Science.gov

Sample records for protocolo asistencial tras

  1. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  2. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667…

  3. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres. PMID:23530141

  4. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses with a Malaysian sample.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated. PMID:22902514

  5. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  6. Anticipated uncertainty budgets of PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques as applied to ExTRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Wolf, Peter; Uhrich, Pierre J. M.; Schaefer, W.; Nau, H.; Veillet, Christian

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Soundings, ExTRAS, was conceived jointly by the European Space Agency, ESA, and the Russian Space Agency, RSA. It is also designated the 'Hydrogen-maser in Space/Meteor-3M project'. The launch of the satellite is scheduled for early 1997. The package, to be flown on board a Russian meteorological satellite includes ultra-stable frequency and time sources, namely two active and auto-tuned hydrogen masers. Communication between the on-board hydrogen masers and the ground station clocks is effected by means of a microwave link using the modified version for time transfer of the Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment, PRARETIME, technique, and an optical link which uses the Time Transfer by Laser Link, T2L2, method. Both the PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques operate in a two-directional mode, which makes it possible to carry out accurate transmissions without precise knowledge of the satellite and station positions. Due to the exceptional quality of the on-board clocks and to the high performance of the communication techniques with the satellite, satellite clock monitoring and ground clocks synchronization are anticipated to be performed with uncertainties below 0.5 ns (1 sigma). Uncertainty budgets and related comments are presented.

  7. Satellite test of the isotropy of the one-way spe ed of light using ExTRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A test of the second postulate of special relativity, the universality of the speed of light, using the ExTRAS (Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Sounding) payload to be flown on board a Russian Meteor-3M satellite (launch date January 1997) is proposed. The propagation time of a light signal transmitted from one point to another without reflection would be measured directly by comparing the phases of two hydrogen maser clocks, one on board and one on the ground, using laser or microwave time transfer systems. An estimated uncertainty budget of the proposed measurements is given, resulting in an expected sensitivity of the experiment of delta c/c is less than 8xl0(exp -10) which would be an improvement by a factor of approximately 430 over previous direct measurements and by a factor of approximately 4 over the best indirect measurement. The proposed test would require no equipment additional to what is already planned and so is of inherently low-cost. It could be carried out by anyone having access to a laser or microwave ground station and a hydrogen maser.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of the computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children (CoTras-C) to examine cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children with developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Subjects included 29 children with developmental disabilities. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental group or control group. Experimental group subjects received computer-based cognitive rehabilitation using the CoTras-C while control group subjects received conventional cognitive rehabilitation. All subjects received 20 sessions (2 days a week for 10 weeks) of the experimental or control intervention for 30 minutes. To compare the two groups, the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in their scores after intervention. Additionally, there were significant differences in the scores between the two groups. [Conclusion] The computer-based cognitive rehabilitation with CoTras-C may be helpful in improving the recovery of cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26834318

  9. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  10. Controlador para un Reloj GPS de Referencia en el Protocolo NTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauscarriaga, F.; Bareilles, F. A.

    The synchronization between computers in a local network plays a very important role on enviroments similar to IAR. Calculations for exact time are needed before, during and after an observation. For this purpose the IAR's GNU/Linux Software Development Team implemented a driver inside NTP protocol (an internet standard for time synchronization of computers) for a GPS receiver acquired a few years ago by IAR, which did not have support in such protocol. Today our Institute has a stable and reliable time base synchronized to atomic clocks on board GPS Satellites according to computers's synchronization standard, offering precise time services to all scientific community and particularly to the University of La Plata. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Multiple Functions of Agro-Ecosystems: A Case Study of Tras-os-Montes Olive Groves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleskens, Luuk; Duarte, Filomena; Eicher, Irmgard

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctionality in agriculture has received a lot of attention the last decade from researchers and policy-makers alike, perhaps most notably evidenced by the important changes made to the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. While the concept has been embraced by environmentalists envisioning positive impulses for decoupling and a range of local…

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Pomar, María D; Suárez Gutiérrez, Alfonso; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Otero Redondo, Concepción; Herrero Moratiel, Manuel; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Burón Llamazares, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) afecta al menos a una cuarta parte de los pacientes hospitalizados, aumentando la morbimortalidad del paciente durante su hospitalización y al alta. Sin embargo, su repercusión en la actividad hospitalaria no está bien cuantificada.Objetivo: determinar el impacto de una adecuada codificación de la DRE y los procedimientos empleados para revertirla en el peso medio del hospital y otros índices hospitalarios.Material y métodos: estudio comparativo realizado en todos los pacientes subsidiarios de soporte nutricional artificial seguidos por la Unidad de Nutrición Clínica y Dietética de la Sección de Endocrinología y Nutrición (UNCyD-SEyN) del Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León durante los años 2008 y 2013. Se realizó un informe de codificación nutricional del diagnóstico, el tratamiento nutricional y la vía de acceso según la CIE-9-MC. Se comparó el peso medio depurado del hospital, el índice de estancia media ajustada (IEMA), la casuística e índice de funcionamiento previo a la codificación nutricional y tras la misma.Resultados: el peso medio depurado del hospital se incrementó tras la codificación, tanto en 2008 (+ 4,1%) como en 2013 (+1,7%) y especialmente en aquellos servicios en los que se realiza cribado nutricional (Hematología, +10,5%). El IEMA se redujo por debajo de 1 (-5,7% y -0,2% en 2008 y 2013), indicando un mejor funcionamiento, y también disminuyó el índice funcional (-5,6% y -0,4% en 2008 y 2013), lo que supondría una mayor eficiencia.Conclusión: la correcta codificación del diagnóstico y el tratamiento nutricional del paciente con desnutrición aumenta el peso medio depurado de un hospital de tercer nivel, y mejora el IEMA y el índice de funcionamiento. PMID:27019251

  13. New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, Steven; Sutter, Herbert; Johnson, Hoyt

    2013-07-01

    A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

  14. Successful endovascular treatment of transplant intrarenal artery stenosis in renal transplant recipients: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Maria; Brountzos, Elias; Loukopoulos, Ioannis; Pomoni, Maria; Antypa, Eleni; Vougas, Vasileios; Drakopoulos, Spiros

    2015-06-24

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a relatively rare complication after renal transplantation. The site of the surgical anastomosis is most commonly involved, but sites both proximal and distal to the anastomosis may occur, as well. Angioplasty is the gold standard for the treatment of the stenosis, especially for intrarenal lesions. We report two cases of intrarenal TRAS and successful management with angioplasty without stent placement. Both patients were male, 44 and 55 years old respectively, and they presented with elevated blood pressure or serum creatinine within three months after transplantation. Subsequently, they have undergone angioplasty balloon dilatation with normalization of blood pressure and serum creatinine returning to baseline level. Percutaneous transluminal balloon renal angioplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of the intrarenal TRAS. PMID:26131408

  15. Intercellular Protein Transfer from Thymocytes to Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is crucial for negative selection of self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Intercellular transfer of self-peptide-MHC complexes from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs) allows DCs to acquire TRAs, which in turn contributes to negative selection and regulatory T cell generation. However, mTECs are unlikely to express all TRAs, such as immunoglobulins generated only in B cells after somatic recombination, hyper-mutation, or class-switches. We report here that both mTECs and cortical TECs can efficiently acquire not only cell surface but also intracellular proteins from thymocytes. This reveals a previously unappreciated intercellular sharing of molecules from thymocytes to TECs, which may broaden the TRA inventory in mTECs for establishing a full spectrum of central tolerance. PMID:27022746

  16. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-10-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt-Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment. PMID:26629289

  17. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt–Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment. PMID:26629289

  18. Intercellular Protein Transfer from Thymocytes to Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is crucial for negative selection of self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Intercellular transfer of self-peptide-MHC complexes from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs) allows DCs to acquire TRAs, which in turn contributes to negative selection and regulatory T cell generation. However, mTECs are unlikely to express all TRAs, such as immunoglobulins generated only in B cells after somatic recombination, hyper-mutation, or class-switches. We report here that both mTECs and cortical TECs can efficiently acquire not only cell surface but also intracellular proteins from thymocytes. This reveals a previously unappreciated intercellular sharing of molecules from thymocytes to TECs, which may broaden the TRA inventory in mTECs for establishing a full spectrum of central tolerance. PMID:27022746

  19. Se lanza Lung-MAP, el primer estudio de medicina de precisión de Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos

    Cancer.gov

    Hoy se anunció el inicio de un estudio clínico denominado Protocolo Modelo para el Cáncer de Pulmón (Lung-MAP) en lo que constituye un esfuerzo de colaboración excepcional entre organizaciones públicas y privadas.

  20. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  1. Analysis of processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Chester, T. J.; Benson, R.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J.; Gautier, T. N.; Gillett, F. C.; Helou, G.; Houck, J.; McCallon, H.

    The general characteristics of the catalogs of point and small extended sources and sky brightness images are described. The positional and photometric accuracy of the point sources are discussed. An overview of the results of associating TRAS sources with objects appearing in other catalogs is given.

  2. Satellite description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, F. C.; Clegg, P. E.; Neugebauer, G.; Langford, D.; Pouw, A.; Irace, W.; Houck, J.

    The onboard computers and their associated software, the attitude control system, and data recording and the communication links of the infrared astronomy satellite (TRAS) are discussed. The IRAS telescope system is considered in detail. Attention is directed towards the cryogenics, thermal control, optics, focal plane assembly, and electronics associated with the telescope system.

  3. Transracial Adoption: How It Is 17 Years Later. Family Life Project: A Longitudinal Adoption Study/Phase V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroegh, Karen S.

    In 1970, as part of an effort to meet the needs of black children waiting for adoption by two-parent black families, the Chicago (Illinois) Child Care Society launched a longitudinal study of the growth, development, and family life of transracial adoptees (TRAs), or black and mixed-race children adopted by white families, and inracial adoptees…

  4. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatments for Immune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2016-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired hemorrhagic condition characterized by the accelerated clearance of platelets caused by antiplatelet autoantibodies. A platelet count in peripheral blood <100 × 109/L is the most important criterion for the diagnosis of ITP. However, the platelet count is not the sole diagnostic criterion, and the diagnosis of ITP is dependent on additional findings. ITP can be classified into three types, namely, acute, subchronic, and persistent, based on disease duration. Conventional therapy includes corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy, and watch-and-wait. Second-line treatments for ITP include immunosuppressive therapy [eg, anti-CD20 (rituximab)], with international guidelines, including rituximab as a second-line option. The most recently licensed drugs for ITP are the thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TRAs), such as romiplostim and eltrombopag. TRAs are associated with increased platelet counts and reductions in the number of bleeding events. TRAs are usually considered safe, effective treatments for patients with chronic ITP at risk of bleeding after failure of first-line therapies. Due to the high costs of TRAs, however, it is unclear if patients prefer these agents. In addition, some new agents are under development now. This manuscript summarizes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ITP. The goal of all treatment strategies for ITP is to achieve a platelet count that is associated with adequate hemostasis, rather than a normal platelet count. The decision to treat should be based on the bleeding severity, bleeding risk, activity level, likely side effects of treatment, and patient preferences. PMID:27441004

  5. Transplant renal artery stenosis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Kayler, Liise K; Zand, Martin S; Muttana, Renu; Chernyak, Victoria; DeBoccardo, Graciela O

    2015-02-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well-recognized vascular complication after kidney transplant. It occurs most frequently in the first 6 months after kidney transplant, and is one of the major causes of graft loss and premature death in transplant recipients. Renal hypoperfusion occurring in TRAS results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; patients usually present with worsening or refractory hypertension, fluid retention and often allograft dysfunction. Flash pulmonary edema can develop in patients with critical bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, and this unique clinical entity has been named Pickering Syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of TRAS can prevent allograft damage and systemic sequelae. Duplex sonography is the most commonly used screening tool, whereas angiography provides the definitive diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement can be performed during angiography if a lesion is identified, and it is generally the first-line therapy for TRAS. However, there is no randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty compared with medical therapy alone or surgical intervention. PMID:25713713

  6. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY HVI AND AFIS SPINNING RELATIONSHIP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, there were 22,638,247 Upland cotton bales classed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). USDA-AMS uses the High Volume Instrument (HVI) to class all bales for fiber length, length uniformity, micronaire, strength, color (Rd and +b), tras...

