outer Membrane Antigens of the Uropathogen Proteus mirabilis Recognized by the Humoral Response during Experimental Murine Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium, is a frequent cause of complicated urinary tract infections in those with functional or anatomical abnormalities or those subject to long-term catheterization. To system- atically identify surface-exposed antigens as potential vaccine candidates, proteins in the outer membrane fraction of bacteria were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subjected to Western blotting with sera from mice

Greta R. Nielubowicz; Sara N. Smith; Harry L. T. Mobley

2008-01-01

47

New Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Gene, qnrC, Found in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of qnrA in 1998, two additional qnr genes, qnrB and qnrS, have been described. These three plasmid-mediated genes contribute to quinolone resistance in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis was isolated from an outpatient with a urinary tract infection and was susceptible to most antimicrobials but resistant to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Plasmid pHS10,

Minghua Wang; Qinglan Guo; Xiaogang Xu; Xiaoying Wang; Xinyu Ye; Shi Wu; David C. Hooper; Minggui Wang

2009-01-01

48

Cell differentiation of Proteus mirabilis is initiated by glutamine, a specific chemoattractant for swarming cells.  

PubMed

Swarming by Proteus mirabilis involves differentiation of typical short vegetative rods into filamentous hyperflagellated swarm cells which undergo cycles of rapid and co-ordinated population migration across surfaces and exhibit high levels of virulence gene expression. By supplementing a minimal growth medium (MGM) unable to support swarming migration we identified a single amino acid, glutamine, as sufficient to signal initiation of cell differentiation and migration. Bacteria isolated from the migrating edge of colonies grown for 8 h with glutamine as the only amino acid were filamentous and synthesized the characteristic high levels of flagellin and haemolysin. In contrast, addition of the other 19 common amino acids (excluding glutamine) individually or in combination did not initiate differentiation even after 24 h, cells remaining typical vegetative rods with basal levels of haemolysin and flagellin. The glutamine analogue gamma-glutamyl hydroxamate (GH) inhibited swarming but not growth of P. mirabilis on glutamine MGM and transposon mutants defective in glutamine uptake retained their response to glutamine signalling and its inhibition by GH, suggesting that differentiation signalling by glutamine may be transduced independently of the cellular glutamine transport system. Levels of mRNA transcribed from the haemolysin (hpmA) and flagellin (fliC) genes were low in vegetative cells grown on MGM without glutamine or with glutamine and GH, but were specifically increased c. 40-fold during glutamine-dependent differentiation. In liquid glutamine-MGM cultures, differentiation to filamentous hyper-flagellated hyper-haemolytic swarm cells occurred early in the exponential phase of growth, and increased concomitantly with the concentration of glutamine from a 0.1 mM threshold up to 10 mM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8497197

Allison, C; Lai, H C; Gygi, D; Hughes, C

1993-04-01

49

Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL Is Viscosity Dependent and Requires Extragenic DNA  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr?) but do swim (Swm+) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed “pseudoswarmer cells,” that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr? phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity.

Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius

2013-01-01

50

[Evaluation of biofilm formation by Proteus mirabilis strains on the surface of different biomaterials by two methods].  

PubMed

Proteus sp. rods are opportunistic human pathogens. These microorganisms are mainly isolated from patients with urinary tract infections, particularly associated with using of biomaterials, on which surface they can form biofilm. The aim of our study was the estimation of Proteus mirabilis rods ability to form biofilm on the surface of 5 biomaterials (polychloride vinyl, silicone latex, polypropylene, polybutylen teraftalan and polyamide) using Richards' and quantitative method and comparison results of both methods. A total number of 84 P. mirabilis strains were included into the study. All of them were isolated in the Department of Clinical Microbiology University Hospital no. 1 of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru? between 2005 and 2008. Examined P. mirabilis strains formed heavy biofilm with statistically significantly values on the surface of silicone latex than on polychloride vinyl and on polypropylene surface than polybutylen teraftalen or polyamide. High correlation of both methods was established. The Richards' method can be used to quick identification of P. mirabilis biofilm. PMID:22184907

Kwieci?ska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

2011-01-01

51

Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4.7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

2010-11-01

52

Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options.

Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

2008-01-01

53

The Lon protease regulates swarming motility and virulence gene expression in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

A mini-Tn5lacZ1 transposon insertion in a gene encoding an orthologue of the Lon protease conferred a hyper-swarming phenotype on Proteus mirabilis. The lon mutation increased the accumulation of mRNA for representative class 1 (flhDC), class 2 (fliA) and class 3 (flaA) genes during swarmer cell differentiation. In addition, the stability of the FlhD protein was fourfold higher in the lon : mini-Tn5lacZ1 background. Expression of a single-copy lon : lacZ fusion increased during the swarming cycle and reached peak levels of expression at a point just after swarmer cell differentiation had initiated. In liquid media, a condition normally non-permissive for swarming, the lon : : mini-Tn5lacZ1 insertion resulted in motile, highly elongated cells that overexpressed flagellin. Finally, the lon : : mini-Tn5lacZ1 mutation was shown to result in increased expression of the hpmBA and zapA virulence genes during swarmer cell differentiation. PMID:18628491

Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

2008-08-01

54

Swarming-coupled expression of the Proteus mirabilis hpmBA haemolysin operon.  

PubMed

The HpmA haemolysin toxin of Proteus mirabilis is encoded by the hpmBA locus and its production is upregulated co-ordinately with the synthesis and assembly of flagella during differentiation into hyperflagellated swarm cells. Primer extension identified a sigma(70) promoter upstream of hpmB that was upregulated during swarming. Northern blotting indicated that this promoter region was also required for concomitant transcription of the immediately distal hpmA gene, and that the unstable hpmBA transcript generated a stable hpmA mRNA and an unstable hpmB mRNA. Transcriptional luxAB fusions to the DNA regions 5' of the hpmB and hpmA genes confirmed that hpmB sigma(70) promoter activity increased in swarm cells, and that there was no independent hpmA promoter. Increased transcription of the hpmBA operon in swarm cells was dependent upon a 125 bp sequence 5' of the sigma(70) promoter -35 hexamer. This sequence spans multiple putative binding sites for the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), and band-shift assays with purified Lrp confirmed the presence of at least two such sites. The influence on hpmBA expression of the key swarming positive regulators FlhD(2)C(2) (encoded by the flagellar master operon), Lrp, and the membrane-located upregulator of the master operon, UmoB, was examined. Overexpression of each of these regulators moderately increased hpmBA transcription in wild-type P. mirabilis, and the hpmBA operon was not expressed in any of the flhDC, lrp or umoB mutants. Expression in the mutants was not recovered by cross-complementation, i.e. by overexpression of FlhD(2)C(2), Lrp or UmoB. Expression of the zapA protease virulence gene, which like hpmBA is also upregulated in swarm cells, did not require Lrp, but like flhDC it was upregulated by UmoB. The results indicate intersecting pathways of control linking virulence gene expression and swarm cell differentiation. PMID:12101306

Fraser, Gillian M; Claret, Laurent; Furness, Richard; Gupta, Srishti; Hughes, Colin

2002-07-01

55

Swarming-coupled expression of the Proteus mirabilis hpmBA haemolysin operon  

PubMed Central

The HpmA haemolysin toxin of Proteus mirabilis is encoded by the hpmBA locus and its production is upregulated co-ordinately with the synthesis and assembly of flagella during differentiation into hyperflagellated swarm cells. Primer extension identified a ?70 promoter upstream of hpmB that was upregulated during swarming. Northern blotting indicated that this promoter region was also required for concomitant transcription of the immediately distal hpmA gene, and that the unstable hpmBA transcript generated a stable hpmA mRNA and an unstable hpmB mRNA. Transcriptional luxAB fusions to the DNA regions 5? of the hpmB and hpmA genes confirmed that hpmB ?70 promoter activity increased in swarm cells, and that there was no independent hpmA promoter. Increased transcription of the hpmBA operon in swarm cells was dependent upon a 125 bp sequence 5? of the ?70 promoter ?35 hexamer. This sequence spans multiple putative binding sites for the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), and band-shift assays with purified Lrp confirmed the presence of at least two such sites. The influence on hpmBA expression of the key swarming positive regulators FlhD2C2 (encoded by the flagellar master operon), Lrp, and the membrane-located upregulator of the master operon, UmoB, was examined. Overexpression of each of these regulators moderately increased hpmBA transcription in wild-type P. mirabilis, and the hpmBA operon was not expressed in any of the flhDC, lrp or umoB mutants. Expression in the mutants was not recovered by cross-complementation, i.e. by overexpression of FlhD2C2, Lrp or UmoB. Expression of the zapA protease virulence gene, which like hpmBA is also upregulated in swarm cells, did not require Lrp, but like flhDC it was upregulated by UmoB. The results indicate intersecting pathways of control linking virulence gene expression and swarm cell differentiation.

Fraser, Gillian M.; Claret, Laurent; Furness, Richard; Gupta, Srishti; Hughes, Colin

2008-01-01

56

Proteus mirabilis urease: operon fusion and linker insertion analysis of ure gene organization, regulation, and function.  

PubMed Central

Urease is an inducible virulence factor of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Although eight contiguous genes necessary for urease activity have been cloned and sequenced, the transcriptional organization and regulation of specific genes within the Proteus gene cluster has not been investigated in detail. The first gene, ureR, is located 400 bp upstream and is oriented in the direction opposite the other seven genes, ureDABCEFG. The structural subunits of urease are encoded by ureABC. Previously, UreR was shown to contain a putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif 30 residues upstream of a consensus sequence which is a signature for the AraC family of positive regulators; this polypeptide is homologous to other DNA-binding regulatory proteins. Nested deletions of ureR linked to either ureD-lacZ or ureA-lacZ operon fusions demonstrated that an intact ureR is required for urea-induced synthesis of LacZ from either ureA or ureD and identified a urea-regulated promoter in the ureR-ureD intergenic region. However, lacZ operon fusions to fragments encompassing putative promoter regions upstream of ureA and ureF demonstrated that no urea-regulated promoters occur upstream of these open reading frames; regions upstream of ureR, ureE, and ureG were not tested. These data suggest that UreR acts as a positive regulator in the presence of urea, activating transcription of urease structural and accessory genes via sequences upstream of ureD. To address the role of the nonstructural regulatory and accessory genes, we constructed deletion, cassette, and linker insertion mutations throughout the ure gene cluster and determined the effect of these mutations on production and regulation of urease activity in Escherichia coli. Mutations were obtained, with locations determine by DNA sequencing, in all genes except ureA and ureE. In each case, the mutation resulted in a urease-negative phenotype.

Island, M D; Mobley, H L

1995-01-01

57

Perturbation of FliL Interferes with Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Gene Expression and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic, motile bacterium often associated with urinary tract infections. Colonization of urinary tract surfaces is aided by swarmer cell differentiation, which is initiated by inhibition of flagellar rotation when the bacteria first contact a surface. Mutations in fliL, encoding a flagellar structural protein with an enigmatic function, result in the inappropriate production of differentiated swarmer cells, called pseudoswarmer cells, under noninducing conditions, indicating involvement of FliL in the surface sensing pathway. In the present study, we compared the fliL transcriptome with that of wild-type swarmer cells and showed that nearly all genes associated with motility (flagellar class II and III genes) and chemotaxis are repressed. In contrast, spontaneous motile revertants of fliL cells that regained motility yet produced differentiated swarmer cells under noninducing conditions transcribed flagellar class II promoters at consistent levels. Expression of umoA (a known regulator of swarmer cells), flgF, and flgI increased significantly in both swarmer and pseudoswarmer cells, as did genes in a degenerate prophage region situated immediately adjacent to the Rcs phosphorelay system. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmers displayed increased activity, rather than transcription, of the flagellar master regulatory protein, FlhD4C2, and analyses of the fliL parent strain and its motile revertants showed that they result from mutations altering the C-terminal 14 amino acids of FliL. Collectively, the data suggest a functional role for the C terminus of FliL in surface sensing and implicate UmoA as part of the signal relay leading to the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2, which ultimately controls swarmer cell differentiation.

Cusick, Kathleen; Lee, Yi-Ying; Youchak, Brian

2012-01-01

58

Proteus mirabilis ZapA metalloprotease degrades a broad spectrum of substrates, including antimicrobial peptides.  

PubMed

The 54-kDa extracellular metalloprotease ZapA is an important virulence factor of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. While ZapA has the ability to degrade host immunoglobulins (Igs), the dramatic attenuation of virulence in ZapA mutants suggests that this enzyme may have a broader spectrum of activity. This hypothesis was tested by in vitro assays with purified ZapA and an array of purified protein or peptide substrates. The data reveal that many proteins found in the urinary tract are substrates of ZapA proteolysis, including complement (C1q and C3), cell matrix (collagen, fibronectin, and laminin), and cytoskeletal proteins (actin and tubulin). Proteolysis of IgA and IgG was significantly enhanced by conditions that denatured the Igs. It was discovered that the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin 1 (hBD1) and LL-37 are readily cleaved by the enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterial protease capable of cleaving hBD1, a component of the human renal tubule innate immune response. Proteolysis of hBD1 resulted in ca. six peptides, while proteolysis of LL-37 resulted in at least nine products. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of the molecular masses of the reaction products indicated that ZapA preferred no distinct peptide bond. The antimicrobial activity of hBD1 and LL-37 was significantly reduced following ZapA treatment, suggesting that proteolysis results in inactivation of these peptides. The data suggest that a function of ZapA during urinary tract infections is the proteolysis of antimicrobial peptides associated with the innate immune response. PMID:15322010

Belas, Robert; Manos, Jim; Suvanasuthi, Rooge

2004-09-01

59

Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components.

Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2012-01-01

60

Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity.  

PubMed

Background.?Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods.?A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results.?Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions.?We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L T

2014-05-01

61

Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.  

PubMed

Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000?g/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24239192

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

2014-01-01

62

Outbreak caused by Proteus mirabilis isolates producing weakly expressed TEM-derived extended-spectrum ?-lactamase in spinal cord injury patients with recurrent bacteriuria.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) molecular characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from urine of spinal cord injury patients. A incorrectly detected TEM-24-producing clone and a new weakly expressed TEM-derived ESBL were discovered. In such patients, ESBL detection in daily practice should be improved by systematic use of a synergy test in strains of P. mirabilis resistant to penicillins. PMID:21888562

Cremet, Lise; Bemer, Pascale; Rome, Joanna; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Navas, Dominique; Bourigault, Celine; Guillouzouic, Aurelie; Caroff, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Asseray, Nathalie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Corvec, Stephane

2011-12-01

63

Serum Immunoglobulin Response and Protection from Homologous Challenge by Proteus mirabilis in a Mouse Model of Ascending Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that experimental Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection in mice would protect against homologous bladder rechallenge. Despite production of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM (median titers of 1:320 and 1:80, respectively), vaccinated (infected and antibiotic-cured) mice did not show a decrease in mortality upon rechallenge; the survivors experienced only modest protection from infection (mean log10 number of CFU of P. mirabilis Nalr HI4320 per milliliter or gram in vaccinated mice versus sham-vaccinated mice: urine, 100-fold less [3.5 versus 5.5; P = 0.13]; bladder, 100-fold less [3.1 versus 5.1; P = 0.066]; kidneys, 40-fold less [2.7 versus 4.3; P = 0.016]). Western blots using protein from the wild-type strain and isogenic mutants demonstrated antibody responses to MR/P and PMF fimbriae and flagella. There was no correlation between serum IgG or IgM levels and protection from mortality or infection. There was a trend toward elevated serum IgA titers and protection from subsequent challenge (P ? 0.09), although only a few mice developed significant serum IgA levels. We conclude that prior infection with P. mirabilis does not protect significantly against homologous challenge.

Johnson, David E.; Bahrani, Farah K.; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Drachenberg, Cinthia B.; Hebel, J. Richard; Belas, Robert; Warren, John W.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

1999-01-01

64

Characterization of Proteus mirabilis Precocious Swarming Mutants: Identification of rsbA, Encoding a Regulator of Swarming Behavior  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis swarming behavior is characterized by the development of concentric rings of growth that are formed as cyclic events of swarmer cell differentiation, swarming migration, and cellular differentiation are repeated during colony translocation across a surface. This cycle produces the bull’s-eye colony often associated with cultures of P. mirabilis. How the cells communicate with one another to coordinate these perfectly synchronized rings is presently unknown. We report here the identification of a genetic locus that, when mutated, results in a precocious swarming phenotype. These mutants are defective in the temporal control of swarming migration and start swarming ca. 60 min sooner than wild-type cells. Unlike the wild type, precocious swarming mutants are also constitutive swarmer cells and swarm on minimal agar medium. The defects were found to be localized to a 5.4-kb locus on the P. mirabilis genome encoding RsbA (regulator of swarming behavior) and the P. mirabilis homologs to RcsB and RcsC. RsbA is homologous to membrane sensor histidine kinases of the two-component family of regulatory proteins, suggesting that RsbA may function as a sensor of environmental conditions required to initiate swarming migration. Introduction of a rsbA mutation back into the wild type via allelic-exchange mutagenesis reconstructed the precocious swarming phenotype, which could be complemented in trans by a plasmid-borne copy of rsbA. Overexpression of RsbA in wild-type cells resulted in precocious swarming, suggesting that RsbA may have both positive and negative functions in regulating swarming migration. A possible model to describe the role of RsbA in swarming migration is discussed.

Belas, Robert; Schneider, Rachel; Melch, Michael

1998-01-01

65

ZapA, a virulence factor in a rat model of Proteus mirabilis-induced acute and chronic prostatitis.  

PubMed

Our knowledge of pathogenesis has benefited from a better understanding of the roles of specific virulence factors in disease. To determine the role of the virulence factor ZapA, a 54-kDa metalloproteinase of Proteus mirabilis, in prostatitis, rats were infected with either wild-type (WT) P. mirabilis or its isogenic ZapA(-) mutant KW360. The WT produced both acute and chronic prostatitis showing the typical histological progressions that are the hallmarks of these diseases. Infection with the ZapA(-) mutant, however, resulted in reduced levels of acute prostatitis, as determined from lower levels of tissue damage, bacterial colonization, and inflammation. Further, the ZapA(-) mutant failed to establish a chronic infection, in that bacteria were cleared from the prostate, inflammation was resolved, and tissue was seen to be healing. Clearance from the prostate was not the result of a reduced capacity of the ZapA(-) mutant to form biofilms in vitro. These finding clearly define ZapA as an important virulence factor in both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. PMID:18725420

Phan, Van; Belas, Robert; Gilmore, Brendan F; Ceri, Howard

2008-11-01

66

Elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies to Proteus mirabilis and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli are associated with early rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Antibodies to Proteus mirabilis were previously detected in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the prevalence of antibodies to P. mirabilis and their associations with RA in early synovitis patients. Methods. Two hundred and forty-six patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than 1 yr were prospectively evaluated for 1 yr. Of these patients, 30% had rheumatoid factor

M. M. Newkirk; R. Goldbach-Mansky; B. W. Senior; J. Klippel; H. R. Schumacher Jr; H. S. El-Gabalawy

2005-01-01

67

Development of an operational substrate for ZapA, a metalloprotease secreted by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The protease ZapA, secreted by Proteus mirabilis, has been considered to be a virulence factor of this opportunistic bacterium. The control of its expression requires the use of an appropriate methodology, which until now has not been developed. The present study focused on the replacement of azocasein with fluorogenic substrates, and on the definition of enzyme specificity. Eight fluorogenic substrates were tested, and the peptide Abz-Ala-Phe-Arg-Ser-Ala-Ala-Gln-EDDnp was found to be the most convenient for use as an operational substrate for ZapA. A single peptide bond (Arg-Ser) was cleaved with a Km of 4.6 microM, a k cat of 1.73 s-1, and a catalytic efficiency of 376 (mM s)-1. Another good substrate for ZapA was peptide 6 (Abz-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg-Gln-EDDnp) which was cleaved at a single bond (Phe-Ser) with a Km of 13.6 microM, a k cat of 3.96 s-1 and a catalytic efficiency of 291 (mM s)-1. The properties of the amino acids flanking the scissile bonds were also evaluated, and no clear requirement for the amino acid residue at P1 was found, although the enzyme seems to have a preference for a hydrophobic residue at P2. PMID:10881051

Fernandes, B L; Anéas, M A; Juliano, L; Palma, M S; Lebrun, I; Portaro, F C

2000-07-01

68

Glutamic acid-65 is an essential residue for catalysis in Proteus mirabilis glutathione S-transferase B1-1.  

PubMed Central

The functional role of three conserved amino acid residues in Proteus mirabilis glutathione S-transferase B1-1 (PmGST B1-1) has been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Crystallographic analyses indicated that Glu(65), Ser(103) and Glu(104) are in hydrogen-bonding distance of the N-terminal amino group of the gamma-glutamyl moiety of the co-substrate, GSH. Glu(65) was mutated to either aspartic acid or leucine, and Ser(103) and Glu(104) were both mutated to alanine. Glu(65) mutants (Glu(65)-->Asp and Glu(65)-->Leu) lost all enzyme activity, and a drastic decrease in catalytic efficiency was observed for Ser(103)-->Ala and Glu(104)-->Ala mutants toward both 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and GSH. On the other hand, all mutants displayed similar intrinsic fluorescence, CD spectra and thermal stability, indicating that the mutations did not affect the structural integrity of the enzyme. Taken together, these results indicate that Ser(103) and Glu(104) are significantly involved in the interaction with GSH at the active site of PmGST B1-1, whereas Glu(65) is crucial for catalysis.

Allocati, Nerino; Masulli, Michele; Casalone, Enrico; Santucci, Silvia; Favaloro, Bartolo; Parker, Michael W; Di Ilio, Carmine

2002-01-01

69

Proteus mirabilis glutathione S-transferase B1-1 is involved in protective mechanisms against oxidative and chemical stresses.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of several xenobiotics, including antimicrobial agents and general stress factors such as starvation, heat and osmotic shock, on the modulation of expression of Proteus mirabilis glutathione S-transferase B1-1 (PmGST B1-1). The level of expression of PmGST B1-1 was established by both Western- and Northern-blot experiments. Our results show that several compounds can modulate expression of PmGST B1-1. The level of PmGST B1-1 increased when bacterial cells were exposed to a variety of stresses such as 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, H(2)O(2), fosfomycin or tetracycline. A knock-out gst B gene was also constructed using the suicide vector pKNOCKlox-Ap. Successful inactivation of the wild-type gene was confirmed by PCR, DNA sequence analysis and Western blotting. Under normal culture conditions, this mutant was viable and displayed no significant phenotypic differences compared with the wild-type. However, viability tests revealed that the null mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress in the form of H(2)O(2) and to several antimicrobial drugs when compared with the wild-type. These results suggest that PmGST B1-1 has an active role in the protection against oxidative stress generated by H(2)O(2) and it appears to be involved in the detoxification of antimicrobial agents.

Allocati, Nerino; Favaloro, Bartolo; Masulli, Michele; Alexeyev, Mikhail F; Di Ilio, Carmine

2003-01-01

70

Native flagellin does not protect mice against an experimental Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection and neutralizes the protective effect of MrpA fimbrial protein.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis expresses several virulence factors including MR/P fimbriae and flagella. Bacterial flagellin has frequently shown interesting adjuvant and protective properties in vaccine formulations. However, native P. mirabilis flagellin has not been analyzed so far. Native P. mirabilis flagellin was evaluated as a protective antigen and as an adjuvant in co-immunizations with MrpA (structural subunit of MR/P fimbriae) using an ascending UTI model in the mouse. Four groups of mice were intranasally treated with either MrpA, native flagellin, both proteins and PBS. Urine and blood samples were collected before and after immunization for specific antibodies determination. Cytokine production was assessed in immunized mice splenocytes cultures. Mice were challenged with P. mirabilis, and bacteria quantified in kidneys and bladders. MrpA immunization induced serum and urine specific anti-MrpA antibodies while MrpA coadministered with native flagellin did not. None of the animals developed significant anti-flagellin antibodies. Only MrpA-immunized mice showed a significant decrease of P. mirabilis in bladders and kidneys. Instead, infection levels in MrpA-flagellin or flagellin-treated mice showed no significant differences with the control group. IL-10 was significantly induced in splenocytes of mice that received native flagellin or MrpA-flagellin. Native P. mirabilis flagellin did not protect mice against an ascending UTI. Moreover, it showed an immunomodulatory effect, neutralizing the protective role of MrpA. P. mirabilis flagellin exhibits particular immunological properties compared to other bacterial flagellins. PMID:24771125

Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Rial, Analía; Chabalgoity, José A; Zunino, Pablo

2014-06-01

71

The Novel CTX-M-116 ?-Lactamase Gene Discovered in Proteus mirabilis Is Composed of Parts of the CTX-M-22 and CTX-M-23 Genes  

PubMed Central

The novel ?-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-116 was identified in a Proteus mirabilis nosocomial isolate recovered from the urine of a patient in Moscow in 2005. DNA sequence analysis showed blaCTX-M-116 to be a hybrid gene consisting of 5? blaCTX-M-23 (nucleotides 1 to 278) and 3? blaCTX-M-22 (nucleotides 286 to 876) moieties separated by an intervening putative site of recombination (GTTAAAT). A retrospective analysis of available blaCTX-M genes in the GenBank database revealed 19 blaCTX-M genes that display the same hybrid structure.

Pryamchuk, S.; Kruglov, A.; Abaev, I.; Pecherskikh, E.; Kartsev, N.; Svetoch, E.; Dyatlov, I.

2013-01-01

72

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC ?-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Egyptian Hospitals  

PubMed Central

The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC ?-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC ?-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC ?-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 ?-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt.

Helmy, Mai M.; Wasfi, Reham

2014-01-01

73

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC ? -Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Egyptian Hospitals.  

PubMed

The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to ? -lactam/ ? -lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC ? -lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC ? -lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC ? -lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 ? -lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt. PMID:25003107

Helmy, Mai M; Wasfi, Reham

2014-01-01

74

10?(Z),13?(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrated that 10?(Z), 13?(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications.

Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

2012-01-01

75

Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

2014-06-01

76

[Antibiotic sensitivity of Proteus, Pseudomonas pyocyanea and staphyloccoci isolated from scleroma and ozena patients].  

PubMed

Antibiotic sensitivity of 292 strains of Proteus, 60 strains of Ps, aeruginosa, 309 strains of S. aureus and 88 strains of S. epidermidis isolated from the upper respiratory tract of patients with scleroma and ozena was studied. The cultures of Pr. mirabilis were sensitive to aminoglucosides (54.9-96.2 per cent) and Pr. morganii were sensitive to levomycetin (81.5 per cent) and neomycin (92.6 per cnet). Sensitivity of Pr. vulgaris and Pr. morganii was reliably higher (p less than 0.001) than that of Pr. mirabilis. The strains of Pr. morganii were less sensitive to monomycin (P less than 0.001) and streptomycin (p less than 0.01) as compared to the cultures of other Proteus species tested. The strains of Ps. aeruginosa were sensitive only to gentamicin (90 per cent) and neomycin (81.1 per cent). Most of the strains of S. aureus (85.4-100 per cent) were sensitive to oleadomycin, erythromycin, olemorphocycline, tetraolean, oxacillin, methicillin ceporin, lincomycin, ristomycin, kanamycin, monomycin and gentamicin. Benzylpenicillin (90.8 per cent of the sensitive strains), ampicillin (67.1 per cent), tetracycline (66.7 per cent), levomycetin (68.6 per cent) and streptomycin (38.1 per cent) were less effective. Antibacterial therapy in cases with scleroma and ozena should be directed not only against causative agents of the diseases but also against the microbes developing due to disbacteriosis. Combination of parenteral and local use of the antibiotics in the treatment of chronic clebsiellesis decreased the isolation rate of Proteus and Ps. aeruginosa in the patients. PMID:402886

Krylov, I A

1977-01-01

77

Construction of an MR/P fimbrial mutant of Proteus mirabilis: role in virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, a cause of acute pyelonephritis, produces at least four types of fimbriae, including MR/P (mannose-resistant/Proteus-like) fimbriae. To investigate the contribution of MR/P fimbriae to colonization of the urinary tract, we constructed an MR/P fimbrial mutant by allelic exchange. A 4.2-kb BamHI fragment carrying the mrpA gene was subcloned into a mobilizable plasmid, pSUP202. A 1.3-kb Kanr cassette was inserted into the mrpA open reading frame, and the construct was transferred to the parent P. mirabilis strain by conjugation. Following passage on nonselective medium, 1 of 500 transconjugants screened was found to have undergone allelic exchange as demonstrated by Southern blot. Colony immunoblot, Western immunoblot, and immunogold labeling with a monoclonal antibody to MR/P fimbriae revealed that MrpA was not expressed. Complementation with cloned mrpA restored MR/P expression as shown by hemagglutination, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy. To assess virulence, we challenged 40 CBA mice transurethrally with 10(7) CFU of wild-type or mutant strains. After 1 week, geometric means of log10 CFU per milliliter of urine or per gram of bladder or kidney for the wild-type and mutant strains were as follows: urine, 7.79 (wild type) versus 7.02 (mutant) (P = 0.035); bladder, 6.22 versus 4.78 (P = 0.019); left kidney, 5.02 versus 3.31 (P = 0.009); and right kidney, 5.28 versus 4.46 (P = 0.039). Mice challenged with the wild-type strain showed significantly more severe renal damage than did mice challenged with the MR/P-negative mutant (P = 0.007). We conclude that MR/P fimbriae contribute significantly to colonization of the urinary tract and increase the risk of development of acute pyelonephritis. PMID:7913698

Bahrani, F K; Massad, G; Lockatell, C V; Johnson, D E; Russell, R G; Warren, J W; Mobley, H L

1994-08-01

78

Initiation of swarming motility by Proteus mirabilis occurs in response to specific cues present in urine and requires excess L-glutamine.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. L-Arginine, L-glutamine, DL-histidine, malate, and DL-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Mobley, Harry L T

2013-03-01

79

Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming.

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

2013-01-01

80

ZapA, the IgA-degrading metalloprotease of Proteus mirabilis, is a virulence factor expressed specifically in swarmer cells.  

PubMed

The IgA-degrading metalloprotease, ZapA, of the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis is co-ordinately expressed along with other proteins and virulence factors during swarmer cell differentiation. In this communication, we have used zapA to monitor IgA protease expression during the differentiation of vegetative swimmer cells to fully differentiated swarmer cells. Northern blot analysis of wild-type cells and beta-galactosidase measurements using a zapA:lacZ fusion strain indicate that zapA is fully expressed only in differentiated swarmer cells. Moreover, the expression of zapA on nutrient agar medium is co-ordinately regulated in concert with the cycles of cellular differentiation, swarm migration and consolidation that produce the bull's-eye colonies typically associated with P. mirabilis. ZapA activity is not required for swarmer cell differentiation or swarming behaviour, as ZapA- strains produce wild-type colony patterns. ZapA- strains fail to degrade IgA and show decreased survival compared with the wild-type cells during infection in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (UTI). These data underscore the importance of the P. mirabilis IgA-degrading metalloprotease in UTI. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences adjacent to zapA reveals four additional genes, zapE, zapB, zapC and zapD, which appear to possess functions required for ZapA activity and IgA proteolysis. Based on homology to other known proteins, these genes encode a second metalloprotease, ZapE, as well as a ZapA-specific ABC transporter system (ZapB, ZapC and ZapD). A model describing the function and interaction of each of these five proteins in the degradation of host IgA during UTI is presented. PMID:10361285

Walker, K E; Moghaddame-Jafari, S; Lockatell, C V; Johnson, D; Belas, R

1999-05-01

81

The ability of Proteus mirabilis to sense surfaces and regulate virulence gene expression involves FliL, a flagellar basal body protein.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen that differentiates from a short swimmer cell to an elongated, highly flagellated swarmer cell. Swarmer cell differentiation parallels an increased expression of several virulence factors, suggesting that both processes are controlled by the same signal. The molecular nature of this signal is not known but is hypothesized to involve the inhibition of flagellar rotation. In this study, data are presented supporting the idea that conditions inhibiting flagellar rotation induce swarmer cell differentiation and implicating a rotating flagellar filament as critical to the sensing mechanism. Mutations in three genes, fliL, fliF, and fliG, encoding components of the flagellar basal body, result in the inappropriate development of swarmer cells in noninducing liquid media or hyperelongated swarmer cells on agar media. The fliL mutation was studied in detail. FliL- mutants are nonmotile and fail to synthesize flagellin, while complementation of fliL restores wild-type cell elongation but not motility. Overexpression of fliL+ in wild-type cells prevents swarmer cell differentiation and motility, a result also observed when P. mirabilis fliL+ was expressed in Escherichia coli. These results suggest that FliL plays a role in swarmer cell differentiation and implicate FliL as critical to transduction of the signal inducing swarmer cell differentiation and virulence gene expression. In concert with this idea, defects in fliL up-regulate the expression of two virulence genes, zapA and hpmB. These results support the hypothesis that P. mirabilis ascertains its location in the environment or host by assessing the status of its flagellar motors, which in turn control swarmer cell gene expression. PMID:16166542

Belas, Robert; Suvanasuthi, Rooge

2005-10-01

82

Intranasal immunisation with recombinant Lactococcus lactis displaying either anchored or secreted forms of Proteus mirabilis MrpA fimbrial protein confers specific immune response and induces a significant reduction of kidney bacterial colonisation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infections in humans, can express different fimbriae. MR\\/P fimbriae may contribute to bacterial colonisation, and its structural protein MrpA represents a promising candidate antigen for mucosal vaccination. Commercial complex vaccines have limited, short-lived protection and are incapable of eliciting mucosal responses against putative antigens related to virulence. The development of mucosal live

Paola Scavone; Anderson Miyoshi; Analía Rial; Alejandro Chabalgoity; Philippe Langella; Vasco Azevedo; Pablo Zunino

2007-01-01

83

Characterization and sequence analysis of extended-spectrum-{beta}-lactamase-encoding genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials.  

