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1

Effect of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Macrolides on Expression of Flagellin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we showed by molecular analysis that the inhibition of motility by macrolides in Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was well correlated with the loss of the expression of flagellin. Erythro- mycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin at subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) suppressed the expres- sion of flagellin dose dependently. Azithromycin had the strongest inhibitory effect on the expression of

KUMIKO KAWAMURA-SATO; YOSHITSUGU IINUMA; TADAO HASEGAWA; TOSHINOBU HORII; TAKAFUMI YAMASHINO; MICHIO OHTA

2000-01-01

2

Collaborative Surface Migration Behavior of Proteus mirabilis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collaborative migration behavior exerted by Proteus mirabilis cells on the surface of a low-agar medium. The organisms were differentiating into elongated hyperflagellates and gathering for migration.

American Society For Microbiology;

2008-11-07

3

Production of superoxide dismutases from Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris expressed a combination of superoxide dismutase (Sod) activities, which was assigned to FeSod1, FeSod2 and MnSod for P. mirabilis, and FeSod, MnSod and CuZnSod for P. vulgaris. Production of the Sod proteins was dependent on the availability of iron, whether cells were grown under anaerobiosis or aerobiosis and growth phase. Nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol inhibited

Tressia M. Dayton; Karen A. Diefenbach; Michelle L. Fuller; Joshua Valtos; Eric C. Niederhoffer

1996-01-01

4

Anti-biofilm activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles and selenium dioxide against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) against the biofilm produced by clinically isolated bacterial strains compared to that of selenium dioxide. Thirty strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from various specimens of the patients hospitalized in different hospitals (Kerman, Iran). Quantification of the biofilm using microtiter plate assay method introduced 30% of S. aureus, 13% of P. aeruginosa and 17% of P. mirabilis isolates as severely adherent strains. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Se NPs (produced by Bacillus sp. MSh-1) showed individual and spherical nano-structure in the size range of 80-220nm. Obtained results of the biofilm formation revealed that selenium nanoparticles inhibited the biofilm of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis by 42%, 34.3%, and 53.4%, respectively, compared to that of the non-treated samples. Effect of temperature and pH on the biofilm formation in the presence of Se NPs and SeO2 was also evaluated. PMID:25175509

Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Forootanfar, Hamid; Golkari, Yaser; Mohammadi-Khorsand, Tayebe; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza

2015-01-01

5

Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

In a survey of resistance to amoxicillin among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 10 TEM-type ?-lactamases were characterized: (i) the well-known penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, the extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-3 and TEM-24, and the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) TEM-44 and (ii) five novel enzymes, a penicillinase TEM-57 similar to TEM-1, an ESBL TEM-66 similar to TEM-3, and three IRTs, TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74. The penicillinase TEM-57 and the ESBL TEM-66 differed from TEM-1 and TEM-3, respectively, by the amino acid substitution Gly-92?Asp (nucleotide mutation G-477?A). This substitution could have accounted for the decrease in pIs (5.2 for TEM-57 and 6.0 for TEM-66) but did not necessarily affect the intrinsic activities of these enzymes. The IRT TEM-65 was an IRT-1-like IRT (Cys-244) related to TEM-2 (Lys-39). The two other IRTs, TEM-73 and TEM-74, were related to IRT-1 (Cys-244) and IRT-2 (Ser-244), respectively, and harbored the amino acid substitutions Leu-21?Phe and Thr-265?Met. In this study, the ESBLs TEM-66, TEM-24, and TEM-3 were encoded by large (170- to 180-kb) conjugative plasmids that exhibited similar patterns after digestion and hybridization with the TEM and AAC(6?)I probes. The three IRTs TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74 were encoded by plasmids that ranged in size from 42 to 70 kb but for which no transfer was obtained. The characterization of five new plasmid-mediated TEM-type ?-lactamases and the first report of TEM-24 in P. mirabilis are evidence of the wide diversity of ?-lactamases produced in this species and of its possible role as a ?-lactamase-encoding plasmid reservoir. PMID:10543745

Bonnet, R.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Chanal, C.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

1999-01-01

6

Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis to Brown Tree Frogs (Litoria ewingii)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia liquifaciens. Here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) associated with an outbreak of fatal dermatosepticemia in New Zealand Litoria ewingii frogs. A bath challenge method was used to expose test frogs to individual bacterial species (2 × 107 cfu/mL in pond water); control frogs were exposed to uninfected pond water. None of the control frogs or those exposed to A. hydrophila or P. mirabilis showed any morbidity or mortality. Morbidity and mortality was 40% among frogs exposed to K. pneumonia, and the organism was reisolated from the hearts, spleens, and livers of affected animals. PMID:20412685

Schadich, Ermin; Cole, Anthony LJ

2010-01-01

7

Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate C05028.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA of Proteus mirabilis C05028 was sequenced by an Illumina HiSeq platform and was assembled to 39 scaffolds with a total length of 3.8 Mb. Next, open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and were annotated by the KEGG, COG, and NR databases. Finally, we found special virulence factors only existing in P. mirabilis C05028. PMID:24675851

Shi, Xiaolu; Zhu, Yuanfang; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Chen, Qiongcheng; Yuan, Yanting; Ni, Peixiang; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

2014-01-01

8

Influence of quorum sensing signal molecules on biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis O18.  

PubMed

The influence of basis of quorum sensing molecules on Proteus strains is much less known as compared to Pseudomonas or Escherichia. We have previously shown that a series of acylated homoserine lactones (acyl-HSL) does not influence the ureolytic, proteolytic, or hemolytic abilities, and that the swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis rods is strain specific. The aim of the presented study was to find out if the presence of a series of acyl-HSL influences biofilm formation of P. mirabilis laboratory strain belonging to O18 serogroup. This serogroup is characterized by the presence of a unique non-carbohydrate component, namely phosphocholine. Escherichia coli and P. mirabilis O18 strains used in this work contains cloned plasmids encoding fluorescent protein genes with constitutive gene expression. In mixed biofilms in stationary and continuous flow conditions, P. mirabilis O18 overgrow whole culture. P. mirabilis O18 strain has genetically proved a presence of AI-2 quorum sensing system. Differences in biofilm structure were observed depending on the biofilm type and culture methods. From tested acylated homoserine lactones (BHL, HHL, OHL, DHL, dDHL, tDHL), a significant influence had BHL on thickness, structure, and the amount of exopolysaccharides produced by biofilms formed by P. mirabilis O18 pDsRed(2). PMID:22198843

Stankowska, Dorota; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Rozalska, Sylwia; Grosicka, Michalina; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Kaca, Wieslaw

2012-01-01

9

Urinary virulence of Proteus mirabilis in two experimental mouse models.  

PubMed Central

Two experimental mouse models were tested for their suitability in measuring urinary virulence of Proteus mirabilis. In the first model, the kidney-infecting dose and lethal dose were measured. In the second model, the kinetics of the numbers of bacteria in the kidneys and other organs of the mouse were monitored for 13 h after injection. PMID:7047396

Peerbooms, P G; Marian, A; Verweij, J J; MacLaren, D M

1982-01-01

10

THE NATURE OF COLICIN K FROM PROTEUS MIRABILIS  

PubMed Central

The colicinogenic factor K has been transferred from E. coli K 235 to Proteus mirabilis. The DNA of the colicinogenic Proteus has been shown to contain a small amount of a satellite DNA which presumably harbors the Col K factor. In the presence of mitomycin C the colicinogenic Proteus secretes colicin K into the growth medium. The bacteriocin has been purified by chromatography and obtained as an immunologically homogeneous substance unconjugated with other antigens of the Proteus bacillus. Proteus colicin K is a protein of relatively low molecular weight. It contains all of the usual amino acids except cysteine and is free of lipids and polysaccharides. The bacteriocin can be separated by electrofocusing into two major components. The latter have the same biological properties but differ in their specific electrical charges. PMID:4986216

Jesaitis, Margeris A.

1970-01-01

11

Evaluation of Proteus mirabilis structural fimbrial proteins as antigens against urinary tract infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) and produce several types of different fimbriae, including mannose-resistant\\/Proteus-like fimbriae, uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA), and P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF). Different authors have related these fimbriae with different aspects of P. mirabilis pathogenesis, although the precise role of fimbriae in UTI has not yet been elucidated. In this work we

Rafael Pellegrino; Umberto Galvalisi; Paola Scavone; Vanessa Sosa; Pablo Zunino

2003-01-01

12

Ability of Proteus mirabilis to Swarm over Urethral Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Proteus mirabilis to swarm over various types of urinary catheters. The test strain was found to swarm over catheters for distances of up to\\u000a 10?cm within 24?h. Migration was significantly more rapid over hydrogel-coated latex catheters than over all-silicone or silicone-coated\\u000a latex catheters. Scanning electron micrographs revealed discrete rafts

D. Stickler; G. Hughes

1999-01-01

13

Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single- species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections. PMID:23042564

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2013-01-01

14

Vaccination with Proteus Toxic Agglutinin, a Hemolysin-Independent Cytotoxin In Vivo, Protects against Proteus mirabilis Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complicated urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are associated with severe pathology in the bladder and kidney. To investigate the roles of two established cytotoxins, the HpmA hemolysin, a secreted cytotoxin, and proteus toxic agglutinin (Pta), a surface-associated cytotoxin, mutant analysis was used in conjunction with a mouse model of ascending UTI. Inactivation of pta, but not inactivation

Praveen Alamuri; Kathryn A. Eaton; Stephanie D. Himpsl; Sara N. Smith; Harry L. T. Mobley

2009-01-01

15

Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

2000-05-01

16

Effect of Curcumin Against Proteus mirabilis During Crystallization of Struvite from Artificial Urine  

PubMed Central

We investigated the activity of curcumin against Proteus mirabilis and the struvite crystallization in relation to urinary stones formation. In order to evaluate an activity of curcumin we performed an in vitro experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that curcumin exhibits the effect against Proteus mirabilis inhibiting the activity of urease—an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. Addition of curcumin increases the induction time and decreases the efficiency of growth of struvite compared with the absence of curcumin. Interestingly, the addition of curcumin does not affect the crystal morphology and habit. In conclusion, curcumin has demonstrated its significant potential to be further investigated for its use in the case of struvite crystallization induced for the growth by Proteus mirabilis in relation to urinary stone formation. PMID:21808656

Prywer, Jolanta; Torzewska, Agnieszka

2012-01-01

17

A structured-population model of Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present continuous age- and space-structured models and numerical computations of Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development. We base the mathematical representation of the cell-cycle dynamics of Proteus mirabilis on those developed by Esipov and Shapiro, which are the best understood aspects of the system, and we make minimum assumptions\\u000a about less-understood mechanisms, such as precise forms of the

Bruce P. Ayati

2006-01-01

18

Modeling the role of the cell cycle in regulating Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present models and computational results which indicate that the spatial and temporal regularity seen in Proteus mirabilis swarm-colony development is largely an expression of a sharp age of dedifferentiation in the cell cycle from motile swarmer cells to immotile dividing cells (also called swimmer or vegetative cells.) This contrasts strongly with reaction-diffusion models of Proteus behavior that ignore or

Bruce P. Ayati

2007-01-01

19

MrpB Functions as the Terminator for Assembly of Proteus mirabilis Mannose-Resistant Proteus-Like Fimbriae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis, commonly associated with complicated uri- nary tract infections (UTIs), expresses several types of fimbrial structures that promote attachment to and colonization of host mucosal surfaces (8). Among them, mannose-resistant Proteus- like (MR\\/P) fimbria, a surface structure responsible for man- nose-resistant hemagglutination, has been shown to contribute significantly to the development of experimental UTIs. First, it was shown that

XIN LI; HARRY L. T. MOBLEY

1998-01-01

20

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

PubMed Central

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:22219724

Xue, Chuan; Budrene, Elena O.; Othmer, Hans G.

2011-01-01

21

DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Mutations Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were determined by genetic analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This study included the P. mirabilis type strain ATCC 29906 and 29 clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility (MIC, 0.5 to 2 g\\/ml) or resistance (MIC, >4 g\\/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles for

L. M. Weigel; G. J. Anderson; F. C. Tenover

2002-01-01

22

Serotyping of Proteus mirabilis clinical strains based on lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide and core oligosaccharide structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to serotype Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection (UTI) strains based on chemically defined O-antigens with the use of two clinical collections from\\u000a Sweden and Poland consisting of 99 and 24 UTI strains, respectively. A simple two-step serotyping scheme was proposed using\\u000a enzyme immunoassay with heat-stable surface antigens of Proteus cells and immunoblotting with isolated

W. Kaca; J. Glenska; L. Lechowicz; S. Grabowski; A. Brauner; M. Kwinkowski

2011-01-01

23

Requirement of MrpH for Mannose-Resistant Proteus-Like Fimbria-Mediated Hemagglutination by Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new genes, mrpH and mrpJ, were identified downstream of mrpG in the mrp gene cluster encoding mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR\\/P) fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Since the predicted MrpH has 30% amino acid sequence identity to PapG, the Gala(1-4)Gal-binding adhesin of Escherichia coli P fimbriae, we hypothesized that mrpH encodes the functional MR\\/P hemagglutinin. MR\\/P fimbriae, expressed in E. coli

XIN LI; DAVID E. JOHNSON; HARRY L. T. MOBLEY

1999-01-01

24

Identification of Proteus mirabilis Mutants with Increased Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides (APs) are important components of the innate defenses of animals, plants, and microorganisms. However, some bacterial pathogens are resistant to the action of APs. For example, Proteus mirabilis is highly resistant to the action of APs, such as polymyxin B (PM), protegrin, and the synthetic protegrin analog IB-367. To better understand this resistance, a transposon mutagenesis approach was

ANDREA J. MCCOY; HONGJIAN LIU; TIMOTHY J. FALLA; JOHN S. GUNN

2001-01-01

25

Molecular Epidemiology of Proteus mirabilis Infections of the Catheterized Urinary Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis compromises the care of many patients undergoing long-term indwelling bladder catheter- ization. It forms crystalline bacterial biofilms in catheters which block the flow of urine, causing either incontinence due to leakage or painful distention of the bladder due to urinary retention. If it is not dealt with, catheter blockage can lead to pyelonephritis and septicemia. We have examined

N. A. Sabbuba; E. Mahenthiralingam; D. J. Stickler

2003-01-01

26

Transcriptome of Proteus mirabilis in the Murine Urinary Tract: Virulence and Nitrogen Assimilation Gene Expression?†  

PubMed Central

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. In this study, microarrays were used to analyze P. mirabilis gene expression in vivo from experimentally infected mice. Urine was collected at 1, 3, and 7 days postinfection, and RNA was isolated from bacteria in the urine for transcriptional analysis. Across nine microarrays, 471 genes were upregulated and 82 were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro broth culture. Genes upregulated in vivo encoded mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, urease, iron uptake systems, amino acid and peptide transporters, pyruvate metabolism enzymes, and a portion of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Flagella were downregulated. Ammonia assimilation gene glnA (glutamine synthetase) was repressed in vivo, while gdhA (glutamate dehydrogenase) was upregulated in vivo. Contrary to our expectations, ammonia availability due to urease activity in P. mirabilis did not drive this gene expression. A gdhA mutant was growth deficient in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source, and loss of gdhA resulted in a significant fitness defect in the mouse model of urinary tract infection. Unlike Escherichia coli, which represses gdhA and upregulates glnA in vivo and cannot utilize citrate, the data suggest that P. mirabilis uses glutamate dehydrogenase to monitor carbon-nitrogen balance, and this ability contributes to the pathogenic potential of P. mirabilis in the urinary tract. PMID:21505083

Pearson, Melanie M.; Yep, Alejandra; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2011-01-01

27

New variant of TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene produced by a clinical isolate of proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

A clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis was found to produce a new variant of the TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene. This is the first report of TEM-10 production by P. mirabilis and the first report of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by an isolate of this species recovered in the United States. PMID:7625817

Palzkill, T; Thomson, K S; Sanders, C C; Moland, E S; Huang, W; Milligan, T W

1995-01-01

28

Modulation of Swarming and Virulence by Fatty Acids through the RsbA Protein in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After sensing external signals, Proteus mirabilis undergoes a multicellular behavior called swarming which is coordinately regulated with the expression of virulence factors. Here we report that exogenously added fatty acids could act as signals to regulate swarming in P. mirabilis. Specifically, while oleic acid enhanced swarming, some saturated fatty acids, such as lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic

Shwu-Jen Liaw; Hsin-Chih Lai; Won-Bo Wang

2004-01-01

29

Properties of multidrug-resistant, ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates and possible role of ?-lactam\\/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

At our institution, isolation rates of clinical strains of ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis increased to 8.8% of all P. mirabilis isolates during the period 1997–1999. To evaluate the susceptibility of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis strains against commonly used drugs, we studied 50 non-duplicated isolates selected on the basis of synergy between clavulanate and ?-lactams (ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone). The presence of

Francesco Luzzaro; Mariagrazia Perilli; Gianfranco Amicosante; Gianluigi Lombardi; Renzo Belloni; Alessanro Zollo; Ciro Bianchi; Antonio Toniolo

2001-01-01

30

Production and characterization of a bioflocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioflocculant TJ-F1 with high flocculating activity, produced by strain TJ-1 from a mixed activated sludge, was investigated with regard to its production and characterization. By 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain TJ-1 was identified as Proteus mirabilis. The most preferred carbon source, nitrogen source and C\\/N ratio (w\\/w) for strain TJ-1 to produce the bioflocculant were

Siqing Xia; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xuejiang Wang; Aming Yang; Ling Chen; Jianfu Zhao; Didier Leonard; Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

2008-01-01

31

Biochemical characterization of a novel lysine racemase from Proteus mirabilis BCRC10725  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysine racemase gene (lyr) that consisted of an open reading frame of 1224-bp and encoded a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 45kDa was cloned from the Proteus mirabilis BCRC10725 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified His6-tagged Lyr was most active towards lysine, exhibiting a specific activity of 2828±97U\\/mg. This enzyme also racemized arginine with a

Yi-Chia Kuan; Chao-Hung Kao; Chao-Hsien Chen; Chang-Chih Chen; Hui-Yu Hu; Wen-Hwei Hsu

2011-01-01

32

Proteus mirabilis ZapA Metalloprotease Degrades a Broad Spectrum of Substrates, Including Antimicrobial Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 54-kDa extracellular metalloprotease ZapA is an important virulence factor of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. While ZapA has the ability to degrade host immunoglobulins (Igs), the dramatic attenuation of virulence in ZapA mutants suggests that this enzyme may have a broader spectrum of activity. This hypothesis was tested by in vitro assays with purified ZapA and an array of purified protein

Robert Belas; Jim Manos; Rooge Suvanasuthi

2004-01-01

33

Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase  

PubMed Central

By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

2014-01-01

34

Killing of Proteus mirabilis by polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule proteins: evidence for species specificity by antimicrobial proteins.  

PubMed

Low-molecular-weight (Mr, ca. 3,800) polypeptides containing human defensins HNP-1 and HNP-2 (T. Ganz, M. S. Selsted, D. Szlarek, S. L. Harwig, K. Daher, D. F. Bainton, and R. I. Lehrer, J. Clin. Invest. 76:1427-1434, 1985) prepared in our laboratory from acid extracts of human polymorphonuclear granulocyte granules and purified human defensins were found to exert potent bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial action of the extracts of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes granules against P. mirabilis appears to be due to the presence of the defensins. Because P. mirabilis resists the antimicrobial action of other granule proteins, we interpret the present results to mean that the various antimicrobial proteins display species specificity in their microbicidal action. PMID:3275586

Shafer, W M; Engle, S A; Martin, L E; Spitznagel, J K

1988-01-01

35

Proteus mirabilis Phage 5006M: a Physical Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This report deals with physical characterization of the generalized transducing Proteus rnirabilis phage 5oo6M. The morphology of the phage is presented, the buoyant density was determined (i.49 r g\\/ml) and the G + C content of the phage DNA was found to be 44°\\/\\/o. The phage genome has a length of 14.8 tim and tool. wt. of 3o'7 x

G. H. J. Pretorius; W. F. Coetzee

1979-01-01

36

Molecular detection of HpmA and HlyA hemolysin of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the bacterial infections frequently documented in humans. Proteus mirabilis is associated with UTI mainly in individuals with urinary tract abnormality or related with vesicular catheterism and it can be difficult to treat because of the formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. These stones are formed due to the presence of urease synthesized by the bacteria. Another important factor is that P. mirabilis produces hemolysin HpmA, used by the bacteria to damage the kidney tissues. Proteus spp. samples can also express HlyA hemolysin, similar to that found in Escherichia coli. A total of 211 uropathogenic P. mirabilis isolates were analyzed to detect the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes by the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot and hlyA by PCR. The hpmA and hpmB genes were expressed by the RT-PCR technique and two P. mirabilis isolates were sequenced for the hpmA and hpmB genes. The presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes was confirmed by PCR in 205 (97.15 %) of the 211 isolates. The dot blot confirmed the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes in the isolates that did not amplify in the PCR. None of the isolates studied presented the hlyA gene. The hpmA and hpmB genes that were sequenced presented 98 % identity with the same genes of the HI4320 P. mirabilis sample. This study showed that the PCR technique has good sensitivity for detecting the hpmA and hpmB genes of P. mirabilis. PMID:23884594

Cestari, Silvia Emanoele; Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Fernando Henrique; da Rocha, Sérgio Paulo Dejato; Elias, Waldir Pereira; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

2013-12-01

37

Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The H2S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P>0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N?=?10) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N?=?5) and respiratory specimens of humans (N?=?5) (P>0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts. PMID:23182140

Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

2012-01-01

38

Flagellum Density Regulates Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Motility in Viscous Environments  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming—increases in cell length and flagellum density—and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ?5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD4C2, the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters. PMID:23144253

Tuson, Hannah H.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan

2013-01-01

39

Effects of sequential infections of Caenorhabditis elegans with Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans can be used to study the dynamics of polymicrobial infections, specifically those between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. With C. elegans, Proteus mirabilis acts as an opportunistic pathogen and does not kill this host. Hence, in the present study, C. elegans was immunochallenged by pre-infecting it with the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in order to study the subsequent effect of P. mirabilis on the host. It was found that 12 hrs of S. aureus and 80 hrs of subsequent P. mirabilis infection significantly reduced the life span of exposed C. elegans by 80%. However, preinfection with S. aureus for 8 and 4 hrs reduced the life span of C. elegans by only 60 and 30%, respectively. Further, there was greater production of reactive oxygen species in the sequentially infected samples than in the S. aureus and P. mirabilis controls. Real time PCR analysis indicated regulation of candidate immune regulatory genes, lysozyme (lys-7), CUB-like proteins (F08G5.6), neuropeptide-like factors (nlp-29), transcription factors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ATF-7) and daf-2-daf-16 (daf-16), insulin-like signaling pathways and C-type lectin (clec-60 and clec-87) family members during S. aureus and subsequent P. mirabilis-mediated infections, indicating possible roles of, and contributions by, the above factors during host immune responses against these sequential infections. The present findings demonstrate that S. aureus infections increase the vulnerability of the C. elegans host by subverting its immune system, which then permits the opportunistic pathogen P. mirabilis to be pathogenic to this host. PMID:22957781

JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

2012-12-01

40

Characterization and serological classification of O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis TG 276-90 from Proteus serogroup O34  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction  Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Proteus from the family Enterobacteriaceae are currently divided into the five species P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, P. hauseri, and P. myxofaciens and three unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5, and 6. They are important facultative human and animal pathogens which, under favorable conditions, cause\\u000a mainly intestinal and urinary tract infections, sometimes leading to

Katarzyna Ko?odziejska; Ma?gorzata Siwi?ska; Krystyna Zych; Antoni Ró?alski; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2006-01-01

41

Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

42

Evidence against the involvement of chemotaxis in swarming of Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

Nonswarming and nonchemotactic mutants of Proteus mirabilis were isolated after mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or ultraviolet light. These mutants were used in experiments to determine if chemotaxis is involved in the swarming of P. mirabilis. Nonchemotactic mutants failed to form chemotactic bands in a semisolid casein hydrolysate medium, yet they swarmed on the same medium containing 1.5% agar. Nonswarming mutants were attracted towards individual amino acids and components of tryptose. In cross-feeding experiments, no evidence was obtained to indicate the production of a diffusable chemical repellent. In studies with the wild-type P. mirabilis, no clear-cut negative chemotaxis was seen even though three different assays were used and numerous chemicals were tested. Additional evidence against the involvement of chemotaxis in swarming comes from finding that dialysis does not interfere with swarming; swarm cells will swarm immediately when transferred to fresh media, and swarm cells will swarm on an agar-water medium supplemented with a surfactant. These data indicate that chemotaxis is not involved in the swarming of P. mirabilis. PMID:776927

Williams, F D; Anderson, D M; Hoffman, P S; Schwarzhoff, R H; Leonard, S

1976-01-01

43

Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae.  

PubMed

Biofilm growth and its persistence within wounds have recently been suggested as contributing factors to impaired healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of several honey samples of different botanical origin, including manuka honey against Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae wound isolates. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay. All honeys at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 10% (w/v) significantly reduced the biofilm development of both isolates. Similarly, at a concentration of 50% (w/v), each of the honeys caused significant partial detachment of Pr. mirabilis biofilm after 24 h. On the other hand, no honey was able to significantly detach Ent. cloacae biofilm. In addition, treatment of Ent. cloacae and Pr. mirabilis biofilms with all honeys resulted in a significant decrease in colony-forming units per well values in a range of 0.35-1.16 and 1.2-7.5 log units, respectively. Of the tested honeys, manuka honey possessed the most potent anti-biofilm properties. Furthermore, methylglyoxal, an antibacterial compound of manuka honey, was shown to be responsible for killing biofilm-embedded wound bacteria. These findings suggest that manuka honey could be used as a potential therapy for the treatment of wounds containing Pr. mirabilis or Ent. cloacae. PMID:23494861

Majtan, Juraj; Bohova, Jana; Horniackova, Miroslava; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Viktor

2014-01-01

44

Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis causes complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). While the urinary tract is an iron-limiting environment, iron acquisition remains poorly characterized for this uropathogen. Microarray analysis of P. mirabilis HI4320 cultured under iron limitation identified 45 significantly upregulated genes (P ? 0.05) that represent 21 putative iron-regulated systems. Two gene clusters, PMI0229-0239 and PMI2596-2605, encode putative siderophore systems. PMI0229-0239 encodes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-independent siderophore system for producing a novel siderophore, proteobactin. PMI2596-2605 are contained within the high-pathogenicity island, originally described in Yersinia pestis, and encodes proteins with apparent homology and organization to those involved in yersiniabactin production and uptake. Cross-feeding and biochemical analysis shows that P. mirabilis is unable to utilize or produce yersiniabactin, suggesting that this yersiniabactin-related locus is functionally distinct. Only disruption of both systems resulted in an in vitro iron-chelating defect; demonstrating production and iron-chelating activity for both siderophores. These findings clearly show that proteobactin and the yersiniabactin-related siderophore function as iron acquisition systems. Despite the activity of both siderophores, only mutants lacking the yersiniabactin-related siderophore have reduced fitness in vivo. The fitness requirement for the yersiniabactin-related siderophore during UTI shows, for the first time, the importance of siderophore production in vivo for P. mirabilis. PMID:20923418

Himpsl, Stephanie D; Pearson, Melanie M; Arewång, Carl J; Nusca, Tyler D; Sherman, David H; Mobley, Harry L T

2010-10-01

45

Modeling and predicting the effect of temperature on the growth of Proteus mirabilis in chicken.  

PubMed

A predictive model to study the effect of temperature on the growth of Proteus mirabilis was developed. The growth data were collected under several isothermal conditions (8, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45°C) and were fitted into three primary models, namely the logistic model, the modified Gompertz model, and the Baranyi model. The statistical characteristics to evaluate the models such as R(2), mean square error, and Sawa's Bayesian information criteria (BIC) were used. Results showed that the Baranyi model performed best, followed by the logistic model and the modified Gompertz model. R(2) values for the secondary model derived from logistic, modified Gompertz, and Baranyi models were 0.965, 0.974, and 0.971, respectively. Bias factor and accuracy factor indicated that both the modified Gompertz and Baranyi models fitted the growth data better. Therefore, the Baranyi model was proposed to be the best predictive model for the growth of P. mirabilis. PMID:24524853

Zhao, Jingjing; Gao, Jingxian; Chen, Fei; Ren, Fazheng; Dai, Ruitong; Liu, Yi; Li, Xingmin

2014-04-01

46

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.  

PubMed

Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type ?-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals. PMID:25187600

Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

2014-11-01

47

Effect of nutrient and stress factors on polysaccharides synthesis in Proteus mirabilis biofilm.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix in biofilm consists of water, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and phospholipids. Synthesis of these components is influenced by many factors, e.g. environment conditions or carbon source. The aim of the study was to analyse polysaccharides levels in Proteus mirabilis biofilms after exposure to stress and nutritional conditions. Biofilms of 22 P. mirabilis strains were cultivated for 24, 48, 72 hours, 1 and 2 weeks in tryptone soya broth or in modified media containing an additional amount of nutrients (glucose, albumin) or stress factors (cefotaxime, pH 4, nutrient depletion). Proteins and total polysaccharides levels were studied by Lowry and the phenol-sulphuric acid methods, respectively. Glycoproteins levels were calculated by ELLA with the use of selected lectins (WGA and HPA). For CLSM analysis dual fluorescent staining was applied with SYTO 13 and WGA-TRITC. In optimal conditions the levels of polysaccharides were from 0 to 442 ?g/mg of protein and differed depending on the strains and cultivation time. The agents used in this study had a significant impact on the polysaccharides synthesis in the P. mirabilis biofilm. Among all studied components (depending on tested methods), glucose and cefotaxime stimulated the greatest production of polysaccharides by P. mirabilis strains (more than a twofold increase). For most tested strains the highest amounts of sugars were detected after one week of incubation. CLSM analysis confirmed the overproduction of N-acetyloglucosamine in biofilms after cultivation in nutrient and stress conditions, with the level 111-1134%, which varied depending on the P. mirabilis strain and the test factor. PMID:24644556

Moryl, Magdalena; Kaleta, Aleksandra; Strzelecki, Kacper; Ró?alska, Sylwia; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-01-01

48

Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

Rajesh Gandham, Nageswari; Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

2014-05-01

49

Putrescine Importer PlaP Contributes to Swarming Motility and Urothelial Cell Invasion in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437–446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant. PMID:23572531

Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N.

2013-01-01

50

The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection of the rats. In this regard, we found the hfq mutant induced higher IL-8 and MIF levels of uroepithelial cells and displayed reduced intra-macrophage survival. The loss of hfq affected bacterial abilities to handle H2O2 and osmotic pressures and to grow at 50°C. Relative to wild-type, the hfq mutant had reduced motility, fewer flagella and less hemolysin expression and was less prone to form biofilm and to adhere to and invade uroepithelial cells. The MR/P fimbrial operon was almost switched to the off phase in the hfq mutant. In addition, we found the hfq mutant exhibited an altered outer membrane profile and had higher RpoE expression, which indicates the hfq mutant may encounter increased envelope stress. With the notion of envelope disturbance in the hfq mutant, we found increased membrane permeability and antibiotic susceptibilities in the hfq mutant. Finally, we showed that Hfq positively regulated the RpoS level and tolerance to H2O2 in the stationary phase seemed largely mediated through the Hfq-dependent RpoS expression. Together, our data indicate that Hfq plays a critical role in P. mirabilis to establish UTIs by modulating stress responses, surface structures and virulence factors. This study suggests Hfq may serve as a scaffold molecule for development of novel anti-P. mirabilis drugs and P. mirabilis hfq mutant is a vaccine candidate for preventing UTIs. PMID:24454905

Wang, Min-Cheng; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

2014-01-01

51

Complete Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis, a Master of both Adherence and Motility? †  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or with complicated urinary tracts (e.g., due to spinal cord injury or anatomic abnormality). P. mirabilis bacteriuria may lead to acute pyelonephritis, fever, and bacteremia. Most notoriously, this pathogen uses urease to catalyze the formation of kidney and bladder stones or to encrust or obstruct indwelling urinary catheters. Here we report the complete genome sequence of P. mirabilis HI4320, a representative strain cultured in our laboratory from the urine of a nursing home patient with a long-term (?30 days) indwelling urinary catheter. The genome is 4.063 Mb long and has a G+C content of 38.88%. There is a single plasmid consisting of 36,289 nucleotides. Annotation of the genome identified 3,685 coding sequences and seven rRNA loci. Analysis of the sequence confirmed the presence of previously identified virulence determinants, as well as a contiguous 54-kb flagellar regulon and 17 types of fimbriae. Genes encoding a potential type III secretion system were identified on a low-G+C-content genomic island containing 24 intact genes that appear to encode all components necessary to assemble a type III secretion system needle complex. In addition, the P. mirabilis HI4320 genome possesses four tandem copies of the zapE metalloprotease gene, genes encoding six putative autotransporters, an extension of the atf fimbrial operon to six genes, including an mrpJ homolog, and genes encoding at least five iron uptake mechanisms, two potential type IV secretion systems, and 16 two-component regulators. PMID:18375554

Pearson, Melanie M.; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Churcher, Carol; Quail, Michael A.; Seshasayee, Aswin S.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Abdellah, Zahra; Arrosmith, Claire; Atkin, Becky; Chillingworth, Tracey; Hauser, Heidi; Jagels, Kay; Moule, Sharon; Mungall, Karen; Norbertczak, Halina; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Walker, Danielle; Whithead, Sally; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Rather, Philip N.; Parkhill, Julian; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2008-01-01

52

Elucidating the Genetic Basis of Crystalline Biofilm Formation in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequently complicate the management of long-term-catheterized patients. Here, using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, we elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the formation of crystalline biofilms by P. mirabilis. Mutants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and efflux systems but were unaffected in general growth, survival in bladder model systems, or the ability to elevate urinary pH. Imaging of biofilms directly on catheter surfaces, along with quantification of levels of encrustation and biomass, confirmed that the mutants were attenuated specifically in the ability to form crystalline biofilms compared with that of the wild type. However, the biofilm-deficient phenotype of these mutants was not due to deficiencies in attachment to catheter biomaterials, and defects in later stages of biofilm development were indicated. For one blocking-deficient mutant, the disrupted gene (encoding a putative multidrug efflux pump) was also found to be associated with susceptibility to fosfomycin, and loss of this system or general inhibition of efflux pumps increased sensitivity to this antibiotic. Furthermore, homologues of this system were found to be widely distributed among other common pathogens of the catheterized urinary tract. Overall, our findings provide fundamental new insight into crystalline biofilm formation by P. mirabilis, including the link between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in this organism, and indicate a potential role for efflux pump inhibitors in the treatment or prevention of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms. PMID:24470471

Holling, N.; Lednor, D.; Tsang, S.; Bissell, A.; Campbell, L.; Nzakizwanayo, J.; Dedi, C.; Hawthorne, J. A.; Hanlon, G.; Ogilvie, L. A.; Salvage, J. P.; Patel, B. A.; Barnes, L. M.

