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Sample records for proteus mirabilis pseudomonas

  1. Proteus mirabilis: The Enemy Within.

    PubMed

    Dzutsev, Amiran; Trinchieri, Giorgio

    2015-04-21

    The organism needs to tailor the intestinal inflammatory response to pathogenic bacteria and to pathobionts that are only occasionally pathogenic. In this issue of Immunity, Seo et al. (2015) show that the pathobiont Proteus mirabilis induces NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release from CCR2(+) Ly6C(high) inflammatory monocytes. PMID:25902478

  2. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  3. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  4. [Peculiarities of Proteus mirabilis extracellular metalloproteinase biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zamaliutdinova, N M; Sharipova, M R; Bogomol'naia, L M; Bozhokina, E S; Mardanova, A M

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of metalloproteinase by the Proteus mirabilis 5127-1 strain on different media and the influence of glucose and urea on biosynthesis were studied. It was found that the P. mirabilis 5127-1 bacteria secretes metalloproteinase in the medium in two isoforms (52 and 50 kDa). It was established that proteinase synthesis is completely suppressed during the growth of bacteria on synthetic media, as well as in the presence of LB glucose in the medium. It was demonstrated that addition of urea in the medium results in an increase of the culture productivity in the proteinase synthesis. Maximal culture productivity in the proteinase synthesis was found in the medium with natural urine. During the growth of bacteria on artificial urine, proteinase appeared in the medium only after 12 hours of growth as a single isoform. PMID:25872397

  5. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  6. Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single- species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections. PMID:23042564

  7. Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-11-01

    Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single-species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections. PMID:23042564

  8. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria. PMID:27010388

  9. Morphological Diversity of the Colony Produced by Bacteria Proteus mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Akio; Shimada, Yuji; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Matsuyama, Tohey

    1996-08-01

    Morphological changes of colonies have been investigatedfor a bacterial strain of Proteus mirabilis, which is a famous speciesfor producing concentric-ring-like colonies. It was found that colony patterns can be classified into three types,i.e., cyclic spreading, diffusion-limited growth (DLA-like)and three-dimensional growth (inside the agar medium) patterns. Cyclic spreading patterns can further be classifiedinto three subgroups, i.e., concentric-ring, homogeneous and spatiotemporal patterns. These subgroups were classified by examining the development of colony structure after colonies spread all over petri-dishes. Comparison of the results with thoseof another bacterial species Bacillus subtilis is also discussed.

  10. Characterization of multiply resistant Proteus mirabilis isolates in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Konkoly Thege, M; Nikolnikov, S

    1988-01-01

    According to a survey on tendencies of antibiotic resistance in Hungary (1974-1983), the emergence of multiresistant (MR) Proteus mirabilis isolates is a new phenomenon. A total of 60 strains resistant to 11-16 antibiotics were collected from various specimens and geographical locations. Except for cefoperazone, third generation cephalosporins, amikacin, netilmicin and ofloxacin were effective in vitro against multiply resistant P. mirabilis isolates. Out of them 62% belonged to O18, a serogroup not shown in early studies in Hungary; moreover, in serogroup-distribution the present collection differed sharply from isolates examined in 1956. All but two strains produced the same aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme ANT (2"), and all of them proved beta-lactamase positive in nitrocephin test. All multiresistant strains harboured 2-4 plasmids, whereas the sensitive isolates had no plasmids. The presence of two plasmids (62 and 22 Mdal) occurring in 85% of the isolates was a characteristic feature of the multiresistant P. mirabilis isolates. In contrast to these plasmids some other ones (17.5, 103 and 113 Mdal) could be transferred to Escherichia coli recipient. There was no relationship between plasmid profiles, serogroups and resistance patterns. PMID:3072825

  11. New Aspects of RpoE in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Tsai, Yi-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen causing recurrent or persistent urinary tract infections (UTIs). The underlying mechanisms for P. mirabilis to establish UTIs are not fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that loss of the sigma factor E (RpoE), mediating extracytoplasmic stress responses, decreased fimbria expression, survival in macrophages, cell invasion, and colonization in mice but increased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression of urothelial cells and swarming motility. This is the first study to demonstrate that RpoE modulated expression of MR/P fimbriae by regulating mrpI, a gene encoding a recombinase controlling the orientation of MR/P fimbria promoter. By real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we found that the IL-8 mRNA amount of urothelial cells was induced significantly by lipopolysaccharides extracted from rpoE mutant but not from the wild type. These RpoE-associated virulence factors should be coordinately expressed to enhance the fitness of P. mirabilis in the host, including the avoidance of immune attacks. Accordingly, rpoE mutant-infected mice displayed more immune cell infiltration in bladders and kidneys during early stages of infection, and the rpoE mutant had a dramatically impaired ability of colonization. Moreover, it is noteworthy that urea (the major component in urine) and polymyxin B (a cationic antimicrobial peptide) can induce expression of rpoE by the reporter assay, suggesting that RpoE might be activated in the urinary tract. Altogether, our results indicate that RpoE is important in sensing environmental cues of the urinary tract and subsequently triggering the expression of virulence factors, which are associated with the fitness of P. mirabilis, to build up a UTI. PMID:25547796

  12. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  13. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

  14. Effect of Curcumin Against Proteus mirabilis During Crystallization of Struvite from Artificial Urine

    PubMed Central

    Prywer, Jolanta; Torzewska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the activity of curcumin against Proteus mirabilis and the struvite crystallization in relation to urinary stones formation. In order to evaluate an activity of curcumin we performed an in vitro experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that curcumin exhibits the effect against Proteus mirabilis inhibiting the activity of ureasean enzyme produced by these microorganisms. Addition of curcumin increases the induction time and decreases the efficiency of growth of struvite compared with the absence of curcumin. Interestingly, the addition of curcumin does not affect the crystal morphology and habit. In conclusion, curcumin has demonstrated its significant potential to be further investigated for its use in the case of struvite crystallization induced for the growth by Proteus mirabilis in relation to urinary stone formation. PMID:21808656

  15. Theory of periodic swarming of bacteria: Application to Proteus mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirók, A.; Matsushita, M.; Vicsek, T.

    2001-03-01

    The periodic swarming of bacteria is one of the simplest examples for pattern formation produced by the self-organized collective behavior of a large number of organisms. In the spectacular colonies of Proteus mirabilis (the most common species exhibiting this type of growth), a series of concentric rings are developed as the bacteria multiply and swarm following a scenario that periodically repeats itself. We have developed a theoretical description for this process in order to obtain a deeper insight into some of the typical processes governing the phenomena in systems of many interacting living units. Our approach is based on simple assumptions directly related to the latest experimental observations on colony formation under various conditions. The corresponding one-dimensional model consists of two coupled differential equations investigated here both by numerical integrations and by analyzing the various expressions obtained from these equations using a few natural assumptions about the parameters of the model. We determine the phase diagram corresponding to systems exhibiting periodic swarming, and discuss in detail how the various stages of the colony development can be interpreted in our framework. We point out that all of our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the complete set of available observations. Thus the present study represents one of the few examples where self-organized biological pattern formation is understood within a relatively simple theoretical approach, leading to results and predictions fully compatible with experiments.

  16. Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chuan; Budrene, Elena O.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:22219724

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Isolated From Newly Weaned Infant Rhesus Monkeys and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenhai; He, Zhanlong; Huang, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proteus mirabilis is an important uropathogen that causes complicated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and induces diarrhea in infants. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate P. mirabilis infection in newly weaned infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with diarrhea. Materials and Methods: Stool samples were collected from 74 rhesus monkeys and 12 ferrets with diarrhea. Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the samples through Polymerase Chain Reaction. The isolated P. mirabilis was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Results: Seven (7/74, 9.5%) and four (4/12, 30%) P. mirabilis strains were detected in the stool samples collected from the monkeys and ferrets, respectively. Sequence analyses showed that the isolated P. mirabilis was closely related to P. mirabilis strain HI4320, which was isolated from the urine of a patient with a long-term indwelling urinary catheter. In addition, the isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. Conclusions: Rhesus monkeys and ferrets are susceptible to P. mirabilis, making them useful as animal models for future studies on the mechanism of P. mirabilis-induced UTI and its corresponding treatment. PMID:26301055

  18. Involvement of polyphosphate kinase in virulence and stress tolerance of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Jiang, Qiao; Pan, Jia-Yun; Deng, Cong; Yu, Jing-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Sheng-He; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), a gram-negative enteric bacterium, frequently causes urinary tract infections. Many virulence factors of uropathogenic P. mirabilis have been identified, including urease, flagella, hemolysin and fimbriae. However, the functions of polyphosphate kinase (PPK), which are related to the pathogenicity of many bacteria, remain entirely unknown in P. mirabilis. In this study, a ppk gene encoding the PPK insertional mutant in P. mirabilis strain HI4320 was constructed, and its biological functions were examined. The results of survival studies demonstrated that the ppk mutant was deficient in resistance to oxidative, hyperosmotic and heat stress. The swarming and biofilm formation abilities of P. mirabilis were also attenuated after the ppk interruption. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that ppk was required for P. mirabilis to invade the bladder. The negative phenotypes of the ppk mutant could be restored by ppk gene complementation. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteomes of the wild-type strain and the ppk mutant. Compared with the wild-type strain, seven proteins including TonB-dependent receptor, universal stress protein G, major mannose-resistant/Proteus-like fimbrial protein (MR/P fimbriae), heat shock protein, flagellar capping protein, putative membrane protein and multidrug efflux protein were down-regulated, and four proteins including exported peptidase, repressor protein for FtsI, FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and phosphotransferase were up-regulated in the ppk mutant. As a whole, these results indicate that PPK is an important regulator and plays a crucial role in stress tolerance and virulence in uropathogenic P. mirabilis. PMID:26233310

  19. Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

    2013-03-01

    Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

  20. Identification of emergent bla CMY-2 -carrying Proteus mirabilis lineages by whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mac Aogáin, M; Rogers, T R; Crowley, B

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of 24 Proteus mirabilis isolates revealed the clonal expansion of two cefoxitin-resistant strains among patients with community-onset infection. These strains harboured bla CMY-2 within a chromosomally located integrative and conjugative element and exhibited multidrug resistance phenotypes. A predominant strain, identified in 18 patients, also harboured the PGI-1 genomic island and associated resistance genes, accounting for its broader antibiotic resistance profile. The identification of these novel multidrug-resistant strains among community-onset infections suggests that they are endemic to this region and represent emergent P. mirabilis lineages of clinical significance. PMID:26865983

  1. Identification of emergent blaCMY-2-carrying Proteus mirabilis lineages by whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mac Aogin, M.; Rogers, T.R.; Crowley, B.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of 24 Proteus mirabilis isolates revealed the clonal expansion of two cefoxitin-resistant strains among patients with community-onset infection. These strains harboured blaCMY-2 within a chromosomally located integrative and conjugative element and exhibited multidrug resistance phenotypes. A predominant strain, identified in 18 patients, also harboured the PGI-1 genomic island and associated resistance genes, accounting for its broader antibiotic resistance profile. The identification of these novel multidrug-resistant strains among community-onset infections suggests that they are endemic to this region and represent emergent P.mirabilis lineages of clinical significance. PMID:26865983

  2. Loss of FliL Alters Proteus mirabilis Surface Sensing and Temperature-Dependent Swarming

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic motile bacterium well known for its flagellum-dependent swarming motility over surfaces. In liquid, P. mirabilis cells are 1.5- to 2.0-μm swimmer cells with 4 to 6 flagella. When P. mirabilis encounters a solid surface, where flagellar rotation is limited, swimmer cells differentiate into elongated (10- to 80-μm), highly flagellated swarmer cells. In order for P. mirabilis to swarm, it first needs to detect a surface. The ubiquitous but functionally enigmatic flagellar basal body protein FliL is involved in P. mirabilis surface sensing. Previous studies have suggested that FliL is essential for swarming through its involvement in viscosity-dependent monitoring of flagellar rotation. In this study, we constructed and characterized ΔfliL mutants of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly and unlike other fliL mutants, both P. mirabilis and E. coli ΔfliL cells swarm (Swr+). Further analysis revealed that P. mirabilis ΔfliL cells also exhibit an alteration in their ability to sense a surface: e.g., ΔfliL P. mirabilis cells swarm precociously over surfaces with low viscosity that normally impede wild-type swarming. Precocious swarming is due to an increase in the number of elongated swarmer cells in the population. Loss of fliL also results in an inhibition of swarming at <30°C. E. coli ΔfliL cells also exhibit temperature-sensitive swarming. These results suggest an involvement of FliL in the energetics and function of the flagellar motor. PMID:25331431

  3. Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

  4. Epidemiology of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase, AmpC, and carbapenemase production in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Priya; Gupta, Varsha; Arora, Shilpa; Garg, Shivani; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains that produce extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC ?-lactamase, and carbapenemase pose potential threats to patient care because most clinical diagnostic laboratories may not attempt to detect these three major groups of enzymes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to ascertain if P. mirabilis isolates collected from our heathcare facility possess various mechanisms of resistance to ?-lactams (i.e., ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemases) and to additionally arrive at conclusions regarding concurrent testing for these three mechanism of drug resistance in order to reduce cost and time in routine diagnostic testing. Between January 2011 and June 2011, 60 consecutive non-repeated strains of P. mirabilis were evaluated for production of ESBLs, AmpC ?-lactamases, and carbapenemases. Of these, 36 isolates were found to be ESBL producers, and 7 (12%) were positive for production of AmpC ?-lactamases and ESBLs. Therefore, 19.4% of ESBL-producing Proteus strains coproduced AmpC enzymes. The modified Hodge test confirmed carbapenemase production in only 1 isolate (1.7%), which was also ESBL- and AmpC-positive. The clinical impact of additional AmpC expression in ESBL-producing P. mirabilis results in a newly acquired resistance to ?-lactamase inhibitors. In addition, to save time and costs, we recommend the use of cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate or boronic acid for the ESBL detection but in only those strains that were positive for ESBL by screening and negative by confirmatory tests. PMID:24451101

  5. Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The H2S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P>0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N = 10) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N = 5) and respiratory specimens of humans (N = 5) (P>0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts. PMID:23182140

  6. Allicin from garlic inhibits the biofilm formation and urease activity of Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Omid, Mahsa; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Amani, Mojtaba; Shokri Al-Hashem, Seyyedeh Khadijeh; Amir Mozafari, Nour; Peeri Doghaheh, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis. This study determined the inhibitory effects of allicin on urease, hemolysin and biofilm of P. mirabilis ATCC 12453 and its antimicrobial activity against 20 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. Allicin did not inhibit hemolysin, whereas it did inhibit relative urease activity in both pre-lysed (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 4.15 ?g) and intact cells (IC50 = 21 ?g) in a concentration-dependent manner. Allicin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (2-32 ?gmL(-1)) showed no significant effects on the growth of the bacteria (P > 0.05), but it reduced biofilm development in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.001). A higher concentration of allicin was needed to inhibit the established biofilms. Using the microdilution technique, the MIC90 and MBC90 values of allicin against P. mirabilis isolates were determined to be 128 and 512 ?gmL(-1), respectively. The results suggest that allicin could have clinical applications in controlling P. mirabilis infections. PMID:25837813

  7. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecinska-Pirg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant. PMID:25763050

  8. Characterization of 17 chaperone-usher fimbriae encoded by Proteus mirabilis reveals strong conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Lisa; Schaffer, Jessica N.; Zouzias, Christos D.

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in patients with indwelling catheters. Sequencing of clinical isolate P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed the presence of 17 predicted chaperone-usher fimbrial operons. We classified these fimbriae into three groups by their genetic relationship to other chaperone-usher fimbriae. Sixteen of these fimbriae are encoded by all seven currently sequenced P. mirabilis genomes. The predicted protein sequence of the major structural subunit for 14 of these fimbriae was highly conserved (?95?% identity), whereas three other structural subunits (Fim3A, UcaA and Fim6A) were variable. Further examination of 58 clinical isolates showed that 14 of the 17 predicted major structural subunit genes of the fimbriae were present in most strains (>85?%). Transcription of the predicted major structural subunit genes for all 17 fimbriae was measured under different culture conditions designed to mimic conditions in the urinary tract. The majority of the fimbrial genes were induced during stationary phase, static culture or colony growth when compared to exponential-phase aerated culture. Major structural subunit proteins for six of these fimbriae were detected using MS of proteins sheared from the surface of broth-cultured P. mirabilis, demonstrating that this organism may produce multiple fimbriae within a single culture. The high degree of conservation of P. mirabilis fimbriae stands in contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, which exhibit greater variability in their fimbrial repertoires. These findings suggest there may be evolutionary pressure for P. mirabilis to maintain a large fimbrial arsenal. PMID:24809384

  9. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  10. Molecular cloning and overexpression of a glutathione transferase gene from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Perito, B; Allocati, N; Casalone, E; Masulli, M; Dragani, B; Polsinelli, M; Aceto, A; Di Ilio, C

    1996-01-01

    The structural gene of the Proteus mirabilis glutathione transferase GSTB1-1 (gstB) has been isolated from genomic DNA. A nucleotide sequence determination of gstB predicted a translational product of 203 amino acid residues, perfectly matching the sequence of the previously purified protein [Mignogna, Allocati, Aceto, Piccolomini, Di Ilio, Barra and Martini (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 211, 421-425]. The P. mirabilis GST sequence revealed 56% identity with the Escherichia coli GST at DNA level and 54% amino acid identity. Similarity has been revealed also with the translation products of the recently cloned gene bphH from Haemophilus influenzae (28% identity) and ORF3 of Burkholderia cepacia (27% identity). Putative promoter sequences with high similarity to the E. coli sigma 70 consensus promoter and to promoters of P. mirabilis cat and glnA genes preceded the ATG of the gstB open reading frame (ORF). gstB was brought under control of the tac promoter and overexpressed in E. coli by induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and growth at 37 degrees C. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of overexpressed protein were indistinguishable from those of the enzyme purified from P. mirabilis extract. Unlike the GST belonging to Mu and Theta classes, GSTB1-1 was unable to metabolize dichloromethane. The study of the interaction of cloned GSTB1-1 with a number of antibiotics indicates that this enzyme actively participates in the binding of tetracyclines and rifamycin. PMID:8761466

  11. Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Pearson, Melanie M.; Arewång, Carl J.; Nusca, Tyler D.; Sherman, David H.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2010-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis causes complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). While the urinary tract is an iron-limiting environment, iron acquisition remains poorly characterized for this uropathogen. Microarray analysis of P. mirabilis HI4320 cultured under iron limitation identified 45 significantly up-regulated genes (P ≤ 0.05) that represent 21 putative iron-regulated systems. Two gene clusters, PMI0229-0239 and PMI2596–2605, encode putative siderophore systems. PMI0229-0239 encodes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-independent siderophore (NIS) system for producing a novel siderophore, proteobactin. PMI2596-2605 are contained within the high-pathogenicity island, originally described in Yersinia pestis, and encodes proteins with apparent homology and organization to those involved in yersiniabactin production and uptake. Cross-feeding and biochemical analysis shows that P. mirabilis is unable to utilize or produce yersiniabactin, suggesting that this yersiniabactin-related locus is functionally distinct. Only disruption of both systems resulted in an in vitro iron-chelating defect; demonstrating production and iron-chelating activity for both siderophores. These findings clearly show that proteobactin and the yersiniabactin-related siderophore function as iron acquisition systems. Despite the activity of both siderophores, only mutants lacking the yersiniabactin-related siderophore reduce fitness in vivo. The fitness requirement for the yersiniabactin-related siderophore during UTI shows, for the first time, the importance of siderophore production in vivo for P. mirabilis. PMID:20923418

  12. Immunological Characterization of Two Major Proteins Isolated from the Outer Membrane of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Bub, Felizitas; Bieker, Petra; Martin, Hans H.; Nixdorff, Kathryn

    1980-01-01

    Two proteins with apparent molecular weights of 39,000 and 36,000 (Mr 39,000 and Mr 36,000, respectively) were isolated from the outer membrane of Proteus mirabilis 19. Mr 36,000 was shown to be free of detectable amounts of the Mr 39,000 protein by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and free of lipopolysaccharide according to gas chromatographic analyses of 3-hydroxymyristic acid content. The Mr 39,000 protein contained no detectable amount of lipopolysaccharide and only a trace of Mr 36,000. Both isolated proteins gave strong reactions in antisera produced to purified P. mirabilis 19 cell walls (outer membrane proteins in the native state). This suggested that the proteins isolated by our methods essentially retained their native configuration upon resolubilization. Antisera produced in rabbits to the isolated proteins showed strongest reactions with the homologous antigen, but some cross-reactions with the heterologous protein and with P. mirabilis 19 lipopolysaccharide were observed. These cross-reactions could be attributed to specific responses to traces of the heterologous (contaminant) proteins present in the purified proteins used as immunizing antigens. The Mr 39,000 and Mr 36,000 proteins have no major antigenic determinants in common. Reactions with P. mirabilis 19 lipopolysaccharide in antisera to the outer membrane proteins could be completely removed by absorption of the antisera with the Mr 36,000 protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6155331

  13. Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj; Bohova, Jana; Horniackova, Miroslava; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm growth and its persistence within wounds have recently been suggested as contributing factors to impaired healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of several honey samples of different botanical origin, including manuka honey against Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae wound isolates. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay. All honeys at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 10% (w/v) significantly reduced the biofilm development of both isolates. Similarly, at a concentration of 50% (w/v), each of the honeys caused significant partial detachment of Pr. mirabilis biofilm after 24 h. On the other hand, no honey was able to significantly detach Ent. cloacae biofilm. In addition, treatment of Ent. cloacae and Pr. mirabilis biofilms with all honeys resulted in a significant decrease in colony-forming units per well values in a range of 0.35-1.16 and 1.2-7.5 log units, respectively. Of the tested honeys, manuka honey possessed the most potent anti-biofilm properties. Furthermore, methylglyoxal, an antibacterial compound of manuka honey, was shown to be responsible for killing biofilm-embedded wound bacteria. These findings suggest that manuka honey could be used as a potential therapy for the treatment of wounds containing Pr. mirabilis or Ent. cloacae. PMID:23494861

  14. First report of an OXA-48-producing multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain from Gaza, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Al Laham, Nahed; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, Jose R; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2015-07-01

    We report the first multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain producing the carbapenemase OXA-48 (Pm-OXA-48) isolated at Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza, Palestine. Draft genome sequencing of Pm-OXA-48 identified 16 antimicrobial resistance genes, encoding resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols, streptothricin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complete sequencing of the bla(OXA-48)-harboring plasmid revealed that it is a 72 kb long IncL/M plasmid, harboring carbapenemase gene bla(OXA-48), extended spectrum β-lactamase gene bla(CTX-M-14), and aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, and aph(3')-VIb. PMID:25896692

  15. Two novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variants in Proteus mirabilis isolates from swine farms in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Yang, Li-Qin; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Four different Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) variants, including two novel variants, were characterized in one Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen sequence type ST1917 isolate and three Proteus mirabilis isolates from swine farms in China. One novel variant was derived from SGI1-B with the backbone gene S021 disrupted by a 12.72-kb IS26 composite transposon containing the dfrA17-aadA5 cassettes and macrolide inactivation gene cluster mphA-mrx-mphR. The other one was an integron-free SGI1 and contained a 183-bp truncated S025 next to IS6100 and S044. PMID:25918148

  16. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella genomic island 1 in Proteus mirabilis isolates from poultry farms in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing; Cheng, Han; Zhang, Dong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Six out of the 64 studied Proteus mirabilis isolates from 11 poultry farms in China contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). PCR mapping showed that the complete nucleotide sequences of SGI1s ranged from 33.2 to 42.5 kb. Three novel variants, SGI1-W, SGI1-X, and SGI1-Y, have been characterized. Resistance genes lnuF, dfrA25, and qnrB2 were identified in SGI1 for the first time. PMID:25267683

  17. Molecular Characteristics of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Poultry Farms in China

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing; Cheng, Han; Zhang, Dong-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Six out of the 64 studied Proteus mirabilis isolates from 11 poultry farms in China contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). PCR mapping showed that the complete nucleotide sequences of SGI1s ranged from 33.2 to 42.5 kb. Three novel variants, SGI1-W, SGI1-X, and SGI1-Y, have been characterized. Resistance genes lnuF, dfrA25, and qnrB2 were identified in SGI1 for the first time. PMID:25267683

  18. First Report of an OXA-48-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Strain from Gaza, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D.; Mediavilla, Jose R.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain producing the carbapenemase OXA-48 (Pm-OXA-48) isolated at Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza, Palestine. Draft genome sequencing of Pm-OXA-48 identified 16 antimicrobial resistance genes, encoding resistance to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols, streptothricin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complete sequencing of the blaOXA-48-harboring plasmid revealed that it is a 72 kb long IncL/M plasmid, harboring carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48, extended spectrum ?-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-14, and aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, and aph(3?)-VIb. PMID:25896692

  19. Cell cycle parameters of Proteus mirabilis: interdependence of the biosynthetic cell cycle and the interdivision cycle.

    PubMed

    Gmeiner, J; Sarnow, E; Milde, K

    1985-11-01

    We investigated the time periods of DNA replication, lateral cell wall extension, and septum formation within the cell cycle of Proteus mirabilis. Cells were cultivated under three different conditions, yielding interdivision times of approximately 55, 57, and 160 min, respectively. Synchrony was achieved by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The time periods were estimated by division inhibition studies with cephalexin, mecillinam, and nalidixic acid. In addition, DNA replication was measured by thymidine incorporation, and murein biosynthesis was measured by incorporation of N-acetylglucosamine into sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble murein sacculi. At interdivision times of 55 to 57 min murein biosynthesis for reproduction of a unit cell lasted longer than the interdivision time itself, whereas DNA replication finished within 40 min. Surprisingly, inhibition of DNA replication by nalidixic acid did not inhibit the subsequent cell division but rather the one after that. Because P. mirabilis fails to express several reactions of the recA-dependent SOS functions known from Escherichia coli, the drug allowed us to determine which DNA replication period actually governed which cell division. Taken together, the results indicate that at an interdivision time of 55 to 57 min, the biosynthetic cell cycle of P. mirabilis lasts approximately 120 min. To achieve the observed interdivision time, it is necessary that two subsequent biosynthetic cell cycles be tightly interlocked. The implications of these findings for the regulation of the cell cycle are discussed. PMID:3902797

  20. Putrescine Importer PlaP Contributes to Swarming Motility and Urothelial Cell Invasion in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant. PMID:23572531

  1. Modified insulator semiconductor electrode with functionalized nanoparticles for Proteus mirabilis bacteria biosensor development.

    PubMed

    Braham, Yosra; Barhoumi, Houcine; Maaref, Abderrazak; Bakhrouf, Amina; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    The development of enzymatic sensors for biological purposes such as biomedicine, pharmacy, food industry, and environmental toxicity requires the purification step of the enzyme. To prevent the loss of the enzyme activity, a new strategy is held in order to immobilize the bacteria. It will constitute the biological sensing element leading to a high operational stability and multiple adaptations to various conditions such as temperature, pH and ionic strength changes. In this work we describe the development of a urea biosensor by immobilizing Proteus mirabilis bacteria onto an insulator-semiconductor electrode on functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), using cationic, Poly (allylamine hydrochloride) then anionic, Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) polyelectrolytes, BSA (serum bovin albumin), and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The response of P. mirabilis to urea addition is evaluated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Before the immobilization step, the activity of urease produced from the P. mirabilis bacteria was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs). Adhesion of the bacteria cells on IS electrodes have been studied using contact angle measurements. After immobilization of the bacteria, on the (Si/SiO2/Si3N4) and (Si/SiO2) substrates, the relationship between the evolution of the flat band potential ∆VFB and the urea concentration is found to be linear for values ranging from 10(-2)M to 10(-5)M. PMID:24094152

  2. Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Novel Injectable Cephalosporin, E1040, and Ceftazidime for Management of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis by Using the Rat Urolithiasis Model

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Masaru; Munakata, Kei-Ichi; Takeuchi, Hideo; Yoshida, Osamu

    1992-01-01

    A novel injectable cephalosporin, E1040, significantly eradicated Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the urine, in contrast to ceftazidime, in rats with complicated P. aeruginosa urinary tract infections associated with urinary stones, suggesting that E1040 is a prospective therapeutic agent in the management of refractory Pseudomonas urinary tract infections. PMID:1510458

  3. Elucidating the genetic basis of crystalline biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Holling, N; Lednor, D; Tsang, S; Bissell, A; Campbell, L; Nzakizwanayo, J; Dedi, C; Hawthorne, J A; Hanlon, G; Ogilvie, L A; Salvage, J P; Patel, B A; Barnes, L M; Jones, B V

    2014-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

  4. Elucidating the Genetic Basis of Crystalline Biofilm Formation in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Holling, N.; Lednor, D.; Tsang, S.; Bissell, A.; Campbell, L.; Nzakizwanayo, J.; Dedi, C.; Hawthorne, J. A.; Hanlon, G.; Ogilvie, L. A.; Salvage, J. P.; Patel, B. A.; Barnes, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

  5. Purification of two DD-carboxypeptidases/transpeptidases with different penicillin sensitivities from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Schilf, W; Martin, H H

    1980-04-01

    Two membrane-bound enzymes of Proteus mirabilis with the dual functions of peptidoglycan DD-carboxypeptidase and transpeptidase (named DD-carboxypeptidase/transpeptidase H and L) were isolated and purified by selective solubilization with the nonionic detergent Genapol X-100, affinity chromatography on matrix-bound ampicillin, and preparative isoelectric focusing in the presence of detergent. Purified enzymes H and L were, respectively, penicillin-binding proteins 4 and 5 among seven major penicillin-binding proteins present in P. mirabilis. The enzymes differed in the following properties. Enzyme H had an Mr of 49,000; isoelectric point at pH 8.2; high sensitivity to benzylpenicillin and permanent inactivation because of high stability of the enzyme-antibiotic complex EI* (half-life 300 min); fragmentation of benzylpenicillin with formation of phenylacetylglycine during the slow decay of EI*; it functioned as an endopeptidase on peptide-crosslinked side chains of peptidoglycan. Enzyme L had an Mr of 43 000; isoelectric point at pH 5.9; low sensitivity to benzylpenicillin and low stability of EI* (half-life 7.2 min) with rapid recovery of enzyme activity; no function as an endopeptidase. The properties of enzyme L were identical with those of the single active DD-carboxypeptidase found previously in the spheroplast L-form of P. mirabilis grown in the presence of benzylpenicillin. We conclude that the partial penicillin resistance of P. mirabilis, with growth as L-form and synthesis of peptide-crosslinked peptidoglycan, depends on the continuing fuction of enzyme L as a DD-carboxypeptidase and transpeptidase in the presence of the antibiotic. PMID:7379792

  6. Novel Insights into the Proteus mirabilis Crystalline Biofilm Using Real-Time Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wilks, Sandra A.; Fader, Mandy J.; Keevil, C. William

    2015-01-01

    The long-term use of indwelling catheters results in a high risk from urinary tract infections (UTI) and blockage. Blockages often occur from crystalline deposits, formed as the pH rises due to the action of urease-producing bacteria; the most commonly found species being Proteus mirabilis. These crystalline biofilms have been found to develop on all catheter materials with P. mirabilis attaching to all surfaces and forming encrustations. Previous studies have mainly relied on electron microscopy to describe this process but there remains a lack of understanding into the stages of biofilm formation. Using an advanced light microscopy technique, episcopic differential interference contrast (EDIC) microscopy combined with epifluorescence (EF), we describe a non-destructive, non-contact, real-time imaging method used to track all stages of biofilm development from initial single cell attachment to complex crystalline biofilm formation. Using a simple six-well plate system, attachment of P. mirabilis (in artificial urine) to sections of silicone and hydrogel latex catheters was tracked over time (up to 24 days). Using EDIC and EF we show how initial attachment occurred in less than 1 h following exposure to P. mirabilis. This was rapidly followed by an accumulation of an additional material (indicated to be carbohydrate based using lectin staining) and the presence of highly elongated, motile cells. After 24 h exposure, a layer developed above this conditioning film and within 4 days the entire surface (of both catheter materials) was covered with diffuse crystalline deposits with defined crystals embedded. Using three-dimensional image reconstruction software, cells of P. mirabilis were seen covering the crystal surfaces. EDIC microscopy could resolve these four components of the complex crystalline biofilm and the close relationship between P. mirabilis and the crystals. This real-time imaging technique permits study of this complex biofilm development with no risk of artefacts due to sample manipulation. A full understanding of the stages and components involved in crystalline encrustation formation will aid in the development of new protocols to manage and ultimately prevent catheter blockage. PMID:26516766

  7. Novel Insights into the Proteus mirabilis Crystalline Biofilm Using Real-Time Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Sandra A; Fader, Mandy J; Keevil, C William

    2015-01-01

    The long-term use of indwelling catheters results in a high risk from urinary tract infections (UTI) and blockage. Blockages often occur from crystalline deposits, formed as the pH rises due to the action of urease-producing bacteria; the most commonly found species being Proteus mirabilis. These crystalline biofilms have been found to develop on all catheter materials with P. mirabilis attaching to all surfaces and forming encrustations. Previous studies have mainly relied on electron microscopy to describe this process but there remains a lack of understanding into the stages of biofilm formation. Using an advanced light microscopy technique, episcopic differential interference contrast (EDIC) microscopy combined with epifluorescence (EF), we describe a non-destructive, non-contact, real-time imaging method used to track all stages of biofilm development from initial single cell attachment to complex crystalline biofilm formation. Using a simple six-well plate system, attachment of P. mirabilis (in artificial urine) to sections of silicone and hydrogel latex catheters was tracked over time (up to 24 days). Using EDIC and EF we show how initial attachment occurred in less than 1 h following exposure to P. mirabilis. This was rapidly followed by an accumulation of an additional material (indicated to be carbohydrate based using lectin staining) and the presence of highly elongated, motile cells. After 24 h exposure, a layer developed above this conditioning film and within 4 days the entire surface (of both catheter materials) was covered with diffuse crystalline deposits with defined crystals embedded. Using three-dimensional image reconstruction software, cells of P. mirabilis were seen covering the crystal surfaces. EDIC microscopy could resolve these four components of the complex crystalline biofilm and the close relationship between P. mirabilis and the crystals. This real-time imaging technique permits study of this complex biofilm development with no risk of artefacts due to sample manipulation. A full understanding of the stages and components involved in crystalline encrustation formation will aid in the development of new protocols to manage and ultimately prevent catheter blockage. PMID:26516766

  8. Interferences in the Optimization of the MTT Assay for Viability Estimation of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Grela, Ewa; Ząbek, Adam; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Background: The chromogenic assay based on MTT bioreduction was adapted to Proteus mirabilis viability estimations. We primarily intended to use the assay for the evaluation of novel antimicrobial compounds, including structures with possible permeabilizing activity. Therefore, the influence of basic permeabilizing agents like Triton X-100 and EDTA upon the MTT assay was studied. Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used as a substrate for the whole-cell dehydrogenase activity estimations. The amount of formazan product was evaluated in the end-point reactions terminated with acidic isopropanol or in the continuous reactions run in the presence of low detergent concentrations. Results: The generally established procedure of the end product dissolution with acidic isopropanol caused absorbance instability which strongly affected the results accuracy. The disadvantage was especially pronounced when the assay was conducted in Mueller-Hinton Broth. PBS with 0.01% Triton X-100 used as the reaction medium allowed to omit the formazan dissolution step and follow the microbial MTT reduction in a continuous mode. It was observed that in Proteus mirabilis with a compromised outer membrane the assay score was artificially increased above the untreated control. Conclusion: The dependence of the assay results on the cell integrity might be a major drawback of the MTT assay application for the evaluation of novel antimicrobials against Gram-negative microorganisms. On the other hand, the MTT reduction could be conveniently used to assay the permeabilization degree in biotechnological protocols. PMID:26605010

  9. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50M zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. PMID:25240234

  10. Mapping bacterial surface population physiology in real-time: infrared spectroscopy of Proteus mirabilis swarm colonies.