PubMed

In concert with the development of novel beta-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded beta-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(OXA), and bla(CTX) genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the bla(CMY), bla(ACT), bla(FOX), and bla(DHA) families as well as the bla(KPC) genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of > or =2 microg/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, bla(CTX-M)-type beta-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas bla(SHV) genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC(90) = 2 microg/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting. PMID:19015360

Jones, C Hal; Tuckman, Margareta; Keeney, David; Ruzin, Alexey; Bradford, Patricia A

2009-02-01

84

Chromosomally Encoded blaCMY-2 Located on a Novel SXT/R391-Related Integrating Conjugative Element in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate ?  

PubMed Central

Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that can transfer from the chromosome of a host to the chromosome of a new host through the process of excision, conjugation, and integration. Although SXT/R391-related ICEs, originally demonstrated in Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates, have become prevalent among V. cholerae isolates in Asia, the prevalence of the ICEs among Gram-negative bacteria other than Vibrio spp. remains unknown. In addition, SXT/R391-related ICEs carrying genes conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have never been described. Here we carried out a genetic analysis of a cefoxitin-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate, TUM4660, which revealed the presence of a novel SXT/R391-related ICE, ICEPmiJpn1. ICEPmiJpn1 had a core genetic structure showing high similarity to that of R391 and carried xis and int genes completely identical to those of R391, while an IS10-mediated composite transposon carrying blaCMY-2 was integrated into the ICE. A nucleotide sequence identical to the 3? part of ISEcp1 was located upstream of the blaCMY-2 gene, and other genes observed around blaCMY-2 in earlier studies were also present. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of hot spot 2 and hot spot 4 in ICEPmiJpn1 showed high similarity to that of hot spot 2 in SXTMO10 and with a part of the nucleotide sequence found in P. mirabilis ATCC 29906, respectively. ICEPmiJpn1 was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Citrobacter koseri in conjugation experiments. These observations suggest that ICEs may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes among clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae, which warrants careful observation of the prevalence of ICEs, including SXT/R391-related ICEs.

Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tomoo; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2010-01-01

85

Detection of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp. and Proteus mirabilis in a regional clinical microbiology laboratory.  

PubMed

There are currently no standardized diagnostic tests available for the reliable detection of AmpC beta-lactamases in Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella spp. A study was designed to evaluate a confirmation disk test using cefotetan (CTT) and cefoxitin (FOX) with phenylboronic acid (PBA). It also investigated the most suitable screening concentrations of FOX, ceftriaxone (CRO) and ceftazidime (CAZ) for the detection of AmpC beta-lactamases. A total of 126 control (consisting of 11 laboratory and 115 well-characterized clinical strains) and 29,840 non-repeat clinical isolates were included. FOX with PBA used in a confirmation test and CRO and CAZ as screening agents were found to be unreliable. FOX at >or= 32 mg/L was the best screening agent and CTT with PBA was the best confirmation test. Of the clinical isolates 635 (2%) were found to be resistant to cefoxitin (MIC >or= 32 ug/mL) and 332 (52%) were AmpC positive. E. coli was the most common organism with AmpC beta-lactamases and was mostly present in urines from community patients. It is recommended that laboratories use FOX at 32 mg/L as a screening agent and perform a disk test with CTT and PBA to confirm the presence of an AmpC cephalosporinase in isolates of Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis. This approach is convenient, practical and easy to incorporate into the workflow of a clinical laboratory. False-positive AmpC detection may occur with KPC-producing bacteria when inhibitor-based methods are used. PMID:19456838

Pitout, J D D; Le, P G; Moore, K L; Church, D L; Gregson, D B

2010-02-01

86

Intranasal immunisation with recombinant Lactococcus lactis displaying either anchored or secreted forms of Proteus mirabilis MrpA fimbrial protein confers specific immune response and induces a significant reduction of kidney bacterial colonisation in mice.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infections in humans, can express different fimbriae. MR/P fimbriae may contribute to bacterial colonisation, and its structural protein MrpA represents a promising candidate antigen for mucosal vaccination. Commercial complex vaccines have limited, short-lived protection and are incapable of eliciting mucosal responses against putative antigens related to virulence. The development of mucosal live vaccines using food-grade lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis as antigen vehicle is an attractive alternative and a safe vaccination strategy against P. mirabilis infection. Here, we report the construction of L. lactis strains modified to produce MrpA via two cellular locations, cell wall-anchored and secreted. Protection assays against P. mirabilis infection and evaluation of the immune response generated after immunisation were conducted in a mouse model. MrpA protein was efficiently expressed by L. lactis strain and caused a significant induction of specific serum IgG and IgA in the animals immunised with L. lactis pSEC:mrpA and L. lactis pCWA:mrpA respectively. A significant reduction of renal bacterial colonisation was observed in both groups of mice (P<0.05) after P. mirabilis challenge. This is the first example of a P. mirabilis fimbrial antigen expressed in a food-grade live strain with promising applications in vaccine design. PMID:17540603

Scavone, Paola; Miyoshi, Anderson; Rial, Analía; Chabalgoity, Alejandro; Langella, Philippe; Azevedo, Vasco; Zunino, Pablo

2007-06-01

87

Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute phenotypic confirmatory test to detect the presence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases from 4005 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates.  

PubMed

A subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected for the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends that were positive for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic confirmatory test (n?=?3245) or had an ertapenem MIC of ?0.5 µg ml(-1) (n?=?293), or both (n?=?467), were analysed for ESBL genes. Most ESBL phenotype E. coli or K. pneumoniae possessed an ESBL gene (95.8 and 88.4?%, respectively), and this was 93.1?% if carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were removed. This rate was lower for P. mirabilis (73.4?%) and K. oxytoca (62.5?%). Virtually all ESBL-positive isolates (99.5?%) were cefotaxime non-susceptible [CLSI or European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints)]. Fewer isolates (82?%) were ceftazidime non-susceptible (CLSI breakpoints). In addition, 21.1?% of E. coli, 25?% of K. oxytoca and 78.7?% of P. mirabilis isolates were ceftazidime susceptible but ESBL positive. This suggests that CLSI breakpoints for ceftazidime are too high to detect ESBLs. The lower EUCAST breakpoints detected ESBLs in E. coli and K. oxytoca better, but 59.6?% of ESBL-positive isolates of P. mirabilis were ceftazidime susceptible. For isolates with ertapenem MICs ?0.5 µg ml(-1), more accurate ESBL phenotype analysis was observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae (sensitivity >95?% for both, specificity 94.4 and 54.1?%, respectively). If carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae were excluded, the specificity increased to 78?%. The positive predictive values for the ESBL phenotypic test with E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 97.6 and 81.8?%, respectively, and negative predictive values were 75.9 and 95.2?%, respectively. We therefore suggest that it would be prudent to confirm phenotypic ESBL-positive P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca with molecular analysis. PMID:24478449

Morrissey, Ian; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl; Badal, Robert E

2014-04-01

88

Prevalence and resistance patterns of extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella serovar Stanley in a Korean tertiary hospital.  

PubMed

A total of 100 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 63), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1), and Salmonella serovar Stanley (n = 1), showing resistance to cefoxitin, or returning positive in extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory method, were studied. The isolates were examined by the boronic acid (BA) disk test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate genetic similarities. The concurrence rates for ESBLs by the CLSI and the BA disk test were 97% for E. coli and 96.7% for K. pneumoniae. A total of 41 isolates showing cefoxitin resistance yielded all positive by the BA disk test. All the 33 K. pneumoniae isolates, which showed positive by the BA disk test, were carrying AmpC genes. The TEM and CTX-M types were predominant in E. coli and the SHV and the CIT and/or DHA types were predominant in K. pneumoniae. PFGE analysis showed almost 75% of genetic similarities among K. pneumoniae isolates producing ESBLs and/or AmpC ?-lactamases (AmpCs) as each K. pneumoniae carried variable genes and showed variable antibiotic patterns. Clearly, the BA disk test was a useful method for the detection of ESBLs and AmpCs. In particular, cefoxitin resistance and BA-positive trait of K. pneumoniae do reflect the presence of AmpC genes in the organism. PMID:20854475

Park, Soon Deok; Uh, Young; Lee, Gyusang; Lim, Kwanhun; Kim, Jong Bae; Jeong, Seok Hoon

2010-10-01

89

Bioconversion of l-glutamic acid to ?-ketoglutaric acid by an immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst expressing l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to develop an immobilized whole-cell biocatalytic process for the environment-friendly synthesis of ?-ketoglutaric acid (?-KG) from l-glutamic acid. We compared the suitability of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains overexpressing Proteus mirabilisl-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) as potential biocatalysts. Although both recombinant strains were biocatalytically active, the performance of B. subtilis was superior to that of E. coli. With l-glutamic acid as the substrate, ?-KG production levels by membranes isolated from B. subtilis and E. coli were 55.3±1.73 and 21.7±0.39?g/mg protein/min, respectively. The maximal conversion ratio of l-glutamic acid to ?-KG was 31% (w/w) under the following optimal conditions: 15g/L l-glutamic acid, 20g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5mM MgCl2, 40°C, pH 8.0, and 24-h incubation. Immobilization of whole cells with alginate increased the recyclability by an average of 23.33% per cycle. This work established an efficient one-step biotransformation process for the production of ?-KG using immobilized whole B. subtilis overexpressing P. mirabilisl-AAD. Compared with traditional multistep chemical synthesis, the biocatalytic process described here has the advantage of reducing environmental pollution and thus has great potential for the large-scale production of ?-KG. PMID:24172254

Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

2014-01-01

90

[A complex vaccine in the prevention of staphylococcal, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus infections in esophageal cancer patients].  

PubMed

An analysis of clinico-immunological data has demonstrated a considerable decline in non-specific and specific defences against such major factors of hospital infection in esophageal cancer patients as staphylococcal, blue pus and Proteus bacilli. Immunization with a complex vaccine including concentrated staphylococcal anatoxin, blue pus and Proteus vaccines was shown to stimulate the said factors of anti-infectious immunity and to be followed by a 4.7-fold decrease in the incidence of postoperative pyo-inflammatory complications. The said vaccine may be recommended for prevention of infectious complications in cancer patients since its administration is followed by a low-level reaction matched by a marked increase in immunologic vigor. PMID:3825005

Kochetkova, V A; Moskovtseva, R L; Mamontov, A S

1987-01-01

91

Proteus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Proteus syndrome (OMIM # 176920) (OMIM™ 2005), a rare and highly variable congenital hamartomatous disorder (Gorlin et al. 2001), is a member of a group designated as local “overgrowth diseases ” (Cohen et al. 2002). It consists of asymmetric (mosaic), disproportionate and progressive overgrowth of body parts, connective tissue nevi,\\u000a epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue, vascular and lymphatic malformations, and

Martino Ruggieri; Ignacio Pascual-Castroviejo

92

Properties of an R Factor Which Originated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1822  

PubMed Central

RP1, a group of genes specifying resistance to carbenicillin, neomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline and originating in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was freely transmissible between strains of P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Acquisition of the multiple drug resistance specified by RP1 by these strains was accompanied by acquisition of an extrachromosomal satellite of covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid of molecular weight about 40 million daltons and of buoyant density 1.719 g/cm3 (60% guanine plus cytosine).

Grinsted, John; Saunders, J. R.; Ingram, Lewis C.; Sykes, R. B.; Richmond, M. H.

1972-01-01

93

Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a Proteus urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Genetic, molecular and biological studies indicate that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a severe arthritic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population in developed countries, is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by the microbe, Proteus mirabilis. Elevated levels of specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria have been reported from 16 different countries. The pathogenetic mechanism involves six stages triggered by cross-reactive autoantibodies evoked by Proteus infection. The causative amino acid sequences of Proteus namely, ESRRAL and IRRET, contain arginine doublets which can be acted upon by peptidyl arginine deiminase thereby explaining the early appearance of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in patients with RA. Consequently, RA patients should be treated early with anti-Proteus antibiotics as well as biological agents to avoid irreversible joint damages. PMID:23992372

Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha

2014-05-01

94

Draft Genome Sequence of the Bioelectricity-Generating and Dye-Decolorizing Bacterium Proteus hauseri Strain ZMd44  

PubMed Central

Proteus hauseri ZMd44 (CGMCC 6746), as a crucial biodecolorizing, bioelectricity-generating, and copper-resistant bacterium, is distinguished from the urinary pathogens Proteus penneri and Proteus mirabilis. To further investigate the genetic functions of this strain, the genome sequence and annotation of its open reading frames, which consist of 3,875,927 bp (G+C content, 38.12%), are presented here.

Wang, Nan; Li, Yuzhe; Chen, Yi-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann; Lu, Yinghua

2014-01-01

95

PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

96

Proteus at Sunset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

97

Isolation, identification & characterization of Proteus penneri - a missed rare pathogen  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as P. mirabilis, missing isolates of Proteus penneri. P. penneri is an invasive pathogen capable of causing major infectious diseases still seldom reported in individual cases. We report here the isolation, differentiation, characterization and typing of P. penneri from patients with different clinical infections. Methods: Urine, pus and body fluids collected from patients in intensive care units, wards and out patients departments of a tertiary health care institute from north India were cultured. A total of 61 indole negative Proteus isolates were subjected to extended biochemical tests to differentiate and identify P. penneri from P. mirabilis including failure to produce ornithine decarboxylase (by 0% strains of P. penneri and 100% strains of P. mirabilis) besides P. penneri being uniformly salicin negative, non-utilizer of citrate but ferments sucrose and maltose. Antibiograms and Dienes phenomenon were performed to characterize and type P. penneri isolates besides screening for ?-lactamase production. Results: Eight isolates of P. penneri were identified; four from urine, three from abdominal drain-fluid and one from diabetic foot ulcer. P. penneri was isolated as the sole pathogen in all patients having underlying disease; post-operatively. Swarming was not seen in the first strain on primary isolation and was poor in strain-4. All eight isolates were biochemically homologous but multi-drug resistant (MDR) with resistance to 6-8 drugs (up to 12). ?-lactamase production was seen in three of five isolates while Dienes phenomenon found four distinct types and discriminated strains differing in resistance even with a single drug. Interpretation & Conclusions: A few additional biochemical tests identified P. penneri isolates; it infected patients with underlying disease and strains were MDR and heterogenous.

Kishore, Janak

2012-01-01

98

Recovery Plan: 'Chamaecrista glandulosa' var. 'mirabilis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chamaecrista glandulosa var. mirabilis is listed as endangered. Chamaecrista glandulosa var. mirabilis is a small shrub endemic to the white silica sands of the northern coast of Puerto Rico at elevations near sea level. It is scattered along the southern...

S. Silander

1994-01-01

99

[Immunological activity of a Proteus vaccine administered to volunteers simultaneously with a pyoimmunogen and adsorbed staphylococcal anatoxin].  

PubMed

The comparative study of the immunological activity of Proteus vaccine prepared from soluble antigenic complexes was made after the immunization of volunteers with this vaccine used in the form of a single preparation and in combination with pyoimmunogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine) and/or adsorbed staphylococcal toxoid. The injection of the vaccine in the form of a single preparation and in different combinations increased the ingestion of Proteus cells by neutrophils. The injection of Proteus vaccine simultaneously with pyoimmunogen and staphylococcal toxoid ensured the intensive phagocytosis of staphylococci. All combinations with Proteus vaccine, used in this investigation, stimulated the intensive formation of antibodies to Proteus vaccine strain and Re-glycolipid. Proteus vaccine introduced in combination with adsorbed staphylococcal toxoid essentially stimulated the synthesis of anti-alpha-staphylolysin. PMID:3128030

Levina, L A; Iurova, V A; Kre?nin, L S; Kaverina, K G; Dubova, V G

1987-12-01

100

Proteus: Mythology to modern times  

PubMed Central

Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries.

Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

2012-01-01

101

The amide of galacturonic acid with lysine as an immunodominant component of the lipopolysaccharide core region from Proteus penneri 42 strain.  

PubMed

Most Proteus lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) contain uronic acids or their amides with different amino acids, which together with other negatively charged components account for the acidic character of such LPS molecules. Previous studies have shown the significance of an amide of galacturonic acid with lysine [D-GalA(L-Lys)] for serological specificity of O-antigens from few P. mirabilis strains. In this work, the immunodominant role of GalALys was indicated for the P. penneri 42 LPS core region. The studies also showed the serological identity of core oligosaccharides from P. penneri 42 (O71), P. mirabilis 51/57 (O28) and R14/S1959 strains. PMID:24644555

Palusiak, Agata; Maciejewska, Anna; ?ugowski, Czes?aw; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-01-01

102

Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

Croft, Steven K.

1992-01-01

103

Proteus Syndrome with Multiple Genitourinary Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartomatous disorder comprising a broad spectrum of congenital malformations and overgrowth of multiple tissues. Some rare urogenital malformations have been reported before. This case is unique for the presence of multiple genitourinary anomalies including retroperitoneal cystic mass, intra-abdominal testicle with hematoma and ureterovesical stricture apart from common clinic findings of proteus syndrome.

Ayhan Karabulut; Melih Sunay; Levent Emir; Demokan Erol

2006-01-01

104

1913: Annus mirabilis of esophageal surgery.  

PubMed

Although Sir Ronald Belsey once called the year 1904 "annus mirabilis," it is actually the year 1913 that stands out as the true milestone in esophageal surgery. Within a year, Torek performed the first transpleural resection for cancer in the thoracic esophagus, Zaaijer successfully resected the distal esophagus through the transpleural route, Heller performed the first myotomy for achalasia, and it was also the year of Ach's pioneering transmediastinal esophagectomy. Previously, in 1912, after a series of animal experiments by Beck and Jianu, Roepke successfully used the greater curvature of the stomach as a presternal conduit. Other previous approaches included reconstruction with jejunum (Roux-1907), colon (Kelling-1911), and skin tube (Bircher-1907). Several technical advances made these operations possible, most of all were the giant leaps in the perioperative medicine. PMID:23344774

Kun, Levente; Herbella, Fernando A; Dubecz, Attila

2013-09-01

105

Bactericidal Activity of the Serum of Healthy Beagles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A relatively simple method for testing the bactericidal activity of serum from beagles which gave reproducible results was found. Activity was measurable for a strain of Escherichia coli, but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, or Bacillus ...

G. H. Meade W. E. Clapper

1964-01-01

106

HST BVI Photometry of Triton and Proteus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

BVI photometry of Triton and Proteus was derived from HST images taken in 1997. The VEGAMAG photometric technique was used. Triton was found to be brighter by a few percent than observations of the 1970's and 1980's, as expected due to the increasingly gr...

A. D. Storrs D. Pascu E. N. Wells J. L. Hershey J. R. Rohde

2006-01-01

107

Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motility of Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera, and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short timescales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion

Salman S. Rogers; Thomas A. Waigh; Jian R. Lu

2008-01-01

108

Proteus syndrome: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands.

Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

2012-01-01

109

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Serological Reagents § 866.3410 Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological...reagents. (a) Identification. Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological...derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...

2009-04-01

110

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Serological Reagents § 866.3410 Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological...reagents. (a) Identification. Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological...derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...

2010-04-01

111

Development of an "early warning" sensor for encrustation of urinary catheters following Proteus infection.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation in long-term urinary catheterized patients can lead to encrustation and blockage of urinary catheters with serious clinical complication. Catheter encrustation stems from infection with urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis. Urease generates ammonia from urea, and the elevated pH of the urine results in crystallization of calcium and magnesium phosphates, which block the flow of urine. The aim of this research is to develop an "early warning" silicone sensor for catheter encrustation following bacterial infection of an in vitro bladder model system. The in vitro bladder model was infected with a range of urease positive and negative bacterial strains. Developed sensors enabled catheter blockage to be predicted ~17-24 h in advance of its occurrence. Signaling only occurred following infection with urease positive bacteria and only when catheter blockage followed. In summary, sensors were developed that could predict urinary catheter blockage in in vitro infection models. Translation of these sensors to a clinical environment will allow the timely and appropriate management of catheter blockage in long-term catheterized patients. PMID:21954120

Malic, Sladjana; Waters, Mark G J; Basil, Leo; Stickler, David J; Williams, David W

2012-01-01

112

Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

2012-07-01

113

The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

Nield, Sophie

2008-01-01

114

A first assessment of genetic variation in Welwitschia mirabilis Hook.  

PubMed

Welwitschia mirabilis is a monotypic member of the family Welwitchiaceae which, along with Ephedra and Gnetum species, comprises the gymnospermous order Gnetales. While the monophyly of this order is now widely accepted, the relationship of the Gnetales to other seed plants is still contentious. Despite the unique phylogenetic position of W. mirabilis and its extraordinary physiological and anatomical adaptations, little is known about the plant's phylogeny or its current distribution in isolated locations throughout the Namib Desert. As a preliminary step in the design of an more extensive phylogeographic study, we analyzed 37 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci from 59 plants distributed among five sites separated by distances of 6-440 km. Cluster analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant levels of variation within and between populations and little evidence of inbreeding. Genetic differences between populations reflect the geographic distances separating them. Three of the populations formed discernable genetic clusters, suggesting that little gene flow occurs between populations separated by > or = 18 km. In contrast, gene flow is occurring between two populations separated by only 6 km, supporting previous observations that pollen dispersal is primarily local and that seeds are not readily wind-born over the large distances separating most W. mirabilis populations. As a working hypothesis, we propose that W. mirabilis had a continuous distribution across its current range as much as 105 million years ago, and that as a consequence of subsequent drying trends and physical disturbance, populations became progressively isolated, accounting for their current distribution. PMID:12816961

Jacobson, K M; Lester, E

2003-01-01

115

Proteus aircraft low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

116

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising

Firas A. Al-Bayati

2008-01-01

117

Proteus Syndrome: Report of a Case with Developmental Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to report developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema in a patient with Proteus syndrome. We defined the presence of developmental glaucoma, right pseudopapilledema and myopia in a 4.5-year-old patient with Proteus syndrome. Marked right hemihypertrophy, lipoma, macrodactyly, and asymmetry of the limbs were observed on systemic examination. A cavernoma was also detected in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The patient underwent bilateral goniotomy surgery due to glaucoma. The surgical outcomes were satisfactory in both eyes. In conclusions developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema might be associated with Proteus syndrome.

Yuksel, Nursen; Sarman, Hakan; Bayramgurler, Dilek

2014-01-01

118

Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.

Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

1992-01-01

119

Proteus syndrome: report of a case with developmental glaucoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema in a patient with Proteus syndrome. We defined the presence of developmental glaucoma, right pseudopapilledema and myopia in a 4.5-year-old patient with Proteus syndrome. Marked right hemihypertrophy, lipoma, macrodactyly, and asymmetry of the limbs were observed on systemic examination. A cavernoma was also detected in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The patient underwent bilateral goniotomy surgery due to glaucoma. The surgical outcomes were satisfactory in both eyes. In conclusions developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema might be associated with Proteus syndrome. PMID:24882963

Sarman, Zuleyha Sik; Yuksel, Nursen; Sarman, Hakan; Bayramgurler, Dilek

2014-06-01

120

Mirabilis jalapa mottle virus: a new carlavirus infecting four o'clocks.  

PubMed

Analysis of a next-generation sequence dataset from Mirabilis jalapa resulted in the discovery of a novel virus in the genus Carlavirus (family Betaflexiviridae), mirabilis jalapa mottle virus (MjMV). The complete genome of MjMV was determined to consist of 8315 nucleotides (nt), with the six open reading frames indicative of carlaviruses. MjMV is most similar to kalanchoe latent virus (60% identity) and lily symptomless virus (59% identity). The virus can be transmitted mechanically to Mirabilis, but thus far MjMV has only been shown to infect Mirabilis jalapa, causing a slight leaf mottling and leaf wrinkling phenotype. PMID:21915718

Hatlestad, Gregory J; Elam, Lee; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lloyd, Alan M

2011-11-01

121

PROTEUS: A High-Performance Parallel-Architecture Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus is a high-performance simulator for MIMD multiprocessors. It is fast, accurate, and flexible:it is one to two orders of magnitude faster than comparable simulators, it can reproduce results from realmultiprocessors, and it is easily configured to simulate a wide range of architectures. Proteus providesa modular structure that simplifies customization and independent replacement of parts of architecture.There are typically multiple

Eric A. Brewer; Chrysanthos N. Dellarocas; Adrian Colbrook; William E. Weihl

1992-01-01

122

Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus  

PubMed Central

The motility of Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera, and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short timescales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long timescales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterized by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibers. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e., the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

Rogers, Salman S.; Waigh, Thomas A.; Lu, Jian R.

2008-01-01

123

Antiadhesive activity of the biosurfactant pseudofactin II secreted by the Arctic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudofactin II is a recently identified biosurfactant secreted by Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5, the strain obtained from freshwater from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. Pseudofactin II is a novel compound identified as cyclic lipopeptide with a palmitic acid connected to the terminal amino group of eighth amino acid in peptide moiety. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the last amino acid forms a lactone with the hydroxyl of Thr3. Adhesion is the first stage of biofilm formation and the best moment for the action of antiadhesive and anti-biofilm compounds. Adsorption of biosurfactants to a surface e.g. glass, polystyrene, silicone modifies its hydrophobicity, interfering with the microbial adhesion and desorption processes. In this study the role and applications of pseudofactin II as a antiadhesive compound has been investigated from medicinal and therapeutic perspectives. Results Pseudofactin II lowered the adhesion to three types of surfaces (glass, polystyrene and silicone) of bacterial strains of five species: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and two Candida albicans strains. Pretreatment of a polystyrene surface with 0.5 mg/ml pseudofactin II inhibited bacterial adhesion by 36-90% and that of C. albicans by 92-99%. The same concentration of pseudofactin II dislodged 26-70% of preexisting biofilms grown on previously untreated surfaces. Pseudofactin II also caused a marked inhibition of the initial adhesion of E. faecalis, E. coli, E. hirae and C. albicans strains to silicone urethral catheters. The highest concentration tested (0.5 mg/ml) caused a total growth inhibition of S. epidermidis, partial (18-37%) inhibition of other bacteria and 8-9% inhibition of C. albicans growth. Conclusion Pseudofactin II showed antiadhesive activity against several pathogenic microorganisms which are potential biofilm formers on catheters, implants and internal prostheses. Up to 99% prevention could be achieved by 0.5 mg/ml pseudofactin II. In addition, pseudofactin II dispersed preformed biofilms. Pseudofactin II can be used as a disinfectant or surface coating agent against microbial colonization of different surfaces, e.g. implants or urethral catheters.

2012-01-01

124

A Case of Concurrent Proteus Syndrome and Hemophilia A  

PubMed Central

Background Proteus syndrome is a very rare condition with less than 100 confirmed cases reported worldwide. We report a case of Proteus syndrome in a two-year-old male who has hemophilia A comorbidity. Case Presentation A two-year-old male patient was admitted with the chief complaint of severe bleeding in mouth cavity after trauma for two weeks. At admission he was found to have petechiae on buccal mucosa and fecal discoloration due to GI bleeding. We noted multiple abnormalities in his musculoskeletal system and skin. He had lymph edema in left leg, hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly in both foots and macrocephaly. With the history of severe bleeding and recurrent blood product transfusion, we suspected a hemorrhagic disorder. The reduced level of Factor VIII activity confirmed the diagnosis of hemophilia A. Considering patient's various musculoskeletal abnormalities according to the diagnostic criteria and after ruling out similar disorders the diagnosis of Proteus syndrome was established. Conclusion Because of the variability of clinical features, Proteus syndrome can be confused with other disorders of multiple tissue overgrowth. Our case of Proteus syndrome, who had hemophilia A comorbidity outlines the challenges in diagnosis of such rare combination of diseases.

Hashemieh, Mozhgan; Mansoori, Bahar; Tavakoli, Reza; Sheibani, Koroush

2012-01-01

125

Adhesion of Proteus species to various cell types.  

PubMed

Pathogenic and saprophytic Proteus strains from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections and healthy adults respectively were evaluated with regard to their ability to adhere in vitro to homologous cells (uroepithelial cells from urinary sediment and cultured WISH cells) and heterologous cells (RK-13 and MDCK cells). The effect on attachment of pretreating bacteria with subinhibitory concentrations of piperacillin and sagamicin was also determined for one sensitive and one resistant strain. Fifty percent of the pathogenic Proteus strains demonstrated good adherence to human urinary epithelial cells, whereas saprophytic strains did not adhere. There was a lower rate of attachment to culture cells. Piperacillin and sagamicin in subinhibitory concentrations caused a decrease in the attachment of the sensitive Proteus strain. PMID:6667683

Savoia, D; Martinetto, P; Achino, A; Pugliese, A

1983-12-01

126

Tissue age affects calcification in the scleractinian coral Madracis mirabilis.  

PubMed

In this study, two factorial experiments were used to investigate the role of tissue age in affecting the phenotypic expression of calcification in scleractinian corals. Both experiments tested whether calcification was altered by tissue age and whether corals of different ages exploit plasticity to differing degrees by altering calcification rates under new environmental conditions. To isolate age and size effects, branches of the Caribbean coral Madracis mirabilis were broken into a distal portion that was functionally young and a proximal portion that was functionally old. Fragments were transplanted from a deep (17 m) to a shallow (9 m) site in a Jamaican lagoon to test whether age affected the plasticity of calcification. Both experiments demonstrated that calcification scaled isometrically in the two age groups, and although scaling exponents were indistinguishable statistically among ages, young fragments calcified faster than old fragments. Thus, the effect of age on calcification rate was absolute and independent of size. However, the interactive effect of age and depth was not significant, demonstrating that ability to alter calcification rate (i.e., the extent of phenotypic plasticity for this trait) was unaffected by age. Together, these patterns are consistent with the hypothesis that the proximal modules (i.e., polyps) of M. mirabilis are subject to physiological senescence, as has been reported for other clonal organisms, including algae, fungi, plants, bryozoans, ascidians, and other cnidarians. PMID:17301328

Elahi, Robin; Edmunds, Peter J

2007-02-01

127

Imaging manifestations in Proteus syndrome: an unusual multisystem developmental disorder.  

PubMed

In this review we use images from an 11-year-old male to describe Proteus syndrome, a complex disorder with multisystem involvement and great clinical variability. Our aim is to enhance recognition of the typical imaging findings, which can aid diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:22514103

Kaduthodil, M J; Prasad, D S; Lowe, A S; Punekar, A S; Yeung, S; Kay, C L

2012-09-01

128

Imaging manifestations in Proteus syndrome: an unusual multisystem developmental disorder  

PubMed Central

In this review we use images from an 11-year-old male to describe Proteus syndrome, a complex disorder with multisystem involvement and great clinical variability. Our aim is to enhance recognition of the typical imaging findings, which can aid diagnosis of this rare condition.