  7. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders’ nonmaterial desires, needs, and values often critically influence the success of conservation projects. These considerations are challenging to articulate and characterize, resulting in their limited uptake in management and policy. We devised an interview protocol designed to enhance understanding of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The protocol begins with discussion of ecosystem-related activities (e.g., recreation, hunting) and management and then addresses CES, prompting for values encompassing concepts identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and explored in other CES research. We piloted the protocol in Hawaii and British Columbia. In each location, we interviewed 30 individuals from diverse backgrounds. We analyzed results from the 2 locations to determine the effectiveness of the interview protocol in elucidating nonmaterial values. The qualitative and spatial components of the protocol helped characterize cultural, social, and ethical values associated with ecosystems in multiple ways. Maps and situational, or vignette-like, questions helped respondents articulate difficult-to-discuss values. Open-ended prompts allowed respondents to express a diversity of ecosystem-related values and proved sufficiently flexible for interviewees to communicate values for which the protocol did not explicitly probe. Finally, the results suggest that certain values, those mentioned frequently throughout the interview, are particularly salient for particular populations. The protocol can provide efficient, contextual, and place-based data on the importance of particular ecosystem attributes for human well-being. Qualitative data are complementary to quantitative and spatial assessments in the comprehensive representation of people's values pertaining to ecosystems, and this protocol may assist in incorporating values frequently overlooked in decision making processes. Un Protocolo para Obtener Valores No Materiales por medio de un Marco de

  8. Asiddhatva Principle in Computational Model of Aṣṭādhyāyī

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbanna, Sridhar; Varakhedi, Shrinivasa

    Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī can be thought of as an automaton to generate Sanskrit words and sentences. Aṣṭādhyāyī consists of sūtras that are organized in a systematic manner. The words are derived from the roots and affixes by the application of these sūtras that follow a well defined procedure. Therefore, Aṣṭādhyāyī is best suited for computational modeling. A computational model with conflict resolution techniques was discussed by us (Sridhar et al, 2009)[12]. In continuation with that, this paper presents, an improvised computational model of Aṣṭādhyāyī. This model is further developed based on the principle of asiddhatva. A new mathematical technique called 'filter' is introduced to comprehensively envisage all usages of asiddhatva in Aṣṭādhyāyī.

  9. Single-cell transcriptome analysis reveals coordinated ectopic gene expression patterns in medullary thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Brennecke, Philip; Reyes, Alejandro; Pinto, Sheena; Rattay, Kristin; Nguyen, Michelle; Küchler, Rita; Huber, Wolfgang; Kyewski, Bruno; Steinmetz, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is essential for self-tolerance induction and prevents autoimmunity, with each TRA being expressed in only a few mTECs. How this process is regulated in single mTECs and coordinated at the population level, such that the varied single-cell patterns add up to faithfully represent TRAs, is poorly understood. Here we used single-cell RNA-sequencing and provide evidence for numerous recurring TRA co-expression patterns, each present in only a subset of mTECs. Co-expressed genes clustered in the genome and showed enhanced chromatin accessibility. Our findings characterize TRA expression in mTECs as a coordinated process, which might involve local re-modeling of chromatin and thus ensures a comprehensive representation of the immunological self. PMID:26237553

  10. Romiplostim as early treatment of immune thrombocytopenia with severe immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Palandri, Francesca; Polverelli, Nicola; Lifrieri, Francesca; Catani, Lucia; Giannini, Maria Benedetta; Baccarani, Michele; Vianelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are the standard therapeutic approach for immune thrombocy-topenia (ITP). Their prolonged use may increase the risk of infectious complications, particularly when the patient is already at higher infectious risk. In this setting, the use of drugs with a mechanism of action alternative to immunosuppression, like thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TRAs), may find particular indication. We report the unique case of a patient with severe immunodeficiency and ITP, who experienced a serious infectious complication while on steroids treatment, and who was successfully treated with Romiplostim second-line. The present experience supports the effectiveness and safety of TRAs as early treatment of ITP patients with drug-induced immunodeficiency or with active infections. PMID:22826792

  11. Atlantic Leatherback Migratory Paths and Temporary Residence Areas

    PubMed Central

    López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Miller, Philip; Domingo, Andrés; Evans, Daniel; Kelle, Laurent; Plot, Virginie; Prosdocimi, Laura; Verhage, Sebastian; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Sea turtles are long-distance migrants with considerable behavioural plasticity in terms of migratory patterns, habitat use and foraging sites within and among populations. However, for the most widely migrating turtle, the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, studies combining data from individuals of different populations are uncommon. Such studies are however critical to better understand intra- and inter-population variability and take it into account in the implementation of conservation strategies of this critically endangered species. Here, we investigated the movements and diving behaviour of 16 Atlantic leatherback turtles from three different nesting sites and one foraging site during their post-breeding migration to assess the potential determinants of intra- and inter-population variability in migratory patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings Using satellite-derived behavioural and oceanographic data, we show that turtles used Temporary Residence Areas (TRAs) distributed all around the Atlantic Ocean: 9 in the neritic domain and 13 in the oceanic domain. These TRAs did not share a common oceanographic determinant but on the contrary were associated with mesoscale surface oceanographic features of different types (i.e., altimetric features and/or surface chlorophyll a concentration). Conversely, turtles exhibited relatively similar horizontal and vertical behaviours when in TRAs (i.e., slow swimming velocity/sinuous path/shallow dives) suggesting foraging activity in these productive regions. Migratory paths and TRAs distribution showed interesting similarities with the trajectories of passive satellite-tracked drifters, suggesting that the general dispersion pattern of adults from the nesting sites may reflect the extent of passive dispersion initially experienced by hatchlings. Conclusions/Significance Intra- and inter-population behavioural variability may therefore be linked with initial hatchling drift scenarios and be highly

  12. Recent thymic emigrants are tolerized in the absence of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Travis J; Ji, Qingyong; Fink, Pamela J

    2016-05-30

    T cell development requires a period of postthymic maturation. Why this is the case has remained a mystery, particularly given the rigors of intrathymic developmental checkpoints, successfully traversed by only ∼5% of thymocytes. We now show that the first few weeks of T cell residence in the lymphoid periphery define a period of heightened susceptibility to tolerance induction to tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), the outcome of which depends on the context in which recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) encounter antigen. After encounter with TRAs in the absence of inflammation, RTEs exhibited defects in proliferation, diminished cytokine production, elevated expression of anergy-associated genes, and diminished diabetogenicity. These properties were mirrored in vitro by enhanced RTE susceptibility to regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. In the presence of inflammation, RTEs and mature T cells were, in contrast, equally capable of inducing diabetes, proliferating, and producing cytokines. Thus, recirculating RTEs encounter TRAs during a transitional developmental stage that facilitates tolerance induction, but inflammation converts antigen-exposed, tolerance-prone RTEs into competent effector cells. PMID:27139493

  13. Fezf2 Orchestrates a Thymic Program of Self-Antigen Expression for Immune Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Takaba, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Tomofuji, Yoshihiko; Danks, Lynett; Nitta, Takeshi; Komatsu, Noriko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Self-tolerance to immune reactions is established via promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), leading to the elimination of T cells that respond to self-antigens. The transcriptional regulator Aire has been thought to be sufficient for the induction of TRAs, despite some indications that other factors may promote TRA expression in the thymus. Here, we show that the transcription factor Fezf2 directly regulates various TRA genes in mTECs independently of Aire. Mice lacking Fezf2 in mTECs displayed severe autoimmune symptoms, including the production of autoantibodies and inflammatory cell infiltration targeted to peripheral organs. These responses differed from those detected in Aire-deficient mice. Furthermore, Fezf2 expression and Aire expression are regulated by distinct signaling pathways and promote the expression of different classes of proteins. Thus, two independent factors, Fezf2 and Aire, permit the expression of TRAs in the thymus to ensure immune tolerance. PMID:26544942

  14. Promiscuous Gene Expression in the Thymus: A Matter of Epigenetics, miRNA, and More?

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Olga; Rattay, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The induction of central tolerance in the course of T cell development crucially depends on promiscuous gene expression (pGE) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). mTECs express a genome-wide variety of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), preventing the escape of autoreactive T cells to the periphery, and the development of severe autoimmunity. Most of our knowledge of how pGE is controlled comes from studies on the autoimmune regulator (Aire). Aire activates the expression of a large subset of TRAs by interacting with the general transcriptional machinery and promoting transcript elongation. However, further factors regulating Aire-independent TRAs must be at play. Recent studies demonstrated that pGE in general and the function of Aire in particular are controlled by epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge of the regulation of pGE by miRNA and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromosomal topology. PMID:25784915

  15. N-Succinimidyl guanidinomethyl iodobenzoate protein radiohalogenation agents: Influence of isomeric substitution on radiolabeling and target cell residualization

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaeyeon; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Koumarianou, Eftychia; McDougald, Darryl; Pruszynski, Marek; Osada, Takuya; Lahoutte, Tony; Lyerly, H. Kim; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-[*I]iodobenzoate ([*I]SGMIB) has shown promise for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other proteins that undergo extensive internalization after receptor binding, enhancing tumor targeting compared to direct electrophilic radioiodination. However, radiochemical yields for [131I]SGMIB synthesis are low, which we hypothesize is due to steric hindrance from the Boc-protected guanidinomethyl group ortho to the tin moiety. To overcome this, we developed the isomeric compound, N-succinimidyl 3-guanidinomethyl-5-[131I]iodobenzoate (iso-[131I]SGMIB) wherein this bulky group was moved from ortho to meta position. Methods Boc2-iso-SGMIB standard and its tin precursor, N-succinimidyl 3-((1,2-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)guanidino)methyl)-5-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (Boc2-iso-SGMTB), were synthesized using two disparate routes, and iso-[*I]SGMIB synthesized from the tin precursor. Two HER2-targeted vectors — trastuzumab (Tras) and a nanobody 5F7 (Nb) — were labeled using iso-[*I]SGMIB and [*I]SGMIB. Paired-label internalization assays in vitro with both proteins, and biodistribution in vivo with trastuzumab, labeled using the two isomeric prosthetic agents were performed. Results When the reactions were performed under identical conditions, radioiodination yields for the synthesis of Boc2-iso-[131I]SGMIB were significantly higher than those for Boc2-[131I]SGMIB (70.7 ± 2.0% vs 56.5 ± 5.5%). With both Nb and trastuzumab, conjugation efficiency also was higher with iso-[131I]SGMIB than with [131I]SGMIB (Nb, 33.1 ± 7.1% vs 28.9 ± 13.0%; Tras, 45.1 ± 4.5% vs 34.8 ± 10.3%); however, the differences were not statistically significant. Internalization assays performed on BT474 cells with 5F7 Nb indicated similar residualizing capacity over 6 h; however, at 24 h, radioactivity retained intracellularly for iso-[131I]SGMIB-Nb was lower than for [125I]SGMIB-Nb (46.4 ± 1.3% vs 56.5 ± 2.5%); similar results were

  16. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gaddikeri, Santhosh; Mitsumori, Lee; Vaidya, Sandeep; Hippe, Daniel S; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2014-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). After institutional review board approval, records of 27 patients with TRAS confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 13 patients had MRA and 14 had CTA before DSA. Two board-certified fellowship-trained radiologists, one each from interventional radiology and body imaging blindly reviewed the DSA and CTA or MRA data, respectively. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRA and CTA were estimated using 50% stenosis as the detection threshold for significant TRAS. These parameters were compared between modalities using the Fisher exact test. Bias between MRA or CTA imaging and DSA was tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two patients were excluded from the MRA group owing to susceptibility artifacts obscuring the TRAS. The correlation between MRA and DSA measurements of stenosis was r = 0.57 (95% CI:-0.02, 0.87; P = 0.052) and between CTA and DSA measurements was r = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; P = 0.015); the difference between the 2 techniques was not significant (P = 0.7). Both imaging modalities tended to underestimate the degree of stenosis when compared with DSA. MRA group (SN and SP: 56% and 100%, respectively) and CTA group (SN and SP: 81% and 67%, respectively). There were no significant differences in detection performance between modalities (P>0.3 for all measures). We did not find that either modality had any advantage over the other in terms of measuring or detecting significant stenosis. Accordingly, MRA may be preferred over CTA after positive color Doppler ultrasound screening when not contraindicated owing to lack of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast. However, susceptibility of

  17. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    La obesidad es una enfermedad muy prevalente con múltiples complicaciones crónicas que se reducen o desaparecen tras pérdidas pequeñas (5-10%) pero mantenidas de peso. Sin embargo, mantener la pérdida de peso tras el tratamiento es muy difícil, siendo uno de los mayores retos en el control de esta enfermedad. Aunque las razones que contribuyen a recuperar el peso perdido son de diversa índole, relacionadas con la respuesta biológica a la restricción calórica y con la pérdida de adherencia al tratamiento, hasta un 20% de los pacientes son capaces de mantenerlo. Las claves del éxito están relacionadas con el mantenimiento de los hábitos de vida saludable, el ejercicio físico y una ingesta calórica razonable que permita realizar una vida normal, sin pérdida de vida social. En este sentido, aprender a distinguir las opciones de comida y bebida en una sociedad donde la vida social gira en torno a la mesa en muchas ocasiones es muy importante. Revisamos en este artículo las claves para mantener el peso tras una dieta, así como el papel de las bebidas fermentadas, en especial, la cerveza, en este proceso. En conclusión, mantener el peso perdido es más difícil que perderlo. El consumo leve-moderado de bebidas fermentadas como la cerveza no se asocia con incremento del peso. PMID:27571862

  19. Broadband performance of time-reversing arrays in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim Ghazi

    Active acoustic time reversal is the process of recording the signal from a remote source with a transducer array, and then replaying the signal in a time-reversed fashion to retro-direct the replayed sound back to the remote source to form a retrofocus, in an unknown environment. Time-Reversing Arrays (TRAs) perform well in the absence of acoustic absorption losses and temporal changes in the environment when there is sufficient array aperture and high signal-to-noise ratio. Future active sonar and underwater communication systems for use in unknown shallow ocean waters may be developed from the automatic spatial and temporal focusing properties of TRAs. The performance of TRAs can be determined by four criteria: the size, the longevity and the field amplitude of the array's retrofocus, as well as the correlation of the retrofocus signal with a time-reversed version of the original signal. Four issues related to TRAs performance are investigated in this thesis: (i) the impact of noise, (ii) the influence of array and source motion, (iii) the effects of oceanic currents, and (iv) the effectiveness of blind deconvolution of the original signal via artificial time-reversal. Noise influences TRA performance twice because the array both listens and transmits. Degradation of TRA's performance caused by noise in the acoustic environment is investigated through an analytical formulation that can be reduced to an algebraic relationship for a simple noise model. Numerical experiments that illustrate this effort are also shown. Another limitation of TRA performance is the Doppler effect induced by the dynamic source-array configuration or the moving medium. Normal modes and parabolic equation simulations illustrate these influences for various oceanic waveguides and array geometry. Finally a novel blind deconvolution technique, artificial time-reversal (ATR), is developed for providing an estimate of an unknown source signal propagating in an unknown shallow oceanic

  20. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women. PMID:26153559

  1. [Innovation in pressure ulcer care: application of electrotherapy].