    PubMed

    Keirsse, Julie; Lahaye, Elodie; Bouter, Anthony; Dupont, Virginie; Boussard-Pldel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Adam, Jean-Luc; Monbet, Valrie; Sire, Olivier

    2006-06-01

    We mapped the space-time distribution of stationary and swarmer cells within a growing Proteus mirabilis colony by infrared (IR) microspectroscopy. Colony mapping was performed at different positions between the inoculum and the periphery with a discrete microscope-mounted IR sensor, while continuous monitoring at a fixed location over time used an optical fiber based IR-attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor, or "optrode." Phenotypes within a single P. mirabilis population relied on identification of functional determinants (producing unique spectral signals) that reflect differences in macromolecular composition associated with cell differentiation. Inner swarm colony domains are spectrally homogeneous, having patterns similar to those produced by the inoculum. Outer domains composed of active swarmer cells exhibit spectra distinguishable at multiple wavelengths dominated by polysaccharides. Our real-time observations agree with and extend earlier reports indicating that motile swarmer cells are restricted to a narrow (approximately 3 mm) annulus at the colony edge. This study thus validates the use of an IR optrode for real-time and noninvasive monitoring of biofilms and other bacterial surface populations. PMID:16808858

  11. Bacteriophage Can Prevent Encrustation and Blockage of Urinary Catheters by Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Nzakizwanayo, Jonathan; Hanin, Aurélie; Alves, Diana R; McCutcheon, Benjamin; Dedi, Cinzia; Salvage, Jonathan; Knox, Karen; Stewart, Bruce; Metcalfe, Anthony; Clark, Jason; Gilmore, Brendan F; Gahan, Cormac G M; Jenkins, A Toby A; Jones, Brian V

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms dense crystalline biofilms on catheter surfaces that occlude urine flow, leading to serious clinical complications in long-term catheterized patients, but there are presently no truly effective approaches to control catheter blockage by this organism. This study evaluated the potential for bacteriophage therapy to control P. mirabilis infection and prevent catheter blockage. Representative in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, simulating a complete closed drainage system as used in clinical practice, were employed to evaluate the performance of phage therapy in preventing blockage. Models mimicking either an established infection or early colonization of the catheterized urinary tract were treated with a single dose of a 3-phage cocktail, and the impact on time taken for catheters to block, as well as levels of crystalline biofilm formation, was measured. In models of established infection, phage treatment significantly increased time taken for catheters to block (∼3-fold) compared to untreated controls. However, in models simulating early-stage infection, phage treatment eradicated P. mirabilis and prevented blockage entirely. Analysis of catheters from models of established infection 10 h after phage application demonstrated that phage significantly reduced crystalline biofilm formation but did not significantly reduce the level of planktonic cells in the residual bladder urine. Taken together, these results show that bacteriophage constitute a promising strategy for the prevention of catheter blockage but that methods to deliver phage in sufficient numbers and within a key therapeutic window (early infection) will also be important to the successful application of phage to this problem. PMID:26711744

  12. Proteus mirabilis urease: nucleotide sequence determination and comparison with jack bean urease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

    1989-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. Six open reading frames were found within a region of 4,952 base pairs which were predicted to encode polypeptides of 31.0 (ureD), 11.0 (ureA), 12.2 (ureB), 61.0 (ureC), 17.9 (ureE), and 23.0 (ureF) kilodaltons (kDa). Each open reading frame was preceded by a ribosome-binding site, with the exception of ureE. Putative promoterlike sequences were identified upstream of ureD, ureA, and ureF. Possible termination sites were found downstream of ureD, ureC, and ureF. Structural subunits of the enzyme were encoded by ureA, ureB, and ureC and were translated from a single transcript in the order of 11.0, 12.2, and 61.0 kDa. When the deduced amino acid sequences of the P. mirabilis urease subunits were compared with the amino acid sequence of the jack bean urease, significant amino acid similarity was observed (58% exact matches; 73% exact plus conservative replacements). The 11.0-kDa polypeptide aligned with the N-terminal residues of the plant enzyme, the 12.2-kDa polypeptide lined up with internal residues, and the 61.0-kDa polypeptide matched with the C-terminal residues, suggesting an evolutionary relationship of the urease genes of jack bean and P. mirabilis. PMID:2687233

  13. Monoclonal antibody-mediated protection and neutralization of motility in experimental Proteus mirabilis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, R C; Rutherford, R L; Wu, H M; Collins, M S

    1989-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for a wound isolate of Proteus mirabilis was established. Of nine antibodies studied in detail, three were broadly reactive with various Proteus isolates, while six reacted in a serotype-specific fashion with the strain used for immunization. Five of the six serotype-specific antibodies were reactive with lipopolysaccharide. The sixth serotype-specific antibody, 4-F (immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]), was potently protective in a burn wound sepsis model and recognized a protein antigen. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis were used to determine that 4-F was reactive with flagellar protein. Approximately 1.3 micrograms of the antibody was sufficient to provide protection against 8 50% lethal doses of wound isolate, and approximately 26 micrograms provided full protection against challenge with 333 50% lethal doses. In vitro test results indicated that 4-F inhibited the motility of the wound isolate, and in vivo testing showed that it inhibited dissemination of the inoculum from the burn site to the liver and spleen. Whereas the antibody was highly effective in preventing the death of mice subsequent to challenge at a burn site, no protection was seen following an intraperitoneal challenge. These results may therefore indicate that the protection observed in the burn model is solely a reflection of the capacity of 4-F to neutralize bacterial motility. Images PMID:2659528

  14. Chromosomally Encoded AmpC-Type β-Lactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Bret, L.; Chanal-Claris, C.; Sirot, D.; Chaibi, E. B.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

    1998-01-01

    A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis (CF09) isolated from urine specimens of a patient displayed resistance to amoxicillin (MIC >4,096 μg/ml), ticarcillin (4,096 μg/ml), cefoxitin (64 μg/ml), cefotaxime (256 μg/ml), and ceftazidime (128 μg/ml) and required an elevated MIC of aztreonam (4 μg/ml). Clavulanic acid did not act synergistically with cephalosporins. Two β-lactamases with apparent pIs of 5.6 and 9.0 were identified by isoelectric focusing on a gel. Substrate and inhibition profiles were characteristic of an AmpC-type β-lactamase with a pI of 9.0. Amplification by PCR with primers for ampC genes (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii) of a 756-bp DNA fragment from strain CF09 was obtained only with C. freundii-specific primers. Hybridization results showed that the ampC gene is only chromosomally located while the TEM gene is plasmid located. After cloning of the gene, analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence (1,146 bp) showed that this ampC gene is close to blaCMY-2, from which it differs by three point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions Glu → Gly at position 22, Trp → Arg at position 201, and Ser → Asn at position 343. AmpC β-lactamases derived from that of C. freundii (LAT-1, LAT-2, BIL-1, and CMY-2) have been found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes and have been reported to be plasmid borne. This is the first example of a chromosomally encoded AmpC-type β-lactamase observed in P. mirabilis. We suggest that it be designated CMY-3. PMID:9593136

  15. Anaerobic respiration using a complete oxidative TCA cycle drives multicellular swarming in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Engstrom, Michael D; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. Bacterial locomotion and the existence of microbes were the first scientific observations that followed the invention of the microscope. A bacterium can swim through a fluid environment or coordinate motion with a group of bacteria and swarm across a surface. The flagellar motor, which propels the bacterium, is fueled by proton motive force. In contrast to the physiology that governs swimming motility, much less is known about the energy sources required for multicellular swarming on surfaces. In this study, we used Proteus mirabilis as a model organism to study vigorous swarming behavior and genetic and biochemical approaches to define energy pathways and central metabolism that contribute to multicellular motility. We found that swarming bacteria use a complete aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle but do not respire oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, suggesting that multicellular cooperation during swarming reduces the amount of energy required by individual bacteria to achieve rapid motility. PMID:23111869

  16. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4ṡ7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  17. Dynamical Properties of Transient Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Bacterial Colony of Proteus mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Kurosu, Sayuri; Ikeda, Takemasa; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2002-02-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns emerged inside a colony of bacterial species Proteus mirabilis on the surface of nutrient-rich semisolid agar medium have been investigated. We observed various patterns composed of the following basic types: propagating stripe, propagating stripe with fixed dislocation, expanding and shrinking target, and rotating spiral. The remarkable point is that the pattern changes immediately when we alter the position for observation, but it returns to the original if we restore the observing position within a few minutes. We further investigated mesoscopic and microscopic properties of the spatio-temporal patterns. It turned out that whenever the spatio-temporal patterns are observed in a colony, the areas are composed of two superimposed monolayers of elongated bacterial cells. In each area they are aligned almost parallel with each other like a two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal, and move collectively and independently of another layer. It has been found that the observed spatio-temporal patterns are explained as the moiré effect.

  18. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery. PMID:18718709

  19. Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

  20. First Isolation of carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis from an uncomplicated cystitis patient with Sjgren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oana, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Nagata, Mika; Washino, Kei-Ichi; Akahane, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Yu-Uki; Tsutsui, Chie; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjgren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped organisms that failed to grow on both Drigalski agar and sheep blood agar incubated in ambient air. The organism did grow when the urine was cultured overnight on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we believed that the organism was an anaerobe. Further investigation revealed that the isolate grew on sheep blood agar along with swarming when the atmospheric CO2 concentrations were increased to 5%. Initially, we failed to characterize or identify the P. mirabilis isolate or determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 System because the isolate did not grow in the system. However, the isolate was subsequently identified as P. mirabilis based on its morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties by using the commercially available kit systems, Quick ID-GN and ID-Test EB-20. This identification of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical isolation of capnophilic P. mirabilis. PMID:23698488

  1. Use of Green Fluorescent Protein To Assess Urease Gene Expression by Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis during Experimental Ascending Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Thompson, Richard B.; Lockatell, Virginia; Johnson, David E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    1998-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a cause of complicated urinary tract infection, expresses urease when exposed to urea. While it is recognized that the positive transcriptional activator UreR induces gene expression, the levels of expression of the enzyme during experimental infection are not known. To investigate in vivo expression of P. mirabilis urease, the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to construct reporter fusions. Translational fusions of urease accessory gene ureD, which is preceded by a urea-inducible promoter, were made with gfp (modified to express S65T/V68L/S72A [B. P. Cormack et al. Gene 173:33–38, 1996]). Constructs were confirmed by sequencing of the fusion junctions. UreD-GFP fusion protein was induced by urea in both Escherichia coli DH5α and P. mirabilis HI4320. By using Western blotting with antiserum raised against GFP, expression level was shown to correlate with urea concentration (tested from 0 to 500 mM), with highest induction at 200 to 500 mM urea. Fluorescent E. coli and P. mirabilis bacteria were observed by fluorescence microscopy following urea induction, and the fluorescence intensity of GFP in cell lysates was measured by spectrophotofluorimetry. P. mirabilis HI4320 carrying the UreD-GFP fusion plasmid was transurethrally inoculated into the bladders of CBA mice. One week postchallenge, fluorescent bacteria were detected in thin sections of both bladder and kidney samples; the fluorescence intensity of bacteria in bladder tissue was higher than that in the kidney. Kidneys were primarily infected with single-cell-form fluorescent bacteria, while aggregated bacterial clusters were observed in the bladder. Elongated swarmer cells were only rarely observed. These observations demonstrate that urease is expressed in vivo and that using GFP as a reporter protein is a viable approach to investigate in vivo expression of P. mirabilis virulence genes in experimental urinary tract infection. PMID:9423875

  2. Sequential unfolding of the hemolysin two-partner secretion domain from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Megan R; Woods, Christopher N; Adamczak, Kyle J; Glasgow, Evan M; Novak, Walter R P; Grilley, Daniel P; Weaver, Todd M

    2015-11-01

    Protein secretion is a major contributor to Gram-negative bacterial virulence. Type Vb or two-partner secretion (TPS) pathways utilize a membrane bound β-barrel B component (TpsB) to translocate large and predominantly virulent exoproteins (TpsA) through a nucleotide independent mechanism. We focused our studies on a truncated TpsA member termed hemolysin A (HpmA265), a structurally and functionally characterized TPS domain from Proteus mirabilis. Contrary to the expectation that the TPS domain of HpmA265 would denature in a single cooperative transition, we found that the unfolding follows a sequential model with three distinct transitions linking four states. The solvent inaccessible core of HpmA265 can be divided into two different regions. The C-proximal region contains nonpolar residues and forms a prototypical hydrophobic core as found in globular proteins. The N-proximal region of the solvent inaccessible core, however, contains polar residues. To understand the contributions of the hydrophobic and polar interiors to overall TPS domain stability, we conducted unfolding studies on HpmA265 and site-specific mutants of HpmA265. By correlating the effect of individual site-specific mutations with the sequential unfolding results we were able to divide the HpmA265 TPS domain into polar core, nonpolar core, and C-terminal subdomains. Moreover, the unfolding studies provide quantitative evidence that the folding free energy for the polar core subdomain is more favorable than for the nonpolar core and C-terminal subdomains. This study implicates the hydrogen bonds shared among these conserved internal residues as a primary means for stabilizing the N-proximal polar core subdomain. PMID:26350294

  3. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

    SciTech Connect

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  4. Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods.?A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results.?Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions.?We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

  5. Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 ?g/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24239192

  6. Pulmonary Pneumatocele in a Pneumonia Patient Infected with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Sung Hyeok; Bae, Jong Wook; Baek, Hyun Jin; Lee, Doo Hyuk; Lee, Sang Won; Choi, Gyu Ho; Han, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Se Weon; Kim, Hyunbeom; Hong, Goohyeon

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary pneumatoceles are air-filled thin-walled spaces within the lung and are rare in adult cases of pneumonia. We report the case of a 74-year-old male who was admitted with a cough and sputum production. He had been treated with oral dexamethasone since a brain tumorectomy 6 months prior. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a large pneumatocele in the right middle lobe and peripheral pneumonic consolidation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed; cultures identified extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Proteus mirabilis. A 4-week course of intravenous ertapenem was administered, and the pneumatocele with pneumonia resolved on follow-up chest CT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary pneumatocele caused by ESBL-producing P. mirabilis associated with pneumonia. PMID:26508927

  7. Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Harboring a Conjugative NDM-1 Plasmid and a Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variant, SGI1-Z.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shangshang; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Qijing; Zhao, Di; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Tian, Hao; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Mengmeng; Feng, Xianju; Liu, Hong-Min

    2015-10-01

    Acquisition of blaNDM-1 in bacterial species, such as Proteus mirabilis that is intrinsically resistant to tetracycline, tigecycline and colistin, will make clinical treatment extremely difficult. Here, we characterized an NDM-1-producing clinical isolate of P. mirabilis (PM58) that displayed an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype, susceptible only to aztreonam. Molecular analysis revealed that PM58 harbored both a conjugative NDM-1 plasmid and a novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variant on chromosome. PMID:26195511

  8. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters

    PubMed Central

    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P.mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P.mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. PMID:24786314

  9. Secondary metabolites produced by marine streptomyces as antibiofilm and quorum-sensing inhibitor of uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-03-01

    Quorum-sensing regulates bacterial biofilm formation and virulence factors, thereby making it an interesting target for attenuating pathogens. In this study, we investigated anti-biofilm and anti-quorum-sensing compounds from secondary metabolites of halophiles marine streptomyces against urinary catheter biofilm forming Proteus mirabilis without effect on growth viability. A total of 40 actinomycetes were isolated from samples collected from different places in Iraq including marine sediments and soil samples. Fifteen isolates identified as streptomyces and their supernatant screened as anti-quorum-sensing by inhibiting quorum-sensing regulated prodigiosin biosynthesis of Serratia marcescens strain Smj-11 as a reporter strain. Isolate Sediment Lake Iraq (sdLi) showed potential anti-quorum-sensing activity. Out of 35 clinical isolates obtained from Urinary catheter used by patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, 22 isolates were characterized and identified as Proteus mirabilis. Isolate Urinary Catheter B4 (UCB4) showed the highest biofilm formation with highest resistance to used antibiotic and was chosen for further studies. Ethyl acetate secondary metabolites extract was produced from sdLi isolate. First, we determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of sdLi crude extract against UCB4 isolate, and all further experiments used concentrations below the MIC. Tests of subinhibitory concentrations of sdLi crude extract showed good inhibition against UCB4 isolate biofilm formation on urinary catheter and cover glass using Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy respectively. The influence of sub-MIC of sdLi crude extract was also found to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent factors such as hemolysin activity, urease activity, pH value, and motility of UCB4 isolate. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic secondary metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with quorum-sensing signals for receptor binding. PMID:26538254

  10. A total internal reflection ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study of interactions between Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gleńska-Olender, J; Sęk, S; Dworecki, K; Kaca, W

    2015-07-01

    Specific antigen-antibody interactions play a central role in the human immune system. The objective of this paper is to detect immune complexes using label-free detection techniques, that is, total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based topography and recognition imaging. Interactions of purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with bacterial endotoxins (Proteus mirabilis S1959 O3 lipopolysaccharides) were studied. Lipopolysaccharide was adsorbed on gold surface for TIRE. In the AFM imaging experiments, LPS was attachment to the PEG linker (AFM tip modification). The mica surface was covered by IgG. In TIRE, the optical parameters Ψ and Δ change when a complex is formed. It was found that even highly structured molecules, such as IgG antibodies (anti-O3 LPS rabbit serum), preserve their specific affinity to their antigens (LPS O3). LPS P. mirabilis O3 response of rabbit serum anti-O3 was also tested by topography and recognition imaging. Both TIRE and AFM techniques were recruited to check for possible detection of antigen-antibody recognition event. The presented data allow for determination of interactions between a variety of biomolecules. In future research, this technique has considerable potential for studying a wide range of antigen-antibody interactions and its use may be extended to other biomacromolecular systems. PMID:25854960

  11. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-01-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.120mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (?pH) and proton motive force (?H+) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ?pH (and therefore ?H+) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ?pH and ?H+ for motility. PMID:25100003

  12. Differential Association of F? Plasmid and R Plasmid Deoxyribonucleic Acid with a Rapidly Sedimenting Fraction of a Proteus mirabilis Lysate

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Lorne; Rownd, Robert H.

    1977-01-01

    We have examined the association of an F? plasmid and an R plasmid in Proteus mirabilis with a rapidly sedimenting material that is generated by sodium dodecyl sulfate lysis and low speed centrifugation. Virtually all of the chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the F? plasmid DNA are associated with the rapidly sedimenting material after gentle lysis and centrifugation. A portion of R plasmid NR1 DNA (usually 5 to 25%) is not bound to the rapidly sedimenting material and is recovered in the supernatant fraction. This difference in binding is not related to the size of the plasmid DNA, since F? plasmids and R plasmids of different molecular weights showed the same behavior. R plasmid DNA labeled by a brief pulse of [3H]thymine is recovered in the supernatant fraction to a lower extent than the total R plasmid DNA. It would appear that R plasmid replication takes place in association with the rapidly sedimenting material. With prolongation of the [3H]thymine pulse, the [3H]thymine-labeled R plasmid DNA is recovered in the supernatant fraction with the same probability as the total R plasmid DNA. This finding indicates that a change in R plasmid attachment to the rapidly sedimenting material occurs some time after its replication. The differences observed in the replication of F? plasmids and R plasmids in P. mirabilis may be related to their different modes of association with the rapidly sedimenting material. PMID:324981

  13. H-NS Is a Repressor of the Proteus mirabilis Urease Transcriptional Activator Gene ureR

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Christopher; Bakare, Olubunmi O.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of Proteus mirabilis urease is governed by UreR, an AraC-like positive transcriptional activator. A poly(A) tract nucleotide sequence, consisting of A6TA2CA2TGGTA5GA6TGA5, is located 16 bp upstream of the ς70-like ureR promoter P2. Since poly(A) tracts of DNA serve as binding sites for the gene repressor histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS), we measured β-galactosidase activity of wild-type Escherichia coli MC4100 (H-NS+) and its isogenic derivative ATM121 (hns::Tn10) (H-NS−) harboring a ureR-lacZ operon fusion plasmid (pLC9801). β-Galactosidase activity in the H-NS− host strain was constitutive and sevenfold greater (P < 0.0001) than that in the H-NS+ host. A recombinant plasmid containing cloned P. mirabilis hns was able to complement and restore repression of the ureR promoter in the H-NS− host when provided in trans. Deletion of the poly(A) tract nucleotide sequence from pLC9801 resulted in an increase in β-galactosidase activity in the H-NS+ host to nearly the same levels as that observed for wild-type pLC9801 harbored by the H-NS− host. Urease activity in strains harboring the recombinant plasmid pMID1010 (encoding the entire urease gene cluster of P. mirabilis) was equivalent in both the H-NS− background and the H-NS+ background in the presence of urea but was eightfold greater (P = 0.0001) in the H-NS− background in the absence of urea. We conclude that H-NS represses ureR expression in the absence of urea induction. PMID:10762273

  14. High Prevalence of SXT/R391-Related Integrative and Conjugative Elements Carrying blaCMY-2 in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Gulls in the South of France.

    PubMed

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Decré, Dominique; Dupont, Chloé; Laurens, Chrislène; Vittecoq, Marion; Pantel, Alix; Solassol, Jérôme; Carrière, Christian; Renaud, François; Brieu, Nathalie; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structures involved in the dissemination of blaCMY-2 carried by Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from different gull species in the South of France were characterized and compared to clinical isolates. blaCMY-2 was identified in P. mirabilis isolates from 27/93 yellow-legged gulls and from 37/65 slender-billed gulls. It was carried by a conjugative SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative element (ICE) in all avian strains and in 3/7 human strains. Two clinical isolates had the same genetic background as six avian isolates. PMID:26643344

  15. Characterization of SXT/R391 Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Food-Producing Animals in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Wang, Hong-Ning; Liu, Bi-Hui; Yang, Li-Qin; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) were detected in 8 out of 125 Proteus mirabilis isolates from food-producing animals in China. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that seven ICEs were identical to ICEPmiJpn1, carrying the cephalosporinase gene blaCMY-2. Another one, designated ICEPmiChn1, carried five resistance genes. All eight ICEs could be transferred to Escherichia coli via conjugation. The results highlight the idea that animal farms are important reservoir of the SXT/R391 ICE-containing P. mirabilis. PMID:26824957

  16. Evolution and Spread of a Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Clone with Chromosomal AmpC-Type Cephalosporinases in Europe▿

    PubMed Central

    D'Andrea, M. M.; Literacka, E.; Zioga, A.; Giani, T.; Baraniak, A.; Fiett, J.; Sadowy, E.; Tassios, P. T.; Rossolini, G. M.; Gniadkowski, M.; Miriagou, V.

    2011-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates obtained in 1999 to 2008 from three European countries were analyzed; all carried chromosomal AmpC-type cephalosporinase blaCMY genes from a Citrobacter freundii origin (blaCMY-2-like genes). Isolates from Poland harbored several blaCMY genes (blaCMY-4, blaCMY-12, blaCMY-14, blaCMY-15, and blaCMY-38 and the new gene blaCMY-45), while isolates from Italy and Greece harbored blaCMY-16 only. Earlier isolates with blaCMY-4 or blaCMY-12, recovered in France from Greek and Algerian patients, were also studied. All isolates showed striking similarities. Their blaCMY genes resided within ISEcp1 transposition modules, named Tn6093, characterized by a 110-bp distance between ISEcp1 and blaCMY, and identical fragments of both C. freundii DNA and a ColE1-type plasmid backbone. Moreover, these modules were inserted into the same chromosomal site, within the pepQ gene. Since ColE1 plasmids carrying ISEcp1 with similar C. freundii DNA fragments (Tn6114) had been identified earlier, it is likely that a similar molecule had mediated at some stage this DNA transfer between C. freundii and P. mirabilis. In addition, isolates with blaCMY-12, blaCMY-15, and blaCMY-38 genes harbored a second blaCMY copy within a shorter ISEcp1 module (Tn6113), always inserted downstream of the ppiD gene. Sequence analysis of all mobile blaCMY-2-like genes indicated that those integrated in the P. mirabilis chromosome form a distinct cluster that may have evolved by the stepwise accumulation of mutations. All of these observations, coupled to strain typing data, suggest that the blaCMY genes studied here may have originated from a single ISEcp1-mediated mobilization-transfer-integration process, followed by the spread and evolution of a P. mirabilis clone over time and a large geographic area. PMID:21402851

  17. Laser interferometric and cultivation methods for measurement of colistin/ampicilin and saponin interactions with smooth and rough of Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and cells.

    PubMed

    Arabski, Micha?; Wasik, S?awomir; Dworecki, Kazimierz; Kaca, Wies?aw

    2009-05-01

    Laser interferometry is commonly used in permeability studies of soluble substances. In this study a modification that allowed testing partially insoluble mixtures is presented. The modification relies on the measurement of diffusion from 1% agarose gel. As a model for this study, two Proteus mirabilis strains were used that differ in polysaccharide content: smooth P. mirabilis S1959 strain and its Re-type mutant, strain R45. By laser interferometry and precipitation it is shown that R45 lipopolysaccharide is more effective in binding colistin. It has been shown with the laser interferometric method that saponins, which are detergent-like substances of plant origin, partially enhance the interaction of colistin with the S and Re types of P. mirabilis. These results were confirmed with whole cell Proteus studies. The saponin partially inhibited the growth of the S and Re P. mirabilis strains at doses of 31-500 microg/ml. A sub-inhibitory dose--15 microg/ml of saponins alone do not reduced the numbers of P. mirabilis S1959 and R45 cells. However, the presence of colistin or amipicillin and 15 microg/ml of saponins reduced the amount of P. mirabilis S1959 and R45 cells. The saponins enhanced sensitivities of S and R P. mirabilis cells towards colistin and amipicillin. One may proposed that saponins binds to lipid A part of LPS may resulted on an increase in bacterial cell wall outer-membrane permeabilities and by that facilitated antibiotics penetration into the bacterial cells. In conclusion, the laser interferometric method is a useful tool for studies of lipopolysaccharide-antibiotic interactions even if the tested substances are not fully soluble in water. PMID:19318050

  18. [Structural and immunologic studies of Proteus mirabilis 033 O-specific polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Cedzyński, M; Rózalski, A; Kotełko, K; Kaca, W; Vinogradov, E V; Knirel, Y A; Kochetkov, N K

    1993-01-01

    O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of P. mirabilis 033 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was found to contain N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-L-fucosamine in a ratio 1:1:1. On the basis of the data obtained from 13C-NMR and methylation analysis, the following structure of repeating unit was established: [formula: see text] Selective removal of the D-GlcA significantly decreased reactivity of 033 O-specific polysaccharide with homologous antiserum. This component was plays an immunodominant role. Cross reactivity between anti-033 serum and disaccharide alfa-L-FucNAc-beta-D-GlcNAc containing P. vulgaris 023 and S. arizonae 059 O-specific polysaccharides was also observed. PMID:8231453

  19. Cooccurrence of Multiple AmpC β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chérif, Thouraya; Saidani, Mabrouka; Decré, Dominique; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Arlet, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of 40 months, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases were detected in Tunis, Tunisia, in 78 isolates (0.59%) of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. In 67 isolates, only one ampC gene was detected, i.e., blaCMY-2-type (n = 33), blaACC (n = 23), blaDHA (n = 6) or blaEBC (n = 5). Multiple ampC genes were detected in 11 isolates, with the following distribution: blaMOX-2, blaFOX-3, and blaCMY-4/16 (n = 6), blaFOX-3 and blaMOX-2 (n = 3), and blaCMY-4 and blaMOX-2 (n = 2). A great variety of plasmids carrying these genes was found, independently of the species and the bla gene. If the genetic context of blaCMY-2-type is variable, that of blaMOX-2, reported in part previously, is unique and that of blaFOX-3 is unique and new. PMID:26459902

  20. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpHFimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpHFimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpHFimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpHFimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpHFimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. PMID:25562574

  1. Bloodstream infections caused by multi-drug resistant Proteus mirabilis: Epidemiology, risk factors and impact of multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Korytny, Alexander; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Fransisc; Borer, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Background The prevalence of antimicrobial co-resistance among ESBL-producing Enterobactereaceae is extremely high in Israel. Multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strains (MDR-PM), resistant to almost all antibiotic classes have been described. The aim was to determine the risk factors for bloodstream infections caused by MDR-PM and clinical outcomes. Methods A retrospective case-control study. Adult patients with PM bacteremia during 7 years were identified retrospectively and their files reviewed for demographics, underlying diseases, Charlson Comorbidity Index, treatment and outcome. Results One hundred and eighty patients with PM-bloodstream infection (BSI) were included; 90 cases with MDR-PM and 90 controls with sensitive PM (S-PM). Compared to controls, cases more frequently were from nursing homes, had recurrent hospital admissions in the past year and received antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months, were bedridden and suffered from peripheral vascular disease and peptic ulcer disease (p < 0.001). Two-thirds of the MDR-PM isolates were ESBL-producers vs 4.4% of S-PM isolates (p < 0.001, OR = 47.6, 95% CI = 15.9-142.6). In-hospital crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was 37.7% vs 23.3% in those with S-PM BSI (p = 0.0359, OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.4-3.81). Conclusions PM bacteremia in elderly and functionally-dependent patients is likely to be caused by nearly pan-resistant PM strains in the institution; 51.8% of the patients received inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment. The crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was significantly higher than that of patients with S-PM BSI. PMID:26763474

  2. Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D β-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

    2014-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086 bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D β-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. PMID:24027220

  3. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract. PMID:24903814

  4. The Novel CTX-M-116 ?-Lactamase Gene Discovered in Proteus mirabilis Is Composed of Parts of the CTX-M-22 and CTX-M-23 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pryamchuk, S.; Kruglov, A.; Abaev, I.; Pecherskikh, E.; Kartsev, N.; Svetoch, E.; Dyatlov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The novel ?-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-116 was identified in a Proteus mirabilis nosocomial isolate recovered from the urine of a patient in Moscow in 2005. DNA sequence analysis showed blaCTX-M-116 to be a hybrid gene consisting of 5? blaCTX-M-23 (nucleotides 1 to 278) and 3? blaCTX-M-22 (nucleotides 286 to 876) moieties separated by an intervening putative site of recombination (GTTAAAT). A retrospective analysis of available blaCTX-M genes in the GenBank database revealed 19 blaCTX-M genes that display the same hybrid structure. PMID:23318795

  5. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  6. In silico design of fusion protein of FimH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and MrpH from Proteus mirabilis against urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are the most important pathogens causing UTIs. The FimH from type 1 pili of UPEC and the MrpH from P. mirabilis play critical roles in the UTI process and have presented as ideal vaccine candidates against UTIs. There is no effective vaccine against UTI and the development of an ideal UTI vaccine is required. Materials and Methods: In this study, we planned to design a novel fusion protein of FimH from UPEC and MrpH from P. mirabilis. For this purpose, we modeled fusion protein forms computationally using the Iterative Threading Assembly Refinement (I-TASSER) server and evaluated their interactions with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The best fusion protein was constructed using overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (OE-PCR) and the biological activity of fusion was evaluated by the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the HT-29 cell line. Results: Our study indicated that based on the Protein Structure Analysis (ProSA)-web and the docking results, MrpH.FimH showed better results than did FimH.MrpH, and it was selected for construction. The results of bioassay on the HT-29 showed that FimH and MrpH.FimH induced significantly higher IL-8 responses than untreated cells or MrpH alone in the cell line tested. Conclusions: In the present study, we designed and constructed the novel fusion protein MrpH.FimH from UPEC and P. mirabilis based on in silico methods. Our bioassay results indicate that the MrpH.FimH fusion protein is active and capable of inducing immune responses. PMID:26605246

  7. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative antibody-producing cell responses to lipopolysaccharide in cell walls of the bacterial form and in membranes of the protoplast L-form of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Karch, H; Nixdorff, K

    1980-01-01

    Membranes of the stable protoplast L-form of Proteus mirabilis strain VI were highly immunogenic carriers of lipopolysaccharide when compared with the immune responses to lipopolysaccharide contained in cell walls of the bacterial form of this organism. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7002796

  8. Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

  9. Chromosomal blaCTX-M-₁₅ associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates. PMID:22683657

  10. Alteration of the immunoglobulin G subclass responses in mice to lipopolysaccharide: effects of nonbacterial proteins and bacterial membrane phospholipids or outer membrane proteins of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Karch, H; Gmeiner, J; Nixdorff, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunoglobulin M (IgM) and the IgG1, IgG2ab, and IgG3 subclasses of plaque-forming cells (PFC) specific for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were measured after immunization of mice with LPS alone and compared with the responses to LPS in combination with nonbacterial proteins and with bacterial membrane phospholipid vesicles or two major outer membrane proteins from Proteus mirabilis. The relative numbers of IgG PFC belonging to the IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 subclasses induced by immunization with LPS alone depended upon the type of LPS administered. Phospholipids and the proteins effected characteristic alterations in not only the strength but also the subclass of the IgG responses to LPS. The results suggest that the hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature or state of aggregation of the preparations plays a role in the induction of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of PFC specific for LPS. Complex formation with LPS and adjuvant was apparently necessary to obtain these effects. Images PMID:6187689

  11. Involvement of tyrosine residues in the protomer-protomer interaction of Proteus mirabilis flagella as studied by spectroscopic methods, chemical modification and aggregation experiments.