Kaduthodil, M J; Prasad, D S; Lowe, A S; Punekar, A S; Yeung, S; Kay, C L

2012-01-01

129

Proteus - Semi-Automatic Interactive Structure-from-Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus is a semi-automatic structure-from-motion implementation that makes it straightforward - even for novice users - to obtain 3D models of real-world objects from digital video sequences. This is fa- cilitated by the user tracing object outlines in key frames of the video. The process of doing so is sup- ported by a novel guidance technique that interac- tively \\

Malte Schwarzkopf; Christian Richardt

2009-01-01

130

Mechanics and control of the cytoskeleton in Amoeba proteus.  

PubMed Central

Many models of the cytoskeletal motility of Amoeba proteus can be formulated in terms of the theory of reactive interpenetrating flow (Dembo and Harlow, 1986). We have devised numerical methodology for testing such models against the phenomenon of steady axisymmetric fountain flow. The simplest workable scheme revealed by such tests (the minimal model) is the main preoccupation of this study. All parameters of the minimal model are determined from available data. Using these parameters the model quantitatively accounts for the self assembly of the cytoskeleton of A. proteus: for the formation and detailed morphology of the endoplasmic channel, the ectoplasmic tube, the uropod, the plasma gel sheet, and the hyaline cap. The model accounts for the kinematics of the cytoskeleton: the detailed velocity field of the forward flow of the endoplasm, the contraction of the ectoplasmic tube, and the inversion of the flow in the fountain zone. The model also gives a satisfactory account of measurements of pressure gradients, measurements of heat dissipation, and measurements of the output of useful work by amoeba. Finally, the model suggests a very promising (but still hypothetical) continuum formulation of the free boundary problem of amoeboid motion. by balancing normal forces on the plasma membrane as closely as possible, the minimal model is able to predict the turgor pressure and surface tension of A. proteus. Several dynamical factors are crucial to the success of the minimal model and are likely to be general features of cytoskeletal mechanics and control in amoeboid cells. These are: a constitutive law for the viscosity of the contractile network that includes an automatic process of gelation as the network density gets large; a very vigorous cycle of network polymerization and depolymerization (in the case of A. proteus, the time constant for this reaction is approximately 12 s); control of network contractility by a diffusible factor (probably calcium ion); and control of the adhesive interaction between the cytoskeleton and the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7

Dembo, M

1989-01-01

131

Cytotoxicity of polyamines to Amoeba proteus: Role of polyamine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that oxidation of polyamines by polyamine oxidases can produce toxic compounds (H2O2, aldehydes, ammonia) and that the polyamine oxidase-polyamine system is implicated, in vitro, in the death of several parasites. Using Amoeba proteus as an in vitro model, we studied the cytotoxicity to these cells of spermine, spermidine, their acetyl derivatives, and their hypothetical precursors. Spermine

E. Schenkel; J. G. Dubois; M. Helson-Cambier; M. Hanocq

1996-01-01

132

Pseudomonas folliculitis.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas folliculitis has been reported by several authors in recent literature. So far, most of the outbreaks involved whirlpools in motels, health spas and private homes. This communication may be the first report of whirlpool folliculitis occurring in an apartment complex. This new clinical entity, which may be misdiagnosed as other pruritic dermatoses, can spread to involve many individuals with significant epidemiologic implications. PMID:21286148

Jen, I

1982-08-01

133

A mutational analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of quinolone resistance proteins QnrA1 and QnrC from Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The first report on the transferable, plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinant qnrA1 was in 1998. Since then, qnr alleles have been discovered worldwide in clinical strains of Gram-negative bacilli. Qnr proteins confer quinolone resistance, and belong to the pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP) family. Several PRP crystal structures have been solved, but little is known about the functional significance of their structural

Qinglan Guo; Jingwei Weng; Xiaogang Xu; Minghua Wang; Xiaoying Wang; Xinyu Ye; Wenning Wang; Minggui Wang

2010-01-01

134

Functional Gene Losses Occur with Minimal Size Reduction in the Plastid Genome of the Parasitic Liverwort Aneura mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneura mirabilis is a parasitic liverwort that exploits an existing mycorrhizal association between a basidiomycete and a host tree. This unusual liverwort is the only known parasitic seedless land plant with a completely nonphotosynthetic life history. The complete plastid genome of A. mirabilis was sequenced to examine the effect of its nonphotosynthetic life history on plastid genome content. Using a

Norman J. Wickett; Yan Zhang; S. Kellon Hansen; Jessie M. Roper; Jennifer V. Kuehl; Sheila A. Plock; Paul G. Wolf; C. W. dePamphilis; Jeffrey L. Boore; Bernard Goffinet

2008-01-01

135

Effects of water flow and branch spacing on particle capture by the reef coral Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaing and Michelotti)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scleractinian coral Madracis mirabilis forms colonies composed of many narrow branches whose spacing varies across habitats; this is especially evident along a depth gradient. Environmental factors such as irradiance and water movement co-vary along this gradient and both factors could have effects on branch spacing. We examined the effects of water flow on particle capture by Madracis mirabilis in

Kenneth P. Sebens; Jan Witting; Brian Helmuth

1997-01-01

136

Classification, Identification, and Clinical Significance of Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella  

PubMed Central

This review presents the current taxonomy of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella, along with the current methods for the identification of each species within the three genera, incorporating both conventional biochemical and commercial methods. While all of these organisms are ubiquitous in the environment, individual case reports and nosocomial outbreak reports that demonstrate their ability to cause major infectious disease problems are presented. Lastly, anticipated antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are reviewed. Many of these organisms are easily controlled, but the advent of newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents has led to some problems of which laboratorians need to be aware.

O'Hara, Caroline Mohr; Brenner, Frances W.; Miller, J. Michael

2000-01-01

137

Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extract of Aloe barbadensis to Clinically Isolated Bacterial Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,\\u000a Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured\\u000a by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations

Ruchi Pandey; Avinash Mishra

2010-01-01

138

Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.

Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

1995-01-01

139

Antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Verbascum sinuatum L. on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of Verbascum sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae) were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against the pathogens causing complicated urine tract infection (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans) disk diffusion method and microdilution method. Some antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics were used as a positive reference standard to determine the

Alper Sener; Basaran Dulger

140

In vitro antimicrobial activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (periplocaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the effect of three different preparations of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, obtained from 2 mg\\/ml each of 70% ethanol, hot and cold aqueous extract, as antimicrobial agents using agar diffusion method. The microbes used in this study consisted of one strain of Salmonella typhimurium, two strains each of Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas

Felix C. Mills-Robertson; Frederick A. Aboagye; George Duker-Eshun; Sylvester Kaminta; Samuel Agbeve

141

Untersuchung verschiedener Bakterienproteinasen und ihre Hemmbarkeit durch natürliche Proteinaseninhibitoren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus mirabilis, citrobacter intermedius, staphylococcus aureus haemolyticus and staphylococcus albus produce extracellular proteinases with maximum activity at pH 7.8. These proteinases are inhibited practically completely by human and animal blood serum. This inhibitory activity of human serum is caused by alpha-2-macroglobulin. Ovomucoid showed nearly the same inhibitory activity as alpha-2-macroglobulin.

H.-M. Theopold; K. Hochstraßer; A. Bauernfeind

1974-01-01

142

IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVE AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to investigate the potential of using aqueous infusion, decoction and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) as natural antibacterial agents against 100 isolates belonging to 10 different species of Gram -ve bacilli viz., Escherichia coli (36), Proteus mirabilis (6), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Enterobacter aerogenes (5), Klebsiella ozaenae (2), Klebsiella pneumoniae (24), Serratia marcescens (4), Salmonella

SABAHAT SAEED; PERWEEN TARIQ

143

Effects of silver on adherence of bacteria to urinary catheters: In vitro studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, mostly from complicated urinary tract infections, showed reduced adherence to silver-treated silicone or latex catheters as compared with latex or silicone catheters. The relative degrees of cell adherence to catheters at 2 h or 18 h, as indicated by radiolabeled cell assays, were in general agreement with

Manal M. Gabriel; Anil D. Sawant; Robert B. Simmons; Donald G. Ahearn

1995-01-01

144

The complete plastid genome sequence of Welwitschia mirabilis: an unusually compact plastome with accelerated divergence rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant member of the family Welwitschiaceae, one of three lineages of gnetophytes, an enigmatic group of gymnosperms variously allied with flowering plants or conifers. Limited sequence data and rapid divergence rates have precluded consensus on the evolutionary placement of gnetophytes based on molecular characters. Here we report on the first complete gnetophyte chloroplast genome

Skip R McCoy; Jennifer V Kuehl; Jeffrey L Boore; Linda A Raubeson

2008-01-01

145

Ossicular discontinuity and exostoses in Proteus syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by mosaic overgrowth of multiple tissues that manifests early in life and is progressive. The presence of unilateral external auditory canal exostoses in a patient who is not a swimmer or surfer is suggestive of PS. However, hearing loss is not a typical feature. Here, we describe exostoses and ossicular discontinuity with conductive hearing loss in a patient with PS. The treatment consisted of canalplasty and ossicular chain reconstruction. A postoperative reduction was demonstrated in the patient's air-bone gap, from 21 dB to 13 dB for the pure tone average (four frequencies) and from 41 dB to 15 dB in the high-frequency range (6,000 to 8,000 Hz). Causes of ossicular discontinuity are discussed. Routine annual audiometric and otolaryngological evaluation should be considered in all patients with temporal bone involvement of PS. PMID:15825577

Doherty, Joni K; Maceri, Dennis R

2005-03-01

146

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3410 Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological...

2013-04-01

147

Optical response of a disordered bicontinuous macroporous structure in the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis.  

PubMed

We studied the structural and optical properties of scales in the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis. Structural characterizations revealed that the scale interior possesses a disordered bicontinuous macroporous structure, resembling a phase-separated structure obtained by spinodal decomposition. Its optical response was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our results show that this structure has interesting optical properties due to the existence of only short-range order and the lack of well-defined local structures. PMID:21867221

Dong, B Q; Zhan, T R; Liu, X H; Jiang, L P; Liu, F; Hu, X H; Zi, J

2011-07-01

148

21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella... spp., Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus ...spp., Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated with...

2013-04-01

149

The Identity of Proteus hydrophilus Bergey et al. and Proteus melanovogenes Miles&Halanan, and their Relation to the Genus Aeromonas Kluyver&van Niel  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Proteus melanovogenes, originally isolated from black-rot in eggs, does not differ from Pr. hydrophilus, the cause of red-leg in frogs, more than different strains in each species differ from one another ; and the two species may be considered as identical. Both species resemble Aerobacter liquefaciens Beijerinck, Pseudmnas fermentans von Wohlzogen Kuhr and Ps. ichthyomia. The divergences from a

ELLEN M. MILES; A. A. JULES

1951-01-01

150

Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

2013-12-01

151

Pseudomonas screening assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

1993-01-01

152

Plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current taxonomy, plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are restricted to rRNA group I organisms belonging to the Gamma subclass of Proteobacteria. Currently, about 21 validly described plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are known. The most important species is P. syringae with more than 50 described pathovars. The pathovar concept is confusing and the taxonomy of P. syringae needs revision. P.

Monica Höfte; PAUL DE VOS

153

Defective cellular immunity to gram-negative bacteria in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed Central

In vitro lymphocyte responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been found to be impaired in cystic fibrosis patients with advanced clinical disease. The responses to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus mirabilis were studied in a similar group of cystic fibrosis patients and normal individuals. Cystic fibrosis patients found to be unresponsive to pseudomonas were also unresponsive to klebsiella, serratia, and proteus. Responsiveness to Staphylococcus aureus was not impaired in cystic fibrosis patients. We postulate that in vitro lymphocyte responses to several gram-negative bacteria require the function of a lymphocyte subpopulation which may be impaired in some cystic fibrosis patients.

Sorensen, R U; Stern, R C; Chase, P; Polmar, S H

1979-01-01

154

Radiographic manifestations of the temporomandibular joint in a case of Proteus syndrome  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder with progressive asymmetrical and disproportionate overgrowth of various tissues of the body. The syndrome is characterized by a wide range of malformations, including craniofacial deformities. Extraoral examination revealed several of the classical craniofacial features of Proteus syndrome: pronounced hemifacial hypertrophy, macrodactyly and hyperostosis. Intraoral examination revealed a high arched palate and gingival hyperplasia. Other findings were unilateral enlargement of the tongue, alveolar growth and dilaceration of the roots of the teeth. There were severe degenerative changes and deformities in the left temporomandibular joint but the oversized condyle was asymptomatic; there was no pain, limitation and deviation at mouth opening. Treatment was not necessary owing to the asymptomatic situation but periodic follow-up with clinical and radiographic examination was considered. The aim of this article is to describe the radiographic manifestations of an asymptomatic condyle malformation and other craniofacial, oral and dental findings in a 33-year-old female patient with known Proteus syndrome.

Yilmaz, E; Kansu, O; Ozgen, B; Akcicek, G; Kansu, H

2013-01-01

155

An ultrastructural study, effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the rabbit spleen cells.  

PubMed

Effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the spleen cells of rabbits were investigated. Control group (n=5) and Proteus treated group (n=5) of New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study. Bacteria were injected to the rabbits in five days periods with increasing dosages for one month. Thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope (Jeol 100CXII). Ultrastructural changes were defined in spleen tissue cells due to the antigenic stimulation of bacteria. Spleen cells observed in control group were in normal structure and cells were in close contact with each other. However, spleen cells of Proteus treated group displayed structural changes with regard to the control group in electron microscopic examinations. Chemotaxis of macrophages, forming of pseudopodia and presence of phagocytic vacuoles were observed. Lymphocytes, the major cells of spleen revealed mitotic activity. In addition, chromatin condensation in nucleus and dilatations in perinuclear space were significant. Interactions of lymphocytes and macrophages were noteworthy. PMID:22726264

Gul, Nursel; Ozkorkmaz, Ebru Gokalp; Kelesoglu, Ilknur; Ozluk, Aydin

2013-01-01

156

A Mosaic Activating Mutation in AKT1 Associated with the Proteus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The Proteus syndrome is characterized by the overgrowth of skin, connective tissue, brain, and other tissues. It has been hypothesized that the syndrome is caused by somatic mosaicism for a mutation that is lethal in the nonmosaic state. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of DNA from biopsy samples obtained from patients with the Proteus syndrome and compared the resultant DNA sequences with those of unaffected tissues obtained from the same patients. We confirmed and extended an observed association, using a custom restriction-enzyme assay to analyze the DNA in 158 samples from 29 patients with the Proteus syndrome. We then assayed activation of the AKT protein in affected tissues, using phosphorylation-specific antibodies on Western blots. RESULTS Of 29 patients with the Proteus syndrome, 26 had a somatic activating mutation (c.49G?A, p.Glu17Lys) in the oncogene AKT1, encoding the AKT1 kinase, an enzyme known to mediate processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Tissues and cell lines from patients with the Proteus syndrome harbored admixtures of mutant alleles that ranged from 1% to approximately 50%. Mutant cell lines showed greater AKT phosphorylation than did control cell lines. A pair of single-cell clones that were established from the same starting culture and differed with respect to their mutation status had different levels of AKT phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS The Proteus syndrome is caused by a somatic activating mutation in AKT1, proving the hypothesis of somatic mosaicism and implicating activation of the PI3K–AKT pathway in the characteristic clinical findings of overgrowth and tumor susceptibility in this disorder. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute.)

Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Teer, Jamie K.; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Finn, Erin M.; Peters, Kathryn; Turner, Joyce; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Bick, David; Blakemore, Laurel; Blumhorst, Catherine; Brockmann, Knut; Calder, Peter; Cherman, Natasha; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Everman, David B.; Golas, Gretchen; Greenstein, Robert M.; Kato, B. Maya; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Miyamoto, Richard T.; Newman, Kurt; Ng, David; O'Brien, Kevin; Rothenberg, Steven; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J.; Singhal, Virender; Tirabosco, Roberto; Upton, Joseph; Wientroub, Shlomo; Zackai, Elaine H.; Hoag, Kimberly; Whitewood-Neal, Tracey; Robey, Pamela G.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Tosi, Laura L.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

2011-01-01

157

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the PROTEUS reactor  

SciTech Connect

An extensive program of reactor physics experiments in GCFR fuel pin lattices has been completed recently at the PROTEUS critical facility located at EIR laboratory in Switzerland. The PROTEUS reactor consists of a central test zone surrounded by a uranium buffer and thermal driver region. The test lattices included a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fuel region with internal and axial blankets of UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and thorium metal. Detailed analysis of the thorium-bearing lattices has been performed at EIR and at ORNL in order to validate nuclear data and methods used for reactor physics analysis of advanced GCFR designs.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Schmocker, U.

1980-01-01

158

Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer. PMID:24390313

Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

2014-04-01

159

42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...group Clostridium perfringens Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter freundii Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Salmonella typhimurium Serratia...

2009-10-01

160

42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...group Clostridium perfringens Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter freundii Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Salmonella typhimurium Serratia...

2010-10-01

161

Pathology of Pseudomonas Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tissue diagnosis is required to distinguish invasive infection from colonization with P aeruginosa. A necrotizing lesion with massive bacterial proliferation, relative tissue neutropenia, and 'Pseudomonas vasculitis' is characteristic of infection with th...

F. D. Foley K. A. Greenawald G. Nash B. A. Pruitt

1969-01-01

162

Proteus - Interactive Annotation-Based 3D Structure-from-Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus is an interactive application that makes it straightforward even for novice users to obtain virtual three-dimensional models of real-world objects from digital video sequences. This is facilitated by the user tracing object outlines in key frames of the video. The process of doing so is supported by a novel guidance technique that interactively \\

Malte Schwarzkopf

163

Excision of a large abdominal wall lipoma improved bowel passage in a Proteus syndrome patient  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that produces multifocal overgrowth of tissue. This report presents a surgical case of a large lipoma in the abdominal wall of a patient with Proteus syndrome. She was diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on certain diagnostic criteria. The neoplasm increased in size gradually, producing hemihypertrophy of her left lower extremity and trunk, and spread to her retroperitoneum and her left abdominal wall. She experienced gradually progressive constipation, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the left lower abdominal wall which measured 12 cm × 8 cm x 6 cm in diameter and encased the left colon. This mass in the abdominal wall was excised. The weight of the excised mass was 1550 g. The histopathological diagnosis of this mass was lipoma. After surgery, the encasement of the left colon was improved, and the patient was able to move her bowels twice per day. The excision of the large lipoma in the abdominal wall contributed to the improved bowel passage in this patient with Proteus syndrome.

Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Kusuda, Shinichi; Nagata, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Koji

2009-01-01

164

Immunodetection and intracellular localization of caldesmon-like proteins in Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Caldesmon immunoanalogues were detected in Amoeba proteus cell homogenates by the Western blot technique. Three immunoreactive bands were recognized by polyclonal antibodies against the whole molecule of chicken gizzard caldesmon as well as by a monoclonal antibody against its C-terminal domain: one major and two minor bands corresponding to proteins with apparent molecular masses of 150, 69, and 60

M. Gagola; W. Klopocka; A. Greebecki; R. Makuch

2003-01-01

165

The simulation of temperature and humidity control system based on PROTEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and humidity controlling system which has the function of alarm memory was designed by PROTEUS software. The MCU AT89C51 was used to control the whole system. The humidity and temperature sensor SHT11 was used as the data collector. The system compare the collecting temperature and humidity data with their normal value to decide whether modifying the temperature and humidity

Xu Xiumei; Pan Jinfeng

2011-01-01

166

Functional morphology of the inner ear and underwater audiograms of Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Octavolateral sensory organs (auditory and lateral line organs) of cave salamander Proteus anguinus are highly differentiated. In the saccular macula of the inner ear the complex pattern of hair cell orientation and the large otoconial mass enable particle displacement direction detection. Additionally, the same organ, through air cavities within the body, enables detection of underwater sound pressure changes thus acting

Boris Bulog; Peter Schlegel

2000-01-01

167

Dienes typing of Proteus strains isolated from barrier-maintalned animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The possible use of Dienes' phenomenon for typing proteus strains as an aid to bacteriological monitoring of barrier-maintained animal units was investigated. It was rare for more than I Dienes' type to be isolated from an individual animal. A persistent relationship between I or 2 Diene's types and each strain of animal was demonstrated, although these same types were

W. Simpson; D. J. C. Simmons

1976-01-01

168

The complete plastid genome sequence of Welwitschia mirabilis: an unusually compact plastome with accelerated divergence rates  

PubMed Central

Background Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant member of the family Welwitschiaceae, one of three lineages of gnetophytes, an enigmatic group of gymnosperms variously allied with flowering plants or conifers. Limited sequence data and rapid divergence rates have precluded consensus on the evolutionary placement of gnetophytes based on molecular characters. Here we report on the first complete gnetophyte chloroplast genome sequence, from Welwitschia mirabilis, as well as analyses on divergence rates of protein-coding genes, comparisons of gene content and order, and phylogenetic implications. Results The chloroplast genome of Welwitschia mirabilis [GenBank: EU342371] is comprised of 119,726 base pairs and exhibits large and small single copy regions and two copies of the large inverted repeat (IR). Only 101 unique gene species are encoded. The Welwitschia plastome is the most compact photosynthetic land plant plastome sequenced to date; 66% of the sequence codes for product. The genome also exhibits a slightly expanded IR, a minimum of 9 inversions that modify gene order, and 19 genes that are lost or present as pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analyses, including one representative of each extant seed plant lineage and based on 57 concatenated protein-coding sequences, place Welwitschia at the base of all seed plants (distance, maximum parsimony) or as the sister to Pinus (the only conifer representative) in a monophyletic gymnosperm clade (maximum likelihood, bayesian). Relative rate tests on these gene sequences show the Welwitschia sequences to be evolving at faster rates than other seed plants. For these genes individually, a comparison of average pairwise distances indicates that relative divergence in Welwitschia ranges from amounts about equal to other seed plants to amounts almost three times greater than the average for non-gnetophyte seed plants. Conclusion Although the basic organization of the Welwitschia plastome is typical, its compactness, gene content and high nucleotide divergence rates are atypical. The current lack of additional conifer plastome sequences precludes any discrimination between the gnetifer and gnepine hypotheses of seed plant relationships. However, both phylogenetic analyses and shared genome features identified here are consistent with either of the hypotheses that link gnetophytes with conifers, but are inconsistent with the anthophyte hypothesis.

2008-01-01

169

Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

Trell, Erik

2012-09-01

170

Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.  

PubMed

Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

2014-06-01

171

[Preventive properties of the blood sera from persons vaccinated with a Proteus vaccine made from soluble antigen complexes].  

PubMed

In experiments of the passive protection of mice the protective properties of sera obtained from humans before and after their immunization with Proteus vaccine used as a monopreparation or in combination with staphylococcal toxoid and/or pyoimmunogen were studied. When introduced in a single subcutaneous injection, Proteus vaccine prepared from soluble antigenic complexes ensured an increase in the protective properties of sera. The second injection of the vaccine essentially enhanced the protective potency of the sera of the immunized donors. The therapeutic injection of Proteus vaccine ensured the essential increase of the protective properties of the sera. This increase could be experimentally detected within at least 25-30 days from the beginning of immunization. The immunization of volunteers with Proteus vaccine in combination with pyoimmunogen and adsorbed staphylococcal toxoid ensured the maximum increase of the protective properties of their sera. PMID:3087123

Levina, L A; Kre?nin, L S; Kaverina, K G; Zdanovskaia, L K; Iurova, V A

1986-04-01

172

Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

2002-01-01

173

Cloning of Multidrug Resistance GenepqrA fromProteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple antibiotic resistance genepqrAwas cloned from the chromosomal DNA of a clinical isolate of Proteus vulgaris881051 intoEscherichia coliKY2563. The MICs of quinolones tetracycline, cephalosporin, and chloramphenicol for transformant strain DNS7020 were from 8 to 32 times higher than those for the parent strain, KY2563. The level of expression of outer membrane protein F (OmpF) by DNS7020 was lower than

HIROKO ISHIDA; HIROYUKI FUZIWARA; YUKI KAIBORI; TADASHI HORIUCHI; KENICHI SATO; ANDYASUAKI OSADA

1995-01-01

174

Applications of Monte Carlo methods for the analysis of MHTGR case of the PROTEUS benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo methods, as implemented in the MCNP code, have been used to analyze the neutronics characteristics of benchmarks related to Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. The benchmarks are idealized versions of the Japanes (VHTRC) and Swiss (PROTEUS) facilities and an actual configurations of the PROTEUS Configuration I experiment. The purpose of the unit cell benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, critical bucklings, migration lengths, reaction rates and spectral indices. The purpose of the full reactors benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, reaction rates, spectral indices, neutron balances, reaction rates profiles, temperature coefficients of reactivity and effective delayed neutron fractions. All of these parameters can be calculated by MCNP, which can provide a very detailed model of the geometry of the configurations, from fuel particles to entire fuel assemblies, using at the same time a continuous energy model. These characteristics make MCNP a very useful tool to analyze these MHTGR benchmarks. We have used the MCNP latest version, 4.x, eld = 01/12/93 with an ENDF/B-V cross section library. This library does not yet contain temperature dependent resonance materials, so all calculations correspond to room temperature, T = 300{degree}K. Two separate reports were made -- one for the VHTRC, the other for the PROTEUS benchmark.

Difilippo, F.C.

1994-04-01

175

Small RNAs of Pseudomonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have important regulatory functions in bacteria. In Pseudomonas spp., about 40 sRNAs have been reported until the end of 2008, a number that almost certainly is an underestimate. We provide\\u000a a summary of the coding regions for these sRNAs is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The functions of some Pseudomonas sRNAs can be deduced from those of homologous well-characterized

Elisabeth Sonnleitner; Nicolas González; Dieter Haas

176

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors.

Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

2014-01-01

177

Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves  

PubMed Central

Background: Theobjective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL)(Nyctaginaceae) leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential.

Singh, Manjit; Kumar, Vijender; Singh, Ishpinder; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, Ajudhia Nath

2010-01-01

178

Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.

Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

2009-02-01

179

Pseudomonas et apparentés  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-negative nonfermenting rods have been for most of them initially accomodated in the genus Pseudomonas. Their taxonomic position has considerably changed as a result of successive genomic studies. They are now reclassified in new families and separate genera on the basis of phenotypic (growth parameters) and genotypic characteristics (% G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis).For identification in

Henri Monteil; Colette Harf-Monteil

2002-01-01

180

Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

2013-07-01

181

Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation. PMID:21361996

Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

2011-07-01

182

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the proteus reactor  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analysis has been completed for the ThO/sub 2/ and Th-metal axial blanket experiments performed at the Swiss PROTEUS critical facility in order to compare reaction rates and neutron spectra measured in prototypic GCFR configurations with calculated results. The PROTEUS configurations allowed the analysis of infinitely dilute thorium data in a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fast lattice spectrum at core center as well as the analysis of resonance self-shielding effects in the thorium-bearing axial blankets. These comparisons indicate that significant deficiencies still exist in the latest evaluated infinitely dilute thorium data file. Specifically, the analysis showed that the /sup 232/Th capture is underpredicted by ENDF/B-IV data, and the discrepancies are further exaggerated by ENDF/B-V data. On the other hand, ENDF/B-V /sup 232/Th fission data appear to be significantly improved relative to ENDF/B-IV data, while discrepancies are extremely large for the (n,2n) process in both data files. Finally, the (n,n') cross sections for thorium also appear improved in ENDF/B-V, except for a small energy range just above the 50 keV threshold. Therefore, these combined data deficiencies suggest that relatively large uncertainties should be associated with many of the results obtained from recent fast reactor alternate fuel cycle analyses. 38 figures, 12 tables.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1980-12-01

183

Copper Response of Proteus hauseri Based on Proteomic and Genetic Expression and Cell Morphology Analyses.  

PubMed

The copper response of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 was determined using one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry for a similarity analysis of proteins isolated from P. hauseri ZMd44 cultured in CuSO4-bearing LB medium. Candidate proteins identified as a copper-transporting P-type ATPase (CTPP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), flagellin (Fla), and outer membrane proteins (Omps) were the major copper-associated proteins in P. hauseri. In a comparative analysis of subcellular (i.e., periplasmic, intracellular, and inner membranes) and cellular debris, proteomics analysis revealed a distinct differential expression of proteins in P. hauseri with and without copper ion exposure. These findings were consistent with the transcription level dynamics determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Based on a genetic cluster analysis of copper-associated proteins from P. hauseri, Fla and one of the Omps showed greater diversity in their protein sequences compared to those of other Proteus species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the observed growth on LB agar plates showed that the swarming motility of cells was significantly suppressed and inhibited upon Cu(II) exposure. Thus, copper stress could have important therapeutic significance due to the loss of swarming motility capacity in P. hauseri, which causes urinary tract infections. PMID:24752937

Ng, I-Son; Zheng, Xuesong; Wang, Nan; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Xia; Lu, Yinghua

2014-07-01

184

Antimicrobial peptides fromMirabilis jalapa andAmaranthus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNAs encoding the seed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) fromMirabilis jalapa (Mj-AMP2) andAmaranthus caudatus (Ac-AMP2) have previously been characterized and it was found that Mj-AMP2 and Ac-AMP2 are processed from a precursor preprotein and preproprotein, respectively [De Bolleet al., Plant Mol Biol 28:713–721 (1995) and 22:1187–1190 (1993), respectively]. In order to study the processing, sorting and biological activity of these antimicrobial

Miguel F. C. Bolle; Rupert W. Osborn; Inge J. Goderis; Liesbet Noe; David Acland; Cliff A. Hart; Sophie Torrekens; Fred Leuven; Willem F. Broekaert

1996-01-01

185

Structure of the alanopine-containing O-polysaccharide and serological cross-reactivity of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438 classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O76.  

PubMed

The O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438, and the following structure was established by chemical methods and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: ?3)-?-d-Quip4NAlo-(1?3)-?-d-Galp6Ac-(1?6)-?-d-Glcp-(1?3)-?-l-FucpNAc-(1?3)-?-d-GlcpNAc-(1?, where d-Qui4N stands for 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose and Alo for N-((S)-1-carboxyethyl)-l-alanine (alanopine); only about half of the Gal residues are O-acetylated. This structure is unique among the Proteus O-polysaccharides, and therefore it is proposed to classify P. vulgaris HSC 438 into a new Proteus serogroup, O76. A serological cross-reactivity of HSC 438 O-antiserum and lipopolysaccharides of some other Proteus serogroups was observed and accounted for by shared epitopes on the O-polysaccharides or lipopolysaccharide core regions, including that associated with d-Qui4NAlo. PMID:23579689

Siwinska, Malgorzata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kondakova, Anna N; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Zablotni, Agnieszka; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Valueva, Olga A; Zych, Krystyna; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt; Knirel, Yuriy A

2013-06-01

186

Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri.

Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; Garcia-Valdes, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

2006-01-01

187

Advances in understanding Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the type species of pseudomonads, is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes a wide range of niches. Current genome sequencing projects are producing previously inconceivable detail about the population biology and evolution of P. aeruginosa. Its pan-genome has a larger genetic repertoire than the human genome, which explains the broad metabolic capabilities of P. aeruginosa and its ubiquitous distribution in aquatic habitats. P. aeruginosa may persist in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis for decades. The ongoing whole-genome analyses of serial isolates from cystic fibrosis patients provide the so far singular opportunity to monitor the microevolution of a bacterial pathogen during chronic infection over thousands of generations. Although the evolution in cystic fibrosis lungs is neutral overall, some pathoadaptive mutations are selected during the within-host evolutionary process. Even a single mutation may be sufficient to generate novel complex traits provided that predisposing mutational events have previously occurred in the clonal lineage.

Wiehlmann, Lutz; Klockgether, Jens; Cramer, Nina

2014-01-01

188

Metabolic consequences of phenotypic plasticity in the coral Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaing and Michelotti): the effect of morphology and water flow on aggregate respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic plasticity has been documented in a number of reef coral species for a variety of morphological traits, but its ecological importance is not well understood. In the branching coral Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaing and Michelotti) spacing among branches varies across environmental gradients and in general is inversely related to the rate of water movement. This polymorphism is due in part

John F. Bruno; Peter J. Edmunds

1998-01-01

189

Catfish spine envenomation and bacterial abscess with Proteus and Morganella: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abscess formation and cellulitis in the setting of envenomation are rare complications of handling catfish. To the best of our knowledge, isolation of Proteus vulgaris has not been previously recorded, and recovery of Morganella morganii has been reported in only one prior case from wound cultures in patients injured by catfish stings. We report a case of catfish envenomation characterized by abscess formation and cellulitis, in which wound cultures grew these unusual organisms. Case presentation A 52-year-old Chinese-American man was hospitalized with erythema and swelling of his right arm of 10?days’ duration after skin penetration by a catfish barb. An abscess of his right thumb had undergone incision and drainage, with purulent drainage sent for wound culture immediately prior to admission. Laboratory studies revealed elevated white blood count, sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. The patient was treated with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam and vancomycin during his hospitalization, and symptoms improved. Wound cultures obtained prior to presentation grew many Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii. He was subsequently discharged on a 10-day course of oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. At a 12-month telephone follow-up, the patient denied developing further symptoms and reported that the wound had healed completely without complication. Conclusion Although envenomation and secondary infection are not uncommon sequelae of handling catfish, the present case is unique by virtue of the infecting organisms isolated. Given the prevalence of injury from catfish stings, a review of the literature is presented in order to provide recommendations for prevention and treatment of catfish envenomation.

