Sample records for proton density-weighted images

  1. Segmentation of humeral head from axial proton density weighted shoulder MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, Aysun; Sezer, Hasan Basri; Albayrak, Songul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of segmentation of axial MR proton density (PD) images of bony humeral head. PD sequence images which are included in standard shoulder MRI protocol are used instead of T1 MR images. Bony structures were reported to be successfully segmented in the literature from T1 MR images. T1 MR images give more sharp determination of bone and soft tissue border but cannot address the pathological process which takes place in the bone. In the clinical settings PD images of shoulder are used to investigate soft tissue alterations which can cause shoulder instability and are better in demonstrating edema and the pathology but have a higher noise ratio than other modalities. Moreover the alteration of humeral head intensity in patients and soft tissues in contact with the humeral head which have the very similar intensities with bone makes the humeral head segmentation a challenging problem in PD images. However segmentation of the bony humeral head is required initially to facilitate the segmentation of the soft tissues of shoulder. In this study shoulder MRI of 33 randomly selected patients were included. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) method was used to decrease noise and then Active Contour Without Edge (ACWE) and Signed Pressure Force (SPF) models were applied on our data set. Success of these methods is determined by comparing our results with manually segmented images by an expert. Applications of these methods on PD images provide highly successful results for segmentation of bony humeral head. This is the first study to determine bone contours in PD images in literature.

  2. Rapid Proton Density Weighted Abdominal MRI at 3 Tesla With RF Non-Uniformity Correction , and K. S. Nayak1

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Rapid Proton Density Weighted Abdominal MRI at 3 Tesla With RF Non-Uniformity Correction H. H. Hu1. Experiments ­ A 30-cm sphere and bottles filled with doped water were imaged with an eight element torso and 20 seconds, respectively. All experiments were performed on a GE 3T scanner. Results ­ In Fig. 1A

  3. A geometric flow for segmenting vasculature in proton-density weighted MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxime Descoteaux; D. Louis Collins; Kaleem Siddiqi

    2008-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery takes advantage of magnetic resonance images (MRI) of a patient's cerebral anatomy and vasculature for planning before surgery and guid- ance during the procedure. Dual echo acquisitions are often performed that yield proton density (PD) and T2-weighted images to evaluate edema near a tumor or lesion. In this paper we develop a novel geometric flow for segmenting vasculature

  4. Calibration of the LLNL Imaging Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Hazi, A. U.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2014-10-01

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g. Au foil) produce well collimated, broadband proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields in high-energy-density systems. The Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS) was previously designed and built (H. Chen 2010, RSI) for use with such laser produced proton beams. The IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 250 at 0.5 MeV and 350 at 2 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging direction. In order to better characterize the imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D FEA solver has been used to calculate the magnetic field of the IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to calibrate the imaging axis of the IPS. Experiments using alpha sources will be used to verify the calculated calibration. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Development of proton CT imaging system for evaluation of proton range calculation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sodai; Nishio, Teiji; Matsushita, Keiichiro; Tsuneda, Masato; Aono, Yuki; Kabuki, Shigeto; Sugiura, Akinori; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] In treatment planning of proton therapy, X-ray CT image is generally utilized for proton dose and range calculations in a patient body. However, there is an error of the conversion from CT value to WEL (Water Equivalent Length), and it turns into the error of proton range calculation. Therefore, WEL can be directly derived by use of pixel value on proton CT (pCT) image. The purpose of this study is development of a simple and convenient pCT imaging system for evaluation of proton range calculation accuracy. [Method] PCT imaging system was constructed with a plastic scintillator and a cooled CCD camera, which acquires the image of integrated value of the scintillation light toward the beam direction. Experiment for evaluation of this system with 70-MeV protons provided by NIRS cyclotron was performed. The proton beam was irradiated to objects of water and other substances phantom with complicated shape. The pCT image reconstructed from the experimental data was quantitatively evaluated. [Result] Construction of pCT image of various objects was successful. The value of WEL factor of water was 1.0 +/-0.1. [Conclusion] The simple and convenient pCT imaging system for evaluation of proton range calculation accuracy was developed and was evaluated by experiment using proton beam.

  6. Nanoscale Current Imaging of the Conducting Channels in Proton

    E-print Network

    Buratto, Steve

    Nanoscale Current Imaging of the Conducting Channels in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells David A area of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is investigated using conductive probe atomic particle at its end. This is due to the formation of protons, at the carbon cloth side of the cell

  7. Proton magnetic resonance imaging of lipid in pecan embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Halloina; Thomas G. Cooper; E. James Potchen; Tommy E. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images of plant tissues typically are manifestations of water protons in tissues. Within oilseeds, however,\\u000a lipids contain a major portion of the mobile protons, which should enable specific imaging of lipids. In this study, experiments\\u000a were done to demonstrate spin-echo imaging (SEI) and chemical-shift imaging (CSI) of lipid within nonimbibed and imbibed embryos\\u000a of pecan (Carya illinoensis), a

  8. Density-Weighted Nyström Method for Computing Large Kernel Eigensystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Zhang; James T. Kwok

    2009-01-01

    The Nyström method is a well-known sampling-based technique for approximating the eigensystem of large kernel matrices. However, the chosen samples in the Nyström method are all assumed to be of equal importance, which deviates from the integral equation that defines the kernel eigenfunctions. Motivated by this observation, we extend the Nyström method to a more general, density-weighted version. We show

  9. Density Weighted FDF Equations for Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we briefly revisit the formulation of density weighted filtered density function (DW-FDF) for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent reacting flows, which was proposed by Jaberi et al. (Jaberi, F.A., Colucci, P.J., James, S., Givi, P. and Pope, S.B., Filtered mass density function for Large-eddy simulation of turbulent reacting flows, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 401, pp. 85-121, 1999). At first, we proceed the traditional derivation of the DW-FDF equations by using the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF), then we explore another way of constructing the DW-FDF equations by starting directly from the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We observe that the terms which are unclosed in the traditional DW-FDF equations are now closed in the newly constructed DW-FDF equations. This significant difference and its practical impact on the computational simulations may deserve further studies.

  10. Proton tracking for medical imaging and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. T.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.; Allinson, N. M.; Esposito, M.; Kacperek, A.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.

    2015-02-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy, where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction—including two in the U.K.. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip detector based system for this application will be presented. The array uses specifically designed large area sensors in several stations in an x-u-v co-ordinate configuration suitable for very fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of giving information on the path of high energy protons entering and exiting a patient. This will allow proton computed tomography (pCT) to aid the accurate delivery of treatment dose with tuned beam profile and energy. The tracker will also be capable of proton counting and position measurement at the higher fluences and full range of energies used during treatment allowing monitoring of the beam profile and total dose. Results and initial characterisation of sensors will be presented along with details of the proposed readout electronics. Radiation tests and studies with different electronics at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre and the higher energy proton therapy facility of iThemba LABS in South Africa will also be shown.

  11. Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Ahmad, Moiz; Matsuura, Taeko; Takao, Seishin; Matsuo, Yuto; Fahrig, Rebecca; Shirato, Hiroki; Umegaki, Kikuo; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT (pXFCT) imaging of gold in a small animal sized object by means of experiments and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: First, proton-induced gold x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) was measured as a function of gold concentration. Vials of 2.2 cm in diameter filled with 0%–5% Au solutions were irradiated with a 220 MeV proton beam and x-ray fluorescence induced by the interaction of protons, and Au was detected with a 3 × 3 mm2 CdTe detector placed at 90° with respect to the incident proton beam at a distance of 45 cm from the vials. Second, a 7-cm diameter water phantom containing three 2.2-diameter vials with 3%–5% Au solutions was imaged with a 7-mm FWHM 220 MeV proton beam in a first generation CT scanning geometry. X-rays scattered perpendicular to the incident proton beam were acquired with the CdTe detector placed at 45 cm from the phantom positioned on a translation/rotation stage. Twenty one translational steps spaced by 3 mm at each of 36 projection angles spaced by 10° were acquired, and pXFCT images of the phantom were reconstructed with filtered back projection. A simplified geometry of the experimental data acquisition setup was modeled with the MC TOPAS code, and simulation results were compared to the experimental data. Results: A linear relationship between gold pXRF and gold concentration was observed in both experimental and MC simulation data (R2 > 0.99). All Au vials were apparent in the experimental and simulated pXFCT images. Specifically, the 3% Au vial was detectable in the experimental [contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) = 5.8] and simulated (CNR = 11.5) pXFCT image. Due to fluorescence x-ray attenuation in the higher concentration vials, the 4% and 5% Au contrast were underestimated by 10% and 15%, respectively, in both the experimental and simulated pXFCT images. Conclusions: Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT imaging of 3%–5% gold solutions in a small animal sized water phantom has been demonstrated for the first time by means of experiments and MC simulations. PMID:25652502

  12. Imaging of Plasma Focus Fusion by Proton Coded Aperture Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebitaher, Alireza; Springham, Stuart Victor; Shutler, Paul Maurice Edmund; Lee, Paul; Rawat, Rajdeep Singh

    2012-06-01

    The coded aperture imaging (CAI) technique has been applied to investigate the spatial distribution of DD fusion in a deuterium filled 1.6 kJ plasma focus (PF) device operated in its neutron-optimized regime. The coded mask has been fabricated in Havar alloy with 20 × 20 pixels and 57 square holes (14% open area) using a Singer-set Cyclic Difference pattern. Five CAI cameras were employed simultaneously: one placed on-axis (0°) and four at 45° to the PF axis. CR-39 polymer nuclear track detectors were used to register proton tracks from D(d,p)T reactions. The detectors were covered by 75 ?m Kapton film to stop all energetic charged particles (mostly deuterons) other than the 3 MeV fusion protons. A de-convolution algorithm was applied to the measured proton track coordinates to obtain images of the fusion source from the five directions. Typically (2-8) × 104 proton tracks were registered by each detector per shot. Also two beryllium fast-neutron detectors were employed simultaneously to measure the associated neutron yield and anisotropy. The CAI images show the fusion source is a cigar-shaped region around the pinch column with no indication of plasma column instabilities. The proton anisotropy is comparable to the measured neutron anisotropy.

  13. Spectral imaging of proton aurora and twilight at Tromsø, Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Galand; J. Baumgardner; D. Pallamraju; S. Chakrabarti; U. P. Løvhaug; D. Lummerzheim; B. S. Lanchester; M. H. Rees

    2004-01-01

    An imaging Echelle spectrograph designed for high-resolution studies of selected spectral features located in the visible spectrum was deployed from November 2001 until April 2003 in Tromsø, Norway. For moderately disturbed magnetic conditions, Tromsø is located on the equatorial edge of the evening auroral oval for several hours. Energetic protons are frequently the dominant particle energy source in this region.

  14. Rapid and robust pulmonary proton ZTE imaging in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Weiger, Markus; Wu, Mingming; Wurnig, Moritz C; Kenkel, David; Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Boss, Andreas; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary MRI is challenging because of the low proton density and rapid transverse relaxation in the lung associated with microscopic magnetic field inhomogeneities caused by tissue-air interfaces. Therefore, low signal is obtained in gradient and spin echo proton images. Alternatively, non-proton MRI using hyperpolarized gases or radial techniques with ultrashort or zero TE have been proposed to image the lung. Also with the latter approach, the general challenge remains to provide full coverage of the lung at sufficient spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image quality within a reasonable scan time. This task is further aggravated by physiological motion and is particularly demanding in small animals, such as mice. In this work, three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) imaging is employed for efficient pulmonary MRI. Four protocols with different averaging and respiratory triggering schemes are developed and compared with respect to image quality and SNR. To address the critical issue of background signal in ZTE images, a subtraction approach is proposed, providing images virtually free of disturbing signal from nearby hardware parts. The protocols are tested for pulmonary MRI in six mice at 4.7 T, consistently providing images of high quality with a 3D isotropic resolution of 313 µm and SNR values in the lung between 8.0 and 18.5 within scan times between 1 min 21 s and 4 min 44 s. A generally high robustness of the ZTE approach against motion is observed, whilst respiratory triggering further improves the SNR and visibility of image details. The developed techniques are expected to enable efficient preclinical animal studies in the lung and will also be of importance for human applications. Further improvements are expected from radiofrequency (RF) coils with increased SNR and reduced background signal. PMID:25066371

  15. Fabrication of fine imaging devices using an external proton microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, T.; Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Ishii, Y.; Oshima, A.

    2014-08-01

    We have successfully fabricated novel microscopic imaging devices made from UV/EB curable resin using an external scanning proton microbeam. The devices are micro-structured fluorescent plates that consist of an array of micro-pillars that align periodically. The base material used in the pillars is UV/EB curable resin and each pillar contains phosphor grains. The pattern exposures were performed using a proton beam writing technique. The height of the pillars depends on the range of the proton beam. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the samples. The results show that the fabricated fluorescent plates are expected to be compatible with both spatial resolution and detection efficiency.

  16. Imaging detector systems for soft x-ray and proton radiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. P. King; Stuart A. Baker; Steven A. Jaramillo; Kris Kwiatkowski; Stephen S. Lutz; Gary E. Hogan; Vanner H. Holmes; Christopher L. Morris; Paul T. Nedrow; Peter D. Pazuchanics; John S. Rohrer; Dan S. Sorenson; Richard T. Thompson

    2003-01-01

    Multi-pulse imaging systems have been developed for recording images from pulsed X-ray and proton radiographic sources. The number of successive images for x-ray radiography is limited to four being generated by 25 ns, pulsed sources in a close positioned geometry. The number of proton images are provided by the number of proton bursts (approximately 60 ns) delivered to the radiographic

  17. Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Penfold, S. N.; Schulte, R. W.; Censor, Y.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative projection reconstruction algorithms are currently the preferred reconstruction method in proton computed tomography (pCT). However, due to inconsistencies in the measured data arising from proton energy straggling and multiple Coulomb scattering, the noise in the reconstructed image increases with successive iterations. In the current work, the authors investigated the use of total variation superiorization (TVS) schemes that can be applied as an algorithmic add-on to perturbation-resilient iterative projection algorithms for pCT image reconstruction. Methods: The block-iterative diagonally relaxed orthogonal projections (DROP) algorithm was used for reconstructing GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulated pCT data sets. Two TVS schemes added on to DROP were investigated; the first carried out the superiorization steps once per cycle and the second once per block. Simplifications of these schemes, involving the elimination of the computationally expensive feasibility proximity checking step of the TVS framework, were also investigated. The modulation transfer function and contrast discrimination function were used to quantify spatial and density resolution, respectively. Results: With both TVS schemes, superior spatial and density resolution was achieved compared to the standard DROP algorithm. Eliminating the feasibility proximity check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the once-per-block superiorization, while also halving image reconstruction time. Overall, the greatest image quality was observed when carrying out the superiorization once per block and eliminating the feasibility proximity check. Conclusions: The low-contrast imaging made possible with TVS holds a promise for its incorporation into future pCT studies. PMID:21158301

  18. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-12-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders.

  19. SU-E-J-175: Proton Dose Calculation On Scatter-Corrected CBCT Image: Feasibility Study for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Winey, B; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate feasibility of proton dose calculation on scattercorrected CBCT images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: Two CBCT image sets were acquired from a prostate cancer patient and a thorax phantom using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. 2-D scatter maps were estimated using a previously introduced CT-based technique, and were subtracted from each raw projection image. A CBCT image set was then reconstructed with an open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK). Conversion from the CBCT number to HU was performed by soft tissue-based shifting with reference to the plan CT. Passively scattered proton plans were simulated on the plan CT and corrected/uncorrected CBCT images using the XiO treatment planning system. For quantitative evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) was compared in those treatment plans. Results: The scatter correction method significantly improved image quality and HU accuracy in the prostate case where large scatter artifacts were obvious. However, the correction technique showed limited effects on the thorax case that was associated with fewer scatter artifacts. Mean absolute WEPL errors from the plans with the uncorrected and corrected images were 1.3 mm and 5.1 mm in the thorax case and 13.5 mm and 3.1 mm in the prostate case. The prostate plan dose distribution of the corrected image demonstrated better agreement with the reference one than that of the uncorrected image. Conclusion: A priori CT-based CBCT scatter correction can reduce the proton dose calculation error when large scatter artifacts are involved. If scatter artifacts are low, an uncorrected CBCT image is also promising for proton dose calculation when it is calibrated with the soft-tissue based shifting.

  20. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, P G; Torres-Espallardo, I; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-03-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming ? energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of detection, from the beam particle entering a phantom to the event classification, is simulated using FLUKA. The range determination is later estimated from the reconstructed image obtained from a two and three-event algorithm based on Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization. The neutron background and random coincidences due to a therapeutic-like time structure are analyzed for mono-energetic proton beams. The time structure of the beam is included in the simulations, which will affect the rate of particles entering the detector. PMID:25658644

  1. Proton emission imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-print Network

    DeCiantis, Joseph Loreto

    2005-01-01

    A proton core imaging system has been developed and extensively used for measuring the nuclear burn regions of inertial confinement fusion implosions. These imaging cameras, mounted to the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility, use ...

  2. Monitoring proton radiation therapy with in-room PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuping; España, Samuel; Daartz, Juliane; Liebsch, Norbert; Ouyang, Jinsong; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas R; El Fakhri, Georges

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We used a mobile PET scanner positioned within the proton therapy treatment room to study the feasibility of proton range verification with an in-room, stand-alone PET system, and compared with off-line equivalent studies. Methods and materials Two subjects with adenoid cystic carcinoma were enrolled into a pilot study in which in-room PET scans were acquired in list-mode after a routine fractionated treatment session. The list-mode PET data were reconstructed with different time schemes to generate in-room short, in-room long and off-line equivalent (by skipping coincidences from the first 15 minutes during the list-mode reconstruction) PET images for comparison in activity distribution patterns. A phantom study was followed to evaluate the accuracy of range verification for different reconstruction time schemes quantitatively. Results The in-room PET has a higher sensitivity compared to the off-line modality so that the PET acquisition time can be greatly reduced from 30 min to <5 min. Features in deep-site, soft-tissue regions were better retained with in-room short PET acquisitions because of the collection of 15O component and lower biological washout. For soft tissue-equivalent material, the distal fall-off edge of an in-room short acquisition is deeper compared to an off-line equivalent scan, indicating a better coverage of the high-dose end of the beam. Conclusions In-room PET is a promising low cost, high sensitivity modality for the in vivo verification of proton therapy. Better accuracy in Monte Carlo predictions, especially for biological decay modeling, is necessary. PMID:21677366

  3. Proton magnetic resonance imaging with para-hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Dechent, Jan F; Buljubasich, Lisandro; Schreiber, Laura M; Spiess, Hans W; Münnemann, Kerstin

    2012-02-21

    A major challenge in imaging is the detection of small amounts of molecules of interest. In the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) their signals are typically concealed by the large background signal of e.g. the body. This problem can be tackled by hyperpolarization which increases the NMR signals up to several orders of magnitude. However, this strategy is limited for (1)H, the most widely used nucleus in NMR and MRI, because the enormous number of protons in the body screens the small amount of hyperpolarized ones. Here, we describe a method giving rise to high (1)H MRI contrast for hyperpolarized molecules against a large background signal. The contrast is based on the J-coupling induced rephasing of the NMR signal of molecules hyperpolarized via PHIP and it can easily be implemented in common pulse sequences. We discuss several scenarios with different or equal dephasing times T(2)* for the hyperpolarized and thermally polarized compounds and verify our approach by experiments. This method may open up unprecedented opportunities to use the standard MRI nucleus (1)H for e.g. metabolic imaging in the future. PMID:22240943

  4. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R

    2010-02-09

    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better understand these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only provide at high-resolution the energy distribution, but also the protons angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from other methods using radiochromic film packs, CR39 films and other protons spectrometers. The basic characterizations and example data from this diagnostics will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, as part of the Cimarron project funded by LDRD-09SI11.

  5. Science to Practice: Highly shifted proton MR imaging--a shift toward better cell tracking?

    PubMed

    Bulte, Jeff W M

    2014-09-01

    Summary A "hot spot" magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cell tracking technique has been developed that allows direct detection of dysprosium- or thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-?,?',?'',?'''-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTMA)-labeled protons inside cells. These highly shifted protons may allow specific detection of multiple cell types because it does not rely on acquiring the proton signal from bulk water. PMID:25153271

  6. Science to Practice: Highly Shifted Proton MR imaging—A Shift toward Better Cell Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A “hot spot” magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cell tracking technique has been developed that allows direct detection of dysprosium- or thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-?,??,??,??-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTMA)–labeled protons inside cells. These highly shifted protons may allow specific detection of multiple cell types because it does not rely on acquiring the proton signal from bulk water. PMID:25153271

  7. Invited Article: Relation between electric and magnetic field structures and their proton-beam images

    SciTech Connect

    Kugland, N. L.; Ryutov, D. D.; Plechaty, C.; Ross, J. S.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Proton imaging is commonly used to reveal the electric and magnetic fields that are found in high energy density plasmas. Presented here is an analysis of this technique that is directed towards developing additional insight into the underlying physics. This approach considers: formation of images in the limits of weak and strong intensity variations; caustic formation and structure; image inversion to obtain line-integrated field characteristics; direct relations between images and electric or magnetic field structures in a plasma; imaging of sharp features such as Debye sheaths and shocks. Limitations on spatial and temporal resolution are assessed, and similarities with optical shadowgraphy are noted. Synthetic proton images are presented to illustrate the analysis. These results will be useful for quantitatively analyzing experimental proton imaging data and verifying numerical codes.

  8. Invited article: Relation between electric and magnetic field structures and their proton-beam images.

    PubMed

    Kugland, N L; Ryutov, D D; Plechaty, C; Ross, J S; Park, H-S

    2012-10-01

    Proton imaging is commonly used to reveal the electric and magnetic fields that are found in high energy density plasmas. Presented here is an analysis of this technique that is directed towards developing additional insight into the underlying physics. This approach considers: formation of images in the limits of weak and strong intensity variations; caustic formation and structure; image inversion to obtain line-integrated field characteristics; direct relations between images and electric or magnetic field structures in a plasma; imaging of sharp features such as Debye sheaths and shocks. Limitations on spatial and temporal resolution are assessed, and similarities with optical shadowgraphy are noted. Synthetic proton images are presented to illustrate the analysis. These results will be useful for quantitatively analyzing experimental proton imaging data and verifying numerical codes. PMID:23126744

  9. Quantitative proton imaging from multiple physics processes: a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, C.; Rescigno, R.; Rousseau, M.; Brasse, D.

    2015-07-01

    Proton imaging is developed in order to improve the accuracy of charged particle therapy treatment planning. It makes it possible to directly map the relative stopping powers of the materials using the information on the energy loss of the protons. In order to reach a satisfactory spatial resolution in the reconstructed images, the position and direction of each particle is recorded upstream and downstream from the patient. As a consequence of individual proton detection, information on the transmission rate and scattering of the protons is available. Image reconstruction processes are proposed to make use of this information. A proton tomographic acquisition of an anthropomorphic head phantom was simulated. The transmission rate of the particles was used to reconstruct a map of the macroscopic cross section for nuclear interactions of the materials. A two-step iterative reconstruction process was implemented to reconstruct a map of the inverse scattering length of the materials using the scattering of the protons. Results indicate that, while the reconstruction processes should be optimized, it is possible to extract quantitative information from the transmission rate and scattering of the protons. This suggests that proton imaging could provide additional knowledge on the materials that may be of use to further improve treatment planning.

  10. Quantitative proton imaging from multiple physics processes: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Bopp, C; Rescigno, R; Rousseau, M; Brasse, D

    2015-07-01

    Proton imaging is developed in order to improve the accuracy of charged particle therapy treatment planning. It makes it possible to directly map the relative stopping powers of the materials using the information on the energy loss of the protons. In order to reach a satisfactory spatial resolution in the reconstructed images, the position and direction of each particle is recorded upstream and downstream from the patient. As a consequence of individual proton detection, information on the transmission rate and scattering of the protons is available. Image reconstruction processes are proposed to make use of this information. A proton tomographic acquisition of an anthropomorphic head phantom was simulated. The transmission rate of the particles was used to reconstruct a map of the macroscopic cross section for nuclear interactions of the materials. A two-step iterative reconstruction process was implemented to reconstruct a map of the inverse scattering length of the materials using the scattering of the protons. Results indicate that, while the reconstruction processes should be optimized, it is possible to extract quantitative information from the transmission rate and scattering of the protons. This suggests that proton imaging could provide additional knowledge on the materials that may be of use to further improve treatment planning. PMID:26108277

  11. Fatty infiltration of the liver: demonstration by proton spectroscopic imaging: preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.T.; Dixon, W.T.; Ling, D.; Levitt, R.G.; Murphy, W.A. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Two normal volunteers and three patients with CT evidence of fatty infiltration of the liver were studied to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging using a pulse sequence designed to differentiate fat and water could be used to detect fatty infiltration of the liver in human being. The magnetic resonance technique used a modified spin echo technique (simple proton spectroscopic imaging). Quantitative data showed that fatty liver can be separated from normal liver using the spin echo technique, and that the opposed image of the proton spectroscopic technique is more sensitive to small changes in hepatic fatty content than in-phase images with any echo time.

  12. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-01

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed.Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30?cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330?MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor [Formula: see text] = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor [Formula: see text] are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of [Formula: see text] factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories.[Formula: see text] was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX(2) where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,-??0.46 respectively for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using [Formula: see text] than [Formula: see text] (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330?MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15?cm) when using the [Formula: see text] model compared to the [Formula: see text] model. Calculation times for [Formula: see text] are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation.Based on the results of this study, using CST with the [Formula: see text] factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton trajectories. PMID:26061775

  13. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F.; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-01

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10–30?cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180–330?MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor ?0,1\\text{Norm} = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor ?0,1{} are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of ?0,1\\text{opt} factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. ?0,1\\text{opt} was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX2 where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,???0.46 respectively for ?0\\text{opt} , ?1\\text{opt} ). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using ?0,1\\text{Norm} than ?0,1\\text{opt} (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330?MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15?cm) when using the ?0,1\\text{opt} model compared to the ?0,1\\text{Norm} model. Calculation times for ?0,1\\text{opt} are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation. Based on the results of this study, using CST with the ?0,1\\text{opt} factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton trajectories.

  14. NOTE: The influence of CT image noise on proton range calculation in radiotherapy planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei V. Chvetsov; Sandra L. Paige

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to evaluate the relationship between the stochastic errors in CT numbers and the standard deviation of the computed proton beam range in radiotherapy planning. The stochastic voxel-to-voxel variation in CT numbers called 'noise,' may be due to signal registration, processing and numerical image reconstruction technique. Noise in CT images may cause a deviation in

  15. A proton Computed Tomography based medical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringella, M.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Civinini, C.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Pallotta, S.; Pugliatti, C.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Sipala, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Talamonti, C.; Vanzi, E.; Zani, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the activity of the INFN PRIMA/RDH collaboration in the development of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) systems based on single proton tracking and residual energy measurement. The systems are made of a silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter to measure single protons trajectory and residual energy, respectively. A first prototype of pCT scanner, with an active area of about 5 × 5 cm2 and a data rate capability of 10 kHz, has been constructed and characterized with 62 MeV protons at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy) and with 180 MeV protons at The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala (Sweden). Results of these measurements, including tomographic reconstructions of test phantoms, will be shown and discussed. An upgraded system with an extended field of view (up to ~ 5 × 20 cm2) and an increased event rate capability up to one MHz, presently under development, will be also described.

  16. Glioma Grading: Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Values of Perfusion MR Imaging and Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging Compared with Conventional MR Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Law; Stanley Yang; Hao Wang; James S. Babb; Glyn Johnson; Soonmee Cha; Edmond A. Knopp; David Zagzag

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of conventional MR imaging in predicting glioma grade are not high. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measurements derived from perfusion MR imaging and metabolite ratios from proton MR spectroscopy are useful in predicting glioma grade. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of perfusion MR imaging

  17. Transverse Imaging of the Proton in Exclusive Diffractive pp Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Christian Weiss; Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman

    2006-04-20

    In a forthcoming paper we describe a new approach to rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, Higgs, etc.) in exclusive double-gap diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent (QCD factorization), and allows us to calculate the RGS probability in a model-independent way in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the colliding protons and the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Here we focus on the transverse momentum dependence of the cross section. By measuring the ''diffraction pattern'', one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton from the data.

  18. Proton damage effects in an EEV CCD imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Hopkinson; Ch. Chlebek

    1989-01-01

    A three-phase CCD (charge-coupled device) has been irradiated by 40-MeV protons up to a fluence of 3 x 10 to the 8th p\\/sq cm. Dark charge spikes appeared, but these were smaller than those previously reported for virtual-phase CCDs. Dark charge maps were obtained at several temperatures. The larger spikes showed erratic temperature behavior, whereas the smaller ones decreased in

  19. Early Characteristics of Sturge-Weber Syndrome Shown by Perfusion MR Imaging and Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris D. M. Lin; Peter B. Barker; Michael A. Kraut; Anne Comi

    Summary: We report the case of a 9-month-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome and new onset of seizure. Perfu- sion MR imaging showed early changes compatible with impaired venous drainage in the affected hemisphere, whereas proton MR spectroscopic imaging revealed a focal parietal area of elevated choline without significant alter- ation of N-acetylaspartate levels. The perfusion and subtle metabolic abnormalities are

  20. Investigation of relativistic intensity laser generated hot electron dynamics via copper K? imaging and proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Morace, A.; Bartal, T.; Kim, J.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.; Beg, F. N.; Krushelnick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Simultaneous experimental measurements of copper K? imaging and the maximum target normal sheath acceleration proton energies from the rear target surface are compared for various target thicknesses. For the T-cubed laser (?4 J, 400 fs) at an intensity of ?2 × 1019 W cm-2, the hot electron divergence is determined to be ?HW HM?22° using a K? imaging diagnostic. The maximum proton energies are measured to follow the expected reduction with increasing target thickness. Numerical modeling produces copper K? trends for both signal level and electron beam divergence that are in good agreement with the experiment. A geometric model describing the electron beam divergence reproduces the maximum proton energy trends observed from the experiment and the fast electron density and the peak electric field observed in the numerical modeling.

  1. Simulation of monoenergetic proton radiography images of ICF hohlraums and capsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Manuel; F. H. Séguin; S. McDuffee; C. K. Li; D. T. Casey; J. A. Frenje; J. R. Rygg; R. D. Petrasso; V. A. Smalyuk

    2006-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo program is being developed for simulating radiographic images that could be obtained of objects of importance to the ICF program by using 14.7-MeV fusion protons from imploded ICF capsules with thin glass shells and D^3He fuel. Experiments we've performed at the OMEGA laser facility have already proven that such imaging is very good for studying the spatial distribution

  2. MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopic studies in Sjogren-Larsson syndrome: characterization of the leukoencephalopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel A. A. P. Willemsen; Marinette van der Graaf; Marjo S. van der Knaap; Arend Heerschap; Peter H. M. F. van Domburg; F. J. M. Gabreëls; Jan J. Rotteveel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a neurocutaneous syndrome caused by a genetic enzyme deficiency in lipid metabolism. Our purpose was to characterize the nature of the cerebral involvement in SLS. METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 18 patients (aged 5 months to 45 years) and repeated in 14. Single-voxel proton MR spectra were acquired from cerebral white matter

  3. Simulation of monoenergetic proton radiography images of ICF hohlraums and capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M.; Séguin, F. H.; McDuffee, S.; Li, C. K.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Rygg, J. R.; Petrasso, R. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2006-10-01

    A Monte-Carlo program is being developed for simulating radiographic images that could be obtained of objects of importance to the ICF program by using 14.7-MeV fusion protons from imploded ICF capsules with thin glass shells and D^3He fuel. Experiments we've performed at the OMEGA laser facility have already proven that such imaging is very good for studying the spatial distribution of B fields generated by laser-plasma interactions when the protons pass through small amounts of low-Z material (e.g. ˜ 1 mg/cm^2 of Al or CH). Other objects we would like to image, including high-Z hohlraums with laser-generated B fields, imploded ICF capsules, and various foils used for planar Rayleigh-Taylor experiments, will subject the protons to more scattering that will degrade image spatial resolution. We will present simulations of images of some of these objects and discuss the practical limits of this type of imaging technology. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03-03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974), and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging of bone pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Atlan, H.; Sigal, R.; Hadar, H.; Chisin, R.; Cohen, I.; Lanir, A.; Soudry, M.; Machtey, Y.; Schreiber, R.; Benmair, J.

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with diversified pathology were examined with a supraconductive NMR imager using spin echo with different TR and TE to obtain T1 and T2 weighted images. They included 20 tumors (12 primary, eight metastasis), six osteomyelitis, three fractures, two osteonecrosis, and one diffuse metabolic (Gaucher) disease. In all cases except for the stress fractures, the bone pathology was clearly visualized in spite of the normal lack of signal from the compact cortical bone. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging proved to be at least as sensitive as radionuclide scintigraphy but much more accurate than all other imaging procedures including computed tomography (CT) and angiography to assess the extension of the lesions, especially in tumors extended to soft tissue. This is due both to easy acquisition of sagittal and coronal sections and to different patterns of pathologic modifications of T1 and T2 which are beginning to be defined. It is hoped that more experience in clinical use of these patterns will help to discriminate between tumor extension and soft-tissue edema. We conclude that while radionuclide scintigraphy will probably remain the most sensitive and easy to perform screening test for bone pathology, NMR imaging, among noninvasive diagnostic procedures, appears to be at least as specific as CT. In addition, where the extension of the lesions is concerned, NMR imaging is much more informative than CT. In pathology of the spine, the easy visualization of the spinal cord should decrease the need for myelography.

  5. Realistic Transverse Images of the Proton Charge and Magnetic Densities

    E-print Network

    Siddharth Venkat; John Arrington; Gerald A. Miller; Xiaohui Zhan

    2010-11-05

    We develop a technique, denoted as the finite radius approximation (FRA), that uses a two-dimensional version of the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem to determine transverse densities and their uncertainties from experimental quantities. Uncertainties arising from experimental uncertainties on the form factors and lack of measured data at high $Q^2$ are treated. A key feature of the FRA is that a form factor measured at a given value of $Q^2$ is related to a definite region in coordinate space. An exact relation between the FRA and the use of a Bessel series is derived. The proton Dirac form factor is well enough known such that the transverse charge density is very accurately known except for transverse separations $b$ less than about 0.1 fm. The Pauli form factor is well known to $Q^2$ of about 10 GeV$^2$, and this allows a reasonable, but improvable, determination of the anomalous magnetic moment density.

  6. The influence of CT image noise on proton range calculation in radiotherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Paige, Sandra L

    2010-03-21

    The purpose of this note is to evaluate the relationship between the stochastic errors in CT numbers and the standard deviation of the computed proton beam range in radiotherapy planning. The stochastic voxel-to-voxel variation in CT numbers called 'noise,' may be due to signal registration, processing and numerical image reconstruction technique. Noise in CT images may cause a deviation in the computed proton range from the physical proton range, even assuming that the error due to CT number-stopping power calibration is removed. To obtain the probability density function (PDF) of the computed proton range, we have used the continuing slowing down approximation (CSDA) and the uncorrelated white Gaussian noise along the proton path. The model of white noise was accepted because for the slice-based fan-beam CT scanner; the power-spectrum properties apply only to the axial (x, y) domain and the noise is uncorrelated in the z domain. However, the possible influence of the noise power spectrum on the standard deviation of the range should be investigated in the future. A random number generator was utilized for noise simulation and this procedure was iteratively repeated to obtain convergence of range PDF, which approached a Gaussian distribution. We showed that the standard deviation of the range, sigma, increases linearly with the initial proton energy, computational grid size and standard deviation of the voxel values. The 95% confidence interval width of the range PDF, which is defined as 4sigma, may reach 0.6 cm for the initial proton energy of 200 MeV, computational grid 0.25 cm and 5% standard deviation of CT voxel values. Our results show that the range uncertainty due to random errors in CT numbers may be significant and comparable to the uncertainties due to calibration of CT numbers. PMID:20182006

  7. Phantom based evaluation of CT to CBCT image registration for proton therapy dose recalculation.

    PubMed

    Landry, Guillaume; Dedes, George; Zöllner, Christoph; Handrack, Josefine; Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Reiner, Michael; Paganelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Kamp, Florian; Söhn, Matthias; Wilkens, Jan J; Baroni, Guido; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia

    2015-01-21

    The ability to perform dose recalculation on the anatomy of the day is important in the context of adaptive proton therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of deformable image registration (DIR) and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging to generate the daily stopping power distribution of the patient. We investigated the deformation of the planning CT scan (pCT) onto daily CBCT images to generate a virtual CT (vCT) using a deformable phantom designed for the head and neck (H & N) region. The phantom was imaged at a planning CT scanner in planning configuration, yielding a pCT and in deformed, treatment day configuration, yielding a reference CT (refCT). The treatment day configuration was additionally scanned at a CBCT scanner. A Morphons DIR algorithm was used to generate a vCT. The accuracy of the vCT was evaluated by comparison to the refCT in terms of corresponding features as identified by an adaptive scale invariant feature transform (aSIFT) algorithm. Additionally, the vCT CT numbers were compared to those of the refCT using both profiles and regions of interest and the volumes and overlap (DICE coefficients) of various phantom structures were compared. The water equivalent thickness (WET) of the vCT, refCT and pCT were also compared to evaluate proton range differences. Proton dose distributions from the same initial fluence were calculated on the refCT, vCT and pCT and compared in terms of proton range. The method was tested on a clinical dataset using a replanning CT scan acquired close in time to a CBCT scan as reference using the WET evaluation. Results from the aSIFT investigation suggest a deformation accuracy of 2-3?mm. The use of the Morphon algorithm did not distort CT number intensity in uniform regions and WET differences between vCT and refCT were of the order of 2% of the proton range. This result was confirmed by proton dose calculations. The patient results were consistent with phantom observations. In conclusion, our phantom study suggests the vCT approach is adequate for proton dose recalculation on the basis of CBCT imaging. PMID:25548912

  8. Phantom based evaluation of CT to CBCT image registration for proton therapy dose recalculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Guillaume; Dedes, George; Zöllner, Christoph; Handrack, Josefine; Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Reiner, Michael; Paganelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Kamp, Florian; Söhn, Matthias; Wilkens, Jan J.; Baroni, Guido; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform dose recalculation on the anatomy of the day is important in the context of adaptive proton therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of deformable image registration (DIR) and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging to generate the daily stopping power distribution of the patient. We investigated the deformation of the planning CT scan (pCT) onto daily CBCT images to generate a virtual CT (vCT) using a deformable phantom designed for the head and neck (H & N) region. The phantom was imaged at a planning CT scanner in planning configuration, yielding a pCT and in deformed, treatment day configuration, yielding a reference CT (refCT). The treatment day configuration was additionally scanned at a CBCT scanner. A Morphons DIR algorithm was used to generate a vCT. The accuracy of the vCT was evaluated by comparison to the refCT in terms of corresponding features as identified by an adaptive scale invariant feature transform (aSIFT) algorithm. Additionally, the vCT CT numbers were compared to those of the refCT using both profiles and regions of interest and the volumes and overlap (DICE coefficients) of various phantom structures were compared. The water equivalent thickness (WET) of the vCT, refCT and pCT were also compared to evaluate proton range differences. Proton dose distributions from the same initial fluence were calculated on the refCT, vCT and pCT and compared in terms of proton range. The method was tested on a clinical dataset using a replanning CT scan acquired close in time to a CBCT scan as reference using the WET evaluation. Results from the aSIFT investigation suggest a deformation accuracy of 2–3?mm. The use of the Morphon algorithm did not distort CT number intensity in uniform regions and WET differences between vCT and refCT were of the order of 2% of the proton range. This result was confirmed by proton dose calculations. The patient results were consistent with phantom observations. In conclusion, our phantom study suggests the vCT approach is adequate for proton dose recalculation on the basis of CBCT imaging.

  9. Analysis of the performance of CMOS APS imagers after proton damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroli, S.; Passeri, D.; Servoli, L.; Angelucci, A.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we have irradiated a standard commercial CMOS imager with a 24 MeV proton beam at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy) up to a nominal fluence of 1014 [protons/cm-2]. The device under test was a standard VGA detector, fabricated with a 130 nm technology without radiation hardening. During the irradiation the detector was operated to monitor the progressive damaging of the sensor and the associated on-pixel electronics. After 18 months from the irradiation damage session, with the detector stored at room temperature, a study on the detection efficiency and charge collection capability has been carried out using fluorescent X-ray photons, emitted from copper target. We found that the detector is still working at 1013 protons/cm2, with a moderate increase of the noise and a slightly decrease of the detection capabilities.

  10. Predicting image blur in proton radiography: comparisons between measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    von Wittenau, A; Aufderheide, M B; Henderson, G L

    2010-05-07

    Given the cost and lead-times involved in high-energy proton radiography, it is prudent to model proposed radiographic experiments to see if the images predicted would return useful information. We recently modified our raytracing transmission radiography modeling code HADES to perform simplified Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of protons in a proton radiography beamline. Beamline objects include the initial diffuser, vacuum magnetic fields, windows, angle-selecting collimators, and objects described as distorted 2D (planar or cylindrical) meshes or as distorted 3D hexahedral meshes. We present an overview of the algorithms used for the modeling and code timings for simulations through typical 2D and 3D meshes. We next calculate expected changes in image blur as scattering materials are placed upstream and downstream of a resolution test object (a 3 mm thick sheet of tantalum, into which 0.4 mm wide slits have been cut), and as the current supplied to the focusing magnets is varied. We compare and contrast the resulting simulations with the results of measurements obtained at the 800 MeV Los Alamos LANSCE Line-C proton radiography facility.

  11. Proton-enhanced sup 13 C imaging/spectroscopy by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.D.; Quint, L.E.; Yeung, H.N. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Carbon-13 magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy (CMRI/S) was performed using polarization transfer techniques where sensitivity of the carbon signal was enhanced by transferring the proton spin order to the carbon nuclei. The experimental feasibility of using polarization transfer techniques at 2.0 T was demonstrated with a phantom and an intact chicken egg. The potential clinical applications of CMRI/S with polarization transfer include the assessment of prostate cancer. Preliminary results using human prostate specimens are presented.

  12. Evaluation of a multistage CdZnTe Compton camera for prompt ? imaging for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, M.; Kaye, W.; Mackin, D. S.; Beddar, S.; He, Z.; Polf, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    A new detector system, Polaris J from H3D, has been evaluated for its potential application as a Compton camera (CC) imaging device for prompt ? rays (PGs) emitted during proton radiation therapy (RT) for the purpose of dose range verification. This detector system consists of four independent CdZnTe detector stages and a coincidence module, allowing the user to construct a Compton camera in different geometrical configurations and to accept both double and triple scatter events. Energy resolution for the 662 keV line from 137Cs was found to be 9.7 keV FWHM. The raw absolute efficiencies for double and triple scatter events were 2.2 ×10-5 and 5.8 ×10-7, respectively, for ?s from a 60Co source. The position resolution for the reconstruction of a point source from the measured CC data was about 2 mm. Overall, due to the low efficiency of the Polaris J CC, the current system was deemed not viable for imaging PGs emitted during proton RT treatment delivery. However, using a validated Monte Carlo model of the CC, we found that by increasing the size of the detectors and placing them in a two stage configuration, the efficiency could be increased to a level to make PG imaging possible during proton RT.

  13. Self-correction of proton spectroscopic images for gradient eddy current distortions and static field inhomogeneities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G; Jung, K J; Wu, E X; Hilal, S K

    1993-08-01

    A postprocessing method of correcting for gradient eddy current distortions and inter-voxel static field inhomogeneity in spectroscopic imaging is presented. Data is acquired normally and all spatial processing is performed. The FID in each voxel is then digitally filtered to extract the signal from a single reference line. Phase multiplying the original FID by the phase of this reference signal corrects for gradient eddy currents and static field offsets. Computer simulations show that the method is robust with respect to noise, filter bandwidth and the presence of small lines close to the reference line. The method is demonstrated on proton spectroscopic images of phantoms. PMID:8366808

  14. Knowledge-based image processing for proton therapy planning of ocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noeh, Sebastian; Haarbeck, Klaus; Bornfeld, Norbert; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    Our project is concerned with the improvement of radiation treatment procedures for ocular tumors. In this context the application of proton beams offers new possibilities to considerably enhance precision and reliability of current radiation treatment systems. A precise model of the patient's eye and the tumor is essential for determining the necessary treatment plan. Current treatment systems base their irradiation plan calculations mainly on schematic eye models (e.g., Gullstrand's schematic eye). The adjustment of the model to the patient's anatomy is done by distorting the model according to information from ultrasound and/or CT images. In our project a precise model of the orbita is determined from CT, high resolution MRT, ultrasound (A-mode depth images and/or 2D B-mode images) and photographs of the fundus. The results from various segmentation and image analysis steps performed on all the data are combined to achieve an eye model of improved precision. By using a proton cannon for the therapy execution, the high precision of the model can be exploited, thus achieving a basic improvement of the therapy. Control over the destruction of the tumor can be increased by maximizing the dose distributions within the target volume keeping the damage in the surrounding tissue to a minimum. This article is concerned with the image processing to generate an eye model on which treatment planning is based.