    PubMed

    Schalch, W; Bode, W

    1975-10-20

    Using spectrophotometrical titration, chemical modification, and ultraviolet difference spectral methods, the existence of at least two distinct tyrosine groups in the isolated flagellin of Proteus mirabilis flagella has been established. Three of the five flagellin tyrosines are buried in the protein matrix, whereas the other two seem to lie on the protein surface accessible to perturbants. Also about two tyrosine residues, presumably the latter ones exposed to the environment, can be nitrated with tetranitromethane in the monomeric flagellin with a concomitant loss of the polymerization ability after about one tyrosine per mol flagellin has been nitrated. Nitrated flagellin, homogeneous with respect to molecular weight, degree of nitration and isoelectric point, could be isolated and characterized. On the other hand, it could be shown that in the polymeric flagellum the phenolic groups of all five tyrosine residues are inaccessible to perturbing and modifying reagents. It seems, therefore, that the integrity of the phenolic groups is necessary for the proper folding and aggregation of the flagellin subunits to form the stable helical flagella. PMID:241412

  12. Chromosome-Encoded AmpC and CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Proteus mirabilis from Korea▿

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Juwon; Bae, Il Kwon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Seo, Young Hee; Shin, Jong Hee; Jang, Sook Jin; Uh, Young; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Among 222 Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates collected from 17 hospitals in Korea in 2008, 28 (12.6%) and 8 (3.6%) isolates exhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC phenotypes, respectively. The most common type of ESBL gene identified by PCR and sequencing experiments was blaCTX-M-14a (n = 12). The blaCTX-M-90 (n = 4), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-12 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-14b (n = 1), blaTEM-52 (n = 5), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1) genes were also detected. Eight isolates carried an AmpC β-lactamase gene, such as blaCMY-2 (n = 6) or blaDHA-1 (n = 2). All bla genes encoding CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-9-type enzymes and all blaCMY-2 genes were preceded by ISEcp1-like elements. The blaCTX-M-2 gene found in two isolates was located on a complex class 1 integron. The blaDHA-1 gene was preceded by a transcriptional regulator gene and was followed by phage shock protein genes. The blaCTX-M genes were located on the chromosome in 21 isolates. A plasmid location for the blaCTX-M gene was found in only four isolates: the blaCTX-M-14a gene was located on ∼150-kbp IncA/C plasmids in three isolates and on a ∼50-kbp IncN plasmid in one isolate. The blaTEM-52 gene was located on ∼50-kbp IncN plasmids in all five isolates. The AmpC β-lactamase genes were located on the chromosome in seven of eight isolates; one isolate carried the blaCMY-2 gene on a ∼150-kbp IncA/C plasmid. Our results show that a chromosomal location of CTX-M ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes in P. mirabilis is no longer an unusual phenomenon in hospital environments. PMID:21282448

  13. Novel Plasmid-Mediated 16S rRNA Methylase, RmtC, Found in a Proteus mirabilis Isolate Demonstrating Extraordinary High-Level Resistance against Various Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamane, Kunikazu; Shibayama, Keigo; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Shibata, Naohiro; Suzuki, Satowa; Doi, Yohei; Kimura, Kouji; Ike, Yasuyoshi; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis ARS68, which demonstrated a very high level of resistance to various aminoglycosides, was isolated in 2003 from an inpatient in Japan. The aminoglycoside resistance of this strain could not be transferred to recipient strains Escherichia coli CSH-2 and E. coli HB101 by a general conjugation experiment, but E. coli DH5α was successfully transformed by electroporation with the plasmid of the parent strain, ARS68, and acquired an unusually high degree of resistance against aminoglycosides. Cloning and sequencing analyses revealed that the presence of a novel 16S rRNA methylase gene, designated rmtC, was responsible for resistance in strain ARS68 and its transformant. The G+C content of rmtC was 41.1%, and the deduced amino acid sequences of the newly identified 16S rRNA methylase, RmtC, shared a relatively low level of identity (≤29%) to other plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases, RmtA, RmtB, and ArmA, which have also been identified in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Also, RmtC shared a low level of identity (≤28%) with the other 16S rRNA methylases found in aminoglycoside-producing actinomycetes. The purified histidine-tagged RmtC clearly showed methyltransferase activity against E. coli 16S rRNA in vitro. rmtC was located downstream of an ISEcp1-like element containing tnpA. Several plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases have been identified in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, and some of them are dispersing worldwide. The acceleration of aminoglycoside resistance among gram-negative bacilli by producing plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases, such as RmtC, RmtB, and RmtA, may indeed become an actual clinical hazard in the near future. PMID:16377684

  14. Crystal Structure of the Dithiol Oxidase DsbA Enzyme from Proteus Mirabilis Bound Non-covalently to an Active Site Peptide Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Schembri, Mark A.; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery. PMID:24831013

  15. Evaluation of the effect of MPL and delivery route on immunogenicity and protectivity of different formulations of FimH and MrpH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in a UTI mouse model.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are an important cause of morbidity and with the high rate of relapse and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens, pose a significant public health challenge worldwide. Lack of an efficacious commercial vaccine targeting both uropathogens makes development of a combined vaccine highly desirable. In this study the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of FimH of UPEC, MrpH of P. mirabilis and their fusion protein (MrpH.FimH) subcutaneously administered with and without Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant were evaluated. Our data showed that the subcutaneously administered proteins induced both serum and mucosal IgG, which MPL significantly improved developing a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. However, the preparations induced a higher systemic and mucosal IgG and IL-2 levels by this route compared to the intranasal. Immunization of mice with MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL or a mixture of FimH, MrpH and MPL conferred the highest protection of the bladder and kidneys when challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis in a UTI mouse model. Therefore considering these results MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL administered subcutaneously or intranasally could be a promising vaccine candidate for elimination of UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis. PMID:26033493

  16. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids. PMID:26109004

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis NO-051/03, Representative of a Multidrug-Resistant Clone Spreading in Europe and Expressing the CMY-16 AmpC-Type β-Lactamase

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Marco Maria; Giani, Tommaso; Henrici De Angelis, Lucia; Ciacci, Nagaia; Gniadkowski, Marek; Miriagou, Vivi; Torricelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis NO-051/03, representative of a multidrug-resistant clone expressing the CMY-16 AmpC-type β-lactamase and circulating in Europe since 2003, was sequenced by a MiSeq platform using a paired-end approach. The genome was assembled in 100 scaffolds with a total length of 4,197,318 bp. Analysis of the draft genome sequence revealed the presence of several acquired resistance determinants to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, phenicols, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides, of one plasmid replicon, and of a type I-E clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein (Cas) adaptive immune system. PMID:26868393

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis NO-051/03, Representative of a Multidrug-Resistant Clone Spreading in Europe and Expressing the CMY-16 AmpC-Type β-Lactamase.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Giani, Tommaso; Henrici De Angelis, Lucia; Ciacci, Nagaia; Gniadkowski, Marek; Miriagou, Vivi; Torricelli, Francesca; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis NO-051/03, representative of a multidrug-resistant clone expressing the CMY-16 AmpC-type β-lactamase and circulating in Europe since 2003, was sequenced by a MiSeq platform using a paired-end approach. The genome was assembled in 100 scaffolds with a total length of 4,197,318 bp. Analysis of the draft genome sequence revealed the presence of several acquired resistance determinants to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, phenicols, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides, of one plasmid replicon, and of a type I-E clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein (Cas) adaptive immune system. PMID:26868393

  19. Transcriptional Analysis of the MrpJ Network: Modulation of Diverse Virulence-Associated Genes and Direct Regulation of mrp Fimbrial and flhDC Flagellar Operons in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nadine J.; Debnath, Irina; Kuan, Lisa; Schulfer, Anjelique; Ty, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is associated with a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Strict regulation of the antagonistic processes of adhesion and motility, mediated by fimbriae and flagella, respectively, is essential for disease progression. Previously, the transcriptional regulator MrpJ, which is encoded by the mrp fimbrial operon, has been shown to repress both swimming and swarming motility. Here we show that MrpJ affects an array of cellular processes beyond adherence and motility. Microarray analysis found that expression of mrpJ mimicking levels observed during UTIs leads to differential expression of 217 genes related to, among other functions, bacterial virulence, type VI secretion, and metabolism. We probed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MrpJ using transcriptional reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Binding of MrpJ to two virulence-associated target gene promoters, the promoters of the flagellar master regulator flhDC and mrp itself, appears to be affected by the condensation state of the native chromosome, although both targets share a direct MrpJ binding site proximal to the transcriptional start. Furthermore, an mrpJ deletion mutant colonized the bladders of mice at significantly lower levels in a transurethral model of infection. Additionally, we observed that mrpJ is widely conserved in a collection of recent clinical isolates. Altogether, these findings support a role of MrpJ as a global regulator of P. mirabilis virulence. PMID:25847961

  20. Transcriptional analysis of the MrpJ network: modulation of diverse virulence-associated genes and direct regulation of mrp fimbrial and flhDC flagellar operons in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Nadine J; Debnath, Irina; Kuan, Lisa; Schulfer, Anjelique; Ty, Maureen; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-06-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is associated with a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Strict regulation of the antagonistic processes of adhesion and motility, mediated by fimbriae and flagella, respectively, is essential for disease progression. Previously, the transcriptional regulator MrpJ, which is encoded by the mrp fimbrial operon, has been shown to repress both swimming and swarming motility. Here we show that MrpJ affects an array of cellular processes beyond adherence and motility. Microarray analysis found that expression of mrpJ mimicking levels observed during UTIs leads to differential expression of 217 genes related to, among other functions, bacterial virulence, type VI secretion, and metabolism. We probed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MrpJ using transcriptional reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Binding of MrpJ to two virulence-associated target gene promoters, the promoters of the flagellar master regulator flhDC and mrp itself, appears to be affected by the condensation state of the native chromosome, although both targets share a direct MrpJ binding site proximal to the transcriptional start. Furthermore, an mrpJ deletion mutant colonized the bladders of mice at significantly lower levels in a transurethral model of infection. Additionally, we observed that mrpJ is widely conserved in a collection of recent clinical isolates. Altogether, these findings support a role of MrpJ as a global regulator of P. mirabilis virulence. PMID:25847961

  1. [Obtaining antisera to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus antigens for performing immunoenzyme analyses in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Bulava, G V; Ermolin, G A

    1985-01-01

    The data presented in this work indicate that specific antisera to P. aeruginosa and Proteus antigens can be produced by using extracts from these microorganisms, destroyed by ultrasonic treatment or by multiple freezing and thawing, for the immunization of rabbits. Blood serum samples from patients with purulent septic complications were studied for the presence of P. aeruginosa and Proteus antigens in ELISA with the use of peroxidase-labeled antibodies from antisera to P. aeruginosa and Proteus. This investigation revealed that during the first 3 days from the beginning of the clinical manifestations of the complications P. aeruginosa and Proteus antigens were detected in 86.4% and 83.4% of the patients, respectively. In the subsequent bacteriological study of wound discharge from these patients the corresponding microflora was detected. PMID:3920845

  2. [Immunoenzyme method of diagnosing suppurative-septic complications due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus].

    PubMed

    Bulava, G V; Ermolin, G A; Grigor'ev, N I

    1984-06-01

    Two test systems, based on the inhibition of the reaction of enzyme-labeled antibodies and on the indirect reaction of enzyme-labeled antibodies, have been developed with a view to diagnosing purulent and septic complications caused by P. aeruginosa and Proteus in accordance with the results of the determination of the corresponding microbial antigens and antibodies to these antigens in the patients' blood. An increase in the levels of P. aeruginosa and Proteus antigens during the first 3 days of the development of complications and in the titers of antibodies on days 7-10 indicates that the purulent septic complication is caused by the given infective agent. A high correlation of the results obtained by bacteriological and serological diagnostic methods has been observed. PMID:6431720

  3. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus antigenemia and antibody formation in mono- and mixed infections in patients with suppurative inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Bulava, G V; Men'shikov, D D; Khvatov, V B

    1987-02-01

    P. aeruginosa and Proteus antigenemia and antibody production have been studied in 335 patients with purulent inflammatory diseases. The study has revealed that in the association of P. aeruginosa and Proteus with staphylococci and representatives of the family Enterobacteriaceae the level of antigenemia is considerably lower than in monoinfections or in the association of these microorganisms with streptococci. In mixed infections humoral immune response develops later than in cases of monoinfection. An important role of ecological and physiological relationships between microorganisms in the course of purulent processes and in their influence on the host has been confirmed. The use of the enzyme immunoassay in the clinical practice has made it possible to determine the etiological role of P. aeruginosa and Proteus in the development of suppurative-inflammatory diseases, to select adequate immunotherapy, including the use of anti-P. aeruginosa and anti-Proteus plasmas, and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:3107287

  4. Proteus Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Criteria & FAQs Medical Research Glossary Donate Cash Donation Life Insurance Gift Matching Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Definition Common Signs Diagnostic Criteria (I have a paragraph ...

  5. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  6. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... Phase 1 Clinical Trail Patient Enrollment Has Begun Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  7. [Proteus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benichou, J J; Labrune, B; Formanek, A; Denoix, C; Oger, P

    1990-01-01

    Two new cases of Proteus syndrome are reported. This congenital syndrome, first described in 1983, comprises gigantism of extremities, body hemihypertrophy, pigmented nevi and multiple tumors (subcutaneous, lipomas, hamartomas). This syndrome belongs to the same group as Recklinghausen disease, Maffucci or Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes. The prognosis is not well known but mostly depends on functional and psychologic consequences of important deformations. PMID:2206106

  8. Proteus endocarditis in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rohan; Sekar, Baskar; Payne, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition with adverse consequences and increased mortality, despite improvements in treatment options. Diagnosed patients usually require a prolonged course of antibiotics, with up to 40-50% requiring surgery during initial hospital admission. We report a case of a 42-year-old intravenous drug user who presented feeling generally unwell, with lethargy, rigours, confusion and a painful swollen right leg. He was subsequently diagnosed with Proteus mirabilis endocarditis (fulfilling modified Duke criteria for possible IE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). He was successfully treated with single antibiotic therapy without needing surgical intervention or requiring anticoagulation for his DVT. Proteus endocarditis is extremely uncommon, with a limited number of case reports available in the literature. This case illustrates how blood cultures are invaluable in the diagnosis of IE, especially that due to unusual microorganisms. Our case also highlights how single antibiotic therapy can be effective in treating Proteus endocarditis. PMID:26611486

  9. PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Proteus at Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  11. Identification of two different hemolysin determinants in uropathogenic Proteus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, R A

    1987-01-01

    DNA sequences similar to those of the Escherichia coli hemolysin genes were detected among uropathogenic isolates of Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii by using the Southern blotting technique and hly gene-specific DNA probe. Immunoblotting revealed that among the hemolytic P. vulgaris and M. morganii isolates there was expressed a polypeptide species similar in molecular size (110 kilodaltons) and antigenicity to Escherichia coli HlyA. A plasmid-mediated P. vulgaris hemolysin determinant identified by Southern blotting analysis was molecularly cloned, and the recombinant plasmid (pWPV100) was characterized by restriction endonuclease fragment mapping. A second recombinant library of genomic DNA prepared from a hemolytic, urinary tract isolate of Proteus mirabilis was constructed in E. coli. A 5.5-kilobase XhoI fragment encoding an extracellular hemolytic activity was molecularly cloned (pWPM100), and this plasmid was subjected to transposon-mediated mutagenesis with TnphoA. The P. mirabilis hemolytic phenotype was determined to be encoded by a polypeptide species (HpmA) with an estimated molecular size of 140 kilodaltons based on minicell polypeptide analysis of pWPM100 and its mutant derivatives. Southern blotting analysis with a HpmA-specific DNA probe revealed that this novel determinant is commonly found in both Proteus species but is not present in hemolytic isolates of M. morganii, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. Images PMID:3305367

  12. Isolation, identification & characterization of Proteus penneri - a missed rare pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Janak

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as P. mirabilis, missing isolates of Proteus penneri. P. penneri is an invasive pathogen capable of causing major infectious diseases still seldom reported in individual cases. We report here the isolation, differentiation, characterization and typing of P. penneri from patients with different clinical infections. Methods: Urine, pus and body fluids collected from patients in intensive care units, wards and out patients departments of a tertiary health care institute from north India were cultured. A total of 61 indole negative Proteus isolates were subjected to extended biochemical tests to differentiate and identify P. penneri from P. mirabilis including failure to produce ornithine decarboxylase (by 0% strains of P. penneri and 100% strains of P. mirabilis) besides P. penneri being uniformly salicin negative, non-utilizer of citrate but ferments sucrose and maltose. Antibiograms and Dienes phenomenon were performed to characterize and type P. penneri isolates besides screening for ?-lactamase production. Results: Eight isolates of P. penneri were identified; four from urine, three from abdominal drain-fluid and one from diabetic foot ulcer. P. penneri was isolated as the sole pathogen in all patients having underlying disease; post-operatively. Swarming was not seen in the first strain on primary isolation and was poor in strain-4. All eight isolates were biochemically homologous but multi-drug resistant (MDR) with resistance to 6-8 drugs (up to 12). ?-lactamase production was seen in three of five isolates while Dienes phenomenon found four distinct types and discriminated strains differing in resistance even with a single drug. Interpretation & Conclusions: A few additional biochemical tests identified P. penneri isolates; it infected patients with underlying disease and strains were MDR and heterogenous. PMID:22561620

  13. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas pseudomallei flagellin proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, P J; Mah, D C; Woods, D E

    1994-01-01

    Flagellin proteins from several different strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei have been isolated and purified to homogeneity by mechanical shearing and differential centrifugation techniques. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yielded flagellin monomer protein bands with an estimated M(r) of 43,400. No lipopolysaccharide contamination of the purified protein preparations was detectable by silver staining of flagellin displayed on polyacrylamide gels and by Western immunoblotting with P. pseudomallei antilipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the flagellin protein of P. pseudomallei 319a revealed significant homology with flagellins from Proteus mirabilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK. Rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the 319a flagellin protein reacted with 64 of 65 P. pseudomallei strains tested. The polyclonal antiserum proved effective in inhibiting the motility of these organisms in motility agar plates. Passive immunization studies demonstrated that 319a flagellin-specific antiserum was capable of protecting diabetic rats from challenge with a heterologous P. pseudomallei strain. Images PMID:7513308

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease triggered by Proteus urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha

    2006-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and disabling polyarthritic disease, which affects mainly women in middle and old age. Extensive evidence based on the results of various microbial, immunological and molecular studies from different parts of the world, shows that a strong link exists between Proteus mirabilis microbes and RA. We propose that sub-clinical Proteus urinary tract infections are the main triggering factors and that the presence of molecular mimicry and cross-reactivity between these bacteria and RA-targeted tissue antigens assists in the perpetuation of the disease process through production of cytopathic auto-antibodies. Patients with RA especially during the early stages of the disease could benefit from Proteus anti-bacterial measures involving the use of antibiotics, vegetarian diets and high intake of water and fruit juices such as cranberry juice in addition to the currently employed treatments. PMID:16603443

  15. Abolition of Swarming of Proteus by p-Nitrophenyl Glycerin: General Properties

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Fred D.

    1973-01-01

    Para-nitrophenyl glycerin (PNPG) was shown to be an effective agent to abolish the swarming of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris on predried solid culture media. The level required to abolish swarming varied with the strain of Proteus, the components of the medium, and also with the conditions of incubation. Generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM PNPG effectively abolished swarming for at least 24 h with aerobic incubation. Levels of PNPG that abolished swarming showed no effect upon the growth of the cells, little or no effect upon the motility characteristics of the organisms, and no effect upon the cellular morphology. PNPG was found to be freely water soluble, stable to autoclaving, and to retain biological activity for at least one month in prepared culture media stored under refrigeration. PMID:4577177

  16. Proteus: Mythology to modern times

    PubMed Central

    Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures), a low nasal bridge with wide nostrils, and an open-mouth expression. ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Proteus syndrome? These resources address the diagnosis ...

  18. Methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide production from methionine by Proteus species detected by head-space gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, N J; Jeavons, T H; Nicholson, A J; Thornton, A G

    1977-01-01

    Head-space gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to detect and identify products formed by Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. morganii, and P. rettgeri from a defined medium supplemented with either phenylalanine, methionine, valine, leucine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, threonine, asparagine, aspartic acid, or tryptophan. In a detailed study of the products formed by 68 strains of Proteus spp. from L-methionine, the production of large amounts of both dimethyl disulfide and methyl mercaptan was found to be a characteristic of the genus. Both sulfur products appeared within a few hours of inoculation. Dimethyl disulfide was a more sensitive indicator of growth than the spectrometric determination of optical density. This suggests that it could be useful for the rapid, automated detection of any species of Proteus. PMID:332705

  19. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

  20. Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1992-01-01

    Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

  1. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Winnett, V.; Sirdaarta, J.; Matthews, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results: Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygiumaustrale, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 μg/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 μg/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus inhibitory activity were also shown to be nontoxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. Conclusions: The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential in blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26109767

  2. The Proteus Navier-Stokes code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Bui, Trong T.; Cavicchi, Richard H.; Conley, Julianne M.; Molls, Frank B.; Schwab, John R.

    1992-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. The emphasis in the development of Proteus is not algorithm development or research on numerical methods, but rather the development of the code itself. The objective is to develop codes that are user-oriented, easily-modified, and well-documented. Well-proven, state-of-the-art solution algorithms are being used. Code readability, documentation (both internal and external), and validation are being emphasized. This paper is a status report on the Proteus development effort. The analysis and solution procedure are described briefly, and the various features in the code are summarized. The results from some of the validation cases that have been run are presented for both the two- and three-dimensional codes.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... infections (wounds and abscesses) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas... urinary tract infections (cystitis) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... infections (wounds and abscesses) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas... urinary tract infections (cystitis) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... infections (wounds and abscesses) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas... urinary tract infections (cystitis) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1618 - Orbifloxacin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... infections (wounds and abscesses) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas... urinary tract infections (cystitis) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of...

  7. Proteus syndrome: evaluation of the immunological profile.

    PubMed

    Lougaris, Vassilios; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Cutrupi, Maricia; Baronio, Manuela; Moratto, Daniele; Pizzino, M R; Mankad, Kshitij; Briuglia, Silvana; Salpietro, Carmelo; Plebani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is an extremely rare and complex disease characterized by malformations and overgrowth of different tissues. Prognosis of affected patients may be complicated by premature death, mostly due to pulmonary embolism and respiratory failure. To date, immunological data in Proteus syndrome are scarse.We report on the novel immunologic findings of a 15 years old girl affected with PS. Detailed T and B cell evaluation revealed maturational alterations for both subsets and functional hyperactivation for the latter. Such findings have not been reported previously in PS and may be the spy of more complex immune abnormalities in this syndrome. PMID:26758562

  8. Pseudomonas putida Strain FStm2 Isolated from Shark Skin: A Potential Source of Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asmat; Hamid, Rahimi; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Usup, Gires

    2013-09-01

    Bacteriocin-producing Pseudomonas putida strain FStm2 isolated from shark showed broad range of antibacterial activity against all pathogens tested except Bacillus subtilis ATCC11774, MRSA N32064, Proteus mirabilis ATCC12453, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC14506, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC51312, Salmonella mutan ATCC25175, and Aeromonas hydrophila Wbf314. Of the three growth media tested in this study, TSB was observed to support the bacteriocin activity the most. While the highest bacteriocin activity was observed for media supplemented with 1 % NaCl, there was an observed reduction in bacteriocin activity with increasing salt concentration. Although the least bacteriocin activity was observed for marine broth, addition of increasing amounts of tryptone, glucose, or yeast extract increased bacteriocin activity. This was, however, contrary to the effect observed when MgSO4 and MnSO4 were added as supplements. In the presence of α-amylase, lipase, DNase, and RNase, a positive effect on bacteriocin production was observed. Proteinase K strongly inhibited bacteriocin production. Furthermore, the bacteriocins produced were heat stable within the temperature range of 30-70 °C. Bacteriocin activity also was not affected within a wide pH range of 3-9. Exposure to detergents did not inhibit the activity of the bacteriocin at the concentrations tested. Instead, a positive effect on the relative activity of produced bacteriocin was observed as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), EDTA, and Tween 20 at 1 % concentration all improved bacteriocin activity when the cell-free supernatant was tested against Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880. The bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration on a Superdex-200 column. SDS-PAGE analysis of the partially purified bacteriocin revealed an apparent molecular weight of ~32 kDa. PMID:26782985

  9. Myocardial Fat Overgrowth in Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hannoush, H; Sachdev, V; Brofferio, A; Arai, AE; LaRocca, G; Sapp, J; Sidenko, S; Brenneman, C; Biesecker, LG; Keppler-Noreuil, KM

    2014-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare, mosaic disorder with asymmetric and distorting overgrowth of the skeletal system, skin, and adipose tissues. Cardiac abnormalities are rare in this syndrome and only two prior cases have been reported. Many patients with PS followed at our institution underwent transthoracic echocardiograms for preoperative evaluation or as work-up for associated pulmonary disease. Some were noted to have prominent, focal echodense areas in the myocardium. We further investigated cardiac findings in a cohort of children and adult patients with PS. Patients with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, Holter monitoring, and exercise treadmill testing. Twenty children and adults with PS, age 24 months to 50 years old, underwent transthoracic echocardiograms. Seven patients (35%) had focal bright echodense areas within the myocardium suggesting fatty infiltration. The majority of patients had significant involvement of the interventricular septum. The cardiac characteristics of all patients with fatty infiltration on transthoracic echocardiograms were compared to Proteus patients without these findings. There were no significant differences in chamber sizes, mass, systolic or diastolic function. No increased risk of conduction defects or arrhythmias was found. This study shows that abnormal fat overgrowth is a common finding in the myocardium in patients with Proteus syndrome; however, it is not associated with functional derangements or arrhythmias. Further evaluation of a larger number of Proteus patients is needed in order to determine the frequency and prognosis of cardiac involvement. PMID:25377688

  10. Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

  11. GENES ASSOCIATED WITH OPENING AND SENESCENCE OF MIRABILIS JALAPA FLOWERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modest ethylene climacteric accompanies flower senescence in Mirabilis jalapa L., and exogenous ethylene accelerates the process. However, inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis have little effect on the life-span of these ephemeral flowers. Treatment with '-amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-de...

  12. A first assessment of genetic variation in Welwitschia mirabilis Hook.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, K M; Lester, E

    2003-01-01

    Welwitschia mirabilis is a monotypic member of the family Welwitchiaceae which, along with Ephedra and Gnetum species, comprises the gymnospermous order Gnetales. While the monophyly of this order is now widely accepted, the relationship of the Gnetales to other seed plants is still contentious. Despite the unique phylogenetic position of W. mirabilis and its extraordinary physiological and anatomical adaptations, little is known about the plant's phylogeny or its current distribution in isolated locations throughout the Namib Desert. As a preliminary step in the design of an more extensive phylogeographic study, we analyzed 37 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci from 59 plants distributed among five sites separated by distances of 6-440 km. Cluster analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant levels of variation within and between populations and little evidence of inbreeding. Genetic differences between populations reflect the geographic distances separating them. Three of the populations formed discernable genetic clusters, suggesting that little gene flow occurs between populations separated by > or = 18 km. In contrast, gene flow is occurring between two populations separated by only 6 km, supporting previous observations that pollen dispersal is primarily local and that seeds are not readily wind-born over the large distances separating most W. mirabilis populations. As a working hypothesis, we propose that W. mirabilis had a continuous distribution across its current range as much as 105 million years ago, and that as a consequence of subsequent drying trends and physical disturbance, populations became progressively isolated, accounting for their current distribution. PMID:12816961

  13. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Micheal A.; Shemon, Emily R.

    2015-06-01

    This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial or .merge) can be used as “mesh” input for any of the mesh tools discussed in this manual.

  14. Proteus syndrome: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands. PMID:23716948

  15. Proteus syndrome: what the anesthetist should know.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Divya

    2015-08-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS), a rare hamartomatous disorder, manifests itself in asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth of multiple body tissues. Because of complexity of the disorder, the anesthetic problems encountered during patients' perioperative management are very varied. We discuss the case of a 14-year-old adolescent boy diagnosed with PS who underwent corrective osteotomy of right knee joint under subarachnoid block. The salient points the anesthetists need to be aware of while caring for patients with PS are highlighted. PMID:25921368

  16. [Sensitivity of bacteria of the genus Proteus to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Vereshchagin, I A; Vo?chenko, M I; Martynova, L M

    1995-09-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility of 481 cultures of the bacteria belonging to the genus Proteus isolated within 1990-1994 from children with enterocolitis was studied. The study included 10 antibiotics. The efficacy of the antibiotic therapy in 388 children with the above disease was estimated. It was shown that the Proteus isolates were most frequently susceptible to kanamycin, gentamicin and carbenicillin. When used clinically in the treatment of children with Proteus enterocolitis, the antibiotics proved to be the most efficient agents. PMID:8651828

  17. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  18. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

  19. Mirabilis jalapa mottle virus: a new carlavirus infecting four o'clocks.

    PubMed

    Hatlestad, Gregory J; Elam, Lee; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lloyd, Alan M

    2011-11-01

    Analysis of a next-generation sequence dataset from Mirabilis jalapa resulted in the discovery of a novel virus in the genus Carlavirus (family Betaflexiviridae), mirabilis jalapa mottle virus (MjMV). The complete genome of MjMV was determined to consist of 8315 nucleotides (nt), with the six open reading frames indicative of carlaviruses. MjMV is most similar to kalanchoe latent virus (60% identity) and lily symptomless virus (59% identity). The virus can be transmitted mechanically to Mirabilis, but thus far MjMV has only been shown to infect Mirabilis jalapa, causing a slight leaf mottling and leaf wrinkling phenotype. PMID:21915718

  20. The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nield, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

  1. The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nield, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to

  2. Proteus aircraft over Las Cruces International Airport in New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  3. Proteus in flight over mountains near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  4. Proteus aircraft low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  5. Isolation of Lautropia mirabilis from oral cavities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, S N; Wilson, P H; Hicks, J; Carter, B; Cron, S G; Simon, C; Flaitz, C M; Demmler, G J; Shearer, W T; Kline, M W

    1998-06-01

    Lautropia mirabilis, a pleomorphic, motile, gram-negative coccus, has been isolated from the oral cavities of 32 of 60 (53.3%) children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 3 of 25 (12.0%) HIV-uninfected controls; the association of L. mirabilis isolation with HIV infection is significant (P < 0.001). All children in the study, both HIV-infected children and controls, were born to HIV-infected mothers. The presence of this bacterium was not associated with clinical disease in these children. The HIV-infected children with L. mirabilis did not differ from the HIV-infected children without L. mirabilis in immunological status, clinical status, or systemic medications. The role of HIV infection itself or concomitant factors in the establishment of L. mirabilis in the oral cavity remains to be elucidated. PMID:9620414

  6. Proteus Syndrome: Report of a Case with Developmental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Nursen; Sarman, Hakan; Bayramgurler, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema in a patient with Proteus syndrome. We defined the presence of developmental glaucoma, right pseudopapilledema and myopia in a 4.5-year-old patient with Proteus syndrome. Marked right hemihypertrophy, lipoma, macrodactyly, and asymmetry of the limbs were observed on systemic examination. A cavernoma was also detected in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The patient underwent bilateral goniotomy surgery due to glaucoma. The surgical outcomes were satisfactory in both eyes. In conclusions developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema might be associated with Proteus syndrome. PMID:24882963

  7. Proteus syndrome: report of a case with developmental glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sarman, Zuleyha Sik; Yuksel, Nursen; Sarman, Hakan; Bayramgurler, Dilek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to report developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema in a patient with Proteus syndrome. We defined the presence of developmental glaucoma, right pseudopapilledema and myopia in a 4.5-year-old patient with Proteus syndrome. Marked right hemihypertrophy, lipoma, macrodactyly, and asymmetry of the limbs were observed on systemic examination. A cavernoma was also detected in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The patient underwent bilateral goniotomy surgery due to glaucoma. The surgical outcomes were satisfactory in both eyes. In conclusions developmental glaucoma and pseudopapilledema might be associated with Proteus syndrome. PMID:24882963

  8. Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.

  9. P blood group phenotype, proteus antibody titres, and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Deighton, C M; Gray, J; Roberts, D F; Bint, A J; Walker, D J

    1992-01-01

    The interrelationships between P blood group phenotype, proteus antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were investigated in 140 patients with RA and 114 of their siblings who did not have RA. In the group with RA P2 subjects had significantly higher titres of proteus antibodies than P1 patients. This was not observed in the group without RA, or for antibodies to Escherichia coli. Although C reactive protein was the best predictor of proteus antibodies in the group with RA, the P blood group had an independent and significant influence. These observations suggest a testable model in which asymptomatic carriage of proteus in the urinary tract may lead to antibody production, which in turn may be important in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:1466601

  10. Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, S.; Waigh, T.; Lu, J.

    2008-04-01

    The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

  11. The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

  12. Spira Mirabilis: a shaped piezoelectric sensor for impact localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, L.; Testoni, N.; Marzani, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel piezoelectric sensor for guided waves detection on laminate composite and metallic structures is presented. The sensor is composed by two electrodes (E1 and E2) on the top surface of the device, plus a common electrode (EC) on the bottom surface, which is bonded to the structure to be inspected. E1 has a circular shape, whereas E2 is shaped as a segment of a logarithmic spiral (or spira mirabilis). Because of this asymmetric shaping, the wavefront of a generic acoustic event (e.g. the one generated by an impact) hits the electrodes in two points whose distance D varies with the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the wave itself. With a dedicated processing procedure, the information about the distance D first, and then about the DoA can be retrieved from the waveforms acquired and digitized at the two electrodes E1 and E2. In particular, the procedure computes the cross-correlation of the dispersion compensated signals, and extracts the distance D by looking at the position of the maximum of the cross-correlation envelope. Here, a first experimental test is performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed technology.

  13. Proteus - An experimenter's view. [of spacecraft carrying exchangable Explorer scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific experiments package to be carried by the Proteus system takes the form of an Instrument Load carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle, and there mated to a Proteus spacecraft with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System. The Proteus system extends to ground support equipment, development tools, and communications, as well as the orbiting satellites. It is expected that Proteus will be able to triple the number of Explorer missions while staying within the current budgetary allocation for such missions. The Proteus spacecraft encompasses a system interface assembly plug, a data handling module, remote interface units, and a power distribution module.

  14. Wave Features of the Neptune's Satellites: Triton, Proteus, Nereid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2014-07-01

    Fastly orbiting Triton shows Mars-like tectonic dichotomy and very fine granulation 18 km across. Observed Proteus' granules are due to wave modulation. Nereid's fr.is close to that of Earth, thus their relatively sized granules are quite similar.

  15. [Competence of Cd Phytoremediation in Cd-OCDF Co-contaminated Soil Using Mirabilis jalapa L].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-li; Zou, Wei; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2015-08-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants tends to be severe. Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) in Cd-OCDF Co-contaminated Soil by Mirabilis jalapa L., using OCDF and Cd as the model pollutants of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals, to study. the growth responses of plant and OCDF effects on phytoremediation of Cd. The results showed that during three months of planting the height and dry biomass of Mirabilis jalapa L. decreased slightly when the Cd concentration was not higher than 200 mg x kg(-1), and the plant exhibited high tolerance to Cd and OCDF. Compared with the Cd single pollution, OCDF had no significant effect on the height and root biomass of Mirabilis jalapa L. When the concentration of Cd was 200 mg x kg(-1) and the concentration of OCDF was 500 microg x kg(-1), the shoot biomass was reduced by 22.19%. In other treatments, OCDF showed no significant inhibition to the shoot biomass of Mirabilis jalapa L., but increased the shoot biomass in some treatments. Compared with single Cd pollution, when the concentration of Cd was 200 mg x kg(-1) and the concentration of OCDF was 100 microg x kg(-1), the Cd accumulation of root was reduced by 34.44%. When the concentration of Cd was 400 mg x kg(-1) and the concentration of OCDF was 100 microg x kg(-1), the Cd accumulation in root and leaf was reduced by 7.93% and 18.09%, respectively. In other treatments, OCDF promoted the extraction and accumulation of Cd by root, stem and leaf of Mirabilis jalapa L. from soil to some degree. So using Mirabilis jalapa L. to remediate Cd from high Cd concentration and OCDF cocontaminated soil is feasible. PMID:26592039

  16. Abolition of Swarming of Proteus by p-Nitrophenyl Glycerin: Application to Blood Agar Media

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Fred D.