2013-01-01

190

[Patterns of resistance of Staph aureus and gram-negative bacteria to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins].  

PubMed

The sensitivity to 4 aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin and amicacin) and 5 cephalosporins (cefradine, cefamandol, cefotaxime, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone) was determined in 700 bacterial strains isolated from clinical materials in the years 1986-1987. The most frequent coexistent resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin in S. aureus (30%), Klebsiella (30%), Proteus mirabilis (28%) and Enterobacter (23%). Resistance to 5 cephalosporins was found in Enterobacter (28%), Proteus spp (18%), Klebsiella (10%). Resistance to cefradine only was found in 13% of E. coli and 27% of Proteus mirabilis strains, and resistance to cefradine and cefamandol in 30% of Proteus ssp strains S. aureus strains were resistant to cefradine, cefotaxime, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone in 28% of cases. Multiple resistance was found in the strains of Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas and S. aureus which were isolated mainly in intense therapy, surgery and haematology departments. Among aminoglycosides netilmycin and amicacin were most active, among cefalosporins ceftriaxone was most effective against Gram-negative bacteria, and cefamandol against S. aureus. PMID:2629327

Ruczkowska, J; Dolna, I

1989-05-01

191

Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Post-operative Wound Infection in a Referral Hospital in Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the isolates of postoperative wound and its susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: During a 2-year period, specimens were received as postoperative wound swabs in Microbiology Laboratory, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar), Haryana, India. Result: Of the 300 bacterial isolates, 89 (29.6%) were P. aeruginosa, followed by Escherichia coli (61, 20.3%), Klebsiella spp. (50, 16.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (43, 14.3%), Proteus spp. (19, 6.3%), Acinetobacter spp. (9, 3.0%), and Citrobacter freundii (2, 0.6%). There was no growth in 27 (9.0%) specimens. Conclusion: P. aeruginosa isolation was higher in male patients and most common in the age group of 21-40 years. The susceptibility pattern showed the organism to be most commonly susceptible to imipenem, followed by meropenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate, and amikacin.

Ranjan, K Prabhat; Ranjan, Neelima; Bansal, Satish K; Arora, D R

2010-01-01

192

Repression of common bull sperm flora and in vitro impairment of sperm motility with Pseudomonas aeruginosa introduced by contaminated lubricant.  

PubMed

Semen collected from clinically healthy bulls at an artificial insemination centre was examined for bacterial diversity. While bacteria that are normally present in the common flora of bovine semen were absent, such as Mycoplasma sp., Proteus sp. and Corynebacterium sp., all semen samples contained an unusually high number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Analysis via pulsed field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that one particular P. aeruginosa strain, present in a sealed bottle of lubricant, was widespread in bull semen. This strain was shown to secrete substances that inhibited both the growth of bacteria constituting the normal bull sperm flora and the motility of spermatozoa in vitro. This study demonstrated that commercially available lubricants might contain bacteria that can spread amongst breeding bulls and affect the quality of semen. Bacteriological controls and species' identification are necessary at several production levels, including lubricants and extenders, to ensure high semen quality and avoid the spread of pathogens. PMID:19144031

Smole, I; Thomann, A; Frey, J; Perreten, V

2010-08-01

193

Results of a Neutronic Simulation of HTR-Proteus Core 4.2 Using PEBBED and Other INL Reactor Physics Tools: FY09 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Idaho National Laboratorys deterministic neutronics analysis codes and methods were applied to the computation of the core multiplication factor of the HTR-Proteus pebble bed reactor critical facility. A combination of unit cell calculations (COMBINE-...

H. D. Gougar

2009-01-01

194

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

195

Verification of the Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for two-dimensional/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent dveloping pipe flows and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, intitial conditions, grid size and grid packing is given for each case.

Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

1991-01-01

196

Glycopolymers from Synthetic Fragments (Amides of ?-d-Galacturonic Acid with Amino Acids) of Proteus O-Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galacturonamides of amino acids (alanine, lysine, serine, and threonine), constituents of Proteus O-specific polysaccharides, have been synthesised. O-tert-Butyl and N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl protected amino acid tert-butyl esters were condensed with the 2-azidoethyl ?-glycoside of d-galacturonic acid, prepared by Fischer glycosidation. Reduction of the azido group followed by N-acryloylation and deprotection gave the target monomers. By copolymerisation with acryl-amide, these were converted into

Anatoly Ya. Chernyak; Leonid O. Kononov; Nikolay K. Kochetkov

1994-01-01

197

An enzyme degrading reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in Proteus vulgaris.  

PubMed

Cell-free extracts of a strain of Proteus vulgaris degrade NADH to reduced nicotinamide riboside, adenosine and two molecules of phosphate. The system is weakly active in fresh cell extracts, but activity is increased about 10-fold on rapid heating to 70-100 degrees C. On returning to room temperature, the activity returns rapidly to its initial low value but can be re-activated by again heating to 70-100 degrees C. Reversible activation can also be effected by extremes of pH or by teatment with 8M-urea. Activation appears to be due to reversible changes in conformation of the protein of the enzyme rather than to combination of the enzyme with a heat-labile inhibitor. The active form can be stabilized by addition of PPi. The system, which also possesses 5'-nucleotidase activity not separable from the NADH pyrophosphatase, requires Co2+ (0.4mM) for maximum activity. Although activated at relatively high temperatures, it is not enzymically active until cooled to 50-60 degrees C. It may be purified by affinity chromatography (with NAD+ as ligand) to an activity over 400 times that of the crude cell extract, and yields only one major band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. PMID:217347

Davies, R; King, H K

1978-11-01

198

Gene cloning, expression and characterization of novel phytase from Obesumbacterium proteus.  

PubMed

The gene phyA encoding phytase was isolated from Obesumbacterium proteus genomic library and sequenced. The cleavage site of the PhyA signal peptide was predicted and experimentally proved. The PhyA protein shows maximum identity of 53% and 47% to phosphoanhydride phosphorylase from Yersinia pestis and phytase AppA from Escherichia coli, respectively. Based on protein sequence similarity of PhyA and its homologs, the phytases form a novel subclass of the histidine acid phosphatase family. To characterize properties of the PhyA protein, we expressed the phyA gene in E. coli. The specific activity of the purified recombinant PhyA was 310 U mg(-1) of protein. Recombinant PhyA showed activity at pH values from 1.5 through 6.5 with the optimum at 4.9. The temperature optimum was 40-45 degrees C at pH 4.9. The Km value for sodium phytate was 0.34 mM with a Vmax of 435 U mg(-1). PMID:15251209

Zinin, Nickolay V; Serkina, Anna V; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Shevelev, Aleksei B; Sineoky, Sergei P

2004-07-15

199

"NEW MEMBRANE" FORMATION IN AMOEBA PROTEUS UPON INJURY OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

Changes in the plasma membrane complex following the injury of single cells of Amoeba proteus were examined with the electron microscope. Two types of injury were employed in this study; cells were either pinched ("cut") in half or speared with a glass microneedle, and quickly fixed. Speared cells, when fixed in the presence of the ruthenium violet (a derivative of ruthenium red), revealed the presence of an extra trilaminar structure outside of each cell. This structure, called the "new membrane," was separated from the plasma membrane complex by a distance of less than a micron. The trilaminar structure of the new membrane strikingly resembled the image of the plasma membrane in all cells examined, except for its increased width (30%). This new membrane appeared nearly to surround the injured amebae. Attempts were made to demonstrate the possible origin of the new membrane, its reality, and its sensitivity to calcium. Also, some evidence is shown concerning the role of the small dense droplets (100–1200 A in diameter) normally present in the cytoplasm of amebae. Their frequent contact with the plasma membrane of the cell as the result of injury is interpreted as indicating their involvement in the formation and expansion of the plasma membrane.

Szubinska, Barbara

1971-01-01

200

Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.  

SciTech Connect

A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-02-01

201

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR)

Jean-Paul Pirnay; Florence Bilocq; Bruno Pot; Pierre Cornelis; Martin Zizi; Johan Van Eldere; Pieter Deschaght; Mario Vaneechoutte; Serge Jennes; Tyrone Pitt; Daniel De Vos

2009-01-01

202

21 CFR 520.314 - Cefadroxil tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. (ii) Amount. Ten milligrams...susceptible strains of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus spp....

2009-04-01

203

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

204

Distribution and Evolution of Pseudogenes, Gene Losses, and a Gene Rearrangement in the Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made

Norman J. Wickett; Yu Fan; Paul O. Lewis; Bernard Goffinet

2008-01-01

205

Molecular characterization and post-transcriptional regulation of ME1, a type-I ribosome-inactivating protein from Mirabilis expansa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove a specific adenine from the sarcin\\/ricin (S\\/R) loop of the large rRNA, thus arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. In the present study, ME1, a type-1 RIP, was cloned and sequenced from storage roots of Mirabilis expansa (Ruiz & Pavon). The full-length cDNA sequence of ME1 has 1,129 nucleotides with an open

Ramarao Vepachedu; HarshPal Bais; Jorge M. Vivanco

2003-01-01

206

Development of an intra-molecularly shuffled efficient chimeric plant promoter from plant infecting Mirabilis mosaic virus promoter sequence.  

PubMed

We developed an efficient chimeric promoter, MUASMSCP, with enhanced activity and salicylic acid (SA)/abscisic acid (ABA) inducibility, incorporating the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript (MUAS, -297 to -38) to the 5' end of Mirabilis mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript (MSCP, -306 to -125) promoter-fragment containing the TATA element. We compared the transient activity of the MUASMSCP promoter in tobacco/Arabidopsis protoplasts and in whole plant (Petunia hybrida) with the same that obtained from CaMV35S and MUAS35SCP promoters individually. The MUASMSCP promoter showed 1.1 and 1.5 times stronger GUS-activities over that obtained from MUAS35SCP and CaMV35S promoters respectively, in tobacco (Xanthi Brad) protoplasts. In transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Samsun NN), the MUASMSCP promoter showed 1.1 and 2.2 times stronger activities than MUAS35SCP and CaMV35S(2) promoters respectively. We observed a fair correlation between MUASMSCP-, MUAS35SCP- and CaMV35S(2)-driven GUS activities with the corresponding uidA-mRNA level in transgenic plants. X-gluc staining of transgenic germinating seed-sections and whole seedlings also support above findings. Protein-extracts made from tobacco protoplasts expressing GFP and human-IL-24 genes driven individually by the MUASMSCP promoter showed enhanced expression of the reporters compared to that obtained from the CaMV35S promoter. Furthermore, MUASMSCP-driven protoplast-derived human IL-24 showed enhanced cell inhibitory activity in DU-145 prostate cancer cells compared to that obtained from the CaMV35S promoter. We propose chimeric MUASMSCP promoter developed in the study could be useful for strong constitutive expression of transgenes in both plant/animal cells and it may become an efficient substitute for CaMV35S/CaMV35S(2) promoter. PMID:24060830

Acharya, Sefali; Sengupta, Soumika; Patro, Sunita; Purohit, Sukumar; Samal, Sabindra K; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

2014-01-01

207

[Rare bacteria species found in wounds of tsunami patients. Predominance of gram-negative rods, increased antibiotic resistance].  

PubMed

Microbiological cultures from 229 patients seeking medical advise in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe December 2004 were analysed at the Clinical microbiology laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Gram-negative rods were the most common findings from wound cultures. Common human pathogens as Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Klebsiella spp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. However, more rare species of gram-negative rods were also isolated, e.g. Myroides odoratus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Bergeyella zoohelcum. Resistance towards ordinary antibiotics was higher compared to our Swedish reference material for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter spp, but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Possibly, this reflects that the resistant isolates were nosocomially acquired in Asia. PMID:16416946

Källman, Owe; Lundberg, Christina; Wretlind, Bengt; Ortqvist, Ake

208

Gram-negative bacteria from patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe.  

PubMed

Microbiological cultures from 229 patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe of December 2004 were analysed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Gram-negative bacilli were the most common findings from wound cultures. Common human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. More rare species of Gram-negative bacilli, e.g. Myroides odoratus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Bergeyella zoohelcum were also isolated. Resistance towards ordinary antibiotics was more extensive compared to our Swedish reference material for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter spp., but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, probably reflecting that the resistant isolates were nosocomially acquired in Asia. PMID:16798691

Källman, Owe; Lundberg, Christina; Wretlind, Bengt; Ortqvist, Ake

2006-01-01

209

[Antibiotic resistance at a hospital environment. Observations from 1980 to 1986].  

PubMed

A total of 1659 bacteria Strains were examined for susceptibility to different drugs by the Kirby-Bauer method. The isolates came from the General Medicine ward of Castellamonte's hospital (USSL 40). The results were retrospectively studied and statistically elaborated. The study lasted from 2 to 7 years depending on the antibiotic considered. The isolates included: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus IND+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus faecalis. Penicillines, Cefalosporines, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Tetraciclines, Nitrofurantoin, Macrolides, Rifampins, Lincosides and peptide antibiotics were tested. The results of this study can be useful for the choice of the antibiotics in non-specific therapy of infectious diseases and show the frequency of isolation of resistant strains from hospitalized patients. Furthermore it would be important to constitute a regional-epidemiological centre of Infectious Diseases. PMID:3509032

Pistono, P G; Piro, F; Guasco, C; Malcangi, A; Martinetto, P

1987-01-01

210

Nucleic Acid Similarities among Pseudomonas Pseudomallei, Pseudomonas Multivorans, and Actinobacillus Mallei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Annealing experiments on membrane filters were carried out with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from selected strains of the nomen-species of Pseudomonas, Actinobacillus, Chromobacterium, and Micrococcus, with the use of DNA of Pseudomonas pseudomallei and A...

M. Rogul J. J. Brendle D. K. Haapala A. D. Alexander

1969-01-01

211

Immediate and long-term galvanotactic responses of Amoeba proteus to dc electric fields.  

PubMed

The long-term and immediate galvanotactic responses of Amoeba proteus to the direct current electric fields (dcEFs) were studied with the methods of computer-aided image analysis. It was found that in contrast to earlier reports, amoebae continued locomotion towards cathode (the negative pole) for hours and the increase in the field strength in the range 300-600 mV/mm caused the straightening of cell trajectories accompanied by the decreased frequency of the lateral pseudopods formation and lesser change in the speed of cell movement. In the cell regions pointing to the anode, the formation of new pseudopodia was prevented and the higher cEFs strength the more extended were the regions in which formation of new pseudopods was inhibited. Replacement of calcium with magnesium in the extracellular medium reduced the galvanotactic cell responses. Research on the localisation and kinetics of the primary cell responses to the dcEF or to change in its direction revealed that the primary cell responses occurred at the anode oriented cell regions. The cell response to the field reversal appeared to be localised and to take place in less than 1 sec. First the retraction and withdrawal of the anode-directed pseudopodium was observed whereas the uroid (cell tail) moved for 10-40 sec in the original direction before it begun to react to the field reversal. The exposure of amoebae to the dcEFs sensitised them to the reversion in the field direction and induced an acceleration of cell responses. The results presented are difficult to reconcile with the attempt to explain the cell galvanotaxis as a consequence of the membrane protein lateral electrophoresis or electroosmosis. It is suggested that the lateral electrophoresis of ions and the modification of ionic conditions at the vicinity of ion channels may be involved in the induction of fast responses of cells to external dcEFs. PMID:10618163

Korohoda, W; Mycielska, M; Janda, E; Madeja, Z

2000-01-01

212

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Mirabilis jalapa L. Root on Normal and Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Mirabilis jalapa L. root (EEM) in normal and diabetic mice. After induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, both normal and diabetic mice were singly or repeatedly for 28 days administrated with EEM at doses of 2, 4, 8?g/kg, respectively. Before induction of diabetes, mice were administrated with EEM at doses of 2, 4, 8?g/kg for 14 days and were injected with streptozotocin and continued on EEM administration for another 28 days. Both after and before induction of diabetes, repeated administration with 4, 8?g/kg EEM continually lowered blood glucose level, decreased serum insulin level and improved insulin sensitivity index, and lowered serum total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and triglyceride content in liver and skeletal muscle, and increased glycogen content in these tissues; but repeated administration had no influence on those indexes of normal mice. Single administration with EEM (4, 8?g/kg) showed hypoglycemic effect in oral glucose tolerance test in normal and diabetic mice. Single administration with EEM had no hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects on normal and diabetic mice. These results suggest that EEM possesses both potential insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects on diabetes.

Zhou, Ji-Yin; Zhou, Shi-Wen; Zeng, Sheng-Ya; Zhou, Jian-Yun; Jiang, Ming-Jin; He, Yan

2012-01-01

213

Optimization of alkaline protease production by Aspergillus clavatus ES1 in Mirabilis jalapa tuber powder using statistical experimental design.  

PubMed

Medium composition and culture conditions for the bleaching stable alkaline protease production by Aspergillus clavatus ES1 were optimized. Two statistical methods were used. Plackett-Burman design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) including full factorial design was used to determine the optimal concentrations and conditions. Results indicated that Mirabilis jalapa tubers powder (MJTP), culture temperature, and initial medium pH had significant effects on the production. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the protease experimental yield (770.66 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (749.94 U/ml) with R (2)=0.98. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the RSM were MJTP concentration of 10 g/l, pH 8.0, and temperature of 30 degrees C, Sardinella heads and viscera flour (SHVF) and other salts were used at low level. The medium optimization contributed an about 14.0-fold higher yield than that of the unoptimized medium (starch 5 g/l, yeast extract 2 g/l, temperature 30 degrees C, and pH 6.0; 56 U/ml). More interestingly, the optimization was carried out with the by-product sources, which may result in cost-effective production of alkaline protease by the strain. PMID:18481054

Hajji, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Nasri, Moncef

2008-07-01

214

The effectiveness and risk comparison of EDTA with EGTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction by Mirabilis jalapa L.  

PubMed

In the previous study, Mirabilis jalapa L. had revealed the basic Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics, but the accumulation ability was not as strong as that of other known Cd hyperaccumulators. In order to improve the accumulation ability of this ornamental plant, the chelants were used to activate the Cd in soil. As a substitute, ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was selected to testify whether it has better effectiveness and can bring lesser metal leaching risk than EDTA. The data showed that the growth of M. jalapa was inhibited, while the Cd concentration of the plant was significantly increased under the treatments containing EDTA or EGTA. The Cd translocation ability under the EGTA treatments was higher than that under the EDTA treatments. The available Cd resulted from the application of chelant EGTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 5 cm, while the application of chelant EDTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 10 cm. In a word, EGTA showed better effectiveness than EDTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction of M. jalapa. As an ornamental plant, M. jalapa has the potential to be used for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils and it can beautify the environment at the same time. PMID:24068285

Wang, Song; Liu, Jianv

2014-02-01

215

Silver resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver resistance was studied in a silver-resistant Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259 strain and compared to a silver-sensitive P. stutzeri JM303 strain. Silver resistance was not due to silver complexation to intracellular polyphosphate or the presence of low molecular weight metal-binding protein(s). Both the silver-resistant and silver-sensitive P. stutzeri strains produced H2S, with the silver-resistant AG259 strain producing lower amounts of H2S

R. M. Slawson; E. M. Lohmeier-Vogel; H. Lee; J. T. Trevors

1994-01-01

216

Chromium reduction in Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed Central

Reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to less-toxic trivalent chromium was studied by using cell suspensions and cell-free supernatant fluids from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. Chromate reductase activity was associated with soluble protein and not with the membrane fraction. The crude enzyme activity was heat labile and showed a Km of 40 microM CrO4(2-). Neither sulfate nor nitrate affected chromate reduction either in vitro or with intact cells.

Ishibashi, Y; Cervantes, C; Silver, S

1990-01-01

217

Nitrogen fixation in Pseudomonas stutzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed oxygen gradient system and a complex medium were used to isolate a microaerobically N2-fixing heterotrophic bacterium from the rhizosphere of a “high fixing” Sorghum nutans cultivar. The isolate was identified as nif(+) phenotype of Pseudomonas stutzeri on the basis of cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, including DNA\\/DNA hybridization. N2 fixation was demonstrated by assimilation of 15N2 into

A. Krotzky; D. Werner

1987-01-01

218

[Sensitivity of Proteus hauseri bacteria to chemotherapeutic preparations depending on the cultivation conditions and on the composition of the nutrient medium].  

PubMed

Sensitivity of 227 Proteus strains isolated from patients was studied comparatively using the agar-diffusion method (disks) and the method of serial dilutions. Marked differences in the numbers of the strains resistant to benzylpenicillin and chloramphenicol were found with the above methods. It was shown that the ingredients of Ploskirev's medium significantly (by 2.8--13.5 times) inhibited the antibacterial activity of streptomycin, neomycin, monomycin, kanamycin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid and had practically no effect on the activity of benzylpenicillin, chloramphenicol and furazolidone. The values of the MIC of the drugs used in the experiment with liquid media correlated with those obtained with Sabouro's medium, which provided recommendation of the latter for determination of Proteus sensitivity by the method of serial dilutions in the solid medium, Cultivation of Proteus at a temperature of 40 degrees C resulted in a decrease of the resistance to most of the drugs tested by (by 3--12.4 times). PMID:327915

Shvidenko, I G

1977-05-01

219

Activity of Three Aminoglycosides and Two Penicillins Against Four Species of Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

Three aminoglycoside antibiotics and two penicillins were compared for their in vitro activity against 60 isolates of Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus mirabilis, and indole-positive Proteus sp. Testing was done by the agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton broth solidified with 1.5% agar. The activity of amikacin, aminodeoxybutirosin, and gentamicin against Proteus and Pseudomonas, as related to their peak blood levels, showed no significant differences. Amikacin was the most active against Serratia marcescens. Results using Mueller-Hinton media in broth dilution tests correlated with the agar dilution method except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimal inhibitory concentration for aminoglycosides in agar was considerably greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration in Mueller-Hinton broth, and the disparity was related to the higher divalent cation concentration of agar. BL-P1654 and carbenicillin were similar except that carbenicillin was much more active against indole-positive Proteus sp. Additionally, the ratio of bactericidal to bacteriostatic concentrations of BL-P1654 was considerably greater than for carbenicillin.

Weinstein, Ralph J.; Young, Lowell S.; Hewitt, William L.

1975-01-01

220

Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices  

SciTech Connect

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Girardin, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

221

Intrauterinely Acquired Pseudomonas Infection in the Neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case is presented of a premature infant with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, apparently acquired in utero. After a complicated postnatal course, the child was noted to have a profound hearing loss. The infection itself, was rapid and progressive, with the infant showing signs and symptoms characteristic of Pseudomonas infection, such as necrotizing skin vasculitis and \\

Cecila Ruvalo; Charles R. Bauer

1982-01-01

222

Antibacterial properties of fish mucus from Channa punctatus and Cirrhinus mrigala.  

PubMed

Extracts and preparations made from the animal origin were used extensively in folk and modern medicine for treating many human diseases. In the present study efforts have been made to find the antimicrobial effect of the mucus of two bottom dwelling fresh water fishes namely, Channa punctatus and Cirrhinus mrigala. Fish mucus were tested against ten pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera. The activity was measured in terms of zone of inhibition in mm. The mucus collected from Cirrhinus mrigala shows a strong inhibiting activity than the mucus of Channa punctatus. PMID:18700685

Kuppulakshmi, C; Prakash, M; Gunasekaran, G; Manimegalai, G; Sarojini, S

2008-01-01

223

Double trouble: preseptal cellulitis due to two species with multidrug resistance  

PubMed Central

A 2 Year old boy presented with painful ballooning of both eyes with the 2 days history of trauma to the head while playing. His vaccination was complete. On examination he was afebrile. The Eyes were ballooned with blackish crust over both lids. On local examination, eye swelling was tense with severe tenderness. The diagnosis of Preseptal cellulitis was made .We did an Emergency drainage and pus was sent for culture that came out to be positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis with multiple drug resistance. The coverage was given by Imipenem?+?cilastatin and child had wonderful recovery.

2013-01-01

224

Characterization and recovery rates of food-indicator microorganisms from home-made oral rehydration solutions in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1.07%), Clostridium perfringes (14.75%), Enterobacter aerogenes (6.13%), Escherichia coli (7.44%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.0%), Morganella morganii (0.78%), Proteus mirabilis (6.74%), P. vulgaris (1.68%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.67%), Salmonella entrica serovar Typhi (3.89%), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (0.99%), Shigella dysentariae (11.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.98%) and Vibrio cholerae (2.57%). The isolated fungal species from the table salt and granulated sugar samples were Aspergillus flavus,

Adenike A. O. Ogunshe; Nonye I. Iheanacho; Olukayode M. Oduyoye

225

Butirosin, a New Aminoglycosidic Antibiotic Complex: Antibacterial Activity In Vitro and in Mice  

PubMed Central

Butirosin is a new aminoglycosidic antibiotic complex which has broad gram-negative and gram-positive inhibitory antibacterial activity, as well as some bactericidal properties. Significantly susceptible bacteria include strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, and pathogenic gram-negative species such as Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris, Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei. Good activity by parenteral dosing was obtained in various acute mouse infections. Butirosin is especially interesting because of its activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro, including gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates, and in experimental mouse infections at relatively low doses.

Heifetz, C. L.; Fisher, M. W.; Chodubski, J. A.; DeCarlo, M. O'.

1972-01-01

226

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thymus spinulosus Ten. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus spinulosus Ten. (Lamiaceae) is reported. Four oils from plants growing in different environmental conditions were characterized by GC and GC-MS methods; the oils seem to indicate a new chemotype in the genus Thymus. Influences of soil and altitude characteristics on the essential oil composition are discussed. The oils showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimuium Ty2, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. PMID:12797754

De Feo, Vincenzo; Bruno, Maurizio; Tahiri, Bochra; Napolitano, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

2003-06-18

227

Pseudomonas--an opportunistic foe.  

PubMed

An honest account of some of the lessons learned in how to protect patients, staff, and visitors, against waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa by effectively monitoring a large healthcare facility's water supply, identifying potential 'trigger points', harnessing the expertise of a multidisciplinary team, encouraging all staff to 'go the extra mile' preventatively, and above all, 'going beyond compliance', was provided by George McCracken, head of Estates Risk and Environment at the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust--in whose Royal Jubilee Maternity Hospital three young babies died after an outbreak of the bacteraemia in early 2012--at a recent Water Management Society conference. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:24516937

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

228

Bromoalkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains.  

PubMed Central

Two Pseudomonas isolates, named ES-1 and ES-2, were shown to possess a wide degradative spectrum for haloalkanes in general and bromoalkanes in particular but did not degrade nonsubstituted alkanes. The utilization of water-insoluble haloalkanes, such as 1-bromooctane, appeared to consist of three phases: (i) extracellular emulsification by a constitutively excreted, broad-spectrum surface-active agent, (ii) dehalogenation by an inducible hydrolytic dehalogenase (possibly periplasmic), and (iii) intracellular degradation of the residual carbon skeleton. Several observations suggest the existence of more than one dehalogenase in strain ES-2.

Shochat, E; Hermoni, I; Cohen, Z; Abeliovich, A; Belkin, S

1993-01-01

229

Ferrofluid effect on Pseudomonas pyoverdine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fluid effect on some pigmented pathogen germs has been investigated. The fluorescence of the pyoverdine pigment obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, cultivated in the presence of different magnetic fluid concentrations, was enhanced by magnetic fluid concentrations of 0.0015-1 ml/l. The antimicrobial activity of pyoverdine, when tested by means of agar diffusimetric method against Sarcina lutea, was found increased for relatively high concentrations of magnetic fluid; in the case of Staphylococcus aureus the pyoverdine antimicrobial activity was not dependent on the magnetic fluid concentration.

Poiata, Antoniea; Vlahovici, Al.; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

2005-03-01

230

Implementation/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional/axisymmetric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.

Bui, Trong T.

1992-01-01

231

Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 25 to 200 microg/mL. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values. Contact bioautography, indicated that Zuccagnia punctata extracts possess one major antibacterial component against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at least three components against. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Activity-guided fractionation of 1he ethanol extract on a silica gel column yielded a compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone), which exhibited strong antibacterial activity with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.00 microg/mL for Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These values are lower than imipenem (0.25-16 microg/mL). Zuccagnia punctata might provide promising therapeutic agents against infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16137849

Zampini, Iris C; Vattuone, Marta A; Isla, Maria I

2005-12-01

232

The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

2014-03-01

233

Characterization of an Unusual Strain of Proteus rettgeri Associated with an Outbreak of Nosocomial Urinary-Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of nosocomial urinary-tract infection was caused by a strain of Proteus rettgeri that fermented lactose overnight and was resistant to all antimicrobial drugs tested. The nonmotile isolates shared an O (somatic) antigen that differed from those of wild-type P. rettgeri. The organisms proved markedly serum-sensitive. In rats, the isolates elicited an acute interstitial nephritis with associated transient bacteriuria. Attempts to transfer the lac+ trait and drug-resistance markers to recipient strains of Escherichia coli K-12 failed; exposure of the isolates to acridine orange yielded small numbers of non-lactose-fermenting variants which, however, were still as drug-resistant as before. Epidemiological studies failed to uncover the source of this unique strain and appeared to indicate exogenous spread of infection.

Traub, W. H.; Craddock, M. E.; Raymond, E. A.; Fox, M.; McCall, C. E.

1971-01-01

234

Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

235

Membranous Inclusions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Electron microscopy of sectioned cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with a double fixative in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid revealed a number of membranous inclusions varying in size and morphology. One round, electron transparent form was frequently observed which did not routinely appear to be attached to the cytoplasmic membrane and varied in size from 120 to 300 nm in diameter. However, in one case, several tubular structures between an inclusion and the cytoplasmic membrane was observed. On rare occasions, a large and unusual multilayered inclusion consisting of three thick and distinct layers was also encountered. In addition, two small mesosomal structures were singly observed in cells and were situated proximal to the cytoplasmic membrane. One type appeared to consist of a single thin membrane, whereas the other type consisted of a delicate, multilayered structure. Images

Carrick, Lee; Berk, Richard S.

1971-01-01

236

Glycosphingolipid receptors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

The binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to glycosphingolipids and to buccal and bronchial epithelial cells was analyzed. Three independently expressed specificities were found by bacterial binding to glycosphingolipids separated by thin-layer chromatography. All strains bound gangliotria- and gangliotetrasylceramide. All but one of the strains bound sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids and lactosylceramide. The latter two specificities could be separated in that the lactosylceramide binding was retained and the sialic acid binding was suppressed when bovine serum albumin was used as a blocking agent in the thin-layer chromatography assay. The attachment to buccal epithelial cells, like the binding to sialylated compounds and lactosylceramide, was abolished by Formalin treatment of the bacteria, suggesting the importance of these specificities for cell adherence. In contrast, the binding to gangliotria- and gangliotetraosylceramide was retained by nonattaching Formalin-treated bacteria. Images

Baker, N; Hansson, G C; Leffler, H; Riise, G; Svanborg-Eden, C

1990-01-01

237

Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas mandelii PD30  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence of Pseudomonas mandelii PD30 is reported in this announcement. The genes for the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen were identified in the genome assembly and subsequently used in gene expression research.

Formusa, Philip A.; Hsiang, Tom; Habash, Marc B.; Lee, Hung

2014-01-01

238

Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

2004-01-01

239

Comparison of denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paracoccus denitrificans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparision was made of denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Although all three organisms reduced nitrate to dinitrogen gas, they did so at different rates and accumulated different kinds and amounts of intermediates. Their rates of anaerobic growth on nitrate varied about 1.5-fold; concomitant gas production varied more than 8-fold. Cell yields from nitrate varied threefold.