  15. The rapid secondary electron imaging system of the proton beam writer at CIBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, C. N. B.; Bettiol, A. A.; van Kan, J. A.; Teo, E. J.; Watt, F.

    2007-07-01

    The recent years have witnessed a proliferation of research involving proton beam (p-beam) writing. This has prompted investigations into means of optimizing the process of p-beam writing so as to make it less time consuming and more efficient. One such avenue is the improvement of the pre-writing preparatory procedures that involves beam focusing and sample alignment which is centred on acquiring images of a resolution standard or sample. The conventional mode of imaging used up to now has utilized conventional nuclear microprobe signals that are of a pulsed nature and are inherently slow. In this work, we report the new imaging system that has been introduced, which uses proton induced secondary electrons. This in conjunction with software developed in-house that uses a National Instruments DAQ card with hardware triggering, facilitates large data transfer rates enabling rapid imaging. Frame rates as much as 10 frames/s have been achieved at an imaging resolution of 512 × 512 pixels.

  16. Improved spectral data unfolding for radiochromic film imaging spectroscopy of laser-accelerated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Schollmeier, M; Geissel, M; Sefkow, A B; Flippo, K A

    2014-04-01

    An improved method to unfold the space-resolved proton energy distribution function of laser-accelerated proton beams using a layered, radiochromic film (RCF) detector stack has been developed. The method takes into account the reduced RCF response near the Bragg peak due to a high linear energy transfer (LET). This LET dependence of the active RCF layer has been measured, and published data have been re-interpreted to find a nonlinear saturation scaling of the RCF response with stopping power. Accounting for the LET effect increased the integrated particle yield by 25% after data unfolding. An iterative, analytical, space-resolved deconvolution of the RCF response functions from the measured dose was developed that does not rely on fitting. After the particle number unfold, three-dimensional interpolation is performed to determine the spatial proton beam distribution for proton energies in-between the RCF data points. Here, image morphing has been implemented as a novel interpolation method that takes into account the energy-dependent, changing beam topology. PMID:24784600

  17. Improved spectral data unfolding for radiochromic film imaging spectroscopy of laser-accelerated proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M.; Sefkow, A. B.; Flippo, K. A.

    2014-04-01

    An improved method to unfold the space-resolved proton energy distribution function of laser-accelerated proton beams using a layered, radiochromic film (RCF) detector stack has been developed. The method takes into account the reduced RCF response near the Bragg peak due to a high linear energy transfer (LET). This LET dependence of the active RCF layer has been measured, and published data have been re-interpreted to find a nonlinear saturation scaling of the RCF response with stopping power. Accounting for the LET effect increased the integrated particle yield by 25% after data unfolding. An iterative, analytical, space-resolved deconvolution of the RCF response functions from the measured dose was developed that does not rely on fitting. After the particle number unfold, three-dimensional interpolation is performed to determine the spatial proton beam distribution for proton energies in-between the RCF data points. Here, image morphing has been implemented as a novel interpolation method that takes into account the energy-dependent, changing beam topology.

  18. Major Solar Proton Event during September 24-30, 2001 using Imaging Riometer Technique (P42)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Vhatkar, R. S.

    2006-11-01

    sharma_ashokkumar@yahoo.com Major outbursts of mass and energy i.e. a fast full halo CME with speed of 2402 km/sec from region 9632, located on the Sun at S16 E23 was observed at 1030 UT by SOHO/LASCO C3 coronagraph on September 24, 2001. The proton event at greater than 100 MeV began at 1440 UT on 24 September, reached a maximum of 31.2 PFU at 0755 UT on 25 September and ended at 1940 UT on 26 September 2001. The protons event at greater than 10 MeV began at 1215 UT on 24 September, reached a maximum of 12,900 PFU at 2235 UT on 25 September and ended at 1710 UT on 30 September 2001. These extremely high energetic protons accelerated during CMEs produces significant ionization in the D region of the ionosphere at high latitudes. Increase in ionization in the D region causes cosmic noise absorption. The major Polar Cap Absorption (PCA) observed during SEPTEMBER 24 -30, 2001 will be discussed in this paper. Imaging riometer observations were made from Kilpisjarvi (69.05oN; 20.79oW), Northern Finland during the PCA event. For this the remote and insitu data have been used. The imaging riometer for ionospheric studies (IRIS) is used to quantify the intensity, time of occurrence and location of CME effects on the ionosphere.

  19. Projection imaging with directional electron and proton beams emitted from an ultrashort intense laser-driven thin foil target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Choi, I. W.; Daido, H.; Nakamura, T.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Yogo, A.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Daito, I.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, T. J.; Jeong, T. M.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, C. M.; Kang, S. W.; Pae, K. H.; Oishi, Y.; Lee, J.

    2015-02-01

    Projection images of a metal mesh produced by directional MeV electron beam together with directional proton beam, emitted simultaneously from a thin foil target irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser, are recorded on an imaging plate for the electron imaging and on a CR-39 nuclear track detector for the proton imaging. The directional electron beam means the portion of the electron beam which is emitted along the same direction (i.e., target normal direction) as the proton beam. The mesh patterns are projected to each detector by the electron beam and the proton beam originated from tiny virtual sources of ~20 µm and ~10?µm diameters, respectively. Based on the observed quality and magnification of the projection images, we estimate sizes and locations of the virtual sources for both beams and characterize their directionalities. To carry out physical interpretation of the directional electron beam qualitatively, we perform 2D particle-in-cell simulation which reproduces a directional escaping electron component, together with a non-directional dragged-back electron component, the latter mainly contributes to building a sheath electric field for proton acceleration. The experimental and simulation results reveal various possible applications of the simultaneous, synchronized electron and proton sources to radiography and pump-probe measurements with temporal resolution of ~ps and spatial resolution of a few tens of µm.

  20. Dayside Proton Aurora: Comparisons between Global MHD Simulations and Image Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Petrinec, S.; Frey, H. U.; Burch, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The IMAGE mission provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of current global models of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, images of proton auroras from the Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) onboard the IMAGE spacecraft are well suited to support investigations of the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to interplanetary disturbances. Accordingly, we have modeled two events that occurred on June 8 and July 28, 2000, using plasma and magnetic field parameters measured upstream of the bow shock as input to three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. This paper begins with a discussion of images of proton auroras from the FUV SI-12 instrument in comparison with the simulation results. The comparison showed a very good agreement between intensifications in the auroral emissions measured by FUV SI-12 and the enhancement of plasma flows into the dayside ionosphere predicted by the global simulations. Subsequently, the IMAGE observations are analyzed in the context of the dayside magnetosphere's topological changes in magnetic field and plasma flows inferred from the simulation results. Finding include that the global dynamics of the auroral proton precipitation patterns observed by IMAGE are consistent with magnetic field reconnection occurring as a continuous process while the iMF changes in direction and the solar wind dynamic pressure varies. The global simulations also indicate that some of the transient patterns observed by IMAGE are consistent with sporadic reconnection processes. Global merging patterns found in the simulations agree with the antiparallel merging model. though locally component merging might broaden the merging region, especially in the region where shocked solar wind discontinuities first reach the magnetopause. Finally, the simulations predict the accretion of plasma near the bow shock in the regions threaded by newly open field lines on which plasma flows into the dayside ionosphere are enhanced. Overall the results of these initial comparisons between global MHD simulation results and IMAGE observations emphasize the interplay between reconnection and dynamic pressure processes at the dayside magnetopause. as well as the intricate connection between the bow shock and the auroral region.

  1. Imaging the proton concentration and mapping the spatial distribution of the electric field of catalytic micropumps

    E-print Network

    A. Afshar Farniya; M. J. Esplandiu; D. Reguera; A. Bachtold

    2013-11-13

    Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemo-mechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heterogeneous electrodes.

  2. Imaging the proton concentration and mapping the spatial distribution of the electric field of catalytic micropumps

    E-print Network

    Farniya, A Afshar; Reguera, D; Bachtold, A

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemo-mechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heteroge...

  3. Cosmic ray proton spectrum determined with the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barrio, J. A.; Belgarian, A. S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Beteta, J. J.; Bojahr, H.; Bradbury, S.; Calle, I.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Daum, A.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hemberger, M.; Hermann, G.; Hess, M.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hohl, H.; Holl, I.; Horns, D.; Ibarra, A.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Köhler, C.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Panter, M.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Prosch, C.; Pühlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Renault, C.; Rhode, W.; Röhring, A.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schröder, F.; Stamm, W.; Völk, H. J.; Wiebel-Sooth, B.; Wiedner, C. A.; Willmer, M.; Wirth, H.

    1999-05-01

    The HEGRA system of 4 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) has been used to determine the flux and the spectrum of cosmic ray protons over a limited energy range around 1.5 TeV. Although the IACT system is designed for the detection of ?-rays with energies above 500 GeV, it has also a large detection area of ~=106 m2×3 msr for primary protons of energies above 1 TeV and the capability to reconstruct the primary proton energy with a reasonable accuracy ?E/E of 50% near this threshold. Furthermore, the principle of stereoscopic detection of air showers permits the effective suppression of air showers induced by heavier primaries already on the trigger level, and in addition on the software level by analysis of the stereoscopic images. The combination of both capabilities permits a determination of the proton spectrum almost independently of the cosmic ray chemical composition. The accuracy of our estimate of the spectral index at 1.5 TeV is limited by systematic uncertainties and is comparable to the accuracy achieved with recent balloon and space borne experiments. In this paper we describe in detail the analysis tools, namely the detailed Monte Carlo simulation, the analysis procedure and the results. We determine the local (i.e., in the range of 1.5-3 TeV) differential spectral index to be ?p=2.72+/-0.02stat+/-0.15syst and obtain an integral flux above 1.5 TeV of F(>1.5 TeV)=3.1+/-0.6 stat+/-1.2syst×10-2/s sr m2.

  4. The effects of mapping CT images to Monte Carlo materials on GEANT4 proton simulation accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Samuel; McAuley, Grant; Slater, James [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California 92350 (United States); Wroe, Andrew [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92350 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo simulations of radiation therapy require conversion from Hounsfield units (HU) in CT images to an exact tissue composition and density. The number of discrete densities (or density bins) used in this mapping affects the simulation accuracy, execution time, and memory usage in GEANT4 and other Monte Carlo code. The relationship between the number of density bins and CT noise was examined in general for all simulations that use HU conversion to density. Additionally, the effect of this on simulation accuracy was examined for proton radiation. Methods: Relative uncertainty from CT noise was compared with uncertainty from density binning to determine an upper limit on the number of density bins required in the presence of CT noise. Error propagation analysis was also performed on continuously slowing down approximation range calculations to determine the proton range uncertainty caused by density binning. These results were verified with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: In the presence of even modest CT noise (5 HU or 0.5%) 450 density bins were found to only cause a 5% increase in the density uncertainty (i.e., 95% of density uncertainty from CT noise, 5% from binning). Larger numbers of density bins are not required as CT noise will prevent increased density accuracy; this applies across all types of Monte Carlo simulations. Examining uncertainty in proton range, only 127 density bins are required for a proton range error of <0.1 mm in most tissue and <0.5 mm in low density tissue (e.g., lung). Conclusions: By considering CT noise and actual range uncertainty, the number of required density bins can be restricted to a very modest 127 depending on the application. Reducing the number of density bins provides large memory and execution time savings in GEANT4 and other Monte Carlo packages.

  5. Femtoelectron-Based Terahertz Imaging of Hydration State in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buaphad, P.; Thamboon, P.; Kangrang, N.; Rhodes, M. W.; Thongbai, C.

    2015-05-01

    Imbalanced water management in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell significantly reduces the cell performance and durability. Visualization of water distribution and transport can provide greater comprehension toward optimization of the PEM fuel cell. In this work, we are interested in water flooding issues that occurred in flow channels on cathode side of the PEM fuel cell. The sample cell was fabricated with addition of a transparent acrylic window allowing light access and observed the process of flooding formation (in situ) via a CCD camera. We then explore potential use of terahertz (THz) imaging, consisting of femtoelectron-based THz source and off-angle reflective-mode imaging, to identify water presence in the sample cell. We present simulations of two hydration states (water and nonwater area), which are in agreement with the THz image results. A line-scan plot is utilized for quantitative analysis and for defining spatial resolution of the image. Implementing metal mesh filtering can improve spatial resolution of our THz imaging system.

  6. Part 1: Dual-tuned proton/sodium magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Chan Hong; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Jacobs, Lloydine; Zhao, Tiejun; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Vo, Nam; Kang, James; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Development of a dual-tuned proton/sodium RF coil for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the rabbit spine and quantification of sodium concentration in intervertebral discs. Objective To develop the dual-tuned proton/sodium MR imaging of rabbit lumbar spine to investigate proteoglycan matrix content and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Summary of Background Data IDD is a common chronic condition that may lead to back pain, limited activity, and disability. Early stage IDD involves the loss of proteoglycan matrix and water content in the disc. Sodium MR imaging is a promising noninvasive technique for quantitative measurement of proteoglycan changes associated with IDD. The combined structural (proton) and biochemical (sodium) MR imaging facilitates the investigation of morphological and molecular changes associated with degeneration of discs. Methods Multi-channel dual-tuned proton/sodium transceiver RF coil of the rabbit spine was developed and optimized at 3T human scanner – eight channels allocated for the sodium coil and four channels for the proton coil. High-resolution anatomy proton images of the discs were acquired using turbo spin echo and dual echo steady state sequence. Sodium concentration of the discs was quantified from sodium MR images that were calibrated for signal attenuation due to RF field inhomogeneity, sodium MR relaxation times, and disc thickness. Twelve rabbits (~1 year old, female, 5.2 ± 0.4 kg) were used for measuring disc sodium concentration. Results High-resolution in vivo proton and sodium MR images of rabbit discs (? 2-mm thickness) were successfully obtained using an in-house dual-tuned proton/sodium RF coil at 3T. The total acquisition time for each set of images was approximately 40 minutes. Sodium concentration of normal rabbit lumbar discs was measured 269.7 ± 6.3 mM, and this measurement was highly reproducible, with 5.3% of coefficient of variation. Conclusion Sodium concentrations of rabbit lumbar discs were reliably measured using our newly developed dual-tuned multi-channel proton/sodium RF coil at 3T. PMID:22543251

  7. Early Outcomes From Three Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph [Division of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Henderson, Randal [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We accrued 211 prostate cancer patients on prospective Institutional Review Board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, dose escalation from 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel followed by androgen deprivation for high-risk disease. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Results: One intermediate-risk patient and 2 high-risk patients had disease progression. Pretreatment genitourinary (GU) symptom management was required in 38% of patients. A cumulative 88 (42%) patients required posttreatment GU symptom management. Four transient Grade 3 GU toxicities occurred, all among patients requiring pretreatment GU symptom management. Multivariate analysis showed correlation between posttreatment GU 2+ symptoms and pretreatment GU symptom management (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.0048). Only 1 Grade 3+ gastrointestinal (GI) symptom occurred. The prevalence of Grade 2+ GI symptoms was 0 (0%), 10 (5%), 12 (6%), and 8 (4%) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, with a cumulative incidence of 20 (10%) patients at 2 years after proton therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant correlation between Grade 2+ rectal bleeding and proctitis and the percentage of rectal wall (rectum) receiving doses ranging from 40 CGE (10 CGE) to 80 CGE. Conclusions: Early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy suggest high efficacy and minimal toxicity with only 1.9% Grade 3 GU symptoms and <0.5% Grade 3 GI toxicities.

  8. Imaging Amide Proton Transfer and Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Using Chemical Exchange Rotation Transfer (CERT)

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Zhongliang; Xu, Junzhong; Li, Hua; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Quarles, C. Chad; Does, Mark D.; Gore, John C.; Gochberg, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE) in phantoms and 9L tumors in rat brains at 9.4 Tesla, using a recently developed method that can isolate different contributions to exchange. Methods Chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT) was used to quantify APT and NOEs through subtraction of signals acquired at two irradiation flip angles, but with the same average irradiation power. Results CERT separates and quantifies specific APT and NOE signals without contamination from other proton pools, and thus overcomes a key shortcoming of conventional CEST asymmetry approaches. CERT thus has increased specificity, though at the cost of decreased signal strength. In vivo experiments show that the APT effect acquired with CERT in 9L rat tumors (3.1%) is relatively greater than that in normal tissue (2.5%), which is consistent with previous CEST asymmetry analysis. The NOE effect centered at ?1.6 ppm shows substantial image contrast within the tumor and between the tumor and the surrounding tissue, while the NOE effect centered at ?3.5 ppm shows little contrast. Conclusion CERT provides an image contrast that is more specific to chemical exchange than conventional APT by means of asymmetric CEST Z-spectra analysis. PMID:24302497

  9. Sensitivity study of proton radiography and comparison with kV and MV x-ray imaging using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depauw, Nicolas; Seco, Joao

    2011-04-01

    The imaging sensitivity of proton radiography has been studied and compared with kV and MV x-ray imaging using Monte Carlo simulations. A phantom was specifically modeled using 21 different material inserts with densities ranging from 0.001 to 1.92 g cm-3. These simulations were run using the MGH double scattered proton beam, scanned pencil proton beams from 200 to 490 MeV, as well as pure 50 keV, 100 keV, 1 MeV and 2 MeV gamma x-ray beams. In order to compare the physics implied in both proton and photon radiography without being biased by the current state of the art in detector technology, the detectors were considered perfect. Along with spatial resolution, the contrast-to-noise ratio was evaluated and compared for each material. These analyses were performed using radiographic images that took into account the following: only primary protons, both primary and secondary protons, and both contributions while performing angular and energetic cuts. Additionally, tissue-to-tissue contrasts in an actual lung cancer patient case were studied for simulated proton radiographs and compared against the original kV x-ray image which corresponds to the current patient set-up image in the proton clinic. This study highlights the poorer spatial resolution of protons versus x-rays for radiographic imaging purposes, and the excellent density resolution of proton radiography. Contrasts around the tumor are higher using protons in a lung cancer patient case. The high-density resolution of proton radiography is of great importance for specific tumor diagnostics, such as in lung cancer, where x-ray radiography operates poorly. Furthermore, the use of daily proton radiography prior to proton therapy would ameliorate patient set-up while reducing the absorbed dose delivered through imaging.

  10. Enhanced Overhauser contrast in proton-electron double-resonance imaging of the formation of an alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Barros, Wilson; Engelsberg, M

    2007-01-01

    Proton-electron double-resonance imaging (PEDRI) was recently employed to monitor the process of formation of a calcium alginate hydrogel at a field of 16mT. Here, under the same experimental conditions, images obtained through this technique are compared to images obtained by conventional T(2)-weighted method. The results confirm that the image contrast obtained using PEDRI, thanks to the Overhauser effect, exhibits an improved sensitivity with respect to changes in water mobility as previously suggested in the literature. Furthermore, by increasing the echo time interval for the T(2)-weighted images, important features of the gelling dynamics obtained via PEDRI could not be reproduced. PMID:17049287

  11. Proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL): a tool for quantitative tissue oximetry†

    PubMed Central

    Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Wang, Xianghui; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Gulaka, Praveen; Mason, Ralph P.

    2011-01-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) has been identified as a sensitive proton NMR indicator of tissue oxygenation (pO2) based on spectroscopic spin-lattice relaxometry. A rapid MRI approach has now been designed, implemented, and tested. The technique, proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL), utilizes frequency-selective excitation of the HMDSO resonance and chemical-shift selective suppression of residual water signal to effectively eliminate water and fat signals and pulse-burst saturation recovery 1H echo planar imaging to map T1 of HMDSO and hence pO2. PISTOL was used here to obtain maps of pO2 in rat thigh muscle and Dunning prostate R3327 MAT-Lu tumor-implanted rats. Measurements were repeated to assess baseline stability and response to breathing of hyperoxic gas. Each pO2 map was obtained in 3½ min, facilitating dynamic measurements of response to oxygen intervention. Altering the inhaled gas to oxygen produced a significant increase in mean pO2 from 55 Torr to 238 Torr in thigh muscle and a smaller, but significant, increase in mean pO2 from 17 Torr to 78 Torr in MAT-Lu tumors. Thus, PISTOL enabled mapping of tissue pO2 at multiple locations and dynamic changes in pO2 in response to intervention. This new method offers a potentially valuable new tool to image pO2 in vivo for any healthy or diseased state by 1H MRI. PMID:18574806

  12. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ?50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A (22)Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy. PMID:24874943

  13. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  14. Novel gradient echo sequence-based amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in hyperacute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, DEXIAO; LI, SHENKAI; DAI, ZHUOZHI; SHEN, ZHIWEI; YAN, GEN; WU, RENHUA

    2015-01-01

    In the progression of ischemia, pH is important and is essential in elucidating the association between metabolic disruption, lactate formation, acidosis and tissue damage. Chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer (CEST) imaging can be used to detect tissue pH and, in particular, a specific form of CEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), termed amide proton transfer (APT) MRI, which is sensitive to pH and can detect ischemic lesions, even prior to diffusion abnormalities. The critical parameter governing the ability of CEST to detect pH is the sequence. In the present study, a novel strategy was used, based on the gradient echo sequence (GRE), which involved the insertion of a magnetization transfer pulse in each repetition time (TR) and minimizing the TR for in vivo APT imaging. The proposed GRE-APT MRI method was initially verified using a tissue-like pH phantom and optimized MRI parameters for APT imaging. In order to assess the range of acute cerebral infarction, rats (n=4) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and MRI scanning at 7 telsa (T). Hyperacute ischemic tissue damage was characterized using multiparametric imaging techniques, including diffusion, APT and T2-Weighted MRI. By using a magnetization transfer pulse and minimizing TR, GRE-APT provided high spatial resolution and a homogeneous signal, with clearly distinguished cerebral anatomy. The GRE-APT and diffusion MRI were significantly correlated with lactate content and the area of cerebral infarction in the APT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps matched consistently during the hyperacute period. In addition, compared with the infarction area observed on the ADC MRI map, the APT map contained tissue, which had not yet been irreversibly damaged. Therefore, GRE-APT MRI waa able to detect ischemic lactic acidosis with sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution, suggesting the potential use of pH MRI as a surrogate imaging marker of impaired tissue metabolism for the diagnosis and prognosis of hyperacute stroke. PMID:25571956

  15. Neurochemistry of Drug Action: Insights from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging And Their Relevance to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that permits measurement of particular compounds or metabolites within the tissue of interest. In the brain, 1H MRS provides a snapshot of the neurochemical environment within a defined volume of interest. A search of the literature demonstrates the widespread utility of this technique for characterizing tumors, tracking the progress of neurodegenerative disease, and for understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders. As of relatively recently, 1H MRS has found its way into substance abuse research, and it is beginning to become recognized as a valuable complement in the brain imaging toolbox that also contains positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Drug abuse studies employing 1H MRS have identified a number biochemical changes in the brain. The most consistent alterations across drug class were reductions in N-acetylaspartate and elevations in myo-inositol, while changes in choline, creatine, and amino acid transmitters also were abundant. Together, the studies discussed herein provide evidence that drugs of abuse may have a profound impact on neuronal health, energy metabolism and maintenance, inflammatory processes, cell membrane turnover, and neurotransmission, and these biochemical changes may underlie the neuropathology within brain tissue that subsequently gives rise to the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with drug addiction. PMID:20201852

  16. Feasibility Study of Neutron Dose for Real Time Image Guided Proton Therapy: A Monte Carlo Study

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Daehyun; Shin, EunHyuk; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungkoo; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Ju, Sanggyu; Chung, Yoonsun; Jung, Sang Hoon; Han, Youngyih

    2015-01-01

    Two full rotating gantry with different nozzles (Multipurpose nozzle with MLC, Scanning Dedicated nozzle) with conventional cyclotron system is installed and under commissioning for various proton treatment options at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The purpose of this study is to investigate neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose, H/D, to x-ray imaging equipment under various treatment conditions with monte carlo simulation. At first, we investigated H/D with the various modifications of the beam line devices (Scattering, Scanning, Multi-leaf collimator, Aperture, Compensator) at isocenter, 20, 40, 60 cm distance from isocenter and compared with other research groups. Next, we investigated the neutron dose at x-ray equipments used for real time imaging with various treatment conditions. Our investigation showed the 0.07 ~ 0.19 mSv/Gy at x-ray imaging equipments according to various treatment options and intestingly 50% neutron dose reduction effect of flat panel detector was observed due to multi- lea...

  17. Investigation of relativistic intensity laser generated hot electron dynamics via copper K{sub ?} imaging and proton acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morace, A. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States) [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Università di Milano-Biocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Bartal, T.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Simultaneous experimental measurements of copper K{sub ?} imaging and the maximum target normal sheath acceleration proton energies from the rear target surface are compared for various target thicknesses. For the T-cubed laser (?4 J, 400 fs) at an intensity of ?2 × 10{sup 19} W cm{sup ?2}, the hot electron divergence is determined to be ?{sub HWHM}?22{sup °} using a K{sub ?} imaging diagnostic. The maximum proton energies are measured to follow the expected reduction with increasing target thickness. Numerical modeling produces copper K{sub ?} trends for both signal level and electron beam divergence that are in good agreement with the experiment. A geometric model describing the electron beam divergence reproduces the maximum proton energy trends observed from the experiment and the fast electron density and the peak electric field observed in the numerical modeling.

  18. Two-Dimensional Proton Chemical-Shift Imaging of Human Muscle Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiani; Willcott, M. Robert; Moore, Gregory J.

    1997-06-01

    Large lipid signals and strong susceptibility gradients introduced by muscle-bone interfaces represent major technical challenges forin vivoproton MRS of human muscle. Here, the demonstration of two-dimensional proton chemical-shift imaging of human muscle metabolites is presented. This technique utilizes a chemical-shift-selective method for water and lipid suppression and automatic shimming for optimal homogeneity of the magnetic field. The 2D1H CSI technique described facilitates the acquisition of high-spatial-resolution spectra, and allows one to acquire data from multiple muscle groups in a single experiment. A preliminary investigation utilizing this technique in healthy adult males (n= 4) revealed a highly significant difference in the ratio of the creatine to trimethylamine resonance between the fast and slow twitch muscle groups examined. The technique is robust, can be implemented on a commercial scanner with relative ease, and should prove to be a useful tool for both clinical and basic investigators.

  19. Monte Carlo patient study on the comparison of prompt gamma and PET imaging for range verification in proton therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Moteabbed; S. España; H. Paganetti

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the clinical adaptation of prompt gamma (PG) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) as independent tools for non-invasive proton beam range verification and treatment validation. The PG range correlation and its differences with PET have been modeled for the first time in a highly heterogeneous tissue environment, using different field sizes and

  20. MR-compatible ventilator for small animals: computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble gas imaging

    E-print Network

    For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of small animals, mechanical ventilation is often necessary to maintain valves. These breathing valves attach directly to the animal's en- trotracheal tube to minimize ventilMR-compatible ventilator for small animals: computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble

  1. Response functions of Fuji imaging plates to monoenergetic protons in the energy range 0.6-3.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aleonard, M. M. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Universite de Bordeaux, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan 33175 (France); Comet, M. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Universite de Bordeaux, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan 33175 (France); CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-01-15

    We have measured the responses of Fuji MS, SR, and TR imaging plates (IPs) to protons with energies ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 MeV. Monoenergetic protons were produced with the 3.5 MV AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires de Faisceaux d'Ions en Region Aquitaine) accelerator at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG). The IPs were irradiated with protons backscattered off a tantalum target. We present the photo-stimulated luminescence response of the IPs together with the fading measurements for these IPs. A method is applied to allow correction of fading effects for variable proton irradiation duration. Using the IP fading corrections, a model of the IP response function to protons was developed. The model enables extrapolation of the IP response to protons up to proton energies of 10 MeV. Our work is finally compared to previous works conducted on Fuji TR IP response to protons.

  2. Imaging an optogenetic pH sensor reveals that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu-Ming; Holzhausen, Lars C.; Kramer, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal synapse between photoreceptors and horizontal cells (HCs) underlies lateral inhibition and establishes the antagonistic center-surround receptive fields of retinal neurons, to enhance visual contrast. Despite decades of study, the signal mediating negative feedback from HCs to cones has remained controversial because the small, invaginated synaptic cleft has precluded measurement. Using zebrafish retinas, we show that light elicits a change in synaptic proton concentration with the correct magnitude, kinetics and spatial dependence to account for lateral inhibition. Light, which hyperpolarizes HCs, causes synaptic alkalinization, whereas activating an exogenously expressed ligand-gated Na+ channel, which depolarizes HCs, causes synaptic acidification. While acidification was prevented by blocking a proton pump, re-alkalinization was prevented by blocking proton-permeant ion channels, suggesting that distinct mechanisms underlie proton efflux and influx. These findings reveal that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina, raising the possibility that protons are unrecognized retrograde messengers elsewhere in the nervous system. PMID:24441679

  3. A silicon pixel detector system as an imaging tool for proton beam characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Bisogni; G. A. P. Cirrone; G. Cuttone; A. D el Guerra; P. Lojacono; M. A. Piliero; F. Romano; V. Rosso; V. Sipala; A. Stefanini; S. Vecchio

    2008-01-01

    High energy protons represent a very promising alternative in the tumor irradiation, as respect the photon and electron beams. In Italy, the first and at present the only proton-therapy facility, CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate), was built in Catania, at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS). Here a 62 MeV proton beam, produced

  4. Imaging an optogenetic pH sensor reveals that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Ming; Holzhausen, Lars C; Kramer, Richard H

    2014-02-01

    The reciprocal synapse between photoreceptors and horizontal cells underlies lateral inhibition and establishes the antagonistic center-surround receptive fields of retinal neurons to enhance visual contrast. Despite decades of study, the signal mediating the negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones has remained under debate because the small, invaginated synaptic cleft has precluded measurement. Using zebrafish retinas, we show that light elicits a change in synaptic proton concentration with the correct magnitude, kinetics and spatial dependence to account for lateral inhibition. Light, which hyperpolarizes horizontal cells, causes synaptic alkalinization, whereas activating an exogenously expressed ligand-gated Na(+) channel, which depolarizes horizontal cells, causes synaptic acidification. Whereas acidification was prevented by blocking a proton pump, re-alkalinization was prevented by blocking proton-permeant ion channels, suggesting that distinct mechanisms underlie proton efflux and influx. These findings reveal that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina, raising the possibility that protons are unrecognized retrograde messengers elsewhere in the nervous system. PMID:24441679

  5. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  6. Various ligand-coated ultrasmall gadolinium-oxide nanoparticles: Water proton relaxivity and in-vivo T1 MR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ja Young; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Gang Ho; Jin, Seonguk; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok

    2015-04-01

    Surface coating of nanoparticles with ligands is essential in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of solubility in water and biocompatibility. In this study, five organic molecules were used for surface coating of ultrasmall gadolinium-oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (d avg = 2.0 nm). All of the samples showed large longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) water proton relaxivities with r2/r1 ratios that were close to one, corresponding to ideal conditions for T1 MRI contrast agents. Finally, in-vivo T1 MR images were acquired to prove the effectiveness of the surface-coated ultrasmall Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a T1 MRI contrast agent.

  7. Experimental Evaluation Of High Speed Ccd Imager Radiation Effects Using Co60 And Proton Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Miller; D. A. Thompson; M. B. Elzinga; T.-H. Lee; B. C. Passenheim; R. E. Leadon

    1993-01-01

    We have completed a Series of CO60 and 8 and 25 MeV proton irradiations of wafer test structures and complete CCD detectors in order to study the changes in threshold voltage, dark current and charge transfer inefficiency (err) of CCD devices with very fast frame readout rates and large pixel geometries. Significant threshold voltage shifts for floating difhsion some followex

  8. Calibration of CT Hounsfield units for proton therapy treatment planning: use of kilovoltage and megavoltage images and comparison of parameterized methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marzi, L.; Lesven, C.; Ferrand, R.; Sage, J.; Boulé, T.; Mazal, A.

    2013-06-01

    Proton beam range is of major concern, in particular, when images used for dose computations are artifacted (for example in patients with surgically treated bone tumors). We investigated several conditions and methods for determination of computed tomography Hounsfield unit (CT-HU) calibration curves, using two different conversion schemes. A stoichiometric methodology was used on either kilovoltage (kV) or megavoltage (MV) CT images and the accuracy of the calibration methods was evaluated. We then studied the effects of metal artifacts on proton dose distributions using metallic implants in rigid phantom mimicking clinical conditions. MV-CT images were used to evaluate relative proton stopping power in certain high density implants, and a methodology is proposed for accurate delineation and dose calculation, using a combined set of kV- and MV-CT images. Our results show good agreement between measurements and dose calculations or relative proton stopping power determination (<5%). The results also show that range uncertainty increases when only kV-CT images are used or when no correction is made on artifacted images. However, differences between treatment plans calculated on corrected kV-CT data and MV-CT data remained insignificant in the investigated patient case, even with streak artifacts and volume effects that reduce the accuracy of manual corrections.

  9. A case of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome with minimal MR imaging findings facilitated by proton spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiko Tachibana; Noriko Aida; Keisuke Enomoto; Mizue Iai; Kenji Kurosawa

    We present a 5-year-old girl who was ultimately diagnosed with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS). Although her MRI findings were\\u000a minimal compared to previously published cases, prominent and characteristic abnormal lipid peaks on single-voxel proton MR\\u000a spectroscopy (1H-MRS) facilitated the diagnosis. This case emphasizes the importance and usefulness of 1H-MRS in diagnosing SLS.

  10. Evaluation of 10MeV proton irradiation on 5.5 Mpixel scientific CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Paul; Fowler, Boyd; Rodricks, Brian; Balicki, Janusz; Mims, Steve..; Li, Wang

    2010-10-01

    We evaluate the effects of 10 MeV proton irradiation on the performance of a 5.5 Mpixel scientific grade CMOS image sensor based on a 5T pixel architecture with pinned photodiode and transfer gate. The sensor has on-chip dual column level amplifiers and 11-bit single slope analog to digital converters (ADC) for high speed readout and wide dynamic range. The operation of the sensor is programmable and controlled by on-chip digital control modules. Since the image sensor features two identical halves capable of operating independently, we used a mask to expose only one half of the sensor to the proton beam, leaving the other half intact to serve as a reference. In addition, the pixel array and the digital logic control section were irradiated separately, at dose rates varying from 4 rad/s to 367 rad/s, for a total accumulated dose of 146 krad(Si) to assess the radiation effects on these key components of the image sensor. We report the resulting damage effects on the performance of the sensor including increase in dark current, temporal noise, dark spikes, transient effects and latch-up. The dark signal increased by about 55 e-/pixel after exposure to 14 krad (Si) and the dark noise increased from about 2.75e- to 6.5e-. While the number of hot pixels increased by 6 percent and the dark signal non uniformity degraded, no catastrophic failure mechanisms were observed during the tests, and the sensor did not suffer from functional failures.

  11. Issues involved in the quantitative 3D imaging of proton doses using optical CT and chemical dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Doran, Simon; Gorjiara, Tina; Kacperek, Andrzej; Adamovics, John; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2015-01-21

    Dosimetry of proton beams using 3D imaging of chemical dosimeters is complicated by a variation with proton linear energy transfer (LET) of the dose-response (the so-called 'quenching effect'). Simple theoretical arguments lead to the conclusion that the total absorbed dose from multiple irradiations with different LETs cannot be uniquely determined from post-irradiation imaging measurements on the dosimeter. Thus, a direct inversion of the imaging data is not possible and the proposition is made to use a forward model based on appropriate output from a planning system to predict the 3D response of the dosimeter. In addition to the quenching effect, it is well known that chemical dosimeters have a non-linear response at high doses. To the best of our knowledge it has not yet been determined how this phenomenon is affected by LET. The implications for dosimetry of a number of potential scenarios are examined.Dosimeter response as a function of depth (and hence LET) was measured for four samples of the radiochromic plastic PRESAGE(®), using an optical computed tomography readout and entrance doses of 2.0?Gy, 4.0?Gy, 7.8?Gy and 14.7?Gy, respectively. The dosimeter response was separated into two components, a single-exponential low-LET response and a LET-dependent quenching. For the particular formulation of PRESAGE(®) used, deviations from linearity of the dosimeter response became significant for doses above approximately 16?Gy. In a second experiment, three samples were each irradiated with two separate beams of 4?Gy in various different configurations. On the basis of the previous characterizations, two different models were tested for the calculation of the combined quenching effect from two contributions with different LETs. It was concluded that a linear superposition model with separate calculation of the quenching for each irradiation did not match the measured result where two beams overlapped. A second model, which used the concept of an 'effective dose' matched the experimental results more closely. An attempt was made to measure directly the quench function for two proton beams as a function of all four variables of interest (two physical doses and two LET values). However, this approach was not successful because of limitations in the response of the scanner. PMID:25555069

  12. PET/CT imaging for treatment verification after proton therapy: A study with plastic phantoms and metallic implants

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Katia; Paganetti, Harald; Cascio, Ethan; Flanz, Jacob B.; Bonab, Ali A.; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Lohmann, Kevin; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of off-line positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for routine three dimensional in-vivo treatment verification of proton radiation therapy is currently under investigation at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. In preparation for clinical trials, phantom experiments were carried out to investigate the sensitivity and accuracy of the method depending on irradiation and imaging parameters. Furthermore, they addressed the feasibility of PET/CT as a robust verification tool in the presence of metallic implants. These produce x-ray CT artifacts and fluence perturbations which may compromise the accuracy of treatment planning algorithms. Spread-out Bragg peak proton fields were delivered to different phantoms consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), PMMA stacked with lung and bone equivalent materials, and PMMA with titanium rods to mimic implants in patients. PET data were acquired in list mode starting within 20 min after irradiation at a commercial luthetium-oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based PET/CT scanner. The amount and spatial distribution of the measured activity could be well reproduced by calculations based on the GEANT4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes. This phantom study supports the potential of millimeter accuracy for range monitoring and lateral field position verification even after low therapeutic dose exposures of 2 Gy, despite the delay between irradiation and imaging. It also indicates the value of PET for treatment verification in the presence of metallic implants, demonstrating a higher sensitivity to fluence perturbations in comparison to a commercial analytical treatment planning system. Finally, it addresses the suitability of LSO-based PET detectors for hadron therapy monitoring. This unconventional application of PET involves countrates which are orders of magnitude lower than in diagnostic tracer imaging, i.e., the signal of interest is comparable to the noise originating from the intrinsic radioactivity of the detector itself. In addition to PET alone, PET/CT imaging provides accurate information on the position of the imaged object and may assess possible anatomical changes during fractionated radiotherapy in clinical applications. PMID:17388158

  13. Contour-based brain segmentation method for magnetic resonance imaging human head scans.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, K; Kalavathi, P

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution magnetic resonance brain images often contain some nonbrain tissues (ie, skin, fat, muscle, neck, eye balls, etc) compared with the functional images such as positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which usually contain few nonbrain tissues. Automatic segmentation of brain tissues from MRI scans remains a challenging task due to the variation in shape and size, use of different pulse sequences, overlapping signal intensities and imaging artifacts. This article presents a contour-based automatic brain segmentation method to segment the brain regions from T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI of human head scans. The proposed method consists of 2 stages. In stage 1, the brain regions in the middle slice is extracted. Many of the existing methods failed to extract brain regions in the lower and upper slices of the brain volume, where the brain appears in more than 1 connected region. To overcome this problem, in the proposed method, a landmark circle is drawn at the center of the extracted brain region of a middle slice and is likely to pass through all the brain regions in the remaining lower and upper slices irrespective of whether the brain is composed of 1 or more connected components. In stage 2, the brain regions in the remaining slices are extracted with reference to the landmark circle obtained in stage 1. The proposed method is robust to the variability of brain anatomy, image orientation, and image type, and it extracts the brain regions accurately in T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted normal and abnormal brain images. Experimental results by applying the proposed method on 100 volumes of brain images show that the proposed method exhibits best and consistent performance than by the popular existing methods brain extraction tool, brain surface extraction, watershed algorithm, hybrid watershed algorithm, and skull stripping using graph cuts. PMID:23674005

  14. Bio-metals imaging and speciation in cells using proton and synchrotron radiation X-ray microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Richard; Devès, Guillaume; Carmona, Asunción

    2009-01-01

    The direct detection of biologically relevant metals in single cells and of their speciation is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The aim of this article is to present the recent achievements in the field of cellular chemical element imaging, and direct speciation analysis, using proton and synchrotron radiation X-ray micro- and nano-analysis. The recent improvements in focusing optics for MeV-accelerated particles and keV X-rays allow application to chemical element analysis in subcellular compartments. The imaging and quantification of trace elements in single cells can be obtained using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The combination of PIXE with backscattering spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy provides a high accuracy in elemental quantification of cellular organelles. On the other hand, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence provides chemical element imaging with less than 100 nm spatial resolution. Moreover, synchrotron radiation offers the unique capability of spatially resolved chemical speciation using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The potential of these methods in biomedical investigations will be illustrated with examples of application in the fields of cellular toxicology, and pharmacology, bio-metals and metal-based nano-particles. PMID:19605403

  15. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  16. Proton core imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    E-print Network

    cameras, mounted to the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 1997 , use algorithms for extracting the burn distributions of symmetric and asymmetric implosions. The hardware for simulations. Burn images of deuterium-tritium-filled capsules have previously been envisioned3 and made using

  17. An overview of alignment issues for in-vivo image guided proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macq, Benoit; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Protontherapy is based on physical properties of ion beams which allow the delivery of high radiation doses at very precise location in the body of the patient. The treatment planning aims at maximizing the delivery in the target volume while avoiding any organs at risk. The treatment is generally planned prior the treatment, and the patient is aligned in the treatment room on the basis of fiducial markers. However, the alignment of the patient may suffer from lack of precision and moreover, the body of the patient may vary between the time of imaging for planning and the time of treatment in the protontherapy room. More precise protontherapy and adaptive treatment which can track modifications of the body and the treatment of mobile tumors require the design of in vivo imaging systems to be deployed in the treatment room. The goal of this paper is to overview the present and future development of in-vivo image guided protontherapy and to give some image processing related challenges. The technique mostly used today is to take 2 orthogonal X-ray views of the patient. It requires an efficient 2D-3D coregistration procedure but is quite easy to deploy. Cone Beam CT is a next step which allows the capture of an in-vivo 3-D view on which the 3-D planning can be registered. The ultimate goal is to develop 4-D imaging techniques suited for the treatment of mobile tumors, for the cases of lung cancer. The development of new detectors will allow to validate the treatment by an "a posteriori" validation of the dose delivery in the body.

  18. In Vivo Proton–Electron Double-Resonance Imaging of Extracellular Tumor pH Using an Advanced Nitroxide Probe

    PubMed Central

    Samouilov, Alexandre; Efimova, Olga V.; Bobko, Andrey A.; Sun, Ziqi; Petryakov, Sergey; Eubank, Timothy D.; Trofimov, Dmitrii G.; Kirilyuk, Igor A.; Grigor’ev, Igor A.; Takahashi, Wataru; Zweier, Jay L.; Khramtsov, Valery V.