    1973-01-01

    Comparative plate counts were made of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes growing on blood agar supplemented with individual chemicals to abolish the swarming of Proteus. B-phenylethanol, sodium azide, and p-nitrophenyl glycerin (PNPG) were used as anti-swarm agents. Each anti-swarm agent effectively abolished swarming for 24 h, but azide failed to control swarming for longer periods of incubation. In addition, azide displayed growth inhibition towards the staphylococci and streptococci resulting in no hemolysis and reduced viable cell numbers with the streptococci. Phenylethanol showed reduced viable cell numbers with the streptococci and unreliable hemolytic reactions. At 0.1 to 0.3 mM, PNPG proved to be a superior anti-swarm agent in that it showed no growth inhibition and allowed normal hemolysis, but abolished swarming for extended periods of time. When laboratory strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio cholerae were screened on a blood agar medium containing 0.1 mm PNPG, they displayed similar growth and hemolytic characteristics to the identical medium without PNPG. PMID:4715553

  17. Structural studies on the fucosamine-containing O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O19.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, E V; Kaca, W; Knirel, Y A; Rózalski, A; Kochetkov, N K

    1989-03-01

    The polysaccharide chain of Proteus vulgaris O19 lipopolysaccharide contains D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-L-fucosamine in the ratio 1:1:1:1. The structure of the polysaccharide was established by full acid hydrolysis and methylation analysis, as well as by non-destructive methods, i.e. the computer-assisted evaluation of the 13C-NMR spectrum and computer-assisted evaluation of the specific optical rotation by Klyne's rule. The polysaccharide is regular and built up of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: ----3)-alpha-L-FucNAcp-(1----3)-beta-D-GlcNAcp-(1----3)-alph a-D-Galp- (1----4)-alpha-D-GalNAcp-(1---- The O19-antiserum cross-reacts with lipopolysaccharide from P. vulgaris O42, the structure of which is still unknown. No cross-reactions were observed with O-polysaccharides Pseudomonas aeruginosa O7 and Salmonella arizonae O59 in spite of some structural similarities. PMID:2651127

  18. Genome sequencing and annotation of Proteus sp. SAS71.

    PubMed

    Selim, Samy; Hassan, Sherif; Hagagy, Nashwa

    2015-12-01

    We report draft genome sequence of Proteus sp. strain SAS71, isolated from water spring in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome size is 3,037,704bp with a G+C content of 39.3% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA). The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDIU00000000. PMID:26697338

  19. Genes associated with opening and senescence of the ephemeral flowers of Mirabilis jalapa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modest ethylene climacteric accompanies flower senescence in Mirabilis jalapa L., and exogenous ethylene accelerates the process. However, inhibitors of ethylene action and synthesis have little effect on the life-span of these ephemeral flowers. Treatment with a-amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-depe...

  20. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

  1. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-04-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

  2. Mechanics and control of the cytoskeleton in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M

    1989-01-01

    Many models of the cytoskeletal motility of Amoeba proteus can be formulated in terms of the theory of reactive interpenetrating flow (Dembo and Harlow, 1986). We have devised numerical methodology for testing such models against the phenomenon of steady axisymmetric fountain flow. The simplest workable scheme revealed by such tests (the minimal model) is the main preoccupation of this study. All parameters of the minimal model are determined from available data. Using these parameters the model quantitatively accounts for the self assembly of the cytoskeleton of A. proteus: for the formation and detailed morphology of the endoplasmic channel, the ectoplasmic tube, the uropod, the plasma gel sheet, and the hyaline cap. The model accounts for the kinematics of the cytoskeleton: the detailed velocity field of the forward flow of the endoplasm, the contraction of the ectoplasmic tube, and the inversion of the flow in the fountain zone. The model also gives a satisfactory account of measurements of pressure gradients, measurements of heat dissipation, and measurements of the output of useful work by amoeba. Finally, the model suggests a very promising (but still hypothetical) continuum formulation of the free boundary problem of amoeboid motion. by balancing normal forces on the plasma membrane as closely as possible, the minimal model is able to predict the turgor pressure and surface tension of A. proteus. Several dynamical factors are crucial to the success of the minimal model and are likely to be general features of cytoskeletal mechanics and control in amoeboid cells. These are: a constitutive law for the viscosity of the contractile network that includes an automatic process of gelation as the network density gets large; a very vigorous cycle of network polymerization and depolymerization (in the case of A. proteus, the time constant for this reaction is approximately 12 s); control of network contractility by a diffusible factor (probably calcium ion); and control of the adhesive interaction between the cytoskeleton and the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:2765645

  3. Functional characterization of blue-light-induced responses and PHOTOTROPIN 1 gene in Welwitschia mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Ishishita, Kazuhiro; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yuki; Higa, Takeshi; Doi, Michio; Wada, Masamitsu; Matsushita, Tomonao; Gotoh, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The blue light (BL) receptor phototropin (phot) is specifically found in green plants; it regulates various BL-induced responses such as phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, and leaf flattening. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two phototropins-phot1 and phot2-respond to blue light in overlapping but distinct ways. These BL-receptor-mediated responses enhance the photosynthetic activity of plants under weak light and minimize photodamage under strong light conditions. Welwitschia mirabilis Hook.f. found in the Namib Desert, and it has adapted to severe environmental stresses such as limiting water and strong sunlight. Although the plant has physiologically and ecologically unique features, it is unknown whether phototropin is functional in this plant. In this study, we assessed the functioning of phot-mediated BL responses in W. mirabilis. BL-dependent phototropism and stomatal opening was observed but light-dependent chloroplast movement was not detected. We performed a functional analysis of the PHOT1 gene of W. mirabilis, WmPHOT1, in Arabidopsis thaliana. We generated transgenic A. thaliana lines expressing WmPHOT1 in a phot1 phot2 double mutant background. Several Wmphot1 transgenic plants showed normal growth, although phot1 phot2 double mutant plants showed stunted growth. Furthermore, Wmphot1 transgenic plants showed normal phot1-mediated responses including phototropism, chloroplast accumulation, stomatal opening, and leaf flattening, but lacked the chloroplast avoidance response that is specifically mediated by phot2. Thus, our findings indicate that W. mirabilis possesses typical phot-mediated BL responses that were at least partially mediated by functional phototropin 1, an ortholog of Atphot1. PMID:26858202

  4. The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  5. Using stable isotopes to understand survival strategies of the living fossil, Welwitschia mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Namib Desert along the southwestern coast of Africa is hyper-arid in terms of rainfall (<25 mm/yr), but experiences coastal fog deposition up to 100 days each year. The Namib is also home to the biologically anomalous, very long-lived and evolutionarily ancient gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. Due to its perennial broad green leaves that apparently demand around 1 L of water per day, some have suggested that this living fossil survives on fog deposition. We have investigated this hypothesis using stable isotopes of water (?18O, ?2H) and found that W. mirabilis shows no evidence of fog uptake. Rather, its stem water looks much like that of large trees that tap into an alluvial aquifer, and nothing like the stem water of shrubs that are endemic to the fog zone and have been shown elsewhere to take up and translocate fog water. We also investigated some biogeochemical aspects of W. mirabilis through ?13C, ?15N and ?34S analysis of stem organic matter. These data revealed a large amount of variability in ?13C and ?15N among plants growing in close proximity to one another, indicating the possibility of micro-environmental control on the C and N cycles. The ?34S data provided a necessary additional constraint on the water isotope investigation.

  6. Imipenem- and meropenem-resistant mutants of Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus rettgeri lack porins.

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, A; Traverso, A; Nikaido, H

    1991-01-01

    Carbapenems such as imipenem and meropenem are not rapidly hydrolyzed by commonly occurring beta-lactamases. Nevertheless, it was possible, by mutagenesis and selection, to isolate mutant strains of Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus rettgeri that are highly resistant to meropenem and imipenem. Two alterations were noted in the E. cloacae mutants. First, the mutant strains appeared to be strongly derepressed in the production of beta-lactamases, which reached a very high level when the strains were grown in the presence of imipenem. Second, these mutants were deficient in the production of nonspecific porins, as judged by the pattern of outer membrane proteins as well as by reconstitution assays of permeability. As with most porin-deficient mutants, their cultures were unstable, and their cultivation in the absence of carbapenems rapidly led to an overgrowth of porin-producing revertants. Analysis of the data suggests that the synergism between the lowered outer membrane permeability and the slow but significant hydrolysis of carbapenems by the overproduced enzymes can explain the resistance phenotypes quantitatively, although the possibility of alteration of the target cannot be excluded at present. With P. rettgeri mutants, there was no indication of further derepression of beta-lactamase, but the enzyme hydrolyzed imipenem much more efficiently than the E. cloacae enzyme did. In addition, the major porin was absent in one mutant strain. These results suggest that a major factor for the carbapenem resistance of these enteric bacteria is the porin deficiency, and this conclusion forms a contrast to the situation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which the most prevalent class of imipenem-resistant mutants appears to lack the specific channel protein D2 yet retains the major nonspecific porin F. Images PMID:1656855

  7. Proteus syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of a series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cresio; Acosta, Angelina X.; Toralles, Maria Betnia P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes the clinical diagnosis of Proteus syndrome (PS) in children referred for evaluation of asymmetric disproportionate overgrowth. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted from January 1998 to December 2010. Results: During the study period, 2011 new patients were evaluated. Thirteen (0.65%) patients presented features suggestive of PS. These patients were formally evaluated based on the revised diagnostic criteria proposed by Biesecker. The mean age was 6.92 5.1 years. Ten patients (76.9%) were females. All subjects had asymmetric disproportionate overgrowth. Other dysmorphic features were as follows: macrodactily (84.6%); linear epidermal nevus (41.6%); hemangioma (30.7%); and lipoma (23%). Six patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PS. Conclusions: The diagnostic rate of only 46.1% of patients with PS confirms the diagnostic difficulties and the need for continuous monitoring and periodic review of these patients since the clinical manifestations of this syndrome become more evident with aging. Molecular tests may help the differential diagnosis of Proteus syndrome when they became commercially available. PMID:24381883

  8. Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.

  9. Prototyping parallel and distributed programs in PROTEUS. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, P.H.; Nyland, L.S.; Prins, J.F.; Reif, J.H.; Wagner, R.A.

    1990-10-01

    Prototyping is an important technique in software development for early exploration and validation of requirements. When prototyping concurrent behavior, the authors must be able to embrace a wide spectrum of models used to construct parallel programs, reflecting a variety of underlying system architectures. In this paper we present Proteus, a language, suitable for prototyping parallel and distributed programs. Proteus starts with the high-level set-theoretic notations of SETL and REFINE. They then extend this base with the barrier-merge parallel construct, which partitions the variables used for communication in its shared memory model into shared and private sets. Each parallel process receives an independent copy of the private variables. These private copies are independently updated, and may be merged into the global state at specifiable barrier synchronization points: at these points a portion of the merged state may be reflected back into each private state. They envision a layered language structure to express the various programming models, such as communicating sequential processes and data-level parallelism, in terms of this common foundation. A common foundation also facilitates the prototyping of heterogeneous systems whose concurrent parts are programmed following different models.

  10. Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods.

    PubMed Central

    Drasar, F A; Farrell, W; Maskell, J; Williams, J D

    1976-01-01

    Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin. PMID:1000196

  11. PROTEUS. Fortran Program to Solve 2-D Continuum Equations for Chemically Reacting Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, E.; Evans, G.H.; Winters, W.S.; Moen, C.D.; Ting, A.; Grcar, J.F.; Vitello, P.A.; Stewart, R.; Bukowski, J.D.; Graves, D.B.; Berry, L.; Tolliver, J.S.; Jaeger, E.F.

    1997-02-01

    PROTEUS is a FORTRAN program that solves 2-d continuum equations for chemically reacting plasma flow including electron, ion, and neutral transport, plasma generation, and plasma-surface kinetics, for modeling inductively coupled plasma reactors. PROTEUS consists of three primary modules: a charged species transport module, a neutral species transport module, and an electromagnetic field solver module. these modules are referred to as INDUCT, CURRENT, and ORMAX, respectively. The modules are all written in FORTRAN and have been designed for and tested on UNIX workstations. PROTEUS also includes interfaces to CHEMKIN III and SURFACE CHEMKIN III for general descriptions of plasma and surface kinetics.

  12. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  13. Clinical differentiation between Proteus syndrome and hemihyperplasia: description of a distinct form of hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Biesecker, L G; Peters, K F; Darling, T N; Choyke, P; Hill, S; Schimke, N; Cunningham, M; Meltzer, P; Cohen, M M

    1998-10-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare and highly variable hamartomatous syndrome that can affect multiple organ systems. It is characterized by hyperplastic lesions of connective tissue, vascular malformations, linear verrucous epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. The cause of the disorder is unknown, but the current working hypothesis is that it is caused by a mosaic alteration that leads to a highly variable phenotype, equal sex ratio, sporadic occurrence, and discordant monozygotic twins. Herein we describe our experience with 18 patients with a referring diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. It was found that imaging studies are very useful for the characterization of the syndrome. One finding was that splenic hyperplasia can be a manifestation of Proteus syndrome. Analysis of the clinical data shows that Proteus syndrome is frequently confused with "hemihyperplasia." A distinct subtype of hemihyperplasia is defined that includes static or mildly progressive hemihyperplasia and multiple lipomata. PMID:9781913

  14. Unilateral hypertrophic skin lesions, hemimegalencephaly, and meningioma: The many faces of Proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Niharika R.; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Sarkar, Asim K.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare condition with a wide spectrum of abnormalities. It is characterized by hamartomatous malformations involving multiple organs. Serious complications may ensue, such as pulmonary embolism, cystic lung disease, and various neoplasms such as parotid adenomas, ovarian cystadenomas, and meningiomas. We report here a case of Proteus syndrome in a 21-year-old woman who had facial hemihypertrophy, cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, hemimegalencephaly, and meningioma for the rarity of the entity. PMID:26500869

  15. Unilateral hypertrophic skin lesions, hemimegalencephaly, and meningioma: The many faces of Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lal, Niharika R; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Sarkar, Asim K

    2015-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare condition with a wide spectrum of abnormalities. It is characterized by hamartomatous malformations involving multiple organs. Serious complications may ensue, such as pulmonary embolism, cystic lung disease, and various neoplasms such as parotid adenomas, ovarian cystadenomas, and meningiomas. We report here a case of Proteus syndrome in a 21-year-old woman who had facial hemihypertrophy, cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, hemimegalencephaly, and meningioma for the rarity of the entity. PMID:26500869

  16. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  17. Progressive Overgrowth of the Cerebriform Connective Tissue Nevus in Patients with Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beachkofsky, Thomas M.; Sapp, Julie C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Darling, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteus syndrome is a rare overgrowth disorder that almost always affects the skin. Objective Our purpose was to evaluate progression of skin lesions in patients with Proteus syndrome. Methods Skin findings were documented in 36 patients with Proteus syndrome. Progression of skin lesions in 16 of these patients was assessed by comparing photographs obtained on repeat visits for an average total duration of 53 months. Results The skin lesion most characteristic of Proteus syndrome, the cerebriform connective tissue nevus showed progression in 13 children but not in 3 adults. The cerebriform connective tissue nevus progressed by expansion into previously uninvolved skin, increased thickness, and development of new lesions. Lipomas increased in size and/or number in 8/10 children with lipomas. In contrast, epidermal nevi and vascular malformations generally did not spread or increase in number. Limitations Only 3 adults with Proteus syndrome were evaluated longitudinally. Conclusion The cerebriform connective tissue nevus in Proteus syndrome grows throughout childhood but tends to remain stable in adulthood. PMID:20709429

  18. A severe and rapidly progressive case of proteus syndrome in a neonate who presented with unilateral hydrocephalus apart from other typical features of the proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhagat, Puja

    2012-07-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartomatous disorder affecting multiple tissues and manifesting itself in a variety of ways. The understanding of the complete spectrum of clinical features, the natural clinical course of the disease and the proper management of such a rare but highly variable syndrome depend heavily on experiences gathered by previously reported cases. We present an unusually severely affected and rapidly progressive case of proteus syndrome in a neonate who presented with craniofacial hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous masses, capillary hemangioma, varicose veins, epidermal nevi and macrodactyly. The cranial ultrasonogram revealed unilateral hydrocephalus with partial obstruction of the foramen of monro. PMID:24027714

  19. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greatermore » than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  20. Thoracolumbar Scoliosis in a Patient With Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Proteus syndrome (PS) is a complex and rare congenital hamartomatous condition with a wide range of malformations. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study presents a case of scoliosis occurring in the setting of PS and explores the possible mechanisms between the 2 diseases. The patient is a 17-year-old Chinese female with scoliosis and hemihypertrophy of the right upper and lower extremity as well as exostosis of the right lower leg joint including the hip, knee, ankle, and toes. These manifestations were suggestive of PS. She underwent a posterior correction at thoracic 2-lumbar 4 (T5L4) levels, using the Moss-SI spinal system. At 3-month follow-ups, the patient was clinically pain free and well balanced. Plain radiographs showed solid spine fusion with no loss of deformity correction. The severity of scoliosis in PS is progressively aggravated and the correction of the extensive spinal deformities is generally difficult. Therefore, early diagnosis is required for adequate interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25654373

  1. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  2. Proteus: a reconfigurable computational network for computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralick, Robert M.; Somani, Arun K.; Wittenbrink, Craig M.; Johnson, Robert; Cooper, Kenneth; Shapiro, Linda G.; Phillips, Ihsin T.; Hwang, Jenq N.; Cheung, William; Yao, Yung H.; Chen, Chung-Ho; Yang, Larry; Daugherty, Brian; Lorbeski, Bob; Loving, Kent; Miller, Tom; Parkins, Larye; Soos, Steven L.

    1992-04-01

    The Proteus architecture is a highly parallel MIMD, multiple instruction, multiple-data machine, optimized for large granularity tasks such as machine vision and image processing The system can achieve 20 Giga-flops (80 Giga-flops peak). It accepts data via multiple serial links at a rate of up to 640 megabytes/second. The system employs a hierarchical reconfigurable interconnection network with the highest level being a circuit switched Enhanced Hypercube serial interconnection network for internal data transfers. The system is designed to use 256 to 1,024 RISC processors. The processors use one megabyte external Read/Write Allocating Caches for reduced multiprocessor contention. The system detects, locates, and replaces faulty subsystems using redundant hardware to facilitate fault tolerance. The parallelism is directly controllable through an advanced software system for partitioning, scheduling, and development. System software includes a translator for the INSIGHT language, a parallel debugger, low and high level simulators, and a message passing system for all control needs. Image processing application software includes a variety of point operators neighborhood, operators, convolution, and the mathematical morphology operations of binary and gray scale dilation, erosion, opening, and closing.

  3. Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae.

    PubMed

    Mrsdorf, G; Kaltwasser, H

    1989-01-01

    No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae, however, no GS activity was detected, and GOGAT activity was only present in S. ureae. GDH enzymes were present in these two organisms, but showed only low affinity for ammonium, with apparent Km-values of 55.2 mM in B. pasteurii and 36.7 mM in S. ureae, respectively. These observations explain why P. vulgaris is able to grow at neutral pH and low ammonium concentration (2 mM), while B. pasteurii and S. ureae require high ammonium concentration (40 mM) and alkaline pH for growth. PMID:2570557

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... associated Infections (HAIs) Share Compartir Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings On this Page What is a Pseudomonas ... Pseudomonas can be spread on the hands of healthcare workers or by equipment that gets contaminated and ...

  5. Aetas Mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    1999-04-01

    I recently had occasion to read again Galileo's Dialogue on Two New Sciences. Although it's hard to read Newton's Principia with its geometrical proofs, it's a delight to follow the banter and brilliant reasoning of the Dialogues. What a marvelous time to have been a scientist! Only three hundred and sixty-five years ago our whole world view was being overthrown by a few men, armed with their brains and some new optical devices.

  6. Functional gene losses occur with minimal size reduction in the plastid genome of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Zhang, Yan; Hansen, S Kellon; Roper, Jessie M; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Plock, Sheila A; Wolf, Paul G; DePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Goffinet, Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Aneura mirabilis is a parasitic liverwort that exploits an existing mycorrhizal association between a basidiomycete and a host tree. This unusual liverwort is the only known parasitic seedless land plant with a completely nonphotosynthetic life history. The complete plastid genome of A. mirabilis was sequenced to examine the effect of its nonphotosynthetic life history on plastid genome content. Using a partial genomic fosmid library approach, the genome was sequenced and shown to be 108,007 bp with a structure typical of green plant plastids. Comparisons were made with the plastid genome of Marchantia polymorpha, the only other liverwort plastid sequence available. All ndh genes are either absent or pseudogenes. Five of 15 psb genes are pseudogenes, as are 2 of 6 psa genes and 2 of 6 pet genes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cysT, ccsA, and ycf3 were also detected. The remaining complement of genes present in M. polymorpha is present in the plastid of A. mirabilis with intact open reading frames. All pseudogenes and gene losses co-occur with losses detected in the plastid of the parasitic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana, though the latter has functional gene losses not found in A. mirabilis. The plastid genome sequence of A. mirabilis represents only the second liverwort, and first mycoheterotroph, to have its plastid genome sequenced. We observed a pattern of genome evolution congruent with functional gene losses in parasitic angiosperms but suggest that its plastid genome represents a genome in the early stages of decay following the relaxation of selection pressures. PMID:18056074

  7. Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

  8. Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

  9. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  10. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  11. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  12. Proteomic analysis of cardiac response to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal goby fish Gillichthys mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Tomanek, Lars; Dowd, W Wesley; Somero, George N

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac function is thought to play a central role in determining thermal optima and tolerance limits in teleost fishes. Investigating proteomic responses to temperature in cardiac tissues may provide insights into mechanisms supporting the thermal plasticity of cardiac function. Here, we utilized a global proteomic analysis to investigate changes in cardiac protein abundance in response to temperature acclimation (transfer from 13°C to 9, 19 and 26°C) in a eurythermal goby, Gillichthys mirabilis. Proteomic data revealed 122 differentially expressed proteins across acclimation groups, 37 of which were identified using tandem mass-spectrometry. These 37 proteins are involved in energy metabolism, mitochondrial regulation, iron homeostasis, cytoprotection against hypoxia, and cytoskeletal organization. Compared with the 9 and 26°C groups, proteins involved in energy metabolism increased in 19°C-acclimated fish, indicating an overall increase in the capacity for ATP production. Creatine kinase abundance increased in 9°C-acclimated fish, suggesting an important role for the phosphocreatine energy shuttle in cold-acclimated hearts. Both 9 and 26°C fish also increased abundance of hexosaminidase, a protein directly involved in post-hypoxia stress cytoprotection of cardiac tissues. Cytoskeletal restructuring appears to occur in all acclimation groups; however, the most prominent effect was detected in 26°C-acclimated fish, which exhibited significantly increased actin levels. Overall, proteomic analysis of cardiac tissue suggests that the capacity to adjust ATP-generating processes is crucial to the thermal plasticity of cardiac function. Furthermore, G. mirabilis may optimize cellular functions at temperatures near 19°C, which lies within the species' preferred temperature range. PMID:25954043

  13. Macrodactyly with skin hypertrophy: a minimal form of the Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Fiss, Roberto Coswig; Happle, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The Proteus syndrome was described 1983 . It has asymmetric gigantism of the limbs, verrucous epidermal naevi, cerebriform enlargement of the plantar region, vascular malformations and neoplasms, as lipomas. It received this denomination after Proteus from the Greek mythology, who had the ability to change his form . A 15 year-old boy, reported a congenital hypertrophy with syndactily of the second and third right fingers . The second case is a 35 year-old man, who reported that since birth the second right toe was bigger than the other toes, skin hypertrophy was also observed. These cases document a localized form if the Proteus syndrome, which may widen the spectrum of its variability. PMID:21738976

  14. Radiographic manifestations of the temporomandibular joint in a case of Proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, E; Kansu, ; zgen, B; Akiek, G; Kansu, H

    2013-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder with progressive asymmetrical and disproportionate overgrowth of various tissues of the body. The syndrome is characterized by a wide range of malformations, including craniofacial deformities. Extraoral examination revealed several of the classical craniofacial features of Proteus syndrome: pronounced hemifacial hypertrophy, macrodactyly and hyperostosis. Intraoral examination revealed a high arched palate and gingival hyperplasia. Other findings were unilateral enlargement of the tongue, alveolar growth and dilaceration of the roots of the teeth. There were severe degenerative changes and deformities in the left temporomandibular joint but the oversized condyle was asymptomatic; there was no pain, limitation and deviation at mouth opening. Treatment was not necessary owing to the asymptomatic situation but periodic follow-up with clinical and radiographic examination was considered. The aim of this article is to describe the radiographic manifestations of an asymptomatic condyle malformation and other craniofacial, oral and dental findings in a 33-year-old female patient with known Proteus syndrome. PMID:22241876

  15. Radiographic manifestations of the temporomandibular joint in a case of Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, E; Kansu, O; Ozgen, B; Akiek, G; Kansu, H

    2013-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder with progressive asymmetrical and disproportionate overgrowth of various tissues of the body. The syndrome is characterized by a wide range of malformations, including craniofacial deformities. Extraoral examination revealed several of the classical craniofacial features of Proteus syndrome: pronounced hemifacial hypertrophy, macrodactyly and hyperostosis. Intraoral examination revealed a high arched palate and gingival hyperplasia. Other findings were unilateral enlargement of the tongue, alveolar growth and dilaceration of the roots of the teeth. There were severe degenerative changes and deformities in the left temporomandibular joint but the oversized condyle was asymptomatic; there was no pain, limitation and deviation at mouth opening. Treatment was not necessary owing to the asymptomatic situation but periodic follow-up with clinical and radiographic examination was considered. The aim of this article is to describe the radiographic manifestations of an asymptomatic condyle malformation and other craniofacial, oral and dental findings in a 33-year-old female patient with known Proteus syndrome. PMID:22241876

  16. Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Yourick, Miranda R; Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2015-01-01

    A somatic activating mutation in AKT1, c.49G>A, pGlu17Lys, that results in elevated AKT signaling in mutation-positive cells, is responsible for the mosaic overgrowth condition, Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 is an allosteric pan-AKT inhibitor under development for treatment in cancer. We tested the efficacy of this drug for suppressing AKT signaling in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 reduced phosphorylation of AKT and downstream targets of AKT in a concentration-dependent manner in as little as two hours. While AKT signaling was suppressed with ARQ 092 treatment, cells retained their ability to respond to growth factor stimulation by increasing pAKT levels proportionally to untreated cells. At concentrations sufficient to decrease AKT signaling, little reduction in cell viability was seen. These results indicate that ARQ 092 can suppress AKT signaling and warrants further development as a therapeutic option for patients with Proteus syndrome. PMID:26657992

  17. Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Yourick, Miranda R.; Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    A somatic activating mutation in AKT1, c.49G>A, pGlu17Lys, that results in elevated AKT signaling in mutation-positive cells, is responsible for the mosaic overgrowth condition, Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 is an allosteric pan-AKT inhibitor under development for treatment in cancer. We tested the efficacy of this drug for suppressing AKT signaling in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 reduced phosphorylation of AKT and downstream targets of AKT in a concentration-dependent manner in as little as two hours. While AKT signaling was suppressed with ARQ 092 treatment, cells retained their ability to respond to growth factor stimulation by increasing pAKT levels proportionally to untreated cells. At concentrations sufficient to decrease AKT signaling, little reduction in cell viability was seen. These results indicate that ARQ 092 can suppress AKT signaling and warrants further development as a therapeutic option for patients with Proteus syndrome. PMID:26657992

  18. Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer. PMID:24390313

  19. Scaled Composites' Proteus and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are seen h

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  20. A minimal form of Proteus syndrome presenting with macrodactyly and hand hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Federica; Feliciani, Claudio; Toto, Paola; De Benedetto, Anna; Tulli, Antonello

    2003-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. Many atypical cases have been reported and this is probably due to the mosaicism of the genetic disorder displaying different clinical features. We describe a patient with an extremely mild form of Proteus syndrome presenting macrodactyly and hyperplasia of one hand which was misdiagnosed until the age of 33 years. PMID:12695139

  1. Non-operative management of a splenic laceration in a patient with the Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ceelen, W; De Waele, J; Kunnen, M; de Hemptinne, B

    1997-01-01

    An adult patient with the Proteus syndrome sustained a grade III splenic laceration after falling off a horse. Clinical features of this rare disorder include subcutaneous and visceral hamartomatous tumours. The patient also suffered from chronic intravascular coagulation associated with extensive haemangiomatosis (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome). Considering the visceral anomalies and abnormal coagulation, a non-operative approach was preferred despite considerable transfusion requirement, and the patient successfully underwent embolisation of the splenic artery. This is the first reported case of splenic injury in a patient with Proteus syndrome. Images p111-a Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132186

  2. Proteus syndrome: high-resolution CT and CT pulmonary densitovolumetry findings.

    PubMed

    Irion, Klaus L; Hocchegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson; Holemans, John A; Smith, Rupert A; Raja, Ramesh C; Singanayagam, Selvadurai

    2009-02-01

    Cystic transformation of the lungs in Proteus syndrome is considered an important manifestation of this disease. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Proteus syndrome with lung involvement. Low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) revealed extensive diffuse cystic lung disease with left lung predominance, affecting mostly the lower lung zones. The cystic lesions had various sizes and variable wall thickness. Postprocessing using CT histogram densitometric volumetry software (CT densitovolumetry), using the threshold -950 Houndsfield units (HU) for quantifying emphysema, revealed that 31% of her total lung volume was composed of areas with CT attenuation values below -950 HU. PMID:19242304

  3. Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the PROTEUS reactor

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Schmocker, U.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive program of reactor physics experiments in GCFR fuel pin lattices has been completed recently at the PROTEUS critical facility located at EIR laboratory in Switzerland. The PROTEUS reactor consists of a central test zone surrounded by a uranium buffer and thermal driver region. The test lattices included a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fuel region with internal and axial blankets of UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and thorium metal. Detailed analysis of the thorium-bearing lattices has been performed at EIR and at ORNL in order to validate nuclear data and methods used for reactor physics analysis of advanced GCFR designs.

  4. PROTEUS investigations for advanced thermal, fast, and intermediate-spectrum reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.; Seiler, R.; Mathews, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The zero-power reactor, PROTEUS, has been used over the years for physics investigations concerning various types of advanced systems, namely gas-cooled fast reactors (GCFRs) in the seventies, light water high-conversion reactors (LWHCR) in the eighties and, currently, low-enriched-uranium high-temperature reactors (LEU-HTRs). The wide range of test neutron spectra cover underlines the versatility of the facility, the safety and operational limits for which have largely remained unaltered during the different experimental programs. This paper reviews the scope of the various PROTEUS investigations and includes evaluations of some of the most recent experiments.

  5. A Paratesticular Serous Borderline Tumor in a Pediatric Patient With Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; Fox, Patrick J; McLees, Lauren; Zheng, Mei; Sharma, Suash; Donohoe, Jeffrey M; Neal, Durwood E

    2015-12-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder of asymmetric overgrowth of various tissues of the body and is associated with specific tumors appearing before the second decade. Although there have been reports of lesions of the genitourinary tract associated with Proteus syndrome, a case of serous borderline tumor of the paratestis has not been previously recorded. We report the first such case in a 20-month-old child who presented with a left-sided testicular mass that was found on histology to be a serous borderline tumor of the paratestis. Surgical management included a left inguinal radical orchiectomy and surveillance follow-up. PMID:26368507

  6. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  7. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  8. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  9. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  10. Structure of the O-polysaccharide and serological studies of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus penneri 60 classified into a new Proteus serogroup O70.

    PubMed

    Zych, Krystyna; Perepelov, Andrei; Baranowska, Agata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2005-03-01

    An alkali-treated lipopolysaccharide of Proteus penneri strain 60 was studied by chemical analyses and 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and the following structure of the linear pentasaccharide-phosphate repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: 6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-Quip4NAc-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-1-P-(O--> Rabbit polyclonal O-antiserum against P. penneri 60 reacted with both core and O-polysaccharide moieties of the homologous LPS. Based on the unique O-polysaccharide structure and serological data, we propose to classify P. penneri 60 into a new, separate Proteus serogroup O70. A weak cross-reactivity of P. penneri 60 O-antiserum with the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O8, O15 and O19 was observed and discussed in view of the chemical structures of the O-polysaccharides. PMID:15708308

  11. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  12. Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. P.; Kvíderová, J.; Tříska, J.; Elster, J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium + 5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75 μmol m−2 s−1. During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from −6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1 ± 5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300 μmol m−2 s−1 (daily average 1,500 ± 1,090 μmol m−2 s−1). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low-temperature-mass cultivation biotechnology. This strain is a perspective model organism for biotechnology in low-temperature conditions. PMID:23630521

  13. The antigens contributing to the serological cross-reactions of Proteus antisera with Klebsiella representatives.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Proteus sp. and Klebsiella sp. mainly cause infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts or wounds in humans. The representatives of both genera produce virulence factors like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or outer membrane proteins (OMPs) having much in common in the structures and/or functions. To check how far this similarity is revealed in the serological cross-reactivity, the bacterial masses of 24 tested Klebsiella sp. strains were tested in ELISA with polyclonal rabbit antisera specific to the representatives of 79 Proteus O serogroups. The strongest reacting systems were selected to Western blot, where the majority of Klebsiella masses reacted in a way characteristic for electrophoretic patterns of proteins. The strongest reactions were obtained for proteins of near 67 and 40 kDa and 12.5 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins samples of one Proteus sp. and one Klebsiella sp. strain showed the GroEL like protein of a sequence GI number 2980926 to be similar for both strains. In Western blot some Klebsiella sp. masses reacted similarly to the homologous Proteus LPSs. The LPS contribution in the observed reactions of the high molecular-mass LPS species was confirmed for Klebsiella oxytoca 0.062. PMID:25510650

  14. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. [Initial experience with prophylactic Proteus vaccine immunization in an emergency clinic].