C. A. Carlson; J. L. Ingraham

1983-01-01

240

A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the nemertean ancestral mitochondrial gene order most closely resembles the heteronemertean type. Phylogenetic analysis proposes a sister-group relationship between Hetero- and Hoplonemertea, which supports one of two recent alternative hypotheses of nemertean phylogeny.

2012-01-01

241

Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.  

PubMed

Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

2014-02-01

242

Comparison of the haemolysin secretion protein HlyB from Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli ; site-directed mutagenesis causing impairment of export function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hlyB secretion genes of Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli showed 81% nucleotide homology and similar E. coli-atypical codon usage. The deduced protein sequences differed in 54 of 707 residues and shared a previously unreported sequence which corresponds to the ATP-binding motif characteristic of protein kinases. The motif was also conserved in the HlyB of Morganella morganii. Of 4 oligonucleotide-directed

Vassilis Koronakis; Eva Koronakis; Colin Hughes

1988-01-01

243

Photochemical inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Adaptability to a broad range of environments together with relatively high resistance to antibiotics and to disinfectants makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa a concern in hospitals and in public health. We investigated whether UVA-mediated photochemical inactivation of P. aeruginosa could be accomplished with high efficiency while at the same time preserving the sensitivity of subsequent diagnostic tests. We characterized dose responses and bactericidal kinetic rates of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (INA) and of amotosalen (AMO) as these substances exposed to UVA are known to inactivate germs with minimal impact to blood products or to viral antigens. Neither UVA without photochemicals nor INA or AMO in the dark inactivated bacteria. We found that AMO was ca 1000-fold more effective in inactivating P. aeruginosa cells than INA under similar conditions. Photoinactivation with either INA or AMO at conditions that abolished bacterial infectivity did not impair polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For comparison, similar titers of Bacillus atrophaeus spores (a surrogate for B. anthracis) remained unaffected at conditions that reduced the survival of P. aeruginosa below detection levels. The results presented in this study should assist in improved methods to inactivate P. aeruginosa in environmental, clinical and forensic samples without impairing subsequent nucleic acid- or immune-based analysis. PMID:22053910

Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Grote, Gudrun; Niederwöhrmeier, Bärbel; Hülseweh, Birgit; Marschall, Hans-Jürgen

2012-01-01

244

[Proteases from Pseudomonas: immunologic comparison].  

PubMed

We studied 5 strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, its ability to produce proteolytic enzymes and the antigenic relatedness between P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa proteases. Cells were grown in tryptic soy broth plus 2% skim milk powder, at 4 C during 5 days. All the proteases acted on gelatin, casein, and showed limited activity on congo redelastin. By zymograms in polyacrylamide gel (PAA), one enzyme responsible of whole enzymatic activity was shown. The extracellular protease of the strain P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (60% saturation) and chromatography on DEAE cellulose with ionic strength gradient, and Sephadex G 100. A 181 fold increase in specific activity with a recovery of 21% was obtained. PAA-sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 45,700 +/- 1,000 Daltons. P. fluorescens antiprotease rabbit serum showed by immunodiffusion (ID) and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEF) identity pattern of reaction with the homology strains studied. Rabbit sera antielastase and anti-alkaline protease of P. aeruginosa did not exhibit by ID, CIEF and immunoblotting immunological reactivity with antigen (protease) from P. fluorescens; by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), P. aeruginosa antielastase rabbit serum showed a weak response with P. fluorescens protease. These preliminary observations showed analogy in enzymatic functions, such as specificity, between the enzymes produced by phylogenetically related species, but the immunological studies showed very little interspecific homology. PMID:8140333

Monetto de Ledesma, A M

1993-01-01

245

A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.  

PubMed Central

A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare.

Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

1987-01-01

246

Impairment of cell-mediated immune responses by pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

A lyophilizate from Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits markedly the tuberculin reaction in guinea-pigs. This property is shared with products of other Gramnegative bacteria. The latter display, however, no clear cut effect on the homograft reaction. In contrast, Pseudomonas prolonged skin homograft survival in mice. The effect was dose-dependent. Quantitative considerations suggest that Pseudomonas produces an immunosuppressive substance of outstanding activity.

Floersheim, G. L.; Hopff, W. H.; Gasser, M.; Bucher, K.

1971-01-01

247

New naphthalene-degrading marine Pseudomonas strains  

SciTech Connect

Over 100 strains that utilized naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source were isolated from samples of marine sediments taken from a heavily polluted area. The isolates were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. Most of these strains belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and seven of them did not fit any previous taxonomic description. They differed from type strains in a few biochemical characteristics and in the utilization of aromatic compounds. None had catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage. DNA hybridizations demonstrated a close relationship between two isolates and the Pseudomonas stutzeri type strain, and between five isolates and the Pseudomonas testosteroni type strain. On the basis of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, it was assumed that the seven isolates represent new biovars belonging to the species P. testosteroni and P. stutzeri that are able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons.

Garcia-Valdes, E.; Cozar, E.; Rotger, R. Lalucat, J. (Univ. de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)); Ursing, J. (Univ. of Lund, Malmo (Sweden))

1988-10-01

248

Metabolism of dodecyldimethylamine by Pseudomonas MA3.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas MA3 was isolated from activated sludge on the basis of its capacity to use dodecyldimethylamine as a sole carbon (C) and energy source. Dodecylamine, dodecanal, dodecanoic acid and acetic acid also supported growth of Pseudomonas MA3. Dodecyldimethylamine-grown cells oxidized a wide range of alkylamine derivatives, dodecanal, dodecanoic acid and acetic acid. Degradation of the alkyl chain of dodecyldimethylamine by Pseudomonas MA3 appeared from the stoichiometric liberation of dimethylamine. A dehydrogenase catalysed the cleavage of the Calkyl-N bond. The first intermediate of the proposed degradation pathway, dodecanal, accumulated in the presence of decanal used as a competitive inhibitor. The second intermediate, dodecanoic acid, was formed in the presence of acrylic acid during the degradation of dodecyldimethylamine. Dodecanal was converted into dodecanoic acid by a dehydrogenase and dodecanoic acid was then degraded via the beta oxidation pathway. PMID:7765813

Kroon, A G; Pomper, M A; van Ginkel, C G

1994-10-01

249

Pseudomonas: Biotransformations, pathogenesis, and evolving biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

This monograph originated with the papers presented at the second of a series of international symposia on the molecular biology of Pseudomonas. The first of these meetings was held in 1986 in Geneva, Switzerland, and the second in Chicago, Illinois, in July 1989. The science of Pseudomonas has reached a maturity that speaks for itself through the papers in this book. Molecular biology is having an impact on understanding of metabolic biotransformations in Pseudomonas, its mechanisms of pathogenicity (in both humans and plants), and its use in the exciting world of biotechnology. Information is included for the following topics: pathogenesis; plant-bacterial interactions; biotransformations; plasmids, vectors, gene mapping, and cloning; cell envelope and transport; and honorary pseudomonads. This volume contains 38 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

Silver, S.; Chakrabarty, A.M. (Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology); Iglewski, B. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology); Kaplan, S. (eds.) (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

1990-01-01

250

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms in Disease.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections. PMID:24096885

Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

2014-07-01

251

Structure of the Proteus vulgaris HigB-(HigA)2-HigB toxin-antitoxin complex.  

PubMed

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems regulate key cellular processes to promote cell survival during periods of stress. During steady-state cell growth, antitoxins typically interact with their cognate toxins to inhibit activity presumably by preventing substrate recognition. We solved two x-ray crystal structures of the Proteus vulgaris tetrameric HigB-(HigA)2-HigB TA complex and found that, unlike most other TA systems, the antitoxin HigA makes minimal interactions with toxin HigB. HigB adopts a RelE family tertiary fold containing a highly conserved concave surface where we predict its active site is located. HigA does not cover the solvent-exposed HigB active site, suggesting that, in general, toxin inhibition is not solely mediated by active site hindrance by its antitoxin. Each HigA monomer contains a helix-turn-helix motif that binds to its own DNA operator to repress transcription during normal cellular growth. This is distinct from antitoxins belonging to other superfamilies that typically only form DNA-binding motifs upon dimerization. We further show that disruption of the HigB-(HigA)2-HigB tetramer to a HigBA heterodimer ablates operator binding. Taken together, our biochemical and structural studies elucidate the novel molecular details of the HigBA TA system. PMID:24257752

Schureck, Marc A; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Miles, Stacey J; Marquez, Jhomar; Cho, Shein Ei; Erdman, Rachel; Dunham, Christine M

2014-01-10

252

[Breakdown of alkyl sulfonate by Pseudomonas rathonis].  

PubMed

Pseudomonas rathonis T/1 utilizing alkyl sulfonate, an anionic surfactant, as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the soil taken near a plant producing synthetic detergents. Pseudomonas rathonis T, a more active variant of the above strain, was obtained by selection under the conditions of continuous cultivation. As was shown by identification of intermediate products in the destruction of alkyl sulfonate, its molecule is first cleaved at the C--S bond yielding higher aliphatic alcohols which are then oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acids. The strain can be used for purification of industrial sewage containing anionic surfactants. PMID:6330506

Stavskaia, S S; Taranova, L A; Grigor'eva, T Iu; Degtiarev, V A; Pisarev, V T

1984-01-01

253

[A sarcoma-static new species of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas jinanensis sp. nov].  

PubMed

A strain of Gram negative bacteria was isolated from the surface soil of Wuying Hill at Jinan, Shandong province with Gause's medium in 1973. It is a strain of antagonistic bacteria for hysterocervicoma, hepatoma and melanoma of mice screened from 2100 strains of bacteria. It is also antagonistic to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus. It is a Gram negative bacterium with lophotrichous polar flagella. Straight rods in shape or with a little slightly curved rods, 0.5-0.6 X 1-2 microns, randomly arranged, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules are accumulated in cells after 2-5 days cultivation. Water green soluble pigment and green fluorescent pigment are produced. Respiratory metabolism, chemoorganotroph, many carbon-containing organic compounds can be used as carbon sources, such as glucose, trehalose, ethanol, cellulobiose, fucose, arginine and betaine, but propionic acid or tartaric acid is not utilized. Inorganic nitrogen containing compounds can be used ae the sole source of nitrogen. No growth factor is necessary for growth. Gelatin is hydrolyzed. Starch and cellulose are not hydrolyzed. Nitrate is not reduced. Arginine dihydrolase is produced. Levan is produced from sucrose. Growth occurs from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from pH 5.65-8.40. No growth occurs at 40 degrees C and at pH value below 4.86. It can not grow autotrophically with hydrogen. Its G + C contents in DNA is 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments reveals a relatedness value of 58.6% between this strain and Ps. fluorescens. The above evidence shows that this strain differs from all species known in Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens group. Pseudomonas caryophylli, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas marginata, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas delafieldii.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2781786

Cai, M Y; Lu, D S; Wang, D S; He, Z Z; Wang, J H

1989-06-01

254

STAPHYLOLYTIC SUBSTANCE FROM A SPECIES OF PSEUDOMONAS.  

PubMed

A substance that rapidly lyses living cells of Staphylococcus aureus, S. roseus, Gaffkya tetragena, and Sarcina lutea has been partially purified. The substance is produced extracellularly by a species of Pseudomonas which was isolated from soil by an enrichment procedure. PMID:14263759

ZYSKIND, J W; PATTEE, P A; LACHE, M

1965-03-19

255

Isolation of Pseudomonas corrugata from Sikkim Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two isolates of Pseudomonas corrugata, P. corrugata 1, a rhizosphere associate, and P. corrugata 7, a rhizoplane associate have been isolated and characterized from maize soils; these isolates are from the subtropical and temperate regions, respectively in Sikkim Himalaya. The two isolates have been found to be positive for: (i) production of antifungal compounds; (ii) phosphate-solubilizing activity; (iii) nitrogenase activity;

A. Pandey; L. M. S. Palni

1998-01-01

256

Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas brassicacearum DF41  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas brassicacearum DF41, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, is able to suppress the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here, we present a 6.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a P. brassicacearum strain.

Loewen, Peter C.; Switala, Jack; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

2014-01-01

257

Antiarthritic and immunosuppressive effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractions obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppressed microcrystal synovitis in pigeons, adjuvant arthritis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats, the tuberculin reaction in guinea-pigs and the homograft reaction and antibody formation in mice. Products of gram-negative bacteria thus impair nonimmunological inflammatory processes as well as in vivo manifestations of immune-mediated reactions.

G. L. Floersheim; J. F. Borel; D. Wiesinger; J. Brundell; Z. Kis

1972-01-01

258

Pseudomonas pickettii as a cause of pseudobacteremia.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of pseudobacteremia caused by Pseudomonas pickettii biovariant 1 is reported. The common source was the aqueous chlorhexidine solution prepared by the hospital pharmacy. The contamination problem caused by the antiseptic solution was eventually solved by a series of preventive measures.

Verschraegen, G; Claeys, G; Meeus, G; Delanghe, M

1985-01-01

259

Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from whey by Pseudomonas hydrogenovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey permeate from dairy industry was hydrolyzed enzymatically to cleave its main carbon source, lactose, to glucose and galactose. The hydrolysis products were chosen as carbon sources for the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Pseudomonas hydrogenovora. In shaking flask experiments, the utilization of whey permeate as a cheap substrate was compared to the utilization of pure glucose and galactose

Martin Koller; Rodolfo Bona; Emo Chiellini; Elizabeth Grillo Fernandes; Predrag Horvat; Christoph Kutschera; Paula Hesse; Gerhart Braunegg

2008-01-01

260

Effects of adaptation to sea water, 170% sea water and to fresh water on activities and subcellular distribution of branchial Na + ?K + ATPase, low- and high affinity Ca ++ ATPase, and ouabain-insensitive ATPase in Gillichthys mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Branchial activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, ouabain-insensitive ATPase, (Mg++-ATPase) and Ca++-ATPase were measured inGillichthys mirabilis after adaptation to salinities ranging from 170% SW to FW. Stabilities of these activities against freezing and deoxycholate solubilization and the temperature-dependence of activity rates were also investigated. Subcellular distribution and some kinetic properties of these activities, and of SDH were compared in branchial tissues of fish

Byron A. Doneen

1981-01-01

261

[Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei: introduction and maintenance of natural and recombinant plasmid replicons].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of recipient activity of Pseudomonas mallei, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, and Pseudomonas cepacia strains towards naturally occurring and recombinant plasmid replicons was carried out. Autonomic broad host range vector plasmids based on RSF1010(IncQ) and pSa(IncW) replicons as well as integrative vectors based on pSUP202(Co1E1) replicon have been constructed. The study has shown that naturally occurring plasmids RSF1010(IncQ), pSa(IncW), R15(IncN), and RP4(IncP) are being efficiently transferred and stably maintained in investigated Pseudomonas strains. However, recombinant plasmids with the mini-replicon pSa which are stable in Escherichia coli have shown segregative instability in Pseudomonas strains, whereas derivatives of plasmid RSF1010 demonstrated different stability depending on the type of insertion. Plasmid pSUP202 derivative integrative vector pSM525 is efficiently introduced and stably maintained in P. mallei C-5 strain. Two vector systems for genetic manipulations in P.mallei and P.pseudomallei cells have been developed. PMID:7541512

Abaev, I V; Astashkin, E I; Pachkunov, D M; Stagis, N I; Shitov, V T; Svetoch, E A

1995-01-01

262

Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.  

PubMed

Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed. PMID:19771475

Lang, Elke; Burghartz, Melanie; Spring, Stefan; Swiderski, Jolanthe; Spröer, Cathrin

2010-02-01

263

The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

2014-03-01

264

The nationwide study of bacterial pathogens associated with urinary tract infections conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.  

PubMed

This study was conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and is the first nationwide study on bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with urinary tract infections at 28 hospitals throughout Japan between January 2008 and June 2008. A total of 688 bacterial strains were isolated from adult patients with urinary tract infections. The strains investigated in this study are as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (n = 140), Escherichia coli (n = 255), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 93), Proteus mirabilis (n = 42), Serratia marcescens (n = 44), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 114). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 39 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) manual. All Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Although a majority of the E. faecalis strains were susceptible to linezolid, 11 strains (7.8%) were found to be intermediately resistant. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and S. marcescens strains were 35.7%, 29.3%, 18.3%, and 15.2%, respectively. The proportions of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and S. marcescens strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase were 5.1%, 11.9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones were 9.2%, 4.4%, and 34.8%, respectively, and among them, 2 strains (1.8%) were found to be multidrug resistant. These data present important information for the proper treatment of urinary tract infections and will serve as a useful reference for periodic surveillance studies in the future. PMID:21174142

Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Uehara, Shinya; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Sato, Junko; Niki, Yoshihito; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki; Hattori, Rikizo; Terada, Michinori; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Maruo, Akinori; Morita, Kohei; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Matsuda, Kenji; Hirose, Takaoki; Miyao, Noriomi; Hayashi, Tasuku; Takeyama, Koh; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Tomita, Masayuki; Yusu, Hisashi; Koide, Haruhisa; Kimura, Shoji; Yanaoka, Masanori; Sato, Hajime; Ito, Toru; Deguchi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Komeda, Hisao; Asano, Yuko; Takahashi, Yoshito; Ishihara, Satoshi; Arakawa, Soichi; Nakano, Yuzo; Tanaka, Kazushi; Fujisawa, Masato; Matsui, Takashi; Fujii, Akira; Yamamoto, Shingo; Nojima, Michio; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Ueda, Yasuo; Kanamaru, Sojun; Monden, Koichi; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Seno, Yuko; Tsugawa, Masaya; Takenaka, Tadasu; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Sho, Takehiko; Takahashi, Koichi; Inatomi, Hisato; Takahashi, Naoya; Ikei, Yoshihiko; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yamane, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kariya, Satoru; Arima, Takashi

2011-02-01

265

Effect of Clarithromycin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an experimental in vitro culture system, we investigated the effect of clarithromycin on biofilm formation by a leucine-requiring Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strain (HU1). Biofilm formation on celldesks in a chemically defined medium was assessed by viable cell count as well as by measurement of glycocalyx production and scanning electron-microscopic observation. Cells proliferated exponentially until day 3 and remained stationary

G. Tanaka; M. Shigeta; H. Komatsuzawa; M. Sugai; H. Suginaka; T. Usui

2000-01-01

266

Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.  

PubMed

During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

2013-05-01

267

Silver accumulation in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Silver toxicity toPseudomonas stutzeri AG259 was strongly dependent on the NaCl concentration in the medium, which reduced the availability of Ag+ by precipitation as AgCl. Accumulation of Ag+ by growing cultures was low being ? 7.5 nmol (mg dry mass)-1 over all treatments examined. The presence of NaCl in the growth medium did not markedly affect the amounts of

Geoffrey M. Gadd; Oliver S. Laurence; Paul A. Briscoe; Jack T. Trevors

1989-01-01

268

Biodegradation of sulfanilic acid by Pseudomonas paucimobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerobic bacterium, isolated from a contaminated site, was able to degrade sulfanilic acid (4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid)\\u000a and was identified as Pseudomonas paucimobilis. The isolate could grow on sulfanilic acid (SA) as its sole carbon and nitrogen source and metabolized the target compound\\u000a to biomass. The bioconversion capacity depended on the sulfanilic acid concentration; greater than 98% elimination of the\\u000a hazardous

K. Perei; G. Rákhely; I. Kiss; B. Polyák; K. L. Kovács

2001-01-01

269

Genetics of alkane oxidation by Pseudomonas oleovorans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Pseudomonads are able to use linear alkanes as sole carbon and energy source. The genetics and enzymology of alkane metabolism have been investigated in depth forPseudomonas oleovorans, which is able to oxidize C5-C12 n-alkanes by virtue of two gene regions, localized on the OCT-plasmid. The so-calledalk-genes have been cloned in pLAFR1, and were subsequent analyzed using minicell expression experiments,

Jan B. Beilen; Marcel G. Wubbolts; Bernard Witholt

1994-01-01

270

Tryptophan Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been implicated in the pathology of chronic wounds. Both the d and l isoforms of tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on tissue culture plates, with an equimolar ratio of d and l isoforms producing the greatest inhibitory effect. Addition of d-/l-tryptophan to existing biofilms inhibited further biofilm growth and caused partial biofilm disassembly. Tryptophan significantly increased swimming motility, which may be responsible in part for diminished biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa.

Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Rodriguez, Karien J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.

2013-01-01

271

DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas cannabina sp. nov. (ex Sutic and Dowson 1959).  

PubMed

A total of 48 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and eight related species were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization (S1 nuclease method) and ribotyping. The existence of nine discrete genomospecies was indicated. Genomospecies 1 corresponded to P. syringae sensu stricto and included P. syringae pathovars syringae, aptata, lapsa, papulans, pisi, atrofaciens, aceris, panici, dysoxyli and japonica. Genomospecies 2 included P. syringae pathovars phaseolicola, ulmi, mori, lachrymans, sesami, tabaci, morsprunorum, glycinea, ciccaronei, eriobotryae, mellea, aesculi, hibisci, myricae, photiniae and dendropanacis and nomenspecies Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pseudomonas ficuserectae, Pseudomonas meliae and Pseudomonas amygdali, which are thus synonymous. P. amygdali is the earliest valid name for this genomospecies. Genomospecies 3 included P. syringae pathovars tomato, persicae, antirrhini, maculicola, viburni, berberidis, apii, delphinii, passiflorae, philadelphi, ribicola and primulae. We recommend strain CFBP 2212 of P. syringae pv. tomato to serve as the type strain. Genomospecies 4 included 'Pseudomonas coronafaciens' and P. syringae pathovars porri, garcae, striafaciens, atropurpurea, oryzae and zizaniae and corresponds to 'P. coronafaciens'. Genomospecies 5 included P. syringae pv. tremae and corresponds to Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. Genomospecies 6 included Pseudomonas viridiflava and the presently misidentified pathotype strains of P. syringae pv. ribicola and P. syringae pv. primulae and thus corresponds to P. viridiflava. Genomospecies 7 included P. syringae pv. tagetis and P. syringae pv. helianthi. We recommend strain CFBP 1694 of P. syringae pv. tagetis to serve as a reference strain. Genomospecies 8 included P. syringae pv. these and Pseudomonas avellanae and thus corresponds to P. avellanae. Genomospecies 9 included P. syringae pv. cannabina and corresponds to Pseudomonas cannabina sp. nov. Ribotyping (SmaI and HincII endonucleases) could separate seven of the nine genomospecies. The unnamed genomospecies 3 and 7 will be named when phenotypic data are available for identification. Two species are described, P. tremae sp. nov. and P. cannabina sp. nov. Other species will be named when phenotypic data are available for identification. PMID:10319466

Gardan, L; Shafik, H; Belouin, S; Broch, R; Grimont, F; Grimont, P A

1999-04-01

272

Pseudomonas taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, CMS(T), isolated from soil was characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the organism belongs phylogenetically to the genus Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas monteilii, P. plecoglossicida and P. mosselii were the most closely related species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the respective type strains of 99.79, 99.73 and 99.59 %. Relatively low gyrB gene sequence similarities (<90 %) and DNA-DNA reassociation values (<51 %) were obtained between the strain and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C content of strain CMS(T) was 62.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C(18 : 1) ? 7c, summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1) ? 7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), C(16 : 0) and C(10 : 0) 3-OH. Based on the phenotypic and genetic evidence, the strain is suggested to represent a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CMS(T) (=BCRC 17751(T) =DSM 21245(T)). PMID:19854877

Wang, Li-Ting; Tai, Chun-Ju; Wu, Yen-Chi; Chen, Ying-Bei; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Wang, San-Lang

2010-09-01

273

Proteus Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... info about the 3rd Annual Swing For Sunshine Conference call for families Monday, May 20th. 10AM Eastern Standard Time. We are officially scheduling the conference call for May 20th at 10 am eastern ...

274

Antibacterial activities of crude extract of Aloe barbadensis to clinically isolated bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations were obtained for gram negative bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with ethanol extract; however, no inhibitory effect was noted for aqueous extract. Ethanolic extract possesses great inhibitory activity for gram positive bacteria, E. bovis followed by S. aureus. Among gram negative bacteria, highest inhibitory effect was observed with P. aeruginosa, followed by M. morganii, P. mirabilis, and P. vulgaris, which was significant (p < 0.01) than E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antimicrobial activity tests of crude extract of A. barbadensis were carried out to validate the use of traditional medicinal herbal and results of this study tend to give credence to the common use of A. barbadensis gel and leaf. PMID:19263248

Pandey, Ruchi; Mishra, Avinash

2010-03-01

275

The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

2014-03-01

276

Distribution, diversity, and activity of antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

<\\/strong>Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases caused by various fungi and oomycetes. Antibiotic production is an important trait responsible for the activity of several Pseudomonas strains against plant pathogens. Despite the amount of information obtained during the past decades on biosynthesis and regulation of antibiotics, little is known about the distribution and diversity of

Souza de J. T

2002-01-01

277

Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas spp. from Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica.  

PubMed Central

Ten cultures of Pseudomonas spp. were established from soil samples collected in and around a lake in Antarctica. Based on their morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, and moles percent G + C of their DNA, they were identified as P. fluorescens, P. putida, and P. syringae. This is the first report on the identification of Pseudomonas spp. from continental Antarctica.

Shivaji, S; Rao, N S; Saisree, L; Sheth, V; Reddy, G S; Bhargava, P M

1989-01-01

278

Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ATCC 15442.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 is an environmental strain of the Pseudomonas genus. Here, we present a 6.77-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. Besides giving insights into characteristics associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa, such as virulence, drug resistance, and biofilm formation, the genome sequence may provide some information related to biotechnological utilization of the strain. PMID:24786961

Wang, Yujiao; Li, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

279

Functions Required for Extracellular Quinolone Signaling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 30 mutants exhibiting reduced production of the phenazine poison pyocyanin were isolated following transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The mutants could be subdivided into those with defects in the primary phenazine biosynthetic pathway and those with more pleiotropic defects. The largest set of pleiotropic mutations blocked the production of the extracellular Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a

Larry A. Gallagher; Susan L. McKnight; Marina S. Kuznetsova; Everett C. Pesci; Colin Manoil

2002-01-01

280

Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ATCC 15442  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 is an environmental strain of the Pseudomonas genus. Here, we present a 6.77-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. Besides giving insights into characteristics associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa, such as virulence, drug resistance, and biofilm formation, the genome sequence may provide some information related to biotechnological utilization of the strain.

Wang, Yujiao; Li, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

281

Genetic detection of Pseudomonas spp. in commercial Amazonian fish.  

PubMed

Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2013-09-01

282

Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated J64T, was isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju Island, Korea. Cells grew at 4-37 degrees C, at pH 5.5-10.0 and with 0-10 % NaCl. The strain was found to be oxidase- and catalase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain J64T belongs to the genus Pseudomonas, forming a monophyletic group with Pseudomonas pachastrellae, Pseudomonas pertucinogena and 'Pseudomonas denitrificans'. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain J64T and type strains of all Pseudomonas species with validly published names was below 96.6 %. Low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness were found with respect to type strains of P. pachastrellae and P. pertucinogena, supporting the classification of strain J64T within a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain J64T contained C(18 : 1)omega7c (37.2 %), C(16 : 0) (20.4 %), summed feature 3 (17.4 %; comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c) and C(12 : 0) (7.6 %) as major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain J64T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is J64T (=KCTC 22137T =JCM 14963T). PMID:19126720

Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Roh, Seong Woon; Chang, Ho-Won; Nam, Young-Do; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Oh, Hee-Mock; Bae, Jin-Woo

2009-01-01

283

Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, non-fermentative, non-denitrifying, non-pigmented, rod-shaped bacteria that were motile by means of polar flagella, designated strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331, were isolated from a deep-sea sponge specimen and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The new isolates exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9 %, and their mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 82 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains within the genus Pseudomonas as an independent deep clade. Strain KMM 330(T) shared highest sequence similarity (96.3 %) with each of Pseudomonas fulva NRIC 0180(T), Pseudomonas parafulva AJ 2129(T) and Pseudomonas luteola IAM 13000(T); sequence similarity to other recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas was below 95.7 %. The marine sponge isolates KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 could be distinguished from the other recognized Pseudomonas species based on a unique combination of their phenotypic characteristics, including growth in 8 or 10 % NaCl, the absence of pigments, the inability to denitrify and lack of carbohydrate utilization. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 330(T) (=JCM 12285(T)=NRIC 0583(T)=CCUG 46540(T)). PMID:15774686

Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

2005-03-01

284

Ornicorrugatin, a new siderophore from Pseudomonas fluorescens AF76.  

PubMed

From a pyoverdin-negative mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens AF76 a new lipopeptidic siderophore (ornicorrugatin) could be isolated. It is structurally related to the siderophore of Pseudomonas corrugata differing in the replacement of one Dab unit by Orn. PMID:18386480

Matthijs, Sandra; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Schäfer, Mathias; Wathelet, Bernard; Cornelis, Pierre

2008-01-01

285

Mercury and organomercurial resistances determined by plasmids in Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury and organomercurial resistance determined by genes on ten Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmids and one Pseudomonas putida plasmid have been studied with regard to the range of substrates and the range of inducers. The plasmidless strains were sensitive to growth inhibition by Hg\\/sup 2 +\\/ and did not volatilize Hg° from Hg\\/sup 2 +\\/. All 10 plasmids determine mercury resistance by

D. L. Clark; A. A. Weiss; S. Silver

1977-01-01

286

Genetic Detection of Pseudomonas spp. in Commercial Amazonian Fish  

PubMed Central

Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood.

Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2013-01-01

287

ETUDE COMPARATIVE DE L'ACTIVITE PHARMACOLOGIQUE DE EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. (EUPHORBIACEAE) ET HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA G. DON (APOCYNACEAE) VIS-A-VIS D'AMIBES NON PATHOGENES DU GENE AMOEBA PROTEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Hollarrhena floribunda G. Don (Apocynaceae) proved active on non pathogenic amoebae of the Amoeba proteus type, thus justifying the use of these plants in the cure of amoebic diseases. This activity has been compared to the one of modern re f e rence medicines (Dehydro-Emetine and Metro n i - dazole), Euphorbia hirta proved

J. P. GUISSOU; H. MILLOGO-KONE; I. Z. KABORE

1992-01-01

288

Massetolide A Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens?  

PubMed Central

Massetolide A is a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotic produced by various Pseudomonas strains from diverse environments. Cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, and complementation showed that massetolide A biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SS101 is governed by three nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, designated massA, massB, and massC, spanning approximately 30 kb. Prediction of the nature and configuration of the amino acids by in silico analysis of adenylation and condensation domains of the NRPSs was consistent with the chemically determined structure of the peptide moiety of massetolide A. Structural analysis of massetolide A derivatives produced by SS101 indicated that most of the variations in the peptide moiety occur at amino acid positions 4 and 9. Regions flanking the mass genes contained several genes found in other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis clusters, which encode LuxR-type transcriptional regulators, ABC transporters, and an RND-like outer membrane protein. In contrast to most Pseudomonas CLP gene clusters known to date, the mass genes are not physically linked but are organized in two separate clusters, with massA disconnected from massB and massC. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of massC is strongly reduced when massB is mutated, suggesting that these two genes function in an operon, whereas transcription of massA is independent of massBC and vice versa. Massetolide A is produced in the early exponential growth phase, and biosynthesis appears not to be regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactone-based quorum sensing. Massetolide A production is essential in swarming motility of P. fluorescens SS101 and plays an important role in biofilm formation.

de Bruijn, I.; de Kock, M. J. D.; de Waard, P.; van Beek, T. A.; Raaijmakers, J. M.

2008-01-01

289

Primary Alcohol Sulfatase ina Pseudomonas Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAYNE,W.J.(University ofGeorgia, Athens), JoYP.WILLIAMS, AND W.R.MAY- BERRY. Primary alcohol sulfatase inaPseudomonas species. Appl. Microbiol. 13:698-701. 1965.-An ammoniumsulfate-precipitated fraction fromcell-free extracts ofPseudo- monas C12Bgrown on a mediumcontaining sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS)contained alkyl sulfatase increased fourfold inspecific activity overthecrude. Optimal pH (7.5) andtemperature (70C)forsulfate release were determined withSDS labeled with radioactive sulfur (SDS35) as testsubstrate. Phosphate, arsenate, andcertain heavy metalionsinhibited desulfation, whereasMg++andMn++stimulated activity

W. J. PAYNE; W. R. MAYBERRY

290

O and H serotyping of Pseudomonas cepacia.  