    2014-01-01

    A variable radio frequency proton–electron double-resonance imaging (VRF PEDRI) approach for pH mapping of aqueous samples has been recently developed (Efimova et al. J. Magn. Reson. 2011, 209, 227–232). A pH map is extracted from two PEDRI acquisitions performed at electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies of protonated and unprotonated forms of a pH-sensitive probe. To translate VRF PEDRI to an in vivo setting, an advanced pH probe was synthesized. Probe deuteration resulted in a narrow spectral line of 1.2 G compared to a nondeuterated analogue line width of 2.1 G allowing for an increase of Overhauser enhancements and reduction in rf power deposition. Binding of the probe to the cell-impermeable tripeptide, glutathione (GSH), allows for targeting to extracellular tissue space for monitoring extracellular tumor acidosis, a prognostic factor in tumor pathophysiology. The probe demonstrated pH sensitivity in the 5.8–7.8 range, optimum for measurement of acidic extracellular tumor pH (pHe). In vivo VRF PEDRI was performed on Met-1 tumor-bearing mice. Compared to normal mammary glands with a neutral mean pHe (7.1 ± 0.1), we observed broader pH distribution with acidic mean pHe (6.8 ± 0.1) in tumor tissue. In summary, VRF PEDRI in combination with a newly developed pH probe provides an analytical approach for spatially resolved noninvasive pHe monitoring, in vivo. PMID:24372284

  19. MR Imaging and Proton Spectroscopy of Neuronal Injury in Late-Onset GM2 Gangliosidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matilde Inglese; Annette O. Nusbaum; Gregory M. Pastores; John Gianutsos; Edwin H. Kolodny; Oded Gonen

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the ubiquity of GM2 gangliosides accumulation in patients with late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis (GM2G), the only clinical MR imaging-apparent brain abnormality is profound cerebellar atrophy. The goal of this study was to detect the presence and assess the extent of neuroaxonal injury in the normal-appearing gray and white matter (NAGM and NAWM) of these patients. METHODS: During

  20. Myocardial Fat Quantification in Humans: Evaluation by Two-Point Water-Fat Imaging and Localized Proton Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Redheuil, Alban; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Lima, Joao A. C.; Bluemke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been used for in vivo quantification of intracellular triglycerides within the sarcolemma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether breath-hold dual-echo in- and out-of-phase MRI at 3.0 T can quantify the fat content of the myocardium. Biases, including T1, T2?, and noise, that confound the calculation of the fat fraction were carefully corrected. Thirty-four of 46 participants had both MRI and MRS data. The fat fractions from MRI showed a strong correlation with fat fractions from MRS (r = 0.78; P < 0.05). The mean myocardial fat fraction for all 34 subjects was 0.7 ± 0.5% (range: 0.11–3%) assessed with MRS and 1.04 ± 0.4% (range: 0.32–2.44%) assessed with in- and out-of-phase MRI (P < 0.05). Scanning times were less than 15 sec for Dixon imaging, plus an additional minute for the acquisition used for calculation, and 15-20 min for MRS. The average postprocessing time for MRS was 3 min and 5 min for MRI including T2? measurement. We conclude that the dual echo method provides a rapid means to detect and quantifying myocardial fat content in vivo. Correction/adjustment for field inhomogeneity using three or more echoes seems crucial for the dual echo approach. PMID:20373390

  1. Fast Detection of Diffuse Axonal Damage in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of Gradient-Recalled Echo and Turbo Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging MRI Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Giugni; Umberto Sabatini; Gisela E. Hagberg; Rita Formisano; Alessandro Castriota-Scanderbeg

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common type of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is frequently accom- panied by tissue tear hemorrhage. T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences are more sensitive than T2-weighted spin-echo images for detection of hemorrhage. The purpose of this study is to compare turbo Proton Echo Planar

  2. Ultrashort Echo Time MR Imaging of Osteochondral Junction of the Knee at 3 T: Identification of Anatomic Structures Contributing to Signal Intensity1

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won C.; Dwek, Jerry R.; Znamirowski, Richard; Statum, Sheronda M.; Hermida, Juan C.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Sah, Robert L.; Du, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image cartilage-bone interfaces in naturally occurring and experimentally prepared human cartilage-bone specimens at 3 T by using ultrashort echo time (TE) (UTE) and conventional pulse sequences to (a) determine the appearance of the signal intensity patterns and (b) identify the structures contributing to signal intensity on the UTE MR images. Materials and Methods: This study was exempted by the institutional review board, and informed consent was not required. Five cadaveric (mean age, 86 years ± 4) patellae were imaged by using proton density–weighted fat-suppressed (repetition time msec/TE msec, 2300/34), T1-weighted (700/10), and UTE (300/0.008, 6.6, with or without dual-inversion preparations at inversion time 1 = 135 msec and inversion time 2 = 95 msec) sequences. The UTE images were compared with proton density–weighted fat-suppressed and T1-weighted images and were evaluated by two radiologists. To identify the sources of signal on the UTE images, samples including specific combinations of tissues (uncalcified cartilage [UCC] only, calcified cartilage [CC] and subchondral bone [bone] [CC/bone], bone only; and UCC, CC, and bone [UCC/CC/bone]) were prepared and imaged by using the UTE sequence. Results: On the UTE MR images, all patellar sections exhibited a high-intensity linear signal near the osteochondral junction, which was not visible on protein density–weighted fat-suppressed or T1-weighted images. In some sections, focal regions of thickened or diminished signal intensity were also found. In the prepared samples, UCC only, CC/bone, and UCC/CC/bone samples exhibited high signal intensity on the UTE images, whereas bone-only samples did not. Conclusion: These results show that the high signal intensity on UTE images of human articular joints originates from the CC and the deepest layer of the UCC, without a definite contribution from subchondral bone. UTE sequences may provide a way of evaluating abnormalities at or near the osteochondral junction. © RSNA, 2010 PMID:20177096

  3. Identification of the Epileptogenic Lobe in Neocortical Epilepsy with Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Susanne G.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Barakos, Jerome A.; Cashdollar, Nathan; Flenniken, Derek L.; Vermathen, Peter; Matson, Gerald B.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of multislice magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in combination with tissue segmentation for the identification of the epileptogenic focus in neocortical epilepsy (NE). Methods Twenty patients with NE (10 with MRI-visible malformations, 10 with normal MRI) and 19 controls were studied. In controls, N-acetylaspartate NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho of all voxels of a given lobe were expressed as a function of white matter, and thresholds were determined by calculating the 95% prediction intervals (PIs) for NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho. Voxels with NAA/Cr or NAA/Cho values less than the 95% PI were defined as “pathological.” Z-scores were calculated. Depending on the magnitude of those z-scores, we used two different methods (score-localization or forced-localization) to identify in a given subject the lobe with the highest percentage of pathological voxels, which was supposed to represent the epileptogenic lobe. Results MRSI correctly identified the lobe containing the epileptogenic focus as defined by EEG in 65% of the NE patients. MRSI localization of the focus was correct in 70% of the patients with an MRI-visible malformation and in 60% of the patients with normal MRI. Of the patients, 15% had metabolically abnormal brain regions outside the epileptogenic lobe, and 35% of the patients had evidence for secondary hippocampal damage. Conclusions MRSI may be helpful for the identification of the epileptogenic focus in NE patients, even in NE with normal MRI. PMID:15571516

  4. Monte Carlo patient study on the comparison of prompt gamma and PET imaging for range verification in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteabbed, M.; España, S.; Paganetti, H.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the clinical adaptation of prompt gamma (PG) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) as independent tools for non-invasive proton beam range verification and treatment validation. The PG range correlation and its differences with PET have been modeled for the first time in a highly heterogeneous tissue environment, using different field sizes and configurations. Four patients with different tumor locations (head and neck, prostate, spine and abdomen) were chosen to compare the site-specific behaviors of the PG and PET images, using both passive scattered and pencil beam fields. Accurate reconstruction of dose, PG and PET distributions was achieved by using the planning computed tomography (CT) image in a validated GEANT4-based Monte Carlo code capable of modeling the treatment nozzle and patient anatomy in detail. The physical and biological washout phenomenon and decay half-lives for PET activity for the most abundant isotopes such as 11C, 15O, 13N, 30P and 38K were taken into account in the data analysis. The attenuation of the gamma signal after traversing the patient geometry and respective detection efficiencies were estimated for both methods to ensure proper comparison. The projected dose, PG and PET profiles along many lines in the beam direction were analyzed to investigate the correlation consistency across the beam width. For all subjects, the PG method showed on average approximately 10 times higher gamma production rates than the PET method before, and 60 to 80 times higher production after including the washout correction and acquisition time delay. This rate strongly depended on tissue density and elemental composition. For broad passive scattered fields, it was demonstrated that large differences exist between PG and PET signal falloff positions and the correlation with the dose distribution for different lines in the beam direction. These variations also depended on the treatment site and the particular subject. Thus, similar to PET, direct range verification with PG in passive scattering is not easily viable. However, upon development of an optimized 3D PG detector, indirect range verification by comparing measured and simulated PG distributions (currently being explored for the PET method) would be more beneficial because it can avoid the inherent biological challenges of the PET imaging. The improved correlation of PG and PET with dose when using pencil beams was evident. PG imaging was found to be potentially advantageous especially for small tumors in the presence of high tissue heterogeneities. Including the effects of detector acceptance and efficiency may hold PET superior in terms of the amplitude of the detected signal (depending on the future development of PG detection technology), but the ability to perform online measurements and avoid signal disintegration (due to washout) with PG are important factors that can outweigh the benefits of higher detection sensitivity.

  5. The Paradoxical Relationship between White Matter, Psychopathology and Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor and Proton Spectroscopic Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Caprihan, Arvind; Jones, Thomas; Chen, Hongji; Lemke, Nicholas; Abbott, Christopher; Qualls, Clifford; Canive, Jose; Gasparovic, Charles; Bustillo, Juan R

    2015-08-01

    White matter disruption has been repeatedly documented in schizophrenia consistent with microstructural disorganization (reduced fractional anisotropy (FA)) and axonal dysfunction (reduced N-acetylaspartate NAAc). However, the clinical significance of these abnormalities is poorly understood. Diffusion tensor and proton spectroscopic imaging where used to assess FA, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD), and supra-ventricular white matter NAAc, respectively, in 64 schizophrenia and 64 healthy subjects. Schizophrenia patients had reduced FA across several regions, with additional regions where FA correlated positively with positive symptoms severity. These regions included genu, body and splenium of corpus callosum, anterior and superior corona radiata, superior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and internal capsule. The FA/symptoms relationships corresponded with opposite correlations between RD and positive symptoms. The schizophrenia group (SP group) had progressively reduced NAAc with age, and NAAc correlated negatively with positive symptoms. Cognition correlated positively with both FA and NAAc in controls, whereas in the SP group it had a negative correlation with NAAc and no significant relationship with FA. Antipsychotic dose did not account for the results. Correlates of psychosis, cognitive and negative symptoms can be found in white matter. The significant correlations between positive symptoms in schizophrenia and diffusion and NAAc measures suggest decreased axonal density with increased glial cells and higher myelination in this subpopulation. A separate set of abnormal relationships between cognition and FA/RD, as well as with NAAc, converge to suggest that in schizophrenia, white matter microstructure supports the two core illness domains: psychosis and cognitive/negative symptoms. PMID:25786581

  6. SU-E-J-82: Intra-Fraction Proton Beam-Range Verification with PET Imaging: Feasibility Studies with Monte Carlo Simulations and Statistical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, K [U.T M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rice University, Houston, TX (United States); Mirkovic, D; Sun, X; Zhu, X; Poenisch, F; Grosshans, D; Shao, Y [U.T M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Clark, J [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of intra-fraction proton beam-range verification with PET imaging. Methods: Two phantoms homogeneous cylindrical PMMA phantoms (290 mm axial length, 38 mm and 200 mm diameter respectively) were studied using PET imaging: a small phantom using a mouse-sized PET (61 mm diameter field of view (FOV)) and a larger phantom using a human brain-sized PET (300 mm FOV). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations (MCNPX and GATE) were used to simulate 179.2 MeV proton pencil beams irradiating the two phantoms and be imaged by the two PET systems. A total of 50 simulations were conducted to generate 50 positron activity distributions and correspondingly 50 measured activity-ranges. The accuracy and precision of these activity-ranges were calculated under different conditions (including count statistics and other factors, such as crystal cross-section). Separate from the MC simulations, an activity distribution measured from a simulated PET image was modeled as a noiseless positron activity distribution corrupted by Poisson counting noise. The results from these two approaches were compared to assess the impact of count statistics on the accuracy and precision of activity-range calculations. Results: MC Simulations show that the accuracy and precision of an activity-range are dominated by the number (N) of coincidence events of the reconstructed image. They are improved in a manner that is inversely proportional to 1/sqrt(N), which can be understood from the statistical modeling. MC simulations also indicate that the coincidence events acquired within the first 60 seconds with 10{sup 9} protons (small phantom) and 10{sup 10} protons (large phantom) are sufficient to achieve both sub-millimeter accuracy and precision. Conclusion: Under the current MC simulation conditions, the initial study indicates that the accuracy and precision of beam-range verification are dominated by count statistics, and intra-fraction PET image-based beam-range verification is feasible. This work was supported by a research award RP120326 from Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas.

  7. Imaging of articular cartilage: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Ronga, Mario; Angeretti, Gloria; Ferraro, Sergio; DE Falco, Giovanni; Genovese, Eugenio A; Cherubino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard method for non-invasive assessment of joint cartilage, providing information on the structure, morphology and molecular composition of this tissue. There are certain minimum requirements for a MRI study of cartilage tissue: machines with a high magnetic field (> 1.5 Tesla); the use of surface coils; and the use of T2-weighted, proton density-weighted fast-spin echo (T2 FSE-DP) and 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient echo (3D-FS T1W GRE) sequences. For better contrast between the different joint structures, MR arthography is a method that can highlight minimal fibrillation or fractures of the articular surface and allow evaluation of the integrity of the native cartilage-repair tissue interface. To assess the biochemical composition of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue, various techniques have been proposed for studying proteoglycans [dGEMRIC, T1rho mapping, sodium (23Na) imaging MRI, etc.], collagen, and water distribution [T2 mapping, "magnetisation transfer contrast", diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and so on]. Several MRI classifications have been proposed for evaluating the processes of joint degeneration (WORMS, BLOKS, ICRS) and post-surgical maturation of repair tissue (MOCART, 3D MOCART). In the future, isotropic 3D sequences set to improve image quality and facilitate the diagnosis of disorders of articular structures adjacent to cartilage. PMID:25606557

  8. Imaging of articular cartilage: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    RONGA, MARIO; ANGERETTI, GLORIA; FERRARO, SERGIO; DE FALCO, GIOVANNI; GENOVESE, EUGENIO A.; CHERUBINO, PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard method for non-invasive assessment of joint cartilage, providing information on the structure, morphology and molecular composition of this tissue. There are certain minimum requirements for a MRI study of cartilage tissue: machines with a high magnetic field (> 1.5 Tesla); the use of surface coils; and the use of T2-weighted, proton density-weighted fast-spin echo (T2 FSE-DP) and 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient echo (3D-FS T1W GRE) sequences. For better contrast between the different joint structures, MR arthography is a method that can highlight minimal fibrillation or fractures of the articular surface and allow evaluation of the integrity of the native cartilage-repair tissue interface. To assess the biochemical composition of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue, various techniques have been proposed for studying proteoglycans [dGEMRIC, T1rho mapping, sodium (23Na) imaging MRI, etc.], collagen, and water distribution [T2 mapping, “magnetisation transfer contrast”, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and so on]. Several MRI classifications have been proposed for evaluating the processes of joint degeneration (WORMS, BLOKS, ICRS) and post-surgical maturation of repair tissue (MOCART, 3D MOCART). In the future, isotropic 3D sequences set to improve image quality and facilitate the diagnosis of disorders of articular structures adjacent to cartilage. PMID:25606557

  9. Proton Radiography at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank; Golubev, Alexander; Turtikov, Vladmir; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2009-06-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time a proton radiography facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia. Recently an international collaboration was formed to develop a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. This new PRoton radIOgraphy facility at FAIR (PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a fundamental understanding of dynamic material properties at new length scales. These dynamic experiments will be driven with many energy sources including heavy ions, high explosives, guns and lasers. The capabilities of this new facility will be presented through a description of the first set of planned experiments.

  10. Real-time correction of magnetic field inhomogeneity-induced image distortions for MRI-guided conventional and proton radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. M. Crijns; B. W. Raaymakers; J. J. W. Lagendijk

    2011-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy has the potential to increase the success of treatment by decreasing uncertainties concerning tumour position and shape. We pursue integrated diagnostic quality MRI functionality with radiotherapy systems to boost the possibilities of image guidance by providing images with superior soft-tissue contrast during treatment. However, the use of MR images in radiotherapy can be hindered by geometrical distortions due

  11. The localization-delocalization matrix and the electron-density-weighted connectivity matrix of a finite graphene nanoribbon reconstructed from kernel fragments.

    PubMed

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F; Massa, Lou; Huang, Lulu

    2014-11-26

    Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and chemical graph theory, merged in the localization-delocalization matrices (LDMs) and the electron-density-weighted connectivity matrices (EDWCM), are shown to benefit in computational speed from the kernel energy method (KEM). The LDM and EDWCM quantum chemical graph matrices of a 66-atom C46H20 hydrogen-terminated armchair graphene nanoribbon, in 14 (2×7) rings of C2v symmetry, are accurately reconstructed from kernel fragments. (This includes the full sets of electron densities at 84 bond critical points and 19 ring critical points, and the full sets of 66 localization and 4290 delocalization indices (LIs and DIs).) The average absolute deviations between KEM and directly calculated atomic electron populations, obtained from the sum of the LIs and half of the DIs of an atom, are 0.0012 ± 0.0018 e(-) (?0.02 ± 0.03%) for carbon atoms and 0.0007 ± 0.0003 e(-) (?0.01 ± 0.01%) for hydrogen atoms. The integration errors in the total electron population (296 electrons) are +0.0003 e(-) for the direct calculation (+0.0001%) and +0.0022 e(-) for KEM (+0.0007%). The accuracy of the KEM matrix elements is, thus, probably of the order of magnitude of the combined precision of the electronic structure calculation and the atomic integrations. KEM appears capable of delivering not only the total energies with chemical accuracy (which is well documented) but also local and nonlocal properties accurately, including the DIs between the fragments (crossing fragmentation lines). Matrices of the intact ribbon, the kernels, the KEM-reconstructed ribbon, and errors are available as Supporting Information . PMID:25343715

  12. Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of interfractional anatomical variations on prostate proton therapy using daily in-room CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Trofimov, Alexei V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Frank Ciernik, I. [Radiation Oncology, Dessau Medical Center, Dessau 06847, Germany and Center for Clinical Research, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich 8006 (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomical variations and their dosimetric impact during the course of fractionated proton therapy (PT) of prostate cancer and to assess the robustness of the current treatment planning techniques. Methods: Simulation and daily in-room CT scans from ten prostate carcinoma patients were analyzed. PT treatment plans (78 Gy in 39 fractions of 2 Gy) were created on the simulation CT, delivering 25 fractions to PTV1 (expanded from prostate and seminal vesicles), followed by 14 boost fractions to PTV2 (expanded from prostate). Plans were subsequently applied to daily CT, with beams aligned to the prostate center in the sagittal plane. For five patients having a sufficiently large daily imaging volume, structure contours were manually drawn, and plans were evaluated for all CT sets. For the other five patients, the plans were evaluated for six selected fractions. The daily CT was matched to the simulation CT through deformable registration. The registration accuracy was validated for each fraction, and the three patients with a large number of accurately registered fractions were used for dose accumulation. Results: In individual fractions, the coverage of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and PTV1 was generally maintained at the corresponding prescription dose. For PTV2, the volume covered by the fractional prescription dose of 2 Gy (i.e., V2) was, on average, reduced by less than 3% compared to the simulation plan. Among the 225 (39 x 5 + 6 x 5) fractions examined, 15 showed a V2 reduction larger than 5%, of which ten were caused by a large variation in rectal gas, and five were due to a prostate shift in the craniocaudal direction. The fractional dose to the anterior rectal wall was found to increase for one patient who had large rectal gas volume in 25 of the 39 fractions, and another who experienced significant prostate volume reduction during the treatment. The fractional bladder dose generally increased with decreasing fullness. In the total accumulated dose for the three patients after excluding a few fractions with inaccurate registration due to a large amount of rectal gas (a condition inconsistent with RTOG protocol), 98.5%, 96.6%, and 98.2% of the PTV2 received the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The V75 and V70 of the anterior rectal wall and bladder both remained within tolerance. Conclusions: The results confirm that the PT planning techniques and dose constraints used at our institution ensure that target coverage to the prescription dose is maintained in the presence of interfractional anatomical variations. Dose coverage in individual fractions can be compromised, and normal tissue dose increased, due to deviations in the bladder and rectal volume compared to the simulation plans or progressive changes in the prostate volume during the treatment. Deviations from the plan can be reduced with efforts aimed at maintaining consistent daily patient anatomy.

  13. T1 weighted Brain Images at 7 Tesla Unbiased for Proton Density, T2* contrast and RF Coil Receive B1 Sensitivity with Simultaneous Vessel Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edwards J.; Olman, Cheryl; Yacoub, Essa; U?urbil, Kâmil; Moeller, Steen

    2009-01-01

    At high magnetic field, MR images exhibit large, undesirable signal intensity variations commonly referred to as “intensity field bias”. Such inhomogeneities mostly originate from heterogeneous RF coil B1 profiles and, with no appropriate correction, are further pronounced when utilizing rooted sum of square reconstruction with receive coil arrays. These artifacts can significantly alter whole brain high resolution T1-weighted (T1w) images that are extensively utilized for clinical diagnosis, for gray/white matter segmentation as well as for coregistration with functional time series. In T1 weighted 3D-MPRAGE sequences, it is possible to preserve a bulk amount of T1 contrast through space by using adiabatic inversion RF pulses that are insensitive to transmit B1 variations above a minimum threshold. However, large intensity variations persist in the images, which are significantly more difficult to address at very high field where RF coil B1 profiles become more heterogeneous. Another characteristic of T1w MPRAGE sequences is their intrinsic sensitivity to Proton Density and T2* contrast, which cannot be removed with post-processing algorithms utilized to correct for receive coil sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique capable of producing normalized, high resolution T1w 3D-MPRAGE images that are devoid of receive coil sensitivity, Proton Density and T2* contrast. These images, which are suitable for routinely obtaining whole brain tissue segmentation at 7 Tesla, provide higher T1 contrast specificity than standard MPRAGE acquisitions. Our results show that removing the Proton Density component can help identifying small brain structures and that T2* induced artifacts can be removed from the images. The resulting unbiased T1w images can also be used to generate Maximum Intensity Projection angiograms, without additional data acquisition, that are inherently registered with T1w structural images. In addition, we introduce a simple technique to reduce residual signal intensity variations induced by Transmit B1 heterogeneity. Because this approach requires two 3D images, one divided with the other, head motion could create serious problems, especially at high spatial resolution. To alleviate such inter-scan motion problems, we developed a new sequence where the two contrast acquisitions are interleaved within a single scan. This interleaved approach however comes with greater risk of intra-scan motion issues because of a longer single scan time. Users can choose between these two trade offs depending on specific protocols and patient populations. We believe that the simplicity and the robustness of this double contrast based approach to address intensity field bias at high field and improve T1 contrast specificity, together with the capability of simultaneously obtaining angiography maps, advantageously counter balance the potential drawbacks of the technique, mainly a longer acquisition time and a moderate reduction in signal to noise ratio. PMID:19233292

  14. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  15. Three-Dimensional Turbo-Spin-Echo Amide Proton Transfer MR Imaging at 3 Tesla and Its Application to High-Grade Human Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuna; Wen, Zhibo; Zhang, Ge; Huang, Fanheng; Lu, Shilong; Wang, Xianlong; Hu, Shuguang; Chen, Min; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is able to extend the achievable MRI contrast to the protein level. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying a turbo spin echo (TSE)-based, three-dimensional (3D) APT sequence into routine clinical practice for patients with brain tumors. Procedures Experiments were performed on a Philips 3T MRI scanner using an eight-channel phased-array coil for reception. A fast 3D APT sequence with a TSE acquisition was proposed (saturation power, 2 ?T; saturation time, 500 ms; 8 slices). The gradient echo (GRE)-based field-mapping technique or water-saturation-shift-referencing (WASSR) technique was used to acquire B0 maps to correct for B0-induced artifacts in APT images. The test was performed on a box of homogenous protein solution, four healthy volunteers, and eight patients with high-grade gliomas. Results The experimental data from a homogenous, protein-containing phantom and healthy volunteers show that the sequence produced a uniform contrast across all slices. The average MTRasym(3.5ppm) values with GRE B0-corrected 3D APT imaging and WASSR-corrected 3D APT imaging were both comparable to the values obtained using the undemanding single-slice acquisition. The average APT image intensity was consistently higher in the tumor core than in the peripheral edema and in the contralateral normal-appearing white matter (both P < 0.001). Conclusion 3D APT imaging of brain tumors can be performed in about five minutes at 3T using a routine, commercial eight-channel SENSE coil. PMID:22644987

  16. Sequential, co-registered fluorine and proton field-cycled Overhauser imaging at a detection field of 59 mT.

    PubMed

    Modica, Alessandro; Lurie, David J; Alecci, Marcello

    2006-02-01

    In this work we show the feasibility of sequential, co-registered fluorine and proton field-cycled Overhauser imaging at a detection field of 59 mT. To this purpose we have built an RF coil assembly comprising an Alderman-Grant resonator for EPR irradiation at 127.7 MHz (evolution field of 4.5 mT) and a solenoidal coil for (19)F or (1)H MRI acquisition at the detection field of 59 mT. A removable tuning/matching circuit that allows the solenoid to be tuned to the (19)F frequency (2.346 MHz, FEDRI) or the (1)H frequency (2.494 MHz, PEDRI) without removing the sample was built and tested. Switching of the solenoid between the (19)F and (1)H frequency is thus achieved in less than 1 min. The co-registered FC-FEDRI and FC-PEDRI images show higher enhancement in the sample regions with higher free radical concentration. This work is the first methodological step towards the development of an MRI scanner capable of acquiring morphological ((1)H) and physiological ((19)F) images in animal models at very low fields. PMID:16424574

  17. A Web application for the management of clinical workflow in image-guided and adaptive proton therapy for prostate cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Daniel; Boes, Peter; Ho, Meng Wei; Li, Zuofeng

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), based on radiopaque markers placed in the prostate gland, was used for proton therapy of prostate patients. Orthogonal X-rays and the IBA Digital Image Positioning System (DIPS) were used for setup correction prior to treatment and were repeated after treatment delivery. Following a rationale for margin estimates similar to that of van Herk,(1) the daily post-treatment DIPS data were analyzed to determine if an adaptive radiotherapy plan was necessary. A Web application using ASP.NET MVC5, Entity Framework, and an SQL database was designed to automate this process. The designed features included state-of-the-art Web technologies, a domain model closely matching the workflow, a database-supporting concurrency and data mining, access to the DIPS database, secured user access and roles management, and graphing and analysis tools. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm allowed clean domain logic, unit testing, and extensibility. Client-side technologies, such as jQuery, jQuery Plug-ins, and Ajax, were adopted to achieve a rich user environment and fast response. Data models included patients, staff, treatment fields and records, correction vectors, DIPS images, and association logics. Data entry, analysis, workflow logics, and notifications were implemented. The system effectively modeled the clinical workflow and IGRT process. PMID:26103504

  18. The tissue proton T1 and T2 response to gadolinium DTPA injection in rabbits. A potential renal contrast agent for NMR imaging.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G L; Fobben, E S

    1984-01-01

    Three different doses of gadolinium (Gd) DTPA were administered intravenously to rabbits. Cardiovascular responses and changes in blood T1 and T2 were serially followed for 15 minutes when the animals were sacrificed for in vitro measures of tissue T1 and T2. Gd-DTPA was distributed and excreted like water soluble iodinated contrast agents with large changes in blood, urine, and kidney proton relaxation. An imaging experiment confirmed the efficacy as an NMR contrast agent for renal excretion. At effective doses, no adverse effects were observed and the agent appeared to be much safer than x-ray contrast agents, but with a similar potential for clinical utility. PMID:6090336

  19. Proton Microscopy at Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Golubev, A. A.; Mariam, F. G.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-12-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR (PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  20. Proton, Diffusion-weighted Imaging, and Sodium (23Na) MRI of Uterine Leiomyomata after MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Michael A.; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Kamel, Ihab; Bottomley, Paul A.; Kim, Hyun S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of using combined proton (1H), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and sodium (23Na) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the treatment of uterine leiomyomata (fibroids). Materials and Methods Eight patients with uterine leiomyomata were enrolled and treated using MRI-guided high intensity frequency ultrasound surgery (MRg-HIFUS). MRI scans collected at baseline and post-treatment consisted of T2-, T1-, and 1H DWI, as well as post-treatment 23Na MRI. The 23Na and 1H MRi were co-registered using a replacement phantom method. Regions of interest in treated and untreated uterine leiomyoma tissue were drawn on 1H MRI and DWI, wherein the tissue apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) and absolute sodium concentrations were measured. Results Regions of treated uterine tissue were clearly identified on both DWI and 23Na images. The sodium concentrations in normal myometrium tissue were 35.8± 2.1 mmol (mM), in fundus; 43.4± 3.8 mM in bladder; and 65.3± 0.8mM with ADC in normal myometrium of 2.2± 0.3×10-3mm2/sec. Sodium concentration in untreated leiomyomata were 28± 5mM, and were significantly elevated (41.6± 7.6mM p<0.05) after treatment. Apparent diffusion coefficient values in the treated leiomyomata (1.30± 0.38×10-3mm2/sec) were decreased compared to areas of untreated leiomyomata (1.75±0.36×10-3mm2/sec; p=0.04). Conclusion Multiparametric imaging permits identification of uterine leiomyomata, revealing altered 23Na MRI and DWI levels following non-invasive treatment which provides a mechanism to explore the molecular and metabolic pathways after treatment. PMID:19243047

  1. A comparative study between the imaging system and the optical tracking system in proton therapy at CNAO

    PubMed Central

    Desplanques, Maxime; Tagaste, Barbara; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Riboldi, Marco; Fattori, Giovanni; Donno, Andrea; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The synergy between in-room imaging and optical tracking, in co-operation with highly accurate robotic patient handling represents a concept for patient-set-up which has been implemented at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica). In-room imaging is based on a double oblique X-ray projection system; optical tracking consists of the detection of the position of spherical markers placed directly on the patient's skin or on the immobilization devices. These markers are used as external fiducials during patient positioning and dose delivery. This study reports the results of a comparative analysis between in-room imaging and optical tracking data for patient positioning within the framework of high-precision particle therapy. Differences between the optical tracking system (OTS) and the imaging system (IS) were on average within the expected localization accuracy. On the first 633 fractions for head and neck (H&N) set-up procedures, the corrections applied by the IS, after patient positioning using the OTS only, were for the mostly sub-millimetric regarding the translations (0.4±1.1 mm) and sub-gradual regarding the rotations (0.0°±0.8°). On the first 236 fractions for pelvis localizations the amplitude of the corrections applied by the IS after preliminary optical set-up correction were moderately higher and more dispersed (translations: 1.3±2.9 mm, rotations 0.1±0.9°). Although the indication of the OTS cannot replace information provided by in-room imaging devices and 2D-3D image registration, the reported data show that OTS preliminary correction might greatly support image-based patient set-up refinement and also provide a secondary, independent verification system for patient positioning. PMID:23824116

  2. Experimental verification of proton beam monitoring in a human body by use of activity image of positron-emitting nuclei generated by nuclear fragmentation reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teiji Nishio; Aya Miyatake; Kazumasa Inoue; Tomoko Gomi-Miyagishi; Ryosuke Kohno; Satoru Kameoka; Keiichi Nakagawa; Takashi Ogino

    2008-01-01

    Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy that enables concentration of dose on a tumor by use of a scanned or modulated Bragg\\u000a peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can\\u000a be confirmed by detection of pair-annihilation gamma rays from positron-emitting nuclei generated by the nuclear fragmentation\\u000a reaction of the incident protons

  3. MR-compatible ventilator for small animals: computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble gas imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence W. Hedlund; Gary P. Cofer; Steven J. Owen; G. Allan Johnson

    Abstract We describe an MR-compatible ventilator that is computer controlled to generate a variety of breathing patterns, to minimize image degrading effects of breathing motion, and to support delivery of gas anesthesia and experimental inhalational gases. A key feature of this ventilator is the breathing valve that attaches directly to the endotracheal tube to reduce dead volume,and allows independent,control of

  4. Translational Approaches for Studying Neurodevelopmental Disorders Utilizing in Vivo Proton (+H) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine complications have been implicated in the etiology of neuripsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism and ADHD. This presentation will describe new translational studies derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of developing and adult brain following perinatal asphyxia (PA). Our findings reveal significant effects of PA on neurometabolic profiles at one week of age, and significant relationships between early metabolites and later life phenotypes including behavior and brain morphometry

  5. On proton CT reconstruction using MVCT-converted virtual proton projections

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dongxu; Mackie, T. Rockwell; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Morgridge Institute of Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Oncophysics Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To describe a novel methodology of converting megavoltage x-ray projections into virtual proton projections that are otherwise missing due to the proton range limit. These converted virtual proton projections can be used in the reconstruction of proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: Relations exist between proton projections and multispectral megavoltage x-ray projections for human tissue. Based on these relations, these tissues can be categorized into: (a) adipose tissue; (b) nonadipose soft tissues; and (c) bone. These three tissue categories can be visibly identified on a regular megavoltage x-ray computed tomography (MVCT) image. With an MVCT image and its projection data available, the x-ray projections through heterogeneous anatomy can be converted to the corresponding proton projections using predetermined calibration curves for individual materials, aided by a coarse segmentation on the x-ray CT image. To show the feasibility of this approach, mathematical simulations were carried out. The converted proton projections, plotted on a proton sinogram, were compared to the simulated ground truth. Proton stopping power images were reconstructed using either the virtual proton projections only or a blend of physically available proton projections and virtual proton projections that make up for those missing due to the range limit. These images were compared to a reference image reconstructed from theoretically calculated proton projections. Results: The converted virtual projections had an uncertainty of {+-}0.8% compared to the calculated ground truth. Proton stopping power images reconstructed using a blend of converted virtual projections (48%) and physically available projections (52%) had an uncertainty of {+-}0.86% compared with that reconstructed from theoretically calculated projections. Reconstruction solely from converted virtual proton projections had an uncertainty of {+-}1.1% compared with that reconstructed from theoretical projections. If these images are used for treatment planning, the average proton range uncertainty is estimated to be less than 1.5% for an imaging dose in the milligray range. Conclusions: The proposed method can be used to convert x-ray projections into virtual proton projections. The converted proton projections can be blended with existing proton projections or can be used solely for pCT reconstruction, addressing the range limit problem of pCT using current therapeutic proton machines.

  6. Mapping of liver fat with triple-echo gradient echo imaging: validation against 3.0-T proton MR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Guiu; Romaric Loffroy; Jean-Michel Petit; Serge Aho; Douraied Ben Salem; David Masson; Patrick Hillon; Jean-Pierre Cercueil; Denis Krause

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for mapping liver fat, using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) as the reference standard. In 91 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3.0-T single-voxel point-resolved 1H-MRS was used to calculate the liver fat fraction (LFF) from the water (4.76 ppm) and methylene (1.33 ppm) peaks, corrected\\u000a for T1 and

  7. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... effects of the treatment. top of page What equipment is used? Proton beam therapy uses special machines, ... tumor cells. top of page Who operates the equipment? View larger with caption With backgrounds in mechanical, ...

  8. Mapping of liver fat with triple-echo gradient echo imaging: validation against 3.0-T proton MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guiu, Boris; Loffroy, Romaric; Petit, Jean-Michel; Aho, Serge; Ben Salem, Douraied; Masson, David; Hillon, Patrick; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krause, Denis

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for mapping liver fat, using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) as the reference standard. In 91 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3.0-T single-voxel point-resolved (1)H-MRS was used to calculate the liver fat fraction (LFF) from the water (4.76 ppm) and methylene (1.33 ppm) peaks, corrected for T1 and T2 decays. LFF (corrected for T1 and T2* decays) was also obtained from the mean signal intensity on a map built from a triple-echo (consecutive in-phase, opposed-phase, and in-phase echo times) breath-hold gradient echo sequence, using basic image calculation functions (arithmetic mean, subtraction, division, multiplication by a numerical factor). Mean LFF was 8.9% (range, 0.9-33.5) by MRI and 8.8% (range, 0-34.1) by (1)H-MRS. Pearson's coefficient was 0.976 (P < 0.0001) and Lin's coefficient was 0.975 (P < 0.0001). Liver segment had no significant influence. With Bland-Altman analysis, 95.6% (87/91) of data points were within the limits of agreement. Given its excellent agreement with (1)H-MRS, our mapping technique can be used for visual and quantitative evaluation of liver fat in everyday practice. PMID:19247667

  9. Proton computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciantonio, Martina; Sauli, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a diagnostic method capable of in situ imaging the three-dimensional density distribution in a patient before irradiation with charged particle beams. Proposed long time ago, this technology has been developed by several groups, and may become an essential tool for advanced quality assessment in hadrontherapy. We describe the basic principles of the method, its performance and limitations as well as provide a summary of experimental systems and of results achieved.

  10. MR imaging of the amide-proton transfer effect and the pH-insensitive nuclear overhauser effect at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Wang, Ping; Zong, Xiaopeng; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2013-03-01

    The amide proton transfer (APT) effect has emerged as a unique endogenous molecular imaging contrast mechanism with great clinical potentials. However, in vivo quantitative mapping of APT using the conventional asymmetry analysis is difficult due to the confounding nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and the asymmetry of the magnetization transfer effect. Here, we showed that the asymmetry of magnetization transfer contrast from immobile macromolecules is highly significant, and the wide spectral separation associated with a high magnetic field of 9.4 T delineates APT and NOE peaks in a Z-spectrum. Therefore, high-resolution apparent APT and NOE maps can be obtained from measurements at three offsets. The apparent APT value was greater in gray matter compared to white matter in normal rat brain and was sensitive to tissue acidosis and correlated well with apparent diffusion coefficient in the rat focal ischemic brain. In contrast, no ischemia-induced contrast was observed in the apparent NOE map. The concentration dependence and the pH insensitivity of NOE were confirmed in phantom experiments. Our results demonstrate that in vivo apparent APT and NOE maps can be easily obtained at high magnetic fields and the pH-insensitive NOE may be a useful indicator of mobile macromolecular contents. PMID:22577042

  11. MR imaging of the Amide-Proton Transfer effect and the pH-insensitive Nuclear Overhauser Effect at 9.4 T

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tao; Wang, Ping; Zong, Xiaopeng; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2012-01-01

    The amide proton transfer (APT) effect has emerged as a unique endogenous molecular imaging contrast mechanism with great clinical potentials. However, in vivo quantitative mapping of APT using the conventional asymmetry analysis is difficult due to the confounding Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) and the asymmetry of the magnetization transfer (MT) effect. Here we showed that the asymmetry of MT contrast from immobile macromolecules is highly significant, and the wide spectral separation associated with a high magnetic field of 9.4 T delineates APT and NOE peaks in a Z-spectrum. Therefore, high resolution apparent APT and NOE maps can be obtained from measurements at three offsets. The apparent APT value was greater in gray matter compared to white matter in normal rat brain, and was sensitive to tissue acidosis and correlated well with ADC in the rat focal ischemic brain. In contrast, no ischemia-induced contrast was observed in the apparent NOE map. The concentration-dependence and the pH insensitivity of NOE were confirmed in phantom experiments. Our results demonstrate that in vivo apparent APT and NOE maps can be easily obtained at high magnetic fields, and the pH-insensitive NOE may be a useful indicator of mobile macromolecular contents. PMID:22577042

  12. Proton Irradiation Experiment for X-ray Charge-Coupled Devices of the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image Mission Onboard the International Space Station: II. Degradation of Dark Current and Identification of Electron Trap Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emi Miyata; Hirohiko Kouno; Daisuke Kamiyama; Tomoyuki Kamazuka; Mototsugu Mihara; Mitsunori Fukuda; Kensaku Matsuta; Hiroshi Tsunemi; Tadanori Minamisono; Hiroshi Tomida; Kazuhisa Miyaguchi

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased

  13. Proton Irradiation Experiment for X-ray Charge-Coupled Devices of the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image Mission Onboard the International Space Station: I. Experimental Setup and Measurement of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emi Miyata; Tomoyuki Kamazuka; Hirohiko Kouno; Mitsunori Fukuda; Mototsugu Mihara; Kensaku Matsuta; Hiroshi Tsunemi; Kanenobu Tanaka; Tadanori Minamisono; Hiroshi Tomida; Kazuhisa Miyaguchi

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-cloupled device (CCD) to be employed in the Japanese X-ray astronomy mission including the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI) onboard the international space station (ISS). Since low-energy protons release their energy mainly at the charge transfer channel, resulting in a decrease of the charge transfer efficiency, we focused on low-energy

  14. Simultaneous Bilateral Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Femoral Arteries in Peripheral Arterial Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan; Karmonik, Christof; Brunner, Gerd; Lumsden, Alan; Ballantyne, Christie; Johnson, Shawna; Wang, Yi; Morrisett, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To image the femoral arteries in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients using a bilateral receive coil. Materials and Methods An eight-channel surface coil array for bilateral MRI of the femoral arteries at 3T was constructed and evaluated. Results The bilateral array enabled imaging of a 25-cm segment of the superficial femoral arteries (SFA) from the profunda to the popliteal. The array provided improved the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the periphery and similar SNR in the middle of a phantom compared to three other commercially available coils (4-channel torso, quadrature head, whole body). Multicontrast bilateral images of the in vivo SFA with 1 mm inplane resolution made it possible to directly compare lesions in the index SFA to the corresponding anatomical site in the contralateral vessel without repositioning the patient or coil. A set of bilateral time-of-flight, T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images was acquired in a clinically acceptable exam time of ?45 minutes. Conclusion The developed bilateral coil is well suited for monitoring dimensional changes in atherosclerotic lesions of the SFA. PMID:21598344

  15. Primary and metastatic intraaxial brain tumors: prospective comparison of multivoxel 2D chemical-shift imaging (CSI) proton MR spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, and histopathological findings in a group of 159 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Bendini; Elisabetta Marton; Alberto Feletti; Sabrina Rossi; Stefano Curtolo; Ingrid Inches; Monica Ronzon; Pierluigi Longatti; Francesco Di Paola

    2011-01-01

    Background  This study aims to assess the diagnostic value of multivoxel 2D chemical-shift imaging (CSI) proton magnetic resonance (MR)\\u000a spectroscopy combined with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis and grading of brain tumors\\u000a by comparing neuroimaging data with histopathological findings obtained after resection or biopsy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 159 patients with a previous brain tumor diagnosis underwent multivoxel

  16. Inter-examination Precision of Magnitude-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Estimation of Segmental Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction (PDFF) in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Lindsey M.; Middleton, Michael S.; Clark, Lisa; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C.; Lam, Jessica; Changchien, Chris; Deyoung-Dominguez, Ivan M.; Hamilton, Gavin; Loomba, Rohit; Schwimmer, Jeffrey; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively describe magnitude-based multi-echo gradient-echo hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) inter-examination precision at 3T. Materials and Methods In this prospective, IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study, written informed consent was obtained from 29 subjects (body mass indexes > 30kg/m2). Three 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were obtained over 75-90 minutes. Segmental, lobar, and whole liver PDFF were estimated (using three, four, five, or six echoes) by magnitude-based multi-echo MRI in co-localized regions of interest (ROIs). For estimate (using three, four, five, or six echoes), at each anatomic level (segmental, lobar, whole liver), three inter-examination precision metrics were computed: intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard deviation (SD), and range. Results Magnitude-based PDFF estimates using each reconstruction method showed excellent inter-examination precision for each segment (ICC ? 0.992; SD ? 0.66%; range ? 1.24%), lobe (ICC ? 0.998; SD ? 0.34%; range ? 0.64%), and the whole liver (ICC = 0.999; SD ? 0.24%; range ? 0.45%). Inter-examination precision was unaffected by whether PDFF was estimated using three, four, five, or six echoes. Conclusion Magnitude-based PDFF estimation shows high inter-examination precision at segmental, lobar, and whole liver anatomic levels, supporting its use in clinical care or clinical trials. The results of this study suggest that longitudinal hepatic PDFF change greater than 1.6% is likely to represent signal rather than noise. PMID:24136736

  17. Proton geriatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Nakagawa, Norio

    1984-07-01

    An SO(10) model with particle spectrum and low energy gauge group identical to that of minimal SU (5) below MX but with a nonstandard charge assignment is shown to agree with the experimental best value of sin2?w(Mw) and the lower bound on the proton lifetime.

  18. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  19. An image-based skeletal model for the ICRP reference adult male—specific absorbed fractions for neutron-generated recoil protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisch, D. W.; Rajon, D. A.; Bahadori, A. A.; Bolch, W. E.

    2011-11-01

    Recoiling hydrogen nuclei are a principle mechanism for energy deposition from incident neutrons. For neutrons incident on the human skeleton, the small sizes of two contrasting media (trabecular bone and marrow) present unique problems due to a lack of charged-particle (protons) equilibrium. Specific absorbed fractions have been computed for protons originating in the human skeletal tissues for use in computing neutron dose response functions. The proton specific absorbed fractions were computed using a pathlength-based range-energy calculation in trabecular skeletal samples of a 40 year old male cadaver.