2014-01-01

53

Complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis, a master of both adherence and motility.  

PubMed

The gram-negative enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or with complicated urinary tracts (e.g., due to spinal cord injury or anatomic abnormality). P. mirabilis bacteriuria may lead to acute pyelonephritis, fever, and bacteremia. Most notoriously, this pathogen uses urease to catalyze the formation of kidney and bladder stones or to encrust or obstruct indwelling urinary catheters. Here we report the complete genome sequence of P. mirabilis HI4320, a representative strain cultured in our laboratory from the urine of a nursing home patient with a long-term (> or =30 days) indwelling urinary catheter. The genome is 4.063 Mb long and has a G+C content of 38.88%. There is a single plasmid consisting of 36,289 nucleotides. Annotation of the genome identified 3,685 coding sequences and seven rRNA loci. Analysis of the sequence confirmed the presence of previously identified virulence determinants, as well as a contiguous 54-kb flagellar regulon and 17 types of fimbriae. Genes encoding a potential type III secretion system were identified on a low-G+C-content genomic island containing 24 intact genes that appear to encode all components necessary to assemble a type III secretion system needle complex. In addition, the P. mirabilis HI4320 genome possesses four tandem copies of the zapE metalloprotease gene, genes encoding six putative autotransporters, an extension of the atf fimbrial operon to six genes, including an mrpJ homolog, and genes encoding at least five iron uptake mechanisms, two potential type IV secretion systems, and 16 two-component regulators. PMID:18375554

Pearson, Melanie M; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Churcher, Carol; Quail, Michael A; Seshasayee, Aswin S; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Abdellah, Zahra; Arrosmith, Claire; Atkin, Becky; Chillingworth, Tracey; Hauser, Heidi; Jagels, Kay; Moule, Sharon; Mungall, Karen; Norbertczak, Halina; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Walker, Danielle; Whithead, Sally; Thomson, Nicholas R; Rather, Philip N; Parkhill, Julian; Mobley, Harry L T

2008-06-01

54

Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Bloodstream Infections: Risk Factors and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Our aims were to identify (i) risk factors associated with the acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR, to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials) Proteus mirabilis isolates responsible for bloodstream infections (BSIs) and (ii) the impact on mortality of such infections. Risk factors for acquiring MDR P. mirabilis BSIs were investigated in a case-case-control study; those associated with mortality were assessed by comparing survivors and nonsurvivors in a cohort study. The population consisted of 99 adult inpatients with P. mirabilis BSIs identified by our laboratory over an 11-year period (1999 to 2009), 36 (33.3%) of which were caused by MDR strains, and the overall 21-day mortality rate was 30.3%. Acquisition of an MDR strain was independently associated with admission from a long-term care facility (odds ratio [OR], 9.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94 to 49.16), previous therapy with fluoroquinolones (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 1.30 to 23.43) or oxyimino-cephalosporins (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 1.31 to 16.99), urinary catheterization (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.50 to 10.09), and previous hospitalization (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 10.4 to 6.89). Patients with MDR P. mirabilis BSIs received inadequate initial antimicrobial therapy (IIAT, i.e., treatment with drugs to which the isolate displayed in vitro resistance) more frequently than those with non-MDR infections; they also had increased mortality and (for survivors) longer post-BSI-onset hospital stays. In multivariate regression analysis, 21-day mortality was associated with septic shock at BSI onset (OR, 12.97; 95% CI, 32.2 to 52.23), P. mirabilis isolates that were MDR (OR, 6.62; 95% CI, 16.4 to 26.68), and IIAT (OR, 9.85; 95% CI, 26.7 to 36.25), the only modifiable risk factor of the 3. These findings can potentially improve clinicians' ability to identify P. mirabilis BSIs likely to be MDR, thereby reducing the risk of IIAT—a major risk factor for mortality in these cases—and facilitating the prompt implementation of appropriate infection control measures. PMID:22450979

Trecarichi, Enrico Maria; Fiori, Barbara; Losito, Angela Raffaella; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Campana, Lara; Ruggeri, Alberto; Di Meco, Eugenia; Liberto, Elvira; Fadda, Giovanni; Cauda, Roberto; Spanu, Teresa

2012-01-01

55

Proteus mirabilisMannose-Resistant,Proteus-Like Fimbriae: MrpG Is Located at the Fimbrial Tip and Is Required for Fimbrial Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Themannose-resistant, Proteus-like(MR\\/P)fimbria,responsibleformannose-resistanthemagglutination,is a virulence factor for uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Based on knownfimbrial gene organization, we postu- lated that MrpG, a putative minor subunit of the MR\\/P fimbria, functions as an adhesin responsible for hemagglutination,whileMrpAservesasthemajorstructuralsubunitforthefilamentousstructure.Totestthis hypothesis, an mrpG mutant was constructed by allelic-exchange mutagenesis and verified by PCR and Southern blotting. The mrpG mutant was found to be negative for hemagglutination,

XIN LI; HUI ZHAO; LILIANA GEYMONAT; FARAH BAHRANI; DAVID E. JOHNSON; ANDHARRY L. T. MOBLEY

1997-01-01

56

Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.  

PubMed

Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. PMID:25240234

Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

2014-12-01

57

Protective immunity induced by the vaccination of recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA expressed in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is a zoonotic pathogen that has recently presented a rising infection rate in the poultry industry. To develop an effective vaccine to protect chickens against P. mirabilis infection, OmpA, one of the major outer membrane proteins of P. mirabilis, was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The concentration of the expressed recombinant OmpA protein reached 8.0?g/mL after induction for 96h with 1.0% methanol in the culture. In addition, OmpA protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using the antibody against Escherichia coli-expressed OmpA protein. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide, a known plant-derived adjuvant, was mixed into the recombinant OmpA protein to prepare the OmpA subunit vaccine. We then subcutaneously inoculated this vaccine into chickens to examine the immunoprotective effects. ELISA analysis indicated that an excellent antibody response against OmpA was elicited in the vaccinated chickens. Moreover, a high protection rate of 80.0% was observed in the vaccinated group, which was subsequently challenged with P. mirabilis. The results suggest that the eukaryotic P. mirabilis OmpA was an ideal candidate protein for developing an effective subunit vaccine against P. mirabilis infection. PMID:25317910

Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Dai, Xiumei; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Xiaodong; Shao, Mingxu; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Chuanwen; Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

2014-10-12

58

Proteus mirabilis urease: nucleotide sequence determination and comparison with jack bean urease.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. Six open reading frames were found within a region of 4,952 base pairs which were predicted to encode polypeptides of 31.0 (ureD), 11.0 (ureA), 12.2 (ureB), 61.0 (ureC), 17.9 (ureE), and 23.0 (ureF) kilodaltons (kDa). Each open reading frame was preceded by a ribosome-binding site, with the exception of ureE. Putative promoterlike sequences were identified upstream of ureD, ureA, and ureF. Possible termination sites were found downstream of ureD, ureC, and ureF. Structural subunits of the enzyme were encoded by ureA, ureB, and ureC and were translated from a single transcript in the order of 11.0, 12.2, and 61.0 kDa. When the deduced amino acid sequences of the P. mirabilis urease subunits were compared with the amino acid sequence of the jack bean urease, significant amino acid similarity was observed (58% exact matches; 73% exact plus conservative replacements). The 11.0-kDa polypeptide aligned with the N-terminal residues of the plant enzyme, the 12.2-kDa polypeptide lined up with internal residues, and the 61.0-kDa polypeptide matched with the C-terminal residues, suggesting an evolutionary relationship of the urease genes of jack bean and P. mirabilis. PMID:2687233

Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

1989-01-01

59

Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbrial operon: genetic organization, nucleotide sequence, and conditions for expression.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, an agent of urinary tract infection, expresses at least four fimbrial types. Among these are the MR/P (mannose-resistant/Proteus-like) fimbriae. MrpA, the structural subunit, is optimally expressed at 37 degrees C in Luria broth cultured statically for 48 h by each of seven strains examined. Genes encoding this fimbria were isolated, and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The mrp gene cluster encoded by 7,293 bp predicts eight polypeptides: MrpI (22,133 Da), MrpA (17,909 Da), MrpB (19,632 Da), MrpC (96,823 Da), MrpD (27,886 Da), MrpE (19,470 Da), MrpF (17,363 Da), and MrpG (13,169 Da). mrpI is upstream of the gene encoding the major structural subunit gene mrpA and is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of the rest of the operon. All predicted polypeptides share > or = 25% amino acid identity with at least one other enteric fimbrial gene product encoded by the pap, fim, smf, fan, or mrk gene clusters. Images PMID:7910820

Bahrani, F K; Mobley, H L

1994-01-01

60

TEM-187, a New Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase with Weak Activity in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Strain  

PubMed Central

A Proteus mirabilis clinical strain (7001324) was isolated from urine sample of a patient hospitalized in a long-term-care facility. PCR and cloning experiments performed with this strain identified a novel TEM-type ?-lactamase (TEM-187) differing by four amino acid substitutions (Leu21Phe, Arg164His, Ala184Val, and Thr265Met) from TEM-1. This characterization provides further evidence for the diversity of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) produced by P. mirabilis and for their potential spread to other Enterobacteriaceae due to a lack of sensitive detection methods used in daily practice. PMID:23478954

Beyrouthy, Racha; Crémet, Lise; Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Robin, Frédéric; Bonnet, Richard; Reynaud, Alain

2013-01-01

61

INTERLEUKIN8 RESPONSE IN CELLS FROM THE HUMAN URINARY TRACT INDUCED BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES OF PROTEUS MIRABILIS O3 AND O18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Proteus mirabilis is a common pathogen associated mainly with complicated urinary tract infections and sometimes with septicemia. There is great serological diversity of the microorganism. While P. mirabilis O3 is commonly found in patients with infections, the serotype O18 rarely occurs. The O18 lipopolysaccharide contains a phosphocholine substitute, which makes it unique among Proteus strains. To explain different clinical significance

MILAN CHROMEK; DOROTA STANKOWSKA; ELHAM DADFAR; WIESLAW KACA; HODJATTALLAH RABBANI; ANNELIE BRAUNER

2005-01-01

62

Morphological changes in Proteus mirabilis O18 biofilm under the influence of a urease inhibitor and a homoserine lactone derivative.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium that frequently causes kidney infections, typically established by ascending colonization of the urinary tract. The present study is focused on ureolytic activity and urease inhibition in biofilms generated by P. mirabilis O18 cells. Confocal microscopy revealed morphological alterations in biofilms treated with urea and a urease inhibitor (acetohydroxamic acid, AHA), as some swarmer cells were found to protrude from the biofilm. The presence of a quorum-sensing molecule (N-butanoyl homoserine lactone, BHL) increased biofilm thickness and its ureolytic activity. Laser interferometric determination of diffusion showed that urea easily diffuses through P. mirabilis biofilm, while AHA is blocked. This may suggest that the use of urease inhibitors in CAUTIs may by less effective than in other urease-associated infections. Spectroscopic studies revealed differences between biofilm and planktonic cells indicating that polysaccharides and nucleic acids are involved in extracellular matrix and biofilm formation. PMID:24481535

Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Arabski, Micha?; W?sik, S?awomir; Jab?o?ska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Rogala, Patrycja; Kaca, Wies?aw

2014-03-01

63

Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL Is Viscosity Dependent and Requires Extragenic DNA  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr?) but do swim (Swm+) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed “pseudoswarmer cells,” that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr? phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity. PMID:23222728

Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius

2013-01-01

64

Chromosomally Encoded AmpC-Type ?-Lactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

A clinical strain of Proteus mirabilis (CF09) isolated from urine specimens of a patient displayed resistance to amoxicillin (MIC >4,096 ?g/ml), ticarcillin (4,096 ?g/ml), cefoxitin (64 ?g/ml), cefotaxime (256 ?g/ml), and ceftazidime (128 ?g/ml) and required an elevated MIC of aztreonam (4 ?g/ml). Clavulanic acid did not act synergistically with cephalosporins. Two ?-lactamases with apparent pIs of 5.6 and 9.0 were identified by isoelectric focusing on a gel. Substrate and inhibition profiles were characteristic of an AmpC-type ?-lactamase with a pI of 9.0. Amplification by PCR with primers for ampC genes (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii) of a 756-bp DNA fragment from strain CF09 was obtained only with C. freundii-specific primers. Hybridization results showed that the ampC gene is only chromosomally located while the TEM gene is plasmid located. After cloning of the gene, analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence (1,146 bp) showed that this ampC gene is close to blaCMY-2, from which it differs by three point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions Glu ? Gly at position 22, Trp ? Arg at position 201, and Ser ? Asn at position 343. AmpC ?-lactamases derived from that of C. freundii (LAT-1, LAT-2, BIL-1, and CMY-2) have been found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes and have been reported to be plasmid borne. This is the first example of a chromosomally encoded AmpC-type ?-lactamase observed in P. mirabilis. We suggest that it be designated CMY-3. PMID:9593136

Bret, L.; Chanal-Claris, C.; Sirot, D.; Chaibi, E. B.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

1998-01-01

65

Immune enhancement of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide on recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide (TRPPS) on immune responses of chickens immunized with Proteus mirabilis outer membrane protein A (OmpA) recombinant protein vaccine. OmpA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and mixed with TRPPS. 360 chickens were randomly divided into six groups. Groups I to IV were treated with OmpA which contained TRPPS of three different dosages, Freund's adjuvant, respectively. Groups V and VI were treated with pure OmpA and physiological saline, respectively. The data showed that the antibody titers against OmpA, the concentration of IL-2, CD4 +, and CD8 +, T lymphocyte proliferation rate in Group II were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the other groups, little difference in SIgA content was observed among groups I to VI. These results indicated that TRPPS strengthened humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant OmpA vaccine. Moreover, 200 mg/mL TRPPS showed significance (P < 0.05) compared with Freund's adjuvant. Therefore, TRPPS can be developed into an adjuvant for recombinant subunit vaccine. PMID:25000334

Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Ya; Li, Bing; Zhu, Fujie; Zhu, Ruiliang

2014-09-01

66

Characterization and flocculation mechanism of high efficiency microbial flocculant TJ-F1 from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The characterization and the flocculation mechanism of microbial flocculant TJ-F1 with high flocculating activity, produced by Proteus mirabilis from a mixed activated sludge, was investigated. Mainly consisting of protein and acid polysaccharide, TJ-F1 owns a molecular weight of 1.2 x 10(5)Da, which brings strong van der Waals forces and ample binding-sites. It contains carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino groups and hydrogen bonds preferred for the flocculation process. The key parameters influencing the flocculation behavior were investigated by analyzing both the Zeta potentials of the flocculation systems and the flocculating efficiencies of TJ-F1. An alkaline condition promotes its flocculating efficiency. CaCl(2) aids TJ-F1 by effectively decreasing the absolute value of Zeta potential. Appropriate dose of TJ-F1 is crucial to the flocculating efficiency. During the precipitating process, the growing flocs sweep the small flocs and the suspended particles to form big flocs, which also contribute to the excellent flocculating efficiency of TJ-F1. PMID:19773148

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhao, Jianfu; Zhang, Jiao

2010-01-01

67

Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4?7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

2010-11-01

68

Structural investigation of the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus mirabilis R45 (Re-chemotype)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five phosphorylated saccharides were isolated from the deacylated then N-acetylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Proteus mirabilis R45 (Re-chemotype) by anion-exchange chromatography. Their structures were determined by 1- and 2-dimensional 1H- and 3C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as ?-Kdo-(2-4)-[?-L-ArapNAc-(1-8)-]-?-Kdo-(2-6)-?-D-GIc pNAc-(1-6)-?-D-GIcpNAc 1-phosphate (1), ?-Kdo-(2-4)-[?-L-Ara pNAc-(1-8)-]-?-Kdo-(2-6)-?-D-GlcpNAc-(1-6)-?-D-Glc pNAc 1,4'-bisphosphate (2), ?-Kdo-(2-4)-?-Kdo-(2-6)-?-D-Glc pNAc-(1-6)-?-D-GlcpNAc 1-phosphate (3), ?-Kdo-(2-4)-?-Kdo-(2-6)-?-D-Glc pNAc-(1-6)-?-D-GlcpNAc 1,4'-bisphosphate (4), and ?-L-Ara pNAc 1-phosphate (5) (ArapNAc, 4-acetamido-4-deoxy-L-arabinopyranose; Kdo,

E. V. Vinogradov; J. E. Thomas-Oates; H. Brade; O. Holst

1994-01-01

69

Proteus mirabilis sp. intestinal microflora grow in a dextran sulfate sodium-rich environment.  

PubMed

The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis (UC), are poorly understood. As an animal model, the oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces colitis, which exhibits several clinical and histological features similar to UC. However, the pathogenic factors responsible for DSS-induced colitis and above all, the intestinal microflora in this colitis remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationships between DSS and the intestinal microflora in this study. First, the depolymerization of DSS in mouse feces was analyzed using a pyridylamino-labeling (PA-DSS) and HPLC system. Next, a bacteriological study of the fecal contents using DSS-rich media and subsequently a classification using 16S rRNA were performed. Surprisingly, DSS was depolymerized in mouse feces under aerobic conditions, not under anaerobic conditions. Several kinds of microflora were suggested to be involved in this depolymerization. In particular, Proteus mirabilis can grow in DSS-rich media and has an ability to desulfonate and depolymerize DSS. Then, we produced chemically-modified Mr 2500 DSS from native Mr 5000 DSS. This depolymerized Mr 2500 DSS was administered orally to mice and the colitis was evaluated histologically. The cytotoxicity of Mr 2500 DSS on Caco-2 cells was also investigated. Mr 2500 DSS induced weaker colitis in mice and weak cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells as compared to Mr 5000 DSS. These findings give insight into the mechanisms responsible for DSS-induced colitis, especially with respect to the molecular mass of DSS. PMID:20043128

Araki, Yoshio; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Hattori, Takanori

2010-02-01

70

Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

2008-01-01

71

Outer Membrane Antigens of the Uropathogen Proteus mirabilis Recognized by the Humoral Response during Experimental Murine Urinary Tract Infection?  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium, is a frequent cause of complicated urinary tract infections in those with functional or anatomical abnormalities or those subject to long-term catheterization. To systematically identify surface-exposed antigens as potential vaccine candidates, proteins in the outer membrane fraction of bacteria were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subjected to Western blotting with sera from mice experimentally infected with P. mirabilis. Protein spots reactive with sera were identified by mass spectrometry, which in conjunction with the newly completed genome sequence of P. mirabilis HI4320, was used to identify surface-exposed antigens. Culture conditions that may mimic in vivo conditions more closely than Luria broth (growth in human urine and under iron limitation and osmotic stress) were also used. Thirty-seven antigens to which a humoral response had been mounted, including 23 outer membrane proteins, were identified. These antigens are presumably expressed during urinary tract infection. Protein targets that are both actively required for virulence and antigenic may serve as protective antigens for vaccination; thus, five representative antigens were selected for use in virulence studies. Strains of P. mirabilis with mutations in three of the corresponding genes (the PMI0047 gene, rafY, and fadL) were not attenuated in the murine model of urinary tract infection. Putative iron acquisition proteins PMI0842 and PMI2596, however, both contribute to fitness in the urinary tract and thus emerge as vaccine candidates. PMID:18625734

Nielubowicz, Greta R.; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2008-01-01

72

Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D ?-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086?bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D ?-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. PMID:24027220

Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

2014-10-01

73

Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.  

PubMed

Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 ?g/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24239192

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

2014-01-01

74

Two Independent Pathways for Self-Recognition in Proteus mirabilis Are Linked by Type VI-Dependent Export  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Swarming colonies of the bacterium Proteus mirabilis are capable of self-recognition and territorial behavior. Swarms of independent P. mirabilis isolates can recognize each other as foreign and establish a visible boundary where they meet; in contrast, genetically identical swarms merge. The ids genes, which encode self-identity proteins, are necessary but not sufficient for this territorial behavior. Here we have identified two new gene clusters: one (idr) encodes rhs-related products, and another (tss) encodes a putative type VI secretion (T6S) apparatus. The Ids and Idr proteins function independently of each other in extracellular transport and in territorial behaviors; however, these self-recognition systems are linked via this type VI secretion system. The T6S system is required for export of select Ids and Idr proteins. Our results provide a mechanistic and physiological basis for the fundamental behaviors of self-recognition and territoriality in a bacterial model system. PMID:23882014

Wenren, Larissa M.; Sullivan, Nora L.; Cardarelli, Lia; Septer, Alecia N.; Gibbs, Karine A.

2013-01-01

75

Role of type II topoisomerase mutations and AcrAB efflux pump in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We conducted a study to determine the role played by amino acid mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and the AcrAB efflux pump in resistance to fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis. Methods: Nine clinical isolates of P. mirabilis containing eight fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates and one fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolate as the causative pathogen were collected from different patients with

Ryoichi Saito; Wakako Kumita; Natsuko Inami; Hiroyuki Nishiyama; Noboru Okamura; Kyoji Moriya; Kazuhiko Koike

76

Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. PMID:24786314

Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

2014-01-01

77

Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. PMID:24786314

Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

2014-06-01

78

Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis strains recently isolated in Japan.  

PubMed

Here we report on the prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis from a nationwide antimicrobial resistance survey in different geographical regions of Japan. A total of 799 P. mirabilis isolates recovered between July 2009 and June 2010 from 314 healthcare facilities were characterised according to ESBL production, source, location and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. ESBL production was found in 364 (45.6%) of the isolates, among which 354 (97.3%) produced CTX-M-2 group ?-lactamases. Of the 349 ESBL-producing isolates in which the inpatient or outpatient status of the source was known, 324 (92.8%) were from inpatients and 25 (7.2%) were from outpatients (P<0.05). Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis performed on 66 of the ESBL-producers generated a distribution of PFGE patterns into 21 groups. Genetic relatedness was seen among isolates within a region, which is consistent with horizontal transmission. With respect to the frequency of ESBL-producers by specimen source, 12/14 (85.7%) central venous catheter specimens yielded ESBL-producing P. mirabilis compared with 159/405 (39.3%), 119/209 (56.9%), 42/77 (54.5%) and 20/49 (40.8%), respectively, for isolates from urine, sputum, decubitus ulcer and wound specimens. Among the ESBL-producers, non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 74.2% of the ESBL-producing isolates compared with 17.7% of the ESBL-non-producing isolates. These results show that approximately one-half of the P. mirabilis isolates from clinical specimens in Japan are ESBL-producers and that the potential for concomitant fluoroquinolone resistance must also be considered. PMID:25182712

Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2015-02-01

79

Carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

This study was intended to delineate the role of carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam in treating bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis. We performed a multicenter and retrospective study of the patients with ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia. The outcomes of the patients treated by piperacillin/tazobactam or a carbapenem for at least 48 hours and the MICs of the prescribed drugs for these isolates were analyzed. Forty-seven patients with available clinical data were included. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 29.8%. All available isolates (n = 44) were susceptible to ertapenem, meropenem, and doripenem, and 95.6% were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam; however, only 11.4% of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Among the 3 patients infected with isolates exhibiting non-susceptibility to imipenem (MIC ?2 mg/L) who were treated with imipenem, none died within 28 days. The 30-day (14.3% versus 23.1%, P = 0.65) or in-hospital (19.1% versus 30.8%, P = 0.68) mortality rate of 21 patients treated by a carbapenem was lower than that of 13 treated by piperacillin/tazobactam. However, among those treated by piperacillin/tazobactam, the mortality rate of those infected by the isolates with lower piperacillin/tazobactam MICs (?0.5/4 mg/L) was lower than that of the isolates with MICs of ?1/4 mg/L (0%, 0/7 versus 60%, 3/5; P = 0.045). ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia is associated with significant mortality, and carbapenem therapy could be regarded as the drugs of choice. The role of piperacillin/tazobactam, especially for the infections due to the isolates with an MIC ?0.5/4 mg/L, warrants more clinical studies. PMID:25139843

Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tang, Hung-Jen; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2014-11-01

80

On the Sensitivity of Pseudomonas and Proteus to the Combination of Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the combined preparation of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole against 152 strains of Pseudomonas and 348 strains of Proteus was investigated. In the disc diffusion test, 29.3% of the Pseudomonas and 94.8% of the Proteus strains were in the sensitive or moderately sensitive regions. The MIC, as determined by the plate dilution test, was found to be 2.5 ?g\\/ml

W. Ritzerfeld; B. Hasch

1972-01-01

81

Proteus mirabilis mannose-resistant, Proteus-like fimbriae: MrpG is located at the fimbrial tip and is required for fimbrial assembly.  

PubMed Central

The mannose-resistant, Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria, responsible for mannose-resistant hemagglutination, is a virulence factor for uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Based on known fimbrial gene organization, we postulated that MrpG, a putative minor subunit of the MR/P fimbria, functions as an adhesin responsible for hemagglutination, while MrpA serves as the major structural subunit for the filamentous structure. To test this hypothesis, an mrpG mutant was constructed by allelic-exchange mutagenesis and verified by PCR and Southern blotting. The mrpG mutant was found to be negative for hemagglutination, while wild-type strain H14320 and the complemented mutant were positive. Western blots with antiserum raised against an overexpressed MrpG'-His6 fusion protein showed that MrpG was present in the fimbrial preparations of both the wild-type strain and the complemented mutant but absent in that of the mrpG mutant. The mrpG mutant was significantly less virulent in a CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Western blots with antiserum to whole MR/P fimbriae showed that MrpA protein was also missing from the fimbrial preparation of the mrpG mutant. Using immunogold electron microscopy, we found that the normal MR/P-fimbrial structure was absent in the mrpG mutant, suggesting that MrpG is essential for initiation of normal fimbrial formation. In the wild-type strain, MrpG protein was localized to the tips of the fimbriae or at the surface of the cell when antiserum raised against overexpressed MrpG was used. Given the tip localization, MrpG may be required for initiation of assembly of MR/P fimbriae but does not appear to be the fimbrial adhesin. PMID:9119470

Li, X; Zhao, H; Geymonat, L; Bahrani, F; Johnson, D E; Mobley, H L

1997-01-01

82

Crystal Structure of Proteus mirabilisPR Catalase With and Without Bound NADPH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalase from a peroxide resistant mutant ofProteus mirabilisbinds NADPH tightly. Interestingly, this enzyme can be stripped of NADPH without loss of the catalatic activity. It is the only known non-mammalian catalase able to bind NADPH. The structure without cofactor was solved by molecular replacment using the structure of beef liver catalase as a model. The structure was refined to

Patrice Gouet; Hélène-Marie Jouve; Otto Dideberg

1995-01-01

83

Occurrence and Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates at a Veterans Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

AmpC beta-lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of b-lactam drugs and that may thereby create serious therapeutic problems. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis remains unknown. We tested a total of 1,286 consecutive, nonrepeat isolates of these three species and found

PHILIP E. COUDRON; ELLEN S. MOLAND; KENNETH S. THOMSON

2000-01-01

84

b-Lactamases Responsible for Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Recovered in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among members of the family Enterobacteria- ceae lacking inducible b-lactamases occurs virtually worldwide, little is known about this problem among iso- lates recovered in South Africa. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from patients in various parts of South Africa over a 3-month period were investigated

J. D. D. PITOUT; K. S. THOMSON; N. D. HANSON; A. F. EHRHARDT; E. S. MOLAND; C. C. SANDERS

1998-01-01

85

Uptake pathways of clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis into human epithelial cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilisisolates obtained from urine and faeces showed high invasion levels into several human epithelial cell lines in gentamicin assays. Invasion efficiencies of isolate 102 from a monkey with diarrhoea equalled or even exceeded those ofSalmonella typhistrain Ty2 (6.3 to 13.8% of the inoculum). Vegetative, non-swarmingP. mirabilisinvaded epithelial cells efficiently and were found in endosomes and free in the cytoplasm.

Tobias A. Oelschlaeger; Ben D. Tall

1996-01-01

86

Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpH·FimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpH·FimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpH·FimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpH·FimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. PMID:25562574

Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

2015-04-01

87

Native flagellin does not protect mice against an experimental Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection and neutralizes the protective effect of MrpA fimbrial protein.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis expresses several virulence factors including MR/P fimbriae and flagella. Bacterial flagellin has frequently shown interesting adjuvant and protective properties in vaccine formulations. However, native P. mirabilis flagellin has not been analyzed so far. Native P. mirabilis flagellin was evaluated as a protective antigen and as an adjuvant in co-immunizations with MrpA (structural subunit of MR/P fimbriae) using an ascending UTI model in the mouse. Four groups of mice were intranasally treated with either MrpA, native flagellin, both proteins and PBS. Urine and blood samples were collected before and after immunization for specific antibodies determination. Cytokine production was assessed in immunized mice splenocytes cultures. Mice were challenged with P. mirabilis, and bacteria quantified in kidneys and bladders. MrpA immunization induced serum and urine specific anti-MrpA antibodies while MrpA coadministered with native flagellin did not. None of the animals developed significant anti-flagellin antibodies. Only MrpA-immunized mice showed a significant decrease of P. mirabilis in bladders and kidneys. Instead, infection levels in MrpA-flagellin or flagellin-treated mice showed no significant differences with the control group. IL-10 was significantly induced in splenocytes of mice that received native flagellin or MrpA-flagellin. Native P. mirabilis flagellin did not protect mice against an ascending UTI. Moreover, it showed an immunomodulatory effect, neutralizing the protective role of MrpA. P. mirabilis flagellin exhibits particular immunological properties compared to other bacterial flagellins. PMID:24771125

Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Rial, Analía; Chabalgoity, José A; Zunino, Pablo

2014-06-01

88

The type III secretion system of Proteus mirabilis HI4320 does not contribute to virulence in the mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or with complicated urinary tracts. The recent release of the P. mirabilis strain HI4320 genome sequence has facilitated identification of potential virulence factors in this organism. Genes appearing to encode a type III secretion system (TTSS) were found in a low GC-content pathogenicity island in the P. mirabilis chromosome. This island contains 24 intact genes that appear to encode all components necessary to assemble a TTSS needle complex, plus at least two putative secreted effector proteins and their chaperones. The genetic organization of the TTSS genes is very similar to that of the TTSS of Shigella flexneri. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these genes are expressed at low levels in vitro. However, insertional mutation of two putative TTSS genes, encoding the requisite ATPase and a possible negative regulator, resulted in no change in either the growth rate of the mutant or the secreted protein profile compared to wild-type. Furthermore, there was no difference in quantitative cultures of urine, bladder and kidney between the ATPase mutant and the wild-type strain in the mouse model of ascending UTI in either independent challenge or co-challenge experiments. The role of the P. mirabilis TTSS, if any, is yet to be determined. PMID:17893161

Pearson, Melanie M; Mobley, Harry L T

2007-10-01

89

Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: construction of an isogenic pmfA mutant and analysis of virulence in a CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a cause of urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis, produces a number of different fimbriae. An isogenic fimbrial mutant of P. mirabilis HI4320 was constructed by marker exchange with delta pmfA::aphA to determine the role of the P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF) in hemagglutination and in virulence in the CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. The pmfA mutant, which did not express the 19,500-Da major subunit of PMF, colonized the bladders of transurethrally challenged CBA mice (n = 20 in each group) in numbers 83-fold lower than those of the wild-type strain (mutant, log10 4.87 CFU/g; wild-type strain, log10 6.79 CFU/g; P = 0.023). However, the mutant colonized the kidneys in numbers similar to those of the wild-type strain. Hemagglutination patterns of the mutant ruled out the involvement of PMF in both mannose-resistant, Proteus-like and mannose-resistant, Klebsiella-like hemagglutination. Similarly, PMF does not appear to be involved in adherence to uroepithelial cells (UEC), since the mutant was as adherent as the wild-type strain (mutant, 14.1 +/- 11.7 mean bacteria per UEC, 60% of UEC with > or = 10 bacteria; wild-type strain, 18.1 +/- 16.2 mean bacteria per UEC, 68% of UEC with > or = 10 bacteria; not significantly different). These data suggest a role for PMF in colonization of the bladder but not in colonization of kidney tissue. PMF appear not to be responsible for mannose-resistant, Proteus-like or mannose-resistant, Klebsiella-like hemagglutination. Images PMID:7905463

Massad, G; Lockatell, C V; Johnson, D E; Mobley, H L

1994-01-01

90

Motility of three strains of Proteus mirabilis (G9, P11 and PM5C) in liquid suspension under different environmental conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of compounds on the motility of Proteus mirabilis swarmer cells varies from one strain to another. The effect of compounds on the motility of swarmer cells is mainly at higher concentrations than the concentration used to inhibit swarming. Boric acid only affects the motility of strain G9 swarmer cells, whereas sodium deoxycholate prevented the motility of swarmer cells for three strains. Some antibiotics show their effect on the motility of swarmer cells in anaerobic areas, by slowing the movement of swarmer cells, followed by stopping the movement after a period of time or disappearance of the cells. The differentiation between the strains of Proteus species seems to be better in liquid suspension than on the solid medium. PMID:12578309

Hazem, A

2003-01-01

91

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC ?-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Egyptian Hospitals  

PubMed Central

The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC ?-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC ?-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC ?-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 ?-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt. PMID:25003107

Helmy, Mai M.; Wasfi, Reham

2014-01-01

92

10?(Z),13?(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrated that 10?(Z), 13?(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

2012-01-01

93

THE GASRATIOAND SOME CORRELATEDDISTINGUISHING PROPERTIESOF BACTERIAOF THE GENUS PROTEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received forpublication May29,1942 Hauser (1885) first usedthenameProteus todescribe three organisms which hetermed Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, andProteus zenkeri. Hedescribed these organisms mainly ontheir morphological characteristics andgelatin lique- faction. Inreporting astudy of84Proteus cultures, WennerandRettger (1919) suggested thatadivision ofthegenusProteus intospecies other thanProteus vulgaris andProteus mirabilis wasunsound, owingtotheinconsistent reactions ofthese bacteria onmediaother thanmaltose. Bengtson (1919) studied a number ofProteus cultures biochemically andserologically, andconcluded

M. L. SPECKAimC; N. STARK

94

Four Variants of the Citrobacter freundii AmpC-Type Cephalosporinases, Including Novel Enzymes CMY-14 and CMY-15, in a Proteus mirabilis Clone Widespread in Poland  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine Proteus mirabilis isolates from 17 Polish hospitals were analyzed. The isolates were resistant to a variety of antimicrobials, and their patterns of resistance to ?-lactams resembled those of the constitutive class C cephalosporinase (AmpC) producers. Indeed, ?-lactamases with a pI of ?9.0 were found in all of the isolates, and they were subsequently identified as four AmpC-type cephalosporinases, CMY-4, -12, -14, and -15, of which the two last ones were novel enzyme variants. The enzymes were of Citrobacter freundii origin and were closely related to each other, with CMY-4 likely being the evolutionary precursor of the remaining ones. The blaCMY genes were located exclusively in chromosomal DNA, within EcoRI restriction fragments of the same size of ?10 kb. In the CMY-12- and -15-producing isolates, an additional fragment of ?4.5 kb hybridized with the blaCMY probe as well, which could have arisen from a duplication event during the evolution of the genes. In all of the isolates, the ISEcp1 mobile element, which most probably is involved in mobilization of the C. freundii ampC gene, was placed at the same distance from the 5? ends of the blaCMY genes, and sequences located between them were identical in isolates carrying each of the four genes. These data suggested that a single chromosome-to-chromosome transfer of the ampC gene from C. freundii to P. mirabilis could have initiated the spread and evolution of the AmpC-producing P. mirabilis in Poland. The hypothesis seems to be confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, which revealed several cases of close relatedness between the P. mirabilis isolates from distant centers and showed an overall similarity between the majority of the multiresistant isolates. PMID:15504832

Literacka, El?bieta; Empel, Joanna; Baraniak, Anna; Sadowy, Ewa; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Gniadkowski, Marek

2004-01-01

95

Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

2013-01-01

96

Characterization and Sequence Analysis of Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Encoding Genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Collected during Tigecycline Phase 3 Clinical Trials?  