PubMed Central

Procedures for the preparation, absorption, and titration of Pseudomonas cepacia O and H rabbit antisera are described. Seven O antigens (O1 to O7) for the slide agglutination test and five H antigens (H1, H3, H5, H6, and H7) for the agglutination and H immobilization tests were determined. Nearly 300 strains of P. cepacia isolated from hospitalized patients (a majority from Strasbourg hospitals) were serotyped. The use of P. cepacia serotyping as an epidemiological tool, especially in outbreak situations, was emphasized. Difficulties in obtaining monospecific H antisera are discussed.

Heidt, A; Monteil, H; Richard, C

1983-01-01

291

Pseudomonas aeruginosa: all roads lead to resistance.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often resistant to multiple antibiotics and consequently has joined the ranks of 'superbugs' due to its enormous capacity to engender resistance. It demonstrates decreased susceptibility to most antibiotics due to low outer membrane permeability coupled to adaptive mechanisms and can readily achieve clinical resistance. Newer research, using mutant library screens, microarray technologies and mutation frequency analysis, has identified very large collections of genes (the resistome) that when mutated lead to resistance as well as new forms of adaptive resistance that can be triggered by antibiotics themselves, in in vivo growth conditions or complex adaptations such as biofilm growth or swarming motility. PMID:21664819

Breidenstein, Elena B M; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Hancock, Robert E W

2011-08-01

292

Chromate resistance plasmid in Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed Central

Chromate resistance of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300, isolated from chromium-contaminated sediment in the upper Hudson River, was found to be plasmid specified. Loss of the plasmid (pLHB1) by spontaneous segregation or mitomycin C curing resulted in a simultaneous loss of chromate resistance. Subsequent transformation of such strains with purified pLHB1 plasmid DNA resulted in a simultaneous re-acquisition of the chromate resistance phenotype and the plasmid. When pLHB1 was transferred by conjugation to Escherichia coli, the plasmid still conferred chromate resistance.

Bopp, L H; Chakrabarty, A M; Ehrlich, H L

1983-01-01

293

Linkage map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAT.  

PubMed Central

The locations of new markers relative to markers previously mapped on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAT were defined by generalized transduction with phage F116L and F1083. Although the marker orders of the various marker groups were deduced mainly from the results of two-factor crosses, the locations of a number of markers were confirmed by three-factor crosses. A linkage map of the chromosome of P. aeruginosa PAT was constructed which shows the relative locations of 50 genes. From the available data, the linkage maps of P. aeruginosa strains PAO and PAT appear to be similar.

Watson, J M; Holloway, B W

1978-01-01

294

Degradation of bromacil by a Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed Central

A gram-negative rod, identified as a Pseudomonas sp., was isolated from soil by using bromacil as the sole source of carbon and energy. During growth on bromacil or 5-bromouracil, almost stoichiometric amounts of bromide were released. The bacterium was shown to harbor two plasmids approximately 60 and 100 kilobases in size. They appeared to be associated with the ability to utilize bromacil as a sole source of carbon and also with resistance to ampicillin. This microorganism also showed the potential to decontaminate soil samples fortified with bromacil under laboratory conditions. Images

Chaudhry, G R; Cortez, L

1988-01-01

295

Degradation of bromacil by a Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed

A gram-negative rod, identified as a Pseudomonas sp., was isolated from soil by using bromacil as the sole source of carbon and energy. During growth on bromacil or 5-bromouracil, almost stoichiometric amounts of bromide were released. The bacterium was shown to harbor two plasmids approximately 60 and 100 kilobases in size. They appeared to be associated with the ability to utilize bromacil as a sole source of carbon and also with resistance to ampicillin. This microorganism also showed the potential to decontaminate soil samples fortified with bromacil under laboratory conditions. PMID:3056270

Chaudhry, G R; Cortez, L

1988-09-01

296

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteome during Anaerobic Growth‡  

PubMed Central

Isotope-coded affinity tag analysis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins expressed during anaerobic growth. Out of the 617 proteins identified, 158 were changed in abundance during anaerobic growth compared to during aerobic growth, including proteins whose increased expression was expected based on their role in anaerobic metabolism. These results form the basis for future analyses of alterations in bacterial protein content during growth in various environments, including the cystic fibrosis airway.

Wu, Manhong; Guina, Tina; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Nguyen, Hai; Eng, Jimmy; Miller, Samuel I.

2005-01-01

297

Current status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens responsible for a wide variety of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections. Numerous vaccine candidates and several monoclonal antibodies have been developed over the past 40 years but only a few have reached clinical trials and none of these vaccine candidates has obtained market authorization. The understanding of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and its virulence factors is essential in the identification of immunogens that can be used for a P. aeruginosa vaccine. This review summarizes the present status of vaccine development for this important pathogen. PMID:24372247

Michelim, Lessandra; Medeiros, Gregory Saraiva; Zavascki, Alexandre P

2014-11-01

298

Comparison of the exoproducts of gram-negative bacteria by SDS-Page.  

PubMed

The protein exoproducts released during exponential growth of Gram-negative bacteria were analysed and compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page). The following bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia rubidaea, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella minnesota, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens. It is demonstrated by SDS-Page that members of one species show identical protein pattern, whereas different species show besides comparable protein bands a species characteristic pattern. All members of Enterobacteriaceae were shown to release proteins whose molecular weights fell into the following size regions: Each strain was shown to synthesize a polypeptide of molecular weight 34,000 and one or more polypeptides within the molecular weight range 25,000-29,000. This profile was shown to be clearly different from that of Pseudomonas strains where 20 or more distinct polypeptides ranging from 12,500 to 160,000 Mr were detectable. PMID:2408403

Euteneuer, B; Loos, M

1985-02-01

299

Differential Habitat Use and Niche Partitioning by Pseudomonas Species in Human Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide

Susanna K. Remold; Christopher K. Brown; Justin E. Farris; Thomas C. Hundley; Jessica A. Perpich; Megan E. Purdy

300

21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp. (iii) Limitations. Use for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all...

2009-04-01

301

Experimental Medicine and Microbiology. Volume 23, Number 1, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Studies on transamination reaction in Staphylococcus aureus; Characterization of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from humans; Preliminary scheme of phage typing of Proteus mirabilis strains; Virological and serological studies of in...

1971-01-01

302

OXIDATIVE ASSIMILATION OF GLUCOSE BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA  

PubMed Central

Duncan, Margaret G. (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and J. J. R. Campbell. Oxidative assimilation of glucose by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 84:784–792. 1962—Oxidative assimilation of glucose by washed-cell suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied using C14-labeled substrate. At the time of glucose disappearance, only small amounts of radioactivity were present in the cells, and ?-ketoglutaric acid accumulated in the supernatant fluid. Most of the material synthesized by the cells during oxidative assimilation was nitrogenous, the ammonia being supplied by the endogenous respiration. The cold trichloroacetic acid-soluble fraction and the lipid fraction appeared to be important during the early stages of oxidative assimilation, and the largest percentage of the incorporated radioactivity was found in the protein fraction. In the presence of added ammonia, assimilation was greatly increased and no ?-ketoglutaric acid was found in the supernatant fluid. Sodium azide partially inhibited incorporation into all major cell fractions, and at higher concentrations depressed the rate of glucose oxidation. During oxidative assimilation, chloramphenicol specifically inhibited the synthesis of protein. Oxidative assimilation of glucose by this organism did not appear to involve the synthesis of a primary product such as is found in the majority of bacteria.

Duncan, Margaret G.; Campbell, J. J. R.

1962-01-01

303

Ethylene Glycol Metabolism by Pseudomonas putida  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.

Muckschel, Bjorn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

2012-01-01

304

Cloning of an endoglucanase gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens var. cellulosa into Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An endoglucanase chromosomal gene from the cellulolyticPseudomonas fluorescens var.cellulosa (NCIB 10462) was cloned inEscherichia coli. Chromosomal DNA was partially digested with the restriction enzymeEcoRI and ligated into the broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid pSUP104 that had been linearized with the same enzyme. After transformation ofEscherichia coli, and endoglucanase-positive clone was detected in situ by use of the Congo-red assay procedure.

André Lejeune; Charles Colson; Douglas E. Eveleigh

1986-01-01

305

The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Regulates rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses intercellular signals to control the density-depen- dent expression of many virulence factors. The las and rhl quorum-sensing systems function, respectively, through the autoinducers N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4- HSL), which are known to positively regulate the transcription of the elastase-encoding gene, lasB. Recently, we reported that a second type of intercellular signal is

SUSAN L. MCKNIGHT; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI; EVERETT C. PESCI

2000-01-01

306

Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these\\u000a strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri

N. V. Grigor’eva; T. F. Kondrat’eva; E. N. Krasil’nikova; G. I. Karavaiko

2006-01-01

307

A chromosomally located transposon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

A new transposon, Tn2521, coding for carbenicillin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, and sulfanilamide resistance, has been identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The transposon occurs naturally in the chromosome of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa isolated in geographically separated hospitals. This has been demonstrated by its transductional linkage to the pur-136 marker and also by Southern hybridization. Tn2521 is 6.8 kilobases, can transpose from the chromosome to both IncP-1 and IncP-2 plasmid genomes, and has a pattern of restriction endonuclease sites unlike that of any previously described transposon. The carbenicillin resistance carried by Tn2521 is due to the PSE-4 type of beta-lactamase. Images

Sinclair, M I; Holloway, B W

1982-01-01

308

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and fluoroquinolone use.  

PubMed

Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluated the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured fluoroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between a hospital's volume of fluoroquinolone use and percent resistance in most individual study years (1999-2001 for P. aeruginosa, 1999-2002 for S. aureus). When the method of generalized estimating equations was used, a population-averaged longitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrelation) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use on percent resistance for most drug-organism combinations, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use and percent MRSA. The ecologic relationship between fluoroquinolone use and resistance is complex and requires further study. PMID:16102307

MacDougall, Conan; Harpe, Spencer E; Powell, J Patrick; Johnson, Christopher K; Edmond, Michael B; Polk, Ron E

2005-08-01

309

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fluoroquinolone Use  

PubMed Central

Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluated the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured fluoroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between a hospital's volume of fluoroquinolone use and percent resistance in most individual study years (1999–2001 for P. aeruginosa, 1999–2002 for S. aureus). When the method of generalized estimating equations was used, a population-averaged longitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrelation) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use on percent resistance for most drug-organism combinations, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use and percent MRSA. The ecologic relationship between fluoroquinolone use and resistance is complex and requires further study.

MacDougall, Conan; Harpe, Spencer E.; Powell, J. Patrick; Johnson, Christopher K.; Edmond, Michael B.

2005-01-01

310

Structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Hfq protein.  

PubMed

The structure of the Hfq protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined using two different ionic conditions. In both cases the molecules formed identical hexameric rings, but some variations in the crystal packing were revealed. Hfq belongs to the family of Sm/LSm proteins, the members of which can form hexameric as well as heptameric rings. Comparative analysis of known structures of this protein family shows that the fragment of the Sm-fold responsible for oligomerization is strongly structurally conserved. In the heptameric ring, three conserved hydrogen bonds between beta-strands of adjacent molecules hold together the monomers, whereas in the hexameric rings of Hfq an additional conserved inaccessible hydrogen bond between neighbouring monomers is observed. PMID:15681864

Nikulin, Alexey; Stolboushkina, Elena; Perederina, Anna; Vassilieva, Ioulia; Blaesi, Udo; Moll, Isabella; Kachalova, Galina; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Vassylyev, Dmitry; Garber, Maria; Nikonov, Stanislav

2005-02-01

311

Pseudomonas entomophila and Pseudomonas mendocina: potential models for studying the bacterial type VI secretion system.  

PubMed

A diversity of molecular translocation mechanisms, including various secretion systems, has been elaborated in host-bacterial interactions. The newly described type VI secretion system (T6SS) appears to be involved in bacterial pathogenesis by acting as a nano-syringe, contributing in translocation of several effector-proteins into the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Recent evidences revealed the involvement of T6SS machinery in inter-bacterial interactions. Several Pseudomonas species are found to harbour multiple and well organised T6SS loci, however, their genomic structural similarities as well as phylogenetic divergence suggest an independent evolution. Until now elementary evidence was provided for the presence of T6SS in the genomes of Pseudomonas entomophila (Pen), an aggressive insect pathogen as well as the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas mendocina (Pme). In this report we evidenced by in silico genome mining along with bioinformatic analysis the presence of genes encoding for putative T6SS core components and secreted proteins in the sequenced Pen L48 and Pme ymp, strains and designated their putative promoters, sigma factors binding sites and various regulatory proteins. Moreover, we investigated the phylogenetic relatedness of four T6SS core proteins from these strains with their orthologues from various Pseudomonas species. Our analysis revealed two phylogenetically distinguishable T6SS loci in the genome of Pme that appeared to be highly homologous to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Hcp-Secretion Island-I (HSI-I) and -II. Our findings suggest that Pme could be excellent additional to P. aeruginosa model, for the elucidation of HSI-I and -II biological role(s), avoiding the overlapping activity HSI-III (Lesic et al., 2009), which is missing from Pme's genome. Likewise, our analysis revealed the presence of a unique entire T6SS in Pen genome, which appears to be phylogenetically close to Pme T6SS-II and P. aeruginosa HSI-II. Since Pen lacks the common secretion systems T3SS and T4SS, the single T6SS locus could have an enforced role in the insect-bacterial interactions, providing thus a promising model for studying its biological function. PMID:21600307

Sarris, Panagiotis F; Scoulica, Effie V

2011-08-01

312

Athlete's foot caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

An enzymatically active pigment-producing clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to produce a diffusible antifungal product that was shown to be inhibitory to the growth of several dermatophytes, specifically, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, and Microsporum audouini. In this study, Trichophyton rubrum was used as the test organism. The antifungal product was partially purified by Sephadex column chromatography and was found to be stable at 5 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. Several investigators have alluded to the fact that as asymptomatic cases of dermatophytosis simplex progress to symptomatic dermatophytosis complex, the bacterial profile changes from a gram-positive bacterial ecosystem to a gram-negative bacterial over-growth. The primary event in the pathogenesis of interdigital athlete's foot is the invasion of the horny layer by dermatophytes. This presents as a mild to moderate scaly lesion and is asymptomatic. As a result of predisposing factors, such as hyperhidrosis, occlusion by tight shoes, minute abrasions due to friction, and fungal-infected skin surfaces, dynamic overgrowth of opportunistic gram-negative bacilli prevails. As the gram-negative population increases, the recovery of dermatophytes dramatically diminishes, until a point is reached when no dermatophytes can be recovered from clinically symptomatic tinea pedis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is inhibiting its fungal competitor Trichophyton rubrum by producing a diffusible antifungal agent into the infectious environment of the intertriginous foot lesion. Clinically, the patient is diagnosed as having tinea pedis; laboratory culture for fungus and KOH are negative, and what was a paradox just a few years ago can currently be identified and treated appropriately as gram-negative athlete's foot. PMID:6443779

Abramson, C

1983-01-01

313

Transformation and Precipitation of Toxic Metals by Pseudomonas Maltophilia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aims of this research were to study each of the various molecular mechanisms whereby toxic metal cations and oxyanions were chemically transformed by Pseudomonas maltophilia strain OR02. The research effort focused on the microbial-dependent transform...

R. Blake

1992-01-01

314

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

315

UTILIZATION OF FLUORANTHENE BY PSEUDOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS STRAIN EPA505  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, was previously purified from a 7-membered bacterial community originally isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil for its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote. The unique ability of this organism...

316

'In vivo' Role of 'Pseudomonas aerugionsa' Toxins and Host Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In vitro and in vivo studies were performed on both endotoxin and collagenase obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The collagenase was extensively purified by both chemical and chromatographic technics and was subsequently assayed for potential toxic act...

R. S. Berk B. Diener L. Carrick

1973-01-01

317

DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACTERIOPHAGES IN LAKE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and interaction between newly isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and resident bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater environment was monitored over 45 days in lake water microcosms. he interaction between susceptible and resistant bacteria with pure pha...

318

The Metabolism of Phenylacetic Acid by a Pseudomonas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Pseudomonas species adapted to grow on phenylacetic acid is simultaneously adapted to the utilization of phenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Extracts of the organism catalyze the oxidation of p-hydroxypheny...

E. R. Blakley W. Kurz H. Halvorson F. J. Simpson

1965-01-01

319

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium, is known to produce vitamin B12 under aerobic conditions. This paper reports the annotated whole-genome sequence of the circular chromosome of this organism. PMID:23723394

Ainala, Satish Kumar; Somasundar, Ashok; Park, Sunghoon

2013-01-01

320

Extracellular enzymes of fecal strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

During a three year study 67 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from stools of 67 patients with gastroenteritis. Serotypes 3 and 6 were the most frequent. The three strains that were serotype 11 were also the only beta-galactosidase producers. All strains were strongly pigmented. Over 90% of the isolates produced hemolysin, gelatinase, protease (caseinase), fibrinolysin, lecithinase and elastase. Fecal carriers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be considered a source of dissemination of potentially virulent and invasive strains. PMID:2839341

Marne, C; Vindel, A

1988-04-01

321

Bioactive substances produced by marine isolates of Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas is a genus of non-fermentative gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found both on land and in the water. Many terrestrial isolates of this genus have been studied extensively. While many produce\\u000a bioactive substances, enzymes, and biosurfactants, other Pseudomonas isolates are used for biological control of plant diseases and bioremediation. In contrast, only a few marine isolates of\\u000a this genus have been described

Alim Isnansetyo; Yuto Kamei

2009-01-01

322

Pseudomonas litoralis sp. nov., isolated from Mediterranean seawater.  

PubMed

Strains 2SM5(T) and 2SM6, two strictly aerobic chemo-organotrophic gammaproteobacteria, were isolated from Mediterranean seawater off the coast of Vinaroz, Castellón, Spain, in February, 1990. They were extensively characterized by a polyphasic study that placed them in the genus Pseudomonas. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains shared 100?% sequence similarity and were closely related to members of the Pseudomonas pertucinogena clade, with less than 97.3?% similarity to strains of established species; Pseudomonas xiamenensis was the closest relative. Analysis of sequences of three housekeeping genes, rpoB, rpoD and gyrB, further confirmed the phylogenetic assignment of the Mediterranean isolates. Chemotaxonomic traits such as quinone and polar lipid composition also corroborated the placement of strains 2SM5(T) and 2SM6 in the gammaproteobacteria. Other phenotypic traits, including fatty acid composition, enabled clear differentiation of both isolates from other species of Pseudomonas. We therefore conclude that strains 2SM5(T) and 2SM6 represent a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas litoralis is proposed; the type strain is 2SM5(T) (?=?CECT 7670(T)?=?KCTC 23093(T)). PMID:21460136

Pascual, Javier; Lucena, Teresa; Ruvira, María A; Giordano, Assunta; Gambacorta, Agata; Garay, Esperanza; Arahal, David R; Pujalte, María J; Macián, M Carmen

2012-02-01

323

Microbial degradation of polychlorinated hydrocarbons. [Aspergillus, Serratia, Bacillus, Pseudomonas  

SciTech Connect

Mutant strains of Asperqillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus spp. were developed to resist polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 1254. The mutant cells of Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. were not affected after 120 min exposure to 1 000 ppm PCB 1254/ml buffer, and grew well in glucose basal salt broth (GBSB) and 400 ppm PCB. Generation time of Pseudomonas in GBSB was 62 min in absence and 66 min in presence of 200 ppm PCB 1254. Maximal PCB uptake of 39.7% was noted for Pseudomonas cultures grown in basal salt broth (72 h, 37{degree}C) and most PCB was in lipid fraction of cell walls and membranes. Bioreactor experiments using 122 L of waste (800 mg PCB 1248/L) showed that Pseudomonas and Serratia spp. degraded most of the PCB in 90 - 130 days. PCB dechlorination occurred in Pseudomonas cell walls followed by metabolism to lower chlorinated molecules, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O in the cytoplasm via oxidative pathway. Activated charcoal (AC) was used to remove PCBs from waste, and repeated hexane extractions recovered the compounds from the AC, suggesting AC adsorption as a possible means for removing low levels of PCBs from industrial waste.

Hamdy, M.K. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1990-01-01

324

Pathways of Pyrimidine Salvage in Pseudomonas and Former Pseudomonas : Detection of Recycling Enzymes Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrimidine salvage pathways are vital for all bacteria in that they share in the synthesis of RNA with the biosynthetic pathway\\u000a in pyrimidine prototrophs, while supplying all pyrimidine requirements in pyrimidine auxotrophs. Salvage enzymes that constitute\\u000a the pyrimidine salvage pathways were studied in 13 members of Pseudomonas and former pseudomonads. Because it has been established that all Pseudomonas lack the

Debrah A. Beck; Gerard A. O’Donovan

2008-01-01

325

Chromogenesis mirabilis in Streptomyces griseus.  

PubMed

A number of chromogenic Streptomyces, producing diffusible melanoid pigment on complex organic media, fail to form melanin pigment on conventionally used synthetic tyrosine agar. By means of our new melanin formation test, almost all the chromogenic streptomyces can now be detected in chemically defined medium. In contrast to ordinary chromogenic streptomyces, two streptomyces species of the International Streptomyces Project, S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. ornatus ISP 5307, produce melanin pigment only on synthetic tyrosine agar, without showing chromogenicity on complex organic media. From the results obtained with S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. phaeochromogenes ISP 5073, it was revealed that melanin formation by Streptomyces, in general, is inhibited by L-cysteine present in organic nitrogen sources incorporated into natural media. Most chromogenic species of streptomyces produce a higher level of tyrosinase and rapidly utilize L-cysteine in the culture media which result in the manifestation of good chromogenicity on natural media. Peculiarity of chromogenicity of S. griseus and S. ornatus might be due to the lower ability to produce tyrosinase and to utilize L-cysteine in the culture medium. PMID:4629704

Arai, T; Mikami, Y

1972-11-01

326

Chromogenesis mirabilis in Streptomyces griseus  

PubMed Central

A number of chromogenic Streptomyces, producing diffusible melanoid pigment on complex organic media, fail to form melanin pigment on conventionally used synthetic tyrosine agar. By means of our new melanin formation test, almost all the chromogenic streptomyces can now be detected in chemically defined medium. In contrast to ordinary chromogenic streptomyces, two streptomyces species of the International Streptomyces Project, S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. ornatus ISP 5307, produce melanin pigment only on synthetic tyrosine agar, without showing chromogenicity on complex organic media. From the results obtained with S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. phaeochromogenes ISP 5073, it was revealed that melanin formation by Streptomyces, in general, is inhibited by L-cysteine present in organic nitrogen sources incorporated into natural media. Most chromogenic species of streptomyces produce a higher level of tyrosinase and rapidly utilize L-cysteine in the culture media which result in the manifestation of good chromogenicity on natural media. Peculiarity of chromogenicity of S. griseus and S. ornatus might be due to the lower ability to produce tyrosinase and to utilize L-cysteine in the culture medium.

Arai, Tadashi; Mikami, Yuzuru

1972-01-01

327

Discrimination of selected species of pathogenic bacteria using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and principal components analysis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. A method, based on Raman spectroscopy, for identification of different microorganisms involved in bacterial urinary tract infections has been proposed. Spectra were collected from different bacterial colonies (Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, and Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.), grown on culture medium (agar), using a Raman spectrometer with a fiber Raman probe (830 nm). Colonies were scraped from the agar surface and placed on an aluminum foil for Raman measurements. After preprocessing, spectra were submitted to a principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance (PCA/MD) discrimination algorithm. We found that the mean Raman spectra of different bacterial species show similar bands, and S. aureus was well characterized by strong bands related to carotenoids. PCA/MD could discriminate Gram-positive bacteria with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and Gram-negative bacteria with sensitivity ranging from 58 to 88% and specificity ranging from 87% to 99%. PMID:23052563

de Siqueira e Oliveira, Fernanda SantAna; Giana, Hector Enrique; Silveira, Landulfo

2012-10-01

328

In Vitro Activity of Coumermycin A1  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of coumermycin A1 was compared with that of novobiocin, ampicillin, and minocycline. Coumermycin was found to be the most active antibiotic of the four against Staphylococcus aureus. It was about 50 times more active than novobiocin or minocycline against the strains tested. Coumermycin also showed good activity against group A streptococci and pneumococci, moderate activity against Escherichia coli, indole-positive Proteus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and poor activity against Klebsiella-Enterobacter and enterococci. Against P. mirabilis, however, coumermycin activity was almost equal to that of ampicillin. The new antibiotic was further found to be greatly reduced in activity in the presence of plasma, but its minimal inhibitory concentration was not greatly affected by inoculum size. Coumermycin was found to be bacteriostatic in its action, and resistance to it developed slowly. Also, cross-resistance was present with novobiocin but absent with ampicillin or minocycline.

Fedorko, Joseph; Katz, Sol; Allnoch, Hedi

1969-01-01

329

Phytochemisty and spermatogenic potentials of aqueous extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per) stem bark.  

PubMed

In vivo clinical trials involving the administration of crude extracts of Cissus populnea to male subjects (normospermic, oligospermic, and azoopermic) in a 72-day study revealed that continuous exposure of the subjects to the extracts over this period did not significantly (p < or = 0.05) alter sperm count, morphology, motility, or volume. Antimicrobial screening of the extract against some selected microbial isolates secondarily implicated in male infertility revealed total inactivity against the microbial isolates screened, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Klebsiella sp. Phytochemistry revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids. The presence of these secondary metabolites was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. We conclude that oral administration of aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Cisssus populnea over a 72-day period to human subjects apparently had no fertility enhancement effects on sperm parameters monitored in this study. PMID:17370009

Ojekale, Anthony B; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Lasisi, Adedoyin K; Adeleke, Tajudeen I

2006-01-01

330

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-11-01

331

Purification of cross-reacting protein antigen shared by Yersinia enterocolitica and other gram-negative bacteria with monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

A monoclonal antibody against the Yersinia enterocolitica 60-kilodalton (kDa) antigen, designated cross-reacting protein antigen (CRPA), was obtained by cell fusion. The CRPA common to gram-negative bacteria was purified from Y. enterocolitica by the affinity chromatography with the monoclonal antibody (IgG1) thus obtained. The purified CRPA showed a single band of 60 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and reacted with rabbit antisera against Y. enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella sonnei in Western blot analysis. The monoclonal antibody, however, reacted with a 60 kDa peptide from Y. enterocolitica, but not with the antigens from other gram-negative bacteria such as V. cholerae, E. coli, S. sonnei, Salmonella enteritidis, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa. The results suggested that both species-specific and cross-reactive epitopes were present on a CRPA molecule. PMID:2779474

Yamaguchi, H; Taguchi, H; Katura, T; Kumada, J; Uekusa, T; Ogata, S

1989-01-01

332

The features and aetiology of Fournier's gangrene.  

PubMed

This paper reports a clinical study of 20 cases of gangrenous ulcers of the scrotum and/or of the penis (Fournier's gangrene) and a review of previous publications. Even though found mostly in elderly male patients, the disease spares no age group and can involve the external genitalia in neonates and women as well. The disease is a necrotising fasciitis of infective origin and always has a portal of entry of the infecting organisms even though it may be so trivial as to be undetected. The commonest portals of entry of infection are periurethral sepsis, groin wound sepsis, anorectal sepsis, prostatic sepsis and trauma. The infecting organisms comprise both aerobic and anaerobic organisms such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, enterococci, Bacteroides fragilis and anaerobic streptococcus. Fournier's gangrene is probably the same disease as necrotizing fasciitis occurring in other parts of the body, but modified by the peculiar anatomy of the genitoperineum. PMID:7937450

Efem, S E

1994-08-01

333

Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics. PMID:24262582

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

2014-04-01

334

Effects of silver on adherence of bacteria to urinary catheters: in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, mostly from complicated urinary tract infections, showed reduced adherence to silver-treated silicone or latex catheters as compared with latex or silicone catheters. The relative degrees of cell adherence to catheters at 2 h or 18 h, as indicated by radiolabeled cell assays, were in general agreement with growth rate-reduction assays and scanning-electron-microscopy data. For strains of E. coli, the correlation between cell hydrophobicity and degree of adherence to catheters was not significant. Antibiotic resistance (tetracycline, sulfathiazine, neomycin, kanamycin) and silver resistance were not associated. The radiolabel adherence procedure provided a quantitative method for evaluating the relative antimicrobial efficacy of silver-treated catheters. PMID:7765878

Gabriel, M M; Sawant, A D; Simmons, R B; Ahearn, D G

1995-01-01

335

Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil.  

PubMed

We isolated a bacterial strain designated PCAVU11(T) in the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in rhizospheric soil of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Guárico state, Venezuela. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.2?% sequence similarity with respect to the most closely related species, Pseudomonas taiwanensis, and 99.1?% with respect to Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas monteilii, on the basis of which PCAVU11(T) was classified as representing a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation and showed sequence similarities lower than 95?% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Strain PCAVU11(T) showed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were 16?:?0 (25.7?%), 18?:?1?7c (20.4?%), 17?:?0 cyclo (11.5?%) and 16?:?1?7c/15?:?0 iso 2-OH in summed feature 3 (10.8?%). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, the arginine dihydrolase system was present but nitrate reduction, ?-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. Strain PCAVU11(T) grew at 44 °C and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 56?% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain PCAVU11(T) as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, which we propose to name Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov. The type strain is PCAVU11(T) (?=?LMG 27394(T)?=?CECT 8262(T)). PMID:23847284

Toro, Marcia; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

2013-12-01

336

Biodegradation of acyclic isoprenoids by Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed Central

The ability of various pseudomonads to utilize acyclic isoprenoids as a sole carbon source was investigated. Tests for utilization of acyclic isoprenols such as citronellol and geraniol were complicated by toxic effects of these alcohols, and most species tested were killed by exposure to citronellol or geraniol (0.1%, vol/vol) in liquid culture. In the case of Pseudomonas citronellolis, sensitivity to isoprenols is reduced by prior induction of the isoprenoid degradative pathway via either growth on succinate in the presence of citronellol or growth on citronellic acid. For this species, citronellic acid proved to be the best isoprenoid growth substrate tested. Geraniol utilization as a taxonomic indicator for different subgroups of pseudomonads is discussed. Only a few of the species tested were able to utilize acyclic isoprenoids. Two species which utilize C10 acyclic isoprenoids, P. aeruginosa and P. mendocina, were shown to contain the inducible enzyme geranyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, one of the unique enzymes in the isoprenol degradative pathway known to occur in P. citronellolis. Of the species which utilized geranitol, none showed definite growth on the homologous C15 and C20 isoprenols.

Cantwell, S G; Lau, E P; Watt, D S; Fall, R R

1978-01-01

337

Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents.

De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sa-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tummler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhan; Winstanley, Craig

2013-01-01

338

Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilin activates the inflammasome.  