  20. Proton Radiography of Inertial Fusion Implosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Rygg; F. H. Séguin; C. K. Li; J. A. Frenje; M. J.-E. Manuel; R. D. Petrasso; R. Betti; J. A. Delettrez; O. V. Gotchev; J. P. Knauer; D. D. Meyerhofer; F. J. Marshall; C. Stoeckl; W. Theobald

    2008-01-01

    A distinctive way of quantitatively imaging inertial fusion implosions has resulted in the characterization of two different types of electromagnetic configurations and in the measurement of the temporal evolution of capsule size and areal density. Radiography with a pulsed, monoenergetic, isotropic proton source reveals field structures through deflection of proton trajectories, and areal densities are quantified through the energy lost

  1. Magnetization transfer contrast of hepatic lesions in breath-hold gradient-echo images of different T1 weighting.

    PubMed

    Schick, F; Stern, W; Forster, J; Laniado, M; Lutz, O; Claussen, C D

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen patients with hepatic lesions [six metastases from colon, breast, and gallbladder carcinoma; one gallbladder carcinoma; five hepatocellular carcinoma; three focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH); one adenoma; and one cyst] were examined by MR breath-hold two-dimensional gradient-echo imaging to assess the potential of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) for improved conspicuity and classification. Imaging sequences were applied with and without irradiation of off-resonant radiofrequency (RF) prepulses, but other parameters were unchanged. Therefore, quantitative assessment of MTC could be performed. In contrast to former examinations of other researchers, no significant difference of MTC was found between malignant liver lesions and benign lesions as FNH or adenoma. MTC might provide differentiation between hemangioma and cysts versus solid tumors, but MTC is not capable of distinguishing benign and malignant types of solid liver tumors. Effects of unchanged MTC prepulses on signal intensity of normal liver tissue and most lesions were more pronounced for nearly proton density-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) images than for T1-weighted FLASH images, obtained by using higher excitation flip angles. Liver-to-lesion contrast could not be improved clearly by MTC prepulses. The contrast between liver and lesions in the gradient-echo breath-hold images was compared with standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images. Liver-to-lesion contrast in the breath-hold images was found to be inferior to T2-weighted spin-echo images in 14 of 17 cases. Lesion conspicuity in regions near the diaphragm was better in breath-hold images, because problems with marked breathing motion (as in standard imaging) could be avoided. PMID:9090578

  2. An average image of proton plasma pressure and of current systems in the equatorial plane derived from AMPTE\\/CCE-CHEM measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola De Michelis; Ioannis A. Daglis; Giuseppe Consolini

    1999-01-01

    The present study attempts to visualize the global equatorial current systems and the proton pressure in the near-Earth magnetosphere based on AMPTE\\/CCE-CHEM measured proton distributions, which were sorted by the AE index (``quiet'': AE<100nT, ``active'': 100nT

  3. Intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kooy, H M; Grassberger, C

    2015-07-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of accuracy and pioneered volumetric treatment planning and imaging at a level of quality now standard in X-ray therapy. IMPT requires not only the highest precision tools but also the highest level of system integration of the services required to deliver high-precision radiotherapy. PMID:26084352

  4. Images

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Images Images:  Cancer Biology Image: Cell with DNA 72 DPI | 300 DPIDrawing depicting DNA molecule unwinding from a chromosome inside the nucleus of a cell. NHGRI >> View All Cancer Pathology/Imaging Image: Female

  5. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Berdoz; J. Birchall; J. D. Bowman; J. R. Campbell; C. A. Davis; A. A. Green; P. W. Green; A. A. Hamian; D. C. Healey; R. Helmer; S. Kadantsev; Y. Kuznetsov; R. Laxdal; L. Lee; C. D. P. Levy; R. E. Mischke; S. A. Page; W. D. Ramsay; S. D. Reitzner; G. Roy; P. W. Schmor; A. M. Sekulovich; J. Soukup; G. M. Stinson; T. Stocki; V. Sum; N. A. Titov; W. T. H. van Oers; R. J. Woo; A. N. Zelenski

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of parity-violating longitudinal analyzing powers (normalized asymmetries) in polarized proton-proton scattering provide a unique window on the interplay between the weak and strong interactions between and within hadrons. Several new proton-proton parity violation experiments are presently either being performed or are being prepared for execution in the near future: at TRIUMF at 221 MeV and 450 MeV and at

  6. Subauroral proton spots visualize the Pc1 source A. G. Yahnin,1

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Subauroral proton spots visualize the Pc1 source A. G. Yahnin,1 T. A. Yahnina,1 and H. U. Frey2 observations from the IMAGE spacecraft revealed a new type of proton aurora ­ subauroral proton spots, which map onto the vicinity of the plasmapause. It has been suggested that this proton aurora is produced

  7. SU-E-J-244: Validation of a 6D-Robotic-Couch and Image Guidance Radiation Therapy (IGRT) System for Localization in World's First Single-Room Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, L; Klein, E [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Grantham, K [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Goddu, S [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cessac, R [Mevion Medical Systems, Littleton, MA (United States); Baker, K [Barne-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO (United States); Santanam, L [Washington University School of Medicine, St.louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Mevion S250 proton therapy unit is equipped with a 6D-robotic couch and IGRT system (Verity). The patient alignment process allows corrections in six degrees of freedom: translation (x,y,z), pitch, roll, and yaw (?,?,?). Geometric accuracy of couch corrections and imaging vs. radiation isocenter coincidence were quantified before clinical implementation. Methods: A commercial phantom with sixteen 2mm tungsten BBs was rigidly couch-mounted and imaged with CT. Seventeen rigid translations/rotations of known magnitude were digitally applied to the original CT image using commercial software, validated with Varian OBI system. For each altered image, phantom was mounted on robotic couch in original position, then Verity 2D:2D match (PA-LLAT) was performed using DRRs from altered images. Corrections were recorded and applied, phantom was imaged a second time and residual corrections recorded. Physical measurements verified that applied couch corrections coincided with both physical couch shifts/rotations and known CT image translations/rotations. Additionally, image vs. radiation isocenter coicidence was quantified over couch treatment angles (±90° from setup position) using radiochromic film and an image-guided couch star-shot. Posterior-anterior and left-lateral kV radiographs were taken before each beam was delivered to verify imaging/radiation isocentricity. Results: Verity suggested couch corrections and known CT shifts/rotations agreed within ±1mm (average: ? lat=0.5mm; ? vert=0.4mm; ? long=0.3mm) and ± 0.4° (average: ? pitch=0.24° ? roll=0.01°; ? yaw=0.10°). Physical couch measurements and Verity applied corrections agreed within ± 1mm (average: ?lat=0.5mm; ?vert=0.4mm; ?long=0.2mm) and ±0.2° (average: ?pitch=0.03°; ? roll=0.04°; ? yaw=0.04°). The directionality of all translations and rotations were qualitatively verified. The image vs. radiation isocenter coincidence was <1mm and radiation-isocenter precision was <1mm over the 180° of couch motion, as indicated by film analysis. Conclusion: The Verity IGRT software and 6D-couch combination on the Mevion S250 was verified as accurate within 1mm and 0.5°. This complies with the TG-142 standards for a stereotactic radiotherapy IGRT system. Rob Cessac is employed as Product Manager for Mevion Medical Systems.

  8. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anti?i?, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Biel?ík, J.; Biel?íková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Valle, Z. Conesa del; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Caro, A. De; Cataldo, G. de; Cuveland, J. de; Falco, A. De; Gruttola, D. De; Marco, N. De; Pasquale, S. De; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Bari, D. Di; Mauro, A. Di; Nezza, P. Di; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Dziadus, E. Gladysz; Glässel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Zamora, P. González; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of primary , , and production at mid-rapidity ( 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionisation energy-loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with quantum chromodynamics-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  9. New Proton Radioactivity Measurements

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    New Proton Radioactivity Measurements Richard J. Irvine Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor to search for examples of proton emission from ground and low­lying states in odd­Z nuclei at the proton into a double­sided silicon strip detector system, where their subsequent particle decays (proton or alpha) were

  10. The relation of sub-auroral electron and proton precipitation to plasmaspheric and magnetospheric conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Immel; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; G. Lu; B. R. Sandel; T. Forrester; A. J. Ridley

    2002-01-01

    During the first two years of the NASA IMAGE mission, global-scale images of auroral precipitation have revealed electron and proton precipitation away from the main auroral oval. The most common manifestations include detached proton arcs in the dusk sector, and impulsive precipitation of electrons and protons on the dayside. A third type of auroral form was observed during the recovery

  11. Design study of an in situ PET scanner for use in proton beam therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Surti; W. Zou; M. E. Daube-Witherspoon; J. McDonough; J. S. Karp

    2011-01-01

    Proton beam therapy can deliver a high radiation dose to a tumor without significant damage to surrounding healthy tissue or organs. One way of verifying the delivered dose distribution is to image the short-lived positron emitters produced by the proton beam as it travels through the patient. A potential solution to the limitations of PET imaging in proton beam therapy

  12. A 3T Sodium and Proton Composite Array Breast Coil

    PubMed Central

    Kaggie, Joshua D.; Hadley, J. Rock; Badal, James; Campbell, John R.; Park, Daniel J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Morrell, Glen; Newbould, Rexford D.; Wood, Ali F.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether a sodium phased array would improve sodium breast MRI at 3T. The secondary objective was to create acceptable proton images with the sodium phased array in place. Methods A novel composite array for combined proton/sodium 3T breast MRI is compared to a coil with a single proton and sodium channel. The composite array consists of a 7-channel sodium receive array, a larger sodium transmit coil, and a 4-channel proton transceive array. The new composite array design utilizes smaller sodium receive loops than typically used in sodium imaging, uses novel decoupling methods between the receive loops and transmit loops, and uses a novel multi-channel proton transceive coil. The proton transceive coil reduces coupling between proton and sodium elements by intersecting the constituent loops to reduce their mutual inductance. The coil used for comparison consists of a concentric sodium and proton loop with passive decoupling traps. Results The composite array coil demonstrates a 2–5x improvement in SNR for sodium imaging and similar SNR for proton imaging when compared to a simple single-loop dual resonant design. Conclusion The improved SNR of the composite array gives breast sodium images of unprecedented quality in reasonable scan times. PMID:24105740

  13. MR Imaging Characteristics of Tuberculous Spondylitis vs Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison S. Smith; Meredith A. Weinstein; Akira Mizushima; Bret Coughlin; Stephen P. Hayden; Milton M. Lakin; Charles F. Lanzieri

    Retrospective evaluation was made of four patients with tuberculous spondylitis wbe had been studied by MR with Ti- and T2-weighted images in the sagittal plane and spin-density-weighted images in the axial plane. Evaluation was made of the distribution of abnormal signals within the body and posterior elements of the vertebrae, the intervertebral disk, and the associated paraspinal and epidural areas.

  14. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia (Hampton University Proton Therapy) [Hampton University Proton Therapy

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  15. Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell K. Hobbie; Bradley J. Roth

    Images are very important in the remainder of this book. They may be formed by the eye, a camera, an xray machine, a nuclear\\u000a medicine camera, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. The concepts developed in Chapter 11 can be used to understand\\u000a and describe image quality. The same concepts are also used to reconstruct computed tomographic or magnetic resonance slice

  16. Accelerated short-TE 3D proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging using 2D-SENSE with a 32-channel array coil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Otazo; Shang-Yueh Tsai; Fa-Hsuan Lin; Stefan Posse

    2007-01-01

    MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with whole brain coverage in clinically feasible acquisition times still remains a major chal- lenge. A combination of MRSI with parallel imaging has shown promise to reduce the long encoding times and 2D acceleration with a large array coil is expected to provide high acceleration capability. In this work a very high-speed method for 3D-MRSI based

  17. The precision of proton range calculations in proton radiotherapy treatment planning: experimental verification of the relation between CT-HU and proton stopping power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Schaffner; E. Pedroni

    1998-01-01

    The precision in proton radiotherapy treatment planning depends on the accuracy of the information used to calculate the stopping power properties of the tissues in the patient's body. This information is obtained from computed tomography (CT) images using a calibration curve to convert CT Hounsfield units into relative proton stopping power values. The validity of a stoichiometric method to create

  18. Dressed Quarks and PROTON’S Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Wong, Chun Wa; Chu, Keh-Cheng

    The effect on the proton spin of mixing gluon and sea quark configurations is studied in a perturbative treatment based on the MIT bag model. As little as 29% of the proton spin is found to remain as the intrinsic spin of quarks when they are “dressed” by gluons.

  19. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  20. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  1. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  2. ADvanced IMage Algebra (ADIMA): a novel method for depicting multiple sclerosis lesion heterogeneity, as demonstrated by quantitative MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tozer, Daniel J; Schmierer, Klaus; Chard, Declan T; Anderson, Valerie M; Altmann, Daniel R; Miller, David H; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are modest correlations between multiple sclerosis (MS) disability and white matter lesion (WML) volumes, as measured by T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (T2-WML). This may partly reflect pathological heterogeneity in WMLs, which is not apparent on T2w scans. Objective: To determine if ADvanced IMage Algebra (ADIMA), a novel MRI post-processing method, can reveal WML heterogeneity from proton-density weighted (PDw) and T2w images. Methods: We obtained conventional PDw and T2w images from 10 patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) and ADIMA images were calculated from these. We classified all WML into bright (ADIMA-b) and dark (ADIMA-d) sub-regions, which were segmented. We obtained conventional T2-WML and T1-WML volumes for comparison, as well as the following quantitative magnetic resonance parameters: magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), T1 and T2. Also, we assessed the reproducibility of the segmentation for ADIMA-b, ADIMA-d and T2-WML. Results: Our study’s ADIMA-derived volumes correlated with conventional lesion volumes (p < 0.05). ADIMA-b exhibited higher T1 and T2, and lower MTR than the T2-WML (p < 0.001). Despite the similarity in T1 values between ADIMA-b and T1-WML, these regions were only partly overlapping with each other. ADIMA-d exhibited quantitative characteristics similar to T2-WML; however, they were only partly overlapping. Mean intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variation for ADIMA-b, ADIMA-d and T2-WML volumes were all < 6 % and < 10 %, respectively. Conclusion: ADIMA enabled the simple classification of WML into two groups having different quantitative magnetic resonance properties, which can be reproducibly distinguished. PMID:23037551

  3. Monitoring proton therapy with PET.

    PubMed

    Paganetti, H; El Fakhri, G

    2015-07-01

    Protons are being used in radiation therapy because of typically better dose conformity and reduced total energy deposited in the patient as compared with photon techniques. Both aspects are related to the finite range of a proton beam. The finite range also allows advanced dose shaping. These benefits can only be fully utilized if the end of range can be predicted accurately in the patient. The prediction of the range in tissue is associated with considerable uncertainties owing to imaging, patient set-up, beam delivery, interfractional changes in patient anatomy and dose calculation. Consequently, a significant range (of the order of several millimetres) is added to the prescribed range in order to ensure tumour coverage. Thus, reducing range uncertainties would allow a reduction of the treatment volume and reduce dose to potential organs at risk. PMID:25989699

  4. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology.

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-06-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed. PMID:24785680

  5. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology

    PubMed Central

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-01-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as Computed Tomography (CT), the Water-Equivalent-Path-Length (WEPL) that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed. PMID:24785680

  6. Sliding window dual gradient echo (SW-dGRE): T1 and proton resonance frequency (PRF) calibration for temperature imaging in polyacrylamide gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, J. T.; d'Arcy, J. A.; Collins, D. J.; Rivens, I. H.; ter Haar, G. R.; Leach, M. O.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thermometry sequence suitable for targeting of focused ultrasound (FUS) when used in vascular occlusion studies. A sliding window dual gradient echo (SW-dGRE) sequence was used. This sequence has the capability of monitoring both T1 relaxation and phase changes, which vary with temperature. Preliminary work involved quantification of the changes in T1 relaxation time with temperature and obtaining the PRF shift coefficient in polyacrylamide gel as it underwent an exothermic reaction during polymerization (avoiding the use of an external heat source). Temperature changes were visualized using thermal maps acquired with the sequence. For FUS guidance a thermal imaging technique is required with a temporal resolution <5 s, a spatial resolution of ~1 mm and a temperature resolution of ~5 °C. The sequence was optimized to improve the CNR (contrast to noise ratio) and SNR (signal to noise ratio) in the phase and magnitude images respectively. The PRF coefficient obtained for the polyacrylamide gel was -9.98 +/- 0.24 ppb °C-1, whilst DeltaT1 and temperature change were related by a proportionality factor, the T1 temperature coefficient, of 102.3 +/- 2.9 ms °C-1. The sequence produces an image at every 1.4 s interval. In both magnitude and phase data, the in-plane resolution is +/-1.2 mm and the temperature resolution is ~2 °C. The advantage of this sequence is that the temperature obtained from the magnitude data can be confirmed independently using the phase data and vice versa. Thus the sequence can essentially be crosschecked.

  7. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  8. 200 MeV Proton Radiography Studies with a Hand Phantom Using a Prototype Proton CT Scanner

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand of becoming a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality. The experiment used the current first relationship between Hounsfield units and RSP, especially in the regime of RSP=1 (i.e. water, human tissue

  9. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  10. Influence of proton beam Coulomb explosion in laser proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinqing; Jin, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhan, Rongxin; Zhao, Zongqing; Cao, Leifeng; Li, Bin

    2013-12-01

    To further understand proton acceleration driven by the interaction between ultra-intense laser pulse and foil targets, the influence of proton beam Coulomb explosion has been analyzed theoretically and investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. Employing different proton layer sizes in the simulations, it is found that proton beam Coulomb explosion plays an important role on proton acceleration, in particular on proton cut off energy. Proton dynamics including the effect of both sheath field and proton beam Coulomb explosion was proposed and discussed in detail. This work may serve to improve the understanding of proton acceleration driven by intense laser-foil interactions.

  11. Design and construction of the 1{sup st} proton CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, G.; Rykalin, V. [Dept. of Physics, Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, F.; Schulte, R. [Dept. of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda Univ. Med. Ctr., Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Johnson, R.; Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics, Univ. of California at Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the 1{sup st} proton CT scanner for 3D imaging. Reduction of proton range uncertainties and improved dose accuracy in the patient for treatment planning are central goals. A central CT slice acquired by reconstruction of 134 million proton tracks through a 14 cm spherical polystyrene phantom with high and low density inserts is presented.

  12. Proton aurora dynamics in response to the IMF and solar wind variations

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Proton aurora dynamics in response to the IMF and solar wind variations S.-W. Chang,1,2 S. B. Mende; accepted 24 April 2002; published 13 July 2002. [1] On May 23, 2000, proton auroras observed by IMAGE FUV wind parameters. A proton aurora brightened at high latitude poleward from the dayside oval after solar

  13. Preliminary results of an in-beam PET prototype for proton therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Attanasi; N. Belcari; M. Camarda; G. A. P. Cirrone; G. Cuttone; A. Del Guerra; F. Di Rosa; N. Lanconelli; V. Rosso; G. Russo; S. Vecchio

    2008-01-01

    Proton therapy can overcome the limitations of conventional radiotherapy due to the more selective energy deposition in depth and to the increased biological effectiveness. Verification of the delivered dose is desirable, but the complete stopping of the protons in patient prevents the application of electronic portal imaging methods that are used in conventional radiotherapy During proton therapy ?+ emitters like

  14. A single-scan imaging technique for measurement of the relative concentrations of fat and water protons and their transverse relaxation times.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Wehrli, F W; Song, H K; Hwang, S N

    1997-03-01

    A two-component chemical-shift-imaging technique is described from which fat and water images can be obtained in a single scan and in the presence of an inhomogeneous field. In addition, the method provides transverse relaxation rates R2 and R2' separately for each of the spectral components. The method is a combination and extension of the GESFIDE [gradient echo sampling of FID and echo, J. Ma and F. W. Wehrli, J. Magn. Reson. B 111, 61 (1996)] and the multipoint Dixon techniques. It is based on sampling the descending and ascending portions of a Hahn spin echo with a train of gradient echoes which are spaced at one-half of the chemical-shift modulation period. Processing of the complex echo data, involving an automated phase unwrapping algorithm, affords relative amplitudes and transverse relaxation rates of the two spectral components. An additional benefit of the method is its superior signal-to-noise ratio resulting from echo summation. Applications targeted and illustrated involve MRI osteodensitometry of trabecular bone in the presence of varying fractions of hematopoietic and fatty bone marrow. PMID:9245364

  15. A Single-Scan Imaging Technique for Measurement of the Relative Concentrations of Fat and Water Protons and Their Transverse Relaxation Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Wehrli, F. W.; Song, H. K.; Hwang, S. N.

    1997-03-01

    A two-component chemical-shift-imaging technique is described from which fat and water images can be obtained in a single scan and in the presence of an inhomogeneous field. In addition, the method provides transverse relaxation rates R2and R2'separately for each of the spectral components. The method is a combination and extension of the GESFIDE [gradient echo sampling of FID and echo, J. Ma and F. W. Wehrli, J. Magn. Reson. B111,61 (1996)] and the multipoint Dixon techniques. It is based on sampling the descending and ascending portions of a Hahn spin echo with a train of gradient echoes which are spaced at one-half of the chemical-shift modulation period. Processing of the complex echo data, involving an automated phase unwrapping algorithm, affords relative amplitudes and transverse relaxation rates of the two spectral components. An additional benefit of the method is its superior signal-to-noise ratio resulting from echo summation. Applications targeted and illustrated involve MRI osteodensitometry of trabecular bone in the presence of varying fractions of hematopoietic and fatty bone marrow.

  16. Broadband proton-decoupled proton spectra Andrew J. Pell

    E-print Network

    Keeler, James

    Broadband proton-decoupled proton spectra Andrew J. Pell , Richard A. E. Edden§ and James Keeler.ac.uk. #12;Abstract We present a new method for recording broadband proton-decoupled proton spectra with ab reduction in sensitivity when com- pared to a conventional proton spectrum. The method is demonstrated

  17. Structure of proton resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, O.E.; Naumov, Y.V.; Sigalov, V.M.; Sizov, I.V.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental data are presented which attest to the nonstatistical nature of proton resonances for excitation energies 6--15 MeV in light and intermediate nuclei. The reduced proton widths and the absolute-width and amplitude correlations are analyzed. Special attention is devoted to the amplitude relative-phase correlations. At the end of the review a possible reason for the manifestation of the nonstatistical nature of proton resonances is discussed.

  18. New heavy proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woods, P.J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Batchelder, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The new proton radioactivities {sup 165,166,167}Ir, {sup 171}Au, and {sup 185}Bi have been observed, extending our knowledge of proton radioactivity up to and beyond the Z=82 closed shell. For Z=77 and 79, the transitions can be explained using simple shell-model arguments. The case of {sup 185}Bi represents the first example of proton radioactivity from an intruder state.

  19. Proton therapy dosimetry using positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Studenski, Matthew T; Xiao, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Protons deposit most of their kinetic energy at the end of their path with no energy deposition beyond the range, making proton therapy a valuable option for treating tumors while sparing surrounding tissues. It is imperative to know the location of the dose deposition to ensure the tumor, and not healthy tissue, is being irradiated. To be able to extract this information in a clinical situation, an accurate dosimetry measurement system is required. There are currently two in vivo methods that are being used for proton therapy dosimetry: (1) online or in-beam monitoring and (2) offline monitoring, both using positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The theory behind using PET is that protons experience inelastic collisions with atoms in tissues resulting in nuclear reactions creating positron emitters. By acquiring a PET image following treatment, the location of the positron emitters in the patient, and therefore the path of the proton beam, can be determined. Coupling the information from the PET image with the patient’s anatomy, it is possible to monitor the location of the tumor and the location of the dose deposition. This review summarizes current research investigating both of these methods with promising results and reviews the limitations along with the advantages of each method. PMID:21160579

  20. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Blazey, G.; et al.,

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  1. Single-proton spin detection by diamond magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Loretz, M; Rosskopf, T; Boss, J M; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Degen, C L

    2014-10-16

    Extending magnetic resonance imaging to the atomic scale has been a long-standing aspiration, driven by the prospect of directly mapping atomic positions in molecules with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We report detection of individual, isolated proton spins by a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a diamond chip covered by an inorganic salt. The single-proton identity was confirmed by the Zeeman effect and by a quantum coherent rotation of the weakly coupled nuclear spin. Using the hyperfine field of the NV center as an imaging gradient, we determined proton-NV distances of less than 1 nm. PMID:25323696

  2. The external proton beams and the proton-proton experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, Lazarus G.

    1980-06-01

    The ZGS was one of the first accelerators in which extracted primary proton beams and experimental halls were part of the initial design. Special features incorporated into the ring made it possible to permanently position extraction magnets, and there was no need to plunge them as in other machines.

  3. In vivo proton range verification: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, Antje-Christin; Lomax, Antony

    2013-08-01

    Protons are an interesting modality for radiotherapy because of their well defined range and favourable depth dose characteristics. On the other hand, these same characteristics lead to added uncertainties in their delivery. This is particularly the case at the distal end of proton dose distributions, where the dose gradient can be extremely steep. In practice however, this gradient is rarely used to spare critical normal tissues due to such worries about its exact position in the patient. Reasons for this uncertainty are inaccuracies and non-uniqueness of the calibration from CT Hounsfield units to proton stopping powers, imaging artefacts (e.g. due to metal implants) and anatomical changes of the patient during treatment. In order to improve the precision of proton therapy therefore, it would be extremely desirable to verify proton range in vivo, either prior to, during, or after therapy. In this review, we describe and compare state-of-the art in vivo proton range verification methods currently being proposed, developed or clinically implemented.

  4. Proton microscopy at GSI and FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mariam, Fesseha G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Golubev, A A [RUSSIA; Turtikov, V I [RUSSIA; Varentsov, D [GERMANY

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and facilities have been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international collaboration was formed to develop a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR (PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. These dynamic experiments will be driven with many energy sources including heavy ions, high explosives and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  5. Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Needles and Interactive Sequences for Musculoskeletal Interventions Using an Open High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Wonneberger, Uta, E-mail: uta.wonneberger@charite.d [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite (Germany); Schnackenburg, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schnackenburg@philips.co [Philips Medical Systems (Germany); Streitparth, Florian, E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Walter, Thula, E-mail: thula.walter@charite.de; Rump, Jens, E-mail: jens.rump@charite.de; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M., E-mail: ulf.teichgraeber@charite.d [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we study in vitro evaluation of needle artefacts and image quality for musculoskeletal laser-interventions in an open high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner at 1.0T with vertical field orientation. Five commercially available MRI-compatible puncture needles were assessed based on artefact characteristics in a CuSO4 phantom (0.1%) and in human cadaveric lumbar spines. First, six different interventional sequences were evaluated with varying needle orientation to the main magnetic field B0 (0{sup o} to 90{sup o}) in a sequence test. Artefact width, needle-tip error, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Second, a gradient-echo sequence used for thermometric monitoring was assessed and in varying echo times, artefact width, tip error, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured. Artefact width and needle-tip error correlated with needle material, instrument orientation to B0, and sequence type. Fast spin-echo sequences produced the smallest needle artefacts for all needles, except for the carbon fibre needle (width <3.5 mm, tip error <2 mm) at 45{sup o} to B0. Overall, the proton density-weighted spin-echo sequences had the best CNR (CNR{sub Muscle/Needle} >16.8). Concerning the thermometric gradient echo sequence, artefacts remained <5 mm, and the SNR reached its maximum at an echo time of 15 ms. If needle materials and sequences are accordingly combined, guidance and monitoring of musculoskeletal laser interventions may be feasible in a vertical magnetic field at 1.0T.

  6. 200 MeV Proton Radiography Studies with a Hand Phantom Using a Prototype Proton CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Plautz, Tia; Bashkirov, V.; Feng, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.P.; Leary, C.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Schubert, K.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, B.; Steinberg, D.; Witt, M.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Proton radiography has applications in patient alignment and verification procedures for proton beam radiation therapy. In this paper, we report an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand phantom. The experiment used the first-generation proton CT scanner prototype, which was installed on the research beam line of the clinical proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). It was found that while both radiographs displayed anatomical details of the hand phantom, the energy-loss radiograph had a noticeably higher resolution. Nonetheless, scattering radiography may yield more contrast between soft and bone tissue than energy-loss radiography, however, this requires further study. This study contributes to the optimization of the performance of the next-generation of clinical proton CT scanners. Furthermore, it demonstrates the potential of proton imaging (proton radiography and CT), which is now within reach of becoming available as a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality. PMID:24710156

  7. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Methods: A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Results: Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Conclusion: Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the CMOS detector for protons. The development and use of CMOS in proton radiography could allow in vivo proton range checks, patient setup QA, and real-time tumor tracking.

  8. Investigation of Proton Focusing and Conversion Efficiency for Proton Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartal, Teresa Jean

    Recent advances in generating high energy (> 50 MeV) protons from intense laser-matter interactions has opened up new areas of research, with applications in radiography, high energy density physics, and ion-proton beam fast ignition (FI). The ability to focus the proton beam has made these applications more attractive. Fast ignition (FI) is an evolved concept of conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In proton FI, a collimated beam of protons is used to deliver the necessary ignition energy to the compressed Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel capsule instead of the original concept of a beam composed of relativistic electrons. In cone-guided FI, a cone is embedded into the side of the fuel capsule where the proton source foil is placed within the cone. The cone provides a clear path to the dense core and protects the proton source foil from radiation during the compression of the capsule. The proton source foil is a segment of a hemispherical shell target used to help focus the proton beam to the core to spark ignition. The viability of proton FI requires focusing of the generated proton beam to a 40 mum spot at the compressed fuel and a laser to proton conversion efficiency of ˜15%. Here, proton focusing and the laser to proton conversion efficiency are investigated using flat foils and hemispherical shell targets. Experiments were conducted on the 200 TW short pulse laser at Los Alamos Laboratory. The 1053 nm laser pulse delivered 70--80 J on target in 500--600 fs focused by an f/8 parabolic mirror. The generated proton beam from the target was examined by placing a mesh downstream of the target, which the proton beam would pass though and then imaged with a pack of radiochromic film (RCF). A 3D ray-tracing technique was developed to determine the focal position and focal spot size of the generated proton beam by tracing the proton trajectories from the image of the mesh collected by the RCF back through the mesh to the central axis. The focal position calculated from the ray-tracing technique for the flat foils resulted in a real focus, contrasting the convention wisdom of a virtual focus. Investigation of the proton expansion from flat foils established that initially the protons are accelerated normal to the surface, due to the fact that the electrostatic sheath field generated by the escaping hot electrons is only a few microns beyond the rear surface of the foil. As time progresses and more electrons are accelerated into the target by the laser irradiation, the sheath expands away from the rear surface of the foil, developing a bell-shaped curvature. The protons are then accelerated normal to the sheath field, which is at the leading edge of the expansion. Due to the bell-shaped curvature, protons that are accelerated further away from the central axis of the laser interaction experience gradients within the expansion causing the protons to gain radial velocity, which changes the angle of divergence of the protons. The radial velocity gained by the protons affects the trajectory of the protons, resulting in a calculated real focal position when trajectories are calculated the ray-tracing technique. The trajectories of the protons are further affected by the mounting technique. When the foils are mounted to washers for stability, electrons accelerated in the foil escaped into the washer creating a field along the interior wall of washer. The field affects the proton trajectories near the wall and decreases the laser to proton conversion efficiency. With the understanding gained from the flat foil targets, proton focusing is further investigated using freestanding hemispherical shell targets. Using the 3D ray-tracing technique, the calculated focal position is determined to be located inside the radius of curvature of the hemisphere, which is less than the distance of 1.7R (where R is the radius of curvature of the hemispherical shell) determined from proton heating experiments. With the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, using the code LSP (large-scale-plasma), it was determined that proton trajecto

  9. Reconstruction for proton computed tomography by tracing proton trajectories – A Monte Carlo study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianfang; Liang, Zhengrong; Singanallur, Jayalakshmi V.; Satogata, Todd J.; Williams, David C.; Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2006-01-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) has been explored in the past decades because of its unique imaging characteristics, low radiation dose, and its possible use for treatment planning and on-line target localization in proton therapy. However, reconstruction of pCT images is challenging because the proton path within the object to be imaged is statistically affected by multiple Coulomb scattering. In this paper, we employ GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional pCT reconstruction of an elliptical phantom to investigate the possible use of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) with three different path-estimation methods for pCT reconstruction. The first method assumes a straight-line path (SLP) connecting the proton entry and exit positions, the second method adapts the most-likely path (MLP) theoretically determined for a uniform medium, and the third method employs a cubic spline path (CSP). The ART reconstructions showed progressive improvement of spatial resolution when going from the SLP (2 line pairs (lp) cm-1) to the curved CSP and MLP path estimates (5 lp cm-1). The MLP-based ART algorithm had the fastest convergence and smallest residual error of all three estimates. This work demonstrates the advantage of tracking curved proton paths in conjunction with the ART algorithm and curved path estimates. PMID:16878573

  10. A maximum likelihood proton path formalism for application in proton computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Schulte, R W; Penfold, S N; Tafas, J T; Schubert, K E

    2008-11-01

    The limited spatial resolution in proton computed tomography (pCT) in comparison to x-ray CT is related to multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) within the imaged object. The current generation pCT design utilizes silicon detectors that measure the position and direction of individual protons prior to and post-traversing the patient to maximize the knowledge of the path of the proton within the imaged object. For efficient reconstruction with the proposed pCT system, one needs to develop compact and flexible mathematical formalisms that model the effects of MCS as the proton traverses the imaged object. In this article, a compact, matrix-based most likely path (MLP) formalism is presented employing Bayesian statistics and a Gaussian approximation of MCS. Using GEANT4 simulations in a homogeneous 20 cm water cube, the MLP expression was found to be able to predict the Monte Carlo tracks of 200 MeV protons to within 0.6 mm on average when employing 3sigma cuts on the relative exit angle and exit energy. These cuts were found to eliminate the majority of events not conforming to the Gaussian model of MCS used in the MLP derivation. M riszwana Banu PMID:19070218

  11. Reconstruction for proton computed tomography by tracing proton trajectories: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Liang Zhengrong; Singanallur, Jayalakshmi V.; Satogata, Todd J.; Williams, David C.; Schulte, Reinhard W. [Departments of Radiology, Computer Science, and Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) has been explored in the past decades because of its unique imaging characteristics, low radiation dose, and its possible use for treatment planning and on-line target localization in proton therapy. However, reconstruction of pCT images is challenging because the proton path within the object to be imaged is statistically affected by multiple Coulomb scattering. In this paper, we employ GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional pCT reconstruction of an elliptical phantom to investigate the possible use of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with three different path-estimation methods for pCT reconstruction. The first method assumes a straight-line path (SLP) connecting the proton entry and exit positions, the second method adapts the most-likely path (MLP) theoretically determined for a uniform medium, and the third method employs a cubic spline path (CSP). The ART reconstructions showed progressive improvement of spatial resolution when going from the SLP [2 line pairs (lp) cm{sup -1}] to the curved CSP and MLP path estimates (5 lp cm{sup -1}). The MLP-based ART algorithm had the fastest convergence and smallest residual error of all three estimates. This work demonstrates the advantage of tracking curved proton paths in conjunction with the ART algorithm and curved path estimates.

  12. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  13. Elemental Bioimaging of Thulium in Mouse Tissues by Laser Ablation-ICPMS as a Complementary Method to Heteronuclear Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Cell Tracking Experiments.

    PubMed

    Reifschneider, Olga; Wentker, Kristina S; Strobel, Klaus; Schmidt, Rebecca; Masthoff, Max; Sperling, Michael; Faber, Cornelius; Karst, Uwe

    2015-04-21

    Due to the fact that cellular therapies are increasingly finding application in clinical trials and promise success by treatment of fatal diseases, monitoring strategies to investigate the delivery of the therapeutic cells to the target organs are getting more and more into the focus of modern in vivo imaging methods. In order to monitor the distribution of the respective cells, they can be labeled with lanthanide complexes such as thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodoecane-?,?,?,?-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (Tm(DOTMA)). In this study, experiments on a mouse model with two different cell types, namely, tumor cells and macrophages labeled with Tm(DOTMA), were performed. The systemic distribution of Tm(DOTMA) of both cell types was investigated by means of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Using the high resolution of 25 ?m, distribution maps of Tm in different tissues such as tumor, liver, lung, and spleen as well as in explanted gel pellets were generated and the behavior of the labeled cells inside the tissue was investigated. Additionally, quantitative data were obtained using homemade matrix-matched standards based on egg yolk. Using this approach, limits of detection and quantification of 2.2 and 7.4 ng·g(-1), respectively, and an excellent linearity over the concentration range from 0.01 to 46 ?g·g(-1) was achieved. The highest concentration of the label agent, 32.4 ?g·g(-1), in tumor tissue was observed in the area of the injection of the labeled tumor cells. Regarding the second experiment with macrophages for cell tracking, Tm was detected in the explanted biogell pellet with relatively low concentrations below 60 ng·g(-1) and in the liver with a relatively high concentration of 10 ?g·g(-1). Besides thulium, aluminum was detected with equal distribution behavior in the tumor section due to a contamination resulting from the labeling procedure, which includes the usage of an Al electrode. PMID:25791208

  14. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, J.S.; Narayana, P.A.; Fenstermacher, M.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Regional in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides quantitative data on selected chemical constituents of brain. We imaged 16 volunteers with clinically definite multiple sclerosis on a 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanner to define plaque-containing volumes of interest, and obtained localized water-suppressed proton spectra using a stimulated echo sequence. Twenty-five of 40 plaque-containing regions provided spectra of adequate quality. Of these, 8 spectra from 6 subjects were consistent with the presence of cholesterol or fatty acids; the remainder were similar to those obtained from white matter of normal volunteers. This early experience with regional proton spectroscopy suggests that individual plaques are distinct. These differences likely reflect dynamic stages of the evolution of the demyelinative process not previously accessible to in vivo investigation.

  15. Reconstruction for proton computed tomography by tracing proton trajectories: A Monte Carlo study

    E-print Network

    , California 95064 Reinhard W. Schulte Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center and curved path estimates. © 2006 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. DOI: 10.1118/1.2171507 Key and precision. This may be exploited for dose-efficient image reconstruction.3 For proton radiation treatment

  16. Proton Radius Puzzle 1 Muonic hydrogen and the proton radius

    E-print Network

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Proton Radius Puzzle 1 Muonic hydrogen and the proton radius puzzle Randolf Pohl Max-681 Warsaw, Poland Key Words Laser Spectroscopy, Atomic Physics, Proton Structure, Exotic Atoms, Nuclear extraction of the proton radius by Pohl et al. from the mea- #12;Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 2013, Vol. 63

  17. Are protons nonidentical fermions?

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T., E-mail: tmart@fisika.ui.ac.id [Department Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    We briefly review the progress of our investigation on the electric (charge) radius of the proton. In order to explain the recently measured proton radius, which is significantly smaller than the standard CODATA value, we assume that the real protons radii are not identical, they are randomly distributed in a certain range. To obtain the measured radius we average the radii and fit both the mean radius and the range. By using an averaged dipole form factor we obtain the charge radius r{sub E} = 0.8333 fm, in accordance with the recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen.

  18. The Proton launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, A.; Parfitt, J.

    1985-08-01

    The capabilities, design features and missions for the Soviet Proton booster are described. The Proton, outfitted with six strap-on boosters, launched the Vega 1 and 2 Venus/Halley dual mission spacecraft. RD-253 engines burn N2O4 and UDMH fuels, possibly through a preburner before the combustion chamber. A vacuum thrust of 450,000 lb is projected for the engine. Analyses are presented to set the launch weight at 1,600,000 lb, implying that the vehicle is based on an ICBM design. It is suggested that the Proton has sufficiently high noise and vibration levels to prohibit it from being man-rated.

  19. Feasibility of pulsed proton acoustics for 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsanea, Fahed M.

    Proton therapy has the potential to deposit its energy in tissue with high conformity to the tumor and significantly reduced integral dose to normal tissue compared to conventional radiation, such as x-rays. As a result, local control can be enhanced while reducing side-effects and secondary cancers. This is due to the way charged Particles deposit their energy or dose, where protons form a Bragg peak and establish a well-defined distal edge as a function of depth (range). To date, the dose delivered to a patient from proton therapy remains uncertain, in particular the positioning of the distal edge of the Bragg peak and the lateral displacement of the beam. The need for quality assurance methods to monitor the delivered dose during proton therapy, in particular intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is critical. We propose to measure the acoustic signal generated from the deposited energy from ionizing radiation, in particular a proton beam; and to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound tomographic imaging to map the three dimensional dose (3D) dose from a proton pencil beam. A pulsed proton beam in water was simulated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods, and the pressure signal resulting from the deposited dose was simulated based on the thermoacoustics wave. A cylindrical scanner design with 71 ultrasound transducers focused to a centeral point within the scanner was utilized. Finally, a 3-D filtered backprojection algorithm was developed to reconstruct computed tomographic images of the deposited dose. The MC dose profile was compared to the radioacoustic reconstructed images, and the dependency of the proton pulse sequence parameters, pulse width (tPW) and rise time ( Delta t), on sensitivity were investigated. Based on simulated data, the reconstructed radioacoustic image intensity was within 2%, on average, of the MC generated dose within the Bragg peak, and the location of the distal edge was within 0.5mm. The simulated pressure signal for different tPW and Delta t for the same number of protons (1.8x107) demonstrated that compressing the protons in a shorter period of time significantly increased the thermoacoustic signal and thus sensitivity. This study demonstrates that computed tomographic scanner based on ionizing radiation induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range. Realizing this technology into the clinic will have significant impact on treatment verification during particle beam therapy and image guided techniques.

  20. New inorganic proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhry, U.; Barkley, J.R.; English, A.D.; Sleight, A.W.

    1982-07-01

    High values of proton conductivity have been observed in a class of hydrated metal oxide pyrochlores, HMO/sub 3/.xH/sub 2/O (M = Sb, Nb, Ta). Two new polymorphs of HSbO/sub 3/.xH/sub 2/O have been synthesized and are also found to be good proton conductors. One polymorph has a layer structure and is derived from KSbO/sub 3/ with the ilmenite structure. The other new HSbO/sub 3/.xH/sub 2/O polymorph has the cubic KSbO/sub 3/ structure. A correlation of TGA, IR, NMR, and proton conductivity data suggests that the best inorganic proton conductors (10-2-1 at 80/sup 0/C) are hydrates; this supports a Grotthus-type conduction mechanism analogous to that observed in aqueous media.

  1. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  2. Proton-conducting beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent William Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Proton Conducting beta-alumina via Microwave Assisted Synthesis. The microwave assisted synthesis of proton conducting Mg- and Li-stabilized NH4+\\/H3O+ beta-alumina from a solution based gel precursor is reported. beta-alumina is a ceramic fast ion conductor containing two-dimensional sheets of mobile cations. Na +-beta-alumina is the most stable at the sintering temperatures (1740°C) reached in a modified microwave oven, and can be

  3. Muon-proton Scattering

    E-print Network

    E. Borie

    2013-02-05

    A recent proposal to measure the proton form factor by means of muon-proton scattering will use muons which are not ultrarelativistic (and also not nonrelativistic). The usual equations describing the scattering cross section use the approximation that the scattered lepton (usually an electron) is ultrarelativistic, with v/c approximately equal to 1. Here the cross section is calculated for all values of the energy. It agrees with the standard result in the appropriate limit.

  4. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  5. Validation of delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and T2 mapping for quantifying distal metacarpus/metatarsus cartilage thickness in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Dahlberg, Leif E; Prozesky, Leon; Fletcher, Lizelle; Lammentausta, Eveliina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 mapping are accurate techniques for measuring cartilage thickness in the metacarpus3/metatarsus3 (Mc3/Mt3) of Thoroughbred racehorses. Twenty-four Mc3/Mt3 cadaver specimens were acquired from six healthy racehorses. Cartilage thickness was measured from postintra-articular Gd-DTPA(2-) images acquired using short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and proton density weighted (PDw) sequences, and compared with cartilage thickness measured from corresponding histologic images. Two observers performed each histologic measurement twice at three different sites, with measurement times spaced at least 5 days apart. Histologic cartilage thickness was measured at each of the three sites from the articular surface to the bone-cartilage interface, and from the articular surface to the mineralized cartilage interface (tidemark). Intra-observer repeatability was good to moderate for dGEMRIC where Mc3/Mt3 cartilage was not in contact with the proximal phalanx. Where the Mc3/Mt3 cartilage was in contact with the proximal phalanx cartilage, dGEMRIC STIR and T2 mapping PDw cartilage thicknesses of Mc3/Mt3 could not be measured reliably. When measured from the articular surface to the bone-cartilage interface, histologic cartilage thickness did not differ from STIR or PDw cartilage thickness at the site where the Mc3/Mt3 cartilage surface was separated from the proximal phalanx cartilage (P > 0.05). Findings indicated that dGEMRIC STIR and T2 mapping PDw are accurate techniques for measuring Mc3/Mt3 cartilage thickness at locations where the cartilage is not in direct contact with the proximal phalanx cartilage. PMID:23279707

  6. ? and Proton Production in Hadronic Z^0 Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Matthias

    1997-04-01

    The analysis is based on multihadronic events recorded by DELPHI in the years 1992 through 1994. Charged hadrons are identified using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov technique and the energy loss measurement. Rapidity correlations of ?-?, proton-proton, and ?-proton pairs are compared and the agreement with the string and the cluster fragmentation model is tested. For those pairs that frame a meson in terms of rapidity the compensation of strangeness is studied. For ?\\overlinep pairs the additional correlation with respect to charged kaons is analysed.