PubMed Central

In concert with the development of novel ?-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded ?-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the blaCMY, blaACT, blaFOX, and blaDHA families as well as the blaKPC genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of ?2 ?g/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, blaCTX-M-type ?-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas blaSHV genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC90 = 2 ?g/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting. PMID:19015360

Jones, C. Hal; Tuckman, Margareta; Keeney, David; Ruzin, Alexey; Bradford, Patricia A.

2009-01-01

97

Single-step purification of Proteus mirabilis urease accessory protein UreE, a protein with a naturally occurring histidine tail, by nickel chelate affinity chromatography.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis urease, a nickel metalloenzyme, is essential for the virulence of this species in the urinary tract. Escherichia coli containing cloned structural genes ureA, ureB, and ureC and accessory genes ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG displays urease activity when cultured in M9 minimal medium. To study the involvement of one of these accessory genes in the synthesis of active urease, deletion mutations were constructed. Cultures of a ureE deletion mutant did not produce an active urease in minimal medium. Urease activity, however, was partially restored by the addition of 5 microM NiCl2 to the medium. The predicted amino acid sequence of UreE, which concludes with seven histidine residues among the last eight C-terminal residues (His-His-His-His-Asp-His-His-His), suggested that UreE may act as a Ni2+ chelator for the urease operon. To exploit this potential metal-binding motif, we attempted to purify UreE from cytoplasmic extracts of E. coli containing cloned urease genes. Soluble protein was loaded onto a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid column, a metal chelate resin with high affinity for polyhistidine tails, and bound protein was eluted with a 0 to 0.5 M imidazole gradient. A single polypeptide of 20-kDa apparent molecular size, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-10 to 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was eluted between 0.25 and 0.4 M imidazole. The N-terminal 10 amino acids of the eluted polypeptide exactly matched the deduced amino acid sequence of P. mirabilis UreE. The molecular size of the native protein was estimated on a Superdex 75 column to be 36 kDa, suggesting that the protein is a dimer. These data suggest that UreE is a Ni(2)+-binding protein that is necessary for synthesis of a catalytically active urease at low Ni(2+) concentrations. Images PMID:7961442

Sriwanthana, B; Island, M D; Maneval, D; Mobley, H L

1994-01-01

98

Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) chain length on interactions of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and its bioactive 23-kilodalton NH2-terminal fragment with isolated LPS and intact Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The target-specific cytotoxicity for gram-negative bacteria and the endotoxin-neutralizing activity of the 55-kDa bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and its bioactive 23-kDa NH2-terminal fragment depend on the strong attraction of BPI for the lipid A region of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have shown before that smooth gram-negative bacteria with long-chain LPS are more resistant to BPI (especially holo-BPI) than are rough strains. It has been suggested that the high BPI resistance of some gram-negative bacteria, such as Proteus mirabilis, might also reflect the structural diversity of lipid A. To explore this possibility, we compared the antibacterial activity and binding of natural and recombinant holo-BPI and a recombinant NH2-terminal fragment (rBPI-23) to an isogenic rough (Re-LPS chemotype) and a smooth (S-LPS chemotype) strain of P. mirabilis and to LPS isolated from the two strains. Holo-BPI and rBPI-23 were both potently active against the Re strain of P. mirabilis (90% lethal dose, 20 nM). In contrast, the smooth strain was > or = 100 times more resistant to holo-BPI but only 10 times more resistant to rBPI-23. rBPI-23 was also more potent against several Escherichia coli strains from clinical bacteremia isolates. Differences in the antibacterial potency of BPI toward the Re and S strains of P. mirabilis correlated with differences in the binding of holo-BPI and rBPI-23 to these bacteria. In contrast, the binding of biosynthetically (in vitro transcribed and translated) 35S-labeled holo-BPI and NH2-terminal fragment to isolated Re- and S-LPS from P. mirabilis in solution was similar. Moreover, in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, holo-BPI and rBPI-23 potently neutralized both forms of LPS with equal effectiveness. Together, these results strongly suggest that BPI recognizes Proteus lipid A and that the relative resistance of (smooth) P. mirabilis to holo-BPI is due to the inhibitory effect of long polysaccharide chains of tightly packed LPS in the envelope. Images PMID:8262637

Capodici, C; Chen, S; Sidorczyk, Z; Elsbach, P; Weiss, J

1994-01-01

99

Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute phenotypic confirmatory test to detect the presence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases from 4005 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates.  

PubMed

A subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected for the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends that were positive for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic confirmatory test (n?=?3245) or had an ertapenem MIC of ?0.5 µg ml(-1) (n?=?293), or both (n?=?467), were analysed for ESBL genes. Most ESBL phenotype E. coli or K. pneumoniae possessed an ESBL gene (95.8 and 88.4?%, respectively), and this was 93.1?% if carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were removed. This rate was lower for P. mirabilis (73.4?%) and K. oxytoca (62.5?%). Virtually all ESBL-positive isolates (99.5?%) were cefotaxime non-susceptible [CLSI or European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints)]. Fewer isolates (82?%) were ceftazidime non-susceptible (CLSI breakpoints). In addition, 21.1?% of E. coli, 25?% of K. oxytoca and 78.7?% of P. mirabilis isolates were ceftazidime susceptible but ESBL positive. This suggests that CLSI breakpoints for ceftazidime are too high to detect ESBLs. The lower EUCAST breakpoints detected ESBLs in E. coli and K. oxytoca better, but 59.6?% of ESBL-positive isolates of P. mirabilis were ceftazidime susceptible. For isolates with ertapenem MICs ?0.5 µg ml(-1), more accurate ESBL phenotype analysis was observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae (sensitivity >95?% for both, specificity 94.4 and 54.1?%, respectively). If carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae were excluded, the specificity increased to 78?%. The positive predictive values for the ESBL phenotypic test with E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 97.6 and 81.8?%, respectively, and negative predictive values were 75.9 and 95.2?%, respectively. We therefore suggest that it would be prudent to confirm phenotypic ESBL-positive P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca with molecular analysis. PMID:24478449

Morrissey, Ian; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl; Badal, Robert E

2014-04-01

100

Bioconversion of l-glutamic acid to ?-ketoglutaric acid by an immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst expressing l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to develop an immobilized whole-cell biocatalytic process for the environment-friendly synthesis of ?-ketoglutaric acid (?-KG) from l-glutamic acid. We compared the suitability of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains overexpressing Proteus mirabilisl-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) as potential biocatalysts. Although both recombinant strains were biocatalytically active, the performance of B. subtilis was superior to that of E. coli. With l-glutamic acid as the substrate, ?-KG production levels by membranes isolated from B. subtilis and E. coli were 55.3±1.73 and 21.7±0.39?g/mg protein/min, respectively. The maximal conversion ratio of l-glutamic acid to ?-KG was 31% (w/w) under the following optimal conditions: 15g/L l-glutamic acid, 20g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5mM MgCl2, 40°C, pH 8.0, and 24-h incubation. Immobilization of whole cells with alginate increased the recyclability by an average of 23.33% per cycle. This work established an efficient one-step biotransformation process for the production of ?-KG using immobilized whole B. subtilis overexpressing P. mirabilisl-AAD. Compared with traditional multistep chemical synthesis, the biocatalytic process described here has the advantage of reducing environmental pollution and thus has great potential for the large-scale production of ?-KG. PMID:24172254

Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

2014-01-01

101

Penicillin-binding proteins in Proteus species.  

PubMed Central

Penicillin-binding proteins in three species of Proteus, Proteus mirabilis, P. morganii, and P. rettgeri, were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Penicillin-binding proteins in these Proteus species were compared with those in Escherichia coli K-12. An approximate correlation between penicillin-binding proteins in E. coli and those in Proteus species was shown by several criteria: electrophoretic mobilities; affinities of several beta-lactam antibiotics which show characteristic patterns of binding to penicillin-binding proteins in E. coli; relation between affinities of antibiotics to the proteins and effects on morphological changes in Proteus species; location of beta-lactamase activity among penicillin-binding proteins; and thermostability. The electrophoretic mobilities and several other characteristics of penicillin-binding proteins among the Proteus species examined were found to be similar from species to species and differed only slightly from those of E. coli. Images PMID:368025

Ohya, S; Yamazaki, M; Sugawara, S; Matsuhashi, M

1979-01-01

102

Fimbriæ and Hæmagglutinating Properties in Strains of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIMBRIATION and the hæmagglutinating pattern of 21 strains of Proteus mirabilis, 10 of P. vulgaris and 20 strains each of P. morgani and P. rettgeri have been investigated. The strains of P. hauseri were those previously used1 and were either in the Y, W or R phases2. The morgani strains comprised 12 recently isolated local strains and 8 (Nos. 232,

J. N. Coetzee; Gabrielle Pernet; J. J. THERON

1962-01-01

103

Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten “Popper sequences” have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as

Alan Ebringer; Taha Rashid; Clyde Wilson

2010-01-01

104

Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

Proteus syndrome is a rare sporadic, hamartoneoplastic disorder of vascular, skeletal, and soft tissues that causes asymmetry of the skull, body, arms, and the legs. The name "Proteus" of the Greek god who had the ability to change his shape was coined to define the variety of deformities including partial gigantism of the hands or feet, asymmetry of the arms and legs, hypertrophy of long bones, plantar hyperplasia, haemangiomas, lipomas, varicosities, linear verrucous epidermal naevi, macrocephaly, and cranial hyperostoses. The basic defect seems to be the focal overgrowth of cellular elements in skin, bone, and other connective tissues. The variable features of the syndrome make differential diagnosis challenging for clinicians. The most important features are the hamartomatous disorders. The long-term prognosis is still not clear. As it is a hamartoneoplastic and incompletely delineated syndrome, the patients must be followed up because of the possible risk of neoplasms. PMID:14649692

Bilkay, Ufuk; Tokat, Cenk; Ozek, Cuneyt; Gundogan, Hakan; Erdem, Ozgur; Gurler, Tahir; Cagdas, Arman

2003-01-01

105

Proteus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Proteus syndrome (OMIM # 176920) (OMIM™ 2005), a rare and highly variable congenital hamartomatous disorder (Gorlin et al. 2001), is a member of a group designated as local “overgrowth diseases ” (Cohen et al. 2002). It consists of asymmetric (mosaic), disproportionate and progressive overgrowth of body parts, connective tissue nevi,\\u000a epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue, vascular and lymphatic malformations, and

Martino Ruggieri; Ignacio Pascual-Castroviejo

106

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni under conditions of atmospheric oxygen tension with the support of Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen. Despite causing enteritis in humans, it is a well-adapted intestinal microorganism in animals, hardly ever generating disease symptoms. Nevertheless, as a true microaerophilic microorganism it is still puzzling how Campylobacter cells can survive on chicken meat, the main source of human infection. In this study, we demonstrate that C. jejuni is able to withstand conditions of atmospheric oxygen tension when cocultured with Pseudomonas species, major food-spoiling bacteria that are frequently found on chicken meat in rather high numbers. Using an in vitro survival assay, interactions of 145 C. jejuni wild-type strains and field isolates from chicken meat, broiler feces, and human clinical samples with type strains and food isolates of Pseudomonas spp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Micrococcus luteus, and Enterococcus faecalis were studied. When inoculated alone or in coculture with Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Micrococcus luteus, or Enterococcus faecalis type strains, Campylobacter cells were able to survive ambient oxygen levels for no more than 18 h. In contrast, Campylobacter bacteria inoculated with type strains or wild-type isolates of Pseudomonas showed a prolonged aerobic survival of up to >48 h. This microbial commensalism was diverse in C. jejuni isolates from different sources; isolates from chicken meat and humans in coculture with Pseudomonas putida were able to use this survival support better than fecal isolates from broilers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the development of fiberlike structures braiding P. putida and C. jejuni cells. Hence, it seems that microaerophilic C. jejuni is able to survive ambient atmospheric oxygen tension by metabolic commensalism with Pseudomonas spp. This bacterium-bacterium interaction might set the basis for survival of C. jejuni on chicken meat and thus be the prerequisite step in the pathway toward human infection. PMID:20639377

Hilbert, Friederike; Scherwitzel, Manuela; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P

2010-09-01

107

Hemolysin production, salt tolerance, antibacterial resistance, and prevalence of extended spectrum ?-lactamases in Proteus bacilli isolated from clinical and environmental sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objective: Proteus bacilli are opportunistic members of Enterobacteriaceae and Proteus mirabilis is among the most common causes of community or hospital acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in many countries. In the present study hemolysin production, salt tolerance and resistance to antibacterial agents in environmental and UTIs samples were compared. Materials and methods: Bacteria were isolated from UTIs (n=80),

Shahla Mansouri; Farehnaz Pahlavanzadeh

2009-01-01

108

Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were

Sabitha Prabakharan; Joel M. Teichman; Scott S. Spore; Edmund Sabanegh; Randolph D. Glickman; Robert J. McLean

2000-01-01

109

Proteus IgG Antibodies and C-Reactive Protein in English, Norwegian and Spanish Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The distribution of Proteus antibody levels was compared in English, Norwegian and Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using an indirect\\u000a immunofluorescence method, the IgG antibody titre against Proteus mirabilis was measured in the sera of 27 English, 53 Norwegian and 34 Spanish patients with RA and divided into active and inactive\\u000a disease groups according to the serum C-reactive

T. Rashid; G. Darlington; J. Kjeldsen-Kragh; O. Forre; A. Collado; A. Ebringer

1999-01-01

110

The Proteus presentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development environments can increase user productivity by presenting information in more useful ways. This paper describes Proteus, the presentation system of Ensemble, a software development environment that supports a wide variety of language and document capabilities. Proteus provides a set of services which allow the appearance of software development documents, such as programs or design specifications, to be determined

Susan L. Graham; Michael A. Harrison; Ethan V. Munson

1992-01-01

111

Epidemiological aspects of Proteus infections with particular reference to phage typing  

PubMed Central

The properties and characteristics of 296 Proteus strains isolated from hospital patients and from sewage have been examined with a view to determining those characters which are of most use in following and detecting cross-infection. Ninety-six per cent of the organisms isolated were P. mirabilis and it was found that by identifying biotypes and by phage typing the species could be divided into a relatively large number of groups which would be useful for epidemiological investigation. PMID:5697342

France, Diana R.; Markham, N. P.

1968-01-01

112

d Methionine preparation from racemic methionines by Proteus vulgaris IAM 12003 with asymmetric degrading activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial degradation of l-methionine was investigated in order to develop a practical process for d-methionine production from racemic methionines. Among the 1000 culture strains tested, microorganisms belonging to the Achromobacter, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas and Sarcina genera exhibited a high l-methionine-degrading activity. Proteus vulgaris IAM 12003 was determined to be the best strain and was used as

E. Takahashi; M. Furui; Hiroyasu Seko; T. Shibatani

1997-01-01

113

Development and soybean leaf consumption by Urbanus proteus proteus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanus proteus proteus (L.) is a defoliating pest of legumes, causing damage mainly on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and, being a minor pest, little is known about its bioecology. The objective of this paper was to study the larval and pupal development of the insect and the foliar consumption during its instars. Durations of

Dori Edson Nava; José Roberto Postali Parra

2002-01-01

114

The Proteus multiprotocol message library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid systems span manifold organizations and application domains. Because this diverse environment inevitably engenders multiple protocols, interoperability mechanisms are crucial to seamless, pervasive access. This paper presents the design, rationale, and implementation of the Proteus multiprotocol library for integrating multiple message protocols, such as SOAP and JMS, within one system. Proteus decouples application code from protocol code at run-time, allowing

Kenneth Chiu; Madhusudhan Govindaraju; Dennis Gannon

2002-01-01

115

Design and Implementation of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, implementation, and a performance e valuation o f a Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) system called Proteus which aims to support dynamic node reconfiguration. Proteus allows users to shorten the execution time of their DSM programs by dynamically adding nodes to the system. Furthermore, competition for r esource between system users and computer owners can b

Jyh-Chang Ueng; Ce-Kuen Shieh; Chi-Chang Lin

1999-01-01

116

The Proteus Multiprotocol Message Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid systems span manifold organizations and application domains. Because this diverse environment inevitably engenders multiple protocols, interoperability mechanisms are crucial to seamless, pervasive access. This paper presents the design, rationale, and implementation of the Proteus multiprotocol library for integrating multiple message protocols, such as SOAP and JMS, within one system. Proteus decouples application code from protocol code at run-time, allowing

Kenneth Chiu; Madhusudhan Govindaraju; Dennis Gannon

2002-01-01

117

Proteus: Mythology to modern times  

PubMed Central

Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

2012-01-01

118

Methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide production from methionine by Proteus species detected by head-space gas-liquid chromatography.  

PubMed Central

Head-space gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to detect and identify products formed by Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. morganii, and P. rettgeri from a defined medium supplemented with either phenylalanine, methionine, valine, leucine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, threonine, asparagine, aspartic acid, or tryptophan. In a detailed study of the products formed by 68 strains of Proteus spp. from L-methionine, the production of large amounts of both dimethyl disulfide and methyl mercaptan was found to be a characteristic of the genus. Both sulfur products appeared within a few hours of inoculation. Dimethyl disulfide was a more sensitive indicator of growth than the spectrometric determination of optical density. This suggests that it could be useful for the rapid, automated detection of any species of Proteus. PMID:332705

Hayward, N J; Jeavons, T H; Nicholson, A J; Thornton, A G

1977-01-01

119

A MAP Kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for defense against infection by opportunistic Proteus species.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity requires a conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. Being in the group of opportunistic pathogens, Proteus spp. cause large number of nosocomial infections. Since, Proteus spp. do not cause death in wild type C. elegans, to understand the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway, the mutants (sek-1 and pmk-1) of this pathway were employed. Physiological experiments revealed that the Proteus spp. were able to kill MAP Kinase pathway mutant's C. elegans significantly. To understand the involvement of innate immune pathways specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes were kinetically investigated during Proteus spp. infections. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a regulation of few candidate immune regulatory genes (F08G5.6, lys-7, nlp-29, ATF-7 and daf-16) during the course of Proteus spp. infections. In addition, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Proteus mirabilis upon exposure to mutant C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions suggesting that the pathogen modifies its internal machinery according to the specific host for effective pathogenesis. PMID:23597661

JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Vigneshwari, Loganathan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

2013-01-01

120

Effect of carbon sources and electron acceptors in the growth medium of Proteus spp. on the formation of ( R )-2-hydroxycarboxylate viologen oxidoreductase and dimethylsulphoxide reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis were grown anaerobically on glucose in the absence or presence of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) as electron acceptor or on (S)- or (RS)-lactate in the presence of nitrogen (N)-oxides, sulphur (S)-oxides or pyruvate. During growth on glucose the main fermentation product was ethanol and in the presence of DMSO it was (R)-lactate. Growth on (RS)-lactate led to

Carsten Schinschel; Helmut Simon

1993-01-01

121

Surgical treatment of macrodactyly in Proteus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder composed of a wide variety of deformities including macrodactyly of the foot. A dearth of information on the surgical management of macrodatyly in Proteus syndrome exists in the literature. In this report, we present our experience in the surgical treatment of two patients with Proteus syndrome, both of whom suffered from disordered gait

R. Dikkers; J. J. van der Biezen; B. van der Lei

2005-01-01

122

Proteus vulgaris and proteus morganii in diarrheal disease of infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a Twelve cases of enteritis, colitis, or enterocolitis are presented. In 3 patients B. proteus was present in the feces; in\\u000a 7 B. morganii type 1, and in 2 both B. proteus and B. morganii.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (2) \\u000a Three of the patients died; two from concurrent disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (3) \\u000a All of the patients were less than ten months old.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (4) \\u000a During the

Erwin R. Neter; Reginald H. Farrar

1943-01-01

123

Proteus syndrome: emphasis on the pulmonary manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published articles on the radiologic aspects of Proteus syndrome are sparse. This report highlights the features of this disease with specific attention to the serious pulmonary manifestations that may occur at an early age. Two cases of Proteus syndrome and severe lung disease are presented, with complete autopsy in one case and correlative surgical pathologic data in the other. Multiple

B. Newman; A. H. Urbach; D. Orenstein; P. S. Dickman

1994-01-01

124

Quorum-sensing cross talk: isolation and chemical characterization of cyclic dipeptides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

In cell-free Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture supernatants, we identified two compounds capable of activating an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) biosensor. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy revealed that these compounds were not AHLs but the diketopiperazines (DKPs), cyclo(DeltaAla-L-Val) and cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) respectively. These compounds were also found in cell-free supernatants from Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter agglomerans [cyclo(DeltaAla-L-Val) only]. Although both DKPs were absent from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, we isolated, from both pseudomonads, a third DKP, which was chemically characterized as cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro). Dose-response curves using a LuxR-based AHL biosensor indicated that cyclo(DeltaAla-L-Val), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) activate the biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner, albeit at much higher concentrations than the natural activator N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). Competition studies showed that cyclo(DeltaAla-L-Val), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) antagonize the 3-oxo-C6-HSL-mediated induction of bioluminescence, suggesting that these DKPs may compete for the same LuxR-binding site. Similarly, DKPs were found to be capable of activating or antagonizing other LuxR-based quorum-sensing systems, such as the N-butanoylhomoserine lactone-dependent swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens. Although the physiological role of these DKPs has yet to be established, their activity suggests the existence of cross talk among bacterial signalling systems. PMID:10510239

Holden, M T; Ram Chhabra, S; de Nys, R; Stead, P; Bainton, N J; Hill, P J; Manefield, M; Kumar, N; Labatte, M; England, D; Rice, S; Givskov, M; Salmond, G P; Stewart, G S; Bycroft, B W; Kjelleberg, S; Williams, P

1999-09-01

125

Proteus virulence: involvement of the pore forming alpha-hemolysin (a short review).  

PubMed

The genus Proteus belongs to the tribe of Proteae in the family of Enterobacteriaceae, and consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii, P. penneri and P. myxofaciens. They are distinguished from the rest of Enterobacteriaceae by their ability to deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophane. They hydrolyze urea and gelatin and fail to ferment lactose, mannose, dulcitol and malonate; and do not form lysine and arginine decarboxylase or beta-galactosidase [1]. Colonies produce distinct "burned chocolate" odor and frequently show the characteristics of swarming motility on solid media. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. morganii are widely recognized human pathogens. They have been isolated from urinary tract infections, wounds, ear, and nosocomial bacteremic infections, often in immuncompromised patients [2-6]. P. myxofaciens has no clinical interest to this time. P. penneri as species nova was nominated by the recommendation of Hickman and co-workers [7]. Formerly it was recognized as P. vulgaris biogroup 1 or indole negative P. vulgaris [8, 9]. Although it has been less commonly isolated from clinical samples than the other three human pathogenic Proteus species, it has nevertheless been connected with infections of the urinary tract, wounds and has been isolated from the feces of both healthy and diarrheic individuals [10-12]. Potential virulence factors responsible for virulence of Proteae are: IgA protease, urease, type3 fimbriae associated with MR/K haemagglutinins of at least two antigenic types, endotoxin, swarming motility and HlyA and/or HpmA type hemolysins [for review see ref. 13]. In the followings we give a survey of accumulated concepts about the position and characteristics of HlyA type alpha-hemolysins both in general and with emphasis on virulence functions in the tribe of Proteae. PMID:11056765

Tóth, V; Emódy, L

2000-01-01

126

Pathology of Lipomatous Lesions in Proteus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare, complex hamartomatous disorder with markedly variable clinical expression. We present\\u000a a case of Proteus syndrome with multiple disfiguring soft tissue masses that were present since early childhood. The lesions\\u000a involved predominantly the right side of the body and included scoliosis, macrodactyly, and limited hyperostosis in the right\\u000a foot. There was no evidence of cranial

Tarik Tihan; Jonathan Okun

1998-01-01

127

Proteus syndrome: craniofacial and cerebral MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartoneoplastic syndrome that may affect the brain, skull, and extracranial head and neck.\\u000a We present a case with severe, characteristic findings. Brain abnormalities are not common in Proteus syndrome; when present,\\u000a hemimegalencephaly and migrational disorders are typically seen, commonly with an associated seizure disorder. Maxillary and\\u000a mandibular dysmorphism may occur, including unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

D. R. DeLone; W. D. Brown; L. R. Gentry

1999-01-01

128

Hawkmoth pollination of Mirabilis longiflora (Nyctaginaceae).  

PubMed

A guild composed of very-long-tubed hawkmoth flowers (nectar tubes, 9 cm or more long), belonging to different genera and families, occurs in the American Southwest. Our knowledge of the hawkmoth associates of these flowers is fragmentary. Mirabilis longiflora, a member of the guild with a tube 10.0-10.5 cm long, was found to be visited and pollinated mainly by Manduca quinquemaculata with a proboscis 10.7-11.6 cm long in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. This example fits in with four other previously reported cases. The long-tongued Man. quinquemaculata is now known to be associated with five species of very long-tongued hawkmoth flowers in the Southwest, and Man. rustica has been found on one of them. PMID:16593287

Grant, V; Grant, K A

1983-03-01

129

The Proteus Navier-Stokes code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. The emphasis in the development of Proteus is not algorithm development or research on numerical methods, but rather the development of the code itself. The objective is to develop codes that are user-oriented, easily-modified, and well-documented. Well-proven, state-of-the-art solution algorithms are being used. Code readability, documentation (both internal and external), and validation are being emphasized. This paper is a status report on the Proteus development effort. The analysis and solution procedure are described briefly, and the various features in the code are summarized. The results from some of the validation cases that have been run are presented for both the two- and three-dimensional codes.

Towne, Charles E.; Bui, Trong T.; Cavicchi, Richard H.; Conley, Julianne M.; Molls, Frank B.; Schwab, John R.

1992-01-01

130

Chronic rectal bleeding in Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

Proteus Syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous disorder that typically manifests itself in overgrowth, vascular malformation and disregulation of fatty tissue. The tissues affected are commonly the limbs but can be of any tissue. Vascular anomalies are common and appear at random sites on the body. Diagnosis is often difficult leading to wrong treatment. We describe a case of a 17-year-old girl with Proteus syndrome presented with symptomatic anaemia secondary to chronic rectal bleeding. Computed Tomography Angiogram of Abdomen and Pelvis confirmed the presence of rectal vascular malformations. PMID:21901955

Siow, S L; Sim, N K

2010-12-01

131

Concurrent splenic lymphangiomatosis and Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old female presented with Proteus syndrome and was found to have an asymptomatic enlarged spleen. Pathology confirmed splenic lymphangiomatosis. We describe an association of these 2 disorders in the Middle Eastern population. Diagnosis and pathogenesis are discussed in this case report. PMID:24043010

Emran, Reja S; Anwar, Ihab M; Trudel, Michel; Bhatti, Adnan A

2013-09-01

132

TEM72, a New Extended-Spectrum bLactamase Detected in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of enzymes that confer resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins and monobactams (7, 8, 11, 18). Most ESBLs found in clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae are plasmid-borne variants of the original TEM-1 and SHV-1 enzymes in which one or more amino acid substitutions expand the substrate specificity (2-4, 21). Currently, almost 100 of these variants have

MARIAGRAZIA PERILLI; BERNARDETTA SEGATORE; MARIA ROSARIA DE MASSIS; MARIA LETIZIA RICCIO; CIRO BIANCHI; ALESSANDRO ZOLLO; GIAN MARIA ROSSOLINI; GIANFRANCO AMICOSANTE

2000-01-01

133

Myocardial fat overgrowth in Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare, mosaic disorder with asymmetric and distorting overgrowth of the skeletal system, skin, and adipose tissues. Cardiac abnormalities are rare in this syndrome and only two prior cases have been reported. Many patients with PS followed at our institution underwent transthoracic echocardiograms for preoperative evaluation or as work-up for associated pulmonary disease. Some were noted to have prominent, focal echodense areas in the myocardium. We further investigated cardiac findings in a cohort of children and adult patients with PS. Patients with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, Holter monitoring, and exercise treadmill testing. Twenty children and adults with PS, age 24 months to 50 years old, underwent transthoracic echocardiograms. Seven patients (35%) had focal bright echodense areas within the myocardium suggesting fatty infiltration. The majority of patients had significant involvement of the interventricular septum. The cardiac characteristics of all patients with fatty infiltration on transthoracic echocardiograms were compared to Proteus patients without these findings. There were no significant differences in chamber sizes, mass, systolic or diastolic function. No increased risk of conduction defects or arrhythmias was found. This study shows that abnormal fat overgrowth is a common finding in the myocardium in patients with Proteus syndrome; however, it is not associated with functional derangements or arrhythmias. Further evaluation of a larger number of Proteus patients is needed in order to determine the frequency and prognosis of cardiac involvement. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25377688

Hannoush, H; Sachdev, V; Brofferio, A; Arai, A E; LaRocca, G; Sapp, J; Sidenko, S; Brenneman, C; Biesecker, L G; Keppler-Noreuil, K M

2015-01-01

134

Rheumatoid arthritis and proteus: a possible aetiological association  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of specific anti-Proteus antibodies in active, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, has been demonstrated by four different techniques: indirect bacterial agglutination, ELISA, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, anti-HLA-DR4 tissue typing sera have been shown to bind to Proteus microorganisms, thereby suggesting some molecular similarity or cross-reactivity between bacteria and HLA antigens. The concept is proposed that Proteus-reactive arthritis occurs

A. Ebringer; S. Khalafpour; C. Wilson

1989-01-01

135

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

136

Effect of Activated Charcoal on the Swarming of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE swarming of species of Proteus on solid culture media is a well known and often troublesome phenomenon (Fig. 1). It may be suppressed in various ways1, and considerable attention has been paid to possible factors involved in this peculiar zonal growth2-8. This communication reports the effect of activated charcoal on the swarming of five strains of Proteus. The strains

D. G. Smith

1966-01-01

137

Die hypopeltaten Sepalen von Viola arvensis und Viola mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Sepalen vonViola arvensis undViola mirabilis und möglicherweise allerViola-Arten sind, wie die Untersuchungen der äußeren Morphologie, der Ontogenie, der Histogenie und der Bündelmorphologie ergeben, hypopeltat-schildförmige bzw.-schlauchförmige Blätter, deren dorsale Querzone zu dem basalen Anhängsel auswächst. Durch diesen Spreitenbau, der beiViola nur bei den Kelchblättern auftritt, erweisen sich diese als laminale Kelchblätter.