PubMed

IL-1? is produced from inactive pro-IL-1? by activation of caspase-1 brought about by a multi-subunit protein platform called the inflammasome. Many bacteria can trigger inflammasome activity through flagellin activation of the host protein NLRC4. However, strains of the common human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking flagellin can still activate the inflammasome. We set out to identify what non-flagellin components could produce this activation. Using mass spectroscopy, we identified an inflammasome-activating factor from P. aeruginosa as pilin, the major component of the type IV bacterial pilus. Purified pilin introduced into mouse macrophages by liposomal delivery activated caspase-1 and led to secretion of mature IL-1?, as did recombinant pilin purified from Escherichia coli. This was dependent on caspase-1 but not on the host inflammasome proteins NLRC4, NLRP3 or ASC. Mutants of P. aeruginosa strain PA103 lacking pilin did not activate the inflammasome following infection of macrophages with live bacteria. Type III secretion remained intact in the absence of pili, showing this was not due to a lack of effector delivery. Our observations show pilin is a novel activator of the inflammasome in addition to flagellin and the recently described PrgJ protein family, the basal body rod component of the type III apparatus. PMID:20955240

Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam; Evans, Tom J

2011-03-01

339

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - a phenomenon of bacterial resistance.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Nosocomial infections caused by this organism are often hard to treat because of both the intrinsic resistance of the species (it has constitutive expression of AmpC beta-lactamase and efflux pumps, combined with a low permeability of the outer membrane), and its remarkable ability to acquire further resistance mechanisms to multiple groups of antimicrobial agents, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. P. aeruginosa represents a phenomenon of bacterial resistance, since practically all known mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance can be seen in it: derepression of chromosomal AmpC cephalosporinase; production of plasmid or integron-mediated beta-lactamases from different molecular classes (carbenicillinases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases belonging to class A, class D oxacillinases and class B carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes); diminished outer membrane permeability (loss of OprD proteins); overexpression of active efflux systems with wide substrate profiles; synthesis of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (phosphoryltransferases, acetyltransferases and adenylyltransferases); and structural alterations of topoisomerases II and IV determining quinolone resistance. Worryingly, these mechanisms are often present simultaneously, thereby conferring multiresistant phenotypes. This review describes the known resistance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa to the most frequently administrated antipseudomonal antibiotics: beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. PMID:19528173

Strateva, Tanya; Yordanov, Daniel

2009-09-01

340

Degradation of Acetonitrile by Pseudomonas putida  

PubMed Central

A bacterium capable of utilizing high concentrations of acetonitrile as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterium could also utilize butyronitrile, glutaronitrile, isobutyronitrile, methacrylonitrile, propionitrile, succinonitrile, valeronitrile, and some of their corresponding amides, such as acetamide, butyramide, isobutyramide, methacrylamide, propionamide, and succinamide as growth substrates. Acetonitrile-grown cells oxidized acetonitrile with a Km of 40.61 mM. Mass balance studies with [14C]acetonitrile indicated that nearly 66% of carbon of acetonitrile was released as 14CO2 and 14% was associated with the biomass. Metabolites of acetonitrile in the culture medium were acetic acid and ammonia. The acetate formed in the early stages of growth completely disappeared in the later stages. Cell extracts of acetonitrile-grown cells contained activities corresponding to nitrile hydratase and amidase, which mediate the breakdown of actonitrile into acetic acid and ammonia. Both enzymes were intracellular and inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates. The specific activity of amidase was at least 150-fold higher than the activity of the enzyme nitrile hydratase.

Nawaz, Mohamed S.; Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Wolfram, James H.

1989-01-01

341

Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

2013-01-01

342

Antivirulence activity of azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Antibiotics represent our bulwark to combat bacterial infections, but the spread of antibiotic resistance compromises their clinical efficacy. Alternatives to conventional antibiotics are urgently needed in order to complement the existing antibacterial arsenal. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) provides a paradigmatic example of an “unconventional” antibacterial drug. Besides its growth-inhibiting activity, AZM displays potent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antivirulence activity on some intrinsically resistant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this bacterium, the antivirulence activity of AZM mainly relies on its ability to interact with the ribosome, resulting in direct and/or indirect repression of specific subsets of genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Both clinical experience and clinical trials have shown the efficacy of AZM in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The aim of this review is to combine results from laboratory studies with evidence from clinical trials in order to unify the information on the in vivo mode of action of AZM in P. aeruginosa infection.

Imperi, Francesco; Leoni, Livia; Visca, Paolo

2014-01-01

343

Dynamics of phenol degradation by Pseudomonas putida  

SciTech Connect

Pure cultures of Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) were grown in continuous culture on phenol at dilution rates of 0.074-0.085 h[sup [minus]1] and subjected to step increases in phenol feed concentration. Three distinct patterns of dynamic response were obtained depending on the size of the step change used: low level, moderate level, or high level. During low level responses no accumulations of phenol or non-phenol, non-glucose-dissolved organic carbon, DOC(NGP), were observed. Moderate level responses were characterized by the transient accumulation of DOC(NGP) with a significant delay prior to phenol leakage. High level responses demonstrated a rapid onset of phenol leakage and no apparent accumulations of DOC(NGP). The addition of phenol to a continuous culture of the same organism on glucose did not result in transient DOC(NGP) accumulations, although transient phenol levels exceeded 90 mg L[sup [minus]1]. These results were consistent with intermediate metabolite production during phenol step tests coupled with substrate-inhibited phenol uptake and suggested that traditional kinetic models based on the Haldane equation may be inadequate for describing the dynamics of phenol degrading systems.

Allsop, P.J.; Chisti, Y.; Mooyoung, M.; Sullivan, G.R. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-05

344

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm: potential therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen that has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. It is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteremia. The biofilm formed by the bacteria allows it to adhere to any surface, living or non-living and thus Pseudomonal infections can involve any part of the body. Further, the adaptive and genetic changes of the micro-organisms within the biofilm make them resistant to all known antimicrobial agents making the Pseudomonal infections complicated and life threatening. Pel, Psl and Alg operons present in P. aeruginosa are responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide which plays an important role in cell-cell and cell-surface interactions during biofilm formation. Understanding the bacterial virulence which depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors is essential to know the potential drug targets for future studies. Current novel methods like small molecule based inhibitors, phytochemicals, bacteriophage therapy, photodynamic therapy, antimicrobial peptides, monoclonal antibodies and nanoparticles to curtail the biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa are being discussed in this review. PMID:24309094

Sharma, Garima; Rao, Saloni; Bansal, Ankiti; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, Sanjay; Gabrani, Reema

2014-01-01

345

Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S is an adhesion.  

PubMed Central

Exoenzyme S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied as an adhesion for glycosphingolipids and buccal cells. Binding of exoenzyme S to gangliotriosylceramide (GalNAc beta 1-4Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer), gangliotetraosylceramide (Gal beta 1-3 GalNAcT beta 1-4 Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer), and lactosylceramide (Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer) separated on thin-layer chromatograms was observed. Binding curves for exoenzyme S with dilutions of gangliotetraosylceramide immobilized on plastic plates were similar to previously reported results for the intact bacteria. Binding of exoenzyme S to sialylated counterparts of these glycosphingolipids was not seen, indicating that the addition of a sialic acid residue interferes with binding. Exoenzyme S and monoclonal antibody to exoenzyme S inhibit the binding of P. aeruginosa to buccal cells. The presence of exoenzyme S on the surface of P. aeruginosa was detected by immunogold labeling of bacteria with antibodies to exoenzyme S. Results of these studies led us to conclude that exoenzyme S is an important adhesion of P. aeruginosa. Images

Baker, N R; Minor, V; Deal, C; Shahrabadi, M S; Simpson, D A; Woods, D E

1991-01-01

346

Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control.  

PubMed

Genus Pseudomonas includes a large number of species that can be encountered in biotechnological processes as well as in the role of serious human or plant pathogens. Pseudomonads easily form biofilms on various types of surfaces. The biofilm phenotype is characterized by an increased resistance to environmental influences including resistance to antibiotics and other disinfectants, causing a number of problems in health care, food industry, and other areas. Considerable attention is therefore paid to the possibilities of eradication/destruction of pseudomonads biofilms both in terms of understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation and at the level of finding suitable antibiofilm tools applicable in practice. The first part of this review is devoted to an overview of the regulatory mechanisms that are directly or indirectly involved in the formation of biofilm. The most effective approaches to suppressing the formation of biofilm that do not cause the development of resistance are based on the application of substances that interfere with the regulatory molecules or block the appropriate regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm development by the cells. Pseudomonads biofilm formation is, similar to other microorganisms, a sophisticated process with many regulatory elements. The suppression of this process therefore also requires multiple antibiofilm tools. PMID:24754832

Masák, Jan; Cejková, Alena; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Tomáš

2014-07-01

347

Synthesis of Neoglycoconjugates Containing 4-Amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose Epitopes Corresponding to the Inner Core of Burkholderia and Proteus Lipopolysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Abstract Disaccharides that contain 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) and d-glycero-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Ko) substituted at the 8-position by 4-amino-4-deoxy-?-l-arabinopyranosyl (Ara4N) residues have been prepared. Coupling an N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate-4-azido-4-deoxy-l-arabinosylglycosyl donor to acetyl-protected allyl glycosides of Kdo and Ko afforded anomeric mixtures of disaccharide products in 74 and 90 % yield, respectively, which were separated by chromatography. Further extension of an intermediate Ara4N-(1?8)-Kdo disaccharide acceptor, which capitalized on a regioselective glycosylation with a Kdo bromide donor under Helferich conditions, afforded the branched trisaccharide ?-Kdo-(2?4)[?-l-Ara4N-(1?8)]-?-Kdo derivative. Deprotection of the protected di- and trisaccharide allyl glycosides was accomplished by TiCl4-promoted benzyl ether cleavage followed by the removal of ester groups and reduction of the azido group with thiol or Staudinger reagents, respectively. The reaction of the anomeric allyl group with 1,3-propanedithiol under radical conditions afforded the thioether-bridged spacer glycosides, which were efficiently coupled to maleimide-activated bovine serum albumin. The neoglycoconjugates serve as immunoreagents with specificity for inner core epitopes of Burkholderia and Proteus lipopolysaccharides.

Blaukopf, Markus; Muller, Bernhard; Hofinger, Andreas; Kosma, Paul

2012-01-01

348

Recovery of active beta-lactamases from Proteus vulgaris and RTEM-1 hybrid by random mutagenesis by using a dnaQ strain of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Proteus vulgaris and RTEM-1 beta-lactamases that belong to molecular class A with 37% amino acid similarity were examined to find the relationship between amino acid residues and activity of enzymes. MICs of ampicillin were > 2,000 micrograms/ml for Escherichia coli cells producing these enzymes. We have made 18 hybrid genes by substituting the coding region of the P. vulgaris beta-lactamase gene with the equivalent portions from the RTEM-1 gene. Most of these hybrids produced inactive proteins, but a few hybrid enzymes had partial or trace activity. From one of the hybrid genes (MIC of ampicillin, 100 micrograms/ml), we recovered three kinds of active mutants which provided ampicillin MICs of 1,000 micrograms/ml by the selection of spontaneous mutations in a dnaQ strain of E. coli. In these mutants, Leu-148, Met-182, and Tyr-274 were replaced with Val, Thr, and His, respectively. These amino acids have not been identified as residues with functional roles in substrate hydrolysis. Furthermore, from these hybrid mutants, we obtained a second set of mutants which conferred ampicillin MICs of 1,500 micrograms/ml. Interestingly, the second mutations were limited to these three amino acid substitutions. These amino acid residues which do not directly interact with substrates have an effect on enzyme activity. These mutant enzymes exhibited lower K(m) values for cephaloridine than both parental enzymes.

Hosseini-Mazinani, S M; Nakajima, E; Ihara, Y; Kameyama, K Z; Sugimoto, K

1996-01-01

349

Full-Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas protegens CHA0.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of the free-living bacterium Pseudomonas protegens (formerly Pseudomonas fluorescens) CHA0, a model organism used in plant-microbe interactions, biological control of phytopathogens, and bacterial genetics. PMID:24762936

Jousset, Alexandre; Schuldes, Joerg; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika; Daniel, Rolf; Scheu, Stefan; Thuermer, Andrea

2014-01-01

350

Full-Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas protegens CHA0  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of the free-living bacterium Pseudomonas protegens (formerly Pseudomonas fluorescens) CHA0, a model organism used in plant-microbe interactions, biological control of phytopathogens, and bacterial genetics.

Schuldes, Joerg; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika; Daniel, Rolf; Scheu, Stefan; Thuermer, Andrea

2014-01-01

351

Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans")  

PubMed Central

Aerobic respiration and dissimilative iron reduction were studied in pure, batch cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans"). Specific respiratory inhibitors were used to identify elements of electron transport chains involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen and Fe(III). When cells were grown at a high oxygen concentration, dissimilative iron reduction occurred via an abbreviated electron transport chain. The induction of alternative respiratory pathways resulted from growth at low oxygen tension (less than 0.01 atm [1 atm = 101.29 kPa]). Induced cells were capable of O2 utilization at moderately increased rates; dissimilative iron reduction was accelerated by a factor of 6 to 8. In cells grown at low oxygen tension, dissimilative iron reduction appeared to be uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. Models of induced and uninduced electron transport chains, including a mathematical treatment of chemical inhibition within the uninduced, aerobic electron transport system, are presented. In uninduced cells respiring anaerobically, electron transport was limited by ferrireductase activity. This limitation may disappear among induced cells.

Arnold, R G; DiChristina, T J; Hoffmann, M R

1986-01-01

352

[Creation of genomic DNA libraries for Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei].  

PubMed

The genomic libraries of P. mallei and P. pseudomallei species were constructed in Escherichia coli. The chromosomal DNA of P. pseudomallei C-141 strain has been cloned into the cosmid vector pHC79 and the broad host range plasmid vector pES154. The chromosomal DNA of P. mallei [symbol: see text]-5 strain has been cloned into the plasmid vector pSUP202. The recombinant clones of the genomic libraries were screened by the enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the production of Pseudomonas antigens: 28 clones were positive. Twelve recombinant strains demonstrated specific antigenic determinants of P. mallei and P. pseudomallei by immunoblotting. Cloned proteins of P. mallei and P. pseudomallei have molecular weights from 30 to 70 kD. A new method for introducing foreign genes into Pseudomonas genomes is offered. P. mallei strains with the chromosomally integrated plasmids pSM are universal recipients for ColEI-based cloning vectors. PMID:9082182

Abaev, I V; Pomerantseva, O M; Astashkin, E I; Pachkunov, D M; Rudnitski?, V Iu; Stagis, I I; Negri?, N V; Bannov, V A; Svetoch, E A

1997-01-01

353

COMPARATIVE TAXONOMY OF CRYSTALLOGENIC STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND PSEUDOMONAS CHLORORAPHIS  

PubMed Central

Haynes, William C. (Northern Utilization Research and Development Division, Peoria, Ill.) and Lenora J. Rhodes. Comparative taxonomy of crystallogenic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1080–1084. 1962.—Only 11 of 39 strains received in the Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection under the designation Pseudonomas chlororaphis proved to be authentic; 28 were typical, pyocyanogenic strains of P. aeruginosa. The reason for this disproportionately high rate of misidentification apparently arises from an erroneous belief that the ability to produce green and yellow crystals of chlororaphin and oxychlororaphin is confined to P. chlororaphis. The ability of many strains of P. aeruginosa to do likewise is not well known. Inasmuch as the characteristic is not unique to P. chlororaphis, other criteria are required to distinguish crystallogenic strains of these species. After a taxonomic comparison of 18 strains of P. chlororaphis and 47 crystallogenic strains of P. aeruginosa, it was determined that there are three main distinctions: (i) P. aeruginosa grows well at 42 C but fails to grow upon serial transfer at 5 C, whereas P. chlororaphis fails to grow at 42 C, but grows well at 5 C: (ii) most strains of P. aeruginosa produce pyocyanin, whereas P. chlororaphis strains do not; (iii) P. aeruginosa cells possess only one or two polar flagella, whereas P. chlororaphis usually has at least four, sometimes as many as eight, polar flagella.

Haynes, William C.; Rhodes, Lenora J.

1962-01-01

354

Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the phyllosphere of grasses; Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov., Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses, were analysed by a polyphasic approach in order to clarify their interspecific position. Classification on the basis of ribotyping revealed six genotypes; four of these, which could be differentiated clearly from each other and from Pseudomonas species with validly published names on the basis of phenotypic features, were chosen for

Undine Behrendt; Andreas Ulrich; Peter Schumann

2003-01-01

355

Changing trends in frequency and antimicrobial resistance of urinary pathogens in outpatient clinics and a hospital in Southern Israel, 1991-1995.  

PubMed

In order to monitor changes in the frequency and antimicrobial resistance of urinary pathogens over several years, urinary cultures received from outpatient clinics and from a hospital during a period of one month each in 1991 and 1995 were analyzed at a clinical microbiology laboratory. In 1991 and 1995, 1366 and 1534 significant monomicrobic cultures respectively were reviewed. The frequency of Escherichia coli dropped significantly in the outpatient clinics from 70.5% to 61.2% (p < 0.0001). The frequency of Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacteria also decreased, but the frequency of Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. increased from 2.6% to 5.8% (p < 0.0001). In the hospital, the frequency of Enterobacter spp. (p < 0.04), Escherichia coli and Morganella morganii declined from 1991 to 1995, whereas the frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p = 0.001), Acinetobacter spp. (p < 0.05), Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis and other gram-negative rods increased considerably. The frequency of gram-positive aerobic bacteria rose markedly in outpatient specimens from 6.1% to 13.5% (p < 0.0001), while a decline from 14.4% to 9.3% was noted in hospital specimens (p < 0.02). A significant rise in the resistance of Escherichia coli to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (p < 0.0001) was detected in outpatient isolates. In the hospital, gram-negative urinary pathogens demonstrated increased resistance to ampicillin (p = 0.042), cefuroxime (p = 0.005), gentamicin (p = 0.002) and ciprofloxacin (p < 0.0001) during the study period. The changing etiology of urinary tract infections and the increasing resistance of organisms indicate that periodic monitoring and possibly also modification of empirical therapy are required. PMID:9447906

Weber, G; Riesenberg, K; Schlaeffer, F; Peled, N; Borer, A; Yagupsky, P

1997-11-01

356

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relationships Among Hydrogen Oxidizing Strains of the Genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -DNA reassociation ki- netics was applied to the classification of 32 selected strains of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus. The renaturation studies revealed a high intraspecies DNA homology for some strains of the species Pseudomonas palleronii, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, and Alcaligenes paradoxus, supporting former taxonomic concepts of different au- thors.

G. AULING; M. DITTBRENNER; M. MAARZAHL; T. NOKHAL; M. REH

357

TAXONOMY OF PSEUDOMONAS PISCICIDA (BEIN) BUCK, MEYERS, AND LEIFSON.  

PubMed

Hansen, A. J. (University of Idaho, Moscow), O. B. Weeks, and R. R. Colwell. Taxonomy of Pseudomonas piscicida (Bein) Buck, Meyers, and Leifson. J. Bacteriol. 89:752-761. 1965.-Twenty strains of marine bacteria showing the properties of pigmentation and icthyotoxicity were studied for selected physiological features. A quantitative taxonomic analysis with an electronic computer was performed. Eighteen species of Pseudomonas were included in the computer analysis as reference strains. The marine collection formed a homogeneous cluster, 80% similarity, and showed a 67 to 70% similarity to certain of the Pseudomonas species: P. atlantica, P. geniculata, P. synxantha, and P. taetrolens. The marine strains are treated as a phenon describing the species P. piscicida. The species was characterized by the hypothetical Median Organism concept; P. piscicida 14 corresponded most closely to the Median Organism. PMID:14273657

HANSEN, A J; WEEKS, O B; COLWELL, R R

1965-03-01

358

Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful clues for the improvement and optimization of chemotherapy in order to appropriately treat pseudomonal infections while minimizing the emergence of resistance. PMID:24409175

Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

359

A Genomic redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species.  

PubMed

The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively. PMID:24086635

Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

360

Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table.  

PubMed

Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity. PMID:17894814

Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

2008-01-01

361

A Genomic Redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species  

PubMed Central

The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively.

Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

362

Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on nitrous oxide.  

PubMed Central

Three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were grown anaerobically on exogenous N2O in a defined medium under conditions that assured the maintenance of highly anaerobic conditions for periods of 1 week or more. The bacteria were observed reproducibly to increase their cell density by factors of 3 to 9, but not more, depending on the initial amount of N2O. Growth on N2O was cleanly blocked by acetylene. Cell yields, CO2 production, and N2O uptake all increased with initial PN2O at PN2O less than or equal to 0.1 atm. Growth curves were atypical in the sense that growth rates decreased with time. This is the first observation of growth of P. aeruginosa on N2O as the sole oxidant. N2O was shown to be an obligatory, freely diffusible intermediate during growth of strains PAO1 and P1 on nitrate. All three strains used this endogenous N2O efficiently for growth. For strains PAO1 and P1, it was confirmed that exogenous N2O had little effect on the cell yields of cultures growing with nitrate; thus, for these strains exogenous N2O neither directly inhibited growth nor was used significantly for growth. On the other hand, strain P2 grew abundantly on exogenous N2O when small and growth-limiting concentrations of nitrate or nitrate (2 to 10 mM) were included in the medium. The dramatic effect of these N-anions was realized in large part even when the exogenous N2O was introduced immediately after the quantitative conversion of anion-nitrogen to N2. No evidence was found for a factor in filter-sterilized spent medium that stimulated fresh inocula to grow abundantly on N2O.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bazylinski, D A; Soohoo, C K; Hollocher, T C

1986-01-01

363

Chromosomal Organization and Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic ?-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Boccard, Frederic

2013-01-01

364

The Regulatory Network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important bacterial model due to its metabolic and pathogenic abilities, which allow it to interact and colonize a wide range of hosts, including plants and animals. In this work we compile and analyze the structure and organization of an experimentally supported regulatory network in this bacterium. Results The regulatory network consists of 690 genes and 1020 regulatory interactions between their products (12% of total genes: 54% sigma and 16% of transcription factors). This complex interplay makes the third largest regulatory network of those reported in bacteria. The entire network is enriched for activating interactions and, peculiarly, self-activation seems to occur more prominent for transcription factors (TFs), which contrasts with other biological networks where self-repression is dominant. The network contains a giant component of 650 genes organized into 11 hierarchies, encompassing important biological processes, such as, biofilms formation, production of exopolysaccharide alginate and several virulence factors, and of the so-called quorum sensing regulons. Conclusions The study of gene regulation in P. aeruginosa is biased towards pathogenesis and virulence processes, all of which are interconnected. The network shows power-law distribution -input degree -, and we identified the top ten global regulators, six two-element cycles, the longest paths have ten steps, six biological modules and the main motifs containing three and four elements. We think this work can provide insights for the design of further studies to cover the many gaps in knowledge of this important bacterial model, and for the design of systems strategies to combat this bacterium.

2011-01-01

365

Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.  

PubMed

The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices. PMID:20580207

Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

2010-09-01

366

Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission. PMID:22521167

Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

2012-06-01

367

Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8?%), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7?%) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4?%). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70?% DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3?%), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5?%) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8?%). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10?%) were C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?0, and C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) (?=?CGMCC 2318(T)?=?DSM 26382(T)). PMID:24021726

Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

2014-01-01

368

Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 ?m, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.

Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.

2013-12-01

369

Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.  

PubMed

Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system. PMID:21503776

Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

2011-10-01

370

Secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Cytotoxins is Dependent on Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Concentration  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can, like other bacterial species, exist in antimicrobial resistant sessile biofilms and as free-swimming, planktonic cells. Specific virulence factors are typically associated with each lifestyle and several two-component response regulators have been shown to reciprocally regulate transition between biofilm-associated chronic, and free-swimming acute infections. Quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules belonging to the las and rhl systems are known to regulate virulence gene expression by P. aeruginosa. However the impact of a recently described family of novel quorum sensing signals produced by the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) biosynthetic pathway, on the transition between these modes of infection is less clear. Using clonal isolates from a patient developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, we demonstrated that clinical observations were mirrored by an in vitro temporal shift in isolate phenotype from a non-secreting, to a Type III cytotoxin secreting (TTSS) phenotype and further, that this phenotypic change was PQS-dependent. While intracellular type III cytotoxin levels were unaffected by PQS concentration, cytotoxin secretion was dependent on this signal molecule. Elevated PQS concentrations were associated with inhibition of cytotoxin secretion coincident with expression of virulence factors such as elastase and pyoverdin. In contrast, low concentrations or the inability to biosynthesize PQS resulted in a reversal of this phenotype. These data suggest that expression of specific P. aeruginosa virulence factors appears to be reciprocally regulated and that an additional level of PQS-dependent posttranslational control, specifically governing type III cytotoxin secretion, exists in this species.

Singh, G.; Wu, B.; Baek, M.S.; Camargo, A.; Nguyen, A.; Slusher, N.A.; Srinivasan, R.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Lynch, S.V.

2010-01-01

371

Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14). Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center). Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to swarm center cells, tendril tip populations of a swarming colony displays general down-regulation of genes associated with virulence and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism. These results allow us to propose a model where tendril tip cells function as «scouts» whose main purpose is to rapidly spread on uncolonized surfaces while swarm center population are in a state allowing a permanent settlement of the colonized area (biofilm-like).

2010-01-01

372

Phosphate Starvation Promotes Swarming Motility and Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity.

Bains, Manjeet; Fernandez, Lucia

2012-01-01

373

Characterization of Temporal Protein Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic and genetic evidence supporting the notion of biofilm formation as a developmental process is growing. In the present work, we provide additional support for this hypothesis by identifying the onset of accumulation of biofilm-stage specific proteins during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm maturation and by tracking the abundance of these proteins in planktonic and three biofilm developmental stages. The onset of

Christopher J. Southey-Pillig; David G. Davies; Karin Sauer

2005-01-01

374

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: role of the alginate exopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes an exopolysaccharide called alginate in response to environmental conditions. Alginate serves to protect the bacteria from adversity in its surroundings and also enhances adhesion to solid surfaces. Transcription of the alginate biosynthetic genes is induced upon attachment to the substratum and this leads to increased alginate production. As a result, biofilms develop which are advantageous to the

A Boyd; A M Chakrabarty

1995-01-01

375

Reactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin with reduced glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of chronic and recurrent lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) whose sputa contain copious quantities of P. aeruginosa toxin, pyocyanin. Pyocyanin triggers tissue damage mainly by its redox cycling and induction of re - active oxygen species (ROS). The reactions between reduced glutathione (GSH) and pyocyanin were observed using absorption spectra

Rajkumar Cheluvappa; Ronald Shimmon; Michael Dawson; Sarah N. Hilmer; David G. Le Couteur

2008-01-01

376

Dissimilatory Iodate Reduction by Marine Pseudomonas sp. Strain SCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial iodate (IO3 ) reduction is poorly understood largely due to the limited number of available isolates as well as the paucity of information about key enzymes involved in the reaction. In this study, an iodate- reducing bacterium, designated strain SCT, was newly isolated from marine sediment slurry. SCT is phylo- genetically closely related to the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri

Seigo Amachi; Nahito Kawaguchi; Yasuyuki Muramatsu; Satoshi Tsuchiya; Yuko Watanabe; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Takaaki Fujii

2007-01-01

377

Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological

P. J. Schramm; E. A. Haack; P. A. Maurice

2006-01-01

378

High Temperature Induced Antibiotic Sensitivity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics, becomes sensitive to several of these antibiotics when grown and tested at 46 deg C. Cell wall antibiotics such as pencillin-G and ampicillin are only effective when added to cel...

A. R. Bhatti K. Kumar C. Stobo J. M. Ingram

1984-01-01

379

PRODUCTION OF BIOSURFACTANTS BY PSEUDOMONAS ALCALIGENES USING PALM OIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is one of the major worldwide palm oil (Elaus guineeusis) producers. It is a low cost oil, presenting some interesting industrial properties, such as glycerin and soap raw matter. Renewable resources and agro industrial residuals have been extensively used for biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas genus, nevertheless, no reports, to our knowledge, have been published with the use of palm

Fernando J. S. Oliveira; Leonardo Vazquez; Francisca P. de França

380

Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that is able to suppress disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here we present a 7.1-Mb assembly of the PA23 genome.

Loewen, Peter C.; Villenueva, Jacylyn; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

2014-01-01

381

Potential application of protease isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PD100  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protease isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PD100 could act in the presence of SDS and Tween 80. This protease could be useful for degradation of protein in the presence of solvent, dehairing of cow skin and degradation of natural proteins. The immobilized protease showed 15-20% increases in temperature stability and the entrapped enzyme retained 83% of its initial activity after

Mohsen Fathi Najafi; Dileep Deobagkar; Deepti Deobagkar

2005-01-01

382

Prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) prevention of lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of major importance. Principles to achieve this goal include vaccination, immediate use of antibiotics in patients newly colonized with the pathogen, and hygienic measures. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent developments in this context. PMID:20940108

Döring, Gerd

2010-12-01

383

Effectiveness of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains controversial whether combination therapy, given empirically or as definitive treatment, for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is associated with a better outcome than monotherapy. The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of survival among patients who received either combination therapy or monotherapy for P. aeruginosa bacteremia. We assembled a historical cohort of 115 episodes of P.

Eric Chamot; Emmanuelle Boffi El Amari; Peter Rohner; Christian Van Delden

2003-01-01

384

SYSTOMONAS - an integrated database for systems biology analysis of Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide an integrated bioinformatics platform for a systems biology approach to the biology of pseudomonads in infection and biotechnology the database SYSTOMONAS (SYSTems biology of pseudOMONAS) was established. Besides our own experimental metabolome, proteome and transcrip- tome data, various additional predictions of cellular processes, such as gene-regulatory networks were stored. Reconstruction of metabolic networks in SYSTOMONAS was achieved via

Claudia Choi; Richard Münch; Stefan Leupold; Johannes Klein; Inga Siegel; Bernhard Thielen; Beatrice Benkert; Martin Kucklick; Max Schobert; Jens Barthelmes; Christian Ebeling; Isam Haddad; Maurice Scheer; Andreas Grote; Karsten Hiller; Boyke Bunk; Kerstin Schreiber; Ida Retter; Dietmar Schomburg; Dieter Jahn

2007-01-01

385

Pseudomonas paucimobilis peritonitis in patients treated by peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas paucimobilis has rarely been reported as an opportunistic human pathogen. We report the isolation of this organism in two patients who developed peritonitis during the course of intermittent or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The origin of the infection was related to contamination of the dialysate in the first patient but could not be determined in the second case.

Glupczynski, Y; Hansen, W; Dratwa, M; Tielemans, C; Wens, R; Collart, F; Yourassowsky, E

1984-01-01

386

Genome Sequence of the Rice Pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae CB98818  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fuscovaginae is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing bacterial sheath brown rot of cereal crops. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. fuscovaginae CB98818, originally isolated from a diseased rice plant in China. The draft genome will aid in epidemiological studies, comparative genomics, and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen.

Xie, Guanlin; Cui, Zhouqi; Tao, Zhongyun; Qiu, Hui; Liu, He; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gulei; Sun, Guochang; Almoneafy, Abdulwareth

2012-01-01

387

Pseudomonas sp. Strain 273, an Aerobic ?,?-DichloroalkaneDegrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

A gram-negative, aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil; this bacterium grew in 50% (vol/vol) suspensions of 1,10-dichlorodecane (1,10-DCD) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenotypic and small-subunit ribosomal RNA characterizations identified the organism, designated strain 273, as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. After induction with 1,10-DCD, Pseudomonas sp. strain 273 released stoichiometric amounts of chloride from C5 to C12 ?,?-dichloroalkanes in the presence of oxygen. No dehalogenation occurred under anaerobic conditions. The best substrates for dehalogenation and growth were C9 to C12 chloroalkanes. The isolate also grew with nonhalogenated aliphatic compounds, and decane-grown cells dechlorinated 1,10-DCD without a lag phase. In addition, cells grown on decane dechlorinated 1,10-DCD in the presence of chloramphenicol, indicating that the 1,10-DCD-dechlorinating enzyme system was also induced by decane. Other known alkane-degrading Pseudomonas species did not grow with 1,10-DCD as a carbon source. Dechlorination of 1,10-DCD was demonstrated in cell extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 273. Cell-free activity was strictly oxygen dependent, and NADH stimulated dechlorination, whereas EDTA had an inhibitory effect.

Wischnak, Catrin; Loffler, Frank E.; Li, Jieran; Urbance, John W.; Muller, Rudolf

1998-01-01

388

Frequency of Antibiotic-Producing Pseudomonas spp. in Natural Environments  

PubMed Central

The antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) are major determinants of biological control of soilborne plant pathogens by various strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we described primers and probes that enable specific and efficient detection of a wide variety of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produce various phenazine antibiotics or Phl. PCR analysis and Southern hybridization demonstrated that specific genes within the biosynthetic loci for Phl and PCA are conserved among various Pseudomonas strains of worldwide origin. The frequency of Phl- and PCA-producing fluorescent pseudomonads was determined on roots of wheat grown in three soils suppressive to take-all disease of wheat and four soils conducive to take-all by colony hybridization followed by PCR. Phenazine-producing strains were not detected on roots from any of the soils. However, Phl-producing fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from all three take-all-suppressive soils at densities ranging from approximately 5 x 10(sup5) to 2 x 10(sup6) CFU per g of root. In the complementary conducive soils, Phl-producing pseudomonads were not detected or were detected at densities at least 40-fold lower than those in the suppressive soils. We speculate that fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce Phl play an important role in the natural suppressiveness of these soils to take-all disease of wheat.

Raaijmakers, J. M.; Weller, D. M.; Thomashow, L. S.

1997-01-01

389

Chemotaxis to Furan Compounds by Furan-Degrading Pseudomonas Strains  

PubMed Central

Two Pseudomonas strains known to utilize furan derivatives were shown to respond chemotactically to furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfuryl alcohol, and 2-furoic acid. In addition, a LysR-family regulatory protein known to regulate furan metabolic genes was found to be involved in regulating the chemotactic response.