  7. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  8. SU-E-J-144: MRI Visualization of a Metallic Fiducial Marker Used for Image Guided Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S; Krauss, D; Yan, D [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Unlike on the daily CBCT used for the image-guided radiation therapy, the visualization of an implantable metallic fiducial marker on the planning MRI images has been a challenge due to the inherent insensitivity of metal in MRI, and very thin (? 1 mm or less) diameter. Here, an MRI technique to visualize a marker used for prostate cancer radiotherapy is reported. Methods: During the MRI acquisitions, a multi-shot turbo spin echo (TSE) technique (TR=3500 ms, TE=8.6 ms, ETL=17, recon voxel=0.42x0.42x3.5 mm3) was acquired in Philips 3T Ingenia together with a T2-weighted multi-shot TSE (TR=5381 ms, TE=110 ms, ETL=17, recon voxel=0.47×0.47×3 mm3) and a balanced turbo field echo (bTFE, flip angle 60, TR=2.76 ms, TE=1.3 ms, 0.85×0.85×3 mm3, NSA=4). In acquiring the MRI to visualize the fiducial marker, a particular emphasis was made to improve the spatial resolution and visibility in the generally dark, inhomogeneous prostate area by adjusting the slice profile ordering and TE values of TSE acquisition (in general, the lower value of TE in TSE acquisition generates a brighter signal but at the cost of high spatial resolution since the k-space, responsible for high spatial resolution, is filled with noisier data). Results: While clearly visible in CT, the marker was not visible in either T2-weighted TSE or bTFE, although the image qualities of both images were superior. In the new TSE acquisition (? a proton-density weighted image) adjusted by changing the profile ordering and the TE value, the marker was visible as a negative (but clear) contrast in the magnitude MRI, and as a positive contrast in the imaginary image of the phase-sensitive MRI. Conclusion: A metallic fiducial marker used for image guidance before prostate cancer radiotherapy can be made visible in MRI, which may facilitate more use of MRI in planning and guiding such radiation therapy.

  9. Proton radiography and proton computed tomography based on time-resolved dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mauro; Verburg, Joost M; Rose, Mark; Min, Chul Hee; Tang, Shikui; Bentefour, El Hassane; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2013-11-21

    We present a proof of principle study of proton radiography and proton computed tomography (pCT) based on time-resolved dose measurements. We used a prototype, two-dimensional, diode-array detector capable of fast dose rate measurements, to acquire proton radiographic images expressed directly in water equivalent path length (WEPL). The technique is based on the time dependence of the dose distribution delivered by a proton beam traversing a range modulator wheel in passive scattering proton therapy systems. The dose rate produced in the medium by such a system is periodic and has a unique pattern in time at each point along the beam path and thus encodes the WEPL. By measuring the time dose pattern at the point of interest, the WEPL to this point can be decoded. If one measures the time–dose patterns at points on a plane behind the patient for a beam with sufficient energy to penetrate the patient, the obtained 2D distribution of the WEPL forms an image. The technique requires only a 2D dosimeter array and it uses only the clinical beam for a fraction of second with negligible dose to patient. We first evaluated the accuracy of the technique in determining the WEPL for static phantoms aiming at beam range verification of the brain fields of medulloblastoma patients. Accurate beam ranges for these fields can significantly reduce the dose to the cranial skin of the patient and thus the risk of permanent alopecia. Second, we investigated the potential features of the technique for real-time imaging of a moving phantom. Real-time tumor tracking by proton radiography could provide more accurate validations of tumor motion models due to the more sensitive dependence of proton beam on tissue density compared to x-rays. Our radiographic technique is rapid (~100 ms) and simultaneous over the whole field, it can image mobile tumors without the problem of interplay effect inherently challenging for methods based on pencil beams. Third, we present the reconstructed pCT images of a cylindrical phantom containing inserts of different materials. As for all conventional pCT systems, the method illustrated in this work produces tomographic images that are potentially more accurate than x-ray CT in providing maps of proton relative stopping power (RSP) in the patient without the need for converting x-ray Hounsfield units to proton RSP. All phantom tests produced reasonable results, given the currently limited spatial and time resolution of the prototype detector. The dose required to produce one radiographic image, with the current settings, is ~0.7 cGy. Finally, we discuss a series of techniques to improve the resolution and accuracy of radiographic and tomographic images for the future development of a full-scale detector. PMID:24200989

  10. Proton radiography and proton computed tomography based on time-resolved dose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Mauro; Verburg, Joost M.; Rose, Mark; Min, Chul Hee; Tang, Shikui; Hassane Bentefour, El; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2013-11-01

    We present a proof of principle study of proton radiography and proton computed tomography (pCT) based on time-resolved dose measurements. We used a prototype, two-dimensional, diode-array detector capable of fast dose rate measurements, to acquire proton radiographic images expressed directly in water equivalent path length (WEPL). The technique is based on the time dependence of the dose distribution delivered by a proton beam traversing a range modulator wheel in passive scattering proton therapy systems. The dose rate produced in the medium by such a system is periodic and has a unique pattern in time at each point along the beam path and thus encodes the WEPL. By measuring the time dose pattern at the point of interest, the WEPL to this point can be decoded. If one measures the time-dose patterns at points on a plane behind the patient for a beam with sufficient energy to penetrate the patient, the obtained 2D distribution of the WEPL forms an image. The technique requires only a 2D dosimeter array and it uses only the clinical beam for a fraction of second with negligible dose to patient. We first evaluated the accuracy of the technique in determining the WEPL for static phantoms aiming at beam range verification of the brain fields of medulloblastoma patients. Accurate beam ranges for these fields can significantly reduce the dose to the cranial skin of the patient and thus the risk of permanent alopecia. Second, we investigated the potential features of the technique for real-time imaging of a moving phantom. Real-time tumor tracking by proton radiography could provide more accurate validations of tumor motion models due to the more sensitive dependence of proton beam on tissue density compared to x-rays. Our radiographic technique is rapid (˜100 ms) and simultaneous over the whole field, it can image mobile tumors without the problem of interplay effect inherently challenging for methods based on pencil beams. Third, we present the reconstructed pCT images of a cylindrical phantom containing inserts of different materials. As for all conventional pCT systems, the method illustrated in this work produces tomographic images that are potentially more accurate than x-ray CT in providing maps of proton relative stopping power (RSP) in the patient without the need for converting x-ray Hounsfield units to proton RSP. All phantom tests produced reasonable results, given the currently limited spatial and time resolution of the prototype detector. The dose required to produce one radiographic image, with the current settings, is ˜0.7 cGy. Finally, we discuss a series of techniques to improve the resolution and accuracy of radiographic and tomographic images for the future development of a full-scale detector.

  11. Nuclear spin noise imaging.

    PubMed

    Müller, Norbert; Jerschow, Alexej

    2006-05-01

    NMR images were obtained from the proton spin noise signals of a water-containing phantom, which was placed in the highly tuned, low-noise resonant circuit of a cryogenically cooled NMR probe in the presence of systematically varied magnetic field gradients. The spatially resolved proton spin density was obtained from the raw signal by a modified projection-reconstruction protocol. Although spin noise imaging is inherently less sensitive than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, it affords an entirely noninvasive visualization of the interior of opaque objects or subjects. Thus, tomography becomes possible even when neither x-ray nor radio frequency radiation can be applied for technical or safety reasons. PMID:16636281

  12. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references.

  13. Filtered backprojection proton CT reconstruction along most likely paths

    SciTech Connect

    Rit, Simon; Dedes, George; Freud, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Letang, Jean Michel [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard, 69008 Lyon (France)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) has the potential to accurately measure the electron density map of tissues at low doses but the spatial resolution is prohibitive if the curved paths of protons in matter is not accounted for. The authors propose to account for an estimate of the most likely path of protons in a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Methods: The energy loss of protons is first binned in several proton radiographs at different distances to the proton source to exploit the depth-dependency of the estimate of the most likely path. This process is named the distance-driven binning. A voxel-specific backprojection is then used to select the adequate radiograph in the distance-driven binning in order to propagate in the pCT image the best achievable spatial resolution in proton radiographs. The improvement in spatial resolution is demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations of resolution phantoms. Results: The spatial resolution in the distance-driven binning depended on the distance of the objects from the source and was optimal in the binned radiograph corresponding to that distance. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed pCT images decreased with the depth in the scanned object but it was always better than previous FBP algorithms assuming straight line paths. In a water cylinder with 20 cm diameter, the observed range of spatial resolutions was 0.7 - 1.6 mm compared to 1.0 - 2.4 mm at best with a straight line path assumption. The improvement was strongly enhanced in shorter 200 Degree-Sign scans. Conclusions: Improved spatial resolution was obtained in pCT images with filtered backprojection reconstruction using most likely path estimates of protons. The improvement in spatial resolution combined with the practicality of FBP algorithms compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms makes this new algorithm a candidate of choice for clinical pCT.

  14. Proton bunch compression strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The paper discusses main limitations on the beam power and other machine parameters for a 4 MW proton driver for muon collider. The strongest limitation comes from a longitudinal microwave instability limiting the beam power to about 1 MW for an 8 GeV compressor ring.

  15. High Power Proton Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the capabilities and challenges of high intensity proton accelerators, such as J-PARC, Fermilab MI, SNS, ISIS, PSI, ESS (in the future) and others. The presentation will focus on lessons learned, new concepts, beam loss mechanisms and methods to mitigate them.

  16. Proton Transfer and Proton Concentrations in Protonated Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes D. B. Spry and M. D. Fayer*

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Proton Transfer and Proton Concentrations in Protonated Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes D. B. Spry and M 21, 2009; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: June 3, 2009 Proton transfer in protonated Nafion fuel cell membranes is studied using several pyrene derivative photoacids. Proton transfer in the center of the Nafion

  17. Sub 100 nm proton beam micromachining: theoretical calculations on resolution limits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. van Kan; T. C. Sum; T. Osipowicz; F. Watt

    2000-01-01

    Proton beam micromachining is a novel direct-write process for the production of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. A focused beam of MeV protons is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a suitable resist material (e.g. PMMA or SU-8) and the latent image formed is subsequently developed chemically. In this paper calculations on theoretical resolution limits of proton beam micromachined three-dimensional microstructures are

  18. First measurements of laser-accelerated proton induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Floquet, V.; Ceccotti, T.; Dobosz Dufrenoy, S.; Bonnaud, G.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph. [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2012-09-15

    We present our first results about laser-accelerated proton induced luminescence in solids. In the first part, we describe the optimization of the proton source as a function of the target thickness as well as the laser pulse duration and energy. Due to the ultra high contrast ratio of our laser beam, we succeeded in using targets ranging from the micron scale down to nanometers thickness. The two optimal thicknesses we put in evidence are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Laser pulse duration shows a small influence on proton maximum energy, whereas the latter turns out to vary almost linearly as a function of laser energy. Thanks to this optimisation work, we have been able to acquire images of the proton energy deposition in a solid scintillator.

  19. Fast density-weighted low-rank approximation spectral clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanhua Shang; L. C. Jiao; Jiarong Shi; Maoguo Gong; Ronghua Shang

    2011-01-01

    While spectral clustering can produce high-quality clusterings on small data sets, computational cost makes it infeasible\\u000a for large data sets. Affinity Propagation (AP) has a limitation that it is hard to determine the value of parameter ‘preference’\\u000a which can lead to an optimal clustering solution. These problems limit the scope of application of the two methods. In this\\u000a paper, we

  20. Transient Electrostatic Fields and Related Energetic Proton Generation with a Plasma Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. L. Chen; G. R. Kumar; Z. M. Sheng; T. Matsuoka; Y. Sentoku; M. Tampo; K. A. Tanaka; T. Tsutsumi; T. Yabuuchi; R. Kodama

    2006-01-01

    We observe a hollow structure and a fine ring in the proton images from a petawatt scale laser interaction with a ``cone-fiber'' target. The protons related to the hollow structure are accelerated from the cone-tip surface and deflected later by a radial electric field surrounding the fiber. Those associated with the fine ring are accelerated from the fiber surface by

  1. Optical Diagnostics of Mercury Jet for an Intense Proton Target , T. Tsang2

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    melt or crack a stationary solid high-Z target. Hence, a recyclable moving liquid mercury (Hg) jetA070841 Optical Diagnostics of Mercury Jet for an Intense Proton Target H. Park1 , T. Tsang2 , H. G is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interact- ing with a high intensity proton beam

  2. Measurement of the Proton + Proton Going to Proton + Proton + Neutral Pion Cross-Section Near Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. Alan

    1991-02-01

    The first nuclear physics experiment at the IUCF Cooler is a measurement of the p+ptop+p+ pi^0 cross section near threshold. The Cooler, together with a thin internal H_2 gas jet target, allows for a precise cross section measurement by providing well-defined interaction energies and by eliminating background from p-nucleus pion production which has a much lower threshold. A cylindrically symmetric detector system has been installed in one of the straight sections of the ring and is used to detect the coincident protons in the exit channel with good energy and angular resolution. The mass of the unobserved is then deduced. Elastically scattered protons were detected at the same time and by the same detector as pion production events. Elastic scattering was used for normalization to obtain an absolute p+p top+p+pi^0 cross section.

  3. Laser processed protonic ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. Dynys; M. H. Berger; A. Sayir

    2008-01-01

    High temperature protonic conductors of SrCe0.9Y0.1O3??, Sr3Ca1+xNb2?xO9?? and BaCe0.85Y0.15O3?? were fabricated by laser processing. Laser float zone method and pulse laser deposition were used to fabricate dense high temperature protonic ceramic rods and films. Melt growth processing by laser float zone produced textured microstructures with cellular characteristics. Directional solidified SrCe0.9Y0.1O3?? contained an aluminium rich inter-granular phase, whereas Sr3Ca1+xNb2?xO9?? exhibits a

  4. Proton conductive composite membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sunarso; C Y. Chen; A. T. T. Tran; M. S. Wong; J. C. Diniz Da Costa

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigated the synthesis of composite organic and inorganic membranes for proton conduction. Particles derived from metal alkoxides (M(OR)n) sol-gel processes (Ti, Zr, W with phosphoric acid) were embedded in polymeric matrices of poly-vinyl alcohol, (3-Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane and ethylene glycol. The structure of the composite membranes was complex as several IR peaks were convoluted, indicating the assignment of

  5. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    ScienceCinema

    Marc-André Pleier

    2010-09-01

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ? the world?s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC?s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  6. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  7. NMR imaging estimates of muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in the thigh: variations with muscle, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Azzabou, Noura; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Voit, Thomas; Moraux, Amélie; Leroux, Gaëlle; Behin, Anthony; McPhee, Jamie S; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-06-01

    Muscle mass is particularly relevant to follow during aging, owing to its link with physical performance and autonomy. The objectives of this work were to assess muscle volume (MV) and intramuscular fat (IMF) for all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy individuals using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test the effect of gender and age on MV and IMF and to determine the best representative slice for the estimation of MV and IMF. The study enrolled 105 healthy young (range 20-30 years) and older (range 70-80 years) subjects. MRI scans were acquired along the femur length using a three-dimension three-point Dixon proton density-weighted gradient echo sequence. MV and IMF were estimated from all the slices. The effects of age and gender on MV and IMF were assessed. Predictive equations for MV and IMF were established using a single slice at various femur levels for each muscle in order to reduce the analysis process. MV was decreased with aging in both genders, particularly in the quadriceps femoris. IMF was largely increased with aging in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. Percentages of MV decrease and IMF increase with aging varied according to the muscle. Predictive equations to predict MV and IMF from single slices are provided and were validated. This study is the first one to provide muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy subjects. PMID:26040416

  8. Proton permeation of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Deamer, D W

    1987-10-01

    Proton permeation of the lipid bilayer barrier has two unique features. First, permeability coefficients measured at neutral pH ranges are six to seven orders of magnitude greater than expected from knowledge of other monovalent cations. Second, proton conductance across planar lipid bilayers varies at most by a factor of 10 when pH is varied from near 1 to near 11. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this anomalous behavior: proton conductance related to contaminants of lipid bilayers, and proton translocation along transient hydrogen-bonded chains (tHBC) of associated water molecules in the membrane. The weight of evidence suggests that trace contaminants may contribute to proton conductance across planar lipid membranes at certain pH ranges, but cannot account for the anomalous proton flux in liposome systems. Two new results will be reported here which were designed to test the tHBC model. These include measurements of relative proton/potassium permeability in the gramicidin channel, and plots of proton flux against the magnitude of pH gradients. (1) The relative permeabilities of protons and potassium through the gramicidin channel, which contains a single strand of hydrogen-bonded water molecules, were found to differ by at least four orders of magnitude when measured at neutral pH ranges. This result demonstrates that a hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules can provide substantial discrimination between protons and other cations. It was also possible to calculate that if approximately 7% of bilayer water was present in a transient configuration similar to that of the gramicidin channel, it could account for the measured proton flux. (2) The plot of proton conductance against pH gradient across liposome membranes was superlinear, a result that is consistent with one of three alternative tHBC models for proton conductance described by Nagle elsewhere in this volume. PMID:2447068

  9. Umbrella sampling of proton transfer in a creatine-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, Olga; Bachert, Peter; Imhof, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Proton transfer reactions are among the most common processes in chemistry and biology. Proton transfer between creatine and surrounding solvent water is underlying the chemical exchange saturation transfer used as a contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. The free energy barrier, determined by first-principles umbrella sampling simulations (EaDFT 3 kcal/mol) is in the same order of magnitude as the experimentally obtained activation energy. The underlying mechanism is a first proton transfer from the guanidinium group to the water pool, followed by a second transition where a proton is "transferred back" from the nearest water molecule to the deprotonated nitrogen atom of creatine.

  10. Low energy proton-proton scattering in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shung-ichi; Shin, Jae Won; Hyun, Chang Ho; Hong, Seung-Woo [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Low energy proton-proton scattering is studied in pionless effective field theory. Employing the dimensional regularization and MS and power divergence subtraction schemes for loop calculation, we calculate the scattering amplitude in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} channel up to the next-to-next-to leading order and fix low-energy constants that appear in the amplitude by effective range parameters. We study the regularization scheme and scale dependence in the separation of the Coulomb interaction from the scattering length and effective range for the S-wave proton-proton scattering.

  11. Feasibility of proton-activated implantable markers for proton range verification using PET

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Titt, Uwe; Paganetti, Harald; Kerr, Matthew; Mawlawi, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) currently relies on proton activation of tissue, the products of which decay with a short half-life and necessitate an on-site PET scanner. Tissue activation is, however, negligible near the distal dose fall-off region of the proton beam range due to their high interaction energy thresholds. Therefore Monte Carlo simulation is often supplemented for comparison with measurement; however, this also may be associated with systematic and statistical uncertainties. Therefore, we sought to test the feasibility of using long-lived proton-activated external materials that are inserted or infused into the target volume for more accurate proton beam range verification that could be performed at an off-site PET scanner. We irradiated samples of ?98% 18O-enriched water, natural Cu foils, and ?97% 68Zn-enriched foils as candidate materials, along with samples of tissue-equivalent materials including 16O water, heptane (C7H16), and polycarbonate (C16H14O3)n, at 4 depths (ranging from 100% to 3% of center of modulation (COM) dose) along the distal fall-off of a modulated 160-MeV proton beam. Samples were irradiated either directly or after being embedded in Plastic Water® or balsa wood. We then measured the activity of the samples using PET imaging for 20 or 30 min after various delay times. Measured activities of candidate materials were up to 100 times greater than those of the tissue-equivalent materials at the 4 distal dose fall-off depths. The differences between candidate materials and tissue-equivalent materials became more apparent after longer delays between irradiation and PET imaging, due to the longer half-lives of the candidate materials. Furthermore, the activation of the candidate materials closely mimicked the distal dose fall-off with offsets of 1 to 2 mm. Also, signals from the foils were clearly visible compared to the background from the activated Plastic Water® and balsa wood phantoms. These results indicate that markers made from these candidate materials could be used for in vivo proton range verification using an off-site PET scanner. PMID:24099853

  12. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.; Ladeinde, F. [SUNY at Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Tsang, T.; Kirk, H. G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Graves, V. B.; Spampinato, P. T.; Carroll, A. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Titus, P. H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); McDonald, K. T. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  13. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target.

    PubMed

    Park, H; Tsang, T; Kirk, H G; Ladeinde, F; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Carroll, A J; Titus, P H; McDonald, K T

    2008-04-01

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper. PMID:18447556

  14. Computer Simulations of Proton Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Gregory A.

    2002-03-01

    A theoretical and computer simulation model of proton transport through gramicidin A, synthetic leucine-serine ion channels, and the M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus will be presented. Insight will be given into the atomistic factors which determine the proton transport rate and the mechanism(s) for the proton hopping process. The possible role of the protonation/deprotonation of histidine groups in the M2 channel will also be considered. In all cases, the likely origin of the activation free energy barriers and the anisotropic diffusion properties will be discussed. The modeling of the excess proton and its interaction with its surroundings will be presented based on a novel multi-state empirical valence bond force field approach which has been implemented within a biomolecular MD simulation code.

  15. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers.

  16. Proton size anomaly

    E-print Network

    Vernon Barger; Cheng-Wei Chiang; Wai-Yee Keung; Danny Marfatia

    2011-03-18

    A measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen yields a charge radius of the proton that is smaller than the CODATA value by about 5 standard deviations. We explore the possibility that new scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and tensor flavor-conserving nonuniversal interactions may be responsible for the discrepancy. We consider exotic particles that among leptons, couple preferentially to muons, and mediate an attractive nucleon-muon interaction. We find that the many constraints from low energy data disfavor new spin-0, spin-1 and spin-2 particles as an explanation.

  17. Proton size anomaly.

    PubMed

    Barger, Vernon; Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Keung, Wai-Yee; Marfatia, Danny

    2011-04-15

    A measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen yields a charge radius of the proton that is smaller than the CODATA value by about 5 standard deviations. We explore the possibility that new scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and tensor flavor-conserving nonuniversal interactions may be responsible for the discrepancy. We consider exotic particles that, among leptons, couple preferentially to muons and mediate an attractive nucleon-muon interaction. We find that the many constraints from low energy data disfavor new spin-0, spin-1, and spin-2 particles as an explanation. PMID:21568549

  18. Spin of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1996-12-01

    The author argues that their response to the spin crisis should not be to abandon the naive quark model baby, but rather to allow it to mature. In particular, he advocates dressing the baby in qq pairs, first showing that this can be done without compromising the naive quark model's success with either spectroscopy or the OZI rule. Finally, he shows that despite their near invisibility elsewhere, pairs do play an important role in the proton's spin structure by creating an antipolarized qq sea. In the context of an explicit calculation he demonstrates that it is plausible that the entire ''spin crisis'' arises from this effect.

  19. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  20. Proton slip in the ATP synthase of Rhodobacter capsulatus: induction, proton conduction, and nucleotide dependence

    E-print Network

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Proton slip in the ATP synthase of Rhodobacter capsulatus: induction, proton conduction. Uncoupled proton leakage (slip) has only been observed in chloroplast enzyme at unphysiologically low nucleotide concentration. We investigated the properties of proton slip in chromatophores (sub

  1. First tests for an online treatment monitoring system with in-beam PET for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraan, A. C.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cappucci, F.; Ciocca, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferretti, S.; Mairani, A.; Molinelli, S.; Pullia, M.; Retico, A.; Sala, P.; Sportelli, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2015-01-01

    PET imaging is a non-invasive technique for particle range verification in proton therapy. It is based on measuring the ?+ annihilations caused by nuclear interactions of the protons in the patient. In this work we present measurements for proton range verification in phantoms, performed at the CNAO particle therapy treatment center in Pavia, Italy, with our 10 × 10 cm2 planar PET prototype DoPET. PMMA phantoms were irradiated with mono-energetic proton beams and clinical treatment plans, and PET data were acquired during and shortly after proton irradiation. We created 1-D profiles of the ?+ activity along the proton beam-axis, and evaluated the difference between the proximal rise and the distal fall-off position of the activity distribution. A good agreement with FLUKA Monte Carlo predictions was obtained. We also assessed the system response when the PMMA phantom contained an air cavity. The system was able to detect these cavities quickly after irradiation.

  2. Delivering High IntensityDelivering High Intensity Proton Beam:Proton Beam

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    11 Delivering High IntensityDelivering High Intensity Proton Beam:Proton Beam: Lessons for the NextFACT08NuFACT08 ­­ 4 July4 July S. ChildressS. Childress ­­ Proton BeamsProton Beams 22 Presentation OutlinePresentation Outline Key Proton Beam ConsiderationsKey Proton Beam Considerations The First

  3. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Amy; Imhoff, Seth; Gibbs, Paul; Cooley, Jason; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Hollander, Brian; Mariam, Fesseha; Ott, Thomas; Barker, Martha; Tucker, Tim; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian; Clarke, Kester; Montalvo, Joel; Field, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Smith, James; Teter, David

    2013-01-01

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. Here we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000?mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1?mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models. PMID:23779063

  4. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  5. The Spin of the Proton

    E-print Network

    A. W. Thomas; Jefferson Lab

    2008-05-28

    The twenty years since the announcement of the proton spin crisis by the European Muon Collaboration has seen tremendous progress in our knowledge of the distribution of spin within the proton. The problem is reviewed, beginning with the original data and the suggestion that polarized gluons may play a crucial role in resolving the problem through the U(1) axial anomaly. The discussion continues to the present day where not only have strong limits have been placed on the amount of polarized glue in the proton but the experimental determination of the spin content has become much more precise. It is now clear that the origin of the discrepancy between experiment and the naive expectation of the fraction of spin carried by the quarks and anti-quarks in the proton lies in the non-perturabtive structure of the proton. We explain how the features expected in a modern, relativistic and chirally symmetric description of nucleon structure naturally explain the current data.

  6. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    The history of research on voltage-gated proton channels is recounted, from their proposed existence in dinoflagellates by Hastings in 1972 and their demonstration in snail neurons by Thomas and Meech in 1982, to the discovery (after a decade of controversy) of genes that unequivocally code for proton channels in 2006. Voltage-gated proton channels are perfectly selective for protons, conduct deuterons half as well, and the conductance is strongly temperature dependent. These properties are consistent with a conduction mechanism involving hydrogen-bonded-chain transfer, in which the selectivity filter is a titratable amino acid residue. Channel opening is regulated stringently by pH such that only outward current is normally activated. Main functions of proton channels include acid extrusion from cells and charge compensation for the electrogenic activity of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Genetic approaches hold the promise of rapid progress in the near future. PMID:18463791

  7. Petrophysical applications of NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, W.P.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    A system for obtaining high-resolution NMR images of oil field cores is described. Separate proton density and T/sub 2/ relaxation images are obtained to distinguish spatial variations of fluid-filled porosity and the physical nature of the pores. Results are presented for typical sandstones.

  8. Proton decay: 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1982-03-04

    Employing the current world average ..lambda../sub MS/ = 0.160 GeV as input, the minimal Georgi-Glashow SU(5) model predicts sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/(m/sub W/) = 0.214, m/sub b//m/sub tau/ approx. = 2.8 and tau/sub p/ approx. = (0.4 approx. 12) x 10/sup 29/ yr. The first two predictions are in excellent agreement with experiment; but the implied proton lifetime is already somewhat below the present experimental bound. In this status report, uncertainties in tau/sub p/ are described and effects of appendages to the SU(5) model (such as new fermion generations, scalars, supersymmetry, etc.) are examined.

  9. Problems with proton radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sick, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the peculiar shape of the charge density ?(r)-which is close to an exponential one-the value of the proton charge rms-radius R determined from electron scattering data depends strongly on the density ?(r) at large radii r. This density is poorly constrained by scattering data. Supplementing the (e, e) data with the large-rshape of ?(r) resulting from the Fock components (n+?,…) which dominate the large-r behavior produces a more reliable value for R. The resulting radius agrees with the one we previously extracted from (e, e) and with the value determined from electronic Hydrogen, but disagrees with the one recently obtained from muonic Hydrogen. The origin of the discrepancy is not understood.

  10. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  11. Source characterization and modeling development for monoenergetic-proton radiography experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    A monoenergetic proton source has been characterized and a modeling tool developed for proton radiography experiments at the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Comm. 133, 495 (1997)] laser facility. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to measure global isotropy levels in proton fluence and images of the proton source itself provided information on local uniformity relevant to proton radiography experiments. Global fluence uniformity was assessed by multiple yield diagnostics and deviations were calculated to be {approx}16% and {approx}26% of the mean for DD and D{sup 3}He fusion protons, respectively. From individual fluence images, it was found that the angular frequencies of Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 50 rad{sup -1} contributed less than a few percent to local nonuniformity levels. A model was constructed using the Geant4 [S. Agostinelli et al., Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 506, 250 (2003)] framework to simulate proton radiography experiments. The simulation implements realistic source parameters and various target geometries. The model was benchmarked with the radiographs of cold-matter targets to within experimental accuracy. To validate the use of this code, the cold-matter approximation for the scattering of fusion protons in plasma is discussed using a typical laser-foil experiment as an example case. It is shown that an analytic cold-matter approximation is accurate to within Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10% of the analytic plasma model in the example scenario.

  12. Technical Note: Spatial resolution of proton tomography: Impact of air gap between patient and detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Uwe; Besserer, Juergen; Hartmann, Matthias [Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland) and Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Rain 34, 5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Rain 34, 5000 Aarau (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Proton radiography and tomography were investigated since the early 1970s because of its low radiation dose, high density resolution, and ability to image directly proton stopping power. However, spatial resolution is still a limiting factor. In this note, preliminary results of the impact of an air gap between detector system and patient on spatial resolution are presented. Methods: Spatial resolution of proton radiography and tomography is governed by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) of the protons in the patient. In this note, the authors employ Monte Carlo simulations of protons traversing a 20 cm thick water box. Entrance and exit proton coordinate measurements were simulated for improved spatial resolution. The simulations were performed with and without a 5 cm air gap in front of and behind the patient. Loss of spatial resolution due to the air gap was studied for protons with different initial angular confusion. Results: It was found that spatial resolution is significantly deteriorated when a 5 cm air gap between the position sensitive detector and the patient is included. For a perfect parallel beam spatial resolution worsens by about 40%. Spatial resolution is getting worse with increasing angular confusion and can reach 80%. Conclusions: When proton radiographies are produced by measuring the entrance and exit coordinates of the protons in front of and behind the patient the air gap between the detector and the patient can significantly deteriorate the spatial resolution of the system by up to 80%. An alternative would be to measure in addition to the coordinates also the exit and entrance angles of each proton. In principle, using the air gap size and proton angle, images can be reconstructed with the same spatial resolution than without air gap.

  13. In Vivo Proton Beam Range Verification Using Spine MRI Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Gensheimer, Michael F. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Yock, Torunn I.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Madan, Neel; Grant, P. Ellen [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bortfeld, Thomas, E-mail: tbortfeld@partners.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, uncertainty in the location of the distal dose edge can lead to cautious treatment plans that reduce the dosimetric advantage of protons. After radiation exposure, vertebral bone marrow undergoes fatty replacement that is visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This presents an exciting opportunity to observe radiation dose distribution in vivo. We used quantitative spine MRI changes to precisely detect the distal dose edge in proton radiation patients. Methods and Materials: We registered follow-up T1-weighted MRI images to planning computed tomography scans from 10 patients who received proton spine irradiation. A radiation dose-MRI signal intensity curve was created using the lateral beam penumbra in the sacrum. This curve was then used to measure range errors in the lumbar spine. Results: In the lateral penumbra, there was an increase in signal intensity with higher dose throughout the full range of 0-37.5 Gy (RBE). In the distal fall-off region, the beam sometimes appeared to penetrate farther than planned. The mean overshoot in 10 patients was 1.9 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.8-3.1 mm), on the order of the uncertainties inherent to our range verification method. Conclusions: We have demonstrated in vivo proton range verification using posttreatment spine MRI changes. Our analysis suggests the presence of a systematic overshoot of a few millimeters in some proton spine treatments, but the range error does not exceed the uncertainty incorporated into the treatment planning margin. It may be possible to extend our technique to MRI sequences that show early bone marrow changes, enabling adaptive treatment modification.

  14. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above injection, the polarized hydrogen jet target runs for every fill with both beams. Based on the known analyzing power, there is very little polarization loss between injection and 100 GeV. An alternative way is to measure the asymmetry at 100 GeV followed by ramping up to 250 GeV and back down to 100 GeV and then to measure the asymmetry again at 100 GeV. If the asymmetry after the down ramp is similar to the measurement before the up ramp, polarization was also preserved during the ramp to 250 GeV. The analyzing power at storage energy can then be extracted from the asymmetries measured at 100 GeV and 250 GeV. The tune and orbit feedbacks are essential for the down ramp to be possible. The polarized proton operation is still going on. We will push bunch intensity higher until reaching the beam-beam limit. The even higher intensity will have to wait for the electron lenses to compensate the beam-beam effect. To understand the details of spin dynamics in RHIC with two snakes, spin simulation with the real magnet fields have been developed recently. The study will provide guidance for possible polarization loss schemes. Further polarization gain will requires a polarized source upgrade; more careful setup jump quads in the AGS to get full benefit; and control emittance in the whole accelerator chain.

  15. Characteristic NMR spectra of proton transfer in protonated water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao-ngam, Charoensak; Phonyiem, Mayuree; Chaiwongwattana, Sermsiri; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Sagarik, Kritsana

    2013-07-01

    Characteristic NMR spectra of proton transfer in protonated water clusters were studied using the H+(H2O)n complexes, n = 2 - 5, as model systems, and ab initio calculations at the RIMP2/TZVP level and BOMD simulations as model calculations. Based on the concept of presolvation, two-dimensional potential energy surface of proton in the smallest, most active intermediate complex (the Zundel complex) was constructed as a function of the H-bond distance (RO-O) and the asymmetric stretching coordinate (?dDA). The low-interaction energy path and the path with ?dDA = 0 Å were analyzed and discussed in comparison with the model systems. The two proton transfer paths associate with the characteristic IR frequencies namely, the structural diffusion and oscillatory shuttling frequencies, respectively. RIMP2/TZVP calculations showed that the proton moving on the oscillatory shuttling path is characterized by the 1H NMR shielding constant (?H+corr) varying in a narrow range, whereas on the structural diffusion path, ?H+corr changes exponentially with RO-H. The energetic, dynamic and spectroscopic results obtained from BOMD simulations in the temperature range between 350 and 450 K validated the presolvation model and revealed that the activation energies for the proton exchange in the smallest, most active intermediate complex, computed from the Arrhenius equation, IR spectra and a simple 1H NMR line shape analysis, are consistent and in good agreement with experiments in aqueous solution. Based on the presolvation model and the outstanding characteristics of the IR and 1H NMR spectra of the transferring protons, the present theoretical study suggested framework and steps to investigate structural diffusion processes in strong, protonated H-bond systems.

  16. Neutron-Proton Interaction: The Scattering of Neutrons by Protons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Harkins; Martin D. Kamen; Henry W. Newson; David M. Gans

    1936-01-01

    The inadequacy of present theories of proton-neutron interaction is shown in work in which 730 proton tracks produced by collisions of fast neutrons with hydrogen nuclei have been studied and measured to determine the distribution-in-angle. The recoils have been observed in three gaseous media; hydrogen, ethylene and hydrogen sulphide, by the use of a sylphon-type Wilson chamber and two cameras

  17. Effect of target composition on proton acceleration in ultraintense laser-thin foil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingcao; Liu, Meng; Yu, Tongpu; Ding, Pengji; Liu, Zuoye; Sun, Shaohua; Liu, Xiaoliang; Lu, Xing; Guo, Zeqin; Hu, Bitao

    2012-09-01

    The interactions of ultraintense circularly polarized laser pulses with a mixed solid target and a double-layer target are studied by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Different carbon and proton compositions in the targets are used in the simulations. It is shown that the proton acceleration mechanisms in both targets are very sensitive to the ion density ratios between protons and carbon ions. For a mixed solid target, a relatively low proton density gives rise to monoenergetic peaks in the proton energy spectrum while a high proton density leads to a large cut-off energy and wide energy spread. With the increase of the ratio, the so-called directed-Coulomb-explosion becomes dominated over the radiation pressure. Surprisingly, for a double-layer target with a front proton layer and an ultrathin rear carbon layer, a highly monoenergetic proton beam with a peak energy of 1.7 GeV/u, an energy spread of ˜4%, and a divergency angle of 2° can be obtained, which might have diverse applications in medical therepy and proton imaging in future.

  18. The physics of Cerenkov light production during proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Helo, Y; Kacperek, A; Rosenberg, I; Royle, G; Gibson, A P

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using Cerenkov emissions for quality assurance and in vivo dosimetry in photon and electron therapy. Here, we investigate the production of Cerenkov light during proton therapy and its potential applications in proton therapy. A primary proton beam does not have sufficient energy to generate Cerenkov emissions directly, but we have demonstrated two mechanisms by which such emissions may occur indirectly: (1) a fast component from fast electrons liberated by prompt gamma (99.13%) and neutron (0.87%) emission; and (2) a slow component from the decay of radioactive positron emitters. The fast component is linear with dose and doserate but carries little spatial information; the slow component is non-linear but may be localised. The properties of the two types of emission are explored using Monte Carlo modelling in GEANT4 with some experimental verification. We propose that Cerenkov emissions could contribute to the visual sensation reported by some patients undergoing proton therapy of the eye and we discuss the feasibility of some potential applications of Cerenkov imaging in proton therapy. PMID:25365447

  19. The physics of Cerenkov light production during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helo, Y.; Kacperek, A.; Rosenberg, I.; Royle, G.; Gibson, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using Cerenkov emissions for quality assurance and in vivo dosimetry in photon and electron therapy. Here, we investigate the production of Cerenkov light during proton therapy and its potential applications in proton therapy. A primary proton beam does not have sufficient energy to generate Cerenkov emissions directly, but we have demonstrated two mechanisms by which such emissions may occur indirectly: (1) a fast component from fast electrons liberated by prompt gamma (99.13%) and neutron (0.87%) emission; and (2) a slow component from the decay of radioactive positron emitters. The fast component is linear with dose and doserate but carries little spatial information; the slow component is non-linear but may be localised. The properties of the two types of emission are explored using Monte Carlo modelling in GEANT4 with some experimental verification. We propose that Cerenkov emissions could contribute to the visual sensation reported by some patients undergoing proton therapy of the eye and we discuss the feasibility of some potential applications of Cerenkov imaging in proton therapy.

  20. Proton radiotherapy: some perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Kirn, T.F.

    1988-02-12

    A news article highlighting the use of protons in radiotherapy is presented. Development of stereotaxic radiosurgery is the result of contributions from physicists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons, says Jacob Fabrikant, MD, head of the Arteriovenous Malformation Program at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley laboratory. It also appears to have been the product of Harvard University (Boston) and University of California (Berkeley) cooperation. Robert R. Wilson, PhD, now a professor emeritus at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, is credited with proposing the medical use of charged particles. Wilson, a physicist, says that the idea occurred to him while he was at Berkeley in the mid-1940's, designing the cyclotron to be built at Harvard. Although he was aware of their work, he does not remember discussing it with Robert Stone, MD, or John Lawrence, MD, who only a few years earlier at Berkeley had begun the initial medical experiments with neutrons. Wilson says that it simply occurred to him that in certain instances charged particles had two advantages over x-rays.

  1. Proton transport through polymeric membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyu; Woudenberg, Rich; Yavuzcetin, Ozgur; Granados, Sergio; Coughlin, Bryan; Tuominen, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells have drawn increasing attention from researchers because of the steadily declining supply of fossil fuels. A key component of a fuel cell is a membrane that is an efficient conductor of protons, but not electrons or molecules. Nafion currently is the dominant material chosen for this purpose, with proton conductivity facilitated by an imbibed network of water. Unfortunately, this material loses its conductivity as it becomes dehydrated at elevated temperatures. In this work we make a detailed examination of the physics of proton conductivity in anhydrous polymeric membranes though temperature-dependent DC current-voltage characterization, AC impedance spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. We assess the relevance of fundamental proton conductivity models involving thermo-mechanical and electro-mechanical transport mechanisms. This work is supported by DOE grant 10759-001-05, NSF grant DMR-0306951 and MRSEC.

  2. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid?base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron?proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ ?. Multiple-Site Electron?Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron?proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron?proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e{sup -}/2H{sup +} MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (?G)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pK{sub a}(H{sub 3}O{sup +}) = ?1.74) nor good acids (pK{sub a}(H{sub 2}O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

  3. POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC. In 2002, polarized proton beams were first accelerated to 100 GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. Optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.

  4. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ladra, Matthew M.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:24424260

  5. Proton acceleration experiments with Z-Petawatt.

    SciTech Connect

    Arefiev, A. (University of Texas at Austin); Schaumann, G. (Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany); Deppert, O. (Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany); Rambo, Patrick K.; Roth, M. (Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany); Geissel, Matthias; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Schollmeier, Marius; Breizman, B. (University of Texas at Austin)

    2010-08-01

    The outline of this presentation: (1) Proton acceleration with high-power lasers - Target Normal Sheath Acceleration concept; (2) Proton acceleration with mass-reduced targets - Breaking the 60 MeV threshold; (3) Proton beam divergence control - Novel focusing target geometry; and (4) New experimental capability development - Proton radiography on Z.

  6. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mistry; I. Gomez-Morilla; R. C. Smith; D. Thomson; G. W. Grime; R. P. Webb; R. Gwilliam; C. Jeynes; A. Cansell; M. Merchant; K. J. Kirkby

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the

  7. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration.

    PubMed

    Gomà, C; Lorentini, S; Meer, D; Safai, S

    2014-09-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences-of the order of 3%-were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth-i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers-rather than cylindrical chambers-for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. PMID:25109620

  8. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomà, C.; Lorentini, S.; Meer, D.; Safai, S.

    2014-09-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams.

  9. High intensity protons in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2012-01-05

    During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

  10. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ?pH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  11. The size of the proton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Antognini; François Nez; Fernando D. Amaro; François Biraben; João M. R. Cardoso; Daniel S. Covita; Andreas Dax; Satish Dhawan; Luis M. P. Fernandes; Adolf Giesen; Thomas Graf; Theodor W. Hänsch; Paul Indelicato; Lucile Julien; Cheng-Yang Kao; Paul Knowles; Eric-Olivier Le Bigot; Yi-Wei Liu; José A. M. Lopes; Livia Ludhova; Cristina M. B. Monteiro; Françoise Mulhauser; Tobias Nebel; Paul Rabinowitz; Joaquim M. F. Dos Santos; Lukas A. Schaller; Karsten Schuhmann; Catherine Schwob; David Taqqu; João F. C. A. Veloso; Franz Kottmann

    2010-01-01

    The proton is the primary building block of the visible Universe, but many of its properties-such as its charge radius and its anomalous magnetic moment-are not well understood. The root-mean-square charge radius, rp, has been determined with an accuracy of 2 per cent (at best) by electron-proton scattering experiments. The present most accurate value of rp (with an uncertainty of

  12. Proton Solvation and Proton Mobility Department of Physical Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center,

    E-print Network

    Agmon, Noam

    Proton Solvation and Proton Mobility NOAM AGMON Department of Physical Chemistry and the Fritz for proton solvation and proton mobility is analyzed and the results are compared with recent simulations. Three factors con­ tribute to differences in proton solvation energies: hydrogen­bond cleavage, changes

  13. Generation of proton aurora by magnetosonic waves.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Wang, Yongfu; He, Zhaoguo; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Earth's proton aurora occurs over a broad MLT region and is produced by the precipitation of low-energy (2-10?keV) plasmasheet protons. Proton precipitation can alter chemical compositions of the atmosphere, linking solar activity with global climate variability. Previous studies proposed that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves can resonate with protons, producing proton scattering precipitation. A long-outstanding question still remains whether there is another mechanism responsible for the proton aurora. Here, by performing satellite data analysis and diffusion equation calculations, we show that fast magnetosonic waves can produce trapped proton scattering that yields proton aurora. This provides a new insight into the mechanism of proton aurora. Furthermore, a ray-tracing study demonstrates that magnetosonic wave propagates over a broad MLT region, consistent with the global distribution of proton aurora. PMID:24898626

  14. Strangeness asymmetry in the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberg, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Strangeness asymmetry in the proton may arise from fluctuations of the proton into meson-baryon pairs. The leading contributions to proton strangeness are from the K? , K? , K* ? and K* ? states. We use a Fock state expansion of the proton in terms of these pairs to represent the strange meson cloud. We determine the strangeness distributions of the proton in a hybrid convolution model, in which the fluctuations are represented either by light-cone wave functions or meson-baryon splitting functions. For the parton distributions of the s(s) quarks in the bare baryons(mesons) of the Fock states, we use light cone wave functions or our statistical model, which expands the bare hadrons in terms of quark-gluon states. The momentum distributions of the s and s quarks in each Fock state differ because they are constituents of different hadrons. We present our results for proton strangeness asymmetry, and compare them to NuTeV and to global parton distributions. This research has been supported in part by NSF Award 1205686.