Irmgard Jäger

1963-01-01

138

Pseudomonas folliculitis.  

PubMed

Previous reports of Pseudomonas folliculitis in children identified heated pools, hot tubs or spa baths as the source of the infection. This report presents a 4-year-old female with Pseudomonas folliculitis acquired from the family bath tub. The source of the infection was contaminated bath toys and bath plug. PMID:9159968

Hogan, P A

1997-05-01

139

Mirabilis jalapa mottle virus: a new carlavirus infecting four o'clocks.  

PubMed

Analysis of a next-generation sequence dataset from Mirabilis jalapa resulted in the discovery of a novel virus in the genus Carlavirus (family Betaflexiviridae), mirabilis jalapa mottle virus (MjMV). The complete genome of MjMV was determined to consist of 8315 nucleotides (nt), with the six open reading frames indicative of carlaviruses. MjMV is most similar to kalanchoe latent virus (60% identity) and lily symptomless virus (59% identity). The virus can be transmitted mechanically to Mirabilis, but thus far MjMV has only been shown to infect Mirabilis jalapa, causing a slight leaf mottling and leaf wrinkling phenotype. PMID:21915718

Hatlestad, Gregory J; Elam, Lee; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lloyd, Alan M

2011-11-01

140

The olfaction in Proteus anguinus: a behavioural and cytological study.  

PubMed

Life and development in complete darkness for a strictly cavernicolous Urodele species such as Proteus raises the problem of orientation and environmental perception. An experimental study of olfaction in Proteus anguinus was undertaken on two complementary aspects: (a) a anatomical and ultrastructural aspect (photon and electron microscopy); and (b) a behavioural aspect, by testing Proteus' sensitivity to decreasing amounts of dead prey (chironomid larvae) in a choice chamber. The results show that: (a) Proteus' olfactory epithelium clearly belonged to the general model established for all vertebrates, with a pseudo-stratified structure mainly composed of the three classical cell types (sensory cells, supporting cells and basal cells). With the unusual thickness of the epithelium common to the Proteidae, a fourth cell type is observed in Proteus; and (b) Proteus shows a well-developed olfactive sense: the sensitivity threshold occurs around 1 g of prey (in a 250 cm(3)/min water current). This relatively low detection threshold implies the use of an outstanding sense of smell probably due to the particular necessities of the subterranean environment. The experiments also emphasize the effects of environmental factors on Proteus' response to experiments, and the role of thigmotactism. PMID:24895999

Dumas, P; Chris, B

1998-05-01

141

Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.

Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

1992-01-01

142

l-Asparaginase from Proteus vulgaris1  

PubMed Central

To produce an immunologically and enzymologically new type of l-asparaginase, 108 strains of bacteria were screened for enzyme production. As a result, 13 bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Bacterium, and Proteus were found to produce l-asparaginases in high levels. Among these l-asparaginases, partially purified l-asparaginases from B. cadaveris and P. vulgaris showed antitumor activity. A partially purified l-asparaginase preparation of P. vulgaris did not react with the antibody of Escherichia colil-asparaginase on the Ouchterlony agar plate. Culture conditions for the production of l-asparaginase by P. vulgaris were investigated in detail. The enzyme was produced in high yields when cells were grown aerobically in a medium containing sodium fumarate and corn steep liquor. The addition of glucose or ammonium ion to the medium, however, resulted in depressed production of l-asparaginase. Under the optimum conditions, 3,700 international units of l-asparaginase was obtained from 1 liter of culture medium. Images PMID:5000866

Tosa, Tetsuya; Sano, Ryujiro; Yamamoto, Kozo; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ando, Katsuko; Chibata, Ichiro

1971-01-01

143

Intracellular microrheology of motile Amoeba proteus  

E-print Network

The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.

Salman S. Rogers; Thomas A. Waigh; Jian R. Lu

2007-10-12

144

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

2010-01-01

145

Characterization of Two Novel Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from the Storage Roots of the Andean Crop Mirabilis expansa1  

PubMed Central

Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others. PMID:10198104

Vivanco, Jorge M.; Savary, Brett J.; Flores, Hector E.

1999-01-01

146

The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

2012-01-01

147

Excision of a large abdominal wall lipoma improved bowel passage in a Proteus syndrome patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that produces multifocal overgrowth of tissue. This report presents a surgical case of a large lipoma in the abdominal wall of a patient with Proteus syndrome. She was diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on certain diagnostic criteria. The neoplasm increased in size gradually, producing hemihypertrophy of her left lower extremity and trunk,

Yoshifumi Nakayama; Shinichi Kusuda; Naoki Nagata; Koji Yamaguchi; Yamaguchi K. Excision

2009-01-01

148

?-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.  

PubMed

The ?-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ?-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ?20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ?-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ?-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ?-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

2013-06-01

149

The challenges of Proteus syndrome: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a disorder of patchy or mosaic postnatal overgrowth of unknown etiology. The onset of overgrowth typically occurs in infancy and can involve any tissue of the body. Commonly involved tissues include connective tissue and bone, skin, central nervous system, the eye, but it apparently can affect any tissue. Diagnosing of PS is difficult and the diagnostic

Leslie Biesecker

2006-01-01

150

Dimethylsulphoxide and trimethylamine oxide respiration of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) sustained anaerobic growth of Proteus vulgaris with the non-fermentable substrate lactate. Cytoplasmic membrane vesicles energized by electron transfer from formate to DMSO displayed anaerobic uptake of serine, which was hindered by metabolic inhibitors known to destroy the proton motive force. This showed that DMSO reduction was coupled with a chemiosmotic mechanism of energy conversion;

Olaf B. Styrvold; Arne R. Strøm

1984-01-01

151

Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii , and Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae,

Gerhard Miirsdorf; Heinrich Kaltwasser

1989-01-01

152

Wave Features of the Neptune's Satellites: Triton, Proteus, Nereid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fastly orbiting Triton shows Mars-like tectonic dichotomy and very fine granulation 18 km across. Observed Proteus' granules are due to wave modulation. Nereid's fr.is close to that of Earth, thus their relatively sized granules are quite similar.

Kochemasov, G. G.

2014-07-01

153

GSTB1-1 from Proteus mirabilis: a snapshot of an enzyme in the evolutionary pathway from a redox enzyme to a conjugating enzyme.  

PubMed

The native form of the bacterial glutathione transferase B1-1 (EC ) is characterized by one glutathione (GSH) molecule covalently linked to Cys-10. This peculiar disulfide, only found in the Beta and Omega class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) but absent in all other GSTs, prompts questions about its role and how GSH can be activated and utilized in the reaction normally performed by GSTs. Stopped-flow and spectroscopic experiments suggest that, in the native enzyme (GSTB1-1ox), a second GSH molecule is present, albeit transiently, in the active site. This second GSH binds to the enzyme through a bimolecular interaction followed by a fast thiol-disulfide exchange with the covalently bound GSH. The apparent pK(a) of the non-covalently bound GSH is lowered from 9.0 to 6.4 +/- 0.2 in similar fashion to other GSTs. The reduced form of GSTB1-1 (GSTB1-1red) binds GSH 100-fold faster and also induces a more active deprotonation of the substrate with an apparent pK(a) of 5.2 +/- 0.1. Apparently, the absence of the mixed disulfide does not affect k(cat) and K(m) values in the GST conjugation activity, which is rate-limited by the chemical step both in GSTB1-1red and in GSTB1-1ox. However, GSTB1-1ox follows a steady-state random sequential mechanism whereas a rapid-equilibrium random sequential mechanism is adopted by GSTB1-1red. Remarkably, GSTB1-1ox and GSTB1-1red are equally able to catalyze a glutaredoxin-like catalysis using cysteine S-sulfate and hydroxyethyl disulfide as substrates. Cys-10 is an essential residue in this redox activity, and its replacement by alanine abolishes this enzymatic activity completely. It appears that GSTB1-1 behaves like an "intermediate enzyme" between the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase and the GST superfamilies. PMID:11889135

Caccuri, Anna Maria; Antonini, Giovanni; Allocati, Nerino; Di Ilio, Carmine; De Maria, Francesca; Innocenti, Federica; Parker, Michael W; Masulli, Michele; Lo Bello, Mario; Turella, Paola; Federici, Giorgio; Ricci, Giorgio

2002-05-24

154

Cytotoxicity of polyamines to Amoeba proteus: Role of polyamine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that oxidation of polyamines by polyamine oxidases can produce toxic compounds (H2O2, aldehydes, ammonia) and that the polyamine oxidase-polyamine system is implicated, in vitro, in the death of several parasites. Using Amoeba proteus as an in vitro model, we studied the cytotoxicity to these cells of spermine, spermidine, their acetyl derivatives, and their hypothetical precursors. Spermine

E. Schenkel; J. G. Dubois; M. Helson-Cambier; M. Hanocq

1996-01-01

155

The Mouse Pathogenicity and Toxicity of Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The LD50 for mice of twenty-one strains of Proteus vulgaris from human infection ranged from 2 to 600 million living bacilli. Mouse-virulence was not associated with the severity or the site of infection in the human subject. The relatively high virulence of some strains was not due to any peculiar demon- strable toxicity of the cell-substance, because killed cells

A. A. MILES

1951-01-01

156

ProTeus: identifying signatures in protein termini  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProTeus (PROtein TErminUS) is a web-based tool for the identification of short linear signatures in protein termini.Itisbasedonaposition-basedsearchmethod forrevealingshortsignaturesinterminiofallproteins. TheinitialstepinProTeusdevelopmentwastocollect all signature groups (SIGs) based on their relative positions at the termini. The initial set of SIGs went through a sequential process of inspection and removal of SIGs, which did not meet the attributed statistical thresholds. The SIGs that were found

Iris Bahir; Michal Linial

2005-01-01

157

Ultrastructural aspects of a glycerinated model of Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two types of filamentous structures were observed by electron microscopy in both non-glycerinated cell and glycerinated model ofAmoeba proteus. One was a thin filament 6–8 nm in diameter and the other was a thick rod-shaped filament 30 nm in diameter and 0.6 µm long. Upon addition of Mg-ATP at all Ca2+ concentration examined, these filaments in the glycerinated model

S. Sonobe; K. Kuroda

1986-01-01

158

Effects of water flow and branch spacing on particle capture by the reef coral Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaing and Michelotti)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scleractinian coral Madracis mirabilis forms colonies composed of many narrow branches whose spacing varies across habitats; this is especially evident along a depth gradient. Environmental factors such as irradiance and water movement co-vary along this gradient and both factors could have effects on branch spacing. We examined the effects of water flow on particle capture by Madracis mirabilis in

Kenneth P. Sebens; Jan Witting; Brian Helmuth

1997-01-01

159

Proteus bacteriuria is associated with significant morbidity in spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design:Retrospective chart review.Objectives:We investigated the morbidity associated with Proteus bacteriuria in a spinal cord injured (SCI) population.Setting:Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, Texas, USA.Methods:We reviewed the medical records of all veterans with SCI who received care in our medical center during the past 3 years. Proteus bacteriuria was defined as the growth of Proteus species in

E W Hung; R O Darouiche; B W Trautner

2007-01-01

160

Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

161

Chemical stimulation of phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus and the influence of external calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus was examined by following the uptake of Tetrahymena pyriformis and agarose beads. The ciliates are taken up in a time dependent and saturable manner. T. pyriformis apparently emits a water-soluble substance that acts as a chemoattractant to the amoebae. Plain agarose beads are not engulfed by A. proteus, but those beads having reducedglutathione

Robert D. Prusch; Daniel R. Minck

1985-01-01

162

Lymphangiolipoma of the thoracic spine in a pediatric patient with Proteus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartomatous disorder involving macrodactyly, hemihypertrophy, and subcutaneous lymphangiomas; fewer than 25 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case of a thoracic epidural lymphangiolipoma in a 5-year-old boy with Proteus syndrome. Computerized axial tomography (CT) of the thoracic spine revealed a left posterior mediastinal mass that extended into the spinal canal through adjacent neural

John M. Whitley; Ann Marie Flannery

1996-01-01

163

Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.

Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

1995-01-01

164

Simple method for preparation of nanostructurally organized spines of sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis (Agassiz, 1863).  

PubMed

Unique skeletal formations of marine invertebrates, including representatives of Echinodermata, have the unique potential to serve as templates for bio-inspired materials chemistry, biomimetics, and materials science. The sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis (Agassiz, 1983) is widely distributed in the northwest of the Pacific Ocean from southern Japan to the Aleutian Islands. This animal is the main source of naphtochinone-based substances. These compounds have recently drawn medical attention for their use as cardiological and ophthalmological drugs. Unfortunately, after extraction of the naphtochinones, the residual skeletons and spines of the sand dollars were usually discarded. Here, we report the first method for the preparation of nanostructurally organized spines of S. mirabilis, using a simple enzymatic and hydrogen peroxide-based treatment. Application of this method opens the way for development of non-wasteful environmentally clean technology of sand dollars as well-known industrial marine invertebrates. PMID:20632197

Ehrlich, Herman; Elkin, Yury N; Artoukov, Alexandr A; Stonik, Valentin A; Safronov, Peter P; Bazhenov, Vasily V; Kurek, Denis V; Varlamov, Valery P; Born, René; Meissner, Heike; Richter, Gert

2011-06-01

165

Purification and properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from Proteus vulgaris.  

PubMed

NADP-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldehyde : NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.1.4) was purified from Proteus vulgaris to the stage of homogeneity as judged by ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 130000 by gel filtration. The enzyme which was crystallized from ammonium sulfate solution, lost its activity. The enzyme did not require coenzyme A, and the reaction was completely dependent on ammonium ions which could be partially replaced by Rb+ or K+. The optimum pH was about 9. Broad substrate specificity was observed and Km values for propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and isovaleraldehyde were 1.7 - 10(-5), 4 - 10(-5) and 3 - 10(-5) M, respectively. The physiological role of the enzyme in living cells is obscure, but might account for another degradative pathway of L-leucine in P. vulgaris differing from the established pathway. PMID:13839

Sugawara, Y; Sasaki, S

1977-02-01

166

Replication of spinodally decomposed structures with structural coloration from scales of the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Scales of the longhorn beetle Sphingnotus mirabilis possess a disordered bicontinuous macroporous structure that resembles a structure formed by a phase-separation process of spinodal decomposition. By using the scales as templates, SiO2 and TiO2 structures were successfully replicated. Structural and optical characterizations show that the fabricated oxide structures are spinodal decomposition structures with only short-range order and display non-iridescent structural colors. PMID:24262971

Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian

2013-12-01

167

Using stable isotopes to understand survival strategies of the living fossil, Welwitschia mirabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Namib Desert along the southwestern coast of Africa is hyper-arid in terms of rainfall (<25 mm/yr), but experiences coastal fog deposition up to 100 days each year. The Namib is also home to the biologically anomalous, very long-lived and evolutionarily ancient gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. Due to its perennial broad green leaves that apparently demand around 1 L of water per day, some have suggested that this living fossil survives on fog deposition. We have investigated this hypothesis using stable isotopes of water (?18O, ?2H) and found that W. mirabilis shows no evidence of fog uptake. Rather, its stem water looks much like that of large trees that tap into an alluvial aquifer, and nothing like the stem water of shrubs that are endemic to the fog zone and have been shown elsewhere to take up and translocate fog water. We also investigated some biogeochemical aspects of W. mirabilis through ?13C, ?15N and ?34S analysis of stem organic matter. These data revealed a large amount of variability in ?13C and ?15N among plants growing in close proximity to one another, indicating the possibility of micro-environmental control on the C and N cycles. The ?34S data provided a necessary additional constraint on the water isotope investigation.

Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

2011-12-01

168

Pseudomonas screening assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

1993-01-01

169

2-methylbutanal, a volatile biomarker, for non-invasive surveillance of Proteus.  

PubMed

Pathogen detection needs a paradigm shift from time-consuming conventional microbiological and biochemical tests to much simpler identification methods with higher sensitivity and specificity. In this regard, a simple detection method for frequently isolated nosocomial uropathogen, Proteus spp., was developed using the characteristic volatile 2-methylbutanal released in Luria Bertani broth. The instant reaction of the compound with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylhydrazine (DNSH) has been adapted to develop a sensitive fluorescence assay named "ProteAl" (Prote, "Proteus" & Al, "Aldehyde"). The assay was performed by direct addition of the fluorescence reagent to the culture after 7 h of growth. The distinct green fluorescence by Proteus (other organisms show orange fluorescence) served as the simplest and quicker identification test available for Proteus. In the laboratory, it exhibited 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity during testing of 95 strains including standard and known clinical isolates representing frequently encountered uropathogens. PMID:24281757

Aarthi, Raju; Saranya, Raju; Sankaran, Krishnan

2014-01-01

170

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...antibodies to rickettsia (virus-like bacteria) in serum. Test results aid in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

2011-04-01

171

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...antibodies to rickettsia (virus-like bacteria) in serum. Test results aid in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

2013-04-01

172

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

...immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...antibodies to rickettsia (virus-like bacteria) in serum. Test results aid in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

2014-04-01

173

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...antibodies to rickettsia (virus-like bacteria) in serum. Test results aid in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

2010-04-01

174

21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in agglutination...antibodies to rickettsia (virus-like bacteria) in serum. Test results aid in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

2012-04-01

175

Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)  

SciTech Connect

PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

2014-06-01

176

Computational protein design: the Proteus software and selected applications.  

PubMed

We describe an automated procedure for protein design, implemented in a flexible software package, called Proteus. System setup and calculation of an energy matrix are done with the XPLOR modeling program and its sophisticated command language, supporting several force fields and solvent models. A second program provides algorithms to search sequence space. It allows a decomposition of the system into groups, which can be combined in different ways in the energy function, for both positive and negative design. The whole procedure can be controlled by editing 2-4 scripts. Two applications consider the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme and its successful redesign to bind both O-methyl-tyrosine and D-tyrosine. For the latter, we present Monte Carlo simulations where the D-tyrosine concentration is gradually increased, displacing L-tyrosine from the binding pocket and yielding the binding free energy difference, in good agreement with experiment. Complete redesign of the Crk SH3 domain is presented. The top 10000 sequences are all assigned to the correct fold by the SUPERFAMILY library of Hidden Markov Models. Finally, we report the acid/base behavior of the SNase protein. Sidechain protonation is treated as a form of mutation; it is then straightforward to perform constant-pH Monte Carlo simulations, which yield good agreement with experiment. Overall, the software can be used for a wide range of application, producing not only native-like sequences but also thermodynamic properties with errors that appear comparable to other current software packages. PMID:24037756

Simonson, Thomas; Gaillard, Thomas; Mignon, David; Schmidt am Busch, Marcel; Lopes, Anne; Amara, Najette; Polydorides, Savvas; Sedano, Audrey; Druart, Karen; Archontis, Georgios

2013-10-30

177

Ammonium assimilation in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae.  

PubMed

No active uptake of ammonium was detected in Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus pasteurii, and Sporosarcina ureae, which indicates that these bacteria depend on the passive diffusion of ammonia across the cell membrane. In P. vulgaris the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were present, and these enzymes exhibited high affinities for ammonium. In B. pasteurii and S. ureae, however, no GS activity was detected, and GOGAT activity was only present in S. ureae. GDH enzymes were present in these two organisms, but showed only low affinity for ammonium, with apparent Km-values of 55.2 mM in B. pasteurii and 36.7 mM in S. ureae, respectively. These observations explain why P. vulgaris is able to grow at neutral pH and low ammonium concentration (2 mM), while B. pasteurii and S. ureae require high ammonium concentration (40 mM) and alkaline pH for growth. PMID:2570557

Mörsdorf, G; Kaltwasser, H

1989-01-01

178

The effects of ferrochrome lignosulfonate on the respiration and excretion of the coral, Madracis mirabilis  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF FERROCHR(ME LIGNOSULFONATE ON THE RESPIRATION AHD EZGHE'ZZGH DZ THE GGHAZ, HADHAGZE HZHAI!ZZZE A Thesis by NARY JOANNE MESTERHAUS Submitted to the Graduate CoIIsge of Texas A&H University in partial fulfi13ment... of the requirement for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE DecAsnber 1978 Hajor Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF FERROCHRCME LIGNOSULFONATE ON THE RESPIRATION AND THE EXCRETION OF THE CORAL& MkDRACIS MIRABILIS A Thesis by MARY JOANNE NESTERHAUS Approved...

Westerhaus, Mary Joanne

2012-06-07

179

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays follicular elevations of the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

180

Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.  

PubMed

Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

2014-06-01

181

Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer. PMID:24390313

Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

2014-04-01

182

Long-term growth patterns of Welwitschia mirabilis, a long-lived plant of the Namib Desert (including a bibliography)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 14 years, long-term ecological research (LTER) was conducted on the desert perennial, Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales: Welwitschiaceae), located in the Welwitschia Wash near Gobabeb in the Central Namib Desert. We measured leaf growth of 21 plants on a monthly basis and compared this with climatic data. The population structure as well as its spatial distribution was determined for

Joh R. Henschel; Mary K. Seely

2000-01-01

183

Non-operative management of a splenic laceration in a patient with the Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed Central

An adult patient with the Proteus syndrome sustained a grade III splenic laceration after falling off a horse. Clinical features of this rare disorder include subcutaneous and visceral hamartomatous tumours. The patient also suffered from chronic intravascular coagulation associated with extensive haemangiomatosis (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome). Considering the visceral anomalies and abnormal coagulation, a non-operative approach was preferred despite considerable transfusion requirement, and the patient successfully underwent embolisation of the splenic artery. This is the first reported case of splenic injury in a patient with Proteus syndrome. Images p111-a Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132186

Ceelen, W; De Waele, J; Kunnen, M; de Hemptinne, B

1997-01-01

184

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the PROTEUS reactor  

SciTech Connect

An extensive program of reactor physics experiments in GCFR fuel pin lattices has been completed recently at the PROTEUS critical facility located at EIR laboratory in Switzerland. The PROTEUS reactor consists of a central test zone surrounded by a uranium buffer and thermal driver region. The test lattices included a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fuel region with internal and axial blankets of UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and thorium metal. Detailed analysis of the thorium-bearing lattices has been performed at EIR and at ORNL in order to validate nuclear data and methods used for reactor physics analysis of advanced GCFR designs.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Schmocker, U.

1980-01-01

185

The complete plastid genome sequence of Welwitschia mirabilis: an unusually compact plastome with accelerated divergence rates  

PubMed Central

Background Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant member of the family Welwitschiaceae, one of three lineages of gnetophytes, an enigmatic group of gymnosperms variously allied with flowering plants or conifers. Limited sequence data and rapid divergence rates have precluded consensus on the evolutionary placement of gnetophytes based on molecular characters. Here we report on the first complete gnetophyte chloroplast genome sequence, from Welwitschia mirabilis, as well as analyses on divergence rates of protein-coding genes, comparisons of gene content and order, and phylogenetic implications. Results The chloroplast genome of Welwitschia mirabilis [GenBank: EU342371] is comprised of 119,726 base pairs and exhibits large and small single copy regions and two copies of the large inverted repeat (IR). Only 101 unique gene species are encoded. The Welwitschia plastome is the most compact photosynthetic land plant plastome sequenced to date; 66% of the sequence codes for product. The genome also exhibits a slightly expanded IR, a minimum of 9 inversions that modify gene order, and 19 genes that are lost or present as pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analyses, including one representative of each extant seed plant lineage and based on 57 concatenated protein-coding sequences, place Welwitschia at the base of all seed plants (distance, maximum parsimony) or as the sister to Pinus (the only conifer representative) in a monophyletic gymnosperm clade (maximum likelihood, bayesian). Relative rate tests on these gene sequences show the Welwitschia sequences to be evolving at faster rates than other seed plants. For these genes individually, a comparison of average pairwise distances indicates that relative divergence in Welwitschia ranges from amounts about equal to other seed plants to amounts almost three times greater than the average for non-gnetophyte seed plants. Conclusion Although the basic organization of the Welwitschia plastome is typical, its compactness, gene content and high nucleotide divergence rates are atypical. The current lack of additional conifer plastome sequences precludes any discrimination between the gnetifer and gnepine hypotheses of seed plant relationships. However, both phylogenetic analyses and shared genome features identified here are consistent with either of the hypotheses that link gnetophytes with conifers, but are inconsistent with the anthophyte hypothesis. PMID:18452621

2008-01-01

186

LYSOGENY IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been made into lysogenicity and pyocinogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteriophages isolated were classified into groups on their antigenic properties and attempts have been made to correlate biological characteristics with this grouping. Multiple lysogeny in some strains is described, including one strain lysogenic for four unrelated phages.Certain of the bacterial strains are lysogenic for a phage having

BW Holloway; JB Egan; Marilyn Monk

1960-01-01

187

Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

Trell, Erik

2012-09-01

188

Inducible ?-Lactamases are Principally Responsible for the Naturally Occurring Resistance towards ?-Lactam Antibiotics in Proteus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of inducible chromosomally mediated ?-lactamases was studied in 22 Proteus vulgaris isolates by monitoring enzyme induction in the presence of various inducers such as ampicillin, cefalothin, cefuroxime, cefsulodin, 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APS), and imipenem. 20 of the isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin, cefalothin, and cefuroxime, whereas 2 isolates were susceptible to these compounds. In all resistant isolates marked inoculum

A. Aspiotis; W. Cullmann; W. Dick; M. Stieglitz

1986-01-01

189

Swarming modulatory effects of some amino acids on Proteus strains from Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swarming motility, a multicellular behaviour characterized by periodic concentric growth on solid media has severally been reported as a constraint in the clinical investigation of mixed- culture infections involving Proteus and as a requirement for virulence. While media are being formulated to restrain swarming in this organism, the roles played by amino acids in the biogenesis of swarming have not

Bamidele A. Iwalokun; Babatunde O. Akinwumi

2002-01-01

190

The antigens contributing to the serological cross-reactions of Proteus antisera with Klebsiella representatives.  

PubMed

Proteus sp. and Klebsiella sp. mainly cause infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts or wounds in humans. The representatives of both genera produce virulence factors like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or outer membrane proteins (OMPs) having much in common in the structures and/or functions. To check how far this similarity is revealed in the serological cross-reactivity, the bacterial masses of 24 tested Klebsiella sp. strains were tested in ELISA with polyclonal rabbit antisera specific to the representatives of 79 Proteus O serogroups. The strongest reacting systems were selected to Western blot, where the majority of Klebsiella masses reacted in a way characteristic for electrophoretic patterns of proteins. The strongest reactions were obtained for proteins of near 67 and 40kDa and 12.5kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins samples of one Proteus sp. and one Klebsiella sp. strain showed the GroEL like protein of a sequence GI number 2980926 to be similar for both strains. In Western blot some Klebsiella sp. masses reacted similarly to the homologous Proteus LPSs. The LPS contribution in the observed reactions of the high molecular-mass LPS species was confirmed for Klebsiella oxytoca 0.062. PMID:25510650

Palusiak, Agata

2015-03-01

191

Proteus - A Free and Open Source Sensor Observation Service (SOS) Client  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's 'electronic skin' is becoming ever more sophisticated with a growing number of sensors measuring everything from seawater salinity levels to atmospheric pressure. To further the scientific application of this data collection effort, it is important to make the data easily available to anyone who wants to use it. Making Earth Science data readily available will allow the data to be used in new and potentially groundbreaking ways. The US National Science and Technology Council made this clear in its most recent National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations report, when it remarked that Earth observations 'are often found to be useful for additional purposes not foreseen during the development of the observation system'. On the road to this goal the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is defining uniform data formats and service interfaces to facilitate the discovery and access of sensor data. This is being done through the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) stack of standards, which include the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), Sensor Model Language (SensorML), Observations & Measurements (O&M) and Catalog Service for the Web (CSW). End-users do not have to use these standards directly, but can use smart tools that leverage and implement them. We have developed such a tool named Proteus. Proteus is an open-source sensor data discovery client. The goal of Proteus is to be a general-purpose client that can be used by anyone for discovering and accessing sensor data via OGC-based services. Proteus is a desktop client and supports a straightforward workflow for finding sensor data. The workflow takes the user through the process of selecting appropriate services, bounding boxes, observed properties, time periods and other search facets. NASA World Wind is used to display the matching sensor offerings on a map. Data from any sensor offering can be previewed in a time series. The user can download data from a single sensor offering, or download data in bulk from all matching sensor offerings. Proteus leverages NASA World Wind's WMS capabilities and allow overlaying sensor offerings on top of any map. Specific search criteria (i.e. user discoveries) can be saved and later restored. Proteus is supports two user types: 1) the researcher/scientist interested in discovering and downloading specific sensor data as input to research processes, and 2) the data manager responsible for maintaining sensor data services (e.g. SOSs) and wants to ensure proper data and metadata delivery, verify sensor data, and receive sensor data alerts. Proteus has a Web-based companion product named the Community Hub that is used to generate sensor data alerts. Alerts can be received via an RSS feed, viewed in a Web browser or displayed directly in Proteus via a Web-based API. To advance the vision of making Earth Science data easily discoverable and accessible to end-users, professional or laymen, Proteus is available as open-source on GitHub (https://github.com/intelligentautomation/proteus).

Henriksson, J.; Satapathy, G.; Bermudez, L. E.

2013-12-01

192

Use of chitosan bandage to prevent fatal infections developing from highly contaminated wounds in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

HemCon® bandage is an engineered chitosan acetate preparation used as a hemostatic control dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We tested its ability to rapidly kill bacteria in vitro and in mouse models of infected wounds. We used the Gram-negative species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus that had all

Marina Burkatovskaya; George P Tegos; Emilia Swietlik; Tatiana N Demidova; Ana P Castano; Michael R. Hamblin

2006-01-01

193

Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment  

PubMed Central

Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium?+?5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?50??M KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?200??M NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3?+?200??M NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3?+?50??M KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75??mol?m?2?s?1. During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from ?6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1?±?5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300??mol?m?2?s?1 (daily average 1,500?±?1,090??mol?m?2?s?1). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low-temperature-mass cultivation biotechnology. This strain is a perspective model organism for biotechnology in low-temperature conditions. PMID:23630521

Shukla, S. P.; Kvíderová, J.; T?íska, J.; Elster, J.

2013-01-01

194

Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment.  

PubMed

Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium?+?5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?50??M KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?200??M NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3?+?200??M NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium?+?5% glycerol?+?1?mM Na2CO3?+?50??M KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75??mol?m(-2)?s(-1). During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from -6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1?±?5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300??mol?m(-2)?s(-1) (daily average 1,500?±?1,090??mol?m(-2)?s(-1)). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low-temperature-mass cultivation biotechnology. This strain is a perspective model organism for biotechnology in low-temperature conditions. PMID:23630521

Shukla, S P; Kvíderová, J; T?íska, J; Elster, J

2013-01-01

195

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds,empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

196

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Obesumbacterium proteus, a Common Contaminant of Brewing Yeasts  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated the effectiveness of API 20E, Biolog testing, plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and enteric repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR to characterize, classify, and differentiate nine bacterial isolates of the common brewery contaminant Obesumbacterium proteus. Of the five typing techniques, Biolog testing, plasmid profiling, and ERIC-PCR provided the most differentiation, and API 20E testing and ribotyping were relatively indiscriminate. The molecular biology approach of ERIC-PCR offered the ideal combination of speed, simplicity, and discrimination in this study. Overall, the results are supportive of the view that O. proteus can be subdivided into two biogroups, biogroup 1, which has considerable biochemical and genetic homology to Hafnia alvei, and biogroup 2, which is relatively heterogeneous. Images PMID:16349260

Prest, Andrew G.; Hammond, John R. M.; Stewart, Gordon S. A. B.

1994-01-01

197

Separation of Glutathione Transferase Subunits from Proteus vulgaris by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four

Giaming Hong; Yi-Chih Chien; Cheng-I Chien

2003-01-01

198

The Proteus Navier-Stokes code. [two and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. Proteus solves the Reynolds-averaged, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. Turbulence is modeled using a Baldwin-Lomax based algebraic eddy viscosity model. In addition, options are available to solve thin layer or Euler equations, and to eliminate the energy equation by assuming constant stagnation enthalpy. An extensive series of validation cases have been run, primarily using the two dimensional planar/axisymmetric version of the code. Several flows were computed that have exact solution such as: fully developed channel and pipe flow; Couette flow with and without pressure gradients; unsteady Couette flow formation; flow near a suddenly accelerated flat plate; flow between concentric rotating cylinders; and flow near a rotating disk. The two dimensional version of the Proteus code has been released, and the three dimensional code is scheduled for release in late 1991.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.