    PubMed

    Navarro Susana Postigo; Puerta Francisco Rivera

    2013-02-01

    Nowadays, pressure ulcers are a mayor health problem with serious consequences for the patient, directly influence by the increase of morbid-mortality and the detriment of the quality of life. Today we know that the best care for pressure ulcers is the prevention and every effort must be oriented in this direction, specially when it is estimated that almost the 95% of the pressure ulcers are preventable and a 60% of the occasions are initiated and developed in hospital. The study's objective is to promote healing of ulcers with a joint technical nursing care and the application of electric current by physiotherapist. This is a descriptive research design and intervention. The sample is composed grade IV ulcer patients who are admitted to the high level of nursing care unit in Complejo Asistencial Benito Menni (Ciempozuelos-Madrid). These patients have different associated pathologies and the study shows the process from the beginning of the ulcer until the end of treatment. The most relevant results show that the application of electric currents favors nursing techniques, promoting a better and faster cleaning, vascularization and subsequent the healing of ulcers. PMID:23527444

  2. [The weighted health care unit: a new tool for hospital budgeting].

    PubMed

    Bestard Perelló, J J; Sevilla Pérez, F; Corella Monzón, I; Elola Somoza, J

    1993-01-01

    Hospital budgets must be based on estimated workload in order to fairly distribute available financial resources. A tool to measure hospital production is need to achieve this aim. We present in this article the results of a study on hospital cost which was carried out to design a new unit for measuring intermediate hospital products: the Weighted Health Care Unit (Unidad Ponderada Asistencial: UPA). Thereafter we use multiple regression to find out structure, services and activity variables which explain the variations in expenses per UPA among 64 hospitals of INSALUD. Significant variables include: doctors per hospital bed, hospital staff (sanitary personnel except doctors plus administrative assistants) per bed, hospital size (less than 200 beds), ICU beds percentage, oncology service, UPAs per bed average length of stay. These variables, along with interactions between them, explain 91.4% of the variance of expenses per UPA. The UPA and statistical modeling allow a better understanding of hospital expenses and can be very useful in coordinating budgets to hospital activity taking into account the different characteristics of each hospital. PMID:8169037

  3. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-10-14

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method as compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.

  4. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-10-14

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method asmore » compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.« less

  5. Incidence and outcome of transplant renal artery stenosis: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Polak, W G; Jezior, D; Garcarek, J; Chudoba, P; Patrzałek, D; Boratyńska, M; Szyber, P; Klinger, M

    2006-01-01

    Since the incidence of transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) in renal allografts varies from 1% to 23%, we sought to examine its incidence, to analyze treatment options, and to ascertain its outcomes. Retrospective analysis of 793 kidney allograft recipients transplanted between 1996 and 2004 revealed an incidence of 0.9% (n = 7). Time from kidney transplantation to the first symptoms varied from 1 week to 3 years (median, 4 months). Three patients experiences refractory hypertension and six patients developed allograft dysfunction. Screening color Doppler ultrasonography showed hemodynamic changes in six patients with the definitive diagnosis confirmed by angiography in all patients. One patient with an anastomotic stenosis was treated with a surgical operation and six patients, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), with stenting in three cases. Both surgical as well as PTA treatment were successful in all but one patient, who underwent PTA alone, developed chronic renal insufficiency necessitating hemodialysis and finally lost his allograft. In the other patients all symptoms resolved after treatment and the patients are doing well with functioning allografts. Although TRAS was an uncommon complication, if recognized promptly it could be treated by surgery or PTA with a high success rate. PMID:16504683

  6. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3- δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-12-01

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3- δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. In this paper, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method as compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. The bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.

  7. [Microbiological diagnosis of emerging bacterial pathogens: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Tropheryma whipplei].

    PubMed

    Blanco, José Ramón; Jado, Isabel; Marín, Mercedes; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Portillo, Aránzazu; Anda, Pedro; Pons, Immaculada; Oteo, José Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whipplei (formerly called whippelii) are fastidious bacterial organisms, considered the causative agents of potentially severe emerging and re-emerging diseases with repercussions on public health. The recent availability of advanced molecular biology and cell culture techniques has led to the implication of many of these species in human pathologies. These issues are extensively covered in number 27 of the SEIMC microbiological procedure: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones por patógenos bacterianos emergentes: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia y Tropheryma whippelii (Microbiological diagnosis of Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whippelii infections) (2nd ed., 2007) (www.seimc.org/documentos/protocolos/microbiologia/). PMID:19100178

  8. The "Interdisciplinary Orofacial Examination Protocol for Children and Adolescents": a resource for the interdisciplinary assessment of the stomatognatic system.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Diana

    2012-11-01

    The Interdisciplinary Orofacial Examination Protocol for Children and Adolescents (Protocolo de exploración interdisciplinaria orofacial para niños y adolescents, Barcelona, 2008) is very useful in providing a fast, initial, expedient detection of possible morphological and functional disorders, and to guide the patient toward the appropriate professionals. With this tool it is possible to detect the risk factors which can negatively affect morphological and functional harmony and guide patients toward the necessary treatment as early as possible. This Protocol, developed by 4 orthodontists, 1 ENT and 3 speech language therapists, also contributes to the unification of concepts and nomenclature used by distinct specialists, thus making professional understanding easier and more dynamic. PMID:23362750

  9. U-Pb Zircon geochronology of the Cambro-Ordovician metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of central and NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talavera, C.; Montero, P.; Bea, F.; González Lodeiro, F.; Whitehouse, M.

    2013-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon data from metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of the Schist-Graywacke Complex Domain and the Schistose Domain of Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zone from central and NW Iberia contribute to constrain the timing of the Cambro-Ordovician magmatism from Central Iberian and Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zones which occurred between 498 and 462 Ma. The crystallization ages of the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks from the northern Schist-Graywacke Complex Domain are as follows: (a) in west Salamanca, 489 ± 5 Ma for Vitigudino, 486 ± 6 Ma for Fermoselle and 471 ± 7 Ma for Ledesma; (b) in northern Gredos, 498 ± 4 Ma for Castellanos, 492 ± 4 Ma for San Pelayo and 488 ± 3 Ma for Bercimuelle; (c) in Guadarrama, 490 ± 5 Ma for La Estación I, 489 ± 9 Ma for La Cañada, 484 ± 6 Ma for Vegas de Matute (leucocratic), 483 ± 6 Ma for El Cardoso, 482 ± 8 Ma for La Morcuera, 481 ± 9 Ma for Buitrago de Lozoya, 478 ± 7 Ma for La Hoya, 476 ± 5 Ma for Vegas de Matute (melanocratic), 475 ± 5 Ma for Riaza, 473 ± 8 Ma for La Estación II and 462 ± 11 Ma for La Berzosa; and (d) in Toledo, 489 ± 7 Ma for Mohares and 480 ± 8 Ma for Polán. The crystallization ages of the metagranites from the Schistose Domain of Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zone are 497 ± 6 Ma for Laxe, 486 ± 8 Ma for San Mamede, 482 ± 7 Ma for Bangueses, 481 ± 5 Ma for Noia, 480 ± 10 for Rial de Sabucedo, 476 ± 9 Ma for Vilanova, 475 ± 6 Ma for Pontevedra, 470 ± 6 Ma for Cherpa and 462 ± 8 Ma for Bande. This magmatism is characterized by an average isotopic composition of (87Sr/86Sr)485Ma ≈ 0.712, (ɛNd)485Ma ≈ -4.1 and (TDM) ≈ 1.62 Ga, and a high zircon inheritance, composed of Ediacaran-Early Cambrian (65 %) and, to a lesser extent, Cryogenian, Tonian, Mesoproterozoic, Orosirian and Archean pre-magmatic cores. Combining our geochronological and isotopic data with others of similar rocks from the European Variscan Belt, it may be deduced that Cambro-Ordovician magmas from this belt were mainly

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Pomar, María; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Pintor-de-la-Maza, Begoña; Álvarez-Del-Campo, Cecilia; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    Los datos del estudio PREDYCES® nos revelaron que en España la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) afecta a uno de cada cuatro pacientes hospitalizados. Esta cifra aumenta hasta el 36,8% en los pacientes hematológicos. Se calcula que un 20% de los pacientes oncológicos muere por complicaciones relacionadas con la DRE. Nuestro grupo se planteó en 2011 comenzar la implantación de un cribado nutricional en los servicios con mayor riesgo de DRE. La presente revisión trata de describir todo el proceso que hemos seguido para mejorar la situación nutricional en los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Hematología del Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León (CAULE), mayoritariamente con diagnóstico de neoplasias hematológicas. En un primer estudio piloto, detectamos una alta prevalencia de desnutrición, que tendió a aumentar durante la hospitalización. Además, solo el 8,3% los enfermos valorados recibieron algún tipo de soporte nutricional y no se estaban cubriendo sus necesidades ni calóricas ni proteicas, lo que se asociaba a un peor pronóstico. Por este motivo, nos decidimos a implantar de manera sistemática un cribado y una intervención nutricional adecuada, que comenzó en 2011 y que ha recibido el reconocimiento como Buena Práctica del Sistema Nacional de Salud. PMID:27269220

  11. Criptococosis cutánea primaria en paciente inmunocompetente.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Igor Vázquez; García-Rodiño, Sara; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Marta; Labandeira, Javier; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Sánchez-Aguilar, MDolores; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    La criptococosis cutánea es una micosis propia de pacientes inmunodeprimidos, sobre todo aquellos con infección por el virusde la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Sin embargo, existen casos infrecuentes de criptococosis cutánea en pacientes inmunocompetentes, que suelen simular otras dermatosis, lo que retrasa su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un varón pluripatológico de 79 años, con úlceras dolorosas en dorso de mano derecha que no respondían a tratamientos tópicos. A través del estudio histopatológico y micológico se alcanzó el diagnóstico de criptococosis cutánea primaria, lográndose la remisión de las lesiones tras 6 meses de tratamiento con fluconazol. PMID:27617525

  12. Competencias en ética biocéntrica

    PubMed Central

    Stepke, Fernando Lolas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo explora el origen y la conceptualización de la bioética en tanto ética biocéntrica, definida por el pionero Fritz Jahr como un imperativo hipotético que llama a respetar la vida en todas sus formas. Tras describirla como proceso social, procedimiento técnico y producto académico, se enumeran y comentan algunas competencias que debieran presidir el empleo del discurso bioético en cualquier punto del complejo social “investigación médica”: miembros de comités de ética de investigación, investigadores, empresarios, administradores. Cada uno de estos grupos, en su “cultura epistémica” propia, define y explicita los principios básicos en tanto expresión de valores y leyes generales. PMID:23459767

  13. On the Generalizability of Pāṇini's Pratyāhāra-Technique to Other Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Wiebke; Hamann, Silke

    Pāṇini defines the sound classes involved in grammatical rules by pratyāhāras, i.e., a two-letter code based on the order of the sounds in the Śivasūtras. In the present paper we demonstrate that Pāṇini's pratyāhāra method is generalizable to the description of the phonological systems of other languages by applying it to the sound classes and phonological alternations of German. Furthermore, we compare Pāṇini's pratyāhāra technique with the technique of describing phonological classes by phonological features, which is more common in Western phonology. It turns out that pratyāhāras perform better than features for the description of our sample of German phonological processes if one considers the quality criterion for class-description devices proposed by [10] which is based on the ratio of describable to actual classes.

  14. Progresos recientes en Astronomía de Rayos Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.

    Tras la exitosa misión del Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory durante los años 1990, la astronomía de rayos gamma ha entrado en una etapa de madurez, convirtiéndose en una de las principales herramientas para el estudio de procesos relativistas en el universo. En este reporte, presentaré una revisión de los principales tópicos abordados a través de estudios con rayos gamma en los últimos años, con particular énfasis en los intentos más recientes por establecer la naturaleza de las fuentes de rayos gamma no identificadas, detectadas por el instrumento EGRET.