    PubMed

    Zdanovskaia, L K; Kliukvin, I Iu; Bulava, G V; Kre?nin, L S; Levina, L A; Kaverina, K G

    1990-11-01

    As early as the first 24 hours since a severe isolated locomotor trauma the patients were immunized with Proteus vaccine. Such vaccination is shown to stimulate the production of serum specific antibodies, to reduce contamination of the wound with gram-negative agents, to shorten hospital stay and healing of the wound versus subjects vaccinated with staphylococcal anatoxin and nonimmunized patients. PMID:2283824

  20. Endometrioid Paraovarian Borderline Cystic Tumor in an Infant with Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Liliana; Tello, Mariela; Maza, Ivan; Oscanoa, Monica; Dueñas, Milagros; Castro, Haydee; Latorre, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and paraovarian neoplasms are uncommon in children, mainly originating from germ cell tumors and, least frequently, epithelial tumors. There is an association between genital tract tumors and Proteus syndrome, a rare, sporadic, and progressive entity, characterized by a postnatal overgrowth in several tissues caused by a mosaic mutation in the AKT1 gene. We describe a 20-month-old asymptomatic infant with Proteus syndrome who developed an endometrioid paraovarian borderline cystic tumor. This is the youngest patient so far reported in the literature with this rare syndrome and an adnexal tumor of borderline malignancy. A total of nine patients have been described with female tract tumors and associated Proteus syndrome, which includes bilateral ovarian cystadenomas and other benign masses. A paraovarian neoplasm is extremely rare in children and could be considered a criterion for Proteus syndrome. Standardized staging and treatment of these tumors are not well established; however, most authors conclude that these neoplasms must be treated as their ovarian counterparts. PMID:26558123

  1. Orbital resonances in the inner neptunian system. II. Resonant history of Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, and Despina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the orbital history of the small neptunian satellites discovered by Voyager 2. Over the age of the Solar System, tidal forces have caused the satellites to migrate radially, bringing them through mean-motion resonances with one another. In this paper, we extend our study of the largest satellites Proteus and Larissa [Zhang, K., Hamilton, D.P., 2007. Icarus 188, 386-399] by adding in mid-sized Galatea and Despina. We test the hypothesis that these moons all formed with zero inclinations, and that orbital resonances excited their tilts during tidal migration. We find that the current orbital inclinations of Proteus, Galatea, and Despina are consistent with resonant excitation if they have a common density 0.4Proteus, which helps constrain the tidal migration timescale and thus Neptune's tidal quality factor: 9000Proteus and Larissa, finding 36

  2. Proteus - A Free and Open Source Sensor Observation Service (SOS) Client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, J.; Satapathy, G.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's 'electronic skin' is becoming ever more sophisticated with a growing number of sensors measuring everything from seawater salinity levels to atmospheric pressure. To further the scientific application of this data collection effort, it is important to make the data easily available to anyone who wants to use it. Making Earth Science data readily available will allow the data to be used in new and potentially groundbreaking ways. The US National Science and Technology Council made this clear in its most recent National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations report, when it remarked that Earth observations 'are often found to be useful for additional purposes not foreseen during the development of the observation system'. On the road to this goal the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is defining uniform data formats and service interfaces to facilitate the discovery and access of sensor data. This is being done through the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) stack of standards, which include the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), Sensor Model Language (SensorML), Observations & Measurements (O&M) and Catalog Service for the Web (CSW). End-users do not have to use these standards directly, but can use smart tools that leverage and implement them. We have developed such a tool named Proteus. Proteus is an open-source sensor data discovery client. The goal of Proteus is to be a general-purpose client that can be used by anyone for discovering and accessing sensor data via OGC-based services. Proteus is a desktop client and supports a straightforward workflow for finding sensor data. The workflow takes the user through the process of selecting appropriate services, bounding boxes, observed properties, time periods and other search facets. NASA World Wind is used to display the matching sensor offerings on a map. Data from any sensor offering can be previewed in a time series. The user can download data from a single sensor offering, or download data in bulk from all matching sensor offerings. Proteus leverages NASA World Wind's WMS capabilities and allow overlaying sensor offerings on top of any map. Specific search criteria (i.e. user discoveries) can be saved and later restored. Proteus is supports two user types: 1) the researcher/scientist interested in discovering and downloading specific sensor data as input to research processes, and 2) the data manager responsible for maintaining sensor data services (e.g. SOSs) and wants to ensure proper data and metadata delivery, verify sensor data, and receive sensor data alerts. Proteus has a Web-based companion product named the Community Hub that is used to generate sensor data alerts. Alerts can be received via an RSS feed, viewed in a Web browser or displayed directly in Proteus via a Web-based API. To advance the vision of making Earth Science data easily discoverable and accessible to end-users, professional or laymen, Proteus is available as open-source on GitHub (https://github.com/intelligentautomation/proteus).

  3. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  8. Two new naphthalene glucosides and other bioactive compounds from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Van; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Dat, Le Duc; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jang, Hae Dong; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-01

    Two new naphthalene diglucosides named nepenthosides A (1) and B (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13), were isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1-13 were evaluated in terms of their peroxyl radical-scavenging (trolox equivalent, TE) and reducing capacities. All isolates showed peroxyl radical-scavenging and reducing activities at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μM. Anti-osteoporotic activities were investigated using murine osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity down to 91.13 ± 1.18 to 42.39 ± 1.11%, relative to the control (100%) in nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANκL)-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:25724283

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pigment echinochrome A from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P; Fedoreyev, Sergey A; Stonik, Valentin A; Han, Jin

    2014-06-01

    Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/ reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

  10. [Analysis of photosynthetic characteristics and its influencing factors of medicinal plant Mirabilis himalaica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi-Qiang; Quan, Hong; Lan, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Lian-Qiang; Li, Hui-E

    2014-07-01

    To study photosynthetic characteristics and its influencing factors in leaves of medicinal plant Mirabilis himalaica, and provide an evidence for guiding artificial planting and improving the quantity. The light-response and diurnal photosynthesis course of leaves at the booting stages of 1-3 year old M. himalaica were measured with LI-6400 system. The Results showed that the light response curves were fitted well by non rectangle hyperbola equation (R2 > or = 0.98). The values of the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and light use efficiency of three-year old M. himalaica leaves were higher than those of 1-2 year old individuals. The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of 2-3 year old M. himalaica were typical double-peak curves determinately regulated by stomatal conductance. However, transpiration rate (Tr) of 1-3 year old plants leaves were single-peak curve, which was self-protection of harm reduction caused by the higher temperature at noontime. Correlation analysis showed that the changes between photosynthetic active radiation (PFD), air temperature (T ) and Pn, were significant positive related. Therefore, M. himalaica is a typical sun plant, which should be planted under the sufficient sunshine field and prolong the growing ages suitably in order to improve the yield. PMID:25272512

  11. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapaL.radix.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Rai, Ashok Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix ( z? m l g?n). Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions) with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR) analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3) showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S.aureus and C.albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S.aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring "A" of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively. PMID:26870679

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

  13. Digestion of algin by Pseudomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    von Riesen, V L

    1980-01-01

    Pseudomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas putida were identified as alginolytic species. Two media used for demonstrating alginolytic activity are described. The applied aspects of the ability of these two species to digest algin are discussed. PMID:7356324

  14. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A ... the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

  15. Polymicrobial Ventriculitis Involving Pseudomonas fulva

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L.; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S.; Anderson, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

  16. Transcriptional responses to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper 1864).

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Somero, George N

    2010-09-01

    Thermal acclimation (acclimatization) capacity may be critical for determining how successfully an ectotherm can respond to temperature change, and adaptive shifts in gene expression may be pivotal for mediating these acclimatory responses. Using a cDNA microarray, we examined transcriptional profiles in gill tissue of a highly eurythermal goby fish, Gillichthys mirabilis, following 4 wk of acclimation to 9 degrees C, 19 degrees C, or 28 degrees C. Overall, gill transcriptomes were not strikingly different among acclimation groups. Of the 1,607 unique annotated genes on the array, only 150 of these genes (9%) were significantly different in expression among the three acclimation groups (ANOVA, false discovery rate < 0.05). Principal component analysis revealed that 59% of the variation in expression among these genes was described by an expression profile that is upregulated with increasing acclimation temperature. Gene ontology analysis of these genes identified protein biosynthesis, transport, and several metabolic categories as processes showing the greatest change in expression. Our results suggest that energetic costs of macromolecular turnover and membrane-localized transport rise with acclimation temperature. The upregulation of several classes of stress-related proteins, e.g., heat shock proteins, seen in the species' response to acute thermal stress was not observed in the long-term 28 degrees C-acclimated fish. The transcriptional differences found among the acclimation groups thus may reflect an acclimation process that has largely remedied the effects of acute thermal stress and established a new steady-state condition involving changes in relative energy costs for different processes. This pattern of transcriptional alteration in steady-state acclimated fish may be a signature of eurythermy. PMID:20610827

  17. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S.; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Rai, Ashok Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn). Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions) with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR) analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3) showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively. PMID:26870679

  18. Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  19. Operative Management of OSAS in a Complex Case of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cantone, Elena; Cavaliere, Michele; Castagna, Giovanni; Marino, Anna; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Iengo, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder in childhood with high prevalence in syndromic subjects with craniofacial malformations. Proteus Syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartoneoplastic disorder associated with disproportionate and asymmetric overgrowth of body parts and hypertrophy or malformation of lymphatic tissues, such as palatine tonsils. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with Proteus Syndrome (PS) and suffering from OSAS due to asymmetric palatine tonsillar hypertrophy, treated with partial resection of left tonsil. To avoid the risk of a general anesthesia and remove only the obstructive portion of the palatine tonsil bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT) under local anesthesia was performed. Recovery of the obstructive respiratory disease was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of partial tonsillar resection performed in a patient with PS suffering from OSAS under local anesthesia. PMID:26199778

  20. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Obesumbacterium proteus, a Common Contaminant of Brewing Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Andrew G.; Hammond, John R. M.; Stewart, Gordon S. A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the effectiveness of API 20E, Biolog testing, plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and enteric repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR to characterize, classify, and differentiate nine bacterial isolates of the common brewery contaminant Obesumbacterium proteus. Of the five typing techniques, Biolog testing, plasmid profiling, and ERIC-PCR provided the most differentiation, and API 20E testing and ribotyping were relatively indiscriminate. The molecular biology approach of ERIC-PCR offered the ideal combination of speed, simplicity, and discrimination in this study. Overall, the results are supportive of the view that O. proteus can be subdivided into two biogroups, biogroup 1, which has considerable biochemical and genetic homology to Hafnia alvei, and biogroup 2, which is relatively heterogeneous. Images PMID:16349260

  1. Empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion associated with proteus species infection: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yauba, M S; Ahmed, H; Imoudu, I A; Yusuf, M O; Makarfi, H U

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  2. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yauba, M. S.; Ahmed, H.; Imoudu, I. A.; Yusuf, M. O.; Makarfi, H. U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  3. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ?99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:26028178

  4. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds,empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  5. Proteus syndrome: a case report and a case study review in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Bao; Li, Chang-Xing; He, Yu-Qing; Zhang, San-Quan; Cai, Yan-Xia

    2010-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare and sporadic disorder characterized by overgrowth of multiple tissues and a propensity to develop particular neoplasms. The clinical manifestations of PS include macrodactyly, vertebral abnormalities, asymmetric limb overgrowth and length discrepancy, hyperostosis, abnormal and asymmetric fat distribution, asymmetric muscle development, connective tissue nevi, and vascular malformations. We report a 16-year old female patient who manifested a number of these complications and review the Chinese literature about the diagnosis, natural history, and management of PS. PMID:25386239

  6. Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results

    SciTech Connect

    Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.

    2006-07-01

    The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of the PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k{sub eff} (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)

  7. Applications of Monte Carlo methods for the analysis of MHTGR case of the PROTEUS benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-04-01

    Monte Carlo methods, as implemented in the MCNP code, have been used to analyze the neutronics characteristics of benchmarks related to Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. The benchmarks are idealized versions of the Japanes (VHTRC) and Swiss (PROTEUS) facilities and an actual configurations of the PROTEUS Configuration I experiment. The purpose of the unit cell benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, critical bucklings, migration lengths, reaction rates and spectral indices. The purpose of the full reactors benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, reaction rates, spectral indices, neutron balances, reaction rates profiles, temperature coefficients of reactivity and effective delayed neutron fractions. All of these parameters can be calculated by MCNP, which can provide a very detailed model of the geometry of the configurations, from fuel particles to entire fuel assemblies, using at the same time a continuous energy model. These characteristics make MCNP a very useful tool to analyze these MHTGR benchmarks. We have used the MCNP latest version, 4.x, eld = 01/12/93 with an ENDF/B-V cross section library. This library does not yet contain temperature dependent resonance materials, so all calculations correspond to room temperature, T = 300{degree}K. Two separate reports were made -- one for the VHTRC, the other for the PROTEUS benchmark.

  8. The Proteus Navier-Stokes code. [two and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.

    1992-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. Proteus solves the Reynolds-averaged, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. Turbulence is modeled using a Baldwin-Lomax based algebraic eddy viscosity model. In addition, options are available to solve thin layer or Euler equations, and to eliminate the energy equation by assuming constant stagnation enthalpy. An extensive series of validation cases have been run, primarily using the two dimensional planar/axisymmetric version of the code. Several flows were computed that have exact solution such as: fully developed channel and pipe flow; Couette flow with and without pressure gradients; unsteady Couette flow formation; flow near a suddenly accelerated flat plate; flow between concentric rotating cylinders; and flow near a rotating disk. The two dimensional version of the Proteus code has been released, and the three dimensional code is scheduled for release in late 1991.

  9. Sodium dependency of active chloride transport across isolated fish skin (Gillichthys mirabilis).

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W S

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of thiocyanate, ouabain, ion-substituted Ringer solution and electrochemical gradients on Na+ and Cl- transport were examined using the isolated skin of the marine teleost, Gillichthys mirabilis. 2. Bilateral replacement of Na+ with choline in the bathing solutions reduces net Cl- flux by 93%, indicating that active Cl- transport by the skin is Na-dependent. 3. Thiocyanate inhibits short-circuit current with an ED50 of 6.4 x 10(-4)M, and, at 10(-2)M, decreases Cl-efflux, influx, net flux and short-circuit current by 68, 33, 74 and 81%, respectively. 4. Ouabain (10(-5)M) reduces Cl- efflux and net flux by 56 and 86%, respectively, indicating that the Cl- transport requires Na,K-ATPase. 5. Subsequent addition of thiocyanate to ouabain-treated skin reduces Cl- efflux, net flux and short-circuit current, suggesting that the two agents operate at different sites involved in Cl- transport. 6. Unilateral substitution of gluconate for Cl- on the serosal side does not affect Cl- influx, indicating that Cl- passive transport is via Fickean diffusion, not Cl-Cl exchange diffusion. 7. The addition of NaCl to the mucosal side, which mimics the in vivo sea-water condition, increases Cl- influx and transepithelial potential and decreases tissue resistance. The net flux (secretion) of Cl- with hypertonic saline on the mucosal side (0.51 +/- 0.06 muequiv/cm2 . hr) demonstrates that the skin could secrete Cl- in vivo. 8. Na+ fluxes across the skin are passive, as the observed flux ration (efflux/influx) is similar to that predicted by the Ussing-Teorell equation under both closed- and open-circuit conditions. 9. The permeability ratio (PNa:PCl) in approximately 5.4:1.0, indicating that the skin is more permeable to Na+, and that at least part of the serosa-positive transepithelial potential may be a Na+ diffusion potential. 10. The results suggest that Cl- secretion by Gillichthys skin is secondary active transport involving Na,K-ATPase and serosal Na+. PMID:7320911

  10. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  11. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  12. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  13. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taking Off from Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely-shaped Proteus high-altitude research aircraft lifts off from the runway at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  14. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  15. Hot tub (Pseudomonas) folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J F; Stege, G C

    1990-02-01

    Folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare, adverse effect of the therapeutic or recreational use of hot tubs, whirlpools, and occasionally swimming pools. The condition is characterized by painful, papulopustular skin lesions often accompanied by low-grade fever, malaise, and other systemic symptoms. Prompt recognition and treatment may shorten the duration of the disease and, more importantly, prevent further cases by identifying the source of exposure. PMID:2307901

  16. Distribution and evolution of pseudogenes, gene losses, and a gene rearrangement in the plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida).

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Fan, Yu; Lewis, Paul O; Goffinet, Bernard

    2008-07-01

    The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made using comparisons with the distantly related liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. We sampled several populations of A. mirabilis and its photosynthetic sister groups to correlate functional gene losses with the evolution of a achlorophylly. The gene losses, pseudogenes, or the psbE-petL inversion were never detected in a photosynthetic Aneura but were detected in every population of A. mirabilis. One population of A. mirabilis revealed a unique deletion of 541 bp in the psbE-petL region; another is characterized by a unique deletion of 471 bp in the trnV(UAC)-ndhC region. The ratio of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution rates (omega) was estimated for eight pseudogenes and six ORFs to detect relaxed purifying selection. A significant increase in omega for the nonphotosynthetic liverwort was detected in six pseudogenes. Relaxation purifying selection, determined by a significant increase in omega, was detected for three intact ORFs: psbA, psbM, and rbcL. PMID:18594897

  17. Is the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus equiped for magnetic orientation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquerel, H.; Valet, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The Proteus anguinus is a blind cave salamander which can develop the ability of using the earths magnetic field for orientation and navigation. It has been shown that the strength of the geomagnetic field is not strong enough to excite the electroreceptors of these animals through induction mechanism so that the most likely hypothesis is that they would use cristals of magnetite as permanent magnets. We have been looking for evidence of remanent magnetism in several proteus collected from the underground CNRS laboratory at Moulis (France). Because the level of natural remanent magnetization, if any, was too low to be measured with confidence using a 3 axis squid 2G magnetometer (even bringing the animals as close as possible to the sensors), we stepwise remagnetized the samples between 0.2 and 1.2T. Measurements were performed in different parts of three proteus bodies. No significant magnetization was detected in the head, most of the signal being concentrated in the lower body of the animal. Saturation was attained after 0.2T while stepwise demagnetization by alternating field showed that most magnetization was removed after 40 mT (medium destructive field, MDF of about 10 mT), which is typical of magnetite. Independent measurements of clay soils taken from the surrounding immediate environment of the animals reveal a different magnetic signature for saturation, MDF and viscosity. Thus there is no apparent and direct link between food absorbed from their environment and the magnetic remamence of the animals. New experiments are currently in progress to determine whether magnetite is the unique magnetic carrier and also to provide better clue about the magnetic granulometry and its distribution.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Connaway, H. M.; Lee, C. H.

    2015-11-30

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  19. Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2005-01-01

    A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus eliminates the need for the determination of free parameters, such as the stiffness coefficient in the penalty scheme or the two relaxation parameters in the adaptive-forcing scheme. The method presents a significant improvement over the previously introduced immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) where the forcing term was computed using a penalty method and a user-defined parameter. The method allows the enforcement of the rigid body motion of a particle in a more efficient way. Compared to the "bounce-back" scheme used in the conventional LBM, the direct-forcing method provides a smoother computational boundary for particles and is capable of achieving results at higher Reynolds number flows. By using a set of Lagrangian points to track the boundary of a particle, Proteus eliminates any need for the determination of the boundary nodes that are prescribed by the "bounce-back" scheme at every time step. It also makes computations for particles of irregular shapes simpler and more efficient. Proteus has been developed in two- as well as three-dimensions. This new method has been validated by comparing its results with those from experimental measurements for a single sphere settling in an enclosure under gravity. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capabilities of the present method, the settling of a large number (1232) of spherical particles is simulated in a narrow box under two different boundary conditions. It is found that when the no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the front and rear sides of the box the particles motion is significantly hindered. Under the periodic boundary conditions, the particles move faster. The simulations show that the sedimentation characteristics in a box with periodic boundary conditions at the two sides are very close to those found in the sedimentation of two-dimensional circular particles. In the Greek mythology Proteus is a hero, the son of Poseidon. In addition to his ability to change shapes and take different forms at will, Zeus granted him the power to make correct predictions for the future. One cannot expect better attributes from a numerical code.

  20. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.

    2013-07-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  1. Proteus - A Mission to Investigate the Origins of Earth’s Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie Claire

    2015-08-01

    We still do not know how water and ingredients necessary for life were delivered to our planet. Comets were long thought to have seeded Earth with water, but new models and measurements have shown that comets may not be the right place to look. A growing number of small volatile-rich worlds in the outer asteroid belt - the main belt comets (MBCs) - have been observed to shed dust tails near perihelion and may hold the key to understanding the origin of inner solar system water.Proteus is a proposed Discovery-class solar system origins mission. Proteus, a 6.5-year mission, launches in 2021 to rendezvous with MBC 238P/Read shortly before it reaches perihelion in early 2028 and remains there for five months during its period of maximum activity. 238P/Read is of special interest because en route we have the opportunity to fly past and characterize its likely parent, asteroid 24 Themis. Proteus addresses five science objectives: (1) to determine where Read’s ices formed; (2) to distinguish whether the ices have a nitrogen isotope signature more like Earth or the outer solar system; (3) to determine at what temperature the ices formed; (4) to determine Read’s physical properties using surface composition and geomorphology, and (5) to determine whether Read’s outgassing emanates from discrete sources or diffuse regions and measure the scattering properties of the outgassed dust.To answer questions about the origin of water, isotopic measurements of MBC volatiles will be made with a new sensitive, precise, highly mature mass spectrometer, measuring isotopic abundances of hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen as well as the abundances of noble gases. These measurements will be correlated with predictions from two types of models: chemical models which describe the distance-dependent chemistry in the nebula and dynamical models which describe where small bodies were gravitationally scattered during the era of giant-planet migration. Proteus additionally flies two redundant Dawn-like cameras, which will be used to map the surface to characterize Read’s shape, rotation, topography, color, geology and jets and combined with radio science to infer its density.

  2. Characterization and heterologous expression of a PR-1 protein from traps of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Buch, Franziska; Pauchet, Yannick; Rott, Matthias; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-04-01

    Carnivorous plants capture and digest prey to obtain additional nutrients. Therefore, different trapping mechanisms were developed in different species. Plants of the genus Nepenthes possess pitfall-traps filled with a digestive fluid, which is secreted by the plants themselves. This pitcher fluid is composed of various enzymes to digest the captured prey. Besides hydrolytic enzymes, defense-related proteins have been identified in the fluid. The present study describes the identification and heterologous expression of a pathogenesis-related protein, NmPR-1, from pitchers of Nepenthes mirabilis with features that are unusual for PR-1 proteins. In particular, it was proven to be highly glycosylated and, furthermore, it exhibited antibacterial instead of antifungal activities. These properties are probably due to the specific environment of the pitcher fluid. PMID:24534104

  3. Inhibition of histamine mediated responses by Mirabilis jalapa: confirming traditional claims made about antiallergic and antiasthmatic activity.

    PubMed

    Maxia, Andrea; Sanna, Cinzia; Salve, Balu; Kasture, Ameya; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-11-01

    The roots of Mirabilis jalapa are used traditionally in allergic skin disorders and asthma. The effect of an ethanol:acetone (1:1) extract of the roots of M. jalapa was studied for antihistaminic activity using a guinea pig tracheal chain preparation and clonidine-induced mast cell granulation in mice. Its antiallergic activity was evaluated using milk-induced eosinophilia and albumin-induced paw oedema in mice. The extract (0.5 mL of 100 mg mL(-1)) inhibited histamine-induced guinea pig tracheal chain contractions non-competitively. The extract (100 or 200 mg kg(-1) i.p.) inhibited milk-induced eosinophilia, albumin-induced paw oedema and protected mast cells against clonidine-induced granulation. The study justified the folkloric use of M. jalapa in the treatment of allergic diseases and asthma. PMID:20981612

  4. Targeted therapy for genetic cancer syndromes: Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-02-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome are cancer syndromes which affect multiple organs and lead to significant decline in quality of life in affected patients. These syndromes are rare and typically affect the adolescent and young adult population, resulting in greater cumulative years of life lost. Improved understanding of the underpinnings of the genetic pathways underlying these syndromes and the rapid evolution of targeted therapies in general have made it possible to develop therapeutic options for these patients and other genetic cancer syndromes. Targeted therapies especially antiangiogenics and inhibitors of the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway have shown activity in selected group of patients affected by these syndromes or in patients harboring specific sporadic mutations which are otherwise characteristic of these syndromes. Unfortunately due to the rare nature, patients with these syndromes are not the focus of clinical trials and unique results seen in these patients can easily go unnoticed. Most of the data suggesting benefits of targeted therapies are either case reports or small case series. Thus, a literature review was indicated. In this review we explore the use of molecularly targeted therapy options in Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome. PMID:25725225

  5. Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the proteus reactor

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1980-12-01

    Detailed analysis has been completed for the ThO/sub 2/ and Th-metal axial blanket experiments performed at the Swiss PROTEUS critical facility in order to compare reaction rates and neutron spectra measured in prototypic GCFR configurations with calculated results. The PROTEUS configurations allowed the analysis of infinitely dilute thorium data in a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fast lattice spectrum at core center as well as the analysis of resonance self-shielding effects in the thorium-bearing axial blankets. These comparisons indicate that significant deficiencies still exist in the latest evaluated infinitely dilute thorium data file. Specifically, the analysis showed that the /sup 232/Th capture is underpredicted by ENDF/B-IV data, and the discrepancies are further exaggerated by ENDF/B-V data. On the other hand, ENDF/B-V /sup 232/Th fission data appear to be significantly improved relative to ENDF/B-IV data, while discrepancies are extremely large for the (n,2n) process in both data files. Finally, the (n,n') cross sections for thorium also appear improved in ENDF/B-V, except for a small energy range just above the 50 keV threshold. Therefore, these combined data deficiencies suggest that relatively large uncertainties should be associated with many of the results obtained from recent fast reactor alternate fuel cycle analyses. 38 figures, 12 tables.

  6. Calcium and initial surface binding phase of pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus

    SciTech Connect

    Prusch, R.D.

    1986-08-01

    The uptake of membrane-bound solute and external medium by bulk-phase pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus is influenced by the level of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the external medium. Increasing external Ca/sup 2 +/ to approx.10/sup -4/ M increases pinocytotic intensity, while increases in Ca/sup 2 +/ above this level decrease the intensity of pinocytosis. The initial interaction of pinocytotic inducers and Ca/sup +2/ at the surface of A moeba proteus was therefore examined. Alcain blue and Na/sup +/, both inducers of pinocytosis, differ in the manner with which they associate with the amoeba surface, suggesting the possibility of different pinocytosis-inducing sites on the amoeba surface. Low levels of external Ca/sup 2 +/ in the range of 3 x 10/sup -5/ to 4.5 x 10/sup -4/ M increase the amount of cationic inducer associated with the cell surface while, at the same time, decreasing anion association with the cell surface. It is suggested that Ca/sup 2 +/ influences ion association with the cell surface by controlling the availability of negative surface sites, which in turn influences pinocytotic intensity. Surface binding of Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Cl/sup -/ was determined by adding /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca or /sup 36/Cl.

  7. Structure of the alanopine-containing O-polysaccharide and serological cross-reactivity of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438 classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O76.

    PubMed

    Siwinska, Malgorzata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kondakova, Anna N; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Zablotni, Agnieszka; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Valueva, Olga A; Zych, Krystyna; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-06-01

    The O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438, and the following structure was established by chemical methods and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: →3)-β-d-Quip4NAlo-(1→3)-α-d-Galp6Ac-(1→6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→3)-α-l-FucpNAc-(1→3)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→, where d-Qui4N stands for 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose and Alo for N-((S)-1-carboxyethyl)-l-alanine (alanopine); only about half of the Gal residues are O-acetylated. This structure is unique among the Proteus O-polysaccharides, and therefore it is proposed to classify P. vulgaris HSC 438 into a new Proteus serogroup, O76. A serological cross-reactivity of HSC 438 O-antiserum and lipopolysaccharides of some other Proteus serogroups was observed and accounted for by shared epitopes on the O-polysaccharides or lipopolysaccharide core regions, including that associated with d-Qui4NAlo. PMID:23579689

  8. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the rhizosphere soils, and the results will provide a basis theory for the research of phytoremediation petroleum contaminated saline soil. PMID:26717712

  9. Modeling Multiphase Coastal and Hydraulic Processes in an Interactive Python Environment with the Open Source Proteus Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Ahmadia, A. J.; Bakhtyar, R.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrology is dominated by multiphase flow processes, due to the importance of capturing water's interaction with soil and air phases. Unfortunately, many different mathematical model formulations are required to model particular processes and scales of interest, and each formulation often requires specialized numerical methods. The Proteus toolkit is a software package for research on models for coastal and hydraulic processes and improvements in numerics, particularly 3D multiphase processes and parallel numerics. The models considered include multiphase flow, shallow water flow, turbulent free surface flow, and various flow-driven processes. We will discuss the objectives of Proteus and recent evolution of the toolkit's design as well as present examples of how it has been used used to construct computational models of multiphase flows for the US Army Corps of Engineers. Proteus is also an open source toolkit authored primarily within the US Army Corps of Engineers, and used, developed, and maintained by a small community of researchers in both theoretical modeling and computational methods research. We will discuss how open source and community development practices have played a role in the creation of Proteus.

  10. THE ABILITY OF FLAGELLUM-SPECIFIC PROTEUS VULGARIS BACTERIOPHAGE PV22 TO INTERACT WITH CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI FLAGELLA IN CULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was initiated to examine Campylobacter jejuni-specific bacteriophage in the Russian Federation to develop alternative control measures for this pathogen. A C. jejuni flagellum-specific phage PV22 from Proteus vulgaris was identified in sewage drainage. This phage interacted with C. jejuni...

  11. Taxonomic characterisation of Proteus terrae sp. nov., a N2O-producing, nitrate-ammonifying soil bacterium.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Augustin, Jrgen; Sprer, Cathrin; Gelbrecht, Jrg; Schumann, Peter; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    In the context of studying the influence of N-fertilization on N2 and N2O flux rates in relation to the soil bacterial community composition in fen peat grassland, a group of bacterial strains was isolated that performed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and concomitantly produced N2O. The amount of nitrous oxide produced was influenced by the C/N ratio of the medium. The potential to generate nitrous oxide was increased by higher availability of nitrate-N. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and the rpoB gene sequences demonstrated that the investigated isolates belong to the genus Proteus, showing high similarity with the respective type strains of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed differences at the species level. These differences were substantiated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and several distinct physiological characteristics. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the soil isolates represent a novel species for which the name Proteus terrae sp. nov. (type strain N5/687(T)=DSM 29910(T)=LMG 28659(T)) is proposed. PMID:26437638

  12. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  13. [Comparative in vitro activity of dibekacin, gentamicin and tobramycin on 617 bacterial strains].

    PubMed

    Coulet, M; Brun, Y; Forey, F; Fleurette, J

    1982-11-18

    Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 3 aminoglycosides (dibekacin, gentamicin, tobramycin) have been recorded with 617 hospital strains. 4 mg/l of tobramycin inhibited 82 to 84% of Enterobacteria, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and S. Aureus; the less sensitive species are Serratia (51%) and Citrobacter (68%). 4 mg/l concentration of gentamicin or dibekacin inhibited 80-83% of Pseudomonas and S. Aureus, 78-79% of Acinetobacter and 74% of Enterobacteria. Dibekacin shows an in vitro activity superior to that of gentamicin and inferior to that of tobramycin on Klebsiella and Proteus mirabilis, but is rather to that of gentamicin and tobramycin on all other bacteria species. PMID:7155846

  14. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  15. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  16. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm. PMID:24010505

  17. R-factor in Proteus vulgaris from ulcerative disease of fish, Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Mandal, M; Pal, N K; Halder, P K; Basu, P S

    2002-05-01

    A Proteus vulgaris isolated from external ulcers of the fresh water fish Channa punctatus showed multidrug resistance and heavy metal tolerance. The isolate from the ulcer showed resistance to chloramphenicol (Ch), nalidixic acid (Nx), streptomycin (Str) and tetracycline (Tet) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 750, 150, 75 and 125 microg/ml, respectively. The isolate showed growth in medium containing cadmium (Cd2+), up to a concentration of 2.5 mM indicating its heavy metal tolerance. Resistance to Ch, Str, Tet and Cd2+ of the isolate was lost after plasmid curing. Presence of plasmid DNA in the wild type and its absence in the cured P. vulgaris suggested that the resistance were plasmid mediated. PMID:12622213

  18. Operative management of splenic injury in a patient with proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Umashankkar; Mishra, Biplab; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Sagar, Sushma; Kumar, Subodh; Singhal, Maneesh

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old female with Proteus syndrome sustained splenic injury after fall from a bike. She was initially managed non-operatively at a different hospital for three days and was then referred to our level I trauma center in view of increasing abdominal pain and distention. On admission in the Emergency Department (ED), her pulse rate was 120 per minute and blood pressure was 108/68 mm Hg. Clinical examination showed a distended abdomen with left hypochondrial pain. Ultrasonogram (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed splenomegaly and grade III splenic injury with significant hemoperitoneum. Her hemoglobin was 2.9 g/dl with packed cell volume (PCV) of 12%. In view of low hemoglobin and possibility of pathologic spleen, splenectomy was done. Microscopic examination of the spleen showed hemangiolymphangioma. The patient was discharged on the 5th post-operative day and is doing well at 6 months of follow-up. PMID:25114436

  19. The structure of the capsular polysaccharide from a swarming strain of pathogenic Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Guard-Petter, J; Asokan, K; Carlson, R W

    1997-06-20

    The structure was determined for the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) isolated from a swarming strain of Proteus vulgaris, CP2-96, which was obtained from the spleen of an infected mouse. The CPS was extracted from the cell pellet by hot water, precipitated with ethanol, and further purified by gel-permeation chromatography. The structure was established by glycosyl composition and linkage analyses, and by NMR spectroscopy. The sequence of the glycosyl residues was determined by a NOESY experiment. The CPS is composed of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit with the following structure: OAc [symbol: see text] 4 -->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-al pha- D-GlcpA-(1-->. PMID:9232841

  20. The structure of the core part of Proteus vulgaris OX2 lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, E; Bock, K

    1999-08-15

    The identity of a novel structural component, an open-chain acetalic linkage, in the core part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus vulgaris serotype OX2 has been determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis of fragments isolated after mild acid hydrolysis of the intact LPS. The open-chain N-acetylgalactosamine fragment is substituted in the 4-position by non-stoichiometric amounts of a beta-galactopyranose residue and the overall structure of the core is as follows: [formula: see text] All sugars except the N-acetylgalactosamine are in the pyranose form, alpha-Hep refers to L-glycero-alpha-D-manno-heptopyranose and alpha-DDHep to D-glycero-alpha-D-manno-heptopyranose. Bold italics indicate non-stoichiometric substituents. PMID:10573861

  1. Structure of an O-acetylated acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O46.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, A V; Senchenkova, S N; Torzewska, A; Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    2000-09-01

    An acidic O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O46 and studied by chemical methods (O-deacetylation, sugar and methylation analyses, partial solvolysis) and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Solvolysis of the O-deacetylated polysaccharide with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in a alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1 --> 3)-D-GlcA disaccharide that demonstrated the usefulness of this reagent for selective cleavage of heteropolysaccharides. The following structure for the polysaccharide was established: --> 4)-alpha-D-Glcp6Ac(1 --> 3)-beta-D-GlcpA4Ac-(1 --> 3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-GlcpA4Ac-(1 --> where the degree of O-acetylation is approximately 65% at position 6 of Glc and 80-95% at position 4 of GlcA residues. PMID:11028790

  2. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kłopocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.). PMID:19088799

  3. Insights into copper effect on Proteus hauseri through proteomic and metabolicanalyses.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Ye, Chiming; Li, Yuzhe; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2016-02-01

    This is the first-attempt to use liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass (LC-MS-MS) in deciphering the effects of copper ion on Proteus hauseri. Total 941 proteins in copper-addition (+Cu) group and 898 proteins in non-copper-addition (-Cu) group were found, which containing 221 and 178 differential proteins in+Cu and-Cu group, respectively. Differential proteins in both groups were defined into 14 groups by their functional classification which transport/membrane function proteins were the major different part between the two groups, which took 19.5% and 7.7%, respectively. The result of BioCyc and KEGG analyses on metabolic pathway indicated that copper could interrupted the pathway of chemotaxis CheY and inhibited the swarming of P.hauseri, which provided a potential in controlling the pathogenicity of this strain. PMID:26194304

  4. Plant beneficial effect of two strains of Proteus vulgaris isolated from tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Barthakur, M; Bezbaruah, B

    1999-09-01

    Two strains of Proteus isolated from tea plantation soil were tested for their ability to colonise the roots of gram (Cicer arietinum), bean (Phaseolus radiatus) and mung (Phaseolus mungo) using a gnotobiotic system. Seeds bacterized with the two strains grew faster and showed significant increase in root and shoot enlargement of the plants tested. The bioactive fractions obtained from the culture filtrates and separated through HPLC showed that the plant growth promoting fractions were not always fungicidal and that the insecticidal fraction which was found only in RRLJ 16 was not plant growth promoting. These results suggest that the plant growth promotion effect of the plant beneficial bacteria may not always be due to disease suppression. PMID:10687288

  5. A case of disproportionate macrodactyly or a mild form of Proteus syndrome? An interesting case.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Shalimar; Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohd; Sapuan, Jamari; Das, Srijit

    2010-01-01

    We present a 20-year-old Malay male whom we believe has Proteus syndrome, a rare congenital disorder of asymmetrical overgrowth of body tissues. There are fewer than 100 confirmed cases reported worldwide thus the clinical presentation and histopathological findings are of significance. Our patient presented with an overgrown right small finger and subcutaneous purplish pigmentation over his left upper arm and chest since birth. His small finger gradually increased in size. He had no abnormalities in sensation or power. Radiographs revealed a delta shaped middle phalanx of the small finger. His activities of daily living were uninterrupted but he requested debulking surgery for cosmetic reasons. Histopathological examination reported hypertrophic fatty tissue composed of well formed lobules of mature adipocytes interspersed with fibrous elements. PMID:21400985

  6. Experimental evolution of penicillin G acylases from Escherichia coli and Proteus rettgeri.

    PubMed Central

    Daumy, G O; Danley, D; McColl, A S; Apostolakos, D; Vinick, F J

    1985-01-01

    Proteus rettgeri and Escherichia coli W were shown to express structurally different penicillin G acylases. The enzymes had similar substrate specificity but differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point, and electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels and did not antigenically cross-react. When the organisms were subjected to environmental conditions which made expression of this enzyme essential for growth, spontaneous mutants were isolated that used different amides as the only source of nitrogen. These mutants acquired the ability to use amides for growth by deregulating the penicillin G acylase and by their evolution to novel substrate specificities. The enzymes expressed by mutants isolated from each genus appeared to have evolved in parallel since each acylase attained similar new substrate specificities when the organisms were subjected to identical selection pressure. Images PMID:3897200

  7. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  8. Catfish spine envenomation and bacterial abscess with Proteus and Morganella: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Abscess formation and cellulitis in the setting of envenomation are rare complications of handling catfish. To the best of our knowledge, isolation of Proteus vulgaris has not been previously recorded, and recovery of Morganella morganii has been reported in only one prior case from wound cultures in patients injured by catfish stings. We report a case of catfish envenomation characterized by abscess formation and cellulitis, in which wound cultures grew these unusual organisms. Case presentation A 52-year-old Chinese-American man was hospitalized with erythema and swelling of his right arm of 10?days duration after skin penetration by a catfish barb. An abscess of his right thumb had undergone incision and drainage, with purulent drainage sent for wound culture immediately prior to admission. Laboratory studies revealed elevated white blood count, sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. The patient was treated with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam and vancomycin during his hospitalization, and symptoms improved. Wound cultures obtained prior to presentation grew many Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii. He was subsequently discharged on a 10-day course of oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. At a 12-month telephone follow-up, the patient denied developing further symptoms and reported that the wound had healed completely without complication. Conclusion Although envenomation and secondary infection are not uncommon sequelae of handling catfish, the present case is unique by virtue of the infecting organisms isolated. Given the prevalence of injury from catfish stings, a review of the literature is presented in order to provide recommendations for prevention and treatment of catfish envenomation. PMID:23631594

  9. Basal Structure and Attachment of Flagella in Cells of Proteus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Dinah; Koffler, Henry; Vatter, A. E.