  15. Low Proton Conductance of Plant Cuticles and Its Relevance to the Acid-Growth Theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, S. Ann; Seymour, Virginia; Cleland, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence obtained on the relation between the pH of the medium and the growth of intact stem sections is compatible with the acid-growth theory only if the proton conductance of the cuticle is so low that the cuticle is an effective barrier to the entry or exit of protons from the tissue. By measuring the rate at which protons cross frozen-thawed epidermal strips of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max Morr.) and enzymically isolated cuticles of Berberis aquifolium Persh. and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit, we have now demonstrated the low proton conductance of the cuticular layer. Unless the conductance is enhanced by abrasion of the cuticle or by removal of the cuticular waxes, proton movement into and out of a tissue across the cuticle will be significant only over long time periods. Images PMID:16661976

  16. Focusing of short-pulse high-intensity laser-accelerated proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartal, Teresa; Foord, Mark E.; Bellei, Claudio; Key, Michael H.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Patel, Pravesh K.; Jarrott, Leonard C.; Higginson, Drew P.; Roth, Markus; Otten, Anke; Kraus, Dominik; Stephens, Richard B.; McLean, Harry S.; Giraldez, Emilio M.; Wei, Mingsheng S.; Gautier, Donald C.; Beg, Farhat N.

    2012-02-01

    Recent progress in generating high-energy (>50MeV) protons from intense laser-matter interactions (1018-1021Wcm-2 refs , , , , , , ) has opened up new areas of research, with applications in radiography, oncology, astrophysics, medical imaging, high-energy-density physics, and ion-proton beam fast ignition. With the discovery of proton focusing with curved surfaces, rapid advances in these areas will be driven by improved focusing technologies. Here we report on the first investigation of the generation and focusing of a proton beam using a cone-shaped target. We clearly show that the focusing is strongly affected by the electric fields in the beam in both open and enclosed (cone) geometries, bending the trajectories near the axis. Also in the cone geometry, a sheath electric field effectively `channels' the proton beam through the cone tip, substantially improving the beam focusing properties. These results agree well with particle simulations and provide the physics basis for many future applications.

  17. Multisection Proton MR Spectroscopy for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristides A. Capizzano; Peter Vermathen; Kenneth D. Laxer; Gerald B. Matson; Andrew A. Maudsley; Brian J. Soher; Norbert W. Schuff; Michael W. Weiner

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extensive metabolic impairments have been reported in association with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). We investigated whether proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) depicts metabolic changes beyond the hippocampus in cases of mTLE and whether these changes help lateralize the seizure focus. METHODS: MR imaging and 1H-MRS were performed in 15 patients with mTLE with a postoperative diagnosis of

  18. Measuring the strong electrostatic and magnetic fields with proton radiography for ultra-high intensity laser channeling on fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, Y.; Iwawaki, T.; Habara, H., E-mail: habara@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ivancic, S.; Theobald, W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Lei, A. L. [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, 201800 Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-15

    In order to investigate the intense laser propagation and channel formation in dense plasma, we conducted an experiment with proton deflectometry on the OMEGA EP Laser facility. The proton image was analyzed by tracing the trajectory of mono-energetic protons, which provides understanding the electric and magnetic fields that were generated around the channel. The estimated field strengths (E ? 10{sup 11} V/m and B ? 10{sup 8} G) agree with the predictions from 2D-Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, indicating the feasibility of the proton deflectometry technique for over-critical density plasma.

  19. 3D-snapshot flash NMR imaging of the human heart.

    PubMed

    Henrich, D; Haase, A; Matthaei, D

    1990-01-01

    SNAPSHOT-FLASH is a recently developed, ultrafast imaging technique, based on conventional FLASH imaging. The application of this new variant to 3D imaging allows the acquisition of a 128 x 128 x 32 data set in 12.5 seconds without triggering, or for cardiac imaging with gating within 32 heartbeats. Compared to standard 3D-FLASH this is 128 times faster, because triggering is only required when the 3D phase-encoding gradient is incremented. The method depicts for the first time fast three-dimensional views of the human heart without motional artifacts. The images are spin-density weighted. Using suitable prepulses any desired T1- or T2-contrast may be achieved. The generation of 3D movies is possible without an increase of the total scan time. PMID:2392025

  20. Physiologic and Radiographic Evidence of the Distal Edge of the Proton Beam in Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krejcarek, Stephanie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grant, P. Ellen [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Henson, John W. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Pappas Center for Neuro-oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: tyock@partners.org

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: Fatty replacement of bone marrow resulting from radiation therapy can be seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. We evaluated the radiographic appearance of the vertebral bodies in children treated with proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to illustrate the distal edge effect of proton radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 13 adolescents aged 12-18 years who received CSI with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital. Ten of these patients had reached maximal or near-maximal growth. Proton beam radiation for these 10 patients was delivered to the thecal sac and exiting nerve roots only, whereas the remaining 3 patients had a target volume that included the thecal sac, exiting nerve roots, and entire vertebral bodies. Median CSI dose was 27 [range, 23.4-36] cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) given in 1.8-CGE fractions. Magnetic resonance images of the spine were obtained after completion of radiotherapy. Results: Magnetic resonance images of patients who received proton radiotherapy to the thecal sac only demonstrate a sharp demarcation of hyperintense T1-weighted signal in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies, consistent with radiation-associated fatty marrow replacement. Magnetic resonance images of the patients prescribed proton radiotherapy to the entire vertebral column had corresponding hyperintense T1-weighted signal involving the entire vertebral bodies. Conclusion: The sharp delineation of radiation-associated fatty marrow replacement in the vertebral bodies demonstrates the rapid decrease in energy at the edge of the proton beam. This provides evidence for a sharp fall-off in radiation dose and supports the premise that proton radiotherapy spares normal tissues unnecessary irradiation.

  1. Long-period Magnetic Pulsations Associated with Detached Proton Auroral Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Immel; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; J. W. Bonnell; M. F. Thomsen

    2003-01-01

    One remarkable discovery of the NASA-IMAGE mission is the occurrence of detached proton auroral arcs. These are fairly long lived (>30 minutes) relative to other subauroral phenomena, are found separated by hundreds of kilometers from the main dusk-sector auroral oval, and generally occur several hours into a period of heightened geomagnetic activity. Interaction of 10-50 keV ring-current protons with a

  2. Proton beam micromachining: a new tool for precision three-dimensional microstructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. van Kan; A. A. Bettiol; B. S. Wee; T. C. Sum; S. M. Tang; F. Watt

    2001-01-01

    Proton beam micromachining (PBM) is a novel technique for the production of high aspect-ratio three-dimensional (3D) microcomponents. PBM is a direct write process in which a focused beam of MeV protons is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a suitable resist material (e.g. PMMA or SU-8) and the latent image formed is subsequently chemically developed. One strategy for full exploitation

  3. muprobe using focused 1.5 MeV helium ion and proton beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kinomura; M. Takai; K. Inoue; K. Matsunaga; M. Izumi; T. Matsuo; K. Gamo; S. Namba; M. Satou

    1988-01-01

    A mubeam line using focused 1.5 MeV helium ion and proton beams has been realized, by piezo-driven objective slits and a magnetic quadrupole doublet. Minimum spot sizes of 1.0 mum × 1.2 mum for a helium ion beam and 1.2 mu x 1.4 mum for a proton beam were obtained. Secondary electron and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) mapping images were obtained

  4. Shockwave and detonation studies at ITEP-TWAC proton radiography facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Sergey; Dudin, Sergey; Lavrov, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Mintsev, Victor; Shilkin, Nikolay; Ternovoi, Vladimir; Utkin, Alexander; Yakushev, Vladislav; Yuriev, Denis; Fortov, Vladimir; Golubev, Alexander; Kantsyrev, Alexey; Shestov, Lev; Smirnov, Gennady; Turtikov, Vladimir; Sharkov, Boris; Burtsev, Vasily; Zavialov, Nikolay; Kartanov, Sergey; Mikhailov, Anatoly; Rudnev, Alexey; Tatsenko, Mikhail; Zhernokletov, Mikhail

    2012-03-01

    In recent years studies of shock and detonation wave phenomena at extreme dynamic conditions were performed at proton radiography facility developed at the 800 MeV proton beam line of ITEP Terawatt Accelerator (ITEP-TWAC). The facility provides a multi-frame imaging capability at 50 ?m spatial and 70 ns temporal resolution. The results of latest studies conducted there are presented, including explosion and detonation of pressed and emulsion high explosives, shock-induced dense non-ideal plasma of argon and xenon and shock loading of non-uniform metal surfaces. New compact explosive generators developed specifically for a use at proton radiography facilities are also presented.

  5. Shock-Wave and Detonation Studies at ITEP-TWAC Proton Radiography Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Sergey; Dudin, Sergey; Lavrov, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Mintsev, Victor; Shilkin, Nikolay; Ternovoi, Vladimir; Utkin, Alexander; Yakushev, Vladislav; Yuriev, Denis; Fortov, Vladimir; Golubev, Alexander; Kantsyrev, Alexey; Shestov, Lev; Smirnov, Gennady; Turtikov, Vladimir; Sharkov, Boris; Burtsev, Vasily; Zavialov, Nikolay; Kartanov, Sergey; Mikhailov, Anatoly; Rudnev, Alexey; Tatsenko, Mikhail; Zhernokletov, Mikhail

    2011-06-01

    In recent years studies of shock and detonation wave phenomena at extreme dynamic conditions were performed at proton radiography facility developed at the 800 MeV proton beam line of ITEP Terawatt Accelerator (ITEP-TWAC). The facility provides a multi-frame imaging capability at 50 ?m spatial and 70 ns temporal resolution. The results of latest studies conducted there are presented, including explosion and detonation of pressed and emulsion high explosives, shock-induced dense non-ideal plasma of argon and xenon and shock loading of non-uniform metal surfaces. New compact explosive generators developed specifically for a use at proton radiography facilities are also presented.

  6. Modeling of Proton-Induced CCD Degradation in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, D. H.; Srour, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results are presented for proton-induced degradation of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used in the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. A methodology is described that provides insights regarding degradation mechanism and on-orbit performance for front-illuminated and back-illuminated CCDs Proton-induced changes in charge transfer inefficiency are modeled. The observed amount of on-orbit degradation can be accounted for using a proton spectrum at the CCD location that is reduced in magnitude by a factor of approx. 1E5 compared to the spectrum incident on the spacecraft.

  7. Transient electrostatic fields and related energetic proton generation with a plasma fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z L; Kumar, G R; Sheng, Z M; Matsuoka, T; Sentoku, Y; Tampo, M; Tanaka, K A; Tsutsumi, T; Yabuuchi, T; Kodama, R

    2006-03-01

    We observe a hollow structure and a fine ring in the proton images from a petawatt scale laser interaction with a "cone-fiber" target. The protons related to the hollow structure are accelerated from the cone-tip surface and deflected later by a radial electric field surrounding the fiber. Those associated with the fine ring are accelerated from the fiber surface by this radial electric field. This field is found to decay exponentially within 3 ps from about 5 x 10(12) V/m. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations produce similar proton angular distributions. PMID:16606190

  8. Transient Electrostatic Fields and Related Energetic Proton Generation with a Plasma Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.L.; Kumar, G.R.; Matsuoka, T.; Tampo, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sheng, Z.M. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, 5625 Fox Avenue, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States); Tanaka, K.A.; Kodama, R. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, T.; Yabuuchi, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2006-03-03

    We observe a hollow structure and a fine ring in the proton images from a petawatt scale laser interaction with a 'cone-fiber' target. The protons related to the hollow structure are accelerated from the cone-tip surface and deflected later by a radial electric field surrounding the fiber. Those associated with the fine ring are accelerated from the fiber surface by this radial electric field. This field is found to decay exponentially within 3 ps from about 5x10{sup 12} V/m. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations produce similar proton angular distributions.

  9. Locating protonated amines in clathrates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Terrence M; Cooper, Richard J; Williams, Evan R

    2013-10-01

    The structures and inherent stabilities of hydrated, protonated ammonia, select protonated primary, secondary, and tertiary amines as well as tetramethylammonium with 19-21 water molecules were investigated using infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy and blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) at 133 K. Magic number clusters (MNCs) with 20 water molecules were observed for all ions except tetramethylammonium, and the BIRD results indicate that these clusters have stable structures, which are relatively unaffected by addition of one water molecule but are disrupted in clusters with one less water molecule. IRPD spectra in the water free O-H stretch region are consistent with clathrate structures for the MNCs with 20 water molecules, whereas nonclathrate structures are indicated for tetramethylammonium as well as ions at the other cluster sizes. The locations of protonated ammonia and the protonated primary amines either in the interior or at the surface of a clathrate were determined by comparing IRPD spectra of these ions to those of reference ions; Rb(+) and protonated tert-butylammonia with 20 water molecules were used as references for an ion in the interior and at the surface of a clathrate, respectively. These results indicate that protonated ammonia is in the interior of the clathrate, whereas protonated methyl- and n-heptylamine are at the surface. Calculations suggest that the number of hydrogen bonds in these clusters does not directly correlate with structural stability, indicating that both the number and orientation of the hydrogen bonds are important. These experimental results should serve as benchmarks for computational studies aimed at elucidating ion effects on the hydrogen-bonding network of water molecules and the surface activity of ions. PMID:24007314

  10. The proton-proton reaction and related reactions in an intense magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih Kang Chou

    1971-01-01

    The reaction rates for the proton-proton reaction and the related electron capture reaction in a strongly magnetized relativistic electron gas of arbitrary degree of degeneracy are computed. The proton-proton reaction rates are unaffected by the presence of the magnetic field for field strengths up to the critical valueHq=m2c3\\/eh=4.414×1013G. For fields greater thanHq, the proton-proton reaction rates are enhanced linearly with

  11. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    E-print Network

    Tang, Jingyu; Chai, Weiping; Chen, Fusan; Chen, Nian; Chou, Weiren; Dong, Haiyi; Gao, Jie; Han, Tao; Leng, Yongbin; Li, Guangrui; Gupta, Ramesh; Li, Peng; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Baiqi; Liu, Yudong; Lou, Xinchou; Luo, Qing; Malamud, Ernie; Mao, Lijun; Palmer, Robert B; Peng, Quanling; Peng, Yuemei; Ruan, Manqi; Sabbi, GianLuca; Su, Feng; Su, Shufang; Stratakis, Diktys; Sun, Baogeng; Wang, Meifen; Wang, Jie; Wang, Liantao; Wang, Xiangqi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Ming; Xing, Qingzhi; Xu, Qingjin; Xu, Hongliang; Xu, Wei; Witte, Holger; Yan, Yingbing; Yang, Yongliang; Yang, Jiancheng; Yuan, Youjin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yuhong; Zheng, Shuxin; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Zian; Zou, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  12. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    E-print Network

    Jingyu Tang; J. Scott Berg; Weiping Chai; Fusan Chen; Nian Chen; Weiren Chou; Haiyi Dong; Jie Gao; Tao Han; Yongbin Leng; Guangrui Li; Ramesh Gupta; Peng Li; Zhihui Li; Baiqi Liu; Yudong Liu; Xinchou Lou; Qing Luo; Ernie Malamud; Lijun Mao; Robert B. Palmer; Quanling Peng; Yuemei Peng; Manqi Ruan; GianLuca Sabbi; Feng Su; Shufang Su; Diktys Stratakis; Baogeng Sun; Meifen Wang; Jie Wang; Liantao Wang; Xiangqi Wang; Yifang Wang; Yong Wang; Ming Xiao; Qingzhi Xing; Qingjin Xu; Hongliang Xu; Wei Xu; Holger Witte; Yingbing Yan; Yongliang Yang; Jiancheng Yang; Youjin Yuan; Bo Zhang; Yuhong Zhang; Shuxin Zheng; Kun Zhu; Zian Zhu; Ye Zou

    2015-07-19

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  13. Proton radiography and fluoroscopy of lung tumors: A Monte Carlo study using patient-specific 4DCT phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bin; Xu, X. George; Chen, George T. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo methods are used to simulate and optimize a time-resolved proton range telescope (TRRT) in localization of intrafractional and interfractional motions of lung tumor and in quantification of proton range variations. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code with a particle tracking feature was employed to evaluate the TRRT performance, especially in visualizing and quantifying proton range variations during respiration. Protons of 230 MeV were tracked one by one as they pass through position detectors, patient 4DCT phantom, and finally scintillator detectors that measured residual ranges. The energy response of the scintillator telescope was investigated. Mass density and elemental composition of tissues were defined for 4DCT data. Results: Proton water equivalent length (WEL) was deduced by a reconstruction algorithm that incorporates linear proton track and lateral spatial discrimination to improve the image quality. 4DCT data for three patients were used to visualize and measure tumor motion and WEL variations. The tumor trajectories extracted from the WEL map were found to be within ?1 mm agreement with direct 4DCT measurement. Quantitative WEL variation studies showed that the proton radiograph is a good representation of WEL changes from entrance to distal of the target. Conclusions:MCNPX simulation results showed that TRRT can accurately track the motion of the tumor and detect the WEL variations. Image quality was optimized by choosing proton energy, testing parameters of image reconstruction algorithm, and comparing to ground truth 4DCT. The future study will demonstrate the feasibility of using the time resolved proton radiography as an imaging tool for proton treatments of lung tumors. PMID:21626923

  14. Polarized proton beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.

    2010-10-04

    The polarized beam for RHIC is produced in the optically-pumped polarized H{sup -} ion source and then accelerated in Linac to 200 MeV for strip-injection to Booster and further accelerated 24.3 GeV in AGS for injection in RHIC. In 2009 Run polarized protons was successfully accelerated to 250 GeV beam energy. The beam polarization of about 60% at 100 GeV beam energy and 36-42% at 250 GeV beam energy was measured with the H-jet and p-Carbon CNI polarimeters. The gluon contribution to the proton spin was studied in collisions of longitudinally polarized proton beams at 100 x 100 GeV. At 250 x 250 GeV an intermediate boson W production with the longitudinally polarized beams was studied for the first time.

  15. Proton transfer in heterocycle crystals.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, M; Parrinello, M

    2004-07-01

    We study the proton diffusion process in imidazole-based molecular crystals, which are new candidate materials for fuel cell membranes. These materials are characterized by hydrogen bonded networks of molecules, which provide viable routes for the long-range diffusion of protons. By the application of a recently developed, powerful technique to determine reaction pathways in complex systems, we are able to reproduce the diffusion process in the imidazole crystal and in the more complicated and rigid structure of imidazole 2-ethyleneoxide. Our results cast new light on the atomistic details of the molecular rearrangements sustaining the ionic diffusion. PMID:15323930

  16. Proton Transfer in Heterocycle Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannuzzi, M.; Parrinello, M.

    2004-07-01

    We study the proton diffusion process in imidazole-based molecular crystals, which are new candidate materials for fuel cell membranes. These materials are characterized by hydrogen bonded networks of molecules, which provide viable routes for the long-range diffusion of protons. By the application of a recently developed, powerful technique to determine reaction pathways in complex systems, we are able to reproduce the diffusion process in the imidazole crystal and in the more complicated and rigid structure of imidazole 2-ethyleneoxide. Our results cast new light on the atomistic details of the molecular rearrangements sustaining the ionic diffusion.

  17. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. C.; Lyons, L. R.; Newell, P. T.; Creutzberg, F.; Xu, B.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorms intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (about 4-6 deg) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via Earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipolelike field lines.

  18. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. C.; Xu, B.; Lyons, L. R.; Newell, P. T.; Creutzberg, F.

    1993-01-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorm intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (approximately four to six degrees) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipole-like field lines.

  19. EFFECT OF ANATOMIC MOTION ON PROTON THERAPY DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS IN PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Dong, Lei; Lee, Andrew K.; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Zhu, Ron X.; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Yupeng; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the dosimetric impact of inter-fraction anatomical movements in prostate cancer patients receiving proton therapy. Methods and Materials For each of the 10 patients studied, 8 CT scans were selected from sets of daily setup CT images that were acquired from a cohort of prostate cancer patients. The images were acquired in the treatment room using the CT-on-Rails system. First, standard proton therapy and IMRT plans were designed for each patient using standard modality-specific methods. The images, the proton plan, and the IMRT plan were then aligned to the 8 CT images based on skin marks. The doses were recalculated on these 8 CT images using beam from the standard plans. Second, the plans were redesigned and evaluated assuming a smaller CTV-to-PTV margin (3 mm). The images and the corresponding plans were then realigned based on the center of volume of the prostate. Dose distributions were evaluated using isodose displays, dose-volume histograms, and target coverage. Results For the skin-marker alignment method, four of the 10 IMRT plans were deficient while three of 10 proton plans were compromised. For the alignment method based on the center of volume of the prostate, only the proton plan for one patient was deficient, while three out of the 10 IMRT plans were suboptimal. Conclusion A comparison of passively scattered proton therapy and highly-conformal IMRT plans for prostate cancer revealed that the dosimetric impact of inter-fractional anatomical motions was similar for both modalities. PMID:17236979

  20. Astrophysical implications of the proton-proton cross section updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Marcucci, L. E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2015-03-01

    The p (p ,e+?e)2H reaction rate is an essential ingredient for theoretical computations of stellar models. In the past several values of the corresponding S-factor have been made available by different authors. Prompted by a recent evaluation of S (E), we analysed the effect of the adoption of different proton-proton reaction rates on stellar models, focusing, in particular, on the age of mid and old stellar clusters (1-12 Gyr) and on standard solar model predictions. By comparing different widely adopted p (p ,e+?e)2H reaction rates, we found a maximum difference in the temperature regimes typical of main sequence hydrogen-burning stars (5 ×106- 3 ×107 K) of about 3%. Such a variation translates into a change of cluster age determination lower than 1%. A slightly larger effect is observed in the predicted solar neutrino fluxes with a maximum difference, in the worst case, of about 8%. Finally we also notice that the uncertainty evaluation of the present proton-proton rate is at the level of few ‰, thus the p (p ,e+?e)2H reaction rate does not constitute anymore a significant uncertainty source in stellar models.

  1. Fast neutron production from lithium converters and laser driven protons

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, M.; Jiang, S.; Wertepny, D.; Orban, C.; Morrison, J.; Willis, C.; McCary, E.; Balencourt, P.; Snyder, J.; Chowdhury, E.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Bang, W.; Gaul, E.; Dyer, G.; Ditmire, T. [Department of Physics, Center for High Energy Density Science, C1510, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Center for High Energy Density Science, C1510, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Experiments to generate neutrons from the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction with 60 J, 180 fs laser pulses have been performed at the Texas Petawatt Laser Facility at the University of Texas at Austin. The protons were accelerated from the rear surface of a thin target membrane using the target-normal-sheath-acceleration mechanism. The neutrons were generated in nuclear reactions caused by the subsequent proton bombardment of a pure lithium foil of natural isotopic abundance. The neutron energy ranged up to 2.9 MeV. The total yield was estimated to be 1.6 × 10{sup 7} neutrons per steradian. An extreme ultra-violet light camera, used to image the target rear surface, correlated variations in the proton yield and peak energy to target rear surface ablation. Calculations using the hydrodynamics code FLASH indicated that the ablation resulted from a laser pre-pulse of prolonged intensity. The ablation severely limited the proton acceleration and neutron yield.

  2. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has almost completed the analysis the forward neutron production data. Large dis-crepancies between our neutron production data and Monte Carlo expectations have been found.

  3. Model for Solar Proton Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Gee, G. B.; Barth, J. L.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; McGuire, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    A statistical model for cumulative solar proton event fluences and for worst-case flux during space missions is presented. New features include the solar minimum time period and proton energy spectra that extend to higher energies.

  4. Dynamics of the Plasma Membrane Proton Pump.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Federico; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Proton transfer over distances longer than that of a hydrogen bond often requires water molecules and protein motions. Following transfer of the proton from the donor to the acceptor, the change in the charge distribution may alter the dynamics of protein and water. To begin to understand how protonation dynamics couple to protein and water dynamics, here we explore how changes in the protonation state affect water and protein dynamics in the AHA2 proton pump. We find that the protonation state of the proton donor and acceptor groups largely affects the dynamics of internal waters and of specific hydrogen bonds, and the orientation of transmembrane helical segments that couple remote regions of the protein. The primary proton donor/acceptor group D684, can interact with water molecules from the cytoplasmic bulk and/or other protein groups. PMID:25274016

  5. Determining the mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; Wang, Yongfu; Gao, Zhonglei

    2013-01-01

    Earth's cusp proton aurora occurs near the prenoon and is primarily produced by the precipitation of solar energetic (2-10?keV) protons. Cusp auroral precipitation provides a direct source of energy for the high-latitude dayside upper atmosphere, contributing to chemical composition change and global climate variability. Previous studies have indicated that magnetic reconnection allows solar energetic protons to cross the magnetopause and enter the cusp region, producing cusp auroral precipitation. However, energetic protons are easily trapped in the cusp region due to a minimum magnetic field existing there. Hence, the mechanism of cusp proton aurora has remained a significant challenge for tens of years. Based on the satellite data and calculations of diffusion equation, we demonstrate that EMIC waves can yield the trapped proton scattering that causes cusp proton aurora. This moves forward a step toward identifying the generation mechanism of cusp proton aurora. PMID:23575366

  6. Two-pulse biexponential-weighted 23Na imaging.

    PubMed

    Benkhedah, Nadia; Bachert, Peter; Nagel, Armin M

    2014-03-01

    A new method is proposed for acquiring 3D biexponential-weighted sodium images with two instead of three RF pulses to allow for shorter repetition time at high magnetic fields (B0?7 T) and reduced SAR. The second pulse converts single- into triple-quantum coherences in regions containing sodium ions which are restricted in mobility. Since only single-quantum coherences can be detected, an image acquired after the second pulse is intrinsically single-quantum-filtered and can be used to generate a biexponential-weighted sodium image by a weighted subtraction with the spin-density-weighted image acquired between the pulses. The proposed sequence generates biexponential-weighted sodium images of in vivo human brain with 140% higher SNR than triple-quantum-filtered sodium images and 4% higher SNR than a biexponential-weighted sequence with three RF pulses at equal acquisition time and with 1/3 lower SAR. As SAR is reduced, accordingly repetition time can be spared to obtain even higher SNR-time efficiency. In comparison to a difference image generated from two images of a double-readout sequence, the proposed two-pulse sequence yields about 14% higher SNR. Our new two-pulse biexponential-weighted sequence allows for acquisition of full 3D data sets of the human brain in vivo with a nominal resolution of (5 mm)(3) in about 10 min. PMID:24530955

  7. Two-pulse biexponential-weighted 23Na imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhedah, Nadia; Bachert, Peter; Nagel, Armin M.

    2014-03-01

    A new method is proposed for acquiring 3D biexponential-weighted sodium images with two instead of three RF pulses to allow for shorter repetition time at high magnetic fields (B0 ? 7 T) and reduced SAR. The second pulse converts single- into triple-quantum coherences in regions containing sodium ions which are restricted in mobility. Since only single-quantum coherences can be detected, an image acquired after the second pulse is intrinsically single-quantum-filtered and can be used to generate a biexponential-weighted sodium image by a weighted subtraction with the spin-density-weighted image acquired between the pulses. The proposed sequence generates biexponential-weighted sodium images of in vivo human brain with 140% higher SNR than triple-quantum-filtered sodium images and 4% higher SNR than a biexponential-weighted sequence with three RF pulses at equal acquisition time and with 1/3 lower SAR. As SAR is reduced, accordingly repetition time can be spared to obtain even higher SNR-time efficiency. In comparison to a difference image generated from two images of a double-readout sequence, the proposed two-pulse sequence yields about 14% higher SNR. Our new two-pulse biexponential-weighted sequence allows for acquisition of full 3D data sets of the human brain in vivo with a nominal resolution of (5 mm)3 in about 10 min.

  8. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  9. Parton distributions of the proton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Martin; W. J. Stirling; R. G. Roberts

    1994-01-01

    To obtain improved parton densities of the proton, we present a new global analysis of deep-inelastic and related data including, in particular, the recent measurements of [ital F][sub 2] at DESY HERA, of the asymmetry of the rapidity distributions of [ital W][sup [plus minus

  10. Invariant Spin in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding the distribution of spin and orbital angular momentum in the proton. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of QCD evolution and to the distinction between "chiral" and "invariant" spin. This is particularly significant with respect to the possible presence of polarized strange quarks.

  11. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony; Friendlich, M.R.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Hakey, Mark C.; Dodd, Paul E.; Reed, Robert A.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Sierawski, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  12. Proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are the one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism has been reported with different proton pump inhibitors with prolonged oral use. We report the first reported case of possible such effect with intravenous preparation of proton pump inhibitor. This case report raises awareness among physicians worldwide of this often unknown association, as life-threatening cardiac and neuromuscular complications can arise with unrecognized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia with proton pump inhibitors. PMID:26069375

  13. Impact parameter interpretation of proton-proton scattering from a critical review of all ISR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ugo Amaldi; Klaus R Schubert

    1980-01-01

    This paper contains a critical review of all the data produced at the ISR on proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross sections. This coherent and complete set of data is used to compute the impact parameter distribution of the proton-proton inelastic overlap integral. This impact parameter analysis has smaller errors than any other previously made, and confirms the good agreement

  14. Protonation reactions and their coupling in bacteriorhodopsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei P. Balashov

    2000-01-01

    Light-induced changes of the proton affinities of amino acid side groups are the driving force for proton translocation in bacteriorhodopsin. Recent progress in obtaining structures of bacteriorhodopsin and its intermediates with an increasingly higher resolution, together with functional studies utilizing mutant pigments and spectroscopic methods, have provided important information on the molecular architecture of the proton transfer pathways and the

  15. Proton Absorber Feasibility Study Chris Rogers,

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Proton Absorber ­ Feasibility Study Chris Rogers, ASTeC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 14 Sept 2010 #12;Overview We have a problem with secondary protons in the front end Deposit significant Need remote handling (ouch) One way to fix this is using a proton absorber Change in beam power

  16. Proton++: A Customizable Declarative Multitouch Framework

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Proton++: A Customizable Declarative Multitouch Framework Kenrick Kin1,2 Bj¨orn Hartmann1 Tony DeRose2 Maneesh Agrawala1 1 University of California, Berkeley 2 Pixar Animation Studios ABSTRACT Proton- sions of touch event symbols. It builds on the Proton frame- work by allowing developers to incorporate

  17. Photoproduction at HERA with a Leading Proton

    E-print Network

    Photoproduction at HERA with a Leading Proton Hanna Mahlke­Kr¨uger H1 Collaboration, DESY Abstract. The total cross­section for the semi­inclusive photoproduction process with a leading proton in the final­sections refer to the kinematic range with transverse momenta of the scattered proton restricted to p T Ÿ 0:2 Ge

  18. Nonplanarity and the protonation behavior of porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    SOMMA,MARIA S.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; TH,KEVIN M.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 1}H NMR studies of the protonation of highly nonplanar porphyrins with strong acids reveal the presence of the previously elusive monocation, and show that its stability can be related to the amount of saddle distortion induced by protonation; the amount of saddle distortion for a porphyrin dication is also found to correlate well with the rate of intermolecular proton transfer.

  19. The size of the proton.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Randolf; Antognini, Aldo; Nez, François; Amaro, Fernando D; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M R; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Fernandes, Luis M P; Giesen, Adolf; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kao, Cheng-Yang; Knowles, Paul; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A M; Ludhova, Livia; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Rabinowitz, Paul; Dos Santos, Joaquim M F; Schaller, Lukas A; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Kottmann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    The proton is the primary building block of the visible Universe, but many of its properties-such as its charge radius and its anomalous magnetic moment-are not well understood. The root-mean-square charge radius, r(p), has been determined with an accuracy of 2 per cent (at best) by electron-proton scattering experiments. The present most accurate value of r(p) (with an uncertainty of 1 per cent) is given by the CODATA compilation of physical constants. This value is based mainly on precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and calculations of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED; refs 8, 9). The accuracy of r(p) as deduced from electron-proton scattering limits the testing of bound-state QED in atomic hydrogen as well as the determination of the Rydberg constant (currently the most accurately measured fundamental physical constant). An attractive means to improve the accuracy in the measurement of r(p) is provided by muonic hydrogen (a proton orbited by a negative muon); its much smaller Bohr radius compared to ordinary atomic hydrogen causes enhancement of effects related to the finite size of the proton. In particular, the Lamb shift (the energy difference between the 2S(1/2) and 2P(1/2) states) is affected by as much as 2 per cent. Here we use pulsed laser spectroscopy to measure a muonic Lamb shift of 49,881.88(76) GHz. On the basis of present calculations of fine and hyperfine splittings and QED terms, we find r(p) = 0.84184(67) fm, which differs by 5.0 standard deviations from the CODATA value of 0.8768(69) fm. Our result implies that either the Rydberg constant has to be shifted by -110 kHz/c (4.9 standard deviations), or the calculations of the QED effects in atomic hydrogen or muonic hydrogen atoms are insufficient. PMID:20613837

  20. Proton-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times in brain edema

    SciTech Connect

    Kamman, R.L.; Go, K.G.; Berendsen, H.J. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherland))

    1990-01-01

    Proton relaxation times of protein solutions, bovine brain, and edematous feline brain tissue were studied as a function of water concentration, protein concentration, and temperature. In accordance with the fast proton exchange model for relaxation, a linear relation could be established between R1 and the inverse of the weight fraction of tissue water. This relation also applied to R2 of gray matter and of protein solutions. No straightforward relation with water content was found for R2 of white matter. Temperature-dependent studies indicated that in this case, the slow exchange model for relaxation had to be applied. The effect of macromolecules in physiological relevant concentrations on the total relaxation behavior of edematous tissue was weak. Total water content changes predominantly affected the relaxation rates. The linear relation may have high clinical potential for assessment of the status of cerebral edema on the basis of T1 and T2 readings from MR images.

  1. Neutron Imaging Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley; deNolfo, G. A.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, En > 0.5 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from (sup 3)He(n,p) (sup 3)H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The performance of the NIC from laboratory and accelerator tests is presented.

  2. Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-05-01

    Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

  3. Calculation of Top Squark Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, Andrea J.; /Washington U., St. Louis /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Though the Standard Model of particle physics is an elegant theory which has been studied extensively for decades, it leaves many fundamental questions unanswered and is thus widely believed to be incomplete. Possible extensions to the Standard Model (SM) have been postulated and are in the process of being investigated experimentally. The most promising extension is the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM) which relates every SM particle to a superpartner that differs by 1/2 unit of spin. The lightest supersymmetric quark, or squark, is expected to be the stop, and the search for this particle is an important experimental task. In this analysis, we use parton-model methods to predict the stop production cross section in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies.

  4. Direct Observation of Two Proton Radioactivity Using Digital Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Pfutzner, M. [IEP, Warsaw University; Dominik, Wojciech [Warsaw University; Janas, Z. [IEP, Warsaw University; Miernik, K. [IEP, University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, Henryk [Warsaw University; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [NSCL Michigan State University; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [IEP, Warsaw University; Korgul, A. [IEP, Warsaw University; Kusmierz, Waldemar [Warsaw University; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, Mustafa [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stolz, A. [NSCL Michigan State University

    2007-01-01

    Recently the observation of a new type of spontaneous radioactive decay has been claimed in which two protons are simultaneously ejected by an atomic nucleus from the ground state1,2,3. Experimental data obtained for the extremely neutron-deficient nuclei 45Fe and 54Zn, were interpreted as the first evidence of such a decay mode which has been sought since 1960.4 However, the technique applied in those studies allowed only measurements of the decay time and the total energy released. Particles emitted in the decay were not identified and the conclusions had to be supported by theoretical arguments. Here we show for the first time, directly and unambiguously, that 45Fe indeed disintegrates by two-proton decay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the decay branch of this isotope leads to various particle emission channels including two-proton and three-proton emission. To achieve this result we have developed a new type of detector V the Optical Time Projection Chamber (OTPC) in which digital photography is applied to nuclear physics for the first time. The detector records images of tracks from charged particles, allowing for their unambiguous identification and the reconstruction of decay events in three dimensions. This new and simple technique provides a powerful method to identify exotic decay channels involving emission of charged particles. It is expected that further studies with the OTPC device will yield important information on nuclei located at and beyond the proton drip-line, thus providing new material for testing and improving models of very unstable atomic nuclei.

  5. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  6. Magnetic resonance detection of individual proton spins using quantum reporters.

    PubMed

    Sushkov, A O; Lovchinsky, I; Chisholm, N; Walsworth, R L; Park, H; Lukin, M D

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a method of magnetic resonance imaging with single nuclear-spin sensitivity under ambient conditions. Our method employs isolated electronic-spin quantum bits (qubits) as magnetic resonance "reporters" on the surface of high purity diamond. These spin qubits are localized with nanometer-scale uncertainty, and their quantum state is coherently manipulated and measured optically via a proximal nitrogen-vacancy color center located a few nanometers below the diamond surface. This system is then used for sensing, coherent coupling, and imaging of individual proton spins on the diamond surface with angstrom resolution. Our approach may enable direct structural imaging of complex molecules that cannot be accessed from bulk studies. It realizes a new platform for probing novel materials, monitoring chemical reactions, and manipulation of complex systems on surfaces at a quantum level. PMID:25415924

  7. Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Pisa U., INFN-Pisa; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, MIchele [INFN-Pisa

    2013-05-01

    The astrophysical $S$-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the $A=3$ binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium $\\beta$ decay. Contributions from $S$ and $P$ partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The $S$-factor at zero energy is found to be $S(0)=(4.030 \\pm 0.006)\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$, with a $P$-wave contribution of $0.020\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the LEC's and to the cutoff dependence. It is shown that polynomial fits to parametrize the energy dependence of the $S$-factor are inherently unstable.

  8. Proton-proton weak capture in chiral effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M

    2013-05-10

    The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium ? decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030±0.006)×10(-23) MeV fm(2), with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10(-23) MeV fm(2). The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence. PMID:23705703

  9. Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, L. E.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.

    2013-05-01

    The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium ? decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030±0.006)×10-23MeVfm2, with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10-23MeVfm2. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence.

  10. Prototype Tracking Studies for Proton CT Jason Feldt, Jason Heimann, Nate Blumenkrantz, Dominic Lucia, Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski, Senior Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    radiation therapy is one of the most precise forms of non-invasive image-guided cancer therapy. It is based than conventional radiation therapy with photons. At present, the potentials of proton therapy cannot in the treatment room that could be minimized by using proton CT for guiding the therapy. The long-term goal of our

  11. Proton-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium.

    SciTech Connect

    Seitenzahl, I. R.; Timmes, F. X.; Marin-Lafleche, A.; Brown, E.; Magkotsios, G.; Truran, J. (Physics); ( NE); (Univ. of Chicago); (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Astrophysics); (Arizona State Univ.); (Univ. of Lausanne); (Michigan State Univ.); (Univ. of Notre Dame)

    2008-01-01

    Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of an equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or a neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this Letter we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton-to-nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freezeout temperature is mainly composed of 56Ni and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this nonintuitive high-proton abundance, which this Letter explains. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and nuclear binding energy.

  12. Polynomial fits and the proton radius puzzle

    E-print Network

    E. Kraus; K. E. Mesick; A. White; R. Gilman; S. Strauch

    2014-10-27

    The Proton Radius Puzzle refers to the ~7{\\sigma} discrepancy that exists between the proton charge radius determined from muonic hydrogen and that determined from electronic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron-proton scattering. One possible partial resolution to the puzzle includes errors in the extraction of the proton radius from ep elastic scattering data. This possibility is made plausible by certain fits which extract a smaller proton radius from the scattering data consistent with that determined from muonic hydrogen. The reliability of some of these fits that yield a smaller proton radius was studied. We found that fits of form factor data with a truncated polynomial fit are unreliable and systematically give values for the proton radius that are too small. Additionally, a polynomial fit with a \\chi^2_{reduced} ~ 1 is not a sufficient indication for a reliable result.

  13. Magnetic Particle Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Minard, Kevin R.

    2010-02-01

    Rapid advances in the synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles has stimulated widespread interest in their use as contrast agents for visualizing biological processes with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). With this approach, strong particle magnetism alters the MRI signal from nearby water protons and this, in turn, affects observed image contrast. Magnetic particle detection with MRI is therefore indirect and suffers from several associated problems, including poor quantification and tissuedependent performance. Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) overcomes these by directly measuring the amount of superparamagnetic material at each location. Mass sensitivity, spatial resolution, and imaging time is also comparable to or better than that achieved with MRI. Moreover, MPI is relatively inexpensive, meets all current safety guidelines, is quantitative, provides unambiguous contrast with tissue-independent performance, and can detect lower particle concentrations. Here, the basic principles behind MPI are described, factors affecting sensitivity and resolution are discussed, and potential utility for biomedical use is examined.

  14. Absorption characteristics of protons and photons in tissue.

    PubMed

    Dicello, John F

    2007-08-01

    This presentation reviews the radiation quality of protons and other energetic ion beams, where radiation quality refers to those relevant physical properties other than the dose of the different types of radiations that can contribute to differences in the absorption characteristics in various tissues and the corresponding clinical outcomes. Prior to initiation of clinical trials with protons, neutrons, pions, and heavy ions, it was generally believed that such particles might have a therapeutic advantage resulting from their greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Potential clinical advantages resulting from a greater biological effectiveness, however, have generally been overshadowed during the last three decades by improved controls or reduced complications resulting primarily from the better dose delivery and localization that was possible with these heavier particles in conjunction with improved imaging. The successes both in delivery and in the clinical responses with protons and other light ions resulting from improved dose localization have arguably led the way in stereotactic radiosurgery, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and tomotherapy, stimulating improved methods with conventional radiations as well. Protons or light ions differ significantly in comparison with photon or electron beams in how they interact with the tissue atoms and molecules, and in how they transfer energy to those tissues. Microscopically, the heavier particles tend to travel in straight lines and produce long tracks with the energy concentrated closer to the track of the primary particle, while photons or electrons tend to scatter more easily and produce a more uniform distribution of energy transfers. Because they are hadrons, i.e., nuclear particles, protons and ions are more likely to produce long-range nuclear secondaries with higher masses. This higher concentration of energy associated with the heavier particle beams and the more massive secondaries results in differences in dose localization, clinically and microscopically, and therefore potential differences in short-term and long-term chemical and biological processes. Protons tend to have the least differences in clinical response in comparison with photons and electrons, the radiations used conventionally in therapy, but biological differences have been observed for these particles; it behooves us, therefore, to understand these different mechanisms if we are to take full advantage of their benefits. This article reviews the physical properties of these different particles in terms of microdosimetric distributions of energy deposition in order to compare protons with photons and heavy ions. PMID:17668948

  15. Proton synchrotron radiation at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, Randy; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    While protons are not generally associated with synchrotron radiation, they do emit visible light at high enough energies. This paper presents an overview of the use of synchrotron radiation in the Tevatron to measure transverse emittances and to monitor the amount of beam in the abort gap. The latter is necessary to ensure a clean abort and prevent quenches of the superconducting magnets and damage to the silicon detectors of the collider experiments.