1992-01-01

199

Applications of Monte Carlo methods for the analysis of MHTGR case of the PROTEUS benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo methods, as implemented in the MCNP code, have been used to analyze the neutronics characteristics of benchmarks related to Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. The benchmarks are idealized versions of the Japanes (VHTRC) and Swiss (PROTEUS) facilities and an actual configurations of the PROTEUS Configuration I experiment. The purpose of the unit cell benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, critical bucklings, migration lengths, reaction rates and spectral indices. The purpose of the full reactors benchmarks is to compare multiplication constants, reaction rates, spectral indices, neutron balances, reaction rates profiles, temperature coefficients of reactivity and effective delayed neutron fractions. All of these parameters can be calculated by MCNP, which can provide a very detailed model of the geometry of the configurations, from fuel particles to entire fuel assemblies, using at the same time a continuous energy model. These characteristics make MCNP a very useful tool to analyze these MHTGR benchmarks. We have used the MCNP latest version, 4.x, eld = 01/12/93 with an ENDF/B-V cross section library. This library does not yet contain temperature dependent resonance materials, so all calculations correspond to room temperature, T = 300{degree}K. Two separate reports were made -- one for the VHTRC, the other for the PROTEUS benchmark.

Difilippo, F.C.

1994-04-01

200

Mirabamides A-D, depsipeptides from the sponge Siliquariaspongia mirabilis that inhibit HIV-1 fusion.  

PubMed

Four new cyclic depsipeptides termed mirabamides A-D (1-4) have been isolated from the marine sponge Siliquariaspongia mirabilis and shown to potently inhibit HIV-1 fusion. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS, and absolute stereochemistry of the amino acids was determined using advanced Marfey's methods and NMR. Mirabamides contain two new entities, including 4-chlorohomoproline in 1-3 and an unusual glycosylated amino acid, beta-methoxytyrosine 4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (in 1, 2, and 4), along with a rare N-terminal aliphatic hydroxy acid. These elements proved to be useful for anti-HIV structure-activity relationship studies. Mirabamide A inhibited HIV-1 in neutralization and fusion assays with IC50 values between 40 and 140 nM, as did mirabamides C and D (IC50 values between 140 nM and 1.3 microM for 3 and 190 nM and 3.9 microM for 4), indicating that these peptides can act at the early stages of HIV-1 entry. The potent activity of depsipeptides containing the glycosylated beta-OMe Tyr unit demonstrates that beta-OMe Tyr itself is not critical for activity. Mirabamides A-C inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and C. albicans at 1-5 microg/disk in disk diffusion assays. PMID:17963357

Plaza, Alberto; Gustchina, Elena; Baker, Heather L; Kelly, Michelle; Bewley, Carole A

2007-11-01

201

[Analysis of photosynthetic characteristics and its influencing factors of medicinal plant Mirabilis himalaica].  

PubMed

To study photosynthetic characteristics and its influencing factors in leaves of medicinal plant Mirabilis himalaica, and provide an evidence for guiding artificial planting and improving the quantity. The light-response and diurnal photosynthesis course of leaves at the booting stages of 1-3 year old M. himalaica were measured with LI-6400 system. The Results showed that the light response curves were fitted well by non rectangle hyperbola equation (R2 > or = 0.98). The values of the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and light use efficiency of three-year old M. himalaica leaves were higher than those of 1-2 year old individuals. The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of 2-3 year old M. himalaica were typical double-peak curves determinately regulated by stomatal conductance. However, transpiration rate (Tr) of 1-3 year old plants leaves were single-peak curve, which was self-protection of harm reduction caused by the higher temperature at noontime. Correlation analysis showed that the changes between photosynthetic active radiation (PFD), air temperature (T ) and Pn, were significant positive related. Therefore, M. himalaica is a typical sun plant, which should be planted under the sufficient sunshine field and prolong the growing ages suitably in order to improve the yield. PMID:25272512

Guo, Qi-Qiang; Quan, Hong; Lan, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Lian-Qiang; Li, Hui-E

2014-07-01

202

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pigment echinochrome A from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/ reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P; Fedoreyev, Sergey A; Stonik, Valentin A; Han, Jin

2014-06-01

203

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis  

PubMed Central

Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

2014-01-01

204

Pseudomonas paucimobilis bacteremia.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas paucimobilis was isolated from blood of a man after surgery for occlusive vascular disease of his lower extremities. Circumstances suggest that the infection was hospital associated and was possibly caused by an organism present in the surroundings of this particularly susceptible host. An environmental source was found. The isolate was susceptible in vitro to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and was moderately susceptible to amikacin and ampicillin. This case represents the fourth report incidence of infection due to P. paucimobilis. PMID:7251829

Southern, P M; Kutscher, A E

1981-01-01

205

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

206

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taking Off from Mojave Airport in Mojave, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uniquely-shaped Proteus high-altitude research aircraft lifts off from the runway at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

207

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

208

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

209

ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

1999-01-01

210

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2008-03-28

211

Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

2006-01-01

212

Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

2013-07-01

213

Sodium dependency of active chloride transport across isolated fish skin (Gillichthys mirabilis).  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of thiocyanate, ouabain, ion-substituted Ringer solution and electrochemical gradients on Na+ and Cl- transport were examined using the isolated skin of the marine teleost, Gillichthys mirabilis. 2. Bilateral replacement of Na+ with choline in the bathing solutions reduces net Cl- flux by 93%, indicating that active Cl- transport by the skin is Na-dependent. 3. Thiocyanate inhibits short-circuit current with an ED50 of 6.4 x 10(-4)M, and, at 10(-2)M, decreases Cl-efflux, influx, net flux and short-circuit current by 68, 33, 74 and 81%, respectively. 4. Ouabain (10(-5)M) reduces Cl- efflux and net flux by 56 and 86%, respectively, indicating that the Cl- transport requires Na,K-ATPase. 5. Subsequent addition of thiocyanate to ouabain-treated skin reduces Cl- efflux, net flux and short-circuit current, suggesting that the two agents operate at different sites involved in Cl- transport. 6. Unilateral substitution of gluconate for Cl- on the serosal side does not affect Cl- influx, indicating that Cl- passive transport is via Fickean diffusion, not Cl-Cl exchange diffusion. 7. The addition of NaCl to the mucosal side, which mimics the in vivo sea-water condition, increases Cl- influx and transepithelial potential and decreases tissue resistance. The net flux (secretion) of Cl- with hypertonic saline on the mucosal side (0.51 +/- 0.06 muequiv/cm2 . hr) demonstrates that the skin could secrete Cl- in vivo. 8. Na+ fluxes across the skin are passive, as the observed flux ration (efflux/influx) is similar to that predicted by the Ussing-Teorell equation under both closed- and open-circuit conditions. 9. The permeability ratio (PNa:PCl) in approximately 5.4:1.0, indicating that the skin is more permeable to Na+, and that at least part of the serosa-positive transepithelial potential may be a Na+ diffusion potential. 10. The results suggest that Cl- secretion by Gillichthys skin is secondary active transport involving Na,K-ATPase and serosal Na+. PMID:7320911

Marshall, W S

1981-01-01

214

Analysis of the thorium axial blanket experiments in the proteus reactor  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analysis has been completed for the ThO/sub 2/ and Th-metal axial blanket experiments performed at the Swiss PROTEUS critical facility in order to compare reaction rates and neutron spectra measured in prototypic GCFR configurations with calculated results. The PROTEUS configurations allowed the analysis of infinitely dilute thorium data in a PuO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ fast lattice spectrum at core center as well as the analysis of resonance self-shielding effects in the thorium-bearing axial blankets. These comparisons indicate that significant deficiencies still exist in the latest evaluated infinitely dilute thorium data file. Specifically, the analysis showed that the /sup 232/Th capture is underpredicted by ENDF/B-IV data, and the discrepancies are further exaggerated by ENDF/B-V data. On the other hand, ENDF/B-V /sup 232/Th fission data appear to be significantly improved relative to ENDF/B-IV data, while discrepancies are extremely large for the (n,2n) process in both data files. Finally, the (n,n') cross sections for thorium also appear improved in ENDF/B-V, except for a small energy range just above the 50 keV threshold. Therefore, these combined data deficiencies suggest that relatively large uncertainties should be associated with many of the results obtained from recent fast reactor alternate fuel cycle analyses. 38 figures, 12 tables.

White, J.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1980-12-01

215

Copper response of Proteus hauseri based on proteomic and genetic expression and cell morphology analyses.  

PubMed

The copper response of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 was determined using one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry for a similarity analysis of proteins isolated from P. hauseri ZMd44 cultured in CuSO4-bearing LB medium. Candidate proteins identified as a copper-transporting P-type ATPase (CTPP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), flagellin (Fla), and outer membrane proteins (Omps) were the major copper-associated proteins in P. hauseri. In a comparative analysis of subcellular (i.e., periplasmic, intracellular, and inner membranes) and cellular debris, proteomics analysis revealed a distinct differential expression of proteins in P. hauseri with and without copper ion exposure. These findings were consistent with the transcription level dynamics determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Based on a genetic cluster analysis of copper-associated proteins from P. hauseri, Fla and one of the Omps showed greater diversity in their protein sequences compared to those of other Proteus species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the observed growth on LB agar plates showed that the swarming motility of cells was significantly suppressed and inhibited upon Cu(II) exposure. Thus, copper stress could have important therapeutic significance due to the loss of swarming motility capacity in P. hauseri, which causes urinary tract infections. PMID:24752937

Ng, I-Son; Zheng, Xuesong; Wang, Nan; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Xia; Lu, Yinghua

2014-07-01

216

Calcium and initial surface binding phase of pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of membrane-bound solute and external medium by bulk-phase pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus is influenced by the level of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the external medium. Increasing external Ca/sup 2 +/ to approx.10/sup -4/ M increases pinocytotic intensity, while increases in Ca/sup 2 +/ above this level decrease the intensity of pinocytosis. The initial interaction of pinocytotic inducers and Ca/sup +2/ at the surface of A moeba proteus was therefore examined. Alcain blue and Na/sup +/, both inducers of pinocytosis, differ in the manner with which they associate with the amoeba surface, suggesting the possibility of different pinocytosis-inducing sites on the amoeba surface. Low levels of external Ca/sup 2 +/ in the range of 3 x 10/sup -5/ to 4.5 x 10/sup -4/ M increase the amount of cationic inducer associated with the cell surface while, at the same time, decreasing anion association with the cell surface. It is suggested that Ca/sup 2 +/ influences ion association with the cell surface by controlling the availability of negative surface sites, which in turn influences pinocytotic intensity. Surface binding of Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Cl/sup -/ was determined by adding /sup 22/Na, /sup 45/Ca or /sup 36/Cl.

Prusch, R.D.

1986-08-01

217

Distribution and evolution of pseudogenes, gene losses, and a gene rearrangement in the plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic liverwort, Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Jungermanniopsida).  

PubMed

The plastid genome sequence of the parasitic liverwort Aneura mirabilis revealed the loss of five chlororespiration (ndh) genes. Additionally, six ndh genes, subunits of photosystem I, photosystem II, and the cytochrome b6f complex were inferred to be pseudogenes. Pseudogenes of cysA, cyst, ccsA, and ycf3, an inversion of psbE and petL, were also detected. The designation of pseudogenes was made using comparisons with the distantly related liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. We sampled several populations of A. mirabilis and its photosynthetic sister groups to correlate functional gene losses with the evolution of a achlorophylly. The gene losses, pseudogenes, or the psbE-petL inversion were never detected in a photosynthetic Aneura but were detected in every population of A. mirabilis. One population of A. mirabilis revealed a unique deletion of 541 bp in the psbE-petL region; another is characterized by a unique deletion of 471 bp in the trnV(UAC)-ndhC region. The ratio of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution rates (omega) was estimated for eight pseudogenes and six ORFs to detect relaxed purifying selection. A significant increase in omega for the nonphotosynthetic liverwort was detected in six pseudogenes. Relaxation purifying selection, determined by a significant increase in omega, was detected for three intact ORFs: psbA, psbM, and rbcL. PMID:18594897

Wickett, Norman J; Fan, Yu; Lewis, Paul O; Goffinet, Bernard

2008-07-01

218

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

219

THE ABILITY OF FLAGELLUM-SPECIFIC PROTEUS VULGARIS BACTERIOPHAGE PV22 TO INTERACT WITH CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI FLAGELLA IN CULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was initiated to examine Campylobacter jejuni-specific bacteriophage in the Russian Federation to develop alternative control measures for this pathogen. A C. jejuni flagellum-specific phage PV22 from Proteus vulgaris was identified in sewage drainage. This phage interacted with C. jejuni...

220

Growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum , Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. during ripening in a cheese model medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., some common but rarely mentioned cheese bacteria, were investigated in a cheese model deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii during the ripening process. Our results show that these bacteria had distinct growth and cheese flavour production patterns\\u000a during the ripening process. P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce

Pawinee Deetae; Henry-Eric Spinnler; Pascal Bonnarme; Sandra Helinck

2009-01-01

221

Perineural infiltrates in Pseudomonas keratitis.  

PubMed

We describe 2 cases of contact lens-related microbial keratitis caused by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which perineural infiltrates were observed at presentation. In both cases, examination by confocal microscopy was negative for Acanthamoeba cysts but bacterial cultures and microscopy of corneal scrapings were positive for P aeruginosa. Both cases responded rapidly to treatment with topical levofloxacin with no significant long-term sequelae. These observations indicate that perineural infiltrates may occur in Pseudomonas keratitis without underlying Acanthamoeba infection and are, therefore, not pathognomonic of Acanthamoeba infection. PMID:24160385

Robbie, Scott J; Vega, Felipe A; Tint, Naing L; Hau, Scott; Allan, Bruce

2013-11-01

222

HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO  

SciTech Connect

PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

John D. Bess

2013-03-01

223

HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO  

SciTech Connect

PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

John D. Bess

2014-03-01

224

Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(þ)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H=HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H=HeJ mice.

ANNA ST SWIERZKO; TERUO KIRIKAE; FUMIKO KIRIKAE; MICHIMASA HIRATA; M ACIEJ CEDZYNSKI; ANDRZEJ ZIOLKOWSKI; SHOICHI KUSUMOTO; MASAYASU NAKANO

225

The hurdle effect of ureolytic Proteus sp. activity and Trichoderma Viride culture filtrate on growth and wood deteriorating activities of four fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory investigation of the hurdle effect of filtrates of peptone\\/urea broth culture of ureolytic Proteus sp., potato dextrose broth culture of Trichoderma Viride and their combination; on growth and wood deteriorating activities of Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Gloeophyllum sp., Trametes sp. and Pleurotus sp. was carried out. The 24 h Proteus sp. culture filtrate with pH 8.1 prevented the growth of

B. O. Ejechi; D. E. Akpomedaye

1998-01-01

226

Production of acylated homoserine lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.  

PubMed

A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter cultures was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production (5.675 µg l(-1)) at 24 h growth. The strain exhibited swarming, but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production and reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated protein during swarming, was considered as a possible target for these inhibitors, and docking of the two most active and two least active inhibitors to this protein suggested preferential binding of the former set of compounds. Apart from adding new evidence to AHL production in Proteus vulgaris, active inhibitors shortlisted from this study could help in identifying lead compounds to act against this opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25012967

Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

2014-10-01

227

Franois-Ronan Dubois Paru dans Proteus, n5 (Tropes et rituels de la pornographie) : 48-54  

E-print Network

François-Ronan Dubois Paru dans Proteus, n°5 (Tropes et rituels de la pornographie) : 48-54 2013 La (Stéphan Wojtowicz), Hard1 Introduction : prolifération et éclatement de la pornographie contemporaine Dans pornographie à n'importe quel coin de rue pour cinq dollars, n'est-ce pas trop cher payé pour la liberté d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Verification of the Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for two-dimensional/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent dveloping pipe flows and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, intitial conditions, grid size and grid packing is given for each case.

Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

1991-01-01

229

Verification of the proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for 2-D/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal, and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent developing pipe flows, and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations, and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, initial conditions, grid size, and grid packing is given for each case.

Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

1991-01-01

230

Tropical field assessment of combined Trichoderma viride Proteus sp. and urea protective treatment of wood against biodeterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two previous reports showed that decay of wood blocks was inhibited by treatment with combined phosphate buffer (pH7) and Trichoderma viride or urea and ureolytic Proteus sp. A field assessment of the two treatment strategies was therefore carried out in the tropical rainforest for 24 months using the “grave yard method”. The groundline region of stakes treated with buffer\\/T. viride

Bernard Onyekweli Ejechi

2003-01-01

231

Structure of the core part of the lipopolysaccharides from Proteus penneri strains 7, 8, 14, 15, and 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core–lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharides from Proteus penneri strains 7, 8, 14, 15, and 21 was studied using NMR spectroscopy, ESI MS, and chemical analysis after alkaline deacylation, deamination, and mild-acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides. The following general structure of the major core oligosaccharides is proposed:where all sugars are in the pyranose form and have the d configuration

Evgeny Vinogradov; Zygmunt Sidorczyk; Yuriy A. Knirel

2002-01-01

232

Site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine to threonine in Proteus vulgaris urease active site increases enzyme activity and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysteine-319 belongs to the flexible flap at the active site of Proteus vulgaris urease. Replacing this cysteine by threonine resulted in a 20-fold increase of specific activity. Temperature stability increased, susceptibility to inhibition by dipyridyl disulfide decreased, and pH optimum shifted from 8 to 6.9. Km (35 to 12 mM) and Vmax (47.4 to 1.8 µmol min-1) were substancially altered.

Joachim Jose; Sven Lauter; Martin A. Stein

2001-01-01

233

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. UK4, a Model Organism for Studies of Functional Amyloids in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. UK4. This bacterium was the first Pseudomonas strain shown to produce functional amyloids, and it represents a model organism for studies of functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap). PMID:25212622

Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Danielsen, Heidi Nolsøe

2014-01-01

234

21 CFR 520.314 - Cefadroxil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...due to susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus . For the treatment of...Proteus mirabilis , and S. aureus . (ii) Cats ...Pasteurella multocida , S. aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , and...

2010-04-01

235

21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia...lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp...Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp. (iii)...

2010-04-01

236

21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. (iii) Limitations. Administer intramuscularly or subcutaneously. If no improvement is seen...

2010-04-01

237

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis. (3)...

2014-04-01

238

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3)...

2013-04-01

239

21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of skin infections (wounds and abscesses) caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus intermedius , S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli , Pasteurella multocida , and Proteus mirabilis . (3)...

2011-04-01

240

Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

1993-05-01

241

Thoracolumbar scoliosis in a patient with proteus syndrome: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The Proteus syndrome (PS) is a complex and rare congenital hamartomatous condition with a wide range of malformations. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome.This study presents a case of scoliosis occurring in the setting of PS and explores the possible mechanisms between the 2 diseases.The patient is a 17-year-old Chinese female with scoliosis and hemihypertrophy of the right upper and lower extremity as well as exostosis of the right lower leg joint including the hip, knee, ankle, and toes. These manifestations were suggestive of PS. She underwent a posterior correction at thoracic 2-lumbar 4 (T5-L4) levels, using the Moss-SI spinal system. At 3-month follow-ups, the patient was clinically pain free and well balanced. Plain radiographs showed solid spine fusion with no loss of deformity correction.The severity of scoliosis in PS is progressively aggravated and the correction of the extensive spinal deformities is generally difficult. Therefore, early diagnosis is required for adequate interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25654373

Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

2015-02-01

242

[Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].  

PubMed

Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist. PMID:21870511

Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

2011-01-01

243

Gene cloning, expression and characterization of novel phytase from Obesumbacterium proteus.  

PubMed

The gene phyA encoding phytase was isolated from Obesumbacterium proteus genomic library and sequenced. The cleavage site of the PhyA signal peptide was predicted and experimentally proved. The PhyA protein shows maximum identity of 53% and 47% to phosphoanhydride phosphorylase from Yersinia pestis and phytase AppA from Escherichia coli, respectively. Based on protein sequence similarity of PhyA and its homologs, the phytases form a novel subclass of the histidine acid phosphatase family. To characterize properties of the PhyA protein, we expressed the phyA gene in E. coli. The specific activity of the purified recombinant PhyA was 310 U mg(-1) of protein. Recombinant PhyA showed activity at pH values from 1.5 through 6.5 with the optimum at 4.9. The temperature optimum was 40-45 degrees C at pH 4.9. The Km value for sodium phytate was 0.34 mM with a Vmax of 435 U mg(-1). PMID:15251209

Zinin, Nickolay V; Serkina, Anna V; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Shevelev, Aleksei B; Sineoky, Sergei P

2004-07-15

244

Penile reconstruction for a case of genital lymphoedema secondary to proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

To our knowledge penile lymphoedema secondary to Proteus syndrome has not previously been reported. Hence we report a case of a 16-year-old male who was referred with features of right hemi-hypertrophy and severe lymphoedema affecting his scrotum and penis. He had previously undergone scrotal reduction surgery at the age of 13, but had since developed worsening penile oedema. His main concern was that of cosmetic appearance prior to sexual debut, and he also complained of erectile dysfunction. An MRI confirmed gross oedema of the penile skin, but normal underlying cavernosal structure, and no other anatomical abnormality. Under general anaesthesia, the entire diseased penile skin was excised. Two full thickness skin grafts were harvested from the axillae, and grafted onto the dorsal and ventral penile shaft respectively. A compressive dressing and urinary catheter was applied for 7 days. Follow-up at 4 months confirmed complete graft take with minimal scarring, and the patient was very satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. He had also noticed a recovery in erectile activity, and feels psychologically and physically more prepared for sexual relations. PMID:22084799

Ashouri, F; Manners, J; Rees, R

2011-01-01

245

The pyoverdins of Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas cichorii.  

PubMed

The structure elucidation of the cyclic (lactonic) forms of the pyoverdins with a succinamide side chain originally produced by the closely related species Pseudomonas syringae and P. cichorii is reported. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses as well as the determination of the configuration of the amino acids after degradation indicate that these two pyoverdins differ only by the replacement of the first in-chain serine by glycine. The pyoverdins of P. syringae and P. cichorii and the dihydropyoverdin of P. syringae can be used by both species as siderophores. PMID:15540590

Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Schäfer, Mathias; Budzikiewicz, Herbert

2004-01-01

246

Detection of UDP-glucose:cyclo-DOPA 5-O-glucosyltransferase activity in four o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa L.).  

PubMed

Although a pathway for betacyanin biosynthesis has been postulated, most of the catalytic steps have not yet been identified or demonstrated with biochemical evidence. In the postulated pathway, the glucose moiety of betanin is conjugated to the aglycone, betanidin, because the glucosyltransferase (GT) activity that produces betanin has been reported and its cDNA isolated. However, another pathway for betacyanin biosynthesis is proposed in which betanin is formed by GT acting at the 5,6-dihydroxyindoline-2-carboxylic acid (cyclo-DOPA) step, followed by condensation of the product with betalamic acid. Here, we show that GT activity acts upon cyclo-DOPA in the betacyanin synthetic pathway. A crude extract from the petals of four o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa L.) was mixed with cyclo-DOPA and UDP-glucose. After the reaction was stopped with phosphoric acid, the product was chemically reacted with betalamic acid. In the final reaction mixture, betanin formation was confirmed by HPLC analysis, demonstrating cyclo-DOPA 5-O-glucosyltransferase activity. This activity was correlated with the accumulation of betanin during the development of four o'clock flowers and was detected in another five species of Centrospermae. These results indicate that the glucose moiety of betanin is introduced at the cyclo-DOPA step, which is followed by condensation with betalamic acid, and not at the betanidin aglycone step. PMID:15196939

Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Adachi, Taiji; Koda, Takatoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

2004-06-18

247

Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

248

Bromoalkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains  

SciTech Connect

Many of the xenobiotic compounds extensively used in agriculture and industry, particularly the chlorinated halogenated compounds, have been extensively studied. Brominated organics, also used worldwide in, for example, flame retardants, pesticides, industrial biocides, intermediates in the polymer industry, have received far less attention. Investigations into the biodegradative pathways of aliphatic bromides in particular is very limited. This paper reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of two Pseudomonas strains capable of utilizing a broad range of bromoalkanes as single carbon and energy sources, and describes the emulsification and dehalogenation of hydrophobic bromoakanes by these strains. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Shochat, E.; Hermoni, I.; Cohen, Z.; Abeliovich, A.; Belkin, S. (Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boker (Israel))

1993-05-01

249

INTRACELLULAR HEMOLYSIN OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA  

PubMed Central

Berk, Richard S. (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.). Intracellular hemolysin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 85:522–526. 1963.—Disruption of cells (2 to 6 days old) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in Tryptose Broth devoid of blood yielded an intracellular hemolysin active on sheep and human erythrocytes. The intracellular agent was not usually detectable in cells grown under highly aerobic conditions. However, activity was observed after 48 hr of growth and appeared to reach a peak at 96 hr when grown under static conditions. Centrifugation of hemolytic extracts at 20,000 × g for 30 min resulted in a fractionation of activity into particulate and soluble components. Similar fractionation of activity occurred after adjustment of the pH of crude extracts to 1.40. In addition, hemolytic preparations were not inactivated by boiling for 90 min, by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetate, or by heating in equal volumes of 20% KOH. Activity over a wide pH range was noted, with a maximum occurring at approximately 6.0. However, some preparations occasionally exhibited a second peak on the alkaline side. PMID:14042927

Berk, Richard S.

1963-01-01

250

Chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris: cloning, recombinant expression and active site identification  

PubMed Central

GalAGs (galactosaminoglycans) are one subset of the GAG (glycosaminoglycan) family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that are involved in a wide range of biological processes. These complex biomacromolecules are believed to be responsible for the inhibition of nerve regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. The enzymic degradation of GAG chains in damaged nervous tissue by cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I), a broad-specificity lyase that degrades GalAGs, promotes neural recovery. In the present paper, we report the subcloning of cABC I from Proteus vulgaris, and discuss a simple methodology for the recombinant expression and purification of this enzyme. The originally expressed cABC I clone resulted in an enzyme with negligible activity against a variety of GalAG substrates. Sequencing of the cABC I clone revealed four point mutations at issue with the electron-density data of the cABC I crystal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis produced a clone with restored GalAG-degrading function. We have characterized this enzyme biochemically, including an analysis of its substrate specificity. By coupling structural inspections of cABC I and an evaluation of sequence homology against other GAG-degrading lyases, a set of amino acids was chosen for further study. Mutagenesis studies of these residues resulted in the first experimental evidence of cABC I's active site. This work will facilitate the structure–function characterization of biomedically relevant GalAGs and further the development of therapeutics for nerve regeneration. PMID:15691229

2005-01-01

251

Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative that a symbiotic system is in place and the results definitely support the potential use of this unique new model. This model many help in plant / animal and cancer processes.

Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

2011-03-01

252

[The lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas solanacearum i Pseudomonas cichorii].  

PubMed

Structure analysis by the methods of methylation, 1H- and 13C-n. m. r. spectroscopy has shown that O-specific polysaccharides of typical strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum (biovar I) and P. cichorii are identical by their structure and constructed of branched pentasaccharide repeating links which include three residues of rhamnose (one of them is in the branching node), one residue of beta-xylose (it occupies terminal position) and one reside of N-acetyl-beta-glucosamine. The other strain of P. solanacearum of biovar I and two strains belonging to biovars III and IV also produce structure-similar O-specific polysaccharides, constructed of linear tetrasaccharide repeating links which include three residues of alpha-L-rhamnose and one residue of N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine. PMID:2273995

Varbanets, L D; Kocharova, N A; Knirel', Iu A; Muras, V A; Moskalenko, N V; Brovarskaia, O S

1990-01-01

253

Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.  

PubMed

Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens. PMID:17337425

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2007-01-01

254

Declination of Copper Toxicity in Pigeon Pea and Soil System by Growth-Promoting Proteus vulgaris KNP3 Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copper-resistant (1318 ?M CuSO4·5H2O) strain KNP3 of Proteus vulgaris was isolated from soil near the Panki power plant, Kanpur, India, and was used to inoculate pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan var. UPS-120) seeds grown in soil for 60 days in the presence of 600 ?M CuSO4·5H2O. A study of siderophore production (126.34 ± 0.52 ?g ml?1) and its subsequent effects on plant growth

Anju Rani; Yogesh S. Shouche; Reeta Goel

2008-01-01

255

Comparison of denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paracoccus denitrificans  

SciTech Connect

A comparision was made of denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Although all three organisms reduced nitrate to dinitrogen gas, they did so at different rates and accumulated different kinds and amounts of intermediates. Their rates of anaerobic growth on nitrate varied about 1.5-fold; concomitant gas production varied more than 8-fold. Cell yields from nitrate varied threefold. Rates of gas production by resting cells incubated with nitrate, nitrite, or nitrous oxide varied 2-, 6-, and 15-fold, respectively, among the three species. The composition of the gas produced also varied markedly: Pseudomonas stutzeri produced only dinitrogen; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Paracoccus denitrificans produced nitrous oxide as well; and under certain conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced even more nitrous oxide than dinitrogen. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Paracoccus dentrificans rapidly reduced nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide and were able to grow anaerobically when any of these nitrogen oxides were present in the medium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa reduced these oxides slowly and was unable to grow anaerobically at the expense of nitrous oxide. Futhermore, nitric and nitrous oxide reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exceptionally sensitive to inhibition by nitrite. Thus, although it has been well studied physiologically and genetically, Pseudomonas aeruginosa may not be the best species for studying the later steps of the denitrification pathway.

Carlson, C.A.; Ingraham, J.L.

1983-04-01

256

Pseudomonas vesicularis from cervical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities of five strains of Pseudomonas vesicularis isolated from cervical cultures are reported. The organisms were recovered from Thayer-Martin medium, which, because of its inhibitory properties, restricts over-growth by most other species. Our findings agree with those of Kaltenbach and associates (J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:339--344, 1975) on the importance of esculin hydrolysis, maltose oxidation, and pigmentation in the identification of P. vesicularis. Comparative carbohydrate oxidation studies showed agreement in three of four methods (oxidative attack, buffered single substrate, King oxidative/fermentative medium). No oxidation of carbohydrates was observed in commercial oxidative/fermentative medium. In addition to biochemical characteristics, antibiograms can be useful auxiliary aids in the identification of P. vesicularis and in its differentiation from P. diminuta, a closely related species. PMID:567655

Otto, L A; Deboo, B S; Capers, E L; Pickett, M J

1978-01-01

257

Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

2004-01-01

258

Cytokinin production by Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed Central

The production of cytokinins by plant-associated bacteria was examined by radioimmunoassay. Strains producing trans-zeatin were identified in the genera Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing nopaline tumor-inducing plasmids, A. tumefaciens Lippia isolates, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains produced trans-zeatin in culture at 0.5 to 44 micrograms/liter. Pseudomonas solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi produced trans-zeatin at levels of up to 1 mg/liter. In vitro cytokinin biosynthetic activity was measured for representative strains and was found to correlate with trans-zeatin production. The genetic locus for trans-zeatin secretion (tzs) was cloned from four strains: A. tumefaciens T37, A. rhizogenes A4, P. solanacearum K60, and P. syringae pv. savastanoi 1006. Southern blot analysis showed substantial homology of the Agrobacterium tzs genes to each other but not to the two Pseudomonas genes. Images PMID:3624204

Akiyoshi, D E; Regier, D A; Gordon, M P

1987-01-01

259

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... How Do I Protect Myself and My Family? "Hot Tub Rash" ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) Below are answers ... hot tub rash and healthy swimming. What is Hot Tub Rash? Hot tub rash, or dermatitis, is ...

260

Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses. PMID:21739934

Mickien?, R?ta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonien?, Violeta

2011-06-01

261

Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices  

SciTech Connect

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Girardin, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

262

FY2012 summary of tasks completed on PROTEUS-thermal work.  