  15. [Competence in biocentric ethics.

    PubMed

    Stepke, Fernando Lolas

    2012-07-01

    ResumenEste artículo explora el origen y la conceptualización de la bioética en tanto ética biocéntrica, definida por el pionero Fritz Jahr como un imperativo hipotético que llama a respetar la vida en todas sus formas. Tras describirla como proceso social, procedimiento técnico y producto académico, se enumeran y comentan algunas competencias que debieran presidir el empleo del discurso bioético en cualquier punto del complejo social "investigación médica": miembros de comités de ética de investigación, investigadores, empresarios, administradores. Cada uno de estos grupos, en su "cultura epistémica" propia, define y explicita los principios básicos en tanto expresión de valores y leyes generales. PMID:23459767

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vales Montero, Marta; Chavarría Cano, Beatriz; Martínez Ginés, María Luisa; Díaz Otero, Fernando; Velázquez Pérez, José Miguel; Cuerda Compes, María Cristina; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2016-01-01

    La deficiencia de vitamina A es infrecuente en los países desarrollados. La cirugía bariátrica constituye un factor de riesgo de deficiencia de esta vitamina. Se han descrito varios casos en pacientes sometidos a técnicas con un importante componente malabsortivo, como la derivación biliopancreática. En este artículo se describe un caso de deficiencia clínica de vitamina A con manifestaciones oculares y cutáneas tras bypass gástrico y se revisan las publicaciones sobre este tema y las recomendaciones para la prevención de esta importante complicación. PMID:27571679

  17. Broadband performance of a moving time reversing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Dowling, David R.

    2003-09-01

    Acoustic time reversal exploits reciprocity between sources and receivers to generate backward propagating waves that automatically focus at their point of origin. In underwater acoustics, an array of transducers that can both transmit and receive, referred to as a time reversing array (TRA) or time reversal mirror (TRM), generates the back-propagating waves. Such arrays have been shown to spatially and temporally focus sound in unknown complicated multipath environments, and are therefore of interest for active sonar and underwater communication applications. Although stationary vertical linear TRAs have been favored in prior studies, practical applications of acoustic time reversal in underwater environments are likely to involve towed, tilted, horizontal, or bottom-mounted arrays. In particular, array motion introduces Doppler effects and eliminates source-receiver reciprocity, two factors that potentially impact the automatic focusing capability of TRAs. This paper presents the results from a theoretical and computational investigation into how array motion and orientation influence TRA retrofocusing in the shallow ocean. Here, the TRA tow speed is assumed constant, and the array is assumed to be straight and linear (vertical, horizontal, or tilted). And, for simplicity, the TRA is assumed to respond to a stationary point source emitting a broadband pulse. When a TRA moves, the retrofocus is predicted to shift in the direction of array motion due to the translation of the array between its reception and broadcast times. In addition, the performance of a towed horizontal TRA is predicted to degrade more rapidly with towing speed than that of an equivalent (but clearly idealized) towed vertical array because of range-dependent Doppler phase differences that do not influence the vertical array. However, short tilted arrays may approach vertical array performance and appear to be a potentially versatile compromise for implementing TRA concepts in active sonar or

  18. Broadband performance of a moving time reversing array.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Karim G; Dowling, David R

    2003-09-01

    Acoustic time reversal exploits reciprocity between sources and receivers to generate backward propagating waves that automatically focus at their point of origin. In underwater acoustics, an array of transducers that can both transmit and receive, referred to as a time reversing array (TRA) or time reversal mirror (TRM), generates the back-propagating waves. Such arrays have been shown to spatially and temporally focus sound in unknown complicated multipath environments, and are therefore of interest for active sonar and underwater communication applications. Although stationary vertical linear TRAs have been favored in prior studies, practical applications of acoustic time reversal in underwater environments are likely to involve towed, tilted, horizontal, or bottom-mounted arrays. In particular, array motion introduces Doppler effects and eliminates source-receiver reciprocity, two factors that potentially impact the automatic focusing capability of TRAs. This paper presents the results from a theoretical and computational investigation into how array motion and orientation influence TRA retrofocusing in the shallow ocean. Here, the TRA tow speed is assumed constant, and the array is assumed to be straight and linear (vertical, horizontal, or tilted). And, for simplicity, the TRA is assumed to respond to a stationary point source emitting a broadband pulse. When a TRA moves, the retrofocus is predicted to shift in the direction of array motion due to the translation of the array between its reception and broadcast times. In addition, the performance of a towed horizontal TRA is predicted to degrade more rapidly with towing speed than that of an equivalent (but clearly idealized) towed vertical array because of range-dependent Doppler phase differences that do not influence the vertical array. However, short tilted arrays may approach vertical array performance and appear to be a potentially versatile compromise for implementing TRA concepts in active sonar or

  19. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2, a novel autoimmune regulator interaction partner, modulates promiscuous gene expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rattay, Kristin; Claude, Janine; Rezavandy, Esmail; Matt, Sonja; Hofmann, Thomas G; Kyewski, Bruno; Derbinski, Jens

    2015-02-01

    Promiscuous expression of a plethora of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs) by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) plays an essential role in T cell tolerance. Although the cellular mechanisms by which promiscuous gene expression (pGE) imposes T cell tolerance have been well characterized, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is to date the only validated molecule known to regulate pGE. AIRE is part of higher-order multiprotein complexes, which promote transcription, elongation, and splicing of a wide range of target genes. How AIRE and its partners mediate these various effects at the molecular level is still largely unclear. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we searched for novel AIRE-interacting proteins and identified the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as a novel partner. HIPK2 partially colocalized with AIRE in nuclear bodies upon cotransfection and in human mTECs in situ. Moreover, HIPK2 phosphorylated AIRE in vitro and suppressed the coactivator activity of AIRE in a kinase-dependent manner. To evaluate the role of Hipk2 in modulating the function of AIRE in vivo, we compared whole-genome gene signatures of purified mTEC subsets from TEC-specific Hipk2 knockout mice with control mice and identified a small set of differentially expressed genes. Unexpectedly, most differentially expressed genes were confined to the CD80(lo) mTEC subset and preferentially included AIRE-independent TRAs. Thus, although it modulates gene expression in mTECs and in addition affects the size of the medullary compartment, TEC-specific HIPK2 deletion only mildly affects AIRE-directed pGE in vivo. PMID:25552543

  20. Broadband time-reversing array retrofocusing in noisy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Khosla, Sunny R.; Dowling, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Acoustic time reversal is a promising technique for spatial and temporal focusing of sound in unknown environments. Acoustic time reversal can be implemented with an array of transducers that listens to a remote sound source and then transmits a time-reversed version of what was heard. In a noisy environment, the performance of such a time-reversing array (TRA) will be degraded because the array will receive and transmit noise, and the intended signal may be masked by ambient noise at the retrofocus location. This article presents formal results for the signal-to-noise ratio at the intended focus (SNRf) for TRAs that receive and send finite-duration broadband signals in noisy environments. When the noise is homogeneous and uncorrelated, and a broadcast power limitation sets the TRA's electronic amplification, the formal results can be simplified to an algebraic formula that includes the characteristics of the signal, the remote source, the TRA, and the noisy environment. Here, SNRf is found to be proportional to the product of the signal bandwidth and the duration of the signal pulse after propagation through the environment. Using parabolic-equation propagation simulations, the formal results for SNRf are illustrated for a shallow water environment at source-array ranges of 1 to 40 km and bandwidths from several tens of Hz to more than 500 Hz for a signal center frequency of 500 Hz. Shallow-water TRA noise rejection is predicted to be superior to that possible in free space because TRAs successfully exploit multipath-propagation.

  1. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Navarro Soler, I M; Guilabert Mora, M; Carrillo Murcia, I; Nebot Marzal, C M; Mira Solves, J J

    2016-01-01

                Objetivo. Analizar la percepción que los pacientes tienen de si reciben en las consultas de medicina de su centro de salud información para implicarse en su autocuidado (gestión medicación e implicación en ejercicio físico o dieta).             Método. Estudio descriptivo en el que se entrevistó telefónicamente a una muestra de 2401 pacientes de atención primaria seleccionados al azar. Se empleó una escala reducida de 6 preguntas (puntuación máxima 6 puntos). Se consideraron las diferencias en función edad, sexo, ocurrencia de incidentes para la seguridad, si acudía regularmente a consulta y duración de la consulta.             Resultados. Respondieron 2350 pacientes (tasa de respuesta 97,9%). El 34,6% (N=1253) de los entrevistados obtuvieron 5 o más puntos en la escala (percentil 50). Recibir información sobre la previsible evolución incrementó la satisfacción (OR 11,2 (IC95% 8,3-15,3). La duración de la consulta (p<0,01), acudir regularmente a consulta médica (p<0,01) o no haber sufrido un evento adverso (p<0,01), se relacionaron con una mayor puntuación en la escala.             Conclusiones. Los pacientes afirman recibir indicaciones para una adecuada gestión de la medicación en el hogar, pero reciben menos información para involucrarse en conductas saludables.             Palabras clave. Activación del paciente. Implicación del paciente. Seguridad del paciente. Medicación. Calidad asistencial. PMID:27125621

  3. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  4. DNA methylation profile of Aire-deficient mouse medullary thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are characterized by ectopic expression of self-antigens during the establishment of central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator (Aire), which is specifically expressed in mTECs, is responsible for the expression of a large repertoire of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) and plays a role in the development of mTECs. However, Aire-deficient mTECs still express TRAs. Moreover, a subset of mTECs, which are considered to be at a stage of terminal differentiation, exists in the Aire-deficient thymus. The phenotype of a specific cell type in a multicellular organism is governed by the epigenetic regulation system. DNA methylation modification is an important component of this system. Every cell or tissue type displays a DNA methylation profile, consisting of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs), and this profile is involved in cell-type-specific genome usage. The aim of this study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of mTECs by using Aire-deficient mTECs as a model. Results We identified the T-DMRs of mTECs (mTEC-T-DMRs) via genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Aire−/− mTECs by comparison with the liver, brain, thymus, and embryonic stem cells. The hypomethylated mTEC-T-DMRs in Aire−/− mTECs were associated with mTEC-specific genes, including Aire, CD80, and Trp63, as well as other genes involved in the RANK signaling pathway. While these mTEC-T-DMRs were also hypomethylated in Aire+/+ mTECs, they were hypermethylated in control thymic stromal cells. We compared the pattern of DNA methylation levels at a total of 55 mTEC-T-DMRs and adjacent regions and found that the DNA methylation status was similar for Aire+/+ and Aire−/− mTECs but distinct from that of athymic cells and tissues. Conclusions These results indicate a unique DNA methylation profile that is independent of Aire in mTECs. This profile is distinct from other cell types in the thymic microenvironment and is

  5. Kinks of the Transplant Renal Artery Without Accompanying Intraarterial Pressure Gradient Do Not Require Correction: Five-Year Outcome Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Gim Chuah; Snowden, Sue; Patel, Uday

    2004-11-15

    Significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) results in an intraarterial pressure gradient and increasing graft dysfunction correctable by endovascular therapy. Kinks of the transplant artery cause velocity gradients on Doppler ultrasound, but some will have no intraarterial pressure gradient across the kink. It is not known whether these nonflow limiting kinks progress further to threaten graft function and should undergo endovascular correction. This is a longitudinal study of conservatively managed arterial kinks to define their natural history. Fourteen patients who had undergone angiography over a 5-year period for suspected TRAS had kinks of the renal artery. True intraarterial pressures were measured in all cases by slow withdrawal of an end-hole catheter after intraarterial injection of a vasodilator. Those with a significant pressure change ({>=}10% change in peak systolic pressure across the area of suspicion) underwent endovascular treatment. The rest were managed conservatively, with maximal antihypertensive therapy. Outcome of all 14 cases was determined by follow-up of creatinine levels, blood pressure (BP) control and graft outcome over a 3-5-year period (median 4 years). Of the 14 patients with kinks, 10 were male and 4 female; age range 23-67 years (mean 47 years). Eleven had received cadaveric transplants and 3 were allografts; 12 had end-to-side and 2 end-to-end anastomosis, 11/14 cases had an intraarterial pressure ratio of <10% and at median 4 years follow-up on conservative treatment, the serum creatinine of these 11 patients did not differ significantly from those who underwent successful endovascular treatment (mean 118 {mu}mol/l versus 149 {mu}mol/l; p = 0.30, Mann Whitney test). Mean blood pressure was 137/82 mmHg, with a range of 124-155/56-95 mmHg. Only one patient has required an unexplainable increase in antihypertensive medication. Grafts (2/11) were lost and both had chronic rejection on histology. There were no unexplained

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Adriana; Fonseca, Jorge; Carolino, Elisabete; Lopes, Teresa; Sousa Guerreiro, António