Nichols, Nancy N.; Lunde, Tristan A.; Graden, Kevin C.; Hallock, Kate A.; Kowalchyk, Cara K.; Southern, Rebecca M.; Soskin, Ellen J.

2012-01-01

390

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida Strain MTCC5279  

PubMed Central

Here we report the genome sequence of a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain MTCC5279. The length of the draft genome sequence is approximately 5.2 Mb, with a GC content of 62.5%. The draft genome sequence reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in plant growth promotion and abiotic stress tolerance.

Chaudhry, Vasvi; Asif, Mehar H.; Bag, Sumit; Goel, Ridhi; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Singh, Sunil K.; Chauhan, Puneet S.; Sawant, Samir V.

2013-01-01

391

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida Strain MTCC5279.  

PubMed

Here we report the genome sequence of a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain MTCC5279. The length of the draft genome sequence is approximately 5.2 Mb, with a GC content of 62.5%. The draft genome sequence reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in plant growth promotion and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:23908291

Chaudhry, Vasvi; Asif, Mehar H; Bag, Sumit; Goel, Ridhi; Mantri, Shrikant S; Singh, Sunil K; Chauhan, Puneet S; Sawant, Samir V; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

2013-01-01

392

Genetic structure of a lotic population of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of a population of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia isolated from a southeastern blackwater stream was investigated by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis to examine the allelic variation in eight structural gene loci. Overall, 213 isolates were collected at transect points along the stream continuum, from both the sediments along the bank and the water column. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis

M. G. Wise; L. J. Shimkets; J. V. McArthur

1995-01-01

393

Production of extracellular water-insoluble polysaccharide from Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed

Curdlan is a microbial polysaccharide composed exclusively of ?-(1,3)-linked glucose residues. Until now only bacteria belonging to the Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium species have been reported to produce Curdlan. In this study, a bacterium capable of producing extracellular Curdlan, identified as Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from soil samples. From the HPLC, permethylation linkage analysis, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR analytical data, the polysaccharide consisted exclusively of glucose; the most prominent sugar was 1,3-linked glucose, and most glycosidic bonds joining these sugar residues were of the ?-type. This also supported that the exopolysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas sp. was actually Curdlan. In addition, the Pseudomonas sp. was studied for the production of Curdlan by conventional "one-factor-at-a-time technique" and response surface methodology (RSM). It was observed that glucose and yeast extract were the most suitable carbon source and nitrogen source for Curdlan production, respectively. By using RSM, Curdlan production was increased significantly by 188%, from 1.25 to 2.35 g/L, when the strain was cultivated in the optimal condition developed by RSM, and the highest Curdlan production rate of 0.81 g/(L h) was obtained. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on Curdlan production by Pseudomonas sp. PMID:22533491

Cui, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Ji Qing

2012-05-16

394

Incident of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Post-Operative Wound Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidents of pseudomonas aeruginosa in post-operative wound infection and its sensitivity pattern to commonly used antibiotics. During a period of six months between February to December, 2005, 115 specimens were collected from King Abdullah University Hospital, Princess Basma Hospital, Princess Badea and Princess Rahma Hospitals. Samples were obtained from the

Hani A. Masaadeh; Adnan S. Jaran

2009-01-01

395

Benzene, toluene and xylene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida CCMI 852  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minimal liquid medium containing benzene (B), toluene (T) and xylene (X) and mixtures thereof, was used to evaluate degradation activity of Pseudomonas putida CCMI 852 containing a TOL plasmid. Experiments were developed with B, T and X (100 mg L-1), with mixtures of BT, BX, and TX (50 + 50 mg L-1 each) and BTX (33.3 + 33.3 +

Marcelo Henrique Otenio; Maria Teresa Lopes da Silva; Maria Luiza Oliveira Marques; José Carlos Roseiro; Ederio Dino Bidoia

2005-01-01

396

Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of alginate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of alginic acid by mucoidPseudomonas aeruginosa PAO strain's determined the presence of enzymes required to synthesise GDP-mannuronic acid. Addition of polymannuronic acid to an ammonium sulphate precipitate of a cell free alginate suspension indicated the presence of an enzyme which catalysed the epimerisation of mannuronic acid to guluronic acidafter the polymer had

N. H. Piggott; I. W. Sutherland; T. R. Jarman

1981-01-01

397

Pseudomonas asturiensis sp. nov., isolated from soybean and weeds.  

PubMed

Five strains of gram negative bacteria, isolated from soybean (LPPA 221(T), 222 and 223) and weeds (LPPA 816 and 1442), were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The isolates showed variation in their phenotypic traits and were placed in the Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, as a single but well separated cluster. MLSA analysis based on gyrB and rpoD sequences clustered the strains in a single branch in the Pseudomonas syringae group, and revealed P. viridiflava as closest relative. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed medium levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with the type strain of P. viridiflava (50%) and lower levels (<32%) with other type strains of the P. syringae group, supporting classification within a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. The strains can be distinguished from species of the P. syringae group by the fatty acid C17:0 cyclo that is present in a low amount (2.5%) and from P. viridiflava by their inability to assimilate d-tartrate and d-sorbitol, and by the formation of red colonies on TTC medium. For this new species, the name Pseudomonas asturiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 221(T) (=LMG 26898(T)=CECT 8095(T)). PMID:23727430

González, Ana J; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Fernández-Sanz, Ana M

2013-07-01

398

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Endocarditis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Rare Complication  

PubMed Central

Infectious endocarditis is a rarely encountered complication among leukemia patient during induction therapy. We describe a young patient who developed prolonged high fever after aggressive chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa endocarditis was found to be the etiology for the febrile state. Our purpose is to emphasize the need for an early diagnosis of this rare, albeit treatable complication.

J, Barshay; A, Nemets; A, Ducach; G, Lugassy

2008-01-01

399

Role of Flagella in Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are opportunistic pathogens associated with infections in immunocompro- mised hosts and patients with cystic fibrosis. Like many other mucosal pathogens, P. aeruginosa cells express flagella which provide motility and chemotaxis toward preferred substrates but also provide a ligand for clearance by phagocytic cells. We tested the role of flagella in the initial stages of respiratory tract infection

MATTHEW FELDMAN; RUTH BRYAN; SUJATHA RAJAN; LEE SCHEFFLER; STEVEN BRUNNERT; HOPE TANG; ALICE PRINCE

1998-01-01

400

Engineering the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas putida for Arsenic Methylation  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Recombinant bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenicals. This has the potential for bioremediation of environmental arsenic and reducing arsenic contamination in food.

Chen, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; de Lorenzo, Victor

2013-01-01

401

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Siphophage MP1412  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa siphophage MP1412, which displays synteny to those of P. aeruginosa phages M6 and YuA. However, the presence of two homing endonucleases of the GIY-YIG family is unique to MP1412, suggesting their unique role in the phage life cycle of the bacterial host.

Bae, Hee-Won; Chung, In-Young; Sim, Nuri

2012-01-01

402

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa siphophage MP1412.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa siphophage MP1412, which displays synteny to those of P. aeruginosa phages M6 and YuA. However, the presence of two homing endonucleases of the GIY-YIG family is unique to MP1412, suggesting their unique role in the phage life cycle of the bacterial host. PMID:22879610

Bae, Hee-Won; Chung, In-Young; Sim, Nuri; Cho, You-Hee

2012-09-01

403

Combinations of Previously-Approved Drugs Targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alexander Leung is a third year student in the Biomedical Sciences Specialization of the Bachelor of Health Sciences (Honours) Program. Under the supervision of Dr. Eric Brown, Alexander has been searching for novel thera-pies against the ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Herein, he introduces the bacterium and provides a primer on antibiotics with a particular focus on those used to

Alexander Leung

2012-01-01

404

Enhanced reduction of nitrous oxide by Pseudomonas denitrificans with perfluorocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide reduction and nitrogen production by Pseudomonas denitrificans, as well as culture growth rates all increased 2-3 fold when cultured in the presence of perfluorocarbon emulsions (10% v\\/v) as compared to control cultures grown in the absence of perfluorocarbons. Initial nitrous oxide concentrations for consecutive experiments were 0.7 and 1.2 mM respectively.

Charles E. Turick; Deborah K. Bulmer

1998-01-01

405

Denitrification of water using immobilized Pseudomonas denitrificans cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparations of living Pseudomonas denitrificans cells immobilized in alginate gel were used in the denitrification of water. In the presence of an exogenous carbon source the entrapped microorganisms reduced nitrate and nitrite to gaseous products and to achieve complete reduction, carbon to nitrogen ratios of over two were required. The effects on denitrification of particle size and the number of

Inge Nilsson; Sten Ohlson; Lena Häggström; Nils Molin; Klaus Mosbach

1980-01-01

406

Defining the Pseudomonas genus: where do we draw the line with Azotobacter?  

PubMed

The genus Pseudomonas has gone through many taxonomic revisions over the past 100 years, going from a very large and diverse group of bacteria to a smaller, more refined and ordered list having specific properties. The relationship of the Pseudomonas genus to Azotobacter vinelandii is examined using three genomic sequence-based methods. First, using 16S rRNA trees, it is shown that A. vinelandii groups within the Pseudomonas close to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genomes from other related organisms (Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Cellvibrio) are outside the Pseudomonas cluster. Second, pan genome family trees based on conserved gene families also show A. vinelandii to be more closely related to Pseudomonas than other related organisms. Third, exhaustive BLAST comparisons demonstrate that the fraction of shared genes between A. vinelandii and Pseudomonas genomes is similar to that of Pseudomonas species with each other. The results of these different methods point to a high similarity between A. vinelandii and the Pseudomonas genus, suggesting that Azotobacter might actually be a Pseudomonas. PMID:21811795

Özen, Asli I; Ussery, David W

2012-02-01

407

Influence of Storage Conditions on the Growth of Pseudomonas Species in Refrigerated Raw Milk? †  

PubMed Central

The refrigerated storage of raw milk throughout the dairy chain prior to heat treatment creates selective conditions for growth of psychrotolerant bacteria. These bacteria, mainly belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, are capable of producing thermoresistant extracellular proteases and lipases, which can cause spoilage and structural defects in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated milk (products). To map the influence of refrigerated storage on the growth of these pseudomonads, milk samples were taken after the first milking turn and incubated laboratory scale at temperatures simulating optimal and suboptimal preprocessing storage conditions. The outgrowth of Pseudomonas members was monitored over time by means of cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. These incubations revealed that outgrowth of Pseudomonas members occurred from the beginning of the dairy chain (farm tank) under both optimal and suboptimal storage conditions. An even greater risk for outgrowth, as indicated by a vast increase of about 2 log CFU per ml raw milk, existed downstream in the chain, especially when raw milk was stored under suboptimal conditions. This difference in Pseudomonas outgrowth between optimal and suboptimal storage was already statistically significant within the farm tank. The predominant taxa were identified as Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas gessardii-like, Pseudomonas fluorescens-like, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Pseudomonas fragi-like. Those taxa show an important spoilage potential as determined on elective media for proteolysis and lipolysis.

De Jonghe, Valerie; Coorevits, An; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Messens, Winy; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

2011-01-01

408

Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., a novel species isolated from clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Twenty-two fluorescent pseudomonad strains of clinical origin received as Pseudomonas fluorescens (10 strains), Pseudomonasputida (10 strains) and Pseudomonas sp. (2 strains), and 33 type strains of the genus Pseudomonas were studied by numerical analysis based on 280 phenotypic characters. Twelve of the 22 clinical isolates clustered within a specific group, cluster IV. The other strains clustered within groups containing well-characterized fluorescent Pseudomonas species or did not cluster. Strains belonging to cluster IV were phenotypically different from all other clusters and subclusters of fluorescent pseudomonads. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that cluster IV corresponded to a genomic group sharing 72-100% DNA relatedness. DNA-DNA hybridization values with 67 strains representing 30 species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto, including six recently described species (Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas rhodesiae, Pseudomonas libanensis, 'Pseudomonas orientalis', 'Pseudomonas cedrella' and Pseudomonas monteilii), were below 49%, the value found for P. monteilii. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 63 mol%. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain of cluster IV (CFML 90-83T) with sequences of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that strain CFML 90-83T was part of the P. fluorescens intrageneric cluster. On the basis of phenotypic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel species, Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., is proposed for the 12 strains of cluster IV. The type strain is P. mosselii CFML 90-83T (= ATCC BAA-99T = CIP 105259T). The P. mosselii strains are phenotypically homogeneous and can be differentiated from other fluorescent species by several phenotypic features, including pyoverdine typing. PMID:11931144

Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Singer, Elisabeth; Geoffroy, Valerie; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Izard, Daniel

2002-03-01

409

Phytochemical study and screening for antimicrobial activity of flavonoids of Euphorbia hirta  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids (free and bound) of Euphorbia hirta L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by subculturing the relevant samples. Total activity (TA) of extracts against each sensitive pathogen was also evaluated. Results: Out of fungi; A. flavus, A. niger, and T. mentagrophytes were found to be resistant, against which none of the tested extracts showed activity. Bound flavonoids extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (inhibition zone (IZ) 27.66, MIC 0.039, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) 0.039). TA of free flavonoid extract of root was found to be the same for P. mirabilis and S. aureus (192.30 ml/g). Two flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were identified in the bound flavonoids of stem extract which showed activity against all the microorganisms. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation indicate that E. hirta has good antimicrobial activity with low range of MIC, hence can be exploited for future plant-based antimicrobial drugs.

Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma

2013-01-01

410

Ecthyma gangrenosum in a neonate: not always pseudomonas.  

PubMed

Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous manifestation of invasive infection usually caused by pseudomonas, but can be caused by many bacteria, fungal and viral infections. We present the first reported case of EG caused by invasive Escherichia coli in a neonate. A neonate presented with evidence of sepsis and a rapidly evolving 3×3.5 cm(2) well-circumscribed haemorrhagic and necrotic ulcer on the left groin. There was evidence of decreased perfusion of the lower limb owing to pressure effect of the ulcer. The child responded well to anticoagulation and antibiotic therapy. It is crucial to clinically suspect EG and promptly start empiric antibiotic therapy covering pseudomonas to decrease the morbidity and mortality. However, other viruses, fungus and bacteria including E coli should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of EG in a neonate. PMID:23715836

Pathak, Ashish; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Yogendra; Dhaneria, Mamta

2013-01-01

411

Peptidomimetic antibiotics target outer-membrane biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Antibiotics with new mechanisms of action are urgently required to combat the growing health threat posed by resistant pathogenic microorganisms. We synthesized a family of peptidomimetic antibiotics based on the antimicrobial peptide protegrin I. Several rounds of optimization gave a lead compound that was active in the nanomolar range against Gram-negative Pseudomonas spp., but was largely inactive against other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the peptidomimetics had a non-membrane-lytic mechanism of action and identified a homolog of the beta-barrel protein LptD (Imp/OstA), which functions in outer-membrane biogenesis, as a cellular target. The peptidomimetic showed potent antimicrobial activity in a mouse septicemia infection model. Drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas are a serious health problem, so this family of antibiotics may have important therapeutic applications. PMID:20167788

Srinivas, Nityakalyani; Jetter, Peter; Ueberbacher, Bernhard J; Werneburg, Martina; Zerbe, Katja; Steinmann, Jessica; Van der Meijden, Benjamin; Bernardini, Francesca; Lederer, Alexander; Dias, Ricardo L A; Misson, Pauline E; Henze, Heiko; Zumbrunn, Jürg; Gombert, Frank O; Obrecht, Daniel; Hunziker, Peter; Schauer, Stefan; Ziegler, Urs; Käch, Andres; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin; DeMarco, Steven J; Robinson, John A

2010-02-19

412

Biodegradation of benzyl benzoate by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112.  

PubMed

Commercial grade insecticides are supplemented with the chemical additives to enhance the insecticidal activity before the action of main insecticide commence. Benzyl benzoate is one of such additive used in the formulation of many insecticides. Due to deposition of such additive the soil and plant health get deteriorated. The present research work describes the biodegradation of benzyl benzoate by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112. The biodegradation was influenced by factors such as pH, temperature and other carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum pH and temperature for biodegradation was found to be 7.0 and 30 °C respectively. It was more effective at 0.5 % glucose and lactose concentration and at 0.05 % NaNO? and peptone concentration. Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 degrades benzyl benzoate into compounds like benzaldehyde and benzoic acid which are nontoxic in nature. Phytotoxicity study shows no germination inhibition in presence of degraded metabolites. PMID:24146308

Rokade, Kedar; Mali, Gajanan

2014-03-01

413

Itaconate, an isocitrate lyase-directed inhibitor in Pseudomonas indigofera.  

PubMed Central

Enzymes catalyzing steps from ethanol to acetyl-coenzyme A, from malate to pyruvate, and from pyruvate to glucose 6-phosphate were identified in ethanol-grown Pseudomonas indigofera. Enzymes catalyzing the catabolism of glucose to pyruvate via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were identified in glucose-grown cells. Phosphofructokinase could not be detected in Pseudomonas indigofera. Itaconate, a potent inhibitor of isocitrate lyase, abolished growth of P. indigofera on ethanol at concentrations that had little effect upon growth on glucose. The date obtained through enzyme analyses and studies of itaconate inhibition with both extracts and toluene-treated cells suggest that itaconate selectively inhibits and reduces the specific activity of isocitrate lyase.

McFadden, B A; Purohit, S

1977-01-01

414

Interaction of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida.  

PubMed Central

We observed that Aeromonas salmonicida ARO200 will maintain either or both the Pseudomonas R-factor, pMG1, and Enterobacteriaceae R-factors. This bacterial strain, therefore, provides a unique background wherein the host ranges of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae plasmods overlap. Co-maintenance of these plasmids resulted in behavior of plasmid aggregates that allowed transfer of R-dterminants beyond the host range of the parent plasmid. We observed that the ARO200 genetic background facilitated the redistribution of B determinants among unrelated and conjugally noninterfertile gram-negative bacteria. Aberrant behavior resulting in the deletion of R-determinants for plasmids singly maintained in ARO200 was also observed. Plasmids studied included RP1, R702, IncP; Rs-a, IncW; R192.7, IncFII; R64-11, IncI; R390, IncN; and R6K, IncX.

Olsen, R H; Wright, C D

1976-01-01

415

Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis subsp. nov., and reclassification of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440T as later synonym of Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062 T.  

PubMed

Isolate RS1(T) isolated from used metalworking fluid was found to be a Gram-negative, motile, and non-spore forming rod. Based on phylogenetic analyses with 16S rRNA, isolate RS1(T) was placed into the mendocina sublineage of Pseudomonas. The major whole cell fatty acids were C(18:1)omega7c (32.6%), C(16:0) (25.5%), and C(15:0) ISO 2OH/C(16:1)omega7c (14.4%). The sequence similarities of isolate RS1(T) based on gyrB and rpoD genes were 98.9 and 98.0% with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and 98.5 and 98.1% with Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. The ribotyping pattern showed a 0.60 similarity with P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) and 0.63 with P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC17440(T). The DNA G + C content of isolate RS1(T) was 62.2 mol.%. The DNA-DNA relatedness was 73.0% with P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) and 79.1% with P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical, and molecular studies, isolate RS1(T) is considered to represent a new subspecies of P. oleovorans. Furthermore, based on the DNA-DNA relatedness (>70%), chemotaxonomic, and molecular profile, P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440(T) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) should be united under the same name; according to the rules of priority, P. oleovorans, the first described species, is the earlier synonym and P. pseudoalcaligenes is the later synonym. As a consequence, the division of the species P. oleovorans into two novel subspecies is proposed: P. oleovorans subsp. oleovorans subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 8062(T) = DSM 1045(T) = NCIB 6576(T)), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis subsp. nov. (type strain RS1(T) = ATCC BAA-1494(T) = DSM 21016(T)). PMID:19936829

Saha, Ratul; Spröer, Cathrin; Beck, Brian; Bagley, Susan

2010-04-01

416

Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas cellulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain {number{underscore}sign}142 ATCC 55702.

Dees, H.C.

1999-09-28

417

Copper Uptake by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Infected Burn Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was\\u000a compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram positive bacteria Bacillus\\u000a thuringiensis strain Israelis as well as Gram negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm\\/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while

Muayad M. Abboud; Humodi A. Saeed; Khaled A. Tarawneh; Khaled M. Khleifat; Amjad Al Tarawneh

2009-01-01

418

Insights into the Life Styles of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many years, Pseudomonas stutzeri has been a model microorganism for studying the biochemical and physiological properties of a bacterium with enormous metabolic\\u000a capacities. Denitrification – the ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor – was discovered\\u000a in this species. This characteristic was elucidated by dissecting the biochemistry and genetics of the ZoBell strain. This\\u000a strain

Elena García-Valdés; Magdalena Mulet; Jorge Lalucat

419

Putative Exopolysaccharide Synthesis Genes Influence Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic sequence revealed three gene clusters, PA1381-1393, PA2231-2240, and PA3552-3558, in addition to the alginate biosynthesis gene cluster, which appeared to encode functions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. Recent evidence indicates that alginate is not a significant component of the extracellular matrix in biofilms of the sequenced P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. We hypothesized that at

Masanori Matsukawa; E. P. Greenberg

2004-01-01

420

Hexose phosphate metabolism and exopolysaccharide formation in Pseudomonas cepacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

When grown on solid medium containing excess glucose, glucose dehydrogenase-deficient (Gcd?) mutants ofPseudomonas cepacia 249 formed large amounts of an exopolysaccharide comprised of galactose, glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and rhamnose. The Gcd+ parent strain failed to accumulate comparable amounts of exopolymer from glucose because of its rapid conversion of glucose to gluconic and 2-ketogluconic acids and its lower content of

A. Sage; A. Linker; L. R. Evans; T. G. Lessie

1990-01-01

421

Degradation of Alkyl Methyl Ketones by Pseudomonas veronii MEK700  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas veronii MEK700 was isolated from a biotrickling filter cleaning 2-butanone-loaded waste air. The strain is able to grow on 2-butanone and 2-hexanol. The genes for degradation of short chain alkyl methyl ketones were identified by transposon mutagenesis using a newly designed transposon, mini-Tn5495, and cloned in Escherichia coli. DNA sequence analysis of a 15-kb fragment revealed three genes involved

Christina Onaca; Martin Kieninger; K.-H. Engesser; J. Altenbuchner

2007-01-01

422

Adaptation of Aerobically Growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Copper Starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions

Emanuela Frangipani; Vera I. Slaveykova; Cornelia Reimmann; Dieter Haas

2008-01-01

423

Genome sequence of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765

Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A; Giddens, Stephen R; Coppoolse, Eric R; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J; Rainey, Paul B; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

2012-03-01

424

Membrane proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known for their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Between mechanisms involved in this resistance, diminished expression of outer membrane proteins and up-regulation of efflux pumps play an important role. The characterization of membrane proteins is consequently necessary because of their importance in the antibiotic resistance but also in virulence. This review presents proteomic investigations aiming to describe the protein content of the membranes of these two bacterial species. PMID:19942379

Dé, E; Cosette, P; Coquet, L; Siroy, A; Alexandre, S; Duncan, A; Naudin, B; Rihouey, C; Schaumann, A; Junter, G A; Jouenne, T

2011-12-01

425

Antibiotic sensitivity of two Aeromonas and nine Pseudomonas species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agar dilution method was used to determine thein vitro sensitivity of differentPseudomonas andAeromonas species to sulphonamide, tetracycline, colistin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephaiothin.P. aeruginosa was generally sensitive to carbenicillin, colistin, tobramycin, and gentamicin.P. putida andP. fluorescens were generally resistant to?-lactam antibiotics but sensitive to gentamicin and tobramycin.P. cepacia andP. maltophilia were mostly resistant to colistin, gentamicin and tobramycin.

C.-E. Nord; T. Wadström; B. Wretlind

1975-01-01

426

Biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FR using palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactants production by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using palm oil as a sole carbon source was investigated. The experiments were carried out in 500-mL conical flasks containing\\u000a 100 mL of mineral media supplemented with palm oil as the sole carbon source. The P. aeruginosa FR strain was able to reduce surface tension of three tested inorganic media. Rotation velocities

Fernando J. S. Oliveira; Leonardo Vazquez; Norberto P. De Campos; Francisca P. de França

2006-01-01

427

Biosurfactants Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FR Using Palm Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactants production by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using palm oil as a sole carbon source was investigated. The experiments were carried out in 500-mL conical flasks containing\\u000a 100 mL of mineral media supplemented with palm oil as the sole carbon source. The P. aeruginosa FR strain was able to reduce surface tension of three tested inorganic media. Rotation velocities

Fernando J. S. Oliveira; Leonardo Vazquez; NORBERTO P. DE CAMPOS; Francisca P. França

428

Identification and isolation of insecticidal oxazoles from Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Two new and five known oxazoles were identified from two different Pseudomonas strains in addition to the known pyrones pseudopyronine A and B. Labeling experiments confirmed their structures and gave initial evidence for a novel biosynthesis pathway of these natural oxazoles. In order to confirm their structure, they were synthesized, which also allowed tests of their bioactivity. Additionally, the bioactivities of the synthesis intermediates were also investigated revealing interesting biological activities for several compounds despite their overall simple structures. PMID:23015823

Grundmann, Florian; Dill, Veronika; Dowling, Andrea; Thanwisai, Aunchalee; Bode, Edna; Chantratita, Narisara; Ffrench-Constant, Richard; Bode, Helge B

2012-01-01

429

Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Renewable Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable resources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3L fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (11.6 mg\\/ml) and biosurfactant production (8.6 mg\\/ml) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h respectively.\\u000a Characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that, it is a lipopeptide with

R. Thavasi; V. R. M. Subramanyam Nambaru; S. Jayalakshmi; T. Balasubramanian; Ibrahim M. Banat

2011-01-01

430

RecTE(Psy)-mediated recombineering in Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed

A recently developed Pseudomonas syringae recombineering system simplifies the procedure for installing specific mutations at a chosen genomic locus. The procedure involves transforming P. syringae cells expressing recombineering functions with a PCR product that contains desired changes flanked by sequences homologous to a target location. Cells transformed with the substrate undergo homologous recombination between the genomic DNA and the recombineering substrate. The recombinants are found by selection for traits carried by the recombineering substrate, usually antibiotic resistance. PMID:24557893

Swingle, Bryan

2014-01-01

431

Induction of the copper resistance operon from Pseudomonas syringae  

SciTech Connect

Cupric sulfate induced mRNA specific to the copper resistance gene cluster previously cloned form Pseudomonas syringea pv. tomato PT23. mRNA from each of the four genes of this cluster responded in a similar manner to induction over time and with different concentrations of cupric sulfate. Promoter fusion constructs indicated the presence of single copper-inducible promoter upstream from the first open reading frame.

Mellano, M.A.; Cooksey, D.A. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1988-09-01

432

Bronchial microbiome of severe COPD patients colonised by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The bronchial microbiome in severe COPD during stability and exacerbation in patients chronically colonised by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), has not been defined. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of the bronchial microbiome of severe COPD patients colonised and not colonised by P. aeruginosa and its changes during exacerbation. COPD patients with severe disease and frequent exacerbations were categorised according to chronic colonisation by P. aeruginosa. Sputum samples were obtained in stability and exacerbation, cultured, and analysed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing. Sixteen patients were included, 5 of them showing chronic colonisation by P. aeruginosa. Pseudomonas genus had significantly higher relative abundance in stable colonised patients (p?=?0.019), but no significant differences in biodiversity parameters were found between the two groups (Shannon, 3 (2-4) vs 3 (2-3), p?=?0.699; Chao1, 124 (77-159) vs 140 (115-163), p?=?0.364). In PA-colonised patients bronchial microbiome changed to a microbiome similar to non-PA-colonised patients during exacerbations. An increase in the relative abundance over 20 % during exacerbation was found for Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Achromobacter and Corynebacterium genera, which include recognised potentially pathogenic microorganisms, in 13 patients colonised and not colonised by P. aeruginosa with paired samples. These increases were not identified by culture in 5 out of 13 participants (38.5 %). Stable COPD patients with severe disease and PA-colonised showed a similar biodiversity to non-PA-colonised patients, with a higher relative abundance of Pseudomonas genus in bronchial secretions. Exacerbation in severe COPD patients showed the same microbial pattern, independently of previous colonisation by P. aeruginosa. PMID:24449346

Millares, L; Ferrari, R; Gallego, M; Garcia-Nuñez, M; Pérez-Brocal, V; Espasa, M; Pomares, X; Monton, C; Moya, A; Monsó, E

2014-07-01

433

Textile dye degrading laccase from Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laccase requiring optimum temperature 60°C, pH 4.0 for the activity and having apparent molecular weight 43,000Da was purified from Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 by three steps, including heating, anion exchange, and molecular sieve chromatography. The purification fold and yield of laccase obtained through Biogel P100 were 45.75 and 19%, respectively. Staining of native gel with L-dopa showed dark brown

Satish Kalme; Sheetal Jadhav; Mital Jadhav; Sanjay Govindwar

2009-01-01

434

Two distinct isocitrate lyases from a pseudomonas species.  

PubMed Central

The isocitrate lyases of acetate- and methylamine-grown Pseudomonas MA (Shaw strain) were studied. They were shown to be different by a variety of physical criteria including chromatographic elution patterns, heat inactivation kinetics, pH variation of Km values, and migration on polyacrylamide gels. The implications and significance of the existence of two enzymes in relation to the role of isocitrate lyase in methylamine utilization is discussed. Images

Bellion, E; Woodson, J

1975-01-01

435

[Study of a Pseudomonas mutant altered in methanol metabolism].  

PubMed

A glycine-resistant mutant was isolated from a methylotrophic strain of Pseudomonas species possessing serine pathway. This mutant presents some improvements in regard to growth parameters, and is able to excrete a fluorescent pigment under certain culture conditions. This pigment is capable of accelerating the reduction rate of formaldehyde to formate coupled with NAD. The same cannot be said for the wild type. PMID:397685

Ratomahenina, R; Arthaud, J F; Cabane, B; Galzy, P

1979-01-01

436

Integron-Mediated Rifampin Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobac- terium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron. Rifampin has been used in the treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy for

CHANWIT TRIBUDDHARAT; MICHAEL FENNEWALD

1999-01-01

437

Enantioselectivity of a recombinant esterase from Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant esterase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (PFE) was produced from E. coli cultures and purified to homogeneity resulting in a specific activity of 120 U\\/mg (p-nitrophenylacetate assay). PFE is stable in a wide range of pH (6–9) and active from 30–70°C, but rather unstable at temperatures >50°C. PFE hydrolyzes a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic esters, but no long

F Zocher; N Krebsfänger; O. J Yoo; U. T Bornscheuer

1998-01-01

438

Electrical enhancement of biocide efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.  

PubMed Central

When applied within a low-strength electric field (+/- 12 V/cm) with a low current density (+/- 2.1 mA/cm2), several industrial biocides exhibited enhanced killing action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown on stainless steel studs. Biocide concentrations lower than those necessary to kill planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa (1, 5, and 10 ppm of the active ingredients of kathon, glutaraldehyde, and quaternary ammonium compound, respectively) were bactericidal within 24 h when applied within our electrified device.

Blenkinsopp, S A; Khoury, A E; Costerton, J W

1992-01-01

439

Degradation of phenol and phenolic compounds by Pseudomonas putida EKII  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenol-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida EKII was isolated from a soil enrichment culture and utilized phenol up to 10.6 mM (1.0 g·1 -1) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Furthermore, cresols, chlorophenols, 3,4-dimethylphenol, and 4-chloro-m-cresol were metabolized as sole substrates by phenol-grown resting cells of strain EKII. Under conditions of cell growth, degradation of these xenobiotics was achieved

Christel Hinteregger; Raimund Leitner; Michael Loidl; Andreas Ferschl; Franz Streichsbier

1992-01-01

440

Nitrosubstituted aromatic compounds as nitrogen source for bacteria. [Pseudomonas  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria which utilized nitroaromatic compounds (0.5 mM) as sole source of nitrogen were isolated from soil. With 2,6-dinitrophenol and succinate as carbon source, a Pseudomonas strain was isolated which liberated and assimilated nitrite. Approximately 2 mol of NO/sub 2//sup -/ per mol of 2,6-dinitrophenol was released by resting cells. The xenobiotic compound was totally degraded, although specific growth yields were low even with succinate as a carbon source.

Bruhn, C.; Lenke, H.; Knackmuss, H.J.

1987-01-01

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