    1965-01-01

    Abram, Dinah (Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.), Henry Koffler, and A. E. Vatter. Basal structure and attachment of flagella in cells of Proteus vulgaris. J. Bacteriol. 90:13371354. 1965.The attachment of flagella to cells of Proteus vulgaris was studied electron microscopically with negatively stained and shadow-cast preparations of ghosts from standard cultures and from special cultures that produced long forms. The flagellum, the basal portion of which is hooked, arises within the cell from a nearly spherical structure, 110 to 140 A in diameter. This structure appears to be associated with the cytoplasmic membrane; it may be a part of the membrane or a separate entity that lies just beneath the membrane. Flagella associated with cell walls free from cytoplasmic membrane frequently have larger bodies, 200 to 700 A in diameter, associated with their base. These structures probably consist at least partly of fragments of the cytoplasmic membrane, a portion of which folds around a smaller structure. Flagella in various stages of development were observed in long forms of P. vulgaris cells grown at low temperature. The basal structure of these flagella was similar to that of the long or mature flagella. Strands connecting the basal structures were observed in ghosts of long forms; these strands appear to be derived from the cytoplasmic membrane. Flagella were found to be attached to fragments of cell wall and to cytoplasmic membrane in a similar manner as they are attached to ghosts. In isolates of flagella that have been separated from the cells mechanically, the organelles often terminate in hooks which almost always appear naked, but have a different fine structure than the flagellum proper. Images PMID:5848332

  10. 21 CFR 522.88 - Amoxicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and...

  11. Synthesis of echinamines A and B, the first aminated hydroxynaphthazarins produced by the sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Pokhilo, Nataly D; Shuvalova, Maria I; Lebedko, Maxim V; Sopelnyak, Galina I; Yakubovskaya, Alla Ya; Mischenko, Natalia P; Fedoreyev, Sergey A; Anufriev, Victor Ph

    2006-08-01

    The first total synthesis of two marine aminated hydroxynaphthazarins, echinamines A (3-amino-7-ethyl-2,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) and B (2-amino-7-ethyl-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), produced by the sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis is described. This was achieved from 1,2,4-triacetoxybenzene (13) through a sequence involving double Fries rearrangement of 13, reduction of 3,5-diacetyl-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (14), methylation of 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (15), simultaneous double acylation of 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene (16) with a dichloromaleic anhydride-ethyl radical elimination process, methylation of 6,7-dichloro-3-ethyl-2-hydroxynaphthazarin (17), nucleophilic substitution of a chlorine atom by the methoxy group in 6,7-dichloro-3-ethyl-2-methoxynaphthazarin (18), introduction of an amino group via direct substitution of a chlorine atom in 7-chloro-3-ethyl-2,6-dimethoxy- (11) and 7-chloro-2-ethyl-3,6-dimethoxynaphthazarins (12) by an azido group, and functional group deprotection. The synthesis of amino analogues of spinazarin and spinochrome D is also described. PMID:16933861

  12. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Mirabilis jalapa L. Root on Normal and Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji-Yin; Zhou, Shi-Wen; Zeng, Sheng-Ya; Zhou, Jian-Yun; Jiang, Ming-Jin; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Mirabilis jalapa L. root (EEM) in normal and diabetic mice. After induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, both normal and diabetic mice were singly or repeatedly for 28 days administrated with EEM at doses of 2, 4, 8 g/kg, respectively. Before induction of diabetes, mice were administrated with EEM at doses of 2, 4, 8 g/kg for 14 days and were injected with streptozotocin and continued on EEM administration for another 28 days. Both after and before induction of diabetes, repeated administration with 4, 8 g/kg EEM continually lowered blood glucose level, decreased serum insulin level and improved insulin sensitivity index, and lowered serum total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and triglyceride content in liver and skeletal muscle, and increased glycogen content in these tissues; but repeated administration had no influence on those indexes of normal mice. Single administration with EEM (4, 8 g/kg) showed hypoglycemic effect in oral glucose tolerance test in normal and diabetic mice. Single administration with EEM had no hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects on normal and diabetic mice. These results suggest that EEM possesses both potential insulin sensitivity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects on diabetes. PMID:22474494

  13. A natural phenylpropionate derivative from Mirabilis himalaica inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lang, LingHu; Zhu, Shunqin; Zhang, Haoxing; Yang, Panpan; Fan, Haixia; Li, Shanlin; Liao, Zhihua; Lan, Xiaozhong; Cui, Hongjuan; Chen, Min

    2014-12-01

    Bioactivity-guided study led to the isolation of a natural phenylpropionate derivative, (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)-propenoic acid 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl ester from the roots of Mirabilis himalaica. Cellular analysis showed that compound 1 specifically inhibited the cancer cell growth through the S phase arrest. Mechanistically, compound 1 was able to induce the apoptosis in HepG2 cells through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in which Bcl-2 and p53 were required. Interestingly, the cellular phenotype of compound 1 were shown specifically in cancer cells originated from hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) while compromised influence by compound 1 were detected within the normal human liver cells (L-02). Consistently, the in vivo inhibitory effects of compound 1 on tumor growth were validated by the in xenograft administrated with HepG2 cells. Our results provided a novel compound which might serve as a promising candidate and shed light on the therapy of the hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25455489

  14. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePLUS

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  15. Verification of the Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

    1991-01-01

    The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for two-dimensional/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent dveloping pipe flows and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, intitial conditions, grid size and grid packing is given for each case.

  16. Verification of the proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

    1991-01-01

    The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for 2-D/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal, and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent developing pipe flows, and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations, and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, initial conditions, grid size, and grid packing is given for each case.

  17. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  18. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  19. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  20. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  1. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  2. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  3. Perineural infiltrates in Pseudomonas keratitis.

    PubMed

    Robbie, Scott J; Vega, Felipe A; Tint, Naing L; Hau, Scott; Allan, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    We describe 2 cases of contact lens-related microbial keratitis caused by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which perineural infiltrates were observed at presentation. In both cases, examination by confocal microscopy was negative for Acanthamoeba cysts but bacterial cultures and microscopy of corneal scrapings were positive for P aeruginosa. Both cases responded rapidly to treatment with topical levofloxacin with no significant long-term sequelae. These observations indicate that perineural infiltrates may occur in Pseudomonas keratitis without underlying Acanthamoeba infection and are, therefore, not pathognomonic of Acanthamoeba infection. PMID:24160385

  4. Structural and serological studies on a new acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O32.

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Babicka, D; Grachev, A A; Torzewska, A; Paramonov, N A; Chernyak, A Y; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    1998-09-01

    The following structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-antigen) of the Proteus vulgaris 032 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NOESY and H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments: -->2)-alpha-L-RhapI-(1-->2)-alpha-L-RhapII-(1-->4)-beta-D-++ +GalpA(I)-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA(II)-(1-- >. In addition, an O-acetyl group was detected, which, most probably, is located at position 3 of a part of RhapI residues. Serological studies, using rabbit polyclonal anti-(P. vulgaris 032) serum, homologous and heterologous Proteus O-antigens and related artificial antigens, revealed the importance of an a-D-GalA-associated epitope in manifesting the immunospecificity of P. vulgaris 032 and substantiated serological relationships between the O-antigen studied and those of some other Proteus strains. PMID:9760190

  5. Bacterial expression and enzymatic activity analysis of ME1, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Mirabilis expansa.

    PubMed

    Vepachedu, Ramarao; Park, Sang-Wook; Sharma, Neelam; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2005-03-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic proteins synthesized by many plants and some bacteria, that specifically depurinate the 28S RNA and thus interrupt protein translation. RIPs hold broad interest because of their potential use as plant defense factors against pathogens. However, study of the activity of type I RIPs has been hampered since their expression in Escherichia coli has typically been toxic to the model system. Mirabilis expansa, an Andean root crop, produces a type I RIP called ME1 in large quantities in its storage roots. In this study, the cDNA sequence of ME1 was used to successfully express the recombinant ME1 protein in E. coli. The production of recombinant ME1 in E. coli was confirmed by Western blot analysis using anti-ME1 antibodies. The studies with fluorescence-labeled ME1 showed that ME1 can enter bacteria and be distributed in the cytoplasm uniformly, indicating its ability to access the protein synthesis machinery of the bacteria. The recombinant enzyme was active and depurinated yeast ribosomes. However, both native and recombinant ME1 proteins failed to depurinate the E. coli ribosomes, explaining the non-toxicity of recombinant ME1 to E. coli. Structural modeling of ME1 showed that it has folding patterns similar to other RIPs, indicating that ME1 and PAP, which share a similar folding pattern, can show different substrate specificity towards E. coli ribosomes. The results presented here are very significant, as few reports are available in the area of bacterial interaction with type I RIPs. PMID:15721782

  6. Typing methods for Proteus rettgeri: comparison of biotype, antibiograms, serotype, and bacteriocin production.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R L; Engley, F B

    1978-12-01

    Two hunderd five strains of Proteus rettgeri from epidemic and nonepidemic sources were differentiated by a new biotyping scheme, agglutination in O antisera, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and a new scheme based on bacteriocin production. The P. rettgeri were divided into 10 groups by their fermentation of lactose, sucrose, D-mannitol, and salicin. These groups were then subdivided into 19 biotypes by other biochemical reactions. Bacteriocin production was tested by the cross-streak method. Thirty-four bacteriocin-sensitive indicator strains were evaluated, and 16 were selected for the final scheme and used to type the 205 P. rettgeri, which were divided into 15 bacteriocin types. Serologically, 43% of the P. rettgeri were O42, 13% were untypable, 4% were O15, and 3% each were O33, O64, and O84 in addition to 31 remaining serotypes. Strains of P. rettgeri from known outbreaks contained fewer biotypes, O groups, and bacteriocin types and were more resistant to antimicrobial agents than endemic strains. Strains with common patterns with all four marker systems were frequently associated with outbreaks. A strong correlation between multiple antibiotic resistance and bacteriocin production was shown. PMID:370146

  7. [Urinary tract infections and microbiological characteristics of Proteus penneri isolated in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Tsai, W C; Chow, S F

    1987-05-01

    Proteus penneri has been reported to be involved in urinary tract infections and calculi formation. We analyzed 2,265 positive urine cultures from patients hospitalized in Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan and found that 47 patients (2.1%) were infected by P. penneri. Most of the patients were male with age over sixty and had been treated with various kinds of antibiotics. Most of the patient's urine were collected by catheter. They were alkaline (pH 8.0) and contained amorphous phosphate, triple phosphate and protein. All the isolates of P. penneri in Taiwan showed beta-hemolysis and slight swarming on sheep blood agar plate, and exhibited a green color on upper layer of sulfide-indole-motility medium after addition of Kovacs indole reagent. Except for nitrate reduction and N2 production, the biochemical characteristics of the P. penneri isolated in Taiwan were similar to those of P. penneri isolated otherwise. The Taiwan isolates of this organism were highly susceptible to cefotaxime, cefotazidime, cefotizoxime, moxalactam, nalidixic acid; but were resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, cefonicid, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cephapirin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, piperacillin, tetracycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and cephalothin. PMID:3652782

  8. Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

  9. Proteus syndrome: Clinical profile of six patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Angurana, Suresh Kumar; Angurana, Renu Suthar; Panigrahi, Inusha; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by patchy or segmental overgrowth and hyperplasia of multiple tissues and organs, along with susceptibility to development of tumors. Very few cases are reported in literature from developing countries. Due to certain overlapping features with other overgrowth syndromes, diagnosis is usually delayed. Our aim was to describe clinical profile of this rare condition in six patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case sheet review of patients followed in a Pediatric Genetic and Metabolic clinic at a tertiary care institute of North India with a diagnosis of hemihypertrophy/overgrowth syndrome. RESULTS: Six cases presented with asymmetric overgrowth and peculiar features suggestive of PS were included in this study. Age at presentation was 2 months to 10 years; two were males and four were females. Hemihypertrophy was noticed in only one case at birth, and focal overgrowths in rest of other patients were seen later during childhood. CONCLUSION: Due to certain overlapping features with other overgrowth syndromes, diagnosis of PS is usually delayed. Pediatricians are the first persons who come across such patients and they should be aware about this rare condition. PMID:24019623

  10. Thoracolumbar scoliosis in a patient with Proteus syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2015-02-01

    The Proteus syndrome (PS) is a complex and rare congenital hamartomatous condition with a wide range of malformations. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study presents a case of scoliosis occurring in the setting of PS and explores the possible mechanisms between the 2 diseases. The patient is a 17-year-old Chinese female with scoliosis and hemihypertrophy of the right upper and lower extremity as well as exostosis of the right lower leg joint including the hip, knee, ankle, and toes. These manifestations were suggestive of PS. She underwent a posterior correction at thoracic 2-lumbar 4 (T5-L4) levels, using the Moss-SI spinal system. At 3-month follow-ups, the patient was clinically pain free and well balanced. Plain radiographs showed solid spine fusion with no loss of deformity correction. The severity of scoliosis in PS is progressively aggravated and the correction of the extensive spinal deformities is generally difficult. Therefore, early diagnosis is required for adequate interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25654373

  11. Burnup calculations and chemical analysis of irradiated fuel samples studied in LWR-PROTEUS phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, P.; Guenther-Leopold, I.; Berger, H. D.

    2006-07-01

    The isotopic compositions of 5 UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR power plant, which were investigated in the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme, were calculated using the CASMO-4 and BOXER assembly codes. The burnups of the samples range from 50 to 90 MWd/kg. The results for a large number of actinide and fission product nuclides were compared to those of chemical analyses performed using a combination of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry. A good agreement of calculated and measured concentrations is found for many of the nuclides investigated with both codes. The concentrations of the Pu isotopes are mostly predicted within {+-}10%, the two codes giving quite different results, except for {sup 242}Pu. Relatively significant deviations are found for some isotopes of Cs and Sm, and large discrepancies are observed for Eu and Gd. The overall quality of the predictions by the two codes is comparable, and the deviations from the experimental data do not generally increase with burnup. (authors)

  12. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist. PMID:21870511

  13. Proteus syndrome: Report of a case with AKT1 mutation in a dental cyst.

    PubMed

    Valra, Marie-Ccile; Vaysse, Frderic; Bieth, Eric; Longy, Michel; Cances, Claude; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle

    2015-05-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a sporadic and rare congenital disorder characterized by a patchy or mosaic postnatal overgrowth, sometimes involving the face. The onset of overgrowth typically occurs in infancy and can commonly involve skin, connective tissue, central nervous system, eyes and viscera. The progressive overgrowth causes severe complications, such as skeletal deformities, cystic lung disease, invasive lipomas, connective tissue hyperplasia, benign and malignant tumours and deep venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism, which can cause premature death. This disorder is caused by somatic mosaicism for a specific activating AKT1 mutation that would be lethal in a non-mosaic state. In this report, current knowledge of the aetiology, the diagnosis and the craniofacial manifestations of the disorder are reviewed. The short-term management of a 7-year-old patient with unusual oral manifestations is described. For the first time mutation of AKT1 (c.49G>A) gene was detected both in cranial exostosis and in central odontogenic fibroma of the lower jaw. PMID:25782637

  14. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of novel phytase from Obesumbacterium proteus.

    PubMed

    Zinin, Nickolay V; Serkina, Anna V; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Shevelev, Aleksei B; Sineoky, Sergei P

    2004-07-15

    The gene phyA encoding phytase was isolated from Obesumbacterium proteus genomic library and sequenced. The cleavage site of the PhyA signal peptide was predicted and experimentally proved. The PhyA protein shows maximum identity of 53% and 47% to phosphoanhydride phosphorylase from Yersinia pestis and phytase AppA from Escherichia coli, respectively. Based on protein sequence similarity of PhyA and its homologs, the phytases form a novel subclass of the histidine acid phosphatase family. To characterize properties of the PhyA protein, we expressed the phyA gene in E. coli. The specific activity of the purified recombinant PhyA was 310 U mg(-1) of protein. Recombinant PhyA showed activity at pH values from 1.5 through 6.5 with the optimum at 4.9. The temperature optimum was 40-45 degrees C at pH 4.9. The Km value for sodium phytate was 0.34 mM with a Vmax of 435 U mg(-1). PMID:15251209

  15. Monte Carlo Calculations of Pebble Bed Benchmark Configurations of the PROTEUS Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, Felix C.

    2003-03-15

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, a series of well-documented benchmark experiments were performed at the Proteus facility of the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute. Thirteen critical pebble bed reactor configurations were assembled, with ten of them deterministic with a precise location of the low-enriched fuel and moderator pebbles. Seven of these configurations were modeled with a very high spatial resolution with the Monte Carlo code MCNP with details that go from the fuel kernel (0.5 mm in diameter) to the walls surrounding the facility. The calculations of the k's of the configurations agree quite well with the experiments (within a fraction of a dollar). A sensitivity analysis is included to discuss the possibility of a small bias; also biases introduced by customary approximations of production codes were calculated. The experiments and the analysis of this paper might be very useful tools to check the calculational accuracy of procedures used in the emerging work related to pebble bed modular gas-cooled reactors.

  16. Analysis of kinetics experiments in LEU-HTR configurations of the PROTEUS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.; Worley, B.A. ); Williams, T. )

    1992-01-01

    On the recommendation of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) working group on gas-cooled reactors, the IAEA has established a coordinated research program (CRP) on the validation of safety-related physics calculations for low-enriched uranium (LEU)-fueled high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The objective of the CRP is to provide safety-related physics data for LEU-fueled HTGRs for use in validating reactor physics codes and methods used by participating countries for analysis of their designs. At present, the main activities within the CRP are being carried out by the international project now under way at the PROTEUS critical facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. Within this project, critical experiments will be conducted for HTGR-LEU systems to determine core reactivity; flux and power profiles; reaction rate ratios; worth of control rods, including reflector control rods; worth of burnable poisons; and the effects of water ingress on these parameters. Of particular interest are quality-assured (benchmark type) measurements of the worth of control rods located in the graphite reflector. Two independent techniques have been selected for this purpose; the pulsed neutron source (PNS) and the inverse kinetics methods.

  17. Characterization of hepatic growth hormone binding sites in two fish species, Gillichthys mirabilis (Teleostei) and Acipenser transmontanus (Chondrostei).

    PubMed

    Tarpey, J F; Nicoll, C S

    1985-10-01

    To obtain information on the presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in liver of nonmammalian vertebrates the specific binding of 125I-bovine growth hormone (bGH) to liver membranes of seven species representing the major groups was studied by radioreceptor assay. A substantial degree of specific binding was detected with sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) liver membranes and a much lower amount was detected on hepatic membranes of Gillichthys mirabilis. No significant specific binding was detected on liver membranes of pigeon, turtle, bullfrog, tilapia, or leopard shark. Gillichthys and sturgeon liver membranes were further characterized and compared with hepatic membranes from male rabbits. The sturgeon and Gillichthys membranes showed binding that was dependent upon time, temperature, pH, and membrane concentration. Scatchard analysis of the binding of 125I-bGH to sturgeon and rabbit membranes revealed both high and low affinity binding sites. The high affinity sites had KA values of 3.1 X 10(11) and 1.0 X 10(11) M-1, and capacities of 12 and 50 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Membranes from Gillichthys liver contained only a single class of binding sites with a KA of 6.7 X 10(9) M-1 and a binding capacity of 49 fmol/mg. Hormonal specificity of the sturgeon and Gillichthys hepatic binding sites was studied using methionyl-human GH (met-hGH), ovine prolactin (oPRL), and a crude preparation of sturgeon (st)GH. The met-hGH and stGH inhibited the binding of 125I-bGH to sturgeon liver membranes while only met-hGH displaced labeled bGH from Gillichthys liver membranes. One microgram of oPRL did not significantly inhibit 125I-bGH binding in either membrane assay. Based on these studies, sturgeon hepatic GH receptors seem to be more like those of nonprimate mammals than those of teleosts. Our results, in conjunction with the data of J. N. Fryer (Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 39, 123-130 (1979)), indicate that considerable evolutionary divergence has occurred among teleost hepatic GH receptors. Thus, vertebrate GH receptors seem to have undergone at least as much evolution as has the hormone itself. PMID:2996975

  18. SU-E-T-200: IBA ProteusOne Compact Proton Therapy System Radiation Survey Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Syh, J; Syh, J; White, M; Patel, B; Song, X; Wu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study summarizes the results of an initial radiation survey of the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center in Shreveport, Louisiana. The facility houses an IBA ProteusOne compact single room proton therapy unit coupled with a C230 cyclotron that operates at a maximum energy of 230 MeV. Methods: A calibrated survey meter was used for the photon measurements to obtain reliable results. A neutron detector was used as the measuring instrument for neutrons. The locations of the survey and measurements were planned carefully in order to get a proper evaluation of the facility shielding configuration. The walls, ceiling, vault entrance, and the adjacent environment were each surveyed with suitable measurement instruments. A total of 22 locations were chosen for radiation survey. Dose equivalent values were calculated for both the photon and the neutron radiation using measured data. Results: All measured dose values are presented in millisievert per year. The highest dose measured at the vault entrance is 0.34 mSv/year. A dedicated shielding door was not present at the time of the measurement. The vault entrance area is considered as a controlled area. The shielding design goals are not to exceed 5 mSv/year for the controlled area and 1 mSv/year the uncontrolled area. The total combined neutron and photon dose equivalent values were found to be compliant with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality radiation protection regulatory codes. Conclusion: In our efforts to evaluate the radiation levels at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center proton treatment facility, we have found that all the measured values of the radiation shielding are below the critical radiation limits per year. Since the total dose measured at the vault entrance is below the shielding design goal, a shielding door is not required at this proton treatment vault.

  19. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide. PMID:19767424

  20. High potential application in bioremediation of selenate by Proteus hauseri strain QW4

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Mohaddeseh; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Selenium is essential for biological systems at low concentrations and toxic at higher levels. Heavy metals and metalloids such as selenium are major contaminants in 40% of hazardous waste sites. Thus, bioremediation has been considered as an effective means of cleaning up of selenium-contaminated sites. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 strains were isolated from wastewater samples collected from selenium-contaminated sites in Qom, Iran using the enrichment culture technique. One bacterial strain designated QW4, identified as Proteus hauseri by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was studied for its ability to tolerate different concentrations of sodium selenate (100800 mM). Also, the disk diffusion method was performed to determine resistance to some antibiotics Results: Strain QW4 showed maximum minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to selenate (760 mM). The maximum selenate removal was exhibited at 35 C, while the removal activity reduced by 30.7% and 37% at 25 C and 40 C, respectively. The optimum pH and shaking incubator for removal activity was shown to be 7.0 and 150 rpm, with 60.2% and 60.3%, respectively. This bacterial strain was resistant to some antibiotics. Conclusion: The concentration of toxic sodium selenate (1000 ?g/ml) in the supernatant of the bacterial culture medium decreased by 100% after 2 days and the color of the medium changed to red due to the formation of less toxic elemental selenium. Also, our results imply that heavy metal pollution may contribute to increased antibiotic resistance through indirect selection. PMID:26622970

  1. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative that a symbiotic system is in place and the results definitely support the potential use of this unique new model. This model many help in plant / animal and cancer processes.

  2. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  3. Phylogenomics and systematics in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Gomila, Margarita; Peña, Arantxa; Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudomonas currently contains 144 species, making it the genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains the largest number of species. Currently, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is the preferred method for establishing the phylogeny between species and genera. Four partial gene sequences of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD) were obtained from 112 complete or draft genomes of strains related to the genus Pseudomonas that were available in databases. These genes were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences of 133 Pseudomonas type strains of validly published species to assess their correct phylogenetic assignations. We confirmed that 30% of the sequenced genomes of non-type strains were not correctly assigned at the species level in the accepted taxonomy of the genus and that 20% of the strains were not identified at the species level. Most of these strains had been isolated and classified several years ago, and their taxonomic status has not been updated by modern techniques. MLSA was also compared with indices based on the analysis of whole-genome sequences that have been proposed for species delineation, such as tetranucleotide usage patterns (TETRA), average nucleotide identity (ANIm, based on MUMmer and ANIb, based on BLAST) and genome-to-genome distance (GGDC). TETRA was useful for discriminating Pseudomonas from other genera, whereas ANIb and GGDC clearly separated strains of different species. ANIb showed the strongest correlation with MLSA. The correct species classification is a prerequisite for most diversity and evolutionary studies. This work highlights the necessity for complete genomic sequences of type strains to build a phylogenomic taxonomy and that all new genome sequences submitted to databases should be correctly assigned to species to avoid taxonomic inconsistencies. PMID:26074881

  4. Structure and serological specificity of a new acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O45.

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Torzewska, A; Grachev, A A; Ziolkowski, A; Paramonov, N A; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    1999-01-01

    The following structure of the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) of Proteus vulgaris O45 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established using 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NOESY and H-detected 1H, 13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence ( HMQC) experiments: [structure: see text text] Immunochemical studies, using rabbit polyclonal anti-P. vulgaris O45 serum and LPS, OPS and Smith-degraded OPS of P. vulgaris O45, showed the importance of beta-D-GlcA in manifesting the serological specificity of the O-antigen studied. PMID:9914495

  5. Determination of {beta}{sub eff} using MCNP-4C2 and application to the CROCUS and PROTEUS reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vollaire, J.; Plaschy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2006-07-01

    A new Monte Carlo method for the determination of {beta}{sub eff} has been recently developed and tested using appropriate models of the experimental reactors CROCUS and PROTEUS. The current paper describes the applied methodology and highlights the resulting improvements compared to the simplest MCNP approach, i.e. the 'prompt method' technique. In addition, the flexibility advantages of the developed method are presented. Specifically, the possibility to obtain the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} per delayed neutron group, per fissioning nuclide and per reactor region is illustrated. Finally, the MCNP predictions of {beta}{sub eff} are compared to the results of deterministic calculations. (authors)

  6. Control of Clinical Pathogens by the Haemolymph of Paratelphusa hydrodromous, a Freshwater Crab

    PubMed Central

    Arul Prakash, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Gunasekaran, G.; Prakash, M.; Senthil Raja, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, effort has been made to find the antimicrobial activity of haemolymph collected from freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The haemolymph collected was tested for antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method against clinical pathogens. Five bacterial species, namely, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and five fungal strains, namely and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., and Mucor sp., were selected for the study. The result shows a strong response of haemolymph against the clinical pathogens which confirms the immune mechanism of the freshwater crab. PMID:22084719

  7. Characterization of a cDNA of peroxiredoxin II responding to hydrogen peroxide and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Park, Miey; Shin, Hae J; Lee, Soo Y; Ahn, Tae I

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytic cells have defense systems against reactive oxygen species generated as the first non-specific defense mechanism against invading pathogens or microorganisms. We cloned a cDNA encoding a 21.69-kDa protein in Amoeba proteus homologous to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx-Ap). In the disk inhibition assay using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent, Escherichia coli overproducing Prx-Ap showed better viability than did E. coli transformed with pBluescript II SK for control. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) produced against Prx-Ap reacted with a 22.5-kDa protein and several minor proteins. In Western blot analysis, levels of the 22.5-kDa protein in amoebae treated with 2-mM H2O2 for 1 h increased about 2-fold over those in control cells. Immunofluorescence scattered throughout the cytoplasm also increased after H2O2 treatment. In Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe, the level of transcripts also changed with H2O2 treatment. When amoebae were fed with Tetrahymena, the intensity of immunofluorescence increased from 15 min and persisted until 2 h after phagocytosis. These results suggest that the 22.5-kDa protein of A. proteus is a Prx protein and that it has an antioxidant property responding to phagocytosis. PMID:15926998

  8. Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

  9. Reanalysis of the Gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility Proteus - Spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute which has been employed during the 1970's to study experimentally the physics of the gas-cooled fast reactor. Reaction rate distributions, flux spectrum and reactivity effects have been measured in several configurations featuring PuO2/UO2 fuel, absorbers, large iron shields, and thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasihomogeneously in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. This papers focus on the spectral indices - including fission and capture in 232Th and 237Np - measured in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattices and their predictions with an MCNPX model specially developed for the PROTEUS-GCFR core. Predictions were obtained with JEFF-3.1 and -3.11, ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, and JENDL-3.3 and -4.0. A general good agreement was demonstrated. The ratio of 232Th fission to 239Pu fission, however, was under-predicted by 8.72.1% and 6.52.1% using ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, respectively. Finally, the capture rates in 237Np tended to be underpredicted by the JEFF and JENDL libraries, although the new cross section in JEFF-3.1.1 slightly improved the 237Np capture to 239Pu fission results (3.42.4%).

  10. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the nemertean ancestral mitochondrial gene order most closely resembles the heteronemertean type. Phylogenetic analysis proposes a sister-group relationship between Hetero- and Hoplonemertea, which supports one of two recent alternative hypotheses of nemertean phylogeny. PMID:22507536

  11. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  12. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  13. FY2012 summary of tasks completed on PROTEUS-thermal work.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Smith, M.A.

    2012-06-06

    PROTEUS is a suite of the neutronics codes, both old and new, that can be used within the SHARP codes being developed under the NEAMS program. Discussion here is focused on updates and verification and validation activities of the SHARP neutronics code, DeCART, for application to thermal reactor analysis. As part of the development of SHARP tools, the different versions of the DeCART code created for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis were integrated. Verification and validation tests for the integrated version were started, and the generation of cross section libraries based on the subgroup method was revisited for the targeted reactor types. The DeCART code has been reorganized in preparation for an efficient integration of the different versions for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis. In DeCART, the old-fashioned common blocks and header files have been replaced by advanced memory structures. However, the changing of variable names was minimized in order to limit problems with the code integration. Since the remaining stability problems of DeCART were mostly caused by the CMFD methodology and modules, significant work was performed to determine whether they could be replaced by more stable methods and routines. The cross section library is a key element to obtain accurate solutions. Thus, the procedure for generating cross section libraries was revisited to provide libraries tailored for the targeted reactor types. To improve accuracy in the cross section library, an attempt was made to replace the CENTRM code by the MCNP Monte Carlo code as a tool obtaining reference resonance integrals. The use of the Monte Carlo code allows us to minimize problems or approximations that CENTRM introduces since the accuracy of the subgroup data is limited by that of the reference solutions. The use of MCNP requires an additional set of libraries without resonance cross sections so that reference calculations can be performed for a unit cell in which only one isotope of interest includes resonance cross sections, among the isotopes in the composition. The OECD MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART as initial focus of the verification/validation efforts. Among the benchmark problems, Exercise 1 of Phase 1 is a steady-state benchmark case for the neutronics calculation for which block-wise cross sections were provided in 26 energy groups. This type of problem was designed for a homogenized geometry solver like DIF3D rather than the high-fidelity code DeCART. Instead of the homogenized block cross sections given in the benchmark, the VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library of DeCART was directly used for preliminary calculations. Initial results showed that the multiplication factors of a fuel pin and a fuel block with or without a control rod hole were off by 6, -362, and -183 pcm Dk from comparable MCNP solutions, respectively. The 2-D and 3-D one-third core calculations were also conducted for the all-rods-out (ARO) and all-rods-in (ARI) configurations, producing reasonable results. Figure 1 illustrates the intermediate (1.5 eV - 17 keV) and thermal (below 1.5 eV) group flux distributions. As seen from VHTR cores with annular fuels, the intermediate group fluxes are relatively high in the fuel region, but the thermal group fluxes are higher in the inner and outer graphite reflector regions than in the fuel region. To support the current project, a new three-year I-NERI collaboration involving ANL and KAERI was started in November 2011, focused on performing in-depth verification and validation of high-fidelity multi-physics simulation codes for LWR and VHTR. The work scope includes generating improved cross section libraries for the targeted reactor types, developing benchmark models for verification and validation of the neutronics code with or without thermo-fluid feedback, and performing detailed comparisons of predicted reactor parameters against both Monte Carlo solutions and experimental measurements. The following list summarizes the work conducted so far for PROTEUS-Thermal Tasks: Unification of different versions of DeCART was initiated, and at the same time code modernization was conducted to make code unification efficient; (2) Regeneration of cross section libraries was attempted for the targeted reactor types, and the procedure for generating cross section libraries was updated by replacing CENTRM with MCNP for reference resonance integrals; (3) The MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART with VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library, and MCNP calculations were performed for comparison; and (4) Benchmark problems for PWR and BWR analysis were prepared for the DeCART verification/validation effort. In the coming months, the work listed above will be completed. Cross section libraries will be generated with optimized group structures for specific reactor types.