    2016-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: el cobre (Cu) es un oligoelemento muy estudiado, pero poco se sabe de su evolución en los pacientes alimentados por gastrostomía endoscópica (GEP). Pretendemos evaluar la evolución del Cu sérico desde la gastrostomía hasta 12 semanas después de la intervención en estos pacientes alimentados con preparaciones domésticas.  Métodos: realizamos un estudio observacional prospectivo para evaluar el Cu sérico, la albúmina, la transferrina y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) en el momento de la GEP, tras 4 semanas y 12 semanas después de la intervención. Los datos incluyen edad, género, NRS 2002 y enfermedad subyacente: cánceres de cabeza y cuello (CCC) y disfagia neurológica (DN). Después de la intervención, estos pacientes fueron alimentados conpreparaciones domésticas. Resultados: 146 enfermos (89 hombres), entre 21-95 años: CCC-56, DN-90. Valores de Cu entre 42-160 μg/dl (normal: 70-140 μg/dl); normales 89% (n = 130); bajos 11% (n = 16), albúmina baja: 53% (n = 77), transferrina baja: 65% (n = 94), IMC bajo: 53% (n = 78). Después de 4 semanas: valores normales de Cu en 93% y bajos en 7%, albúmina baja en 34%, transferrina baja en 52%. Tras 12 semanas: valores normales de Cu en 95% y bajos en 5%, albúmina baja en 25%, transferrina baja en 32%. No encontramos diferencias significativas en el Cusérico cuando se compara edad, género, enfermedad subyacente, IMC, albúmina y transferrina. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los enfermos presentan Cu sérico normal en el momento de la gastrostomía. Para los enfermos con Cu sérico bajo antes del procedimiento, la alimentación con preparaciones domésticas parece suficiente para su normalización progresiva. PMID:27238774

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Izaga, Marta; Andía Muñoz, Virginia; Demon, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la población saharaui residente en los campamentos de Tinduf (Argelia) se considera vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional.Objetivos: evaluar los hábitos dietéticos de un grupo de mujeres emigrantes saharauis con el fin de obtener datos para diseñar un programa de educación nutricional (EN) destinado a mujeres residentes en los campamentos.Métodos: la información sobre hábitos dietéticos se registró a través de historias dietéticas. Los resultados de ingesta de macro y micronutrientes se compararon con los rangos aceptables de distribución y los requerimientos medios estimados. También se recogieron datos demográficos, socioeconómicos y sobre salud. Análisis estadístico: SPSS vs 22.0. A partir de los datos obtenidos y de la revisión de los programas de salud llevados a cabo en campamentos y de otros programas de EN se diseñó un programa específico.Resultados: la alimentación en campamentos se caracterizó por ser deficitaria en energía y por un bajo consumo de fibra (6,1 [2,8] g/día), de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (6,9 [2,9]% del valor calórico total) y de la mayoría de los micronutrientes. El aumento en la disponibilidad de alimentos tras emigrar a España incrementó la ingesta calórica, pero la dieta siguió siendo inadecuada. El programa de EN diseñado se basó en la formación de formadoras. En este manuscrito se proporciona información detallada sobre la organización y el material a emplear en esta intervención educativa.Discusión y conclusión: la alimentación de las mujeres saharauis en campamentos y tras emigrar a España fue inadecuada, lo que corrobora que la aculturación puede estar asociada a cambios no saludables. Cabe esperar que el programa de EN diseñado contribuya a mejorar su bienestar nutricional. PMID:27019252

  8. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  9. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  10. Dysphagia and cerebrovascular accident: relationship between severity degree and level of neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Itaquy, Roberta Baldino; Favero, Samara Regina; Ribeiro, Marlise de Castro; Barea, Liselotte Menke; Almeida, Sheila Tamanini de; Mancopes, Renata

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this case study was to verify the occurrence of dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in order to establish a possible relationship between the level of neurologic impairment and the severity degree of dysphagia. After emergency hospital admission, three patients underwent neurological clinical evaluation (general physical examination, neurological examination, and application of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale - NIHSS), and clinical assessment of swallowing using the Protocolo Fonoaudiológico de Avaliação do Risco para Disfagia (PARD--Speech-Language Pathology Protocol for Risk Evaluation for Dysphagia). One of the patients presented functional swallowing (NIHSS score 11), while the other two had mild and moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia (NIHSS scores 15 and 19, respectively). The service flow and the delay on the patients' search for medical care determined the small sample. The findings corroborate literature data regarding the severity of the neurological condition and the manifestation of dysphagia. PMID:22231062

  11. School adjustment of children in residential care: a multi-source analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, Eduardo; Muñoz de Bustillo, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    School adjustment is one the greatest challenges in residential child care programs. This study has two aims: to analyze school adjustment compared to a normative population, and to carry out a multi-source analysis (child, classmates, and teacher) of this adjustment. A total of 50 classrooms containing 60 children from residential care units were studied. The "Método de asignación de atributos perceptivos" (Allocation of perceptive attributes; Díaz-Aguado, 2006), the "Test Autoevaluativo Multifactorial de Adaptación Infantil" (TAMAI [Multifactor Self-assessment Test of Child Adjustment]; Hernández, 1996) and the "Protocolo de valoración para el profesorado (Evaluation Protocol for Teachers; Fernández del Valle, 1998) were applied. The main results indicate that, compared with their classmates, children in residential care are perceived as more controversial and less integrated at school, although no differences were observed in problems of isolation. The multi-source analysis shows that there is agreement among the different sources when the externalized and visible aspects are evaluated. These results are discussed in connection with the practices that are being developed in residential child care programs. PMID:19899648

  12. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  13. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  14. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  15. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  16. Comparison of Proteins Involved in Pilus Synthesis and Mating Pair Stabilization from the Related Plasmids F and R100-1: Insights into the Mechanism of Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Karen G.; Klimke, William A.; Manchak, Jan; Frost, Laura S.

    1999-01-01

    F and R100-1 are closely related, derepressed, conjugative plasmids from the IncFI and IncFII incompatibility groups, respectively. Heteroduplex mapping and genetic analyses have revealed that the transfer regions are extremely similar between the two plasmids. Plasmid specificity can occur at the level of relaxosome formation, regulation, and surface exclusion between the two transfer systems. There are also differences in pilus serology, pilus-specific phage sensitivity, and requirements for OmpA and lipopolysaccharide components in the recipient cell. These phenotypic differences were exploited in this study to yield new information about the mechanism of pilus synthesis, mating pair stabilization, and surface and/or entry exclusion, which are collectively involved in mating pair formation (Mpf). The sequence of the remainder of the transfer region of R100-1 (trbA to traS) has been completed, and the complete sequence is compared to that of F. The differences between the two transfer regions include insertions and deletions, gene duplications, and mosaicism within genes, although the genes essential for Mpf are conserved in both plasmids. F+ cells carrying defined mutations in each of the Mpf genes were complemented with the homologous genes from R100-1. Our results indicate that the specificity in recipient cell recognition and entry exclusion are mediated by TraN and TraG, respectively, and not by the pilus. PMID:10464182

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fuertes García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    La dieta, junto con el ejercicio físico, es el factor determinante en la prevención primaria -y secundaria- de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV), que continúan siendo la principal causa de muerte tanto en nuestro país como en los de nuestro entorno. Tras la publicación de los resultados del Estudio de los Siete Países en 1980, se desaconsejó el consumo de huevos al equiparar falsamente su efecto nocivo con el de las grasas saturadas, por la creencia de que aumentaban el riesgo de padecer ECV. Esta idea, que se demostraría equivocada, fue generalmente aceptada tanto por la clase médica como por la población general. Simultáneamente se realizaron numerosos estudios clínicos que claramente contradecían aquella creencia, concluyendo que la ingesta de huevos no aumentaba el riesgo de padecer ECV. En conclusión, aunque la bibliografía sobre este tema es muy abundante, se revisan los estudios más significativos en relación con el tema. En consecuencia y, siguiendo las recomendaciones ya desde el año 2000 de las Guías de la American Heart Association, podemos concluir que la ingesta de hasta un huevo al día no modifica el riesgo de padecer ECV en adultos sanos. PMID:27571863

  18. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e.,more » P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.« less

  19. Confieso que Divulgo. Reflexiones y Experiencias de una Astrofísica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.

    Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la popularización de la Ciencia, desarrolladas a lo largo de mi trayectoria profesional, un camino inacabado desde la intuición al oficio. Tras revisar las señas de identidad de la divulgación científica, se exponen ideas, experiencias y recursos, cribados por la práctica y su posterior análisis crítico. Se destacan las actividades relacionadas con la Astronomía, que se cuentan entre las más espectaculares y gratificantes. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author's thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed. Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1

  20. Molecular dissection of blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids evolving in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated at one teaching hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Tang, Yu; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-08-01

    The presence of carbapenemase gene blaKPC-2 in a wide variety of plasmids, especially conjugative plasmids, is key to the rapid, worldwide spread of carbapenemase enzymes. Thirty-eight, non-duplicated, carbapenem-resistant, clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, all carrying blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids. Relaxase analysis was used to classify these plasmids; 8 and 30 plasmids belonged to the MOBP3 and MOBF12 subfamilies, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genetic subclades in the MOBF12 subfamily and suggested that these subclades might not have originated from the same ancestor. Crossing PCR, used to sequence fully the type IV secretion system (T4SS, essential structures for conjugative plasmids) of the MOBF12 plasmids, found that T4SSs were distinctively different in certain functional genes, e.g. traS and traG. In conclusion, this study delineated the evolution of blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. The plasmids bearing blaKPC-2 were diverse and the MOBF12 plasmids were dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:27252157

  1. Tragaldabas: a muon ground-based detector for the study of the solar activity; first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Blanco, Juan

    2016-04-01

    A new RPC-based cosmic ray detector, TRAGALDABAS (acronym of "TRAsGo for the AnaLysis of the nuclear matter Decay, the Atmosphere, the earth's B-field And the Solar activity") has been installed at the Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Spain (N:42°52'34",W:8°33'37"). The detector, in its present layout, consists of three 1.8 m2 planes of three 1mm-gap glass RPCs. Each plane is readout with 120 pads with grounded guard electrodes between them to minimize the crosstalk noise. The main performances of the detectors are: an arrival time resolution of about ~300 ps, a tracking angular resolution below 3°, a detection efficiency close to 1, and a solid angle acceptance of ~5 srad. TRAGALDABAS will be able to monitor the cosmic ray low energy component strongly modulated by solar activity by mean the observation of secondary muons from the interaction between cosmic rays and atmospheric molecules. Its cadence and its angular resolution will allow to study in detail, small variations in cosmic ray anisotropy. These variations can be a key parameter to understand the effect of solar disturbances on the propagation of cosmic ray in the inner heliosphere and, maybe, provide a new tool for space weather analysis. In this work first TRAGALDABAS observations of solar events are shown

  2. Autophagy and T cell education in the thymus: eat yourself to know yourself.

    PubMed

    Nedjic, Jelena; Aichinger, Martin; Klein, Ludger

    2008-12-01

    During intrathymic generation of the T cell repertoire, a series of selection processes ensures that only self-MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) restricted and self-tolerant T cells are allowed to survive. Interactions with MHC ligands on the surface of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a pivotal role in the decision-making of developing thymocytes. A number of distinct cell-biological features of TECs have emerged that may predispose them to serve non-redundant functions in thymocyte "education". Thus, cortical TECs express a rather unique set of proteolytic enzymes for antigen processing in the context of positive selection, whereas medullary TECs "ectopically" express a plethora of otherwise strictly tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), a property that obviously has evolved to make these self-antigens "visible" to developing thymocytes for negative selection. One of the latest additions to this growing list of functional adaptations of TECs is their constitutively high rate of autophagy. Recently, we have provided evidence that autophagy in TECs shuttles cytoplasmic self-antigens into the MHC class II loading pathway for positive selection of T cells and tolerance induction. PMID:19029805

  3. Aire-Overexpressing Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study’s aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4+ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca2+ and p-ERK) in CD4+ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4+ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4+IFN-γ+ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire. PMID:26729097

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a phonoaudiology program for the rehabilitation of dysphagia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Santoro, P; e Silva, I L; Cardoso, F; Dias, E; Beresford, H

    2011-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a phonoaudiology rehabilitation program directed towards the degenerative changes of the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for the upper digestive system compromised by the age between 80 and 90 years, in a regime of internment in a long permanence institution in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which express, bodily, their difficulty in swallowing food of liquid or pasty consistency. To achieve such an object, the current study was developed in an experimental format or design, comprised of a sample group of 23 elderly subjects, of both genders, undergoing evaluation by the phonoaudiology protocol for evaluating the risk of dysphagia (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Protocolo de Avaliação do Risco para Disfagia=PARD), pre- and post-intervention procedure. The developed program used the indirect therapy approach based on the adaptive myotherapeutic and myofunctional stimulation, contemplating two isometric and isokinetic orofacial active myotherapeutic exercises, two passive myotherapeutic manipulations for the supra-hyoidal musculature, as well as adaptive cephalic postural maneuvres, associated to the intra-oral olfactive and gustative sensory stimulation. The evolution of the individuals was analyzed before and after the therapy by estimating the capacity of swallowing food in the liquid fluid (LF) consistency, by the paired Student t-test, giving a p=0.01, making the difference of 2.31 between the 2 evaluations statistically significant. The changes produced by the PARD program in the capacity of individuals in swallowing food of a pasty consistency were also significant when analyzing the variance of the results on the 2 instances by using the F-test (pre- and post-intervention difference=4.47, p=0.039). PMID:21093069

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vallejos-Rojas, Andrea; Jaramillo-Gallardo, Javiera; Salas Bravo, Carlos; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

     Introducción: obesidad e inactividad física son importantes factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión en adultos. No obstante, hay poca evidencia sobre el efecto de estos factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de hipertensión en población infantil. Objetivo: investigar la asociación del estado nutricional, niveles de actividad física y etnicidad con niveles de hipertensión en escolares entre 6 y 13 años de edad. Métodos: un total de 418 escolares de ascendencia étnica europea (n = 311) y mapuche (n = 107) fueron participantes de este estudio transversal. Se midió el peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y presión arterial, utilizando protocolos estandarizados. Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en IMC, estado nutricional y presión arterial entre niños con ascendencia europea y mapuche. No obstante, la prevalencia de prehipertensión (21,3% vs. 11,1%) e hipertensión (28,9% vs. 18,6%) fue significativamente mayor en escolares mapuches en comparación con europeos, respectivamente. Escolares con ascendencia mapuche tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión que escolares con ascendencia europea (OR: 1,92 [1,19 a 3,06], p < 0,01). La prevalencia de hipertensión aumenta significativamente en ambos grupos étnicos con el incremento de IMC y bajos niveles de actividad física. Conclusiones: el riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión es mayor en población infantil ascendiente de mapuches que ascendiente de europeos y este riesgo se ve acentuado con el incremento de obesidad y bajos niveles de actividad física. PMID:27238776

  6. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  7. Investigations of the F conjugation gene traI:traI mutants and lambdatraI transducing phages.