  16. Protons in near earth orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Alcaraz; D. Alvisi; B. Alpat; G. Ambrosi; H. Anderhub; L. Ao; A. Arefiev; P. Azzarello; E. Babucci; L. Baldini; M. Basile; D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; R. Battiston; R. Becker; U. Becker; L. Bellagamba; P. Béné; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; A. Biland; S. Bizzaglia; S. Blasko; G. Boella; M. Boschini; Maurice Bourquin; G. Bruni; M. Buenerd; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; R. Cavalletti; C. Camps; P. Cannarsa; M. Capell; D. Casadei; J. Casaus; G. Castellini; Y. H. Chang; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; Z. G. Chen; N. A. Chernoplekov; A. Chiarini; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Y. L. Chuang; F. Cindolo; V. Commichau; A. Contin; P. Crespo; M. Cristinziani; J. P. da Cunha; T. S. Dai; J. D. Deus; N. Dinu; L. Djambazov; I. D'Antone; Z. R. Dong; P. Emonet; J. Engelberg; F. J. Eppling; T. Eronen; G. Esposito; Pierre Extermann; Jean Favier; C. C. Feng; E. Fiandrini; F. Finelli; P. H. Fisher; R. Flaminio; G. Fluegge; N. Fouque; Yu. Galaktionov; M. Gervasi; P. Giusti; D. Grandi; W. Q. Gu; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; V. Hermel; H. Hofer; M. A. Huang; W. Hungerford; M. Ionica; R. Ionica; M. Jongmanns; K. Karlamaa; W. Karpinski; G. Kenney; J. Kenny; W. Kim; A. Klimentov; R. Kossakowski; V F Koutsenko; G. Laborie; T. Laitinen; G. Lamanna; G. Laurenti; A. Lebedev; S. C. Lee; G. Levi; P. Levtchenko; C. L. Liu; H. T. Liu; M. Lolli; I. Lopes; G. Lu; Y. S. Lu; K. Lübelsmeyer; D. Luckey; W. Lustermann; C. Maña; A. Margotti; F. Massera; F. Mayet; R. R. McNeil; B. Meillon; M. Menichelli; F. Mezzanotte; R. Mezzenga; A. Mihul; G. Molinari; A M Mourão; A. Mujunen; F. Palmonari; G. Pancaldi; A. Papi; I. H. Park; M. Pauluzzi; Felicitas Pauss; E. Perrin; A. Pesci; A. Pevsner; R. Pilastrini; M. Pimenta; V. Plyaskin; V Pozhidaev; H. Postema; V. Postolache; E. Prati; N. Produit; P. G. Rancoita; D. Rapin; F. Raupach; S. Recupero; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Ribordy; J. P. Richeux; E. Riihonen; J. Ritakari; U. Roeser; C. Roissin; R. Sagdeev; D. Santos; G. Sartorelli; A. Schultz von Dratzig; G. Schwering; E. S. Seo; V. Shoutko; E. Shoumilov; R. Siedling; D. Son; T. Song; M. Steuer; G. S. Sun; H. Suter; X. W. Tang; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; M. Tornikoski; G. Torromeo; J. Torsti; J E Trümper; J. Ulbricht; S. Urpo; I. Usoskin; E. Valtonen; J. Vandenhirtz; F. Velcea; E P Velikhov; B. Verlaat; I Vetlitskii; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle; Gert M Viertel; D. Vité; H P Von Gunten; S. Waldmeier Wicki; W. Wallraff; B. C. Wang; J. Z. Wang; Y. H. Wang; K. Wiik; C. Williams; S. X. Wu; P. C. Xia; J. L. Yan; L. G. Yan; C. G. Yang; M. Yang; S. W. Ye; P. Yeh; Z. Z. Xu; H. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; W. Z. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi

    2000-01-01

    The proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.1 to 200 GeV was measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during space shuttle flight STS-91 at an altitude of 380km. Above the geomagnetic cutoff the observed spectrum is parameterized by a power law. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a substantial second spectrum was observed concentrated at equatorial latitudes with a flux

  17. Spin Structure of the Proton

    E-print Network

    Chung-Yi Wu

    1994-11-02

    By assuming that there is no significant intrinsic polarization of the gluon, we have computed the polarized quark contributions to the proton's spin under SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking for the polarized sea and have performed a global leading-order QCD fit to obtain the spin-dependent quark distributions, which could be used as input for analyzing lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron collisions.

  18. Proton Resonance Spectroscopy -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, Jr, J F

    2009-07-27

    This report summarizes work supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER40990 during its duration from June 1996 to May 2009. Topics studied include (1) statistical descriptions of nuclear levels and measurements of proton resonances relevant to such descriptions, including measurements toward a complete level scheme for 30P, (2) the development of methods to estimate the missing fraction of levels in a given measurement, and (3) measurements at HRIBF relevant to nuclear astrophysics.

  19. Solid-state proton conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewulski, J. R.; Osif, T. L.; Remick, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling, and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies are described which include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells are presented which include the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms.

  20. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Source characterization and modeling development for monoenergetic-proton radiography experiments on OMEGA

    E-print Network

    - curacy. To validate the use of this code, the cold-matter approximation for the scattering of fusion. K. Li, J. A. Frenje, F. H. Séguin, and R. D. Petrasso Plasma Science and Fusion Center fusion protons, respectively. From individual fluence images, it was found that the angular frequencies

  2. Long-range azimuthal correlations in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Guo -Liang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics; Bzdak, Adam [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Riken BNL Research Center

    2014-12-01

    We show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest parton–parton cross-section of ?=1.5–3 mb?=1.5–3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  3. Surveillance of Craniopharyngioma Cyst Growth in Children Treated With Proton Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Winkfield, Karen M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: kwinkfield@partners.org; Linsenmeier, Claudia; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Grant, P. Ellen [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. Sc.D. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Butler, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Craniopharyngiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors that frequently contain a cystic component. Even with gross total resection, the cyst can reform and cause symptoms. Fluctuations in cyst volume during radiotherapy (RT) can affect treatment planning and delivery. The aim of this study was to report our experience with cyst enlargement during conformal proton RT for children with craniopharyngioma and to make recommendations regarding mid-treatment surveillance. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and August 2007, 24 children (aged {<=}18 years) underwent proton RT at the Massachusetts General Hospital for craniopharyngioma. For all 24 patients, tumor size on magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography was measured before and after RT. Surveillance imaging was available for review on 17 patients. During RT, cyst growth was assessed to determine whether the treatment fields needed to be altered. Results: Of the 17 children who underwent repeat imaging during RT, 6 required intervention because of changes in cyst dimensions. Four patients (24%) had cyst growth beyond the original treatment fields, requiring enlargement of the treatment plan. One patient's treatment field was reduced after a decreased in cyst size. Cyst drainage was performed in another patient to avoid enlargement of the treatment fields. Conclusion: In patients undergoing highly conformal RT for craniopharyngiomas with cysts, routine imaging during treatment is recommended. Surveillance imaging should be performed at least every 2 weeks during proton RT in an attempt to avoid marginal failure. Craniopharyngiomas with large cystic components or enlargement during treatment might require weekly imaging.

  4. Simulation of proton-induced transients on visible and infrared focal plane arrays in a space environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy E. Dutton; Warren F. Woodward; Terrence S. Lomheim

    1997-01-01

    A simulation is describe which determines in detail the response of visible through infrared focal plane devices, used in space-based electro-optical imaging sensors, to proton irradiation from the natural space environment, as a function of the choice of orbit around the earth. The quantitative description of the natural environment (protons) is based on the NASA code AP-8 and\\/or the CRRES

  5. Signals and Images Image processing

    E-print Network

    Lakey, Joseph D.

    Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models and Approximations Data driven approximations;Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models and Approximations Data driven approximations or transcendental: Joe Lakey Wavelets Minimize Max #12;Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models

  6. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy. PMID:23083010

  7. Mechanisms of proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrey, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium probably represents the simplest biological solar energy conversion system. Light absorbed by bacteriorhodopsin directly leads to the transport of protons across the cell membrane. The resulting chemosmotic potential can be used to make ATP. An additional feature of the purple membrane is its ability to pump protons over a wide variety of salt concentration including in extreme saline environments. This project investigates the relationship between the transport of protons across the membrane and structure and conformation of bacteriorhodospin. We have proposed experiments to study the pH dependence of proton pumping. Secondly, we are examining the role of divalent cations and the effect of the large surface potential of the purple membrane on the proton pumping function of this membrane using the photocurrents associated with the pumping process. Finally we are studying the role of proteinatable amino acids in proton transport. 16 refs.

  8. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm in CT studies used for proton radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karin M; Ahnesjö, Anders; Vallhagen Dahlgren, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Metal objects in the body such as hip prostheses cause artifacts in CT images. When CT images degraded by artifacts are used for treatment planning of radiotherapy, the artifacts can yield inaccurate dose calculations and, for particle beams, erroneous penetration depths. A metal artifact reduction software (O-MAR) installed on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT has been tested for applications in treatment planning of proton radiotherapy. Hip prostheses mounted in a water phantom were used as test objects. Images without metal objects were acquired and used as reference data for the analysis of artifact-affected regions outside of the metal objects in both the O-MAR corrected and the uncorrected images. Water equivalent thicknesses (WET) based on proton stopping power data were calculated to quantify differences in the calculated proton beam penetration for the different image sets. The WET to a selected point of interest between the hip prostheses was calculated for several beam directions of clinical relevance. The results show that the calculated differences in WET relative to the reference case were decreased when the O-MAR algorithm was applied. WET differences up to 2.0 cm were seen in the uncorrected case while, for the O-MAR corrected case, the maximum difference was decreased to 0.4 cm. The O-MAR algorithm can significantly improve the accuracy in proton range calculations. However, there are some residual effects, and the use of proton beam directions along artifact streaks should only be used with caution and appropriate margins. PMID:25207572

  9. Monte-Carlo simulations of proton aurora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. a. Synnes; F. Søraas; J. P. Hansen

    1998-01-01

    The spreading of a proton beam in the upper atmosphere is calculated based onMonte-Carlo simulations. The transport of the atoms is modelled in a magnetic field with dipolestrength. Neuralisation, ionisation and excitation mechanisms of the incoming particles areincluded from collision cross-sections of protons and hydrogen with an effective N2atmosphere. Assuming an isotropic pitch angle distribution for the incoming protons, theirspreading

  10. The spin structure of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria and Particle Physics Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2005-10-15

    This article reviews the present understanding of the QCD spin structure of the proton. The author first outlines the proton spin puzzle and its possible resolution in QCD. Then the review explores the present and next generation of experiments being undertaken to resolve the proton's spin-flavor structure, explaining the theoretical issues involved, the present status of experimental investigation, and the open questions and challenges for future investigation.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  12. Higher Twist Effects in Proton-Proton Collisions

    E-print Network

    A. I. Ahmadov; I. Boztosun; R. Kh. Muradov; A. Soylu; E. A. Dadashov

    2006-07-21

    In this article, we investigate the contribution of the high twist Feynman diagrams to the large-$p_T$ pion production cross section in proton-proton collisions and we present the general formulae for the high and leading twist differential cross sections. The pion wave function where two non-trivial Gegenbauer coefficients $a_2$ and $a_4$ have been extracted from the CLEO data, two other pion model wave functions, $P_2$, $P_3$, the asymptotic and the Chernyak-Zhitnitsky wave functions are used in the calculations. The results of all the calculations reveal that the high twist cross sections, the ratios $R$, $r$, the dependence transverse momentum $p_T$ and the rapidity $y$ of pion in the $\\Phi_{CLEO}(x,Q^2)$ wave function case is very close to the $\\Phi_{asy}(x)$ asymptotic wave function case. It is shown that the high twist contribution to the cross section depends on the choice of the meson wave functions.

  13. Production of eta Mesons in Proton-Proton Collisions Close to Threshold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Czyzykiewicz; H.-H. Adam; A. Budzanowski; D. Grzonka; M. Janusz; L. Jarczyk; B. Kamys; A. Khoukaz; K. Kilian; P. Klaja; P. Kowina; P. Moskal; W. Oelert; C. Piskor-Ignatowicz; J. Przerwa; T. Rozek; R. Santo; T. Sefzick; M. Siemaszko; J. Smyrski; A. Täschner; P. Winter; M. Wolke; P. Wüstner; W. Zipper

    2005-01-01

    A brief experimental overview on the close-to-threshold eta meson production in proton-proton interactions is presented and the available observables in measurements with unpolarized and polarized beam and target are discussed.

  14. Production of Eta Mesons in Proton-Proton Collisions Close to Threshold

    E-print Network

    Czyzykiewicz, R; Budzanowski, A; Grzonka, D; Janusz, M; Jarczyk, L; Kamys, B; Khoukaz, A; Kilian, K; Klaja, P; Kowina, P; Moskal, P; Oelert, W; Piskor-Ignatowicz, C; Przerwa, J; Rozek, T; Santo, R; Sefzick, T; Siemaszko, M; Smyrski, J; Täschner, A; Winter, P; Wolke, M; Wüstner, P; Zipper, W

    2004-01-01

    A brief experimental overview on the close-to-threshold eta meson production in proton-proton interactions is presented and the available observables in measurements with unpolarized and polarized beam and target are discussed.

  15. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ~10?6 to 10?3 prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy. PMID:21048295

  16. Monte Carlo and Analytical Calculation of Lateral Deflection of Proton Beams in Homogeneous Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Inocente, Guilherme F.; Silva, Danilo Anacleto A. d; Hormaza, Joel M. [Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica-Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista 'Julio de Mesquita Filho'-Botucatu-SP, Brasil and Distrito de Rubiao Junior s/no 18608-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-21

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of radiation therapy, but the avoidance of damage to critical normal tissues and the prevention of geographical tumor misses require accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient and the verification of his position demand a precise imaging technique. In proton therapy facilities, the X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) is the preferred technique for the planning treatment of patients. This situation has been changing nowadays with the development of proton accelerators for health care and the increase in the number of treated patients. In fact, protons could be more efficient than xCT for this task. One essential difficulty in pCT image reconstruction systems came from the scattering of the protons inside the target due to the numerous small-angle deflections by nuclear Coulomb fields. The purpose of this study is the comparison of an analytical formulation for the determination of beam lateral deflection, based on Moliere's theory and Rutherford scattering with Monte Carlo calculations by SRIM 2008 and MCNPX codes.

  17. High-intensity laser-plasma interaction studies employing laser-driven proton probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesi, M.; Audebert, P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Cowan, T.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, J. C.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Pretzler, G.; Romagnani, L.; Schiavi, A.; Toncian, T.; Willi, O.

    2005-09-01

    Due to their particular properties (low emittance, short duration, and large number density), the beams of multi-MeV protons generated during the interaction of ultraintense (I > 1019 W/cm2) short pulses with thin solid targets are suited for use as a particle probe in laser-plasma experiments. When traversing a sample, the proton density distribution is, in general, affected by collisional stopping, scattering and deflections via electromagnetic fields, and each of these effects can be used for diagnostic purposes. In particular, in the limit of very thin targets, the proton beams represent a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection of quasi-static electromagnetic fields. The proton imaging and deflectometry techniques employ these beams, in a point-projection imaging scheme, as an easily synchronizable diagnostic tool in laser- plasma interactions, with high temporal and spatial resolution. By providing diagnostic access to electro-magnetic field distributions in dense plasmas, this novel diagnostics opens up to investigation a whole new range of unexplored phenomena. Several transient processes were investigated employing this technique, via the detection of the associated electric fields. Examples provided in this paper include the detection of pressure-gradient electric field in extended plasmas, and the study of the electrostatic fields associated to the emission of MeV proton beams in high-intensity laser-foil interactions.

  18. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A. (Riverside, CA); Beloussov, Alexandre V. (Bernardino, CA); Bakir, Julide (Alta Loma, CA); Armon, Deganit (Redlands, CA); Olsen, Howard B. (Colton, CA); Salem, Dana (Riverside, CA)

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  19. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-12-03

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  20. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-06-25

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  1. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A. (Riverside, CA); Beloussov, Alexandre V. (San Bernardino, CA); Bakir, Julide (Alta Loma, CA); Armon, Deganit (Longmeadow, MA); Olsen, Howard B. (Irvine, CA); Salem, Dana (Riverside, CA)

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  2. Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation

    E-print Network

    Kyzar, James Ronald

    1972-01-01

    Roentgen in 1895 it has been recognized that. ionizing radiation possesses the ability to damage the lens of the eye. A few cases of radiation induced cataracts in early x-ray technicians and in patients re- ceiving radiation therapy to the head were...CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...

  3. Rationale for Proton Therapy in Pediatric Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Shiao Y.

    Proton therapy (PT) is being applied with increasing frequency in the treatment of pediatric malignancies. The principal rationale, selected published clinical results, and remaining challenges will be presented.

  4. Effects of lattice vibrations on proton blocking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Mueller; W. White

    1970-01-01

    Proton blocking patterns for crystals of nearly identical structure, lattice parameter, and atomic number show marked differences in appearance which are ascribed to differences in vibrational amplitudes.

  5. Extracellular proton release by stimulated neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwieten, R.; Wever, R.; Hamers, M.N.; Weening, R.S.; Roos, D.

    1981-07-01

    We have tried to elucidate the mechanism of phagosome acidification in human neutrophils. Assuming that phenomena occurring at the plasma membrane reflect reactions in the phagocytic vacuoles, we have stimulated human neutrophils with agents that induce a ''respiratory burst,'' and we have measured the release of protons into the extracellular medium. Phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and serum-opsonized zymosan particles each caused a rapid release of protons, concomitant with the increase in oxygen consumption. The stimulated release of protons was strictly coupled to the increase respiration of the cells, because inhibition of the respiration of either anaerobiosis, chlorpromazine, or glycolytic inhibitors also inhibited the release of protons. Also, in the presence of the above-mentioned stimulating agents, neutrophils from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease enhanced neither respiration not proton release. In normal cells, the ratio of deltaH+/-deltaO2 was 1.04 +/- 0.19 (mean +/ SD, n . 13). The mechanism of this proton release is not clear. The amount of lactic and carbonic acid produced by stimulated neutrophils was inadequate to explain the amount of protons released. Perhydroxyl radicals were also ruled out as the source of the protons. Because the cells did not release measurable amounts of phosphate ions, a phosphate-hydroxyl-ion antiport was also excluded. Finally, the lack of any effect of uncouplers renders it unlikely that a respiration-driven proton gradient is built up across the plasma membrane.

  6. Lipid membrane with low proton permeability.

    PubMed

    Biloti, Débora Nakai; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade; Pessine, Francisco Benedito Teixeira

    2003-04-01

    This work reports the production of a liposomal formulation, having a lipidic membrane with known chemical composition and a low proton permeability, as confirmed by physicochemical characterization of the maintenance of a transmembranic pH gradient. These liposomes consist of DSPC, DSPE-PEG, DSPG and cholesterol, with low internal pH. To verify the low proton permeability of these liposomal bilayers, a study of proton migration according to the fluorescence quenching of 9-aminoacridine (9AA), as well as CPT-11 encapsulation, were used to monitor the acidification of the intravesicular space. Both experiments showed that this liposomal formulation is able to maintain a transmembranic proton gradient. PMID:12659939

  7. Benchmarking of Proton Transport in Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongfeng; Li, Gui; Song, Jing; Zheng, Huaqing; Sun, Guangyao; Hao, Lijuan; Wu, Yican

    2014-06-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been traditionally applied in nuclear design and analysis due to its capability of dealing with complicated geometries and multi-dimensional physics problems as well as obtaining accurate results. The Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC) is developed by FDS Team in China for fusion, fission, and other nuclear applications. The simulations of radiation transport, isotope burn-up, material activation, radiation dose, and biology damage could be performed using SuperMC. Complicated geometries and the whole physical process of various types of particles in broad energy scale can be well handled. Bi-directional automatic conversion between general CAD models and full-formed input files of SuperMC is supported by MCAM, which is a CAD/image-based automatic modeling program for neutronics and radiation transport simulation. Mixed visualization of dynamical 3D dataset and geometry model is supported by RVIS, which is a nuclear radiation virtual simulation and assessment system. Continuous-energy cross section data from hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL are utilized to support simulation. Neutronic fixed source and critical design parameters calculates for reactors of complex geometry and material distribution based on the transport of neutron and photon have been achieved in our former version of SuperMC. Recently, the proton transport has also been intergrated in SuperMC in the energy region up to 10 GeV. The physical processes considered for proton transport include electromagnetic processes and hadronic processes. The electromagnetic processes include ionization, multiple scattering, bremsstrahlung, and pair production processes. Public evaluated data from HENDL are used in some electromagnetic processes. In hadronic physics, the Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with exitons, preequilibrium model, nucleus explosion model, fission model, and evaporation model are incorporated to treat the intermediate energy nuclear reactions for proton. Some other hadronic models are also being developed now. The benchmarking of proton transport in SuperMC has been performed according to Accelerator Driven subcritical System (ADS) benchmark data and model released by IAEA from IAEA's Cooperation Research Plan (CRP). The incident proton energy is 1.0 GeV. The neutron flux and energy deposition were calculated. The results simulated using SupeMC and FLUKA are in agreement within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. The proton transport in SuperMC has also been applied in China Lead-Alloy cooled Reactor (CLEAR), which is designed by FDS Team for the calculation of spallation reaction in the target.

  8. The Proton-Proton Reaction and Related Reactions in an Intense Magnetic Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih Kang Chou

    1971-01-01

    The reaction rates for the proton-proton reaction and the related electron capture reaction in a strongly magnetized relativistic electron gas of arbitrary degree of degeneracy are computed. The proton-proton reaction rates are unaffected by the presence of the magnetic field for field strengths up to the critical valueH q =m 2 c 3\\/eh=4.414×1013G. For fields greater thanH q , the

  9. Effective Dose from Stray Radiation for a Patient Receiving Proton Therapy for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Phillip J; Krishnan, Sunil; Mirkovic, Dragan; Yepes, Pablo; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-01-01

    Because of its advantageous depth-dose relationship, proton radiotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for patients with liver cancer. Although the proton dose distribution conforms to the target, healthy tissues throughout the body receive low doses of stray radiation, particularly neutrons that originate in the treatment unit or in the patient. The aim of this study was to calculate the effective dose from stray radiation and estimate the corresponding risk of second cancer fatality for a patient receiving proton beam therapy for liver cancer. Effective dose from stray radiation was calculated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a double-scattering proton therapy treatment unit and a voxelized human phantom. The treatment plan and phantom were based on CT images of an actual adult patient diagnosed with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. For a prescribed dose of 60 Gy to the clinical target volume, the effective dose from stray radiation was 370 mSv; 61% of this dose was from neutrons originating outside of the patient while the remaining 39% was from neutrons originating within the patient. The excess lifetime risk of fatal second cancer corresponding to the total effective dose from stray radiation was 1.2%. The results of this study establish a baseline estimate of the stray radiation dose and corresponding risk for an adult patient undergoing proton radiotherapy for liver cancer and provide new evidence to corroborate the suitability of proton beam therapy for the treatment of liver tumors. PMID:20865142

  10. Incorporating range uncertainty into proton therapy treatment planning

    E-print Network

    McGowan, Stacey Elizabeth

    2015-06-09

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Proton Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 Accelerating Protons for Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.2 Delivering Proton Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1... .3 Treatment Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4 Overview of PhD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2 Uncertainties in Proton Therapy 17 2.1 Uncertainties in Proton Planning...

  11. Proton pumps populate the contractile vacuoles of Dictyostelium amoebae

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Amoebae of the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum were found to contain an interconnected array of tubules and cisternae whose membranes were studded with 15-nm-diameter "pegs." Comparison of the ultrastructure and freeze-fracture behavior of these pegs with similar structures found in other cells and tissues indicated that they were the head domains of vacuolar-type proton pumps. Supporting this identification, the pegs were observed to decorate and clump when broken amoebae were exposed to an antiserum against the B subunit of mammalian vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. The appearance of the peg-rich cisternae in quick-frozen amoebae depended on their osmotic environment: under hyperosmotic conditions, the cisternae were flat with many narrow tubular extensions, while under hypo-osmotic conditions the cisternae ranged from bulbous to spherical. In all cases, however, their contents deep etched like pure water. These properties indicated that the interconnected tubules and cisternae comprise the contractile vacuole system of Dictyostelium. Earlier studies had demonstrated that contractile vacuole membranes in Dictyostelium are extremely rich in calmodulin (Zhu, Q., and M. Clarke, 1992, J. Cell Biol. 118: 347-358). Light microscopic immunofluorescence confirmed that antibodies against the vacuolar proton pump colocalized with anti-calmodulin antibodies on these organelles. Time-lapse video recording of living amoebae imaged by interference-reflection microscopy, or by fluorescence microscopy after staining contractile vacuole membranes with potential-sensitive styryl dyes, revealed the extent and dynamic interrelationship of the cisternal and tubular elements in Dictyostelium's contractile vacuole system. The high density of proton pumps throughout its membranes suggests that the generation of a proton gradient is likely to be an important factor in the mechanism of fluid accumulation by contractile vacuoles. PMID:8509452

  12. Charge Delocalization in Proton Channels, I: The Aquaporin Channels and Proton Blockage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanning Chen; Boaz Ilan; Yujie Wu; Fangqiang Zhu; Klaus Schulten; Gregory A. Voth

    2007-01-01

    The explicit contribution to the free energy barrier and proton conductance from the delocalized nature of the excess proton is examined in aquaporin channels using an accurate all-atom molecular dynamics computer simulation model. In particular, the channel permeation free energy profiles are calculated and compared for both a delocalized (fully Grotthuss shuttling) proton and a classical (nonshuttling) hydronium ion along

  13. What Really Prevents Proton Transport through Aquaporin? Charge Self-Energy versus Proton Wire Proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Burykin; Arieh Warshel

    2003-01-01

    The nature of the control of water\\/proton selectivity in biological channels is a problem of a fundamental importance. Most studies of this issue have proposed that an interference with the orientational requirements of the so-called proton wire is the source of selectivity. The elucidation of the structures of aquaporins, which have evolved to prevent proton transfer (PT), provided a clear

  14. Measurement Of Gas Bubbles In Mercury Using Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Mariam, Fesseha G [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Merrill, Frank E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    An experiment using proton radiography on a small mercury loop for testing gas bubble injection was conducted at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in December 2006. Small gas bubble injection is one of the approaches under development to reduce cavitation damage in the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source mercury target vessel. Several hundred radiograph images were obtained as the test loop was operated over range of conditions that included two jet type bubble generators, two needle type bubble generators, various mercury flow speeds and gas injection rates, and use of helium, argon and xenon. This paper will describe the analysis of the radiograph images and present the obtained bubble measurement data.

  15. Cation-? interactions in protonated phenylalkylamines.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Schütz, Markus; Bouchet, Aude; Piccirillo, Susanna; Steinmetz, Vincent; Dopfer, Otto; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2014-08-28

    Phenylalkylamines of the general formula C6H5(CH2)nNH2 (n = 1-4) have been delivered to the gas phase as protonated species using electrospray ionization. The ions thus formed have been assayed by IRMPD spectroscopy in two different spectroscopic domains, namely, the 600-1800 and the 3000-3500 cm(-1) regions using either an IR free electron laser or a tabletop OPO/OPA laser source. The interpretation of the experimental spectra is aided by density functional theory calculations of candidate species and vibrational frequency analyses. Protonated benzylamine presents a relatively straightforward instance of a single stable conformer, providing a trial case for the adopted approach. Turning to the higher homologues, C6H5(CH2)nNH3(+) (n = 2-4), more conformations become accessible. For each C6H5(CH2)nNH3(+) ion (n = 2-4), the most stable geometry is characterized by cation-? interactions between the positively charged ammonium group and the aromatic ?-electronic system, permitted by the folding of the polymethylene chain. The IRMPD spectra of the sampled ions confirm the presence of the folded structures by comparison with the calculated IR spectra of the various possible conformers. An inspection of the NH stretching region is helpful in this regard. PMID:25061749

  16. Compton Scattering by the Proton

    E-print Network

    G. Galler; V. Lisin; R. Kondratiev; A. M. Massone; S. Wolf; J. Ahrens; H. -J. Arends; R. Beck; M. Camen; G. P. Capitani; P. Grabmayr; S. J. Hall; F. Härter; T. Hehl; P. Jennewein; K. Kossert; A. I. L'vov; C. Molinari; P. Ottonello; J. Peise; I. Preobrajenski; S. Proff; A. Robbiano; M. Sanzone; M. Schumacher; M. Schmitz; F. Wissmann

    2001-02-06

    Compton scattering by the proton has been measured over a wide range covering photon energies 250 MeV < E_\\gamma < 800 MeV and photon scattering angles 30^0 < \\theta^{lab}_\\gamma < 150^0, using the tagged-photon facility at MAMI (Mainz) and the large-acceptance arrangement LARA. The data are in good agreement with the dispersion theory based on the SAID-SM99K parameterization of photo-meson amplitudes. From the subset of data between 280 and 360 MeV the resonance pion-photoproduction amplitudes were evaluated leading to the multipole E2/M1 ratio EMR(340 MeV) =(-1.6 \\pm 0.4(stat+syst) \\pm 0.2(model)%. From all data below 455 MeV the proton's backward spin polarizability was determined to be \\gamma_\\pi=(-37.9 \\pm 0.6(stat+syst) \\pm 3.5(model))x10^{-4}fm^4.

  17. FEASIBILITY OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY OF DOSE DISTRIBUTION IN PROTON BEAM CANCER THERAPY.

    SciTech Connect

    BEEBE - WANG,J.J.; DILMANIAN,F.A.; PEGGS,S.G.; SCHLYEER,D.J.; VASKA,P.

    2002-06-03

    Proton therapy is a treatment modality of increasing utility in clinical radiation oncology mostly because its dose distribution conforms more tightly to the target volume than x-ray radiation therapy. One important feature of proton therapy is that it produces a small amount of positron-emitting isotopes along the beam-path through the non-elastic nuclear interaction of protons with target nuclei such as {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O. These radioisotopes, mainly {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N and {sup 15}O, allow imaging the therapy dose distribution using positron emission tomography (PET). The resulting PET images provide a powerful tool for quality assurance of the treatment, especially when treating inhomogeneous organs such as the lungs or the head-and-neck, where the calculation of the dose distribution for treatment planning is more difficult. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to predict the yield of positron emitters produced by a 250 MeV proton beam, and to simulate the productions of the image in a clinical PET scanner.

  18. Proton Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Benign Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, Lia M., E-mail: lhalasz@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussiere, Marc R.; Dennis, Elizabeth R.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Given the excellent prognosis for patients with benign meningiomas, treatment strategies to minimize late effects are important. One strategy is proton radiation therapy (RT), which allows less integral dose to normal tissue and greater homogeneity than photon RT. Here, we report the first series of proton stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of meningiomas. Methods and Materials: We identified 50 patients with 51 histologically proven or image- defined, presumed-benign meningiomas treated at our institution between 1996 and 2007. Tumors of <4 cm in diameter and located {>=}2 mm from the optic apparatus were eligible for treatment. Indications included primary treatment (n = 32), residual tumor following surgery (n = 8), and recurrent tumor following surgery (n = 10). The median dose delivered was 13 Gray radiobiologic equivalent (Gy[RBE]) (range, 10.0-15.5 Gy[RBE]) prescribed to the 90% isodose line. Results: Median follow-up was 32 months (range, 6-133 months). Magnetic resonance imaging at the most recent follow-up or time of progression revealed 33 meningiomas with stable sizes, 13 meningiomas with decreased size, and 5 meningiomas with increased size. The 3-year actuarial tumor control rate was 94% (95% confidence interval, 77%-98%). Symptoms were improved in 47% (16/ 34) of patients, unchanged in 44% (15/34) of patients, and worse in 9% (3/34) of patients. The rate of potential permanent adverse effects after SRS was 5.9% (3/51 patients). Conclusions: Proton SRS is an effective therapy for small benign meningiomas, with a potentially lower rate of long-term treatment-related morbidity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess durability of tumor control and late effects.

  19. Measurement techniques for magnetic resonance imaging of fast relaxing nuclei.

    PubMed

    Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M

    2014-02-01

    In this review article, techniques for sodium ((23)Na) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are presented. These techniques can also be used to image other nuclei with short relaxation times (e.g., (39)K, (35)Cl, (17)O). Twisted projection imaging, density-adapted 3D projection reconstruction, and 3D cones are preferred because of uniform k-space sampling and ultra-short echo times. Sampling density weighted apodization can be applied if intrinsic filtering is desired. This approach leads to an increased signal-to-noise ratio compared to postfiltered acquisition in cases of short readout durations relative to T 2 (*) relaxation time. Different MR approaches for anisotropic resolution are presented, which are important for imaging of thin structures such as myocardium, cartilage, and skin. The third part of this review article describes different methods to put more weighting either on the intracellular or the extracellular sodium signal by means of contrast agents, relaxation-weighted imaging, or multiple-quantum filtering. PMID:23881004

  20. M2 proton channel: toward a model of a primitive proton pump.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Transmembrane proton transfer was essential to early cellular systems in order to transduce energy for metabolic functions. The reliable, efficient and controlled generation of proton gradients became possible only with the emergence of active proton pumps. On the basis of features shared by most modern proton pumps we identify the essential mechanistic steps in active proton transport. Further, we discuss the mechanism of action of a small, transmembrane M2 proton channel from influenza A virus as a model for proton transport in protocells. The M2 channel is a 94-residue long, ?-helical tetramer that is activated at low pH and exhibits high selectivity and directionality. A shorter construct, built of transmembrane fragments that are only 24 amino acids in length, exhibits very similar proton transport properties. Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time-scale carried out for the M2 channel provided atomic level details on the activation of the channel in response to protonation of the histidine residue, His37. The pathway of proton conduction is mediated by His37, which accepts and donates protons at different interconverting conformation states when pH is lower than 6.5. The Val27 and Trp41 gates and the salt bridge between Asp44 and Arg45 further enhance the directionality of proton transport. It is argued that the architecture and the mechanism of action similar to that found in the M2 channel might have been the perfect starting point for evolution towards the earliest proton pumps, indicating that active proton transport could have readily emerged from simple, passive proton channels. PMID:25777465

  1. M2 Proton Channel: Toward a Model of a Primitive Proton Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Transmembrane proton transfer was essential to early cellular systems in order to transduce energy for metabolic functions. The reliable, efficient and controlled generation of proton gradients became possible only with the emergence of active proton pumps. On the basis of features shared by most modern proton pumps we identify the essential mechanistic steps in active proton transport. Further, we discuss the mechanism of action of a small, transmembrane M2 proton channel from influenza A virus as a model for proton transport in protocells. The M2 channel is a 94-residue long, ?-helical tetramer that is activated at low pH and exhibits high selectivity and directionality. A shorter construct, built of transmembrane fragments that are only 24 amino acids in length, exhibits very similar proton transport properties. Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time-scale carried out for the M2 channel provided atomic level details on the activation of the channel in response to protonation of the histidine residue, His37. The pathway of proton conduction is mediated by His37, which accepts and donates protons at different interconverting conformation states when pH is lower than 6.5. The Val27 and Trp41 gates and the salt bridge between Asp44 and Arg45 further enhance the directionality of proton transport. It is argued that the architecture and the mechanism of action similar to that found in the M2 channel might have been the perfect starting point for evolution towards the earliest proton pumps, indicating that active proton transport could have readily emerged from simple, passive proton channels.

  2. Online monitoring for proton therapy: A real-time procedure using a planar PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraan, A. C.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Camarlinghi, N.; Ciocca, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferretti, S.; Mairani, A.; Molinelli, S.; Pullia, M.; Sala, P.; Sportelli, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2015-06-01

    In this study a procedure for range verification in proton therapy by means of a planar in-beam PET system is presented. The procedure consists of two steps: the measurement of the ?+-activity induced in the irradiated body by the proton beam and the comparison of these distributions with simulations. The experimental data taking was performed at the CNAO center in Pavia, Italy, irradiating plastic phantoms. For two different cases we demonstrate how a real-time feedback of the delivered treatment plan can be obtained with in-beam PET imaging.

  3. Patient-specific margins for proton therapy of lung.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Sandison, G A; Farr, J B; Hsi, Wen-Chien; Wu, Huanmei; Li, X Allen

    2007-12-01

    Lung cancer treatment presents a greater treatment planning and treatment delivery challenge in proton beam therapy compared to conventional photon therapy due to the proton beam's energy deposition sensitivity to the breathing-induced dynamic tissue density variations along the beam path. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) has been defined as the explicit inclusion of temporal changes of tumor and normal organ mobility into an image series. It allows more accurate delineation of lung cancer target volumes by suppression of any breathing motion artifacts present in the CT images. It also allows analysis of the tumor's 3D spatial movement within a breathing phase cycle. The motivation for this study was to investigate dosimetric errors caused by lung tumor motion in order to find an optimal method of design for patient compensators and apertures for a passive scattering beam delivery system and treatment of the patient under free breathing conditions. In this study, the maximum intensity projection (MIP) method was compared to patient-specific internal margin designs based on a single breathing phase at the end-of inhale (EOI) or middle-of-exhale (MOE). It was found that MIP method provides superior tumor dose distribution compared to patient-specific internal margin designs derived from 4D-CT. PMID:18274078

  4. Proton Beam Therapy for Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Sugahara; Yoshiko Oshiro; Hidetsugu Nakayama; Kuniaki Fukuda; Masashi Mizumoto; Masato Abei; Junichi Shoda; Yasushi Matsuzaki; Eriko Thono; Mari B. A. Tokita; Koji Tsuboi; Koichi Tokuuye

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with HCC larger than 10 cm were treated with proton beam therapy at our institution between 1985 and 2006. Twenty-one of the 22 patients were not surgical candidates because of advanced HCC, intercurrent disease, or old

  5. Configuration Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Svirida, D.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present our design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. We provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  6. The Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page is an introduction to the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. It uses flash animation to explain in greater detail what the PEM fuel cell consists of and how it works. The website has an introductory animation which is followed by more in depth description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  7. Proton versus electron heating in solar flares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. M. Voitenko; V. V. Zharkova; M. Gordovskyy

    2004-01-01

    Recently we have reported that protons and electrons accelerated by super Dreicer electric feld in a current sheet with non-zero guiding magnetic field are ejected into different legs of a flaring loop either separately or as partially neutralized beams. This particle separation at ejection may have consequences onto the particle precipitation scenarios depending on electron versus proton abundances, energy and

  8. Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Chen; E. Chudakov; C. DeJager; P. Degtyarenko; R. Ent; J. Gomez; O. Hansen; C. Keppel; F. Klein; M. Kuss; J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; N. Liyanage; P. Rutt; A. Saha; B. Wojtsekhowski; M. Bouwhuis; TH Chang; R. J. Holt; A. M. Nathan; M. Roedelbronn; K. Wijesooriya; S. E. Williamson; G. Dodge; C. Hyde-Wright; A. Radyushkin; F. Sabatie; L. B. Weinstein; P. Ulmer; P. Bosted; J. M. Finn; M. Jones; S. Churchwell; C. Howell; R. Gilman; C. Glashausser; X. Jiang; R. Ransome; S. Strauch; J. Berthot; P. Bertin; H. Fonvielle; Y. Roblin; W. Bertozzi; S. Gilad; D. Rowntree; Z. Zu; D. Brown; G. Chang; A. Afanasev; K. Egiyan; E. Hoohauneysan; A. Ketikyan; S. Mailyan; A. Petrosyan; A. Shahinyan; H. Voskanyan; W. Boeglin; P. Markowitz; J. Hines; G. Strobel; J. Templon; G. Feldman; C. L. Morris; V. Gladyshev; R. A. Lindgren; J. Calarco; W. Hersman; M. Leuschner; A. Gasparian

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and

  9. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  10. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  11. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuo Akanuma; Hideyuki Majima; Shigeo Furukawa; Ryo Okamoto; Yuzuru Kutsutani Nakamura; Hiroshi Tsunemoto; Shinroku Morita; Tatsuo Arai; Akira Kurisu; Takeshi Hiraoka

    1982-01-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To

  12. Proton hyperfine tensors in nitroxide radicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brustolon; A. L. Maniero; U. Segre; M. F. Ottaviani; M. Romanelli

    1990-01-01

    The proton hyperfine tensors of five nitroxide radicals have been obtained by ENDOR spectroscopy in frozen solution. The spectra are interpreted by computing the dipolar hyperfine interaction and simulating the spectra. EPR spectra in solution of the same radicals have been simulated by taking into account the effects of the proton hyperfine tensors. We have been able to reproduce accurately

  13. Proton Therapy Research and Treatment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Goodnight, J.E. Jr. (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center); Alonso, J.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This Grant proposal outlines the steps that will be undertaken to bring the UC Davis Proton Therapy Research and Treatment, known locally as the Proton Therapy Facility (PTF), through its design and construction phases. This application concentrates on the design phase of the PTF project.

  14. Kinetics of Proton Transport in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Kornyshev; A. M. Kuznetsov; E. Spohr; J. Ulstrup

    2003-01-01

    are (i) classical hydrodynamic motion of the hydronium ion (H3O + ), (ii) proton transfer from hydronium to a neighboring water molecule, and (iii) structural diffusion of the Zundel complex (H 5O2 + ), the processes all controlled by orientational fluctuations or hydrogen bond breaking in neighboring hydration shells. Spontaneous conversion of excess proton states between Zundel and hydrated hydronium

  15. The Indiana University midwest Proton Radiation Institute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Anferov; M. Ball; G. P. Berg; B. Broderick; J. Collins; G. East; D. Friesel; D. Jenner; W. R. Jones; J. Katuin; S. Klein; C. Nelson; N. Schreuder; W. Starks; J. Self

    2001-01-01

    Funding to convert the IUCF K220 separated sector cyclotrons into a dedicated proton source for Cancer Therapy was released by Indiana University in August of 2000. Phase I of the Midwest Proton Radiation Institute (MPRI) will initially consist of the IUCF separated sector cyclotrons upgraded to operate at a fixed energy of 205 MeV, a treatment room containing both a

  16. Local protonation control using plasmonic activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushkar; Deckert, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Localized protonation of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPY), activated by light in the presence of silver nanoparticles is monitored under ambient conditions using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). The reaction can be controlled by the excitation wavelength and the atmospheric conditions, thus, providing a tool for site-specific control of protonation. PMID:25111620

  17. Monte-Carlo simulations of proton aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synnes, S. a.; Søraas, F.; Hansen, J. P.

    1998-11-01

    The spreading of a proton beam in the upper atmosphere is calculated based onMonte-Carlo simulations. The transport of the atoms is modelled in a magnetic field with dipolestrength. Neuralisation, ionisation and excitation mechanisms of the incoming particles areincluded from collision cross-sections of protons and hydrogen with an effective N2atmosphere. Assuming an isotropic pitch angle distribution for the incoming protons, theirspreading in the upper atmosphere and the return flux of the charged and neutral component ofthe hydrogen beam has been calculated. Depending on energy and the tilt angle of the magneticfield about 10% of the incoming particles return from the atmosphere as ENA (Energetic NeutralAtoms). The ENA returning from the atmosphere show a source region below 500 km for theincoming high energy protons. For low energy protons, the ENA originate mainly from twodifferent regions, one around 700 km and the other at 400 km altitude, reflecting their sensitivityto several charge exchange processes.

  18. Protons -- The Future of Radiation Therapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Steven

    2007-03-01

    Cancer is the 2^nd highest cause of death in the United States. The challenges of controlling this disease remain more difficult as the population lives longer. Proton therapy offers another choice in the management of cancer care. Proton therapy has existed since the late 1950s and the first hospital based center in the United States opened in 1990. Since that time four hospital based proton centers are treating patients with other centers either under construction or under consideration. This talk will focus on an introduction to proton therapy: it's medical advantages over current treatment modalities, accelerators and beam delivery systems, applications to clinical radiation oncology and the future outlook for proton therapy.

  19. Proton extraction from transition metals using PLATONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velardi, L.; Delle Side, D.; Kràsa, J.; Nassisi, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a study on proton beams extraction from a plasma generated by pulsed laser ablation of titanium and tantalum disks. The device used was the PLATONE laser ion source operating at the LEAS Laboratory in Lecce, Italy. It is based on a KrF laser operating at low irradiance (109-1010 W/cm2) and ns pulse duration. The proton and ions emission was analyzed by the time-of-flight technique using a Faraday cup as ion collector and an electrostatic barrier to identify the particles. Studies on the produced protons and ions at different laser irradiance values were performed. The extracted beams showed high proton flux up to 1010 protons/cm2.

  20. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  1. Pointing of laser-accelerated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Risse, E.; Kalachnikov, M.P.; Nickles, P.V.; Sandner, W.; Schramm, U.; Habs, D.; Witte, J.; Schnuerer, M. [MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D 85748 Garching (Germany) and LMU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D 85748, Garching (Germany); Max Born Institut, Max Born Strasse 2a, D 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max Born Institut, Max Born Strasse 2a, D 12489 Berlin (Germany) and TU Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D 10623 Berlin (Germany); LMU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D 85748, Garching (Germany); MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D 85748 Garching (Germany); Max Born Institut, Max Born Strasse 2a, D 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Small fluctuations in the acceleration sheath change the pointing of a proton beam accelerated from the rear side of a laser irradiated thin aluminum foil. The proton acceleration was produced with 40 fs pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser at an intensity of approximately 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. This observation has been made with a high spatial resolution Thomson spectrometer. The proton beam pointing has appeared stable in the energy range between the high energy cutoff (3 MeV) and 50% of this value. Deviations of the beam position at lower energies changes in a range of 0-3 mrad. The recorded pictures show wiggled and continuous proton traces which imply a release of the proton beam from the acceleration zone with a velocity chirp.

  2. Muon Capture on the Proton

    E-print Network

    P. Winter

    2011-10-23

    The MuCap experiment measures the singlet rate Lambda_S of muon capture on the proton. A negative muon beam is stopped in a time projection chamber filled with ultra-pure hydrogen gas at 10 bar and room temperature. In combination with the surrounding decay electron detectors, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine LS to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate is then used to derive the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor gP. Our first-stage result, gP= 7.3\\pm1., will soon be updated with the final analysis of the full statistics reducing the error by a factor of ~2.