SciTech Connect

PROTEUS is a suite of the neutronics codes, both old and new, that can be used within the SHARP codes being developed under the NEAMS program. Discussion here is focused on updates and verification and validation activities of the SHARP neutronics code, DeCART, for application to thermal reactor analysis. As part of the development of SHARP tools, the different versions of the DeCART code created for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis were integrated. Verification and validation tests for the integrated version were started, and the generation of cross section libraries based on the subgroup method was revisited for the targeted reactor types. The DeCART code has been reorganized in preparation for an efficient integration of the different versions for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis. In DeCART, the old-fashioned common blocks and header files have been replaced by advanced memory structures. However, the changing of variable names was minimized in order to limit problems with the code integration. Since the remaining stability problems of DeCART were mostly caused by the CMFD methodology and modules, significant work was performed to determine whether they could be replaced by more stable methods and routines. The cross section library is a key element to obtain accurate solutions. Thus, the procedure for generating cross section libraries was revisited to provide libraries tailored for the targeted reactor types. To improve accuracy in the cross section library, an attempt was made to replace the CENTRM code by the MCNP Monte Carlo code as a tool obtaining reference resonance integrals. The use of the Monte Carlo code allows us to minimize problems or approximations that CENTRM introduces since the accuracy of the subgroup data is limited by that of the reference solutions. The use of MCNP requires an additional set of libraries without resonance cross sections so that reference calculations can be performed for a unit cell in which only one isotope of interest includes resonance cross sections, among the isotopes in the composition. The OECD MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART as initial focus of the verification/validation efforts. Among the benchmark problems, Exercise 1 of Phase 1 is a steady-state benchmark case for the neutronics calculation for which block-wise cross sections were provided in 26 energy groups. This type of problem was designed for a homogenized geometry solver like DIF3D rather than the high-fidelity code DeCART. Instead of the homogenized block cross sections given in the benchmark, the VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library of DeCART was directly used for preliminary calculations. Initial results showed that the multiplication factors of a fuel pin and a fuel block with or without a control rod hole were off by 6, -362, and -183 pcm Dk from comparable MCNP solutions, respectively. The 2-D and 3-D one-third core calculations were also conducted for the all-rods-out (ARO) and all-rods-in (ARI) configurations, producing reasonable results. Figure 1 illustrates the intermediate (1.5 eV - 17 keV) and thermal (below 1.5 eV) group flux distributions. As seen from VHTR cores with annular fuels, the intermediate group fluxes are relatively high in the fuel region, but the thermal group fluxes are higher in the inner and outer graphite reflector regions than in the fuel region. To support the current project, a new three-year I-NERI collaboration involving ANL and KAERI was started in November 2011, focused on performing in-depth verification and validation of high-fidelity multi-physics simulation codes for LWR and VHTR. The work scope includes generating improved cross section libraries for the targeted reactor types, developing benchmark models for verification and validation of the neutronics code with or without thermo-fluid feedback, and performing detailed comparisons of predicted reactor parameters against both Monte Carlo solutions and experimental measurements. The following list summarizes the work conducted so far for PROTEUS-Thermal Tasks: Unification of different versions of DeC

Lee, C.H.; Smith, M.A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-06-06

263

A Proteus-Mediated Communications Substrate for LegionCCA and XCAT-C++ Deger Cenk Erdil, Kenneth Chiu, Madhusudhan Govindaraju, Michael J. Lewis  

E-print Network

A Proteus-Mediated Communications Substrate for LegionCCA and XCAT-C++ Deger Cenk Erdil, Kenneth the Legion- CCA and XCAT-C++ CCA framework implementations to support component-based applications to span Legion and XCAT-C++, and outlines plans for full integration and communication interoperability.1 Key

264

The nature of the action of electricity in producing response and injury in Amoeba proteus (Leidy) and the effect of electricity on the viscosity of protoplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Amoeba proteus orients very definitely in a galvanic current and moves toward the cathode.2.If the anterior end is directed toward the cathode when the circuit is made there is increase in rate of streaming beginning at the anterior end and progressing toward the posterior end. If the current is weak, this increase is slight, if it is strong the anterior

S. O. Mast

1931-01-01

265

Implementation/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional/axisymmetric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.

Bui, Trong T.

1992-01-01

266

Composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa slime  

PubMed Central

1. The slime produced by eight strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on a number of different media was demonstrated to be qualitatively the same. Small quantitative differences may be occasioned by differences in the extraction procedure, the growth medium or the strain of organism used. 2. The slime was shown to be predominantly polysaccharide with some nucleic acid material and a small amount of protein. 3. The hydrolysed polysaccharide fraction consists mainly of glucose with smaller amounts of mannose. This accounts for some 50–60% of the total slime. In addition, there is some 5% of hyaluronic acid. The nucleic acid material represents approx. 20% of the total weight, and is composed of both RNA and DNA. 4. Minor components are protein, rhamnose and glucosamine, the protein being less than 5% of the total. 5. Hyaluronic acid is produced in greater quantities from nutrient broth than from chemically defined media, and is more firmly attached to the cells than the other components. PMID:4240755

Brown, M. R. W.; Foster, J. H. Scott; Clamp, J. R.

1969-01-01

267

Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

Lynn, A.R.

1984-01-01

268

HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 5, 6, 7, & 8: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:2 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO  

SciTech Connect

PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

John D. Bess

2013-03-01

269

Pseudomonas marginalis Associated with Soft Rot of Zantedeschia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krejzar V., Mertelík J., Pánková I., Kloudová K., K?dela V. ( 2008): Pseudomonas marginalis associated with soft rot of Zantedeschia spp. Plant. Protect. Sci., 44: 85-90. For the first time in the Czech Republic, bacteria identified as Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium caro - tovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas putida were isolated from tubers of Zantedeschia spp. with symptoms of tuber soft

Václav KREJZAR; Josef MERTELÍK; Iveta PÁNKOVÁ

270

A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the nemertean ancestral mitochondrial gene order most closely resembles the heteronemertean type. Phylogenetic analysis proposes a sister-group relationship between Hetero- and Hoplonemertea, which supports one of two recent alternative hypotheses of nemertean phylogeny. PMID:22507536

2012-01-01

271

Within-Pin Reaction Rate Distributions: CASMO-4 and HELIOS Compared Against Tomographic Measurements at the PROTEUS Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS project - an extended validation program for advanced light water reactor core analysis tools conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute - the radial, internal variations of the total fission rate (F{sub tot}) and the capture rate in {sup 238}U (C{sub 8}) have been calculated for zero-burnup pins of a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ boiling water reactor fuel assembly using two codes, namely, CASMO-4 and HELIOS. While F{sub tot} distributions predicted by CASMO-4 and HELIOS are in good agreement, C{sub 8} distributions show significant inconsistencies (20 to 30%). The calculations are compared with experimental results obtained using single photon emission computerized tomography for several SVEA-96+ pins irradiated in the zero-power reactor PROTEUS. The comparisons confirm the predicted shape of the F{sub tot} distributions within UO{sub 2} pins and clearly indicate that HELIOS within-pin predictions for C{sub 8} are more reliable than CASMO-4 results. This is important for the derivation of gamma-ray self-absorption corrections when pin-integrated reaction rates are to be determined using the gamma-scanning technique. Thus, the use of CASMO-4-type within-pin distributions would lead to 3 to 4% discrepancies in the absolute, self-absorption-corrected pin-integrated values deduced for C{sub 8} and hence for C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}. For relative C{sub 8} distributions, the discrepancy would be much smaller, namely, up to {approx}1% if pins containing a burnable absorber are involved.

Fauchere, C. Pralong; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

2005-05-15

272

Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

273

Population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The metabolically versatile Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhabits terrestrial, aquatic, animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments and is an important causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive-care units. The population genetics of P. aeruginosa was investigated by an approach that is generally applicable to the rapid, robust, and informative genotyping of bacteria. DNA, amplified from the bacterial colony by circles of multiplex primer extension, is hybridized onto a microarray to yield an electronically portable binary multimarker genotype that represents the core genome by single nucleotide polymorphisms and the accessory genome by markers of genomic islets and islands. The 240 typed P. aeruginosa strains of diverse habitats and geographic origin segregated into two large nonoverlapping clusters and 45 isolated clonal complexes with few or no partners. The majority of strains belonged to few dominant clones widespread in disease and environmental habitats. The most frequent genotype was represented by the sequenced strain PA14. Core and accessory genome were found to be nonrandomly assembled in P. aeruginosa. Individual clones preferred a specific repertoire of accessory segments. Even the most promiscuous genomic island, pKLC102, had integrated preferentially into a subset of clones. Moreover, some physically distant loci of the core genome, including oriC, showed nonrandom associations of genotypes, whereas other segments in between were freely recombining. Thus, the P. aeruginosa genome is made up of clone-typical segments in core and accessory genome and of blocks in the core with unrestricted gene flow in the population. PMID:17468398

Wiehlmann, Lutz; Wagner, Gerd; Cramer, Nina; Siebert, Benny; Gudowius, Peter; Morales, Gracia; Köhler, Thilo; van Delden, Christian; Weinel, Christian; Slickers, Peter; Tümmler, Burkhard

2007-01-01

274

Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov., isolated from droppings of a seashore bird, and emended descriptions of Pseudomonas pohangensis, Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Pseudomonas segetis.  

PubMed

Two Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains that are motile by a monopolar flagellum, designated CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5, were isolated from droppings of a seashore bird off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan. The strains showed 99.7% mutual pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, while exhibiting <96.2% sequence similarity to strains of other species of the genus Pseudomonas (95.7-95.9% similarity with type species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LMG 1242T), and formed a distinct co-phyletic lineage in the phylogenetic trees. The common major fatty acids (>5% of the total) were C18 : 1?7c and/or C18 : 1?6c (summed feature 8), C16 : 1?6c and/or C16 : 1?7c (summed feature 3), C16 : 0 and C12 : 0. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, an unidentified lipid and an unidentified phospholipid were detected as common polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 were 61.1 and 61.6 mol%, respectively. The common major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9), and the predominant polyamine was putrescine. The DNA-DNA hybridization obtained between the two strains was 79.0% (reciprocal value 89.4% using CC-AMHZ-5 DNA as the probe). The very high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness and the poorly distinguishable phenotypic features witnessed between CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 suggested unambiguously that they are two distinct strains of a single genomic species. However, the strains also showed several genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that distinguished them from other closely related species of Pseudomonas. Thus, the strains are proposed to represent a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-AMH-11(T) (?= JCM 19513(T)?= BCRC 80696(T)); a second strain of the same species is CC-AMHZ-5 (?= JCM 19512 = BCRC 80697). In addition, emended descriptions of the species Pseudomonas pohangensis, Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Pseudomonas segetis are also proposed. PMID:24744016

Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Liu, You-Cheng; Young, Chiu-Chung

2014-07-01

275

Interference with Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis inhibits virulence factor expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that controls numerous virulence factors through intercellular signals. This bacterium has two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl), which act through the intercellular signals N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), respectively. P. aeruginosa also produces a third intercellular signal that is involved in virulence factor regulation. This signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone [referred to as the Pseudomonas

M. Worth Calfee; James P. Coleman; Everett C. Pesci

2001-01-01

276

[A sarcoma-static new species of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas jinanensis sp. nov].  

PubMed

A strain of Gram negative bacteria was isolated from the surface soil of Wuying Hill at Jinan, Shandong province with Gause's medium in 1973. It is a strain of antagonistic bacteria for hysterocervicoma, hepatoma and melanoma of mice screened from 2100 strains of bacteria. It is also antagonistic to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus. It is a Gram negative bacterium with lophotrichous polar flagella. Straight rods in shape or with a little slightly curved rods, 0.5-0.6 X 1-2 microns, randomly arranged, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules are accumulated in cells after 2-5 days cultivation. Water green soluble pigment and green fluorescent pigment are produced. Respiratory metabolism, chemoorganotroph, many carbon-containing organic compounds can be used as carbon sources, such as glucose, trehalose, ethanol, cellulobiose, fucose, arginine and betaine, but propionic acid or tartaric acid is not utilized. Inorganic nitrogen containing compounds can be used ae the sole source of nitrogen. No growth factor is necessary for growth. Gelatin is hydrolyzed. Starch and cellulose are not hydrolyzed. Nitrate is not reduced. Arginine dihydrolase is produced. Levan is produced from sucrose. Growth occurs from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from pH 5.65-8.40. No growth occurs at 40 degrees C and at pH value below 4.86. It can not grow autotrophically with hydrogen. Its G + C contents in DNA is 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments reveals a relatedness value of 58.6% between this strain and Ps. fluorescens. The above evidence shows that this strain differs from all species known in Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens group. Pseudomonas caryophylli, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas marginata, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas delafieldii.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2781786

Cai, M Y; Lu, D S; Wang, D S; He, Z Z; Wang, J H

1989-06-01

277

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited  

PubMed Central

At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P. aeruginosa “core lineage” and typically exhibited the exoS+/exoU? genotype and group B oprL and oprD alleles. This is to our knowledge the first report of an MST analysis conducted on a polyphasic data set. PMID:19936230

Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

2009-01-01

278

Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

2014-01-01

279

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anaerobic Respiration in Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration.

Sang Sun Yoon; Robert F. Hennigan; George M. Hilliard; Urs A. Ochsner; Kislay Parvatiyar; Moneesha C. Kamani; Holly L. Allen; Teresa R. DeKievit; Paul R. Gardner; Ute Schwab; John J. Rowe; Barbara H. Iglewski; Timothy R. McDermott; Ronald P. Mason; Daniel J. Wozniak; Robert E. W. Hancock; Matthew R. Parsek; Terry L. Noah; Richard C. Boucher; Daniel J. Hassett

2002-01-01

280

Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a healthy child  

PubMed Central

Pediatric pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare entity. The diagnosis is frequently delayed due to difficulty in confirming the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a previously healthy adolescent boy. The diagnosis was made radiographically and confirmed by culture. The patient was treated with Levofloxacin and Gentamicin resulting in a complete recovery. PMID:24470915

Akhras, Nour; Blackwood, Alexander

2011-01-01

281

Mechanism of formaldehyde biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde biodegradation by a strain of Pseudomonas putida has been studied. The results indicate that this biodegradation is initiated by a dismutation reaction, yielding as products formic acid and methanol. The degradation of methanol and formic acid begins after exhaustion of formaldehyde in the medium, and presents a diauxic pattern: first formic acid is consumed followed by methanol. Moreover, cell

N. Adroer; C. Casas; C. de Mas; C. Solfi

1990-01-01

282

Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation

Julien Tremblay; Eric Déziel

2010-01-01

283

Pseudomonas fluorescens -A robust manufacturing platform  

E-print Network

Pseudomonas fluorescens -A robust manufacturing platform Reprinted from July/August 2004 Speciality at efficient- ly transporting single chain antibodies and other mammalian-derived proteins. In addition production. Dowpharma, a contract manufacturing services unit of Dow Chemical, has developed a manufacturing

Lebendiker, Mario

284

Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS5028  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution

Ana M. Marqués; Xavier Roca; M. Dolores Simon-Pujol; M. Carmen Fuste; Francisco Congregado

1991-01-01

285

Application of two different kinds of sera against the Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharide core region in search of epitopes determining cross-reactions with antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:  \\u000a Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core regions are characterized by a greater structural variability than that observed in other Enterobacteriaceae. This fact and the small amount of published data concerning the serological activity of this part of P. penneri LPS prompted an examination of which fragment might determine cross-reactions with antibodies. To date, such epitopes have\\u000a been found in the

Agata Palusiak; Monika Dzieci?tkowska; Zygmunt Sidorczyk

2008-01-01

286

Results of a Neutronic Simulation of HTR-Proteus Core 4.2 using PEBBED and other INL Reactor Physics Tools: FY09 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Laboratorys deterministic neutronics analysis codes and methods were applied to the computation of the core multiplication factor of the HTR-Proteus pebble bed reactor critical facility. A combination of unit cell calculations (COMBINE-PEBDAN), 1-D discrete ordinates transport (SCAMP), and nodal diffusion calculations (PEBBED) were employed to yield keff and flux profiles. Preliminary results indicate that these tools, as

Hans D. Gougar

2009-01-01

287

Effects of adaptation to sea water, 170% sea water and to fresh water on activities and subcellular distribution of branchial Na + ?K + ATPase, low- and high affinity Ca ++ ATPase, and ouabain-insensitive ATPase in Gillichthys mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Branchial activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, ouabain-insensitive ATPase, (Mg++-ATPase) and Ca++-ATPase were measured inGillichthys mirabilis after adaptation to salinities ranging from 170% SW to FW. Stabilities of these activities against freezing and deoxycholate solubilization and the temperature-dependence of activity rates were also investigated. Subcellular distribution and some kinetic properties of these activities, and of SDH were compared in branchial tissues of fish

Byron A. Doneen

1981-01-01

288

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2010-07-01

289

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2011-07-01

290

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2014-07-01

291

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2012-07-01

292

40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from...

2013-07-01

293

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption...vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on...

2014-07-01

294

Growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. during ripening in a cheese model medium.  

PubMed

The growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., some common but rarely mentioned cheese bacteria, were investigated in a cheese model deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii during the ripening process. Our results show that these bacteria had distinct growth and cheese flavour production patterns during the ripening process. P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest variety but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds with low olfactive thresholds, e.g. volatile sulphur compounds and branched-chain alcohols. Such compounds produced by P. vulgaris increased after 21 days of ripening and reached a maximum at 41 days. The three bacteria studied exhibited various degrees of caseinolytic, aminopeptidase and deaminase activities. Moreover, P. vulgaris had a greater capacity for hydrolysing casein and higher deaminase activity. Our results show that P. vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium naturally present on the surface of ripened cheeses, could produce high concentrations of flavour compounds from amino acid degradation during the ripening process. Its flavouring role in cheese cannot be neglected. Moreover, it could be a useful organism for producing natural flavours as dairy ingredients. PMID:19083231

Deetae, Pawinee; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Helinck, Sandra

2009-02-01

295

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

296

Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

297

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

298

Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

299

Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

1993-01-01

300

Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among some Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among a number of strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas were explored by the use of in vitro deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization. The fluorescent nomenspecies (P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. aeruginosa, P. cichorii, P. syringae, and related species), as well as the nonfluorescent species P. stutzeri, P. mendocina, P. alcaligenes, and P. pseudoalcaligenes, were shown to belong to a single DNA homology complex which is isolated from other Pseudomonas species that have been studied [P. cepacia (= P. multivorans), P. caryophylli, P. marginata (= P. alliicola), P. pseudomallei, P. acidovorans, P. testosteroni, P. solanacearum, P. diminuta, P. facilis, P. delafieldii, P. saccharophila, P. palleronii]. A limited numerical analysis of the phenotypic properties of the examined strains supported, with some exceptions, their previous allocation to nomenspecies and biotypes. The internal structure and nomenclature of the "P. fluorescens homology complex" are discussed. PMID:4622897

Palleroni, N J; Ballard, R W; Ralston, E; Doudoroff, M

1972-04-01

301

Multifunctional membrane vesicles in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacteria secrete small particles called membrane vesicles (MVs) into the extracellular milieu. While MVs have important roles in delivering toxins from pathogenic bacteria to eukaryotic cells, these vesicles also play ecological roles necessary for survival in various environmental conditions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which lives in soil, ocean, plant, animal and human environments, has become a model organism for studying these small extracellular particles. Such studies have increased our understanding of the function and biogenesis of bacterial MVs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MVs possess versatile components and chemical substances with unique structures. These characteristics allow MVs to play their multifunctional biological roles, including microbial interaction, maintenance of biofilm structure and host infection. This review summarizes the comprehensive biochemical and physiochemical properties of MVs derived from P.?aeruginosa. These studies will help us understand their biological roles of MVs not only in pathogenicity but also in microbial ecology. Also, the mechanisms of MV production, as currently understood, are discussed. PMID:22103313

Tashiro, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

2012-06-01

302

[Conjugation mapping of Pseudomonas mendocina bacteria].  

PubMed

Donor strains of the Hfr type were isolated using plasmid pRK2013 with transposons Tn10 and Tn5 as a chromosome-mobilizing factor. The isolated strains were shown to promote transfer of donor chromosome from different origins in different directions during isogenic matings of Pseudomonas mendocina bacteria. The created collection of donors and polyauxotrophic recipient bacteria permitted mapping 26 genetic determinants on the bacterial chromosome and identifying the genome of these microorganisms as a circular DNA molecule. PMID:14714457

Vasilenko, S L; Maksimova, N P; Titok, M A

2003-11-01

303

Shifting Paradigms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa have long been recognized as a challenge in clinical settings. Cystic fibrosis, endocarditis, device-related infections,\\u000a and ventilator-associated pneumonia are some of the diseases that are considerably complicated by the formation of bacterial\\u000a biofilms, which are resistant to most current antimicrobial therapies. Due to intense research efforts, our understanding\\u000a of the molecular events involved in P.

A. H. Tart; D. J. Wozniak

304

Vfr Controls Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa controls several genes in a cell density-dependent manner through a phenomenon termed quorum sensing. The transcriptional activator protein of the las quorum-sensing system is encoded for by the lasR gene, which is at the top of a quorum-sensing hierarchy. The activation of LasR as a transcriptional activator induces the expression of multiple genes that code for factors important

ANNE M. ALBUS; EVERETT C. PESCI; LAURA J. RUNYEN-JANECKY; SUSAN E. H. WEST; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI

1997-01-01

305

Azithromycin Inhibits Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that 2 mg of azithromycin\\/ml inhibits the quorum-sensing circuitry of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Addition of synthetic autoinducers partially restored the expression of the trancriptional acti- vator-encoding genes lasR and rhlR but not that of the autoinducer synthase-encoding gene lasI. We propose that azithromycin interferes with the synthesis of autoinducers, by an unknown mechanism, leading to a reduction

KAZUHIRO TATEDA; RACHEL COMTE; JEAN-CLAUDE PECHERE; THILO KOHLER; KEIZO YAMAGUCHI; CHRISTIAN VAN DELDEN

2001-01-01

306

Mechanism of formaldehyde biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde biodegradation by a strain of Pseudomonas putida has been studied. The results indicate that this biodegradation is initiated by a dismutation reaction, yielding as products formic acid and methanol. The degradation of methanol and formic acid begins after exhaustion of formaldehyde in the medium, and presents a diauxic pattern: first formic acid is consumed followed by methanol. Moreover, cell viability, which is affected by the amount of added formaldehyde, has been determined. PMID:1366532

Adroer, N; Casas, C; de Mas, C; Solà, C

1990-05-01

307

Massetolide A Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massetolide A is a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotic produced by various Pseudomonas strains from diverse environments. Cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, and complementation showed that massetolide A biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SS101 is governed by three nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, designated massA, massB, and massC, spanning approximately 30 kb. Prediction of the nature and configura- tion of the amino acids

I. de Bruijn; M. J. D. de Kock; P. de Waard; T. A. van Beek; J. M. Raaijmakers

2008-01-01

308

Pseudomonas sepsis with Noma: an association?  

PubMed

We report here a 2.5-year-old male child with community-acquired Pseudomonal sepsis showing the characteristic lesions of ecthyma gangrenosum. The child had development of gangrenous changes of the nose and face - the 'cancrum oris' or 'Noma'. We highlight the possible association of Pseudomonas sepsis and Noma, with malnutrition playing a central role in causing both the diseases. PMID:16129930

Vaidyanathan, S; Tullu, M S; Lahiri, K R; Deshmukh, C T

2005-08-01

309

Genetics of alkane oxidation by Pseudomonas oleovorans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Pseudomonads are able to use linear alkanes as sole carbon and energy source. The genetics and enzymology of alkane metabolism have been investigated in depth forPseudomonas oleovorans, which is able to oxidize C5-C12 n-alkanes by virtue of two gene regions, localized on the OCT-plasmid. The so-calledalk-genes have been cloned in pLAFR1, and were subsequent analyzed using minicell expression experiments,

Jan B. Beilen; Marcel G. Wubbolts; Bernard Witholt

1994-01-01

310

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Achillea clavennae L. essential oil.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of Achillea clavennae L. (Asteraceae), rare plant of Europe, have been analysed using GC/MS. Twenty- five components making up 81.6% of the oil were characterized with camphor (29.5%), myrcene (5.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.3%), beta-caryophyllene (5.1%) and linalool (4.9%) being the major constituents. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil was conducted by a disc diffusion test against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis) and fungal organisms (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans). The activity was more pronounced against Gram-negative and fungal organisms than against Gram-positive bacteria. A. clavennae oil was found to possess antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and all fungal organisms. PMID:14595583

Bezi?, Nada; Skocibusi?, Mirjana; Dunki?, Valerija; Radoni?, Ani

2003-11-01

311

The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

2014-03-01

312

The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae  

SciTech Connect

Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

313

Transposon-mediated mutation of CYP76AD3 affects betalain synthesis and produces variegated flowers in four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa).  

PubMed

The variegated flower colors of many plant species have been shown to result from the insertion or excision of transposable elements into genes that encode enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis. To date, however, it has not been established whether this phenomenon is responsible for the variegation produced by other pigments such as betalains. During betalain synthesis in red beet, the enzyme CYP76AD1 catalyzes the conversion of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to cyclo-DOPA. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis indicated that the homologous gene in four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) is CYP76AD3. Here, we show that in four o'clock with red perianths, the CYP76AD3 gene consists of one intron and two exons; however, in a mutant with a perianth showing red variegation on a yellow background, a transposable element, dTmj1, had been excised from the intron. This is the first report that a transposition event affecting a gene encoding an enzyme for betalain synthesis can result in a variegated flower phenotype. PMID:25151127

Suzuki, Mariko; Miyahara, Taira; Tokumoto, Hiroko; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Nobuhiro

2014-11-01

314

LWR-PROTEUS Verification of Reaction Rate Distributions in Modern 10 x 10 Boiling Water Reactor Fuel  

SciTech Connect

HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B calculations of reaction rate distributions in a modern, fresh 10 x 10 boiling water reactor fuel element have been validated using the experimental results of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project corresponding to full-density water moderation conditions (core 1B). The reaction rate distributions measured with a special gamma-scanning machine employing twin germanium detectors consisted of total fission F{sub tot} and {sup 238}U-capture C{sub 8}. The average statistical errors for the gamma scans were better than 0.5% for F{sub tot} and 0.9% for C{sub 8}. The rod-by-rod measurements were performed on 60 different fuel rods selected from the central part of a test zone consisting of actual, fresh SVEA-96+ fuel elements, thus gaining in realism by departing from conventional fuel rod mockups. In the case of F{sub tot}, the root-mean-square (rms) of the rod-by-rod distribution of differences between calculational and experimental (C-E) values has been found to be 1.1% for HELIOS and for CASMO-4, and 1.3% for MCNP4B. For C{sub 8}, the rms values of the (C-E) distributions are 1.0, 1.3, and 1.4% as obtained with HELIOS, CASMO-4, and MCNP4B, respectively. The effects of using different data libraries (ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, and JEF-2.2) with MCNP4B were also studied and have been found to be small.

Jatuff, F. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Grimm, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Joneja, O. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Murphy, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Luethi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Seiler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Brogli, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft Laufenburg AG (Switzerland); Williams, T. [Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft Laufenburg AG (Switzerland); Helmersson, S. [Westinghouse Atom AB (Sweden); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

2001-11-15

315

Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, and the availability of genomic sequences now opens the door for discovery of novel natural products with potential roles in the ecology and plant growth promoting properties of these bacteria. The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas f...

316

Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis  

PubMed Central

Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms “Pseudomonas” + “Keratitis” limit to “2007–2012”, and [“Ulcerative” or “Microbial”] + “Keratitis” + “Contact lenses” limit to “2007–2012”. These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin) fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin). In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (?95%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%. PMID:22791973

Willcox, Mark DP

2012-01-01

317

Genetic Detection of Pseudomonas spp. in Commercial Amazonian Fish  

PubMed Central

Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2013-01-01

318

Nitrogen Control of Atrazine Utilization in Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP uses the herbicide atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. We have devised a simple atrazine degradation assay to determine the effect of other nitrogen sources on the atrazine degradation pathway. The atrazine degradation rate was greatly decreased in cells grown on nitrogen sources that support rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP compared to cells cultivated

V. Garcia-Gonzalez; Fernando Govantes; Liz J. Shaw; Richard G. Burns; Eduardo Santero

2003-01-01

319

Functions Required for Extracellular Quinolone Signaling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 30 mutants exhibiting reduced production of the phenazine poison pyocyanin were isolated following transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The mutants could be subdivided into those with defects in the primary phenazine biosynthetic pathway and those with more pleiotropic defects. The largest set of pleiotropic mutations blocked the production of the extracellular Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a

Larry A. Gallagher; Susan L. McKnight; Marina S. Kuznetsova; Everett C. Pesci; Colin Manoil

2002-01-01

320

Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ATCC 15442  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 is an environmental strain of the Pseudomonas genus. Here, we present a 6.77-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. Besides giving insights into characteristics associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa, such as virulence, drug resistance, and biofilm formation, the genome sequence may provide some information related to biotechnological utilization of the strain. PMID:24786961

Wang, Yujiao; Li, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

321

Pseudomonas salegens sp. nov., a halophilic member of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from a wetland.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-endospore-forming, non-pigmented, rod-shaped, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated GBPy5(T), was isolated from aquatic plants of the Gomishan wetland, Iran. Cells of strain GBPy5(T) were motile. Growth occurred with between 1 and 10% (w/v) NaCl and the isolate grew optimally with 3% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum pH and temperature for growth of the strain were pH 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, while it was able to grow over a pH range of 6.5-9.0 and a temperature range of 4-35 °C. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain GBPy5(T) is a member of the genus Pseudomonas forming a monophyletic branch. The novel strain exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.4% with type strains of Pseudomonas guariconensis PCAVU11(T) and Pseudomonas sabulinigri J64(T), respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were C18:1?7c (37.8%), C16:0 (14.9%), C16:1?7c (12.9%), C12:0 3-OH (7.1%) and C12:0 (7.0%). The polar lipid pattern of strain GBPy5(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one phospholipid. Ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) was the predominant lipoquinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain GBPy5(T) was 59.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain GBPY5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salegens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy5(T) ( = IBRC-M 10762(T) = CECT 8338(T)). PMID:25062699

Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Makhdoumi-Kakhki, Ali; Seyedmahdi, Shima Sadat; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

2014-10-01

322

Improved PCR for identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to develop a noble and specific marker for a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the species-specific detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on the O-antigen acetylase gene. It is an important challenge to characterize populations of the bacterium P. aeruginosa, an opportunist by virtue of its physiological and genetic adaptability. However, molecular and serological methods currently available for sensitive and specific detection of P. aeruginosa are by no means satisfactory because there have been critical defects in the diagnosis and identification of P. aeruginosa strains in that these assays also detect other Pseudomonas species, or do not obtain amplified products from P. aeruginosa strains. Therefore, a primer set was designed based on the O-antigen acetylase gene of P. aeruginosa PA01 because it has been known that this gene is structurally diverse among species. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using genomic DNA from six isolates of P. aeruginosa, 18 different species of Pseudomonas, and 23 other reference pathogenic bacteria. The primer set used in the PCR assay amplified a 232-bp amplicon for only six P. aeruginosa strains. The assay was also able to detect at least 1.41?×?10(3)?copies/?l of cloned amplified target DNA using purified DNA, or 2.7?×?10(2) colony-forming unit per reaction when using calibrated cell suspension. In conclusion, this assay can be applied as a practical diagnostic method for epidemiological research and the sanitary management of water with a low level or latent infection of P. aeruginosa. PMID:23504075

Choi, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Myeong Ho; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Byoung Kyu; Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Changkug; Park, Dong Suk

2013-04-01

323

HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio  

SciTech Connect

In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

2013-03-01

324

HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio  

SciTech Connect

In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

2012-03-01

325

Vanadate reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.  

PubMed

The ability of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to reduce vanadate under microaerophilic conditions has been studied. It has been demonstrated that P. aeruginosa strains A17, A03 and C25a were able to reduce up to 38-60% pentavalent vanadium present in the medium. Vanadate reduction by P. aeruginosa strains A17, A03 and C25a was not associated with anaerobic respiration. It has been shown that vanadate reduction by P. aeruginosa strains is not the result of the spontaneous process. This is the first report of stimulation of vanadate reduction by ATPase activity inhibitor N-N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide under aerobic conditions. PMID:25007441

Ianieva, O D; Smirnova, G F

2014-01-01

326

Role of Pseudomonas aurantiaca in Crop Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Pseudomonas aurantiaca SR1 was initially identified by the BIOLOG method and, later, by partial sequencing of the 16 S ribosomal RNA gene. This\\u000a strain produces 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, siderophores and hydrogen cyanide; also, it was found to inhibit the growth of\\u000a different pathogenic fungi and to promote plant growth by phytohormone-like mechanisms, through the production of indole-3-acetic\\u000a acid. P. aurantiaca SR1, either

Javier A. Andrés; Marisa Rovera; Lorena B. Guiñazú; Nicolás A. Pastor; Susana B. Rosas

327

Chromate resistance plasmid in Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed Central

Chromate resistance of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300, isolated from chromium-contaminated sediment in the upper Hudson River, was found to be plasmid specified. Loss of the plasmid (pLHB1) by spontaneous segregation or mitomycin C curing resulted in a simultaneous loss of chromate resistance. Subsequent transformation of such strains with purified pLHB1 plasmid DNA resulted in a simultaneous re-acquisition of the chromate resistance phenotype and the plasmid. When pLHB1 was transferred by conjugation to Escherichia coli, the plasmid still conferred chromate resistance. PMID:6309741

Bopp, L H; Chakrabarty, A M; Ehrlich, H L

1983-01-01

328

HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO  

SciTech Connect

In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering effects during pebble loading. Core 4 was determined to be acceptable benchmark experiment.

John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

2014-03-01

329

HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO  

SciTech Connect

In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering effects during pebble loading. Core 4 was determined to be acceptable benchmark experiment.

John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

2013-03-01

330

The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

2014-03-01

331

Biofilm formation and cellulose expression among diverse environmental Pseudomonas isolates.  

PubMed

The ability to form biofilms is seen as an increasingly important colonization strategy among both pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A survey of 185 plant-associated, phytopathogenic, soil and river Pseudomonas isolates resulted in 76% producing biofilms at the air-liquid (A-L) interface after selection in static microcosms. Considerable variation in biofilm phenotype was observed, including waxy aggregations, viscous and floccular masses, and physically cohesive biofilms with continuously varying strengths over 1500-fold. Calcofluor epifluorescent microscopy identified cellulose as the matrix component in biofilms produced by Pseudomonas asplenii, Pseudomonas corrugata, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas savastanoi and Pseudomonas syringae isolates. Cellulose expression and biofilm formation could be induced by the constitutively active WspR19 mutant of the cyclic-di-GMP-associated, GGDEF domain-containing response regulator involved in the P. fluorescens SBW25 wrinkly spreader phenotype and cellular aggregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. WspR19 could also induce P. putida KT2440, which otherwise did not produce a biofilm or express cellulose, as well as Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2, both of which express cellulose yet lack WspR homologues. Statistical analysis of biofilm parameters suggest that biofilm development is a more complex process than that simply described by the production of attachment and matrix components and bacterial growth. This complexity was also seen in multivariate analysis as a species-ecological habitat effect, underscoring the fact that in vitro biofilms are abstractions of those surface and volume colonization processes used by bacteria in their natural environments. PMID:17014498

Ude, Susanne; Arnold, Dawn L; Moon, Christina D; Timms-Wilson, Tracey; Spiers, Andrew J

2006-11-01

332

In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects of Gold Nanoparticles Coated with Functional Acyl Homoserine Lactone Lactonase Protein from Bacillus licheniformis and Their Antibiofilm Activity against Proteus Species.  