    PubMed

    Willetts, N; Maule, J

    1979-02-01

    A series of traI point and deletion mutants of Flac, and a traM mutant, were characterised. Complementation tests with an amber Flac traI mutant confirmed their genotypes, and in addition all the traI mutants, but not the traM mutant, were complemented by pRS31 (PSC101 traDI) and EDlambda109 (lambdatraI). Judging from the efficiencies of plating of F-specific phages, none of the mutations affected pilus formation. The traI products of F and of the F-like plasmid R1 were interchangeable with each other but not with that of R100, while the traM product of F could not be replaced by those of R1 or of R100. Neither traI nor traM were needed for conjugal transfer of ColE1. Three lambda transducing phages carrying traI were isolated by in vivo or in vitro techniques, and characterised by genetic complementation tests, by analysis of the fragments produced by restriction endonucleases, and by measurement of heteroduplex molecules. The genetic structures together with the sizes and F coordinates, of the transfer regions carried by the phages were thereby determined. Comparison of the proteins synthesised in UV-irradiated cells by one of the lambdatraI phages with those made by a derivative carrying an amber traI mutation, allowed the traI product to be identified as a protein of molecular weight 174,000. In addition, the molecular weights of the traD (84,000), traS (18,000), and traT (25,000) products made by the lambdatraSTD1 phage EDlambda107 were measured. The possible roles of the traI and traM products in conjugation are discussed. PMID:372754

  8. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kistanguri, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary form characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia, or a secondary form in which immune thrombocytopenia develops in association with another disorder that is usually immune or infectious. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during childhood and in the elderly, in whom the age specific incidence of ITP is greatest. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP, with the risk of bleeding and related morbidity increased in elderly patients. The pathogenesis of ITP is complex, involving alterations in humoral and cellular immunity. Thrombocytopenia is caused by antibodies that react with glycoproteins expressed on platelets and megakaryocytes (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Ib/IX and others), causing shortened survival of circulating platelets and impairing platelet production. Diminished numbers and function of regulatory T cells, as well as the effects of cytotoxic T cells also contribute to the pathogenesis of ITP. Corticosteroids remain the most common first line therapy for ITP, occasionally in conjunction with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-Rh(D). However, these agents do not lead to durable remissions in the majority of adults with ITP, and considerable heterogeneity exists in the use of second line approaches, which may include splenectomy, Rituximab, or thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TRAs). This review summarizes the classification and diagnosis of primary and secondary ITP, as well as the pathogenesis and options for treatment. Remarkable advances in the understanding and management of ITP have been achieved over the last decade, though many questions remain. PMID:23714309

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  11. Preparation, structural properties, and hydrogenation activity of highly porous palladium-titania aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.; Wildberger, M.; Maciejewski, M.; Duff, D.G.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. )

    1994-08-01

    Mesoporous to macroporous palladium-titania aerogels with high surface area have been synthesized by the sol-gel-aerogel route. A titania gel was prepared by the addition of an acidic hydrolysant to tetrabutoxytitanium(IV) in methanol. The palladium precursor solutions, added after the redispersion of the titania gel, were either Na[sub 2]PdCl[sub 4], (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]PdCl[sub 4], Pd(acac)[sub 2], or Pd(OAc)[sub 2] dissolved in protic or aprotic solvents. The palladium-titania aerogels have a BET surface area of 170-190 m[sup 2]g[sup [minus]1] after a thermal treatment up to 673 K and contain well-developed anatase crystallites of about 7-8 nm mean size. Depending on the palladium precursor used, the volume-weighted-mean particle size, determined by TEM, varies significantly in the range 21-224 nm, this being independently consistent with XRD line-broadening results. All aerogel samples showed pronounced structural stability of both the titania matrix and the palladium particles towards the pretreatment media used (air or hydrogen) at temperatures up to 773 K. Thermal analysis, combined with mass spectrometry, revealed that the untreated catalysts contain a considerable amount of entrapped organic impurities after high-temperature supercritical drying. Liquid-phase hydrogenations of tras-stilbene and benzophenone were used as test reactions for characterizing the activity and accessibility of the palladium particles. A comparison of the best dispersed Pd(OAc)[sub 2]-derived aerogel catalysts with conventionally impregnated titania-supported palladium catalysts in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of 4-methylbenzaldehyde reveals superior activity and selectivity for the aerogel catalysts. 32 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-03-15

    periodos de tiempo. La supervivencia fue afectada por las 3 variables evaluadas, la edad del embrion, la temperatura del agua y el periodo de almacenamiento. El almacenamiento de los embriones a cualquier temperatura por 120 horas dio como resultado la casi no supervivencia. Una edad controlada de los embriones a tratar es crucial para el exito de este protocolo. Embriones colectados entre 0 a 12 horas despues de la oviposicion y su previa incubacion a 25 deg. C por 12 horas brinda un margen de hasta de 72 horas de duracion del almacenamiento y transporte, siempre y cuando estos se mantengan en una temperatura de entre 10 a 15{sup o}C. En estas condiciones, fue registrada una reduccion no significante de la supervivencia de los diferentes estados de desarrollo. (author)

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Obispo Entrenas, Ana; Martín Carvajal, Francisco; Legupín Tubío, David; Lucena Navarro, Fabiola; García Caballero, Manuel; Gándara Adán, Norberto; Abilés Osinaga, Jimena

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D en los candidatos a cirugía bariátrica (CB) y su relación con factores de riesgo y los componentes del síndrome metabólico.Material y métodos: los parámetros clínicos, antropométricos y bioquímicos se midieron en 56 pacientes caucásicos incluidos en un protocolo de cirugía bariátrica entre enero y junio de 2014. Los pacientes fueron estratificados en tres grupos de acuerdo al status de vitamina D: suficiencia (≥ 40 ng/ml), insuficiencia (40-20 ng/ml) y deficiencia (< 20 ng/ml).Resultados: se observó deficiencia de vitamina D en el 75% de los pacientes. Estos pacientes tenían mayor índice de masa corporal (p = 0,006) y concentraciones plasmáticas mas bajas de PTH (p = 0,045). Además, hubo más pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y dislipemia (DLPM) en el grupo con niveles de 25 (OH) D < 20 ng/ml. Asimismo la 25 (OH) D se correlacionó negativamente con la masa grasa (r = -0,504; p = 0,009), el IMC (r = -0,394; p = 0,046) y la hipertensión arterial (r = -0,637; p = 0,001).Conclusión: De nuestros hallazgos concluimos que la deficiencia de vitamina D es muy común entre los candidatos a CB y que la misma está asociada con DM2 y DLPM.Aunque hay pocos datos sobre el mejor tratamiento para el bajo nivel de vitamina D en los pacientes candidatos CB, la detección de la deficiencia de vitamina D debe realizarse de forma rutinaria en estos casos. PMID:27019241

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Cevallos, Vanesa; Pina Ordúñez, Diana; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: existen alteraciones frecuentes en la alimentación de la población infantil femenina, y especialmente en atletas de deportes estéticos por la presión ejercida para mantener un cuerpo.Objetivos: evaluar los aspectos nutricionales, antropométricos y la percepción del peso de niñas que realizan gimnasia rítmica frente a un grupo control.Métodos: estudio descriptivo comparativo. Se compararon 25 niñas gimnastas con 25 niñas no gimnastas (control). Se realizó una valoración antropométrica, mediante protocolo ISAK, y nutricional, mediante un registro dietético de siete días; así como una valoración cuantitativa y cualitativa de la ingesta alimentaria, mediante el software DIAL. Se rellenó un cuestionario de hábitos y sobre la percepción de su peso corporal.Resultados: los datos antropométricos no presentaron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos, excepto en los pliegues cutáneos y el porcentaje de grasa, el cual era estadísticamente inferior en gimnastas. La ingesta energética (1.413 ± 283 Kcal/día) de las gimnastas era inferior a la recomendada por la Food and Nutrition Board de acuerdo a su edad. La distribución de los macronutrientes cumplía con los valores normales establecidos (10-30% proteínas, 45-65% hidratos, 20-35% grasas). El 32% de las gimnastas y el 36,4% de las niñas control consideraron que les gustaría pesar menos.Conclusión: teniendo en cuenta la intensa actividad de las gimnastas, sus requerimientos energéticos deberían ajustarse a ello, ya que esto contribuirá a su desarrollo y crecimiento y a una mejor ejecución del ejercicio. En la muestra estudiada, el consumo de alimentos de las gimnastas se aleja de una alimentación equilibrada. No se observaron comportamientos diferentes en la percepción del peso entre ambos grupos. PMID:27571660

  15. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Peñailillo Escarate, Luis; Mackay Phillips, Karen; Serrano Duarte, Natalia; Canales Espinoza, Pablo; Miranda Herrera, Pamela; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) y el consumo de ácidos grasos omega-3 (O3) ha demostrado cada uno por separado aumentar la capacidad aeróbica, metabolismo oxidativo y función cardiovascular.Objetivo: examinar el efecto combinado de HIIT más suplementación de O3 en el rendimiento físico, presión arterial y composición corporal en jóvenes sedentarios.Método: 28 jóvenes sedentarios con sobrepeso (Edad=22 ± 4 años; IMC=25.8 ± 2.4 kg·m-2) fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos: grupo O3/HIIT (n=7) realizó un protocolo de HIIT, tres veces por semana durante seis semanas y consumió 2 g·día-1 de O3; grupo HIIT (n=7) realizó solo el HIIT; grupo O3 (n=7) solo consumió O3; y grupo CONTROL (n=7) que no realizó ninguna intervención. Consumo de oxígeno peak (VO2peak), velocidad máxima (Vmax), presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (PAS y PAD), y porcentaje de grasa fueron medidos antes y después de la intervención.Resultados: el consumo de oxígeno peak aumentó más en el grupo O3/HIIT (+10.9%) en comparación con HIIT, O3 y CONTROL. Velocidad máxima aumentó en O3/HIIT (+7.1%) y HIIT (+11.9%). La presión arterial sistólica disminuyó más en O3 (-6.8%) en comparación con O3/HIIT, HIIT y CONTROL. Por último, O3/HIIT (-19.2%), HIIT (-20.2%), y O3 (-15.2%) presentaron mayores disminuciones del porcentaje de masa grasa en relación al CONTROL.Conclusión: nuestros resultados sugieren un efecto potenciador de la capacidad aeróbica máxima producto de la combinación de HIIT y suplementación de O3. Además, se observó una disminución de masa grasa en todos los grupos intervenidos. PMID:27571658

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Fariña López, E; Estévez-Guerra, G J; Núñez González, E; Calvo Francés, F; Penelo, E