  14. Enoxacin therapy for experimental pseudomonas keratitis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Thadepalli, H; Benler, H A; Chuah, S K

    1991-06-01

    Pseudomonas keratitis is difficult to treat and aminoglycosides, the drugs now used for this purpose, are not always effective. New drugs are thus needed to cure gentamicin resistant pseudomonas ocular infections. Enoxacin, a new quinolone, active in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was evaluated in experimental ulcerative keratitis produced by a gentamicin resistant isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rabbits. Our study shows that enoxacin eye drops eliminated pseudomonas infection of the cornea and achieved therapeutic levels in the aqueous humor. Supplementation with parenterally given enoxacin augmented this effect. Enoxacin did not penetrate the vitreous. Enoxacin eye drops may be evaluated for their clinical usefulness in case of keratitis caused by Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:1919652

  15. Ferrofluid effect on Pseudomonas pyoverdine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Antoniea; Vlahovici, Al.; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic fluid effect on some pigmented pathogen germs has been investigated. The fluorescence of the pyoverdine pigment obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, cultivated in the presence of different magnetic fluid concentrations, was enhanced by magnetic fluid concentrations of 0.0015-1 ml/l. The antimicrobial activity of pyoverdine, when tested by means of agar diffusimetric method against Sarcina lutea, was found increased for relatively high concentrations of magnetic fluid; in the case of Staphylococcus aureus the pyoverdine antimicrobial activity was not dependent on the magnetic fluid concentration.

  16. Bromoalkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Shochat, E.; Hermoni, I.; Cohen, Z.; Abeliovich, A.; Belkin, S. )

    1993-05-01

    Many of the xenobiotic compounds extensively used in agriculture and industry, particularly the chlorinated halogenated compounds, have been extensively studied. Brominated organics, also used worldwide in, for example, flame retardants, pesticides, industrial biocides, intermediates in the polymer industry, have received far less attention. Investigations into the biodegradative pathways of aliphatic bromides in particular is very limited. This paper reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of two Pseudomonas strains capable of utilizing a broad range of bromoalkanes as single carbon and energy sources, and describes the emulsification and dehalogenation of hydrophobic bromoakanes by these strains. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantiek; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae. PMID:25855348

  18. Implementation/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional/axisymmetric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.

  19. Effect of natural preservatives on the growth of histamine producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, S; Thangaradjou, T; Kannan, L

    2007-04-01

    Present study deals with the hampering of the growth of histamine producing bacteria (HPB), by using NaCl and spices which are easily available and cheaper cost wise. For this experiment, four strains of HPB viz. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were tested against 1 to 10% concentrations of NaCl and 1 to 5% concentrations of natural preservatives (turmeric, ginger and garlic) in a basal medium. HPB showed different growth rates at different concentrations of NaCl and natural preservatives. V. parahaemolyticus, B. cereus and Ps. aeruginosa showed no growth at 10% concentration. When the HPB growth was tested with garlic, turmeric and ginger extracts, growth of all the bacteria was inhibited by garlic and turmeric extracts at 5% concentration. In ginger, V. parahaemolyticus, B. cereus and P. mirabilis were totally inhibited at 5% concentration. But Ps. aeruginosa showed very less growth at this concentration. PMID:17915763

  20. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 5, 6, 7, & 8: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:2 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  1. HTR-Proteus Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 5,6,7,&8: Columnar Hexagonal Point-on-Point Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Sterbentz, James W.; Snoj, Luka; Lengar, Igor; Koberl, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  2. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  3. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  4. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  5. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  6. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  7. Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P. , Wuerenlingen )

    1989-11-01

    The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k {infinity} void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations.

  8. Analysis of test-lattice experiments in the light-water high-conversion reactor PROTEUS. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hettergott, E.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the preliminary analysis of a series of tight-pitch lattice experiments. The first phase of an experimental program was recently completed at the PROTEUS zero-power reactor facility. The primary purpose of the program was to obtain experimental data on a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/-fueled test lattice with a fuel-to-moderator ratio of approximately 2.0. Reaction rate ratios were measured in the center of the test lattice. Measurements included the capture rates in U-238 and fission rates in U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241. Radial and axial reaction-rate traverses across the test lattice were also measured to determine material buckling. EPRI-CPM and its associated production library CPMLIB3 were used in the calculations of the lattice parameters (reaction rate ratios and k/sub infinity/), the results of which were subsequently compared to the measured parameters.

  9. Within-Pin Reaction Rate Distributions: CASMO-4 and HELIOS Compared Against Tomographic Measurements at the PROTEUS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchere, C. Pralong; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2005-05-15

    In the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS project - an extended validation program for advanced light water reactor core analysis tools conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute - the radial, internal variations of the total fission rate (F{sub tot}) and the capture rate in {sup 238}U (C{sub 8}) have been calculated for zero-burnup pins of a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ boiling water reactor fuel assembly using two codes, namely, CASMO-4 and HELIOS. While F{sub tot} distributions predicted by CASMO-4 and HELIOS are in good agreement, C{sub 8} distributions show significant inconsistencies (20 to 30%). The calculations are compared with experimental results obtained using single photon emission computerized tomography for several SVEA-96+ pins irradiated in the zero-power reactor PROTEUS. The comparisons confirm the predicted shape of the F{sub tot} distributions within UO{sub 2} pins and clearly indicate that HELIOS within-pin predictions for C{sub 8} are more reliable than CASMO-4 results. This is important for the derivation of gamma-ray self-absorption corrections when pin-integrated reaction rates are to be determined using the gamma-scanning technique. Thus, the use of CASMO-4-type within-pin distributions would lead to 3 to 4% discrepancies in the absolute, self-absorption-corrected pin-integrated values deduced for C{sub 8} and hence for C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}. For relative C{sub 8} distributions, the discrepancy would be much smaller, namely, up to {approx}1% if pins containing a burnable absorber are involved.

  10. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G.

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  11. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  12. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Do I Protect Myself and My Family? "Hot Tub Rash" ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) Below are answers ... hot tub rash and healthy swimming. What is Hot Tub Rash? Hot tub rash, or dermatitis, is ...

  13. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  14. Strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens from clinical material.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, B; Lapage, S P; Malnick, H

    1975-01-01

    Eight strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens have been received from among 466 strains of Pseudomonas submitted to the Computer Trials Laboratory for identification over the last eight years. Two of the strains of P. putrefaciens from patients with otitis media and otitis externa respectively appear to have played a pathogenic role. The biochemical characteristics of these eight strains were compared with those of seven culture collection strains. PMID:1127110

  15. Reductive metabolism of aminoazobenzenes by Pseudomonas cepacia

    SciTech Connect

    Idaka, E.; Ogawa, T.; Horitsu, H.

    1987-07-01

    The authors earlier isolated a few strains of microbes in sludge from the sewage of an azo dye factory which had assimilability to azo dye. Among them, strain 13NA was identified as Pseudomonas cepacia based on Bergey's Manual and was named Pseudomonas cepacia 13NA. A model experiment for continuous treatment of dye waste was also reported. Some strain 13NA specificities for aminoazobenzenes and reductive and acetylating pathways are described in the present study.

  16. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  17. Gene cloning and characterization of a novel highly organic solvent tolerant lipase from Proteus sp. SW1 and its application for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Sungkeeree, Pareenart; Thiengmag, Sirinthra; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Loprasert, Suvit

    2013-01-01

    Proteus sp. SW1 was found to produce an extracellular solvent tolerant lipase. The gene, lipA, encoding a bacterial lipase, was cloned from total Proteus sp. SW1 DNA. lipA was predicted to encode a 287 amino acid protein of 31.2 kDa belonging to the Group I proteobacterial lipases. Purified His-tagged LipA exhibited optimal activity at pH 10.0 and 55°C. It was highly stable in organic solvents retaining 112% of its activity in 100% isopropanol after 24 h, and exhibited more than 200% of its initial activity upon exposure to 60% acetone, ethanol, and hexane for 18 h. Biodiesel synthesis reactions, using a single step addition of 13% an acyl acceptor ethanol, showed that LipA was highly effective at converting palm oil into biodiesel. PMID:22371263

  18. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O45 containing 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Bartodziejska, Beata; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Rozalski, Antoni; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2003-02-01

    An O-specific polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O45 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, H-detected 1H,13C HSQC and HMBC experiments. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established:-->6)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->2)-beta-D-Fucp3NAc4Ac-(1-->where Fuc3NAc4Ac is 3-acetamido-4-O-acetyl-3,6-dideoxygalactose. A cross-reactivity of anti-P. vulgaris O45 serum was observed with several other Proteus lipopolysaccharides, which contains Fuc3N derivatives. PMID:12559730

  19. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

  20. Indium detoxification in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S; Appanna, V D

    1993-01-01

    The interaction between indium, a non-essential toxic element, and a soil bacterium was studied. Although the presence of 0.5 mm indium complexed to citrate, the sole source of carbon, had an inhibitory influence on growth rate and cellular yield, Pseudomonas fluorescens circumvented the toxicity of the trivalent metal via its insolubilization as a phosphorus residue. The inclusion of 20 microm iron (III) arrested the negative impact of indium and no diminution of cellular yield was recorded. In this instance indium homeostasis was also attained by elaboration of an extracellular phosphorus-containing deposit. Electrophoretic analyses of the cytoplasmic extracts revealed several dissimilar patterns. Notably, two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 57 kDa and 18 kDa were induced in the metal-stressed bacteria. An increment in extracellular carbohydrates in metal-supplemented media was observed. No citrate was detected in the spent fluid at the cessation of cellular bilization may have potential application in metal pollution management. PMID:15091796

  1. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: breaking down barriers.

    PubMed

    Berube, Bryan J; Rangel, Stephanie M; Hauser, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have evolved ingenious ways to escape from the lung during pneumonia to cause bacteremia. Unfortunately, the clinical consequences of this spread to the bloodstream are frequently dire. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to breach the lung barrier. We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia, utilizes the type III secretion system effector ExoS to intoxicate pulmonary epithelial cells. Injection of these cells leads to localized disruption of the pulmonary-vascular barrier and dissemination of P. aeruginosa to the bloodstream. We put these data in the context of previous studies to provide a holistic model of P. aeruginosa dissemination from the lung. Finally, we compare P. aeruginosa dissemination to that of other bacteria to highlight the complexity of bacterial pneumonia. Although respiratory pathogens use distinct and intricate strategies to escape from the lungs, a thorough understanding of these processes can lay the foundation for new therapeutic approaches for bacterial pneumonia. PMID:26407972

  3. Sigma factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Eric; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C

    2008-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as in most bacterial species, the expression of genes is tightly controlled by a repertoire of transcriptional regulators, particularly the so-called sigma (sigma) factors. The basic understanding of these proteins in bacteria has initially been described in Escherichia coli where seven sigma factors are involved in core RNA polymerase interactions and promoter recognition. Now, 7 years have passed since the completion of the first genome sequence of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. Information from the genome of P. aeruginosa PAO1 identified 550 transcriptional regulators and 24 putative sigma factors. Of the 24 sigma, 19 were of extracytoplasmic function (ECF). Here, basic knowledge of sigma and ECF proteins was reviewed with particular emphasis on their role in P. aeruginosa global gene regulation. Summarized data are obtained from in silico analysis of P. aeruginosasigma and ECF including rpoD (sigma(70)), RpoH (sigma(32)), RpoF (FliA or sigma(28)), RpoS (sigma(S) or sigma(38)), RpoN (NtrA, sigma(54) or sigma(N)), ECF including AlgU (RpoE or sigma(22)), PvdS, SigX and a collection of uncharacterized sigma ECF, some of which are implicated in iron transport. Coupled to systems biology, identification and functional genomics analysis of P. aeruginosasigma and ECF are expected to provide new means to prevent infection, new targets for antimicrobial therapy, as well as new insights into the infection process. PMID:18070067

  4. Biofilm dispersion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, many researchers have written numerous articles about microbial biofilms. Biofilm is a complex community of microorganisms and an example of bacterial group behavior. Biofilm is usually considered a sessile mode of life derived from the attached growth of microbes to surfaces, and most biofilms are embedded in self-produced extracellular matrix composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), such as polysaccharides, extracellular DNAs (eDNA), and proteins. Dispersal, a mode of biofilm detachment indicates active mechanisms that cause individual cells to separate from the biofilm and return to planktonic life. Since biofilm cells are cemented and surrounded by EPSs, dispersal is not simple to do and many researchers are now paying more attention to this active detachment process. Unlike other modes of biofilm detachment such as erosion or sloughing, which are generally considered passive processes, dispersal occurs as a result of complex spatial differentiation and molecular events in biofilm cells in response to various environmental cues, and there are many biological reasons that force bacterial cells to disperse from the biofilms. In this review, we mainly focus on the spatial differentiation of biofilm that is a prerequisite for dispersal, as well as environmental cues and molecular events related to the biofilm dispersal. More specifically, we discuss the dispersal-related phenomena and mechanisms observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic human pathogen and representative model organism for biofilm study. PMID:26832663

  5. Fragmentation of 23S rRNA in Strains of Proteus and Providencia Results from Intervening Sequences in the rrn (rRNA) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Sanderson, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Intervening sequences (IVSs) were originally identified in the rrl genes for 23S rRNA (rrl genes, for large ribosomal subunit, part of rrn operon encoding rRNA) of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium LT2 and Arizonae. These sequences are transcribed but later removed during RNase III processing of the rRNA, resulting in fragmentation of the 23S species; IVSs are uncommon, but have been reported in at least 10 bacterial genera. Through PCR amplification of IVS-containing regions of the rrl genes we showed that most Proteus and Providencia strains contain IVSs similar to those of serovar Typhimurium in distribution and location in rrl genes. By extraction and Northern blotting of rRNA, we also found that these IVSs result in rRNA fragmentation. We report the first finding of two very different sizes of IVS (113 bp and 183 to 187 bp) in different rrl genes in the same strain, in helix 25 of Proteus and Providencia spp.; IVSs from helix 45 are 113 to 123 bp in size. Analysis of IVS sequence and postulated secondary structure reveals striking similarities of Proteus and Providencia IVSs to those of serovar Typhimurium, with the stems of the smaller IVSs from helix 25 being similar to those of Salmonella helix 25 IVSs and with both the stem and the central loop domain of helix 45 IVSs being similar. Thus, IVSs of related sequences are widely distributed throughout the Enterobacteriaceae, in Salmonella, Yersinia, Proteus, and Providencia spp., but we did not find them in Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, or Morganella spp.; the sporadic distribution of IVSs of related sequence indicates that lateral genetic transfer has occurred. PMID:10648538

  6. Transposon-mediated mutation of CYP76AD3 affects betalain synthesis and produces variegated flowers in four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mariko; Miyahara, Taira; Tokumoto, Hiroko; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The variegated flower colors of many plant species have been shown to result from the insertion or excision of transposable elements into genes that encode enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis. To date, however, it has not been established whether this phenomenon is responsible for the variegation produced by other pigments such as betalains. During betalain synthesis in red beet, the enzyme CYP76AD1 catalyzes the conversion of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to cyclo-DOPA. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis indicated that the homologous gene in four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) is CYP76AD3. Here, we show that in four o'clock with red perianths, the CYP76AD3 gene consists of one intron and two exons; however, in a mutant with a perianth showing red variegation on a yellow background, a transposable element, dTmj1, had been excised from the intron. This is the first report that a transposition event affecting a gene encoding an enzyme for betalain synthesis can result in a variegated flower phenotype. PMID:25151127

  7. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  8. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  9. Results of the Simulation of the HTR-Proteus Core 4.2 Using PEBBED-COMBINE: FY10 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Gougar

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Idaho National Laboratory’s deterministic neutronics analysis codes and methods were applied to the computation of the core multiplication factor of the HTR-Proteus pebble bed reactor critical facility. This report is a follow-on to INL/EXT-09-16620 in which the same calculation was performed but using earlier versions of the codes and less developed methods. In that report, results indicated that the cross sections generated using COMBINE-7.0 did not yield satisfactory estimates of keff. It was concluded in the report that the modeling of control rods was not satisfactory. In the past year, improvements to the homogenization capability in COMBINE have enabled the explicit modeling of TRIS particles, pebbles, and heterogeneous core zones including control rod regions using a new multi-scale version of COMBINE in which the 1-dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN has been integrated. The new COMBINE is shown to yield benchmark quality results for pebble unit cell models, the first step in preparing few-group diffusion parameters for core simulations. In this report, the full critical core is modeled once again but with cross sections generated using the capabilities and physics of the improved COMBINE code. The new PEBBED-COMBINE model enables the exact modeling of the pebbles and control rod region along with better approximation to structures in the reflector. Initial results for the core multiplication factor indicate significant improvement in the INL’s tools for modeling the neutronic properties of a pebble bed reactor. Errors on the order of 1.6-2.5% in keff are obtained; a significant improvement over the 5-6% error observed in the earlier This is acceptable for a code system and model in the early stages of development but still too high for a production code. Analysis of a simpler core model indicates an over-prediction of the flux in the low end of the thermal spectrum. Causes of this discrepancy are under investigation. New homogenization techniques and assumptions were used in this analysis and as such, they require further confirmation and validation. Further refinement and review of the complex Proteus core model are likely to reduce the errors even further.

  10. Susceptibility of current clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric gram-negative bacilli to amikacin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dámaso, D; Moreno-López, M; Martínez-Beltrán, J; García-Iglesias, M C

    1976-11-01

    The susceptibility of current clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae to amikacin and other aminoglycosides was tested by a standardized disk sensitivity method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for all 200 isolates tested, and mean MICs were calculated for each of 10 bacterial species. Amikacin proved to be the most effective of six aminoglycosides against nine bacterial species; isolates of Proteus morganii were slightly more sensitive to gentamicin than to amikacin. Whereas 50% of the 200 isolates could be considered resistant to gentamicin (MIC, greater than 16 mug/ml), 94.4% of the 126 enteric gram-negative bacilli and all 74 isolates of P. aeruginosa were sensitive to amikacin. At a concentration of 8 mug/ml, gentamicin inhibited 50% and tobramycin inhibited 67% of the 200 isolates. At 16 mug/ml, amikacin inhibited 96.5% of the 200 isolates; the respective figures for kanamycin, aminosidine, and streptomycin were 28.5%, 26.5%, and 24%. The virtual absence of cross-resistance between amikacin and gentamicin and between amikacin and the other four aminoglycosides was confirmed. PMID:825591

  11. Glycerophospholipid synthesis and functions in Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Tatiana; D'Heygre, Franois; Feuilloley, Marc J; Orange, Nicole; Heipieper, Hermann J; Duclairoir Poc, Ccile

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pseudomonas is one of the most heterogeneous groups of eubacteria, presents in all major natural environments and in wide range of associations with plants and animals. The wide distribution of these bacteria is due to the use of specific mechanisms to adapt to environmental modifications. Generally, bacterial adaptation is only considered under the aspect of genes and protein expression, but lipids also play a pivotal role in bacterial functioning and homeostasis. This review resumes the mechanisms and regulations of pseudomonal glycerophospholipid synthesis, and the roles of glycerophospholipids in bacterial metabolism and homeostasis. Recently discovered specific pathways of P. aeruginosa lipid synthesis indicate the lineage dependent mechanisms of fatty acids homeostasis. Pseudomonas glycerophospholipids ensure structure functions and play important roles in bacterial adaptation to environmental modifications. The lipidome of Pseudomonas contains a typical eukaryotic glycerophospholipid--phosphatidylcholine -, which is involved in bacteria-host interactions. The ability of Pseudomonas to exploit eukaryotic lipids shows specific and original strategies developed by these microorganisms to succeed in their infectious process. All compiled data provide the demonstration of the importance of studying the Pseudomonas lipidome to inhibit the infectious potential of these highly versatile germs. PMID:26148574

  12. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  15. Specific gonadotropin binding to Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Richert, N D; Ryan, R J

    1977-03-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to Pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and pH and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. The equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 X 10(-9) M. There are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (Hill coefficient, 1.05). The number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. NaCl and KCl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mM, have no effect on binding. Divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and 1 mM EDTA inhibit hormone binding. Binding is destroyed by heat or by treatment with Pronase of alpha-chymotrypsin and is increased by phospholipase C. Binding of the labeled gonadotropin is not observed with other gram-negative organisms--e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Enterobacter cloacae. PMID:265583

  16. New naphthalene-degrading marine Pseudomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Valdes, E.; Cozar, E.; Rotger, R. Lalucat, J. ); Ursing, J. )

    1988-10-01

    Over 100 strains that utilized naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source were isolated from samples of marine sediments taken from a heavily polluted area. The isolates were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. Most of these strains belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and seven of them did not fit any previous taxonomic description. They differed from type strains in a few biochemical characteristics and in the utilization of aromatic compounds. None had catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage. DNA hybridizations demonstrated a close relationship between two isolates and the Pseudomonas stutzeri type strain, and between five isolates and the Pseudomonas testosteroni type strain. On the basis of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, it was assumed that the seven isolates represent new biovars belonging to the species P. testosteroni and P. stutzeri that are able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections. PMID:24096885

  18. High anoxia tolerance in the subterranean salamander Proteus anguinus without oxidative stress nor activation of antioxidant defenses during reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Issartel, Julien; Hervant, Frdric; de Fraipont, Michelle; Clobert, Jean; Voituron, Yann

    2009-05-01

    The present study describes a high anoxia tolerance in an amphibian at high temperature. Indeed, the subterranean salamander Proteus anguinus survived 12 h under anoxia at 12 degrees C. Surprisingly, such experimental conditions did not affect P. anguinus oxidative status while muscles and liver antioxidant enzymes activities decreased under 8 h anoxia and only return to basal level during reoxygenation. To test if such adaptation is common in Urodels, equivalent experimentations have been conducted on another newt: the stream-dwelling Calotriton asper. This latter species exhibited only 1.5 h survival under anoxia in spite of higher antioxidant enzymes activities than P. anguinus. Furthermore, aerobic recovery after 1 h anoxia induced a 30% increase of oxidative damage partly explained by SOD and CAT activities that did not return to control values during reoxygenation, demonstrating a lower capacity to counteract ROS overproduction than P. anguinus. In addition, uncoupling protein (UCP) transcript was for the first time detected, partly sequenced and quantified in amphibian muscles and liver. UCP may be considered as a ROS production attenuator by mediating a discharge of the proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain. The putative role of UCP in post-anoxic oxidative status of both species is discussed. PMID:19148651

  19. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  20. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  1. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

  2. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  3. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  4. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  5. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  6. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

  7. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  8. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  9. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  10. Investigation of the void coefficient and other integral parameters in the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II program

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.; Gmur, K.; Hager, H.; Berger, H.D.; Bohme, R.

    1988-02-01

    Comparisons of calculated and measured neutron balance components are reported for the 7.5% fissile plutonium reference test lattice of the PROTEUS-light water high conversion reactor (LWHCR) phase II program, both wet (with H/sub 2/O) and dry (100% void). Special experimental techniques have been developed and applied, particularly for kappa/sub infinity/, and the range of directly measured reaction rate ratios has been extended. For the two cell codes tested, WIMS-D/1981 library and KARBUS/KEDAK-4, specific shortcomings have been identified; the new measurements have been found to be significantly more representative and accurate than the earlier phase I experiments. The kappa/sub infinity/ void coefficient for the phase II reference lattice between 0 and 100% void has been found to be qualitatively different from those assessed for the earlier phase I test lattices. Consideration of the individual void coefficient components show this to be largely a consequence of the more LWHCR-representative fuel rod diameter and plutonium isotopic composition of the fuel currently being used. Results of control rod studies conducted for the phase II reference lattice - both wet and dry - serve to illustrate the efforts being made toward investigations of special power reactor features.

  11. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P. aeruginosa core lineage and typically exhibited the exoS+/exoU? genotype and group B oprL and oprD alleles. This is to our knowledge the first report of an MST analysis conducted on a polyphasic data set. PMID:19936230

  13. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  14. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and combination group.

  15. Pseudomonas septicaemia following tribal tatoo marks.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D R; Sahoo, A

    1984-09-01

    It is tradition in Northern Nigeria to make tribal tatoo marks on the face of a newborn, commonly on both sides of the angle of the mouth. A case of fatal septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following such tribal tatoo marks is reported. PMID:6506210

  16. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; Garca-Valds, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  17. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  18. ECF Sigma Factor regulation in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomanads are renowned for their capacity to adapt to diverse environments, a fact that is reflected by the proportion of their genomes dedicated to encoding transcription regulators. Members of the Pseudomonas genus include species that are adapted to pathogenic and symbiotic lifestyles in asso...

  19. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  20. Incidence of exotoxin production by Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed Central

    Bjorn, M J; Vasil, M L; Sadoff, J C; Iglewski, B H

    1977-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A has been shown to catalyze the transfer of the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto elongation factor 2, resulting in the inhibition of mammalian protein synthesis. The enzymatic activity (ADP-ribosyl [ADPR]-transferase) is thought to account for the toxicity of exotoxin A. The distribution of the expression of exotoxin A within Pseudomonas species was examined. Laboratory strains as well as clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. The production of exotoxin A was determined by assaying for ADPR-transferase activity in dialyzed frozen (-20 degrees C) and thawed cell-free supernatants from 22-h cultures or in 10-fold-concentrated supernatants. In addition, toxin production was detected immunologically using a modified Elek test. Exotoxin A production was detected in approximately 90% of the 111 isolates of P. aeruginosa. In contrast, none of the other species of Pseudomonas examined produced exotoxin A detectable by either ADPR-transferase activity or immunological reactivity. Images PMID:68931

  1. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO2 , H2 O, and NH3 . Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  2. LWR-PROTEUS Verification of Reaction Rate Distributions in Modern 10 x 10 Boiling Water Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Joneja, O.; Murphy, M.; Luethi, A.; Seiler, R.; Brogli, R.; Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Williams, T.; Helmersson, S.; Chawla, R.

    2001-11-15

    HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B calculations of reaction rate distributions in a modern, fresh 10 x 10 boiling water reactor fuel element have been validated using the experimental results of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project corresponding to full-density water moderation conditions (core 1B). The reaction rate distributions measured with a special gamma-scanning machine employing twin germanium detectors consisted of total fission F{sub tot} and {sup 238}U-capture C{sub 8}. The average statistical errors for the gamma scans were better than 0.5% for F{sub tot} and 0.9% for C{sub 8}. The rod-by-rod measurements were performed on 60 different fuel rods selected from the central part of a test zone consisting of actual, fresh SVEA-96+ fuel elements, thus gaining in realism by departing from conventional fuel rod mockups. In the case of F{sub tot}, the root-mean-square (rms) of the rod-by-rod distribution of differences between calculational and experimental (C-E) values has been found to be 1.1% for HELIOS and for CASMO-4, and 1.3% for MCNP4B. For C{sub 8}, the rms values of the (C-E) distributions are 1.0, 1.3, and 1.4% as obtained with HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B, respectively. The effects of using different data libraries (ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, and JEF-2.2) with MCNP4B were also studied and have been found to be small.

  3. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  4. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2012-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  5. Cross-protection of mice provided by active and passive immunization against experimental infections with virulent Proteus rettgeri and Providencia bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Penner, J L; Whiteley, G R

    1978-01-01

    Immunization with Providencia and Proteus rettgeri Formalin-treated bacterial suspensions produced high levels of protection in mice against homologous and heterologous challenge. Mice were also cross-protected, but less effectively, by passive administration of rabbit type-specific antisera. The protective activity appeared to be due to an antigen common to strains of different O-serotypes. It was not detectable in agglutination reactions, and preliminary results indicate that it is thermostable, not being inactivated in its antibody binding capacity at 121 degrees C for 1 h. PMID:669801

  6. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering effects during pebble loading. Core 4 was determined to be acceptable benchmark experiment.

  7. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering effects during pebble loading. Core 4 was determined to be acceptable benchmark experiment.

  8. Structure of the acidic O-specific polysaccharide from Proteus vulgaris O39 containing 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-non-2-ulosonic acid.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, A N; Perepelov, A V; Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Senchenkova, S N; Wykrota, M; Knirel, Y A; Rozalski, A

    2001-07-12

    The O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O39 was found to contain a new acidic component of Proteus lipopolysaccharides, 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-non-2-ulosonic acid (di-N-acetylpseudaminic acid, Pse5Ac7Ac). The following structure of the polysaccharide was determined by NMR spectroscopy, including 2D 1H,(1)H COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, and 1H,(13)C HMQC experiments, along with selective cleavage of the polysaccharide by solvolysis with anhydrous trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid: -->8)-beta-Psep5Ac7Ac-(2-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1--> The structure established is unique among the O-specific polysaccharides, which is in accordance with classification of the strain studied into a separate Proteus serogroup. PMID:11448686

  9. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database

    PubMed Central

    Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Griffiths, Emma J.; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Shay, Julie A.; Brinkman, FionaS.L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. PMID:26578582

  10. Pseudomonas moraviensis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas vranovensis sp. nov., soil bacteria isolated on nitroaromatic compounds, and emended description of Pseudomonas asplenii.

    PubMed

    Tvrzov, Ludmila; Schumann, Peter; Sprer, Cathrin; Sedlcek, Ivo; Pcov, Zdena; Sedo, Ondrej; Zdrhal, Zbynek; Steffen, Maike; Lang, Elke

    2006-11-01

    Two strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from soil by selective enrichment with nitroaromatics were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas, within the Gammaproteobacteria. Strain 1B4T shared the highest sequence similarity with Pseudomonas koreensis DSM 16610T (99.5%) and Pseudomonas jessenii CCM 4840T (99.3%), and strain 2B2T with Pseudomonas asplenii DSM 17133T (98.9%), Pseudomonas fuscovaginae DSM 7231T (98.9%) and Pseudomonas putida DSM 291T (98.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotype, including chemotaxonomic characteristics, two novel species, Pseudomonas moraviensis sp. nov. with the type strain 1B4T (=CCM 7280T=DSM 16007T) and Pseudomonas vranovensis sp. nov. with the type strain 2B2T (=CCM 7279T=DSM 16006T), are proposed. The description of P. asplenii was emended on the basis of additional data obtained in this study. PMID:17082407

  11. Multifunctional membrane vesicles in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Gram-negative bacteria secrete small particles called membrane vesicles (MVs) into the extracellular milieu. While MVs have important roles in delivering toxins from pathogenic bacteria to eukaryotic cells, these vesicles also play ecological roles necessary for survival in various environmental conditions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which lives in soil, ocean, plant, animal and human environments, has become a model organism for studying these small extracellular particles. Such studies have increased our understanding of the function and biogenesis of bacterial MVs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MVs possess versatile components and chemical substances with unique structures. These characteristics allow MVs to play their multifunctional biological roles, including microbial interaction, maintenance of biofilm structure and host infection. This review summarizes the comprehensive biochemical and physiochemical properties of MVs derived from P.?aeruginosa. These studies will help us understand their biological roles of MVs not only in pathogenicity but also in microbial ecology. Also, the mechanisms of MV production, as currently understood, are discussed. PMID:22103313

  12. Metabolism of Tryptophans by Pseudomonas aureofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Elander, Richard P.; Mabe, James A.; Hamill, Robert H.; Gorman, Marvin

    1968-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Pseudomonas, classified as P. fluorescens biotype D or E or as P. multivorans, were examined for the production of pyrrolnitrin, an antifungal agent synthesized in P. aureofaciens. Eight strains were shown to produce pyrrolnitrin in shake-flask fermentation. Four cultures were from the multivorans taxon, and the remaining four were members of the fluorescens group. The antifungal agent produced in these strains was isolated and shown to be pyrrolnitrin by comparison with an authentic sample. The strains differed markedly with respect to the amount of pyrrolnitrin produced and in their utilization of exogenous tryptophan. Secondary metabolites, not related to pyrrolnitrin, were also examined and compared with those synthesized in P. aureofaciens. Marked differences were noted in both phenazine pigments and phenolic metabolites. The results of the study suggest that the production of pyrrolnitrin may be widespread in selected taxonomic groups of Pseudomonas. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4968963

  13. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  18. Lung abscess due to Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed

    Poe, R H; Marcus, H R; Emerson, G L

    1977-05-01

    A diabetic patient with pneumonia of unspecified origin developed a lung abscess after therapy with ultrasonic nebulization. The etiologic organism was identified as Pseudomonas cepacia. Investigation determined the source of the organism to be the reservoir of the ultrasonic nebulizer, to which the patient was directly exposed through removal of the bottom of the disposable medication cup. When this organism is isolated a nosocomial source of infection should be suspected. PMID:855960

  19. Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Oguiza, José A; Kiil, Kristoffer; Ussery, David W

    2005-12-01

    Genome analyses of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, pv. syringae B728a and pv. phaseolicola 1448A reveal fewer extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors than in related Pseudomonads with different lifestyles. We highlight the presence of a P. syringae-specific ECF sigma factor that is an interesting target for future studies because of its potential role in the adaptation of P. syringae to its specialized phytopathogenic lifestyle. PMID:16257528

  20. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  1. Pseudomonas putida Stimulates Primordia on Agaricus bitorquis.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson B; Fermor, Terry R; Eira, Augusto F; Linde, Giani A

    2016-04-01

    Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricus bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75-85 % of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12 % are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A. bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested. PMID:26742772

  2. Characterization of the tryptophanase operon of Proteus vulgaris. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, amino acid homology, and in vitro synthesis of the leader peptide and regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamath, A V; Yanofsky, C

    1992-10-01

    The tryptophanase (tna) operon of Proteus vulgaris was cloned and characterized and found to be organized similarly to the tna operon of Escherichia coli. Both operons contain two major structural genes, tnaA and tnaB, that encode tryptophanase and a tryptophan permease, respectively. tnaA of P. vulgaris is preceded by a transcribed leader region, encoding a 34-residue leader peptide, TnaC, that contains a single tryptophan residue. The tnaC coding region also has a boxA-like sequence. Regulatory studies performed in P. vulgaris, and with a plasmid carrying the P. vulgaris tna operon in E. coli, established that expression of the Proteus operon was induced by tryptophan and was subject to catabolite repression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies established that translation of the tnaC coding region was essential for induction. Synthesis of the P. vulgaris leader peptide was demonstrated in an in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. Interestingly, the 5 amino acid residues of the TnaC peptide surrounding the sole tryptophan residue are identical in P. vulgaris and E. coli. We conclude that the tna operon of P. vulgaris is also regulated by tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. Homology of tryptophanase and tryptophan permease of P. vulgaris to related proteins from other species is described. PMID:1400314

  3. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O4 containing a new component of bacterial polysaccharides, 4,6-dideoxy-4.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, A V; Babicka, D; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S; Moll, H; Rozalski, A; Zähringer, U; Knirel, Y A

    2001-03-22

    A high-molecular-mass O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus vulgaris O4 lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC. The polysaccharide was studied by chemical methods along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C HMQC, and 1H,13C HMBC experiments. Solvolysis of the polysaccharide with trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid resulted in a GlcpA-(1 --> 3)-GlcNAc disaccharide and a novel amino sugar derivative, 4,6-dideoxy-4-[N-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyryl]-L-alanyl]amino-D-glucose [Qui4N(HbAla)]. On the basis of the data obtained, the following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide was established: --> 4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-Quip4N(HbAla)-(1 --> 3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -->. This structure is unique among the O-specific polysaccharides, which is in accordance with classification of the strain studied in a separate Proteus serogroup. PMID:11322733

  4. GlpC gene is responsible for biofilm formation and defense against phagocytes and imparts tolerance to pH and organic solvents in Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y L; Liu, K S; Yin, X T; Fei, R M

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria are highly resistant to antibiotics, host immune defenses, and other external conditions. The formation of biofilms plays a key role in colonization and infection. To explore the mechanism of biofilm formation, mutant strains of Proteus vulgaris XC 2 were generated by Tn5 random transposon insertion. Only one biofilm defective bacterial species was identified from among 500 mutants. Inactivation of the glpC gene coding an anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase subunit C was identified by sequence analysis of the biofilm defective strain. Differences were detected in the growth phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains under pH, antibiotic, and organic solvent stress conditions. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the phagocytosis of the biofilm defective strain by the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cell line compared to the wild-type strain. This study shows that the glpC gene plays an important role in biofilm formation, in addition to imparting pH, organic solvent, and antibiotic tolerance, and defense against phagocytosis to Proteus sp. The results further clarified the mechanism of biofilm formation at the genomic level, and indicated the importance of the glpC gene in this process. This data may provide innovative therapeutic measures against P. vulgaris infections; furthermore, as an important crocodile pathogen, this study also has important significance in the protection of Chinese alligators. PMID:26400293

  5. In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects of Gold Nanoparticles Coated with Functional Acyl Homoserine Lactone Lactonase Protein from Bacillus licheniformis and Their Antibiofilm Activity against Proteus Species

    PubMed Central

    Vinoj, Gopalakrishnan; Pati, Rashmirekha; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    N-acylated homoserine lactonases are known to inhibit the signaling molecules of the biofilm-forming pathogens. In this study, gold nanoparticles were coated with N-acylated homoserine lactonase proteins (AiiA AuNPs) purified from Bacillus licheniformis. The AiiA AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The synthesized AiiA AuNPs were found to be spherical in shape and 10 to 30 nm in size. Treatment with AiiA protein-coated AuNPs showed maximum reduction in exopolysaccharide production, metabolic activities, and cell surface hydrophobicity and potent antibiofilm activity against multidrug-resistant Proteus species compared to treatment with AiiA protein alone. AiiA AuNPs exhibited potent antibiofilm activity at 2 to 8 μM concentrations without being harmful to the macrophages. We conclude that at a specific dose, AuNPs coated with AiiA can kill bacteria without harming the host cells, thus representing a potential template for the design of novel antibiofilm and antibacterial protein drugs to decrease bacterial colonization and to overcome the problem of drug resistance. In summary, our data suggest that the combined effect of the lactonase and the gold nanoparticles of the AiiA AuNPs has promising antibiofilm activity against biofilm-forming and multidrug-resistant Proteus species. PMID:25403677

  6. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp... Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated with...