PubMed

N-acylated homoserine lactonases are known to inhibit the signaling molecules of the biofilm-forming pathogens. In this study, gold nanoparticles were coated with N-acylated homoserine lactonase proteins (AiiA AuNPs) purified from Bacillus licheniformis. The AiiA AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The synthesized AiiA AuNPs were found to be spherical in shape and 10 to 30 nm in size. Treatment with AiiA protein-coated AuNPs showed maximum reduction in exopolysaccharide production, metabolic activities, and cell surface hydrophobicity and potent antibiofilm activity against multidrug-resistant Proteus species compared to treatment with AiiA protein alone. AiiA AuNPs exhibited potent antibiofilm activity at 2 to 8 ?M concentrations without being harmful to the macrophages. We conclude that at a specific dose, AuNPs coated with AiiA can kill bacteria without harming the host cells, thus representing a potential template for the design of novel antibiofilm and antibacterial protein drugs to decrease bacterial colonization and to overcome the problem of drug resistance. In summary, our data suggest that the combined effect of the lactonase and the gold nanoparticles of the AiiA AuNPs has promising antibiofilm activity against biofilm-forming and multidrug-resistant Proteus species. PMID:25403677

Vinoj, Gopalakrishnan; Pati, Rashmirekha; Sonawane, Avinash; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

2015-02-01

333

Oxidation of substituted phenols by Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6.  

PubMed Central

The biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida involves the initial conversion of the parent molecules to cis-dihydrodiols by dioxygenase enzyme systems. The cis-dihydrodiols are then converted to the corresponding catechols by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 uses a similar system for growth on toluene or dichlorobenzenes. We tested the wild-type organisms and a series of mutants for their ability to transform substituted phenols after induction with toluene. When grown on toluene, both wild-type organisms converted methyl-, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols. Mutant strains deficient in dihydrodiol dehydrogenase or catechol oxygenase activities also transformed the phenols. Oxidation of phenols was closely correlated with the induction and activity of the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system. PMID:3415220

Spain, J C; Gibson, D T

1988-01-01

334

The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Regulates rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses intercellular signals to control the density-depen- dent expression of many virulence factors. The las and rhl quorum-sensing systems function, respectively, through the autoinducers N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4- HSL), which are known to positively regulate the transcription of the elastase-encoding gene, lasB. Recently, we reported that a second type of intercellular signal is

SUSAN L. MCKNIGHT; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI; EVERETT C. PESCI

2000-01-01

335

Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.  

PubMed

Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria. PMID:25014900

Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

2015-02-01

336

Topical antibiotic therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.  

PubMed

The in vivo antibacterial effectiveness in the rabbit cornea of several commercially available ophthalmic antibiotic preparations was determined against a single strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a human corneal ulcer. Each antibiotic was instilled topically at hourly intervals, and the number of residual viable organisms in the cornea subsequently was ascertained. In vivo measurements correlated well with in vitro data and with generally held clinical impressions. Three antibiotics, gentamicin sulfate, polymyxin B sulfate, and colistin sulfate, suppressed corneal growth of P aeruginosa in commercially available concentrations. Gentamicin was slightly more effective than polymyxin B; both drugs were substantially more effective than colistin. Formulations of gentamicin and polymyxin B containing approximately four times the quantity of drug found in commercial preparations eliminated this P aeruginosa strain from the cornea much more rapidly than did the commercial preparations. PMID:224848

Kupferman, A; Leibowitz, H M

1979-09-01

337

Primary Alcohol Sulfatase in a Pseudomonas Species  

PubMed Central

An ammonium sulfate-precipitated fraction from cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas C12B grown on a medium containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contained alkyl sulfatase increased fourfold in specific activity over the crude. Optimal pH (7.5) and temperature (70 C) for sulfate release were determined with SDS labeled with radioactive sulfur (SDS35) as test substrate. Phosphate, arsenate, and certain heavy metal ions inhibited desulfation, whereas Mg++ and Mn++ stimulated activity of preparations which had been dialyzed against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Dodecanol was recovered in semiquantitative yield from reaction mixtures containing enzyme and SDS35. Aryl sulfates, secondary alcohol sulfates, and a phenoxyethyl sulfate failed to serve as substrate for this enzyme. PMID:5867650

Payne, W. J.; Williams, Joy P.; Mayberry, W. R.

1965-01-01

338

[Denitrogenation of petroleum by a Pseudomonas sp].  

PubMed

Biodenitrogenation of petroleum oil was investigated by a previously isolated carbazole-degrader Pseudomonas sp. XLDN4-9. In a tetradecane-aqueous phase system, biodegradation of carbazole was enhanced by the presence of n-tetradecane. And strain XLDN4-9 was capable of absorbing 95.2% of 2 g/L carbazole dissolved in diesel within 15 hours. Significant denitrogentation of crude oil, diesel and lubricanting oil was detected by strain XLDN4-9. Removal of carbazole, methylcarbazole, and dimethylcarbazole in diesel was confirmed by using GC-MS. After 3 days, 99% of carbazole and 15% of dimethyl carbazole was degraded. And the removal rate of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-methyl carbazole was determined to be 63.4%, 87.6%, 78.4%, and 66.5% respectively. PMID:18807996

Li, Li; Xu, Ping; Shi, Quan

2008-06-01

339

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and fluoroquinolone use.  

PubMed

Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluated the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured fluoroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between a hospital's volume of fluoroquinolone use and percent resistance in most individual study years (1999-2001 for P. aeruginosa, 1999-2002 for S. aureus). When the method of generalized estimating equations was used, a population-averaged longitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrelation) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use on percent resistance for most drug-organism combinations, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use and percent MRSA. The ecologic relationship between fluoroquinolone use and resistance is complex and requires further study. PMID:16102307

MacDougall, Conan; Harpe, Spencer E; Powell, J Patrick; Johnson, Christopher K; Edmond, Michael B; Polk, Ron E

2005-08-01

340

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate typing by esterase electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Esterase electrophoretic typing was used to classify clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One hundred and twenty-seven P. aeruginosa strains belonging to 16 serotypes (including 16 non-typeable strains) and isolated from diverse human infections in three hospitals, and the type strain ATCC 10 145, were tested. Four main kinds of esterase and 4 additional esterases were distinguished by their spectra of hydrolytic activity toward synthetic substrates and by their sensitivity or resistance to di-isopropyl fluorophosphate. The electrophoretic variations of these enzymes were used to define 42 zymotypes. Electrophoretic typing of esterase appeared to be more sensitive than serotyping and the results of the two methods did not correlate. When the two typing methods were used in parallel, 78 different combinations of serotype and zymotype were obtained. PMID:1904043

Goullet, P; Picard, B

1991-03-01

341

Comparative transcriptome analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

One of the hallmarks of bacterial survival is their ability to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Niche adaptation is a response to the signals received that are relayed, often to regulators that modulate gene expression. In the post-genomic era, DNA microarrays are used to study the dynamics of gene expression on a global scale. Numerous studies have used Pseudomonas aeruginosa--a Gram-negative environmental and opportunistic human pathogenic bacterium--as the model organism in whole-genome transcriptome analysis. This paper reviews the transcriptome studies that have led to immense advances in our understanding of the biology of this intractable human pathogen. Comparative analysis of 23 P. aeruginosa transcriptome studies has led to the identification of a unique set of genes that are signal specific and a core set that is differentially regulated. The 303 genes in the core set are involved in bacterial homeostasis, making them attractive therapeutic targets. PMID:19706365

2009-01-01

342

Transport of Octanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans  

PubMed Central

The properties of a system for octanoate transport in Pseudomonas oleovarans are described. Transport is inducible and energy dependent, shows saturation kinetics, and concentrates against a gradient. Optimal transport is at pH 6.0 and 28 C. Apparent Km and Vmax values are, respectively, 7.0 ?M octanoate and 0.68 nmol of octanoate transported per min per mg (dry mass) of cells. Fatty acids from C7 to C12 are competitive inhibitors, whereas alkanes, alkenes, and esters of the same carbon chain lengths show no inhibition. The Ki values for heptanoate, nonanoate, decanoate, undecanoate, and dodecanoate are 17, 3.4, 3.2, 1.2, and 2.4 ?M, respectively. The molecular specificity of this transport system is a linear hydrocarbon chain of no less than 6 to at least 11 carbon atoms and a carboxyl group. PMID:4745429

Toscano, William A.; Hartline, Richard A.

1973-01-01

343

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with "Pseudomonas reactans," producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

Ghequire, Maarten G K; Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman; De Mot, René

2013-01-01

344

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with “Pseudomonas reactans,” producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman

2013-01-01

345

Hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis mice to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa oropharyngeal  

E-print Network

Hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis mice to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa oropharyngeal 02115 Contributed by Frederick M. Ausubel, December 24, 2002 No transgenic cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse lung disease. Cystic fibrosis (CF), a common and devastating human genetic disease, is caused

Ausubel, Frederick M.

346

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium, is known to produce vitamin B12 under aerobic conditions. This paper reports the annotated whole-genome sequence of the circular chromosome of this organism. PMID:23723394

Ainala, Satish Kumar; Somasundar, Ashok

2013-01-01

347

Circulating soluble immune complexes containing pseudomonas antigens in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate whether circulating immune complexes containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa antigens mediate pulmonary damage in cystic fibrosis, we studied lung function, serum immune complex levels, and immunoglobulin concentrations in relationship to chronic pseudomonas colonisation in 69 affected children. Sixteen of the children with cystic fibrosis had increased levels of immune complexes which contained pseudomonas antigens. There was no significant relationship between lung function corrected for the effect of chronic pseudomonas colonisation and the presence of such complexes or increased levels of complexes detected by Cl1 binding or raised serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Our results suggest that these abnormalities in cystic fibrosis are secondary effects of chronic infection and they do not provide evidence for immune complex mediated lung damage in this disease. PMID:6810763

Pitcher-Wilmott, R W; Levinsky, R J; Matthew, D J

1982-01-01

348

Zearalenone degradation by two Pseudomonas strains from soil.  

PubMed

This study describes the screening of soil bacteria for their capability to degrade zearalenone (ZEN), employing an enrichment technique in which ZEN is used as the sole carbon source. Two isolates that were able to degrade ZEN belonged to the genus Pseudomonas according to biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence and were named as Pseudomonas alcaliphila TH-C1 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida TH-L1, respectively. The results showed that the degradation rates of P. alcaliphila TH-C1 and P. plecoglossicida TH-L1 for ZEN (2 ?g/ml) were 68?±?0.85 % and 57?±?0.73%, when incubated for 72 h at 30 °C in a rotary shaker (160 rpm) and detected by high-performance liquid chromatograms (HPLC). These results suggest that the two Pseudomonas strains are new bacterial resource for degrading ZEN and can provide a new approach for the detoxification of ZEN. PMID:24879510

Tan, Hui; Hu, Yanchun; He, Jie; Wu, Lei; Liao, Fei; Luo, Biao; He, Yajun; Zuo, Zhicai; Ren, Zhihua; Zhong, Zhijun; Peng, Guangneng; Deng, Junliang

2014-11-01

349

UTILIZATION OF FLUORANTHENE BY PSEUDOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS STRAIN EPA505  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, was previously purified from a 7-membered bacterial community originally isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil for its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote. The unique ability of this organism...

350

[Etiology of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary pathogens].  

PubMed

With the objective of knowing the common etiological agents in urinary infection and comparing its antimicrobial susceptibility in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we analyse all the urine bacteriological exams from the Serviço de Patologia Clínica do Centro Hospitalar do Nordeste, EPE - Unidade Hospitalar de Bragança, during a two years period (April 2004 to March 2006). During this period, 4018 urine bacteriological exams were made. The cultural exam was positive in 572 samples (144 from nosocomial infections and 428 from community-acquired urinary infections). The Escherichia coli was the more isolated strain (68,4 %), followed by Klebsiella spp (7,9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6,1%) and Proteus mirabilis (5,2%). Concerning to antimicrobial susceptibility, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp showed a high resistance to the antimicrobials Amoxicillin, Piperacillin, Cephalothin, Ceftazidim and Quinolones. For Enterobacteriaceae Imipenem, Amikacin and Netilmicin were the antimicrobials with more level of susceptibility. Imipenem and Amikacin were the more efficient antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Concerning to the susceptibility for the same etiological agent, in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we founded statistical significant differences in the antimicrobials Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid and Collistin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in the group of antimicrobials from Quinolones for the Proteus mirabilis. In the other identified agents there were no statistical significant differences for antimicrobials. This study it allows making use of data necessary for the knowledge of etiologic urinary infection agents in Bragança and provides the information about the antimicrobials resistance, which were necessary to initiate an adequate empirical treatment and to elaborate treatment guides. PMID:18331698

Correia, Carlos; Costa, Elísio; Peres, António; Alves, Madalena; Pombo, Graça; Estevinho, Letícia

2007-01-01

351

Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the phyllosphere of grasses; Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov., Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses, were analysed by a polyphasic approach in order to clarify their interspecific position. Classification on the basis of ribotyping revealed six genotypes; four of these, which could be differentiated clearly from each other and from Pseudomonas species with validly published names on the basis of phenotypic features, were chosen for detailed phylogenetic analysis. DNA-DNA hybridization studies among representative strains of the four genotypes and closely related Pseudomonas species, determined by comparison of 16S rDNA sequences, showed that three of the studied ribotypes represented novel species. Two of them were related to mainly saprophytic fluorescent pseudomonads and could be easily distinguished by a negative arginine dihydrolase reaction. One ribotype, also characterized by a negative arginine dihydrolase reaction, was closely related to potentially plant-pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads and differed in certain phenotypic features from its phylogenetic neighbours. As a consequence of the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov. (type strain: P 513/19(T)=DSM 14937(T)=LMG 21464(T)), Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. (type strain: P 527/13(T)=DSM 14936(T)=LMG 21465(T)) and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov. (type strain: P 538/23(T)=DSM 14939(T)=LMG 21466(T)) are proposed. PMID:13130034

Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Schumann, Peter

2003-09-01

352

Propachlor and alachlor degradation by immobilized and suspended Pseudomonas cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil isolated Pseudomonas strain PEM1 has the ability to degrade propachlor (2-C1-N- isopropylacetanilide) and alachlor (2-Cl-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)N-methoxymethyl-acetamida). These cells were immobilized by adsorption onto ceramic support. Kinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear parameter estimation methods and compared between immobilized and suspended Pseudomonas PEM1. The effect of inoculum\\/support ratio on kinetic parameters was investigated. Implications of these results for developing an

E. Ferrer; J. Blanco; R. Alonso; M. Martín

1996-01-01

353

Detection of siderophores in growing cultures of Pseudomonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The siderophores produced byPseudomonas fluorescens andP. chlororaphis were detected from the culture supernatants in MM9 and modified King's medium by the universal CAS assay at wavelengths 620–690 nm. The CAS assay was applied to detectPseudomonas siderophores directly in situ, during their production phase, in modified King's medium. Optimum results were detected with a final CAS concentration of 0.025 mM

L. Raaska; L. Viikari; T. Mattila-Sandholm

1993-01-01

354

Bioactive substances produced by marine isolates of Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas is a genus of non-fermentative gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found both on land and in the water. Many terrestrial isolates of this genus have been studied extensively. While many produce\\u000a bioactive substances, enzymes, and biosurfactants, other Pseudomonas isolates are used for biological control of plant diseases and bioremediation. In contrast, only a few marine isolates of\\u000a this genus have been described

Alim Isnansetyo; Yuto Kamei

2009-01-01

355

40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

2010-07-01

356

40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

2014-07-01

357

40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

2011-07-01

358

40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

2013-07-01

359

40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25...

2012-07-01

360

Biodegradation of Phthalate Isomers by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PP4, Pseudomonas sp. PPD and Acinetobacter lwoffii ISP4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PP4, Pseudomonas sp. PPD and Acinetobacter lwoffii ISP4 capable of utilizing phthalate isomers were isolated from the soil using enrichment culture technique. The strain ISP4 metabolizes isophthalate, while PPD and PP4 utilizes all three phthalate isomers (ortho-, iso- and tere-) as the sole carbon source. ISP4 utilizes isophthalate (0.1%) more rapidly (doubling time, 0.9 h) compared to PPD (4.64 h),

C. Vamsee-Krishna; Y. Mohan; P. S. Phale

2006-01-01

361

Solubility and Bioactivity of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Are Increased by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Produced Surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that causes serious infections in immunocompromised individuals and cystic fibrosis patients. This opportunistic pathogen controls many of its virulence factors and cellular functions through the activity of three cell-to-cell signals, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone, and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). The activity of these signals is dependent upon their ability to dissolve in and

M. Worth Calfee; John G. Shelton; James A. McCubrey; Everett C. Pesci

2005-01-01

362

Rapid identification of bacteria using an umbelliferone fluorescent assay  

E-print Network

aggl omerans KF Serratia liquefaciens KF Serratia marcescens ATCC Serratia marcescens KF Proteus vulgaris ATCC Proteus mirabilis KF Provid encia rettgeri KF Salmonella typhimur i um ATCC Salmonella typhimuri um KF Salmonella cholerae-suis LM.... P. S. S. S. S. S. S, C. C. col i col i. sonnei sonnei boyd ii tarda pneumoniae pneumoniae cloacae aerogenes3 aero~enes i. d. 1 ique faciens marcescens marcescens vulgaris mirabilis rettgeri spp5 spp cholerae-suis gall...

Chamblin, Richard Thomas

2012-06-07

363

Genome sequence of Pseudomonas mendocina DLHK, isolated from a biotrickling reactor.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas mendocina DLHK is an aerobic bacterium isolated from a biotrickling reactor which can remove nitric oxide, a common air pollutant from combustion exhaust gas. Here, we present the draft genome of Pseudomonas mendocina DLHK. PMID:23105066

Wong, Chi Fat; Niu, Hejingying; Jiang, Jingwei; Li, Jun; Chan, Charis May Ngor; Leung, Dennis Yiu Cheong; Leung, Frederick Chi Ching

2012-11-01

364

MEASURING THE DISPERSAL AND REENTRAINMENT OF RECOMBINANT PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE AT CALIFORNIA TEST SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The dispersal of genetically engineered Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens was investigated during and after spray applications onto plants at Brentwood and Tulelake, California. ive different sampling devices were used to evaluate the dispersal within and around te...

365

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm: potential therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen that has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. It is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteremia. The biofilm formed by the bacteria allows it to adhere to any surface, living or non-living and thus Pseudomonal infections can involve any part of the body. Further, the adaptive and genetic changes of the micro-organisms within the biofilm make them resistant to all known antimicrobial agents making the Pseudomonal infections complicated and life threatening. Pel, Psl and Alg operons present in P. aeruginosa are responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide which plays an important role in cell-cell and cell-surface interactions during biofilm formation. Understanding the bacterial virulence which depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors is essential to know the potential drug targets for future studies. Current novel methods like small molecule based inhibitors, phytochemicals, bacteriophage therapy, photodynamic therapy, antimicrobial peptides, monoclonal antibodies and nanoparticles to curtail the biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa are being discussed in this review. PMID:24309094

Sharma, Garima; Rao, Saloni; Bansal, Ankiti; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, Sanjay; Gabrani, Reema

2014-01-01

366

The metabolism of thymol by a Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

1. Pseudomonas putida when grown with thymol contained a meta-fission dioxygenase, which required ferrous ions and readily cleaved the benzene nucleus of catechols between adjacent carbon atoms bearing hydroxyl and isopropyl groups. 2. 3-Hydroxythymo-1,4-quinone was excreted towards the end of exponential growth and later was slowly metabolized. This compound was oxidized by partially purified extracts only when NADH was supplied; the substrate for the dioxygenase appeared to be 3-hydroxythymo-1,4-quinol, which was readily and non-enzymically oxidized to the quinone. 3. 2-Oxobutyrate (0·9 mole) was formed from 1 mole of 3-hydroxythymo-1,4-quinone with the consumption of 1 mole of oxygen; acetate, isobutyrate and 2-hydroxybutyrate (which arose from the enzymic reduction of 2-oxobutyrate) were also formed. 4. These products, which were produced only when the catechol substrate contained a third hydroxyl group, appeared to result from the enzymic hydrolysis of the ring-fission product. PMID:4303067

Chamberlain, Enid M.; Dagley, S.

1968-01-01

367

Degradation of Acetonitrile by Pseudomonas putida  

PubMed Central

A bacterium capable of utilizing high concentrations of acetonitrile as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterium could also utilize butyronitrile, glutaronitrile, isobutyronitrile, methacrylonitrile, propionitrile, succinonitrile, valeronitrile, and some of their corresponding amides, such as acetamide, butyramide, isobutyramide, methacrylamide, propionamide, and succinamide as growth substrates. Acetonitrile-grown cells oxidized acetonitrile with a Km of 40.61 mM. Mass balance studies with [14C]acetonitrile indicated that nearly 66% of carbon of acetonitrile was released as 14CO2 and 14% was associated with the biomass. Metabolites of acetonitrile in the culture medium were acetic acid and ammonia. The acetate formed in the early stages of growth completely disappeared in the later stages. Cell extracts of acetonitrile-grown cells contained activities corresponding to nitrile hydratase and amidase, which mediate the breakdown of actonitrile into acetic acid and ammonia. Both enzymes were intracellular and inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates. The specific activity of amidase was at least 150-fold higher than the activity of the enzyme nitrile hydratase. PMID:16348008

Nawaz, Mohamed S.; Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Wolfram, James H.

1989-01-01

368

Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K.; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Collins, Cynthia H.

2013-01-01

369

Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor  

PubMed Central

Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

2014-01-01

370

Extracellular Enzyme Secretion by Pseudomonas lemoignei  

PubMed Central

The ability of succinate to repress the secretion of Pseudomonas lemoignei poly-?-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was a function of pH. Repression only occurred when the pH of the medium was 7.0 or less. At a higher pH, lack of sensitivity to succinate concentration may have been due to a limited ability to transport succinate. Actively secreting cultures (at pH 7.4) continued to secrete enzyme for approximately 30 min after the pH was rapidly decreased to pH 6.8, even though sufficient succinate was present to repress enzyme synthesis. Similarly, after the addition of rifampin to secreting cultures, there was a 30-min delay before secretion was inhibited. Evidence is presented which suggests that continued secretion may be the result of depolymerase messenger ribonucleic acid accumulation within the cells. Studies with chloramphenicol indicated that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for the secretion of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase and that exoenzyme is not released from a preformed pool. Studies with various inhibitors of protein synthesis indicated that synthesis of exoenzyme is 5 to 10 times more susceptible to inhibition than is the synthesis of cell-associated proteins. PMID:4152045

Stinson, M. W.; Merrick, J. M.

1974-01-01

371

Degradation of nitrobenzene by a Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.  

PubMed Central

A Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes able to use nitrobenzene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy was isolated from soil and groundwater contaminated with nitrobenzene. The range of aromatic substrates able to support growth was limited to nitrobenzene, hydroxylaminobenzene, and 2-aminophenol. Washed suspensions of nitrobenzene-grown cells removed nitrobenzene from culture fluids with the concomitant release of ammonia. Nitrobenzene, nitrosobenzene, hydroxylaminobenzene, and 2-aminophenol stimulated oxygen uptake in resting cells and in extracts of nitrobenzene-grown cells. Under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, crude extracts converted nitrobenzene to 2-aminophenol with oxidation of 2 mol of NADPH. Ring cleavage, which required ferrous iron, produced a transient yellow product with a maximum A380. In the presence of NAD, the product disappeared and NADH was produced. In the absence of NAD, the ring fission product was spontaneously converted to picolinic acid, which was not further metabolized. These results indicate that the catabolic pathway involves the reduction of nitrobenzene to nitrosobenzene and then to hydroxylaminobenzene; each of these steps requires 1 mol of NADPH. An enzyme-mediated Bamberger-like rearrangement converts hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol, which then undergoes meta ring cleavage to 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. The mechanism for release of ammonia and subsequent metabolism are under investigation. PMID:8368838

Nishino, S F; Spain, J C

1993-01-01

372

Pseudomonas infection in antibody deficient patients  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is commonly isolated from the respiratory secretions of antibody deficiency patients, but the significance of this has not been well studied. We have reviewed our adult antibody deficiency cohort of 179 patients and assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PA infection and the effects of early antibiotic eradication treatments. Of the 34 patients with PA, 55.9% (19) underwent successful eradication and were infection-free, 38.2% (13) had intermittent infection, and 5.9% (2) had chronic PA. PA infection was significantly associated with bronchiectasis (p < 0.0001), with 36.1% (22 out of 61) of patients with bronchiectasis developing a PA infection. Infection status was also significantly associated with chronic sinusitis (p < 0.0001). Most treated PA exacerbations were symptomatic and with colony counts of ?1000 cfu/ml. Current eradication protocols used at our center involve early treatment at first positive isolate with ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks and nebulized colomycin for 3 months, and if eradication fails, intravenous ceftazidime and gentamycin or colomycin is administered for 2 weeks. Continued sputum surveillance and early eradication treatments upon positive PA culture may help to limit chronic PA infection in antibody deficiency patients.

Duraisingham, Sai S.; Hanson, Steven; Buckland, Matthew; Grigoriadou, Sofia

2014-01-01

373

Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor.  

PubMed

Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

2014-12-01

374

Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Most nitriles are health hazard materials. It has been reported that shale oil contains high concentrations of nitriles. Disposal of effluents containing nitriles is therefore of concern. A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase.

Nawaz, M.S.; Davis, J.W.; Chapatwala, K.D. [Selma Univ., AL (United States); Wolfram, J.H. [EG& G, Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-12-31

375

Surface attachment induces Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects every type of host that has been examined by deploying multiple virulence factors. Previous studies of virulence regulation have largely focused on chemical cues, but P. aeruginosa may also respond to mechanical cues. Using a rapid imaging-based virulence assay, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa activates virulence in response to attachment to a range of chemically distinct surfaces, suggesting that this bacterial species responds to mechanical properties of its substrates. Surface-activated virulence requires quorum sensing, but activating quorum sensing does not induce virulence without surface attachment. The activation of virulence by surfaces also requires the surface-exposed protein PilY1, which has a domain homologous to a eukaryotic mechanosensor. Specific mutation of the putative PilY1 mechanosensory domain is sufficient to induce virulence in non-surface-attached cells, suggesting that PilY1 mediates surface mechanotransduction. Triggering virulence only when cells are both at high density and attached to a surface—two host-nonspecific cues—explains how P. aeruginosa precisely regulates virulence while maintaining broad host specificity. PMID:25385640

Siryaporn, Albert; Kuchma, Sherry L; O'Toole, George A; Gitai, Zemer

2014-11-25

376

Shear-enhanced adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the development of surface-associated communities known as biofilms, which are the cause of many problems in medical devices and industrial water systems. However the underlying mechanisms of initial bacterial attachment are not fully understood. We have investigated the effects of hydrodynamics on the probability of adsorption and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 on model surfaces under flow, in straight microfluidic channels, and measured the distribution of bacteria residence time as a function of the shear rate. Our main discovery is a counter-intuitive enhanced adhesion as the shear stress is increased over a wide range of shear rates. In order to identify the origin of this phenomenon, we have performed experiments with several mutant strains. Our results show that shear-enhanced adhesion is not regulated by primary surface organelles, and that this process is not specific to a certain type of surface, but rather appears a general feature of the adhesive behavior of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that shear-induced adhesion could be a very widespread strategy in nature.

Lecuyer, Sigolene; Rusconi, Roberto; Shen, Yi; Forsyth, Alison; Stone, Howard

2010-03-01

377

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 gene collection.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common inhabitant of soil and water, is an opportunistic pathogen of growing clinical relevance. Its genome, one of the largest among bacteria [5570 open reading frames (ORFs)] approaches that of simple eukaryotes. We have constructed a comprehensive gene collection for this organism utilizing the annotated genome of P. aeruginosa PA01 and a highly automated and laboratory information management system (LIMS)-supported production line. All the individual ORFs have been successfully PCR-amplified and cloned into a recombination-based cloning system. We have isolated and archived four independent isolates of each individual ORF. Full sequence analysis of the first isolate for one-third of the ORFs in the collection has been completed. We used two sets of genes from this repository for high-throughput expression and purification of recombinant proteins in different systems. The purified proteins have been used to set up biochemical and immunological assays directed towards characterization of histidine kinases and identification of bacterial proteins involved in the immune response of cystic fibrosis patients. This gene repository provides a powerful tool for proteome- and genome-scale research of this organism, and the strategies adopted to generate this repository serve as a model for building clone sets for other bacteria. PMID:15489342

Labaer, Joshua; Qiu, Qingqing; Anumanthan, Anukanth; Mar, Wenhong; Zuo, Dongmei; Murthy, T V S; Taycher, Helen; Halleck, Allison; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Lory, Stephen; Brizuela, Leonardo

2004-10-01

378

Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control.  

PubMed

Genus Pseudomonas includes a large number of species that can be encountered in biotechnological processes as well as in the role of serious human or plant pathogens. Pseudomonads easily form biofilms on various types of surfaces. The biofilm phenotype is characterized by an increased resistance to environmental influences including resistance to antibiotics and other disinfectants, causing a number of problems in health care, food industry, and other areas. Considerable attention is therefore paid to the possibilities of eradication/destruction of pseudomonads biofilms both in terms of understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation and at the level of finding suitable antibiofilm tools applicable in practice. The first part of this review is devoted to an overview of the regulatory mechanisms that are directly or indirectly involved in the formation of biofilm. The most effective approaches to suppressing the formation of biofilm that do not cause the development of resistance are based on the application of substances that interfere with the regulatory molecules or block the appropriate regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm development by the cells. Pseudomonads biofilm formation is, similar to other microorganisms, a sophisticated process with many regulatory elements. The suppression of this process therefore also requires multiple antibiofilm tools. PMID:24754832

Masák, Jan; ?ejková, Alena; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Tomáš

2014-07-01

379

Oxidative stress response in Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas putida is widely distributed in nature and is capable of degrading various organic compounds due to its high metabolic versatility. The survival capacity of P. putida stems from its frequent exposure to various endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses. Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of interactions with various reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing agents existing in various niches. ROS could facilitate the evolution of bacteria by mutating genomes. Aerobic bacteria maintain defense mechanisms against oxidative stress throughout their evolution. To overcome the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, P. putida has developed defensive cellular systems involving induction of stress-sensing proteins and detoxification enzymes as well as regulation of oxidative stress response networks. Genetic responses to oxidative stress in P. putida differ markedly from those observed in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Two major redox-sensing transcriptional regulators, SoxR and OxyR, are present and functional in the genome of P. putida. However, the novel regulators FinR and HexR control many genes belonging to the E. coli SoxR regulon. Oxidative stress can be generated by exposure to antibiotics, and iron homeostasis in P. putida is crucial for bacterial cell survival during treatment with antibiotics. This review highlights and summarizes current knowledge of oxidative stress in P. putida, as a model soil bacterium, together with recent studies from molecular genetics perspectives. PMID:24957251

Kim, Jisun; Park, Woojun

2014-08-01

380

Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:24214409

De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

2013-01-01

381

Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

2013-01-01

382

Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment.

Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

383

Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.  

PubMed

One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria. PMID:25535873

Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

2015-01-01

384

Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov., isolated from a bird's nest.  

PubMed

Strain 78-123T was isolated from a sample of a bird's nest situated on the bank of Qiongtailan River in the region of Tuomuer Peak of Tianshan Mountain in the Xin-jiang Uygur Autonomous Region in north-western China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain 78-123T was related to members of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain 78-123T and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411T, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JCM 5968T and Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21T was 97.1, 97.4 and 97.5 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(12 : 0). The G+C content was 60.4 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the novel species Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 78-123T (=CGMCC 1.1365T =JCM 14085T). PMID:19126738

Xin, Yu-Hua; Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Yu-Guang

2009-01-01

385

Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas celllulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain #142 ATCC 55702.

Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

386

IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudomonas spp. AS AMOEBA-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN ISOLATES OF Acanthamoeba  

PubMed Central

Acanthamoeba is a “Trojan horse” of the microbial world. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Pseudomonas as an amoeba-resistant microorganism in 12 isolates of Acanthamoeba. All isolates showed the genus Pseudomonas spp. as amoeba-resistant microorganisms. Thus, one can see that the Acanthamoeba isolates studied are hosts of Pseudomonas. PMID:25651331

Maschio, Vinicius José; Corção, Gertrudes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

2015-01-01

387

Discrimination of selected species of pathogenic bacteria using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and principal components analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method, based on Raman spectroscopy, for identification of different microorganisms involved in bacterial urinary tract infections has been proposed. Spectra were collected from different bacterial colonies (Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, and Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.), grown on culture medium (agar), using a Raman spectrometer with a fiber Raman probe (830 nm). Colonies were scraped from the agar surface and placed on an aluminum foil for Raman measurements. After preprocessing, spectra were submitted to a principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance (PCA/MD) discrimination algorithm. We found that the mean Raman spectra of different bacterial species show similar bands, and S. aureus was well characterized by strong bands related to carotenoids. PCA/MD could discriminate Gram-positive bacteria with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and Gram-negative bacteria with sensitivity ranging from 58 to 88% and specificity ranging from 87% to 99%.

de Siqueira e Oliveira, Fernanda SantAna; Giana, Hector Enrique; Silveira, Landulfo

2012-10-01

388

Role of aerobic gram-negative bacilli in endometritis after cesarean section.  