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento. Adaptar y validar en español el cuestionario Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire, que mide la importancia que dan los profesionales al uso de restricciones físicas en personas mayores.Método. Estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo y transversal. Tras un proceso de traducción-retrotraducción, se obtuvo una versión en español del cuestionario original. La validación se llevó a cabo entre una muestra de 830 profesionales seleccionados en veinte centros de tres comunidades autónomas españolas. Se analizó la viabilidad, la fiabilidad mediante la consistencia interna y la estabilidad temporal (test-retest), así como la validez de contenido (panel de expertos e índice de validez) y de constructo (análisis factorial).Resultados. De los 17 ítems del cuestionario, 15 pudieron traducirse de manera literal; en dos hubo que realizar modificaciones menores. Un estudio piloto confirmó la adecuada viabilidad del cuestionario. El alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,92 y la fiabilidad test-retest (CCI) de 0,908 (IC del 95%: 0,880-0,933). El índice de validez de contenido fue de 0,89. El análisis factorial exploratorio identificó dos dimensiones que explicaban el 63% de la varianza, presentando una fiabilidad de 0,90 y 0,93 respectivamente. Este fue sometido a un análisis confirmatorio, mostrando los indicadores un adecuado ajuste.Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido un instrumento en español con unas buenas características psicométricas y adaptado al contexto cultural de este país. Una herramienta útil para evaluar en qué situaciones se considera más necesario el uso de las restricciones físicas, lo que podría ayudar a diseñar actividades de formación encaminadas a racionalizar su aplicación.Palabras clave. Cuestionarios. Percepción. Restricción física. Anciano. Estudios de validación. PMID:27125606

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Ana; Navarro-Ferrando, María Ángeles; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Escanero-Marcén, Jesús Fernando; Sanz-Paris, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: poco se conoce sobre el impacto de orlistat en el sistema leptina. Estudiamos la respuesta de la leptina plasmática y la sensación de saciedad tras dos días de tratamiento con orlistat sin dieta hipocalórica ni pérdida de peso. Material y métodos: reclutamos veinte mujeres obesas en nuestras consultas externas de medicina. Habían recibido restricción dietética y modificación del estilo de vida, pero se habían mantenido obesas con peso corporal estable durante seis meses antes de su inclusión en el estudio. Resultados: las pacientes tomaron 120 mg de orlistat 3 veces al día y mantuvieron su dieta habitual. Al inicio y dos días después del tratamiento con orlistat se repitieron el examen físico, la sensación de hambre y la analítica. No hubo diferencias significativas en el consumo de energía de la dieta, el peso corporal y la relación cintura-cadera, así como en glucosa sérica, insulina y péptido C. Solamente las concentraciones de leptina y triglicéridos en suero disminuyeron (p: 0,0001 y 0,01, respectivamente). La disminución de la concentración de leptina en suero se correlacionó positivamente con cambios en la concentración de triglicéridos (p: 0.01, r2: 0,45). La sensación de hambre aumento antes de la cena y se correlacionó negativamente con la disminución de la leptina (p: 0,0001, r2: 0,74) y triglicéridos (p: 0,02, r2: 0.59). Conclusión: estos datos sugieren que la malabsorción parcial de grasas por el tratamiento con orlistat disminuye rápidamente los niveles plasmáticos de triglicéridos y leptina. Este descenso se asoció con aumento del apetito antes de la ingesta que sigue a la comida principal del día. PMID:27238788

  19. Imaging the Lithospheric - Asthenosphere Boundary Structure of the Westernmost Mediterranean Using S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, A.; Miller, M. S.; Diaz Cusi, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Iberian microcontinent, in the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean is comprised of the Betic Cordillera Zone, the South Portuguese Zone, the Ossa-Morena Zone, the Central Iberian Zone, the Galicia-Tras Os Montes Zone, the West Asturian-Leonese Zone, and the Cantabrian Zone. These zones were created as a result of three primary stages of Iberian evolution, with the last being the collision of Iberia with in the Late Cretaceous. In northeastern Africa, Neogene convergence between the European and African plates created the Alboran System: comprised of the Gibraltar Arc, Rif-Betics, Atlas Mountains, and Alboran Sea. The primary purpose of this study is to advance our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, as well as the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary (LAB) of the Iberian microcontinent and surrounding areas. Of particular interest is improving our understanding of the evolution from ocean subduction to continental collision that has been taking place in the late stage convergence of this part of the Mediterranean., The region is a particularly complex three-dimensional settings and, several models have been suggested to explain the tectonics of this system including: continental lithospheric delamination and drips, slab breakoff, and subducting slab rollback. Here we use broadband seismic data from 272 broadband instruments deployed in Morocco and Spain as part of the PICASSO and IBERArray (Díaz, J., et al., 2009) projects to constrain lithospheric structure via identification of S-to-p conversions from S receiver functions (SRF). We use SRFs to image the characteristics and structure in terms of seismic velocity discontinuities, including the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the region. Our SRFs agree with previous work that suggests that the lithospheric thickness is shallow (~65 km) beneath the Atlas and thickest (~120 km) beneath the Rif. Additionally, LAB structures

  20. Cómo aumentar la actividad física de los niños durante el período del recreo en las escuelas

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Analizamos si la participación de las escuelas en el Programa de Mejoramiento del Recreo (PMR) en la primavera del año 2011 estuvo asociada a tasas más altas de actividad física intensa en los niños. Métodos. En el PMR, un coordinador dirige a los niños para que practiquen juegos adecuados para la edad a fin de aumentar su nivel de actividad física. Durante el recreo en 25 escuelas primarias públicas de la ciudad de Nueva York (15 participantes en el PMR, 10 no participantes en el PMR) los investigadores observaron algunas áreas predeterminadas (n = 1 339 observaciones) y registraron el número de niños que estaban sedentarios, caminando o muy activos. Resultados. Tras el análisis estadístico con múltiples variables se encontró que la participación en el PMR era una variable predictiva significativa (P = 0,027) de la tasa de actividad física intensa (porcentaje de niños muy activos en las áreas de observación) cuyas medias de los mínimos cuadrados fueron de 41% en las escuelas participantes en el PMR y de 27% en escuelas no participantes en el PMR. En las escuelas participantes en el PMR se siguió registrando una tasa significativamente superior incluso cuando el coordinador de juegos no estaba en el área de observación, lo que sugiere un cambio en la cultura del recreo en las escuelas que participan en este programa. Conclusiones. La tasa de actividad física intensa en las escuelas participantes en el PMR fue 14 puntos porcentuales (o 52%) superior a la tasa registrada en las escuelas no participantes en el PMR. Esta intervención de bajo costo podría ser un agregado valioso a las herramientas para combatir la obesidad infantil y podría valer la pena reproducirla en otros sitios. PMID:24899455

  1. Descompresión microvascular en espasmo hemifacial: Reporte de 13 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Herreros, Isabel Cuervo-Arango; Barrenechea, Ignacio; Andjel, Germán; Ajler, Pablo; Rhoton, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de espasmo hemifacial (EHF), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde Junio de 2005 a Mayo de 2014, 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de EHF fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente, realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la sintomatología, hallazgos intraoperatorios y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 13 pacientes intervenidos, 7 fueron mujeres y 6 varones. La media de edad fue de 53 años. El tiempo medio entre el inicio de la sintomatología y la intervención quirúrgica osciló entre 3 y 9 años. En todos los casos el EHF era típico, uno de ellos con neuralgia trigeminal concomitante, observándose en todos compresión neurovascular intraoperatoria. Por orden decreciente de frecuencia la causa de la compresión fue arteria cerebelosa anteroinferior, arteria cerebelosa posteroinferior, arteria dolicomega basilar y arteria dolicomega vertebral. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 24 meses. El 62% presentó desaparición postquirúrgica inmediata de la sintomatología preoperatoria, el 30% desaparición tras un período de 3 semanas a 2 meses (8% con mejoría parcial), y en el 8% no hubo mejoría. En cuanto a las complicaciones postoperatorias: 3 pacientes presentaron paresia facial II-III en la escala de House-Brackman (se recuperaron en un período de 6 meses), y 1 paciente presentó fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Ninguno de los pacientes de la serie presentaron hipoacusia transitorio o permanente. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento del EHF es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro, que permite la resolución completa de la patología en la mayoría de los casos. PMID:27127708

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Morales-Fernández, M A Teresa; Aranda-Ramírez, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Llopis-González, Juan; Ruiz-Cabello-Turmo, Pilar; Fernández-Martínez, María Del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar la eficacia de un programa de educación e intervención nutricional, de salud integral y ejercicio físico en mujeres posmenopáusicas, incidiendo especialmente en el sector de mujeres fumadoras con el fin de reducir el riesgo cardiovascular de este sector de población. Materiales y métodos: la población objeto de estudio estuvo constituida por 96 mujeres (46-79 años) residentes en Granada (sur de España).Al comienzo del estudio se recogieron las características sociodemográficas y se realizó una valoración nutricional; el consumo de alimentos se evaluó mediante una encuesta de 48 preguntas y un estudio de adhesión a la dieta mediterránea. Se determinaron datos antropométricos: índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de masa grasa y magra. Determinamos también el colesterol total, el colesterol LDL, HDL y los triglicéridos.Una vez obtenidos los primeros resultados, se realizó una intervención personalizada, para cada mujer participante en el estudio, de educación nutricional y de hábitos saludables. Transcurridos tres meses, se volvieron a determinar todos los parámetros anteriormente estudiados. Resultados: al comienzo del estudio se observó que la dieta de la población se adecuaba a los patrones de dieta saludable y tras la intervención nutricional se produjo una mejora del perfil calórico y lipídico y un descenso de la obesidad. En el grupo de las mujeres fumadoras además se encontró una mejora de los parámetros lipídicos séricos, alcanzando valores semejantes a los de las no fumadoras. Conclusiones: se observó que las mujeres posmenopáusicas andaluzas participantes en este estudio tenían una adecuada adhesión a la dieta mediterránea. La intervención nutricional mejoró en todo el grupo la calidad de la dieta y el porcentaje de obesidad y, además en las mujeres fumadoras mejoró el perfil lipídico. PMID:27238798

  3. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C.

    2007-03-15

    la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

  4. Geodesic survey and modernization of a route as the task of optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Edward

    2014-06-01

    A geodesic survey of an existing route requires one to determine the approximation curve by means of optimization using the total least squares method (TLSM). The objective function of the LSM was found to be a square of the Mahalanobis distance in the adjustment field ν. In approximation tasks, the Mahalanobis distance is the distance from a survey point to the desired curve. In the case of linear regression, this distance is codirectional with a coordinate axis; in orthogonal regression, it is codirectional with the normal line to the curve. Accepting the Mahalanobis distance from the survey point as a quasi-observation allows us to conduct adjustment using a numerically exact parametric procedure. Analysis of the potential application of splines under the NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) industrial standard with respect to route approximation has identified two issues: a lack of the value of the localizing parameter for a given survey point and the use of vector parameters that define the shape of the curve. The value of the localizing parameter was determined by projecting the survey point onto the curve. This projection, together with the aforementioned Mahalanobis distance, splits the position vector of the curve into two orthogonal constituents within the local coordinate system of the curve. A similar system corresponds to points that form the control polygonal chain and allows us to find their position with the help of a scalar variable that determines the shape of the curve by moving a knot toward the normal line. Inwentaryzacja istniejącej tras y wymaga wyznaczenia krzywej aproksymującej w wyniku optymalizacji realizowanej metodą najmniejszych kwadratów (TLSM). Analiza funkcji celu LSM wykazała, że jest ona kwadratem odległości Mahalanobisa w przestrzeni poprawek. W zadaniach aproksymacyjnych odległość Mahalanobisa jest miarą odstępu pikiety od wyznaczanej krzywej, w przypadku regresji zwykłej odstęp ten ma kierunek osi układu wsp

  5. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    éries e períodos, observando-se, dentre ou tras coi sas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no Ensino Médio não tem contribuído de forma significativa para uma maior compreensão dos fenòmenos e conceitos.

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Young, Joan K.; Berkowitz, Joan B.; Devine, John C.; Sutter, Herbert G.

    2008-03-18

    One of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F&H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents - approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes - are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC's ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates - WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in the Department of

  7. Savannah River Site Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.; Young, J.K.; Berkowitz, J.B.; DeVine, Jr.J.C.; Sutter, H.G.

    2008-07-01

    One of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F and H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents - approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes - are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC's ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates - WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in the Department

  8. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Young, Joan K.; Berkowitz, Joan B.; Devine, John C.; Sutter, Herbert G.