  7. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp... Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated with...

  8. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp... Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated with...

  9. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp... Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated with...

  10. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp... Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and E. coli. ; infections associated with...

  11. The Gac Regulon of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 showed that 702 genes were differentially regulated (FC>4, P<0.0001) in a gacS::Tn5 mutant, with 300 and 402 genes up- and down-regulated, respectively. Similar to the Gac-regulon of four other Pseudomonas species, genes involved in motility, b...

  12. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  13. CONSERVATION OF THE RESPONSE REGULATOR GENE GACA IN PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulator gene gacA influences production of several secondary metabolites in Pseudomonas spp. Primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas spp. were developed and a gacA fragment was sequenced from 10 strains isolated from different plant-associated environments. PCR analysis and Sou...

  14. Role of porins in intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed Central

    Parr, T R; Moore, R A; Moore, L V; Hancock, R E

    1987-01-01

    The measured outer membrane permeability of Pseudomonas cepacia to the beta-lactam nitrocefin was low: approximately 10 times less than that of Escherichia coli and comparable to that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The purified P. cepacia porin demonstrated an average single channel conductance in 1 M KCl of 0.23 nS. Images PMID:3032087

  15. Genetic Detection of Pseudomonas spp. in Commercial Amazonian Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

  16. Recombineering using RecET from Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  17. Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, and the availability of genomic sequences now opens the door for discovery of novel natural products with potential roles in the ecology and plant growth promoting properties of these bacteria. The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas f...

  18. Massetolide A Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens?

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, I.; de Kock, M. J. D.; de Waard, P.; van Beek, T. A.; Raaijmakers, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Massetolide A is a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotic produced by various Pseudomonas strains from diverse environments. Cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, and complementation showed that massetolide A biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SS101 is governed by three nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, designated massA, massB, and massC, spanning approximately 30 kb. Prediction of the nature and configuration of the amino acids by in silico analysis of adenylation and condensation domains of the NRPSs was consistent with the chemically determined structure of the peptide moiety of massetolide A. Structural analysis of massetolide A derivatives produced by SS101 indicated that most of the variations in the peptide moiety occur at amino acid positions 4 and 9. Regions flanking the mass genes contained several genes found in other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthesis clusters, which encode LuxR-type transcriptional regulators, ABC transporters, and an RND-like outer membrane protein. In contrast to most Pseudomonas CLP gene clusters known to date, the mass genes are not physically linked but are organized in two separate clusters, with massA disconnected from massB and massC. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of massC is strongly reduced when massB is mutated, suggesting that these two genes function in an operon, whereas transcription of massA is independent of massBC and vice versa. Massetolide A is produced in the early exponential growth phase, and biosynthesis appears not to be regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactone-based quorum sensing. Massetolide A production is essential in swarming motility of P. fluorescens SS101 and plays an important role in biofilm formation. PMID:17993540

  19. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  20. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husseiny, M. I.; El-Aziz, M. Abd; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extra-cellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginosa ATCC 90271, P. aeruginosa (2) and P. aeruginosa (1). The UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extra-cellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  1. [Substrate specificity of lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens].

    PubMed

    Shabanova, E A; Inshakova, T A; Bishliaga, V T; Sergeeva, L N

    1978-01-01

    Substrate specificity of lipase isolated from the culture liquid filtrate of Pseudomonas fluorescens BKM-B-1151 was investigated with respect to vegetable oils and animal fats (olive, sunflower, cotton, mustard and soybean oils; beef and hog fats and their glycerides and fatty acid esters). The preparation showed a high specificity to the quantitative composition of the reaction mixture (substrate: enzyme ratio), chemical structure of the substrate, and the emulgator type (gelatine, gum arabic and Triton X-100). The lipase preparation hydrolyzed oils and water-insoluble fatty acid esters. The latter indicated an involvement of lipase. PMID:97652

  2. Current status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine.

    PubMed

    Michelim, Lessandra; Medeiros, Gregory Saraiva; Zavascki, Alexandre P

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens responsible for a wide variety of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections. Numerous vaccine candidates and several monoclonal antibodies have been developed over the past 40 years but only a few have reached clinical trials and none of these vaccine candidates has obtained market authorization. The understanding of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and its virulence factors is essential in the identification of immunogens that can be used for a P. aeruginosa vaccine. This review summarizes the present status of vaccine development for this important pathogen. PMID:24372247

  3. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable core genome and a highly variable accessory genome. Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  4. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-02-14

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  5. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOAL-CALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. hese results are attributed to differences in the...

  6. Pseudomonas reinekei sp. nov., Pseudomonas moorei sp. nov. and Pseudomonas mohnii sp. nov., novel species capable of degrading chlorosalicylates or isopimaric acid.

    PubMed

    Cmara, Beatriz; Strmpl, Carsten; Verbarg, Susanne; Sprer, Cathrin; Pieper, Dietmar H; Tindall, Brian J

    2007-05-01

    Three bacterial strains, designated MT1(T), RW10(T) and IpA-2(T), had been isolated previously for their ability to degrade chlorosalicylates or isopimaric acid. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that these bacteria are related to species of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the results of DNA-DNA hybridization with several close phylogenetic neighbours revealed a low level of hybridization (less than 57 %). On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness data and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that these isolates represent separate novel species, for which the names Pseudomonas reinekei sp. nov. (type strain MT1(T) =DSM 18361(T)=CCUG 53116(T)), Pseudomonas moorei sp. nov. (type strain RW10(T) =DSM 12647(T)=CCUG 53114(T)) and Pseudomonas mohnii sp. nov. (type strain IpA-2(T) =DSM 18327(T)=CCUG 53115(T)) are proposed. PMID:17473234

  7. Genetics of alkane oxidation by Pseudomonas oleovorans.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, J B; Wubbolts, M G; Witholt, B

    1994-12-01

    Many Pseudomonads are able to use linear alkanes as sole carbon and energy source. The genetics and enzymology of alkane metabolism have been investigated in depth for Pseudomonas oleovorans, which is able to oxidize C5-C12 n-alkanes by virtue of two gene regions, localized on the OCT-plasmid. The so-called alk-genes have been cloned in pLAFR1, and were subsequent analyzed using minicell expression experiments, DNA sequencing and deletion analysis. This has led to the identification and characterization of of the alkBFGHJKL and alkST genes which encode all proteins necessary to convert alkanes to the corresponding acyl-CoA derivatives. These then enter the beta-oxidation-cycle, and can be utilized as carbon- and energy sources. Medium (C6-C12)- or long-chain (C13-C20) n-alkanes can be utilized by many strains, some of which have been partially characterized. The alkane-oxidizing enzymes used by some of these strains (e.g. two P. aeruginosa strains, a P. denitrificans strain and a marine Pseudomonas sp.) appear to be closely related to those encoded by the OCT-plasmid. PMID:7532480

  8. Novel Type III Effectors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, David; Satanower, Shirley; Simovitch, Michal; Belnik, Yana; Zehavi, Meital; Yerushalmi, Gal; Ben-Aroya, Shay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and acute infections in immunocompromised patients. Most P.aeruginosa strains encode an active type III secretion system (T3SS), utilized by the bacteria to deliver effector proteins from the bacterial cell directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Four T3SS effectors have been discovered and extensively studied in P.aeruginosa: ExoT, ExoS, ExoU, and ExoY. This is especially intriguing in light of P.aeruginosas ability to infect a wide range of hosts. We therefore hypothesized that additional T3SS effectors that have not yet been discovered are encoded in the genome of P.aeruginosa. Here, we applied a machine learning classification algorithm to identify novel P.aeruginosa effectors. In this approach, various types of data are integrated to differentiate effectors from the rest of the open reading frames of the bacterial genome. Due to the lack of a sufficient learning set of positive effectors, our machine learning algorithm integrated genomic information from another Pseudomonas species and utilized dozens of features accounting for various aspects of the effector coding genes and their products. Twelve top-ranking predictions were experimentally tested for T3SS-specific translocation, leading to the discovery of two novel T3SS effectors. We demonstrate that these effectors are not part of the injection structural complex and report initial efforts toward their characterization. PMID:25784698

  9. Proteolytic inactivation of cytokines by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Parmely, M; Gale, A; Clabaugh, M; Horvat, R; Zhou, W W

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase are thought to contribute to bacterial invasiveness, tissue damage, and immune suppression in animals and patients infected with the bacterium. This study examined the ability of the two proteases to inactivate a number of cytokines that mediate immune and inflammatory responses. Human recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha were inactivated by both proteases. Murine rIFN-gamma was relatively resistant to alkaline protease but was inactivated by elastase, and human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha and recombinant interleukin-1 beta were resistant to the effects of both proteases. Western immunoblots suggested that cytokine inactivation by these proteases, where it occurred, required only limited proteolysis of the polypeptides. The ability of different P. aeruginosa strains to inactivate IFN-gamma appeared to require the production of both proteases for optimum activity. These results indicate that in vitro cytokine inactivation by Pseudomonas proteases is selective, requires only limited proteolysis, and in certain instances reflects the cooperative effects of both proteases. Images PMID:2117578

  10. The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the core-lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus vulgaris serotype O25.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, E; Cedzynski, M; Rozalski, A; Ziolkowski, A; Swierzko, A

    2000-10-01

    The following structure of the lipid A-core region of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus vulgaris serotype O25 was determined by using NMR and chemical analysis of the core oligosaccharide, obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS, of the products of alkaline deacylation of the LPS, and of the products of LPS deamination: [structure: see text] Terminal residues of beta-GlcNAc and beta-Kdo (indicated by bold italics) are present alternatively in approximately 3:2 amount, leaving no unsubstituted beta-Gal. All sugars are in the pyranose form, alpha-Hep is the residue of L-glycero-alpha-D-manno-Hep, alpha-DDHep is the residue of D-glycero-alpha-D-manno-Hep. PMID:11093709

  11. Heterogeneity of heat-resistant proteases from milk Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Vandriesche, Gonzalez; Coorevits, An; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Jonghe, Valerie; Dewettinck, Koen; De Vos, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Block, Jan

    2009-07-31

    Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas lundensis and members of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group may spoil Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated milk and dairy products, due to the production of heat-stable proteases in the cold chain of raw milk. Since the aprX gene codes for a heat-resistant protease in P. fluorescens, the presence of this gene has also been investigated in other members of the genus. For this purpose an aprX-screening PCR test has been developed. Twenty-nine representatives of important milk Pseudomonas species and thirty-five reference strains were screened. In 42 out of 55 investigated Pseudomonas strains, the aprX gene was detected, which proves the potential of the aprX-PCR test as a screening tool for potentially proteolytic Pseudomonas strains in milk samples. An extensive study of the obtained aprX-sequences on the DNA and the amino acid level, however, revealed a large heterogeneity within the investigated milk isolates. Although this heterogeneity sets limitations to a general detection method for all proteolytic Pseudomonas strains in milk, it offers a great potential for the development of a multiplex PCR screening test targeting individual aprX-genes. Furthermore, our data illustrated the potential use of the aprX gene as a taxonomic marker, which may help in resolving the current taxonomic deadlock in the P. fluorescens group. PMID:19481283

  12. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  13. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E....

  14. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E....

  15. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E....

  16. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E....

  17. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., Streptococcus spp., and E. coli; genitourinary tract (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E....

  18. Biofilm formation and cellulose expression among diverse environmental Pseudomonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Ude, Susanne; Arnold, Dawn L; Moon, Christina D; Timms-Wilson, Tracey; Spiers, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    The ability to form biofilms is seen as an increasingly important colonization strategy among both pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A survey of 185 plant-associated, phytopathogenic, soil and river Pseudomonas isolates resulted in 76% producing biofilms at the air-liquid (A-L) interface after selection in static microcosms. Considerable variation in biofilm phenotype was observed, including waxy aggregations, viscous and floccular masses, and physically cohesive biofilms with continuously varying strengths over 1500-fold. Calcofluor epifluorescent microscopy identified cellulose as the matrix component in biofilms produced by Pseudomonas asplenii, Pseudomonas corrugata, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas savastanoi and Pseudomonas syringae isolates. Cellulose expression and biofilm formation could be induced by the constitutively active WspR19 mutant of the cyclic-di-GMP-associated, GGDEF domain-containing response regulator involved in the P. fluorescens SBW25 wrinkly spreader phenotype and cellular aggregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. WspR19 could also induce P. putida KT2440, which otherwise did not produce a biofilm or express cellulose, as well as Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2, both of which express cellulose yet lack WspR homologues. Statistical analysis of biofilm parameters suggest that biofilm development is a more complex process than that simply described by the production of attachment and matrix components and bacterial growth. This complexity was also seen in multivariate analysis as a species-ecological habitat effect, underscoring the fact that in vitro biofilms are abstractions of those surface and volume colonization processes used by bacteria in their natural environments. PMID:17014498

  19. Oxidation of substituted phenols by Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Gibson, D.T.

    1988-06-01

    The biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida involves the initial conversion of the parent molecules to cis-dihydrodiols by dioxygenase enzyme systems. The cis-dihydrodiols are then converted to the corresponding catechols by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 uses a similar system for growth on toluene or dichlorobenzenes. We tested the wild-type organisms and a series of mutants for their ability to transform substituted phenols after induction with toluene. When grown on toluene, both wild-type organisms converted methyl-, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols. Mutant strains deficient in dihydrodiol dehydrogenase or catechol oxygenase activities also transformed the phenols. Oxidation of phenols was closely correlated with the induction and activity of the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

  20. Vesiculation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa under SOS

    PubMed Central

    Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F.; Yu, JiehJuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E.; Weitao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity. PMID:22448133

  1. Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M S; Davis, J W; Wolfram, J H; Chapatwala, K D

    1991-01-01

    A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase. PMID:1929388

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594

  4. Purification of bromoperoxidase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    van Pe, K H; Lingens, F

    1985-03-01

    A Bromoperoxidase has been isolated and purified from Pseudomonas aureofaciens ATCC 15926 mutant strain ACN. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. This bromoperoxidase can utilize bromide ions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and a halogen acceptor for the catalytic formation of carbon-halogen bonds. The homogeneous enzyme also has peroxidase and catalase activity. Based on the results from gel filtration and ultracentrifugation, the molecular weight of this procaryotic bromoperoxidase is 155,000 to 158,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows a single band having the mobility of a 77,000-molecular-weight species. We thus conclude that this bromoperoxidase exists in solution as a dimeric species. The heme prosthetic group of bromoperoxidase is ferriprotoporphyrin IX. The spectral properties of the native and reduced enzyme are reported. This bromoperoxidase is the first halogenating enzyme purified from procaryotic sources. PMID:3972772

  5. Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria. PMID:25014900

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis masquerading as chronic uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Kalpana Badami; Jayadev, Chaitra

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye of 15-day duration after having undergone an uneventful cataract surgery 10 months back. He had been previously treated with systemic steroids for recurrent uveitis postoperatively on three occasions in the same eye. B-scan ultrasonography showed multiple clumplike echoes suggestive of vitreous inflammation. Aqueous tap revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The patient was treated with intravitreal ciprofloxacin and vancomycin along with systemic ciprofloxacin with good clinical response. Even a virulent organism such as P.aeruginosa can present as a chronic uveitis, which, if missed, can lead to a delay in accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23803484

  7. Maintenance of chromosome structure in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Rybenkov, Valentin V.

    2014-01-01

    Replication and segregation of genetic information is an activity central to the well-being of all living cells. Concerted mechanisms have evolved that ensure that each cellular chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle and then faithfully segregated into daughter cells. Despite remarkable taxonomic diversity, these mechanisms are largely conserved across eubacteria, although species specific distinctions can often be noted. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about maintenance of the chromosome structure in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We focus on global chromosome organization and its dynamics during DNA replication and cell division. Special emphasis is made on contrasting these activities in P. aeruginosa and other bacteria. Among unique P. aeruginosa features are the presence of two distinct autonomously replicating sequences and multiple condensins, which suggests existence of novel regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24863732

  8. DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACTERIOPHAGES IN LAKE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence and interaction between newly isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and resident bacteriophages indigenous to a freshwater environment was monitored over 45 days in lake water microcosms. he interaction between susceptible and resistant bacteria with pure pha...

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae NCPPB 2254.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Jiang, Hongshan; Tian, Qian; Hu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae is a pathogen that causes bacterial decline of stone fruit. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for P. syringae pv. persicae, which was isolated from Prunus persica. PMID:26044420

  11. RecTEPsy mediated recombineering in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently developed Pseudomonas syringae recombineering system simplifies the procedure for installing specific mutations at a chosen genomic locus. The procedure involves, transforming P. syringae cells expressing recombineering functions with a PCR product that contains desired changes flanked b...

  12. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  13. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  14. A Fatal Case of "Bullous Erysipelas-like" Pseudomonas Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sam Shiyao; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Huang, Jing Xiang; Tan, Kong-Bing; Aw, Derrick Chen-Wee

    2016-01-01

    Erysipelas is a generally benign superficial bacterial skin infection, and its bullous form constitutes a rare and more severe variant. We describe the first and fatal case of "bullous erysipelas-like" septic vasculitis due to Pseudomonas bacteremi. A 69-year-old Chinese man presenting with diarrhea and septic shock initially began to rapidly develop sharply defined erythematous plaques with non-hemorrhagic bullae over his lower limbs. Culture of the aspirate from the bullae was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was also consistent with his blood cultures showing Pseudomonas bacteremia. Histology of the skin lesion showed microthrombi and neutrophilic infiltrates in blood vessels with Gram-negative bacilli extruding from the vessel walls, characteristic of septic vasculitis. The bullous erysipelas-like lesions seen in this patient represents a rare manifestation of both septic vasculitis and Pseudomonas infection. PMID:26955132

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cyanogenic Phosphate-Solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. Strain CCOS 191, a Close Relative of Pseudomonas mosselii

    PubMed Central

    Pothier, Joël F.; Ruinelli, Michela; Blom, Jochen; Frasson, David; Koechli, Chantal; Fabbri, Carlotta; Brandl, Helmut; Duffy, Brion; Sievers, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the isolate Pseudomonas sp. CCOS 191. This strain is able to dissolve phosphate minerals and form cyanide. The genome sequence is used to establish the phylogenetic relationship of this species. PMID:26067963

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and isoquinoline alkaloids of selected papaveraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Opletal, Lubomr; Lo?rek, Miroslav; Fra?kov, Adla; Chlebek, Jakub; Smd, Jakub; Hot'lkov, Anna; Safratov, Marcela; Hulcov, Daniela; Klou?ek, Pavel; Rozkot, Miroslav; Cahlkov, Lucie

    2014-12-01

    Alkaloidal extracts of seven selected plants of the family Papaveraceae were studied with respect to their activity against six strains of pathogenic bacteria and their alkaloidal fingerprint. Twenty-four alkaloids were determined by GC/MS, and twenty of them identified from their mass spectra, retention times and retention indexes. In the antibacterial assay, three Gram-positive (Enterorococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. hyicus), and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains were used. The most promising antimicrobial activity was shown by the alkaloidal extract of Macleaya cordata with MIC values of 16 ?g/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, 32 ?g/mL for Enterococcus faecalis and 64 ?g/mL for Staphylococcus hyicus and Escherichia coli. All the tested pure isoquinoline alkaloids were considered inactive within the tested concentrations. PMID:25632464

  17. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  18. Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2014-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics. PMID:24262582

  19. Effectiveness and safety of ofloxacin in chronic otitis media and chronic sinusitis in adult outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gehanno, P; Cohen, B

    1993-01-01

    A multicentric study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerance of ofloxacin in the treatment of chronic sinusitis and chronic otitis (CSOM) in outpatients. Two hundred milligrams of ofloxacin was administered twice a day orally for 12 days in 198 patients with chronic sinusitis and 215 patients with CSOM. Cultures for bacteriology were carried out before treatment. The spectrum of pathogens sensitive to ofloxacin included Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Haemophilus influenzae. Higher concentrations of ofloxacin were obtained at sites of infection than in serum. Favorable results were achieved clinically in 93.7% of chronic sinusitis cases and 93.9% of CSOM cases. Adverse effects occurred in only 4.1% of cases. These results support the use of ofloxacin as the drug of first choice in the treatment of chronic sinusitis and CSOM in adult outpatients. PMID:8476579

  20. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  1. [Descriptive study of infectious ear disease in relation to summer].

    PubMed

    Burgos Snchez, A; Menaches Guardiola, M I; Gras Albert, J R; Talavera Snchez, J

    2000-01-01

    A descriptive study was made of infectious ear disease (including diffuse otitis externa, otomycosis, acute-on-chronic otitis media, and superinfection of a radical mastoidectomy cavity) in relation to changes of weather and habits in summer. During the months of June, July, and August 1996, 179 patients were evaluated in the emergency room of the Alicante General University Hospital, Spain. Average patient age at presentation was 30.52 (+/- 20.08) years and 56% were men. The most frequent disease was diffuse otitis externa (78%) followed by acute-on-chronic otitis media (12%), otomycosis (8%), and superinfection of a radical mastoidectomy cavity (2%). The most frequently involved microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diffuse otitis externa, Aspergillus niger and Candida in otomycosis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus in acute-on-chronic otitis media. Patients were treated by cleaning detritus and secretions, usually followed by topical antibiotics for a maximum period of one week. PMID:10799927

  2. Discrimination of selected species of pathogenic bacteria using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and principal components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Siqueira e Oliveira, Fernanda SantAna; Giana, Hector Enrique; Silveira, Landulfo

    2012-10-01

    A method, based on Raman spectroscopy, for identification of different microorganisms involved in bacterial urinary tract infections has been proposed. Spectra were collected from different bacterial colonies (Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, and Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.), grown on culture medium (agar), using a Raman spectrometer with a fiber Raman probe (830 nm). Colonies were scraped from the agar surface and placed on an aluminum foil for Raman measurements. After preprocessing, spectra were submitted to a principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance (PCA/MD) discrimination algorithm. We found that the mean Raman spectra of different bacterial species show similar bands, and S. aureus was well characterized by strong bands related to carotenoids. PCA/MD could discriminate Gram-positive bacteria with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and Gram-negative bacteria with sensitivity ranging from 58 to 88% and specificity ranging from 87% to 99%.

  3. A new antibacterial compound produced by an indigenous marine bacteria--fermentation, isolation, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Uzair, Bushra; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Kousar, Farzana

    2006-12-01

    The use of microorganisms for biological purpose has become an effective alternative to control pathogens. A marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from Eal fish of Baluchistan coast of Pakistan. This strain produced a bactericidal antibiotic against environmental and clinical isolates. In this study, we purified bactericidal antibiotic from the ethyl acetate extract of the cells of P. aeruginosa and analyzed its chemical structure. Based on spectrometric analysis, this compound 1 is proposed to be 1-methyl-1,4 dihydroquinoline and is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio aliginolyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter faecium but it is not active against G streptococci, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentration for Gram-positive bacteria was between 50 and 75 microg mL(-1) and for Gram-negative bacteria 75-100 microg mL(-1). PMID:17393659

  4. Synergy of nitric oxide and silver sulfadiazine against Gram-negative, -positive, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Deupree, Susan M.; Privett, Benjamin J.; Backlund, Christopher J.; Rao, Kavitha S.; Johnson, C. Bryce; Coneski, Peter N.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    The synergistic activity between nitric oxide (NO) released from diazeniumdiolate-modified proline (PROLI/NO) and silver (I) sulfadiazine (AgSD) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using a modified broth microdilution technique and a checkerboard-type assay. The combination of NO and AgSD was defined as synergistic when the fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) was calculated to be <0.5 Gram-negative species were generally more susceptible to the individual antimicrobial agents than the Gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro synergistic activity of AgSD and NO observed against a range of pathogens strongly supports future investigation of this therapeutic combination, particularly for its potential use in the treatment of chronic and burn wounds. PMID:20939612

  5. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens...

  10. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  11. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment

    PubMed Central

    Remold, Susanna K.; Purdy-Gibson, Megan E.; France, Michael T.; Hundley, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms’ distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively). Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found. PMID:26023929

  12. [Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, N V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Krasil'nikova, E N; Karava?ko, G I

    2006-01-01

    The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri VKM B-975T. Upon the introduction of CN- and SCN- into cell suspensions of strains 18 and 21 in phosphate buffer (pH 8.8), the production of NH4+ was observed. Due to the high rate of their utilization, NH3, NH4+, and CNO- were absent from the culture liquids of P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18 grown with CN- or SCN-. Both Pseudomonas strains decomposed SCN- via cyanate production. The cyanase activity was 0.75 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. putida strain 21 and 1.26 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. stutzeri strain 18. The cyanase activity was present in the cells grown with SCN- but absent in cells grown with NH4+. Strain 21 of P. putida was a more active CN- decomposer than strain 18 of P. stutzeri. Ammonium and CO2 were the terminal nitrogen and carbon products of CN- and SCN- decomposition. The terminal sulfur products of SCN- decomposition by P. stutzeri strain 18 and P. putida strain 21 were thiosulfate and tetrathionate, respectively. The strains utilized the toxic compounds in the anabolism only, as sources of nitrogen (CN- and SCN-) and sulfur (SCN-). The pathway of thiocyanate decomposition by the association of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas is proposed based on the results obtained. PMID:16871797

  13. Bacteriophage-Mediated Control of a Two-Species Biofilm Formed by Microorganisms Causing Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in an In Vitro Urinary Catheter Model

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms from a patient or their environment may colonize indwelling urinary catheters, forming biofilm communities on catheter surfaces and increasing patient morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effect of pretreating hydrogel-coated silicone catheters with mixtures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteriophages on the development of single- and two-species biofilms in a multiday continuous-flow in vitro model using artificial urine. Novel phages were purified from sewage, characterized, and screened for their abilities to reduce biofilm development by clinical isolates of their respective hosts. Our screening data showed that artificial urine medium (AUM) is a valid substitute for human urine for the purpose of evaluating uropathogen biofilm control by these bacteriophages. Defined phage cocktails targeting P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis were designed based on the biofilm inhibition screens. Hydrogel-coated catheters were pretreated with one or both cocktails and challenged with approximately 1 103 CFU/ml of the corresponding pathogen(s). The biofilm growth on the catheter surfaces in AUM was monitored over 72 to 96 h. Phage pretreatment reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm counts by 4 log10 CFU/cm2 (P ? 0.01) and P. mirabilis biofilm counts by >2 log10 CFU/cm2 (P ? 0.01) over 48 h. The presence of P. mirabilis was always associated with an increase in lumen pH from 7.5 to 9.5 and with eventual blockage of the reactor lines. The results of this study suggest that pretreatment of a hydrogel urinary catheter with a phage cocktail can significantly reduce mixed-species biofilm formation by clinically relevant bacteria. PMID:25487795

  14. Comparative sensitivity and resistance of some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri to antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A. D.; Mills, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the sensitivities to various antibiotic and non-antibiotic substances of some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. stutzeri, the latter including strains isolated from eye and other cosmetic products and from other sources. Whereas P. aeruginosa strains showed a high resistance to cetrimide and to benzalkonium chloride, the P. stutzeri strains were generally more sensitive to these and to chlorhexidine. The P. stutzeri strains were also more sensitive to the various antibiotics tested. The loss of the ability to transfer an R factor by two strains of P. aeruginosa caused no significant change in their drug sensitivity pattern. PMID:4369876

  15. Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil.

    PubMed

    Toro, Marcia; Ramrez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria Jos; Velzquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a bacterial strain designated PCAVU11(T) in the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in rhizospheric soil of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Gurico state, Venezuela. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.2?% sequence similarity with respect to the most closely related species, Pseudomonas taiwanensis, and 99.1?% with respect to Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas monteilii, on the basis of which PCAVU11(T) was classified as representing a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation and showed sequence similarities lower than 95?% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Strain PCAVU11(T) showed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were 16?:?0 (25.7?%), 18?:?1?7c (20.4?%), 17?:?0 cyclo (11.5?%) and 16?:?1?7c/15?:?0 iso 2-OH in summed feature 3 (10.8?%). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, the arginine dihydrolase system was present but nitrate reduction, ?-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. Strain PCAVU11(T) grew at 44 C and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 56?% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain PCAVU11(T) as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, which we propose to name Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov. The type strain is PCAVU11(T) (?=?LMG 27394(T)?=?CECT 8262(T)). PMID:23847284

  16. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; shirazi, Mohammad khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 ?g/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (Table1). Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLAN?) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat infectious diseases. PMID:25780663

  17. Regulation of alkane oxidation in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Grund, A; Shapiro, J; Fennewald, M; Bacha, P; Leahy, J; Markbreiter, K; Nieder, M; Toepfer, M

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the appearance of whole-cell oxidizing activity for n-alkanes and their oxidation products in strains of Pseudomonas putida carrying the OCT plasmid. Our results indicate that the OCT plasmid codes for inducible alkane-hydroxylating and primary alcohol-dehydrogenating activities and that the chromosome codes for constitutive oxidizing activities for primary alcohols, aliphatic aldehydes, and fatty acids. Mutant isolation confirms the presence of an alcohol dehydrogenase locus on the OCT plasmid and indicated the presence of multiple alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase loci on the P. putida chromosome. Induction tests with various compounds indicate that inducer recognition has specificity for chain length and can be affected by the degree of oxidation of the carbon chain. Some inducers are neither growth nor respiration substrates. Growth tests with and without a gratuitous inducer indicate that undecane is not a growth substrate because it does not induce alkane hydroxylase activity. Using a growth test for determining induction of the plasmid alcohol dehydrogenase it is possible to show that heptane induces this activity in hydroxylase-negative mutants. This suggests that unoxidized alkane molecules are the physiological inducers of both plasmid activities. PMID:1150626

  18. Gallium toxicity and adaptation in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    al-Aoukaty, A; Appanna, V D; Falter, H

    1992-05-01

    When cultured in a defined citrate medium supplemented with 1 mM gallium (III) Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 experienced a lag phase of 40 h with no apparent diminution in cellular yield. Following initial uptake of the metal-ligand complex, gallium was secreted in the spent fluid. This lag phase was abolished either by inoculating the medium with gallium adapted cells or by inclusion of iron (III) (20 microM) in the growth medium. In the culture enriched with both gallium and iron (III), X-ray fluorescence spectra revealed a gradual decrease of gallium from the spent fluid as growth progressed. In a phosphate deficient medium, no cellular multiplication was observed in the presence of gallium. The inhibitory influence mediated by the trivalent metal was reversed by the addition of (20 microM) iron (III). Although bacterial growth was accompanied by an initial decrease in exocellular gallium, a marked increment in the concentration of this metal was observed in the spent fluid at stationary phase of growth. Citrate was not detected in the exocellular fluid at cessation of bacterial multiplication. Electrophoretic analyses revealed numerous variations in the cytoplasmic protein profiles of the control and metal stressed cells. Gallium induced the syntheses of polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 89 kDa, 50 kDa, 39 kDa, 26 kDa and 12 kDa. PMID:1624126

  19. The quinohaemoprotein lupanine hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Hopper, David J; Kaderbhai, Mustak A

    2003-04-11

    Lupanine hydroxylase catalyses the first reaction in the catabolism of the alkaloid lupanine by Pseudomonas putida. It dehydrogenates the substrate, which can then be hydrated. It is a monomeric protein of M(r) 72,000 and contains a covalently bound haem and a molecule of PQQ. The gene for this enzyme has been cloned and sequenced and the derived protein sequence has a 26 amino acid signal sequence at the N-terminal for translocation of the protein to the periplasm. Many of the features seen in the sequence of lupanine hydroxylase are common with other quinoproteins including the W-motifs that are characteristic of the eight-bladed propeller structure of methanol dehydrogenase. However, the unusual disulfide bridge between adjacent cysteines that is present in some PQQ-containing enzymes is absent in lupanine hydroxylase. The C-terminal domain contains characteristics of a cytochrome c and overall the sequence shows similarities with that of the quinohaemoprotein, alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni. The gene coding for lupanine hydroxylase has been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and a procedure has been developed to renature and reactivate the enzyme, which was found to be associated with the inclusion bodies. Reactivation required addition of PQQ and was dependent on calcium ions. PMID:12686118

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: mechanisms of immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is implicated in many chronic infections and is readily isolated from chronic wounds, medical devices, and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa is believed to persist in the host organism due to its capacity to form biofilms, which protect the aggregated, biopolymer-embedded bacteria from the detrimental actions of antibiotic treatments and host immunity. A key component in the protection against innate immunity is rhamnolipid, which is a quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factor. QS is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism used to coordinate expression of virulence and protection of aggregated biofilm cells. Rhamnolipids are known for their ability to cause hemolysis and have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, for example, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In this chapter, the interplay between P. aeruginosa and the PMNs in chronic infections is discussed with focus on the role of rhamnolipids and extracellular DNA. PMID:24377853