PubMed

Endometritis is considered to be a polymicrobial infection, involving aerobes, anaerobes, and genital mycoplasmas. Aerobic gram-negative rods make up 7%-25% of all genital isolates, but findings from studies in which special collection techniques were used suggest that many of these may be contaminants from the lower genital tract. Bacteremia occurs in 4%-30% of patients with endometritis, and aerobic gram-negative rods account for approximately 25% of blood isolates. Both selected therapy studies and studies of intrauterine cultures collected at surgery from patients at risk for endometritis suggest the significant role of aerobic gram-negative rods. Among them Escherichia coli is the most common isolate in both genital and blood cultures. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis rank next, followed by Enterobacter species. Pseudomonas species account for fewer than 0.6% of genital isolates. Overall, aerobic gram-negative rods are causally involved in 10%-20% of cases of endometritis following cesarean section. PMID:3909325

Gibbs, R S; Blanco, J D; Bernstein, S

1985-01-01

389

The features and aetiology of Fournier's gangrene.  

PubMed

This paper reports a clinical study of 20 cases of gangrenous ulcers of the scrotum and/or of the penis (Fournier's gangrene) and a review of previous publications. Even though found mostly in elderly male patients, the disease spares no age group and can involve the external genitalia in neonates and women as well. The disease is a necrotising fasciitis of infective origin and always has a portal of entry of the infecting organisms even though it may be so trivial as to be undetected. The commonest portals of entry of infection are periurethral sepsis, groin wound sepsis, anorectal sepsis, prostatic sepsis and trauma. The infecting organisms comprise both aerobic and anaerobic organisms such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, enterococci, Bacteroides fragilis and anaerobic streptococcus. Fournier's gangrene is probably the same disease as necrotizing fasciitis occurring in other parts of the body, but modified by the peculiar anatomy of the genitoperineum. PMID:7937450

Efem, S E

1994-08-01

390

Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics. PMID:24262582

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

2014-04-01

391

Bactericidal properties of crude extracts of Mitracarpus villosus.  

PubMed

Mature leaves and inflorescence of Mitracarpus villosus, collected from Niger State, Nigeria, were shade dried over a period of 5 days, ground into fine particles in a Waring blender and extracted individually with hot distilled water and 95% ethanol. The crude extracts obtained were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activities using agar diffusion and tube dilution techniques. The extracts produced zones of inhibition (8-23 mm) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus faecalis, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were not inhibited. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the effective extracts were in the range 0.06-8.0 mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were in the range 0.06-32.0 mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts appeared to exert more inhibitory action against the bacteria than the hot water extracts. PMID:8046942

Irobi, O N; Daramola, S O

1994-03-01

392

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-11-01

393

Antibacterial activity of extracts and constituents of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of extracts and isolated constituents (scopoletin, umckalin, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 6,8-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, (+)-catechin, gallic acid and its methyl ester) of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme (Geraniaceae), plant species used in folk medicine by the Southern African native population, was evaluated against 8 microorganisms, including 3 Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus 1451) and 5 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied with the preparation of the extracts and microorganisms tested, from about 0.6 mg/ml for aqueous phases to over 10 mg/ml for crude Pelargonium extracts. With the exception of the ineffective (+)-catechin, all the potentially active compounds exhibited antibacterial activities with MICs of 200-1000 micrograms/ml. The results provide for a rational basis of the traditional use of the titled Pelargonium species. PMID:9434601

Kayser, O; Kolodziej, H

1997-12-01

394

Biodegradation and decolourization of anaerobically treated distillery spent wash by a novel bacterial consortium.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate microorganisms capable of decolourizing and degrading anaerobically treated distillery spent wash. A bacterial consortium DMC comprising of three bacterial cultures was selected on the basis of rapid effluent decolourization and degradation, which exhibited 67 +/- 2% decolourization within 24 h and 51 +/- 2% chemical oxygen demand reduction within 72 h when incubated at 37 degrees C under static condition in effluent supplemented with 0.5% glucose, 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), 0.05% KCl and 0.05% MgSO(4) x 7H(2)O. Addition of organic or inorganic nitrogen sources did not support decolourization. The cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Stenotrophomonas maltophila and Proteus mirabilis by the 16S rDNA analysis. PMID:16473005

Mohana, Sarayu; Desai, Chirayu; Madamwar, Datta

2007-01-01

395

Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8?%), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7?%) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4?%). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70?% DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3?%), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5?%) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8?%). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10?%) were C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?0, and C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) (?=?CGMCC 2318(T)?=?DSM 26382(T)). PMID:24021726

Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

2014-01-01

396

A Genomic Redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species  

PubMed Central

The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively. PMID:24086635

Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

397

Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful clues for the improvement and optimization of chemotherapy in order to appropriately treat pseudomonal infections while minimizing the emergence of resistance. PMID:24409175

Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

398

L-Forms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

L-forms of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced by serial subculture of the bacterial form on agar medium containing sucrose as an osmotic stabilizer and carbenicillin. L-forms eventually became stable, i.e., would not revert in the absence of antibiotic, and were adapted to grow well in broth with the osmotic stabilizer. Gross morphology and light microscopic colony morphology were typical of an L-form. L-form cells were approximately spherical and bounded in part by a plasma membrane; they lacked the triple-layer cell wall structure and coarse, electron-dense nucleoidal granules of the parent bacterial form. The L-form, but not the bacterial form, contained cores, organelles previously reported only in group D streptococci. Antibiotic disc-sensitivity studies showed the stable L-form to be as sensitive as, or more sensitive than, the bacterial form to most antibiotics. Exceptions were polymyxin B, colimycin sulfate, and gentamicin, which were more active against the bacterial form. The remainder of the aminoglycosides and cell wall-active antibiotics showed no inhibition of either form. The L-form was more susceptible to cidal activity of normal human serum than the parent form. The L-form exhibited fewer biochemical activities than the parent bacteria or bacterial forms derived by reversion at a time when the L-form was still unstable. L-form colonies appeared colorless, and chemical analysis demonstrated that, if the L-form produces pigment at all, which was not demonstrated, it could not have been more than 3.6% of that produced by the bacterial form. Images PMID:5005286

Hubert, Earl G.; Potter, Clarence S.; Hensley, Thomas J.; Cohen, Morris; Kalmanson, George M.; Guze, Lucien B.

1971-01-01

399

Pneumonia caused by coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and treatment of 20 hospital patients seen in the past year with proven pneumonia caused by coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are discussed. Predisposing factors and methods for improving laboratory and clinical diagnosis are analysed, the main problem being to discriminate between genuine pneumonia caused by these organisms and mere contamination of sputum samples resulting from colonization of the upper respiratory tract following broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Overall initial chemotherapy with gentamicin cured 75% (15 out of 20) of the patients in spite of unfavourable underlying pathology. Where gentamicin was given in adequate dosage, which in practice meant that dose which produced peak serum concentrations of 8 mug/ml or more, the cure rate was 91% (11 out of 12). In those patients achieving (measured) peak serum concentrations of less than 8 mug/ml the cure rate was only 33% (4 out of 12). These figures include four patients who failed to respond to doses of gentamicin producing peak concentrations of 5-0-6-0 mug/ml in each case. These patients responded promptly to higher doses (or accumulation), producing peak serum concentrations of 8 mug/ml or more and were then cured within three to five days. Toxicity from gentamicin was not observed in any patient. These results indicate that it is necessary to monitor gentamicin therapy by laboratory assay to ensure adequate dosage and that peak serum concentrations of 8 mug/ml or more are significantly correlated with successful treatment of pneumonia caused by coliforms and Ps. aeruginosa. PMID:824327

Noone, P; Rogers, B T

1976-01-01

400

Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.  

PubMed

Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system. PMID:21503776

Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

2011-10-01

401

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Early Childhood: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium that usually affects immunocompromised patients, causing infections whose signals and symptoms are related to the affected organ. The patient presented in this article was infected when he was 9 months old. Such condition led to certain alterations like dental improperly positioned teeth, retained deciduous teeth, hipodonty of permanent teeth, atrophy of the upper jaw and dental crowding. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to report the case of a patient affected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the early childhood and to describe the dental development disorders as consequence of this fact. PMID:24179340

dos Santos Moraes, Flávia; Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Almeida, Marta Lua Pimentel Winz; de Almeida Lima Castro, Rodolfo; Vianna, Roberto

2008-01-01

402

Late intraphagosomal hydrogen ion concentration favors the in vitro antimicrobial capacity of a 37-kilodalton cationic granule protein of human neutrophil granulocytes.  

PubMed

We described previously (W.M. Shafer, L.E. Martin, and J.K. Spitznagel, Infect. Immun. 45:29-35, 1984) the presence of a 37-kilodalton cationic antimicrobial protein (37K CAP) in extracts of granules prepared from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). In this investigation, we prepared 37K CAP from PMN granule extracts by sequential ion-exchange and molecular-sieve chromatography and examined its antimicrobial activity against a number of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml or lower, 37K CAP exerted selective antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria. These bacteria included Acinetobacter lwoffii, Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella sonnei. However, at 5 micrograms of 37K CAP per ml, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens resisted this antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal activity of 37K CAP was greatest in acidic (pH 5.5) as opposed to alkaline (pH 7.5) media. The level of S. typhimurium resistance to 37K CAP correlated with the presence of O antigen in the lipopolysaccharide. In the absence of O antigen repeat units, resistance was proportional to the length of the core oligosaccharide. These results suggest that 37K CAP may contribute significantly to the ability of PMN to kill gram-negative bacteria by nonoxidative means, particularly as the maturing phagolysosome becomes acidified. PMID:3527987

Shafer, W M; Martin, L E; Spitznagel, J K

1986-09-01

403

Bacteriophage-mediated control of a two-species biofilm formed by microorganisms causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in an in vitro urinary catheter model.  

PubMed

Microorganisms from a patient or their environment may colonize indwelling urinary catheters, forming biofilm communities on catheter surfaces and increasing patient morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effect of pretreating hydrogel-coated silicone catheters with mixtures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteriophages on the development of single- and two-species biofilms in a multiday continuous-flow in vitro model using artificial urine. Novel phages were purified from sewage, characterized, and screened for their abilities to reduce biofilm development by clinical isolates of their respective hosts. Our screening data showed that artificial urine medium (AUM) is a valid substitute for human urine for the purpose of evaluating uropathogen biofilm control by these bacteriophages. Defined phage cocktails targeting P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis were designed based on the biofilm inhibition screens. Hydrogel-coated catheters were pretreated with one or both cocktails and challenged with approximately 1 × 10(3) CFU/ml of the corresponding pathogen(s). The biofilm growth on the catheter surfaces in AUM was monitored over 72 to 96 h. Phage pretreatment reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm counts by 4 log10 CFU/cm(2) (P ? 0.01) and P. mirabilis biofilm counts by >2 log10 CFU/cm(2) (P ? 0.01) over 48 h. The presence of P. mirabilis was always associated with an increase in lumen pH from 7.5 to 9.5 and with eventual blockage of the reactor lines. The results of this study suggest that pretreatment of a hydrogel urinary catheter with a phage cocktail can significantly reduce mixed-species biofilm formation by clinically relevant bacteria. PMID:25487795

Lehman, Susan M; Donlan, Rodney M

2015-02-01

404

Influence of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal on Denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?  

PubMed Central

Denitrification is a well-studied respiratory system that is also important in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Environmental signals such as oxygen and N-oxides have been demonstrated to regulate denitrification, though how denitrification is regulated in a bacterial community remains obscure. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium that controls numerous genes through cell-to-cell signals. The bacterium possesses at least two N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals. In our previous study, these quorum-sensing signals controlled denitrification in P. aeruginosa. In addition to the AHL signals, a third cell-to-cell communication signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), has been characterized. In this study, we examined the effect of PQS on denitrification to obtain more insight into the respiratory regulation in a bacterial community. Denitrification in P. aeruginosa was repressed by PQS, which was partially mediated by PqsR and PqsE. Measuring the denitrifying enzyme activities indicated that nitrite reductase activity was increased by PQS, whereas PQS inhibited nitric oxide reductase and the nitrate-respiratory chain activities. This is the first report to demonstrate that PQS influences enzyme activities, suggesting this effect is not specific to P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, when iron was supplied to the PQS-added medium, denitrifying activity was almost restored, indicating that the iron chelating property of PQS affected denitrification. Thus, our data indicate that PQS regulates denitrification primarily through iron chelation. The PQS effect on denitrification was relevant in a condition where oxygen was limited and denitrification was induced, suggesting its role in controlling denitrification where oxygen is present. PMID:18931133

Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Kuno, Eriko; Tashiro, Yosuke; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Uchiyama, Hiroo

2008-01-01

405

Headspace analysis of volatile metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related species by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles was performed on cultures of 11 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 1 strain each of Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas maltophilia. All strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a distinctive series of odd-carbon methyl ketones, particularly 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, and 2-aminoacetophenone. The other strains failed to produce 2-aminoacetophenone. Two sulfur compounds, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide, were present in strains of P. aeruginosa and in variable amounts in other species. Butanol, 2-butanone, 1-undecene, and isopentanol were also detected in P. aeruginosa cultures. PMID:6775012

Labows, J N; McGinley, K J; Webster, G F; Leyden, J J

1980-01-01

406

Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements  

PubMed Central

Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

2014-01-01

407

Phosphate Starvation Promotes Swarming Motility and Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

We investigated the transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate-deficient (0.2 mM) conditions compared to phosphate sufficiency (1 mM). This elicited enormous transcriptional changes in genes related to phosphate acquisition, quorum sensing, chemotaxis, toxin secretion, and regulation. This dysregulation also led to increased virulence-associated phenotypes, including swarming motility and cytotoxicity. PMID:22773629

Bains, Manjeet; Fernández, Lucía

2012-01-01

408

The Biology and Biological Activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) is a disease of plants in the family Asteraceae. A distinctive characteristic of this bacterial pathogen is the symptom of apical chlorosis in infected plants, caused by the phytotoxin tagetitoxin. Strains of Pst have been isolated from several plant species ...

409

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Analyzed in a Dictyostelium discoideum Host System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that produces a variety of cell-associated and secreted virulence factors. P. aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat effectively because of the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. In this study, we analyzed whether the amoeba Dictyostelium discoi- deum can be used as a simple model system to analyze the virulence of P. aeruginosa strains.

Pierre Cosson; Laurence Zulianello; Olivier Join-Lambert; François Faurisson; Leigh Gebbie; Mohammed Benghezal; Christian van Delden; Lasta Kocjancic Curty; T. Kohler

2002-01-01

410

Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them

M. Hentzer; GAIL M. TEITZEL; GRANT J. BALZER; A. Heydorn; S. Molin; M. Givskov; MATTHEW R. PARSEK

2001-01-01

411

Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its production of secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity displayed among strains. Certain st...

412

Pseudomonas sp. Strain 273, an Aerobic ?,?-DichloroalkaneDegrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

A gram-negative, aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil; this bacterium grew in 50% (vol/vol) suspensions of 1,10-dichlorodecane (1,10-DCD) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenotypic and small-subunit ribosomal RNA characterizations identified the organism, designated strain 273, as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. After induction with 1,10-DCD, Pseudomonas sp. strain 273 released stoichiometric amounts of chloride from C5 to C12 ?,?-dichloroalkanes in the presence of oxygen. No dehalogenation occurred under anaerobic conditions. The best substrates for dehalogenation and growth were C9 to C12 chloroalkanes. The isolate also grew with nonhalogenated aliphatic compounds, and decane-grown cells dechlorinated 1,10-DCD without a lag phase. In addition, cells grown on decane dechlorinated 1,10-DCD in the presence of chloramphenicol, indicating that the 1,10-DCD-dechlorinating enzyme system was also induced by decane. Other known alkane-degrading Pseudomonas species did not grow with 1,10-DCD as a carbon source. Dechlorination of 1,10-DCD was demonstrated in cell extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 273. Cell-free activity was strictly oxygen dependent, and NADH stimulated dechlorination, whereas EDTA had an inhibitory effect. PMID:9726906

Wischnak, Catrin; Löffler, Frank E.; Li, Jieran; Urbance, John W.; Müller, Rudolf

1998-01-01

413

Theanine synthesized by immobilizing Pseudomonas nitroreducens LY in nanofibrous membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas nitroreducens LY was immobilized in nanofibers by an electrospinning process. We studied the impact of polymer concentration on the electrospinning process, and we also studied the viability of the immobilized cells and their impact factors. Furthermore, theanine was synthesized by the immobilized P. nitroreducens LY. Fibers with an average diameter of 220nm were obtained with 8% (w\\/v) polyvinyl alcohol

Bo Liu; Ping Li; Chen-Lu Zhang; Yan Wang; Yu-Sheng Zhao

2010-01-01

414

BIOGEOGRAPHY OF 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL-PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (phlD+) are biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens and play a key role in the disease suppressiveness of some soils. Considerable variation among isolates has been observed by using genomic fingerprinting techn...

415

EXPRESSION OF DEGRADATIVE GENES OF 'PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA' IN 'CAULOBACTER CRESCENTUS'  

EPA Science Inventory

The recombinant plasmid RP4-TOL was transferred into Caulobacter crescentus at a high frequency, and the plasmid was maintained for at least 50 generations. C. crescentus cells which contained RP4-TOL grew on all the aromatic compounds that the plasmid normally allowed Pseudomona...

416

PHENAZINE COMPOUNDS IN FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS SPP.: BIOSYNTHESIS AN REGULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phenazines include upward of 50 pigmented, heterocyclic nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites synthesized by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and a few other bacterial genera. The antibiotic properties of these compounds have been known for over 150 years, but advances within the...

417

Draft Genome Sequence of Rice Isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a strain isolated from rice rhizosphere, has shown antagonistic activities against a rice fungal pathogen, and could be important in defense against rice blast. We report the draft genome sequence of EA105, which is an estimated size of 6.6 Mb. PMID:25540352

McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Spence, Carla A.; Bais, Harsh P.

2014-01-01

418

Immunological cross reactions among strains of Hydrogenomonas, Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunodiffusion tests were used to determine the serological interrelationships of extracts of Hydrogenomonas eutropha and H. facilis with antisera to 19 strains of Pseudomonas, 2 Alcaligenes species and the 2 homologous antisera. The existence of 3 antigens common to H. facilis and H. eutropha was demonstrated. The 3 serologically identical antigens were also shared among some pseudomonads and Alcaligenes species.

Barbara Detrick-Hooks; E. R. Kennedy

1974-01-01

419

Mechanism of nitrite inhibition of cellular respiration in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the principal mechanisms of nitrite inhibition of cellular respiration has been considered to be the interference with the action of iron-containing enzymes. In procaryotic systems, the effect of nitrite on cellular metabolism remains unclear. This study provides evidence which shows a direct inhibition by a low concentration of nitrite on a highly purified oxidase inPseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibition

Tsanyen Yang

1985-01-01

420

Effect of temperature on antimicrobial susceptibilities of Pseudomonas maltophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a case of peritonitis caused by Pseudomonas maltophilia had occurred 20 strains of the organism were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of a variety of antibiotics determined at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. There was a significant difference in susceptibility between 30 degrees C (most resistant) and 37 degrees C (most susceptible) for aminoglycosides and polymyxin

P F Wheat; T G Winstanley; R C Spencer

1985-01-01

421

Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is known to produce six secondary metabolites, and the genomic sequence of Pf-5 revealed three additional gene clusters, which encode for the biosynthesis of unknown natural products but contain conserved sequences of genes encoding for non-ribo...

422

Biosynthesis and structural characteristics of selenium nanoparticles by Pseudomonas alcaliphila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report that selenium (Se) nanoparticles were first biosynthesized by Pseudomonas alcaliphila with a simple and eco-friendly biological method. The structural characteristics of Se nanoparticles were examined. The results showed that spherical particles appeared with diameters ranging from 50 to 500nm during incubation and Se nanorods were present after incubating in an aqueous reaction solution for 24h.

Wenjie Zhang; Zhijuan Chen; Hao Liu; Liang Zhang; Ping Gao; Daping Li

2011-01-01

423

First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt.  

PubMed

This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:25449240

Zafer, Mai Mahmoud; Amin, Mady; El Mahallawy, Hadir; Ashour, Mohammed Seif El-Din; Al Agamy, Mohamed

2014-12-01

424

A case of necrotising fasciitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but severe infection of soft-tissue associated with rapid progression, systemic toxicity and high mortality. Monomicrobial necrotising fasciitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exceptionally uncommon with only 12 cases reported in the literature. We describe a fatal case with an atypical presentation in a patient following spinal decompression for a metastasis from prostate cancer. PMID:20130324

Lota, A S; Altaf, F; Shetty, R; Courtney, S; McKenna, P; Iyer, S

2010-02-01

425

HISTOLOGY OF PATHOGENESIS OF PSEUDOMONAS SAVASTANOI ON MYRTUS COMMUNIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub widely grown in the Mediterranean region for its aro- matic leaves and medicinal uses. The bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi was recently reported to attack this shrub with characteristic symptoms of knot forma- tion on stems and branches leading, in severe cases, to their death. The pathogenesis of P. savastanoi on myrtle was

M. Temsah; L. Hanna; A. T. Saad

2007-01-01

426

Degradation of highly chlorinated PCBs by Pseudomonas strain LB400  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Congeners of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) differ in the number and position of chlorine substituents. Although PCBs are degraded, those congoners with five or more chlorines have been considered resistant to bacterial degradation. Metabolism byPseudomonas strain LB400 of PCBs representing a broad spectrum of chlorination patterns and having from two to six chlorines was investigated. Degradation of pure PCB congeners

Lawrence H. Bopp

1986-01-01

427

Freeze-substitution of gram-negative eubacteria: general cell morphology and envelope profiles.  

PubMed

Freeze-substitution was performed on strains of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Campylobacter fetus, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Aeromonas salmonicida, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, Caulobacter crescentus, and Leptothrix discophora with a substitution medium composed of 2% osmium tetroxide and 2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone. A thick periplasmic gel ranging from 10.6 to 14.3 nm in width was displayed in E. coli K-12, K30, and His 1 (a K-12 derivative containing the K30 capsule genes), P. multocida, C. fetus, P. putida, A. salmonicida, H. pleuropneumoniae, and P. mirabilis. The other bacteria possessed translucent periplasms in which a thinner peptidoglycan layer was seen. Capsular polysaccharide, evident as electron-dense fibers radiating outward perpendicular to the cell surface, was observed on E. coli K30 and His 1 and P. mirabilis cells. A more random arrangement of fibers forming a netlike structure was apparent surrounding cells of H. pleuropneumoniae. For the first time a capsule, distinct from the sheath, was observed on L. discophora. In all instances, capsular polysaccharide was visualized in the absence of stabilizing agents such as homologous antisera or ruthenium red. Other distinct envelope structures were observed external to the outer membrane including the sheath of L. discophora and the S layers of A. salmonicida A450 and C. crescentus CB15A. We believe that the freeze-substitution technique presents a more accurate image of the structural organization of these cells and that it has revealed complex ultrastructural relationships between cell envelope constituents previously difficult to visualize by more conventional means of preparation. PMID:1999383

Graham, L L; Harris, R; Villiger, W; Beveridge, T J

1991-03-01

428

Synthesis of Neoglycoconjugates Containing 4-Amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose Epitopes Corresponding to the Inner Core of Burkholderia and Proteus Lipopolysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Abstract Disaccharides that contain 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) and d-glycero-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Ko) substituted at the 8-position by 4-amino-4-deoxy-?-l-arabinopyranosyl (Ara4N) residues have been prepared. Coupling an N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate-4-azido-4-deoxy-l-arabinosylglycosyl donor to acetyl-protected allyl glycosides of Kdo and Ko afforded anomeric mixtures of disaccharide products in 74 and 90 % yield, respectively, which were separated by chromatography. Further extension of an intermediate Ara4N-(1?8)-Kdo disaccharide acceptor, which capitalized on a regioselective glycosylation with a Kdo bromide donor under Helferich conditions, afforded the branched trisaccharide ?-Kdo-(2?4)[?-l-Ara4N-(1?8)]-?-Kdo derivative. Deprotection of the protected di- and trisaccharide allyl glycosides was accomplished by TiCl4-promoted benzyl ether cleavage followed by the removal of ester groups and reduction of the azido group with thiol or Staudinger reagents, respectively. The reaction of the anomeric allyl group with 1,3-propanedithiol under radical conditions afforded the thioether-bridged spacer glycosides, which were efficiently coupled to maleimide-activated bovine serum albumin. The neoglycoconjugates serve as immunoreagents with specificity for inner core epitopes of Burkholderia and Proteus lipopolysaccharides. PMID:23136534

Blaukopf, Markus; Müller, Bernhard; Hofinger, Andreas; Kosma, Paul

2012-01-01

429

Results of a Neutronic Simulation of HTR-Proteus Core 4.2 using PEBBED and other INL Reactor Physics Tools: FY-09 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory’s deterministic neutronics analysis codes and methods were applied to the computation of the core multiplication factor of the HTR-Proteus pebble bed reactor critical facility. A combination of unit cell calculations (COMBINE-PEBDAN), 1-D discrete ordinates transport (SCAMP), and nodal diffusion calculations (PEBBED) were employed to yield keff and flux profiles. Preliminary results indicate that these tools, as currently configured and used, do not yield satisfactory estimates of keff. If control rods are not modeled, these methods can deliver much better agreement with experimental core eigenvalues which suggests that development efforts should focus on modeling control rod and other absorber regions. Under some assumptions and in 1D subcore analyses, diffusion theory agrees well with transport. This suggests that developments in specific areas can produce a viable core simulation approach. Some corrections have been identified and can be further developed, specifically: treatment of the upper void region, treatment of inter-pebble streaming, and explicit (multiscale) transport modeling of TRISO fuel particles as a first step in cross section generation. Until corrections are made that yield better agreement with experiment, conclusions from core design and burnup analyses should be regarded as qualitative and not benchmark quality.

Hans D. Gougar

2009-08-01

430

Conservation of an ATP-binding domain among recA proteins from Proteus vulgaris, erwinia carotovora, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli K-12 and B/r  

SciTech Connect

The purified RecA proteins encoded by the cloned genes from Proteus vulgaris, Erwinia carotovora, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli B/r were compared with the RecA protein from E. coli K-12. Each of the proteins hydrolyzed ATP in the presence of single-stranded DNA, and each was covalently modified with the photoaffinity ATP analog 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8N/sub 3/ATP). Two-dimensional tryptic maps of the four heterologous RecA proteins demonstrated considerable structural conservation among these bacterial genera. Moreover, when the (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/ATP-modified proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, a single peak of radioactivity was detected in each of the digests and these peptides eluted identically with the tryptic peptide T/sub 31/ of the E. coli K-12 RecA protein, which was the unique site of 8N/sub 3/ATP photolabeling. Each of the heterologous recA genes hybridized to oligonucleotide probes derived from the ATP-binding domain sequence of the E. coli K-12 gene. These last results demonstrate that the ATP-binding domain of the RecA protein has been strongly conserved for greater than 10/sup 7/ years.

Knight, K.L.; Hess, R.M.; McEntee, K.

1988-06-01

431

Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov., isolated from an electroactive biofilm, and emended description of the genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rod-shaped bacterium, motile with peritrichous flagella, designated SgZ-6(T), was isolated from an electroactive biofilm and was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1?%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) in trypticase soya broth. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes identified the isolate as a member of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SgZ-6(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to 'Pseudomonas linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 (97.5?%), followed by Pseudomonas sagittaria JCM 18195(T) (97.4?%), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) (96.6?%), P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (96.5?%) and P. alcaliphila JCM 10630(T) (96.4?%). Strain SgZ-6(T) showed the highest gyrB gene sequence similarity of 93.7?% to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 among all type strains of genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that strain SgZ-6(T) displayed 47.1 and 40.3?% relatedness to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 and P. sagittaria JCM 18195(T), respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The whole-cell fatty acids consisted mainly of summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), C16?:?0 and summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?6c and/or C18?:?1?7c). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SgZ-6(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SgZ-6(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012022(T)?=?KACC 16606(T)). An emended description of the genus Pseudomonas is also proposed. PMID:23918787

Yang, Guiqin; Han, Luchao; Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui

2013-12-01

432

Spoilage potentials and antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cheeses.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas spp. are aerobic, gram-negative bacteria that are recognized as major food spoilage microorganisms. A total of 32 (22.9%) Pseudomonas spp. from 140 homemade white cheese samples collected from the open-air public bazaar were isolated and characterized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics, the production of extracellular enzymes, slime and ?-lactamase, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cheeses. The identified isolates including Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V, and P. pseudoalcaligenes ssp. citrulli were found to produce extracellular enzymes, respectively: protease and lecithinase production (100%), and lipase activity (85.7, 42.9, 100, and 100%, and nonlipolytic, respectively). The isolates did not produce slime and had no detectable ?-lactamase activity. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested using the disk diffusion method. Pseudomonas spp. had the highest resistance to penicillin G (100%), then sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (28.1%). However, all Pseudomonas spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Multidrug-resistance patterns were not observed among these isolates. In this study, Pseudomonas spp., exhibiting spoilage features, were isolated mainly from cheeses. Isolation of this organism from processed milk highlights the need to improve the hygienic practices. All of the stages in the milk processing chain during manufacturing have to be under control to achieve the quality and safety of dairy products. PMID:22118075

Arslan, S; Eyi, A; Özdemir, F

2011-12-01

433

High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of pyoverdin siderophores differentiate among phytopathogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas Species.  

PubMed

The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two beta-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

2003-02-01

434

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity

K. McClay; S. H. Streger; R. J. Steffan

1995-01-01

435

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes.  

PubMed

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. PMID:7574658

McClay, K; Streger, S H; Steffan, R J

1995-09-01

436

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes  

SciTech Connect

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

McClay, K.; Streger, S.H.; Steffan, R.J. [Envirogen Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

437

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes.  

PubMed Central

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. PMID:7574658

McClay, K; Streger, S H; Steffan, R J

1995-01-01

438

Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas strain promoting rice growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the genus Pseudomonas have received little attention so far. In the present study, a nitrogen-fixing phytohormone-producing bacterial isolate from kallar grass (strain K1) was identified as Pseudomonas sp. by rrs (16S ribosomal RNA gene) sequence analysis. rrs identity level was high with an uncharacterized marine bacterium (99%), Pseudomonas sp. PCP2 (98%), uncultured bacteria (98%),

M. Sajjad Mirza; Samina Mehnaz; Philippe Normand; Claire Prigent-Combaret; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; René Bally; Kauser A. Malik

2006-01-01

439

Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas cellulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain {number{underscore}sign}142 ATCC 55702.

Dees, H.C.

1999-09-28

440

Biological activities of lipopolysaccharide of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxic activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei, a causative agent of melioidosis, were investigated. Compared to an enterobacterial LPS (SAE-LPS), B. pseudomallei LPS (BP-LPS) exhibited weaker pyrogenic activity in rabbits, lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized mice and murine macrophage activation, i.e. production of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide. BP-LPS, on the other hand, exhibited stronger mitogenic

Motohiro Matsuura; Kazuyoshi Kawahara; Takayuki Ezaki; masayasu Nakano

1996-01-01

441

Characterization of the Chlorate Reductase from Pseudomonas chloritidismutans  

PubMed Central

A chlorate reductase has been purified from the chlorate-reducing strain Pseudomonas chloritidismutans. Comparison with the periplasmic (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1 showed that the cytoplasmic chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reduced only chlorate and bromate. Differences were also found in N-terminal sequences, molecular weight, and subunit composition. Metal analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements showed the presence of iron and molybdenum, which are also found in other dissimilatory oxyanion reductases. PMID:12730181

Wolterink, Arthur F. W. M.; Schiltz, Emile; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

2003-01-01

442

Penetration and growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in chicken eggs  

E-print Network

positive relationship between the concentration of organisms and the proportion of eggs becoming infected. Eggs inoculated with Pseudomona3 organisms one week previous to the experiment were opened and cultures made from the shell membranes. High coeffi... dye solutions 3 gm/liter concentration. Not tested. Penetration ++++ excellent +++ good + poor - none 24 TABLE 3. - Penetration of crystal violet through egg shells dipped in ethyl alcohol and detergent solutions^- Dye 2 Solvent Treatment...

Mountney, George Joseph

1957-01-01

443

Microarray Analysis of the Osmotic Stress Response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under steady-state hyperosmotic stress conditions showed an up-regulation of genes associated with osmoprotectant synthesis, putative hydrophilins, and the type III secretion system with associated cytotoxins. A large number of regulatory genes, including several two-component systems not previously known to be influenced by osmolarity, were differentially expressed by P. aeruginosa in immediate response to hyperosmotic shock. PMID:16547062

Aspedon, Arden; Palmer, Kelli; Whiteley, Marvin

2006-01-01

444

Virulence Factors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Increase Lung Epithelial Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection frequently complicates lung injury and can be fatal in immunocompromised or debilitated individuals. Previous studies\\u000a from our laboratory indicate that elastase from P. aeruginosa increases epithelial permeability by disrupting tight junctions between epithelial cells. Because the inflammatory reaction\\u000a of the host is a prominent feature of bacterial infection, we reasoned that additional virulence factors from this

A. O. Azghani; E. J. Miller; Barry T. Peterson