    2008-10-25

    ABSTRACT One of U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F&H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents – approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes – are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC’s ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates – WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Zubiaga, Lorea; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Giner, Lorena; González, Juan; Aguilar, María Del Mar; García, Alejandro; Calpena, Rafael; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción y objetivo: el IMC puede resultar engañoso para ciertas complexiones corporales, por lo que se han propuesto otros parámetros como la adiposidad (calculada a través de fórmula CUN-BAE,) el índice de Framingham de riesgo cardiovascular (IF) y el índice aterogénico (IA) (rCT/HDL-c) como predictores de riesgo cardiovascular. Se propone comparar estos factores como marcadores de éxito terapéutico tras cirugía en pacientes obesos sometidos a gastrectomía vertical laparoscópica (GVL) como procedimiento de cirugía bariátrica.Material y métodos: realizamos un estudio observacional prospectivo de pacientes sometidos a GVL y con un periodo de seguimiento mínimo de 1 año. Analizamos la evolución de IMC, adiposidad, IF e IA.Resultados: analizamos 140 pacientes. El IMC preoperatorio fue de 49,1 kg/m2, con una adiposidad del 54,8%, un IF 7,54% y un IA de 4,2. A los 12 meses el IMC era de 28,4 kg/m2, con una adiposidad del 39,4%, un IF del 3,7% y un IA de 1,64. En función de estos resultados, a los 12 meses el IMC medio está en rango de sobrepeso, la adiposidad en niveles de obesidad (obesidad: > 25% en hombres y > 35% en mujeres), el IF en rango de riesgo cardiovascular bajo (< 5%) y el IA dentro del rango de normalidad (< 3). Correlacionando estos parámetros observamos que el IMC se correlaciona con la adiposidad tanto en valores preoperatorios (Pearson 0,486; p = 0,004), posoperatorios (Pearson 0,957; p < 0,001), como en la diferencia entre ambos (Pearson 0,606; p = 0,017), lo cual es lógico, porque el IMC se incluye en la fórmula CUN-BAE para el cálculo de la adiposidad. En los valores posoperatorios se objetiva una correlación de la adiposidad con el IF (Pearson 0,814, p = 0,036) y con el IA (Pearson 0,517; p = 0,049). En los valores preoperatorios no se objetivan dichas correlaciones. El IMC no se correlacionó con la adiposidad.Conclusión: la adiposidad se correlaciona con índices de riesgo cardiovascular, como el índice de

  10. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco años, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apuñalamientos y asaltos afectó a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorriqueño de Filadelfia, donde residíamos y conducíamos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narcóticos ha venido a llenar el vacío que dejó la desindustrialización, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narcóticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles más bajos a jóvenes puertorriqueños y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroinómanos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el éxito en la economía de las drogas, garantiza protección en las cárceles y le provee un ingreso mínimo a una población de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagnósticos médicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una dinámica de acumulación primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayoría de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados márgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta dinámica dependen de la violencia y la coerción. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la economía subterránea como si fuese un asunto de diversión. Estos miembros de los niveles más bajos de la industria del narcotráfico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas automáticas. Tras las drásticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnosticándolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes

  11. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  12. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    la AEH en la distinción entre las parejas naturalizadas e invasoras. Las especies con valores altos de AEH estuvieron asociadas típicamente con tasas mayores de crecimiento, pérdida rápida de volumen de material de hojas y periodos de vida más cortos que aquellas especies con AEH baja. Este conjunto de características puede contribuir a la habilidad de las especies para llevar a cabo la transición de naturalizada a invasora a lo largo de una amplia cobertura de contextos ambientales y regímenes de perturbación. Nuestros hallazgos ayudarán en la mejora de los protocolos de ERH, y abogamos por la inclusión de las características cuantitativas, en particular la AEH, en los esquemas de ERH. PMID:25369762

  13. Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2000-08-01

    érée comme satisfaisante dans tous les cas. Afin de simuler des situations plus complexes, la nouvelle version proposée, CELSUB3, a été mise en œuvre dans un projet destiné à contrôler le niveau de la nappe à l'intérieur d'un système d'égouts, dans la ville de Chaar Ladeado (province de Santa Fe, Argentine). Différentes organisations du projet de drainage, qui ont été testées pour des conditions de recharge dynamique causées par la pluie au cours d'une année critique (la plus humide de la chronique disponible) et une année typique, sont brièvement décrites. Après analyse de dix organisations différentes, la meilleure solution technico-économique retenue est un système de drainage souterrain de conduites avec des stations de pompage et des canaux d'évacuation. Resumen. Se presenta un modelo matemático hidrodinámico cuasi-bidimensional de celdas, CELSUB3, apto para la simulación integral de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo basados en campos de bombeo o drenes subsuperficiales. El modelo de simulación presenta un ensamble de algoritmos, previamente desarrollados y testeados, que representan al escurrimiento a través del medio poroso saturado, escurrimiento en conducciones cerradas, estaciones de bombeo, etc. En la estructura del modelo se propone un nuevo tipo de vinculación entre celdas acuíferas y conductos de drenaje, la cual es verificada en problemas simples con solución analítica conocida arrojando, en todos los casos, resultados satisfactorios. Abordando situaciones más complejas, la nueva versión propuesta fue aplicada en un proyecto de control de niveles freáticos que acompaña un sistema de conductos cloacales, en la localidad de Chañar Ladeado, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen las alternativas de drenaje consideradas las cuales fueron evaluadas bajo recargas dinámicas provocadas por años críticamente lluviosos y en situaciones típicas. Los resultados derivados permitieron definir, tras analizar una decena de proyectos

  14. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouyère, Serge; Carabin, Guy; Dassargues, Alain

    'eau du bassin du Geer en Belgique. Le modèle de nappe est décrit en détail et les résultats sont discutés en terme d'impact du changement climatique sur l'évolution des réserves souterraines. Les premiers résultats indiquent que des déficits d'eau souterraine peuvent apparaître dans le futur en Belgique. Se ha desarrollado un modelo hidrológico integrado (MOHISE) para estudiar el impacto del cambio climático en el ciclo hidrológico de cuencas representativas en Bélgica. Este modelo considera todos los procesos hidrológicos de forma coherente, especialmente en relación con los flujos de aguas subterráneas, que son modelados por medio de un enfoque de elementos finitos espacialmente distribuidos. Gracias a esta herramienta numérica precisa, y tras una calibración y validación detalladas, se puede obtener interpretaciones cuantitativas de los resultados del modelo del acuífero. Considerando escenarios de cambio climático IPCC, se ha aplicado el enfoque integrado a la evaluación del impacto de dicho cambio climático en el ciclo hidrológico de la cuenca del Geer. Se describe los detalles y resultados del modelo de las aguas subterráneas en términos del impacto del cambio climático en la evolución de las reservas de los acuíferos. Los resultados preliminares indican que es posible esperar déficits de aguas subterráneas en un futuro en Bélgica.

  15. Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2000-08-01

    érée comme satisfaisante dans tous les cas. Afin de simuler des situations plus complexes, la nouvelle version proposée, CELSUB3, a été mise en œuvre dans un projet destiné à contrôler le niveau de la nappe à l'intérieur d'un système d'égouts, dans la ville de Chaar Ladeado (province de Santa Fe, Argentine). Différentes organisations du projet de drainage, qui ont été testées pour des conditions de recharge dynamique causées par la pluie au cours d'une année critique (la plus humide de la chronique disponible) et une année typique, sont brièvement décrites. Après analyse de dix organisations différentes, la meilleure solution technico-économique retenue est un système de drainage souterrain de conduites avec des stations de pompage et des canaux d'évacuation. Resumen. Se presenta un modelo matemático hidrodinámico cuasi-bidimensional de celdas, CELSUB3, apto para la simulación integral de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo basados en campos de bombeo o drenes subsuperficiales. El modelo de simulación presenta un ensamble de algoritmos, previamente desarrollados y testeados, que representan al escurrimiento a través del medio poroso saturado, escurrimiento en conducciones cerradas, estaciones de bombeo, etc. En la estructura del modelo se propone un nuevo tipo de vinculación entre celdas acuíferas y conductos de drenaje, la cual es verificada en problemas simples con solución analítica conocida arrojando, en todos los casos, resultados satisfactorios. Abordando situaciones más complejas, la nueva versión propuesta fue aplicada en un proyecto de control de niveles freáticos que acompaña un sistema de conductos cloacales, en la localidad de Chañar Ladeado, Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen las alternativas de drenaje consideradas las cuales fueron evaluadas bajo recargas dinámicas provocadas por años críticamente lluviosos y en situaciones típicas. Los resultados derivados permitieron definir, tras analizar una decena de proyectos

  16. Distribution of stable isotopes in arid storms . II. A double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, Alexander; Dody, Avraham; Adar, Eilon M.; Borisov, Viacheslav; Geyh, Mebus

    édible par rapport aux observations a été obtenu après un ajustement des paramètres par une méthode d'essais et d'erreurs. L'analyse de sensibilité et l'application du modèle ont ensuite été réalisés. Le modèle est plutôt sensible aux changements des paramètres caractérisant les zones de stockage dans les dépressions. Le modèle rend compte de l'effet de mémoire isotopique dans l'eau dans le stockage des dépressions entre les événements séquentiels de pluie. L'utilisation d'un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par onde cinématique permet un ajustement qualitatif et quantitatif adapté entre les distributions des δ18O calculées et observées dans l'écoulement de surface. Resumen Un nuevo método matemático basado en un modelo de doble componente de onda cinemática de flujo y transporte permite caracterizar la distribución isotópica dinámica de las tormentas en zonas áridas y la escorrentía. Este modelo describe el transporte y la evolución del δ18O en la lluvia, flujo superficial y escorrentía en una cuenca rocosa de clima árido con detención superficial distribuida uniformemente. El modelo se calibró numéricamente utilizando un conjunto de datos de descarga temporal y de distribución de δ18O para lluvia y escorrentía recogida en una pequeña cuenca rocosa en el Centro de Experimentación de Sede Boker, Israel. Se obtuvo un buen ajuste a los datos tras un ajuste de parámetros mediante prueba y error. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad que indicó que el modelo resulta ser bastante sensible a cambios en los parámetros que caracterizan las zonas de baja detención superficial. El modelo también refleja el efecto de la memoria isotópica en el agua de estas zonas de detención entre los distintos periodos de lluvias. El uso de un modelo de doble componente de onda cinemática de flujo y transporte proporciona un buen ajuste cualitativo y cuantitativo entre los datos medidos y calculados de δ18O en la

  17. Scheme for development of monitoring networks for springs in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Steffen; Einsiedl, Florian; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    constituer un jeu de données de base pour guider la future surveillance. Une procédure de sélection a été développée autour de quatre paramètres: (1) les unités géologiques, comprenant les principaux aquifères, (2) le débit des sources, (3) l'occupation du sol dans le bassin, et (4) la dimension approximative du bassin d'alimentation souterrain. Toutefois, dans la phase initiale de l'étude, seuls les trois premiers paramètres ont été étudiés. Ces paramètres constituent une matrice d'évaluation de chaque région hydrogéologique de Bavière pour aider à la sélection de sources supplémentaires destinées au réseau de surveillance proposé. Resumen. La red de muestreo actual de aguas subterráneas en Bavaria (Alemania) está formada sobre todo por pozos, mientras que apenas hay unos pocos manantiales naturales. Los análisis incluyen, principalmente, los parámetros físico-químicos habituales. Con el objeto de desarrollar un plan de gestión de las aguas subterráneas en Bavaria a largo plazo, el Consejo del Estado para la Gestión del Agua pretende establecer una red de muestreo de manantiales diferenciada en las once regiones en que se divide el estado desde el punto de vista de las aguas subterráneas. Como primer paso, se determinaron los parámetros físico-químicos significativos que mostraban una fluctuación anual considerable (tras un muestreo de 1 a 3 años), con la finalidad de crear una base de datos elemental que canalizara los muestreos futuros. Se desarrolló un procedimiento de selección con base en cuatro parámetros: (1) unidades geológicas y acuíferos principales; (2) caudal del manantial; (3) uso del suelo dentro de la cuenca; y (4) tamaño aproximado de la zona de captación subterránea. Sin embargo, sólo se investigaron los tres primeros parámetros durante la fase inicial del estudio. Con ellos, se estableció una matriz para evaluar cada zona acuífera dentro de Bavaria y ayudar en la inclusión de otros manantiales en la

  18. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    centres de santé et les établissements gouvernementaux étaient les moins susceptibles de changer de traitement. Conclusions Les taux d’échecs immunologiques du traitement et les besoins non satisfaits pour le traitement de 2nde ligne sont élevés en Tanzanie. La surveillance virologique, au moins pour les personnes avec un échec immunologique de traitement, est nécessaire pour minimiser les passages inutiles au traitement de 2nde ligne. Les établissements de santé gouvernementaux de niveau inférieur ont besoin de plus de support pour réduire les taux d’échec de traitement et pour améliorer l'adoption de la thérapie de 2nde ligne afin de maintenir les avantages d'une couverture accrue. Objetivos Las tasas de fallo de la terapia de primera línea y los cambios a la terapia de segunda línea son indicadores claves para los programas nacionales de VIH. Hemos evaluado los fallos en el tratamiento inmunológico definidos según criterios de la OMS dentro del programa nacional para VIH en Tanzania. Métodos Hemos incluido adultos que iniciaban la terapia de primera línea entre el 2004-2011 con un conteo de CD4 antes de recibir el tratamiento, y tras ≥6 meses de seguimiento. Hemos evaluado los subíndices de riesgo del fallo inmunológico en el tratamiento, y el cambio subsecuente a la segunda línea de tratamiento, utilizando análisis de riesgo competitivo para explicar las muertes. Resultados De 121,308 adultos, un 7% experimentó fallo inmunológico, y un 2% murió sin observarse un fallo inmunológico en el tratamiento, a lo largo de una mediana de 1.7 años. La probabilidad acumulada a lo largo de seis años de fallo terapéutico inmunológico era del 19.0% (IC 95% 18.5, 19.7) y de muerte del 5.1% (4.8,5.4). Los vaticinadores de fallo terapéutico inmunológico incluían haber empezado el tratamiento un año antes (p<0.001), haberlo iniciado en centros de menor nivel (SHR=2.23 [2.03,2.45] para dispensarios versus hospitales), ser ombre (1.27 [1