  3. Observation of a diffractive contribution to dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s?=7??TeV

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg A.; Kenny, R. P. III; Murray, Michael J.; Noonan, Danny; Sanders, Stephen J.; Stringer, Robert W.; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.

    2013-01-08

    The cross section for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s?=7??TeV is presented as a function of ?˜, a variable that approximates the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  5. Detonation wave structure studies in high explosives by means of proton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Sergei; Dudin, Sergei; Mintsev, Victor; Utkin, Alexander; Demidov, Victor; Fertman, Alexander; Golubev, Alexander; Katz, Mark; Markov, Nikolai; Sharkov, Boris; Smirnov, Gennady; Turtikov, Vladimir

    2007-06-01

    Proton radiography is the unique experimental technique for obtaining direct information about important material characteristics of real solid objects under dynamic conditions. The aim of the present work is the application of this method to the investigation of evolution of density in shock and detonation waves in high explosives (HE). Obtained information will be very useful for the improvement of existing detonation models and equations of state of HE. For this purpose a proton radiography facility for dynamic experiments on the basis of TWAC-ITEP accelerator is being constructed. A special containment chamber for explosive experiments was built. Static experiments with imitators of detonating HE charges were performed; as a result the proton radiographic images of imitators with time resolution of up to 10 ns were obtained. Dynamic experiments on the registration of detonation wave structure in pressed TNT are underway.

  6. The Scrounge-atron a phased approach to the Advanced Hydrotest Facility utilizing proton radiography

    E-print Network

    Alford, O J; Chargin, A K; Dekin, W D; Hartouni, E P; Hockman, J N; Ladran, A S; Libkind, M A; Moore, T L; Pastrnak, J W; Pico, R E; Souza, R J; Stoner, J M; Wilson, J H; Ruggiero, G; Ohnuma, S; Luccio, A U; MacKay, W W

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy has initiated its Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) to provide a single, integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear testing. Consistent with the SSMP, the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) has been conceived to provide improved radiographic imaging with multiple axes and multiple time frames. The AHF would be used to better understand the evolution of nuclear weapon primary implosion shape under normal and accident scenarios. There are three fundamental technologies currently under consideration for use on the AHF. These include linear induction acceleration, inductive-adder pulsed-power technology (both technologies using high current electron beams to produce an intense X-ray beam) and high-energy proton accelerators to produce a proton beam. The Scrounge-atron (a proton synchrotron) was conceived to be a relatively low cost demonstration of the viability of t...

  7. Scintillator-CCD camera system light output response to dosimetry parameters for proton beam range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Essert, Timothy; Phillips, Theodore L.; Mishra, Kavita K.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the luminescence light output response in a plastic scintillator irradiated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam using various dosimetry parameters. The relationship of the visible scintillator light with the beam current or dose rate, aperture size and the thickness of water in the water-column was studied. The images captured on a CCD camera system were used to determine optimal dosimetry parameters for measuring the range of a clinical proton beam. The method was developed as a simple quality assurance tool to measure the range of the proton beam and compare it to (a) measurements using two segmented ionization chambers and water column between them, and (b) with an ionization chamber (IC-18) measurements in water. We used a block of plastic scintillator that measured 5×5×5 cm3 to record visible light generated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam. A high-definition digital video camera Moticam 2300 connected to a PC via USB 2.0 communication channel was used to record images of scintillation luminescence. The brightness of the visible light was measured while changing beam current and aperture size. The results were analyzed to obtain the range and were compared with the Bragg peak measurements with an ionization chamber. The luminescence light from the scintillator increased linearly with the increase of proton beam current. The light output also increased linearly with aperture size. The relationship between the proton range in the scintillator and the thickness of the water column showed good linearity with a precision of 0.33 mm (SD) in proton range measurement. For the 67.5 MeV proton beam utilized, the optimal parameters for scintillator light output response were found to be 15 nA (16 Gy/min) and an aperture size of 15 mm with image integration time of 100 ms. The Bragg peak depth brightness distribution was compared with the depth dose distribution from ionization chamber measurements and good agreement was observed. The peak/plateau ratio observed for the scintillator was found to be 2.21 as compared to the ionization chamber measurements of 3.01. The response of a scintillator block-CCD camera in 67.5 MeV proton beam was investigated. A linear response was seen between light output and beam current as well as aperture size. The relation between the thickness of water in the water column and the measured range also showed linearity. The results from the scintillator response was used to develop a simple approach to measuring the range and the Bragg peak of a proton beam by recording the visible light from a scintillator block with an accuracy of less than 0.33 mm. Optimal dosimetry parameters for our proton beam were evaluated. It is observed that this method can be used to confirm the range of a proton beam during daily treatment and will be useful as daily QA measurement for proton beam therapy.

  8. Advances in medical imaging and related dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Mendez, V.; Rindi, A.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents a treatise on the physics of the new imaging apparatus used in medicine, namely the x-ray computerized tomography, radio-isotope emission (single photon and positron emission) tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and imaging, and ultrasound imaging. A chapter is devoted to the radiation problems and health hazards associated with these diagnostic methods. Contents: Radiological Anatomy; Histology and Pathology; Algorithms for Image Reconstruction; Systems and Architectures; Software for Image Enhancement; Hardware for 2D and 3D Imaging; Types of Machines and Associated Radiation Dosimetry; Basic Physics of US, Including Dosimetry; Doppler Diagnostic Methods; Developments, Limitations and Clinical Results; Compton Tomography and Proton Radiography; Clinical Application and Associated Radiation Dosimetry; Advances in MWPC Cameras; NMR Imaging: General Principles and Different Techniques; Tissue Characterization and Tumor Detection; NMR Imaging for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning; Hazard to the Patient from Different Diagnostic Techniques.

  9. Proton permeation through atomically thin crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Artem; Hu, Sheng; Lozada, Marcelo; Schedin, Fred; Raveendran Nair, Rahul; Hill, Ernie; Grigorieva, Irina; Geim, Andre

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that electrons can easily traverse through thin 2D crystals, including graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) etc.; at the same time pristine graphene and other 2D materials are impermeable to molecules and atoms including helium. Protons represent somewhat intermediate case, which, together with the fact that hydrogen technologies are extremely important nowadays, motivated us to study proton permeation through thin 2D crystals. Employing both liquid and solid proton conducting electrolytes we demonstrate that monolayers of graphene and hBN are permeable to protons at ambient conditions, while MoS2, bilayer graphene and multilayer hBN show no proton conduction. Temperature dependence confirms the thermionic nature of the proton permeation with the activation energies of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8 eV for monolayer hBN, monolayer graphene and bilayer hBN, respectively. Our findings suggest that atomically thin crystals can be promising for various hydrogen technologies, for instance, as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  10. Proton transfer through the water gossamer

    PubMed Central

    Hassanali, Ali; Giberti, Federico; Cuny, Jérôme; Kühne, Thomas D.; Parrinello, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of protons through water is understood within the framework of the Grotthuss mechanism, which requires that they undergo structural diffusion in a stepwise manner throughout the water network. Despite long study, this picture oversimplifies and neglects the complexity of the supramolecular structure of water. We use first-principles simulations and demonstrate that the currently accepted picture of proton diffusion is in need of revision. We show that proton and hydroxide diffusion occurs through periods of intense activity involving concerted proton hopping followed by periods of rest. The picture that emerges is that proton transfer is a multiscale and multidynamical process involving a broader distribution of pathways and timescales than currently assumed. To rationalize these phenomena, we look at the 3D water network as a distribution of closed directed rings, which reveals the presence of medium-range directional correlations in the liquid. One of the natural consequences of this feature is that both the hydronium and hydroxide ion are decorated with proton wires. These wires serve as conduits for long proton jumps over several hydrogen bonds. PMID:23868853

  11. Proton holes” in long-range proton transfer reactions in solution and enzymes: A theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, Demian; König, Peter; Prat-Resina, Xavier; Yu, Haibo; Elstner, Marcus; Frauenheim, Thomas; Cui, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Proton transfers are fundamental to chemical processes in solution and biological systems. Often, the well-known Grotthuss mechanism is assumed where a series of sequential “proton hops” initiates from the donor and combines to produce the net transfer of a positive charge over a long distance. While direct experimental evidence for the sequential proton hopping has been obtained recently, alternative mechanisms may be possible in complex molecular systems. To understand these events, all accessible protonation states of the mediating groups should be considered. This is exemplified by transfers through water where the individual water molecules can exist in three protonation states (water, hydronium and hydroxide); as a result, an alternative to the Grotthuss mechanism for a proton transfer through water is to generate a hydroxide by first protonating the acceptor and then transfer the hydroxide towards the donor through water. The latter mechanism can be most generally described as the transfer of a “proton hole” from the acceptor to the donor where the “hole” characterizes the deprotonated state of any mediating molecule. This pathway is distinct and is rarely considered in the discussion of proton transfer processes. Using a calibrated quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) model and an effective sampling technique, we study proton transfers in two solution systems and in Carbonic Anhydrase II. Although the relative weight of the “proton hole” and Grotthuss mechanisms in a specific system is difficult to determine precisely using any computational approach, the current study establishes an energetics motivated framework that hinges on the donor/acceptor pKa values and electrostatics due to the environment to argue that the “proton hole” transfer is likely as important as the classical Grotthuss mechanism for proton transport in many complex molecular systems. PMID:17165785

  12. An intensified/shuttered cooled CCD camera for dynamic proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.L.; Alrick, K.R. [and others

    1998-12-31

    An intensified/shuttered cooled PC-based CCD camera system was designed and successfully fielded on proton radiography experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANSCE facility using 800-MeV protons. The four camera detector system used front-illuminated full-frame CCD arrays (two 1,024 x 1,024 pixels and two 512 x 512 pixels) fiber optically coupled to either 25-mm diameter planar diode or microchannel plate image intensifiers which provided optical shuttering for time resolved imaging of shock propagation in high explosives. The intensifiers also provided wavelength shifting and optical gain. Typical sequences consisting of four images corresponding to consecutive exposures of about 500 ns duration for 40-ns proton burst images (from a fast scintillating fiber array) separated by approximately 1 microsecond were taken during the radiography experiments. Camera design goals and measured performance characteristics including resolution, dynamic range, responsivity, system detection quantum efficiency (DQE), and signal-to-noise will be discussed.

  13. Initial OTR measurements of 150 GeV protons in the Tevatron at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpine, V.E.; /Fermilab; Lumpkin, A.H.; /Argonne; Tassotto, G.R.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    Fermilab has developed standard optical transition radiation (OTR) detectors as part of its Run II upgrade program for measuring intense proton and antiproton beams. These detectors utilize radiation-hardened CID cameras to image the OTR and produce high-resolution two-dimensional beam profiles. One of these detectors has been installed in the Tevatron next to the new ionization profile monitor (IPM). Initial OTR measurements are presented for 150 GeV injected coalesced and uncoalesced proton bunches. OTR images are taken for one-turn and two-turn injections over an intensity range of 1.5e11 to 3.5e11 protons. Preliminary profile measurements give uncoalesced beam size sigmas of 1.0 mm horizontally by 0.7 mm vertically and coalesced beam size sigmas of 1.8 mm horizontally by 0.70 mm vertically. OTR images are also presented for changes in the Tevatron skew quadrupole magnet currents, which produce a rotation to the OTR image, and for changes to the Tevatron RF, which can be used to measure single-turn dispersion. Operational aspects of this detector for beam studies and Tevatron tuneup are also discussed.

  14. Kaon pair production in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Y.; Hartmann, M.; Keshelashvili, I.; Barsov, S.; Büscher, M.; Drochner, M.; Dzyuba, A.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Kleber, V.; Koch, H. R.; Koptev, V.; Kulessa, P.; Lorentz, B.; Mersmann, T.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Mussgiller, A.; Nekipelov, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schleichert, R.; Stein, H. J.; Ströher, H.; Valdau, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Wüstner, P.

    2008-01-01

    The differential and total cross sections for kaon pair production in the pp?ppK+K- reaction have been measured at three beam energies of 2.65, 2.70, and 2.83 GeV using the ANKE magnetic spectrometer at the COSY-Jülich accelerator. These near-threshold data are separated into pairs arising from the decay of the ?-meson and the remainder. For the non-? selection, the ratio of the differential cross sections in terms of the K-p and K+p invariant masses is strongly peaked toward low masses. This effect can be described quantitatively by using a simple ansatz for the K-p final state interaction, where it is seen that the data are sensitive to the magnitude of an effective K-p scattering length. When allowance is made for a small number of ? events where the K- rescatters from the proton, the ? region is equally well described at all three energies. A very similar phenomenon is discovered in the ratio of the cross sections as functions of the K-pp and K+pp invariant masses and the identical final state interaction model is also very successful here. The world data on the energy dependence of the non-? total cross section is also reproduced, except possibly for the results closest to threshold.

  15. Some thoughts on searches for proton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.

    1984-01-01

    It is recalled that the minimal SU(5) theory appears to be contradicted by proton decay lifetimes longer than predicted. However, it has been pointed out that final state interaction due to strong meson field couplings may suppress proton decay. Events have been detected which include proton decay candidates. The need for reproducibility and for consistency checks is discussed. It is tacitly assumed that one decay product should be an anti-lepton. Unless there are special selection rules, two-body decays would be expected to predominate from phase space considerations. (LEW)

  16. Photoproduction with a leading proton at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adloff; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; T. Anthonis; V. Arkadov; A. Astvatsatourov; I. Ayyaz; A. Babaev; J. Bähr; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; P. Bate; A. Beglarian; O. Behnke; C. Beier; A. Belousov; T. Benisch; Ch. Berger; T. Berndt; J. C. Bizot; V. Boudry; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; H.-B. Bröker; D. P. Brown; W. Brückner; P. Bruel; D. Bruncko; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Bunyatyan; H. Burkhardt; A. Burrage; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; S. Caron; E. Chabert; D. Clarke; B. Clerbaux; C. Collard; J. G. Contreras; Y. R. Coppens; J. A. Coughlan; M.-C. Cousinou; B. E. Cox; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; J. B. Dainton; W. D. Dau; K. Daum; M. Davidsson; B. Delcourt; N. Delerue; R. Demirchyan; C. Diaconu; P. Dixon; V. Dodonov; J. D. Dowell; A. Droutskoi; C. Duprel; G. Eckerlin; D. Eckstein; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; M. Ellerbrock; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; P. J. W. Faulkner; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; R. Felst; J. Ferencei; S. Ferron; M. Fleischer; Y. H. Fleming; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; I. Foresti; J. Formánek; G. Franke; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; J. Garvey; J. Gassner; R. Gerhards; S. Ghazaryan; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; C. Goodwin; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; G. Grindhammer; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; W. J. Haynes; B. Heinemann; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; S. Hengstmann; H. Henschel; R. Heremans; G. Herrera; I. Herynek; M. Hildebrandt; K. H. Hiller; J. Hladký; P. Höting; D. Hoffmann; R. Horisberger; S. Hurling; M. Ibbotson; Ç. ??sever; M. Jacquet; M. Jaffre; L. Janauschek; D. M. Jansen; X. Janssen; V. Jemanov; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; M. A. S. Jones; H. Jung; H. K. Kästli; D. Kant; M. Kapichine; M. Karlsson; O. Karschnick; F. Keil; N. Keller; J. Kennedy; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Kiesling; P. Kjellberg; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; B. Koblitz; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; R. Koutouev; A. Koutov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; J. Kroseberg; K. Krüger; A. Küpper; T. Kuhr; T. Kurca; R. Lahmann; D. Lamb; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; T. Lastovicka; P. Laycock; E. Lebailly; A. Lebedev; B. Leißner; R. Lemrani; V. Lendermann; S. Levonian; M. Lindstroem; B. List; E. Lobodzinska; B. Lobodzinski; A. Loginov; N. Loktionova; V. Lubimov; S. Lüders; D. Lüke; L. Lytkin; N. Magnussen; H. Mahlke-Krüger; N. Malden; E. Malinovski; I. Malinovski; R. Maracek; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; S. J. Maxfield; A. Mehta; K. Meier; P. Merkel; A. B. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; P.-O. Meyer; S. Mikocki; D. Milstead; T. Mkrtchyan; R. Mohr; S. Mohrdieck; M. N. Mondragon; F. Moreau; A. Morozov; J. V. Morris; K. Müller; P. Mur??n; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; J. Naumann; Th. Naumann; G. Nellen; P. R. Newman; T. C. Nicholls; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; O. Nix; G. Nowak; T. Nunnemann; J. E. Olsson; D. Ozerov; V. Panassik; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; E. Perez; J. P. Phillips; D. Pitzl; R. Pöschl; I. Potachnikova; B. Povh; K. Rabbertz; G. Rädel; J. Rauschenberger; P. Reimer; B. Reisert; D. Reyna; S. Riess; C. Risler; E. Rizvi; P. Robmann; R. Roosen; A. Rostovtsev; C. Royon; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; D. P. C. Sankey; J. Scheins; F.-P. Schilling; P. Schleper; D. Schmidt; S. Schmitt; L. Schoeffel; A. Schöning; T. Schörner; V. Schröder; H.-C. Schultz-Coulon; C. Schwanenberger; K. Sedlák; F. Sefkow; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; P. Sievers; Y. Sirois; T. Sloan; P. Smirnov; V. Solochenko; Y. Soloviev; V. Spaskov; A. Specka; H. Spitzer; R. Stamen; J. Steinhart; B. Stella; A. Stellberger; J. Stiewe; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; M. Swart; M. Tasevský; V. Tchernyshov; S. Tchetchelnitski; G. Thompson; P. D. Thompson; N. Tobien; D. Traynor; P. Truöl; G. Tsipolitis; I. Tsurin; J. Turnau; J. E. Turney; E. Tzamariudaki; S. Udluft; A. Usik; S. Valkár; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; S. Vassiliev; Y. Vazdik; A. Vichnevski; K. Wacker; R. Wallny; T. Walter; B. Waugh; G. Weber; M. Weber; D. Wegener; M. Werner; G. White; S. Wiesand; T. Wilksen; M. Winde; G.-G. Winter; Ch. Wissing; M. Wobisch; H. Wollatz; E. Wünsch; A. C. Wyatt; J. Žá?ek; J. Zálesák; Z. Zhang; A. Zhokin; F. Zomer; J. Zsembery

    2001-01-01

    The total cross section for the photoproduction process with a leading proton in the final state has been measured at ?p centre-of-mass energies W of 91, 181 and 231GeV. The measured cross sections apply to the kinematic range with the transverse momentum of the scattered proton restricted to pT?0.2GeV and 0.68?z?0.88, where z=Ep?\\/Ep is the scattered proton energy normalised to the beam

  17. Polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    At the conclusion of polarized proton commissioning in February 1986, protons with an average polarization of 45%, momentum of 21.7 GeV/c, and intensity of 2 x 10/sup 10/ protons per pulse, were extracted to an external polarimeter at the Brookhaven AGS. In order to maintain this polarization, five intrinsic and nearly forty imperfection depolarizing resonances had to be corrected. An apparent interaction between imperfection and intrinsic resonances occurring at very nearly the same energy was observed and the correction of imperfection resonances using ''beat'' magnetic harmonics discovered in the previous AGS commissioning run was further confirmed.

  18. Acceleration of High Intensity Proton Beams

    E-print Network

    Altuna, X; Arimatea, C; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bohl, T; Collier, Paul; Cornelis, Karel; Crockford, G; Desforges, D; Despas, C; Faugier, A; Ferrari, A; Giachino, R; Hanke, K; Jonker, M; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Niquille, C; Normann, L; Robin, G; Roy, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 the CERN SPS accelerator finished a five years long program providing 450GeV proton beams for neutrino physics. These experiments required the highest possible beam intensity the SPS can deliver. During the last five years the maximum proton intensity in the SPS has steadily been increased to a maximum of 4.8 1013 protons per cycle. In order to achieve these intensities a careful monitoring and improvement of the vertical aperture was necessary. Improved feedback systems on the different RF cavities were needed in order to avoid instabilities. Also the quality (emittance and extraction spill) of the injector, the CERN PS, had be optimised.

  19. Attosecond neutron Compton scattering from protons

    E-print Network

    C. Aris Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

    2007-02-01

    The effect of "anomalous" scattering of neutrons and electrons from protons in the electron-volt energy-transfer range is considered, and related experimental results are mentioned. A recent independent confirmation of this effect with a new data analysis procedure is presented. Due to the very short characteristic scattering time, there is no well defined separation of time scales of electronic and protonic motions. An outline of a proposed theoretical interpretation is presented, which is based on the fact that scattering protons represent \\textit{open} quantum systems, thus being subject to decoherence.

  20. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Fesseha G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  1. Imaging of the pituitary: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary lesions, albeit relatively infrequent, can significantly alter the quality of life. This article highlights the role of advanced imaging modalities in evaluating pituitary-hypothalamic axis lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the examination of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases. Advanced MR techniques discussed in this article include dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 3T MRI, magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, intraoperative MRI, and intraoperative real-time ultrasonography. PMID:22029027

  2. CT and MR imaging of radiation hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, E.C.; Lee, J.K.; Weyman, P.J.

    1987-03-01

    The authors describe two cases of radiation hepatitis evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and CT with CT angiography (CTA) additionally performed in one patient. On CT the radiation hepatitis appeared as sharply demarcated region of lower attenuation than the adjacent normal liver. The region of radiation hepatitis demonstrated decreased perfusion in the portal venous phase of CTA, and 4 min delayed images following CTA showed increased density or relative increased accumulation of contrast. Magnetic resonance in both cases showed that the area of low density on CT had high signal on the T2-weighted image and had increased water content as determined by proton spectroscopic imaging method.

  3. Mechanism of Proton Transport in Proton Exchange Membranes: Insights from Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory A. Voth

    2010-11-30

    The solvation and transport of hydrated protons in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) such as NafionTM will be described using a novel multi-state reactive molecular dynamics (MD) approach, combined with large scale MD simulation to help probe various PEM morphological models. The multi-state MD methodology allows for the treatment of explicit (Grotthuss) proton shuttling and charge defect delocalization which, in turn, can strongly influence the properties of the hydrated protons in various aqueous and complex environments. A significant extension of the methodology to treat highly acidic (low pH) environments such as the hydrophilic domains of a PEM will be presented. Recent results for proton solvation and transport in NafionTM will be described which reveal the significant role of Grotthuss shuttling and charge defect delocalization on the excess proton solvation structures and transport properties. The role of PEM hydration level and morphology on these properties will also be described.

  4. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the brain: report of AAPM MR Task Group #9.

    PubMed

    Drost, Dick J; Riddle, William R; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2002-09-01

    AAPM Magnetic Resonance Task Group #9 on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the brain was formed to provide a reference document for acquiring and processing proton (1H) MRS acquired from brain tissue. MRS is becoming a common adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially for the differential diagnosis of tumors in the brain. Even though MR imaging is an offshoot of MR spectroscopy, clinical medical physicists familiar with MRI may not be familiar with many of the common practical issues regarding MRS. Numerous research laboratories perform in vivo MRS on other magnetic nuclei, such as 31P, 13C, and 19F. However, most commercial MR scanners are generally only capable of spectroscopy using the signals from protons. Therefore this paper is of limited scope, giving an overview of technical issues that are important to clinical proton MRS, discussing some common clinical MRS problems, and suggesting how they might be resolved. Some fundamental issues covered in this paper are common to many forms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and are written as an introduction for the reader to these methods. These topics include shimming, eddy currents, spatial localization, solvent saturation, and post-processing methods. The document also provides an extensive review of the literature to guide the practicing medical physicist to resources that may be useful for dealing with issues not covered in the current article. PMID:12349940

  5. CT based treatment planning system of proton beam therapy for ocular melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Furukawa, Shigeo; Shibayama, Kouichi; Sato, Sinichiro; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Morita, Shinroku; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2003-09-01

    A computed tomography (CT) based treatment planning system of proton beam therapy was established specially for ocular melanoma treatment. A technique of collimated proton beams with maximum energy of 70 MeV are applied for treatment for ocular melanoma. The vertical proton beam line has a range modulator for spreading beams out, a multi-leaf collimator, an aperture, light beam localizer, field light, and X-ray verification system. The treatment planning program includes; eye model, selecting the best direction of gaze, designing the shape of aperture, determining the proton range and range modulation necessary to encompass the target volume, and indicating the relative positions of the eyes, beam center and creation of beam aperture. Tumor contours are extracted from CT/MRI images of 1 mm thickness by assistant by various information of fundus photography and ultrasonography. The CT image-based treatment system for ocular melanoma is useful for Japanese patients as having thick choroid membrane in terms of dose sparing to skin and normal organs in the eye. The characteristics of the system and merits/demerits were reported.

  6. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10–20?m?s?1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%–18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  7. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To 'scan' the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient's body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20?m?s(-1), changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed. PMID:25295881

  8. NMR imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In the past several years, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has become an established technique in diagnostic medicine and biomedical research. Although much of the work in this field has been directed toward development of whole-body imagers, James Aguayo, Stephen Blackband, and Joseph Schoeninger of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine working with Markus Hintermann and Mark Mattingly of Bruker Medical Instruments, recently developed a small-bore NMR microscope with sufficient resolution to image a single African clawed toad cell (Nature 1986, 322, 190-91). This improved resolution should lead to increased use of NMR imaging for chemical, as well as biological or physiological, applications. The future of NMR microscopy, like that of many other newly emerging techniques, is ripe with possibilities. Because of its high cost, however, it is likely to remain primarily a research tool for some time. ''It's like having a camera,'' says Smith. ''You've got a way to look at things at very fine levels, and people are going to find lots of uses for it. But it is a very expensive technique - it costs $100,000 to add imaging capability once you have a high-resolution NMR, which itself is at least a $300,000 instrument. If it can answer even a few questions that can't be answered any other way, though, it may be well worth the cost.''

  9. Collimator effects in proton planning

    E-print Network

    Matsinos, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    The present paper pertains to corrections which are due to the presence of beam-limiting and beam-shaping devices in a proton-treatment plan. Two types of corrections are considered: those which are due to the nonzero thickness of such devices (geometrical effects) and those relating to the scattering of beam particles off their material. The application of these two types of corrections is greatly facilitated by decomposing the physical effects (i.e., the contribution to the fluence) of two-dimensional objects (i.e., of the apertures of the devices) into one-dimensional, easily-calculable contributions. To minimise the time requirements in the derivation of the scattering corrections, a two-step process is introduced. The first step occurs at beam-configuration time and comprises the analysis of half-block fluence measurements; subsequently, a number of Monte-Carlo runs lead to the determination of the parameters of a convenient parameterisation of the relevant fluence contributions. The second step involves...

  10. [Proton therapy and particle accelerators].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Since the high energy accelerator plan was changed from a 40 GeV direct machine to a 12GeV cascade one, a 500 MeV rapid cycling booster synchrotron was installed between the injector linac and the 12 GeV main ring at KEK, National Lab. for High Energy Physics. The booster beams were used not only for injection to the main ring but also for medical use. Their energy was reduced to 250 MeV by a graphite block for clinical trial of cancer therapy. In 1970's, pi(-) or heavy ions were supposed to be promising. Although advantage of protons with Bragg Peak was pointed out earlier, they seemed effective only for eye melanoma at that time. In early 1980's, it was shown that they were effective for deep-seated tumor by Tsukuba University with KEK beams. The first dedicated facility was built at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Its synchrotron was made by Fermi National Accelerator Lab. Since a non-resonant accelerating rf cavity was installed, operation of the synchrotron became much easier. Later, innovation of the cyclotron was achieved. Its weight was reduced from 1,000 ton to 200 ton. Some of the cyclotrons are equipped with superconducting coils. PMID:24592677

  11. Spin structure of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1995-08-01

    In these lectures the author argues that their response to the spin crisis should not be to abandon the naive quark model baby, but rather to allow it to mature. He begin by recalling what a beautiful baby the quark model is via an overview of its successes in spectroscopy, dynamics, and valence spin structure. He also introduces the conservative hypothesis that dynamical q{anti q} pairs are its key missing ingredient. He then discusses dressing the baby. He first shows that it can be clothed in glue without changing its spectroscopic successes. In the process, several dynamical mysteries associated with quark model spectroscopy are potentially explained. Next, he dresses the baby in q{anti q} pairs, first showing that this can be done without compromising the naive quark model's success with either spectroscopy or the OZI rule. Finally, he shows that despite their near invisibility elsewhere, pairs do play an important role in the proton's spin structure by creating an antipolarized q{anti q} sea. In the context of an explicit calculation he demonstrate that it is plausible that the entire ''spin crisis'' arises from this effect.

  12. Recent results from proton polarimetry at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyser, Oleg; CNI polarimetry Team

    2014-09-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has successfully collided polarized proton beams with momenta as high as 255 GeV/c and polarizations around P = 60%. The polarization of the proton beams is measured through spin dependent elastic scattering off a polarized hydrogen jet target and similarly monitored with Carbon fiber targets several times through a stored RHIC fill of a few hours duration. With recent advancements in beam luminosities, the largely increased data sets have enabled unprecedented possibilities to study systematic effects in the polarimeters. We will discuss details of different background contributions, properties of the polarized beams, and their implications on systematic uncertainties. This is vital input for spin-dependent measurements at RHIC and extends the polarized world data on polarized elastic proton-proton scattering significantly.

  13. Polarized proton source improvements at the ZGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. F.; Parker, E. F.; Madsen, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    The final configuration of the Polarized Proton Ion Source used at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron and the changes to the original configuration are summarized. In particular, we describe the results of cooling the dissociator nozzle to very low temperatures.

  14. Memory device using movement of protons

    DOEpatents

    Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vanheusden, Karel J. R. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleetwood, Daniel M. (Albuquerque, NM); Devine, Roderick A. B. (St. Martin le Vinoux, FR)

    1998-01-01

    An electrically written memory element utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure laterally through the exposed edges of the silicon dioxide layer during a high temperature anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronic elements on the same silicon substrate. With the addition of an optically active layer, the memory element becomes an electrically written, optically read optical memory element.

  15. Radiotherapy With Protons And Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jaekel, Oliver [Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center at the University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Dep. Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-04-26

    The use of proton and ion beams has been proposed more than 60 years ago in 1946 by Robert Wilson. In 1955 the first patients were treated with proton beams in Berkeley. Since then radiotherapy with proton and ion beams has constantly been developed at research centers. Within the last decade, however, a considerable number of hospital based facilities came into operation. In this paper an overview over the basic physical and biological properties of proton and ion beams is given. The basic accelerator concepts are outlined and the design of treatment facilities is described. Then the medical physics aspects of the beam delivery, dosimetry and treatment planning are discussed before the clinical concepts are briefly reviewed.

  16. The Proton Spin and Glueball Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisita, N.; Teshima, T.

    We consider the smallness of the proton spin measured in polarized lepton-proton scattering experiments. The proton spin is expressed by the matrix element of the flavor singlet axial vector current. Under the PCAC assumption, in which the divergence of the flavor singlet axial vector current is replaced by the pseudoscalar meson ?, ?? and glueball ? fields, we get a Goldberger-Treiman type relation. We estimate the coupling constants f0?, f0?? and f0? using the U(3)×U(3) current-algebraic approach. Because the estimated f0? is of the same order as f0??, the smallness of the proton spin results in gNN? being comparable to gNN? in magnitude.

  17. Vacuolar and Plasma Membrane Proton-Adenosinetriphosphatases

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Nathan

    -Adenosinetriphosphatases in pH Regulation and Transport Processes 377 A. Synaptic vesicles and granules 377 B. Lysosomes and Function of Vacuolar Proton-Adenosinetriphosphatases 363 A. Subunits definition and mechanism of action 363

  18. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Memory device using movement of protons

    DOEpatents

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-11-03

    An electrically written memory element is disclosed utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure laterally through the exposed edges of the silicon dioxide layer during a high temperature anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronic elements on the same silicon substrate. With the addition of an optically active layer, the memory element becomes an electrically written, optically read optical memory element. 19 figs.

  20. Muon Capture on the Proton and Deuteron

    E-print Network

    Frederick Gray

    2008-08-11

    By measuring the lifetime of the negative muon in pure protium (hydrogen-1), the MuCap experiment determines the rate of muon capture on the proton, from which the proton's pseudoscalar coupling g_p may be inferred. A precision of 15% for g_p has been published; this is a step along the way to a goal of 7%. This coupling can be calculated precisely from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and therefore permits a test of QCD's chiral symmetry. Meanwhile, the MuSun experiment is in its final design stage; it will measure the rate of muon capture on the deuteron using a similar technique. This process can be related through pionless effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory to other two-nucleon reactions of astrophysical interest, including proton-proton fusion and deuteron breakup.

  1. Low energy neutron-proton interactions

    E-print Network

    Daub, Brian (Brian Hollenberg)

    2012-01-01

    There have been few measurements of cross sections for neutron-proton scattering and radiative capture below 1 MeV. Those measurements which do exist are at a small number of energies and are often inconsistent with ...

  2. Neutron Imaging Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; DeNolfo, Georgia; Floyd, Sam; Krizmanic, John; Link, Jason; Son, Seunghee; Guardala, Noel; Skopec, Marlene; Stark, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) being developed for DTRA applications by NASA/GSFC and NSWC/Carderock. The NIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution. 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, E(sub N) > 0.5 MeV. arc reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from 3He(n,p)3H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. We present angular and energy resolution performance of the NIC derived from accelerator tests.

  3. Flash-induced proton transfer in photosynthetic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Péter Maróti

    1993-01-01

    A proton electrochemical potential across the membranes of photosynthetic purple bacteria is established by a light-driven proton pump mechanism: the absorbed light in the reaction center initiates electron transfer which is coupled to the vectorial displacement of protons from the cytoplasm to the periplasm. The stoichiometry and kinetics of proton binding and release can be tracked directly by electric (glass

  4. Leading proton production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    E-print Network

    Leading proton production in deep inelastic 1 scattering at HERA 2 ZEUS Collaboration 3 Draft, with a #28;nal-state proton carrying a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, x L > 0 photon virtualities Q 2 > 3 GeV 2 and mass of the photon-proton sys- tem 45

  5. FAST and IMAGE-FUV observations of a substorm onset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Mende; C. W. Carlson; H. U. Frey; L. M. Peticolas; N. Østgaard

    2003-01-01

    On 6 February 2002 the NASA FAST satellite transited a substorm break up arc approximately 1 min after substorm onset as identified by the NASA IMAGE satellite far ultraviolet (FUV) instrument complement. These IMAGE data show that both the intense electron and proton precipitation features seen by FAST were not present prior to substorm onset. The most intense onset poleward

  6. Scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector has been developed using a bundle of square cross-section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified Charge Injection Device (CID) camera. Detector to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei have been exposed and images of their tracks are obtained. This paper presents details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle.

  7. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Zenis, Tibor [Comenius University Bratislava (Slovakia); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross-section at centre-of-mass energy of Central diffraction in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. Events are selected by requiring hits in scintillator counters mounted in the forward region of the ATLAS detector and the dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20{mu}b{sup -1}. In addition, the total cross-section is studied as a function of the rapidity gap size measured with the inner detector and calorimetry.

  8. Enhanced proton treatment in mouse tumors through proton irradiated nanoradiator effects on metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ki; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Chung, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Kye-Ryung; Ye, Sung-Jun

    2012-12-01

    The impact of protons on metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) produces the potent release of MNP-induced secondary electrons and characteristic x-rays. To determine the ability of secondary radiations to enhance proton treatment, the therapeutic irradiation of tumors was investigated in mice receiving 100-300 mg MNPs/kg intravenously prior to single dose, 10-41 Gy, proton irradiation. A proton beam was utilized to irradiate nanoparticles with a single Bragg peak set to occur inside a tumor volume (fully absorbed) or to occur after the beam had traversed the entire body. The dose-dependent increase in complete tumor regression (CTR) was 37-62% in the fully-absorbed irradiation group or 50-100% in the traversing irradiation group, respectively, compared with the proton-alone control mice (p < 0.01). One year survival was 58-100% versus 11-13% proton alone. The dose-dependent increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species level was 12-36% at 10 Gy compared with the proton-alone control cell. Therapeutic effective drug concentration that led to 100% CTR with a proton dose of 31 Gy was measured either 41 µg Au/g tissue or 59 µg Fe/g tissue. MNP-based proton treatment increased not only percent CTR and survival in vivo but also ROS generation in vitro, suggesting tumor dose enhancement from secondary radiation as one potent pathway of therapeutic enhancement.

  9. Monte Carlo calculations of positron emitter yields in proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seravalli, E.; Robert, C.; Bauer, J.; Stichelbaut, F.; Kurz, C.; Smeets, J.; Ty, C. Van Ngoc; Schaart, D. R.; Buvat, I.; Parodi, K.; Verhaegen, F.

    2012-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a promising tool for monitoring the three-dimensional dose distribution in charged particle radiotherapy. PET imaging during or shortly after proton treatment is based on the detection of annihilation photons following the ß+-decay of radionuclides resulting from nuclear reactions in the irradiated tissue. Therapy monitoring is achieved by comparing the measured spatial distribution of irradiation-induced ß+-activity with the predicted distribution based on the treatment plan. The accuracy of the calculated distribution depends on the correctness of the computational models, implemented in the employed Monte Carlo (MC) codes that describe the interactions of the charged particle beam with matter and the production of radionuclides and secondary particles. However, no well-established theoretical models exist for predicting the nuclear interactions and so phenomenological models are typically used based on parameters derived from experimental data. Unfortunately, the experimental data presently available are insufficient to validate such phenomenological hadronic interaction models. Hence, a comparison among the models used by the different MC packages is desirable. In this work, starting from a common geometry, we compare the performances of MCNPX, GATE and PHITS MC codes in predicting the amount and spatial distribution of proton-induced activity, at therapeutic energies, to the already experimentally validated PET modelling based on the FLUKA MC code. In particular, we show how the amount of ß+-emitters produced in tissue-like media depends on the physics model and cross-sectional data used to describe the proton nuclear interactions, thus calling for future experimental campaigns aiming at supporting improvements of MC modelling for clinical application of PET monitoring.

  10. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Cleland; R. A. Galloway; L. Desanto; Y. Jongen

    2009-01-01

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron® system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic

  11. Studies with Exotic Nuclei: Two Proton Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Borcea, C.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Demonchy, C. E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Hay, L.; Huikari, J.; Leblanc, S.; Matea, I.; Pedroza, J.-L.; Pibernat, J.; Serani, L. [Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Universite Bordeaux 1-UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Oliveira Santos, F. de; Grevy, S.; Perrot, L.; Stodel, C.; Thomas, J.-C. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France); Dossat, C. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2008-01-24

    In the present paper, we present measurements that led to the discovery of two-proton radioactivity. After the first observation of this decay mode for {sup 45}Fe, new measurements evidenced this decay mode also for {sup 54}Zn and most likely {sup 48}Ni. A new detector based on the time-projection chamber principle allowed now to visualize the two protons directly.

  12. AGS polarized proton operation in run 8.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,H.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.A.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A.U.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zeno, K.

    2008-06-23

    Dual partial snake scheme has been used for the Brookhaven AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) polarized proton operation for several years. It has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5 x 10{sup 11} intensity and 65% polarization for RHIC spin program. There is still residual polarization loss. Several schemes such as putting horizontal tune into the spin tune gap, and injection-on-the-fly were tested in the AGS to mitigate the loss. This paper presents the experiment results and analysis.

  13. Proton Ring Translation in a Magnetized Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edl Schamiloglu

    1988-01-01

    A rotating proton ring was injected into a 2.5 m long, 0.30 m diameter, magnetized plasma and the response of the plasma and the ring to the interaction was studied. Diagnostics used included an axial array of magnetic probes, an axial array of fast proton detectors, a microwave interferometer, and a grating spectrometer. The plasma was generated by a Z-discharge

  14. The Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanz, Jay; Kooy, Hanne; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    The Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center (FHBPTC) is one of the first hospital-based proton therapy (PT) facilities. Its development was the natural evolution of several decades of PT experience of the Massachusetts General Hospital treating patients at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory. The operations of the FHBPTC reflect the combined missions of patient care, clinical and physics research, technological developments, and education. This chapter will discuss aspects of the history, evolution, and performance of this unique PT center.

  15. Ionic conductivity of proton exchange membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Beattie; Francesco P. Orfino; Vesna I. Basura; Kristi Zychowska; Jianfu Ding; Carmen Chuy; Jennifer Schmeisser; Steven Holdcroft

    2001-01-01

    Proton conductivity of a series of proton exchange membranes based on sulfonated ???-trifluorostyrene-co-substituted-???-trifluorostyrenes (BAM®) (equivalent weight, EW, 735–407 gmol?1) and sulfonated styrene–(ethylene–butylene)–styrene triblock copolymers (DAIS-Analytical) (EW 585–1062 gmol?1) was determined by ac impedance spectroscopy. These data are compared to previously published data on Nafion® 117 and ethylenetetrafluoroethylene-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid membranes. A correlation exists between the membrane's conductivity, its water content,

  16. COMMISSIONING CNI PROTON POLARIMETERS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; BRAVAR,A.; LI,Z.; MACKAY,W.W.; MAKDISI,Y.; RESCIA,S.; ROSER,T.; SURROW,B.; BUNCE,G.; DESHPANDE,A.; GOTO,Y.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    Two polarimeters based on proton carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region have been installed and commissioned in the Blue and Yellow rings of RHIC during the first RHIC polarized proton collider run. Each polarimeter consists of ultra-thin carbon targets and six silicon detectors. With newly developed wave form digitizers, they provide fast and reliable polarization information for both rings.

  17. A NEW RELATIVE PROTON POLARIMETER FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; ALEKSEEV,I.; BUNCE,G.; BRUNER,N.; DESHPANDE,A.; GOTO,Y.; FIELDS,D.; IMAI,K.; ET AL

    2001-06-18

    An innovative polarimeter based on proton carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region has been installed and commissioned in the Blue ring of RHIC during the first RHIC polarized proton commissioning in September, 2000. The polarimeter consists of ultra-thin carbon targets and four silicon detectors. All elements are in a 1.6 meter vacuum chamber. This paper summarizes the polarimeter design issues and recent commissioning results.

  18. Portable Faraday cup for nonvacuum proton beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Ziegler; Philip A. Saunders; Theodore H. Zabel

    1996-01-01

    A portable Faraday cup design is described for the accurate measurement of large-diameter, low-current, and high-energy proton beams traveling in air. The unit has been tested with protons from 4 to 300 MeV. The unit has an accuracy of 10% for beams of 1 pA, improving to about 2% accuracy for ion currents of 20 pA to 1 μA. For

  19. Proton damage in advanced laser diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Johnston; T. F. Miyahira; B. G. Rax

    2001-01-01

    Proton radiation damage in laser diodes is investigated for several types of laser diodes with wavelengths from 650 to 1550 nm. Key parameters include slope efficiency, threshold current, and the transition characteristics between laser-emitting diode (LED) and laser operation. Some of the devices exhibited nonlinear relationships between threshold current and proton fluence. All of the lasers, including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,

  20. Dielectron Production in Proton-Nucleus Reactions 

    E-print Network

    Xiong, L.; Wu, J. Q.; Wu, Z. G.; Ko, Che Ming; Shi, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    for the detector acceptance filter which requires that we also determine the momen- tum distribution of the dielectron pairs. This reduces sub- stantially the dielectron yield at small invariant masses. The theoretical results are seen to have the right magni...M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 15 August 1989) Dielectron production in proton-nucleus reactions is studied in the cascade model. In addition to production from the proton-neutron bremsstrahlung and the decay of delta, we have also...

  1. Empirical proton-neutron interaction strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.; Zhang, J.Y.; Brenner, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    An empirical technique to extract proton-neutron interaction energies for specific protons and neutrons in a wide variety of nuclei is described. The results shed light on the roles of the monopole and quadrupole components of the p-n interaction, their orbit dependence, the microscopic basis of the N/sub p/N/sub n/ scheme, and the saturation of collectively observed in deformed nuclei. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Observable proton decay from Planck scale physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, S. M.; Calmet, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In the Standard Model, no dim-5 ?B?0 operators exist, so that Planck-scale-induced proton decay amplitudes are suppressed by at least 1/MP?2. If the Standard Model is augmented by a light, color-nonsinglet boson, then O(1/MP?) proton-decay amplitudes are possible. These always conserve B+L, so that the dominant decay modes are p??+? and p??+?+?-, where ?+=?+ or K+.

  3. Proton conducting membrane using a solid acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haile, Sossina M. (Inventor); Chisholm, Calum (Inventor); Boysen, Dane A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A solid acid material is used as a proton conducting membrane in an electrochemical device. The solid acid material can be one of a plurality of different kinds of materials. A binder can be added, and that binder can be either a nonconducting or a conducting binder. Nonconducting binders can be, for example, a polymer or a glass. A conducting binder enables the device to be both proton conducting and electron conducting.

  4. Proton probing of a relativistic laser interaction with near-critical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingale, Louise; Zulick, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.; Nilson, P. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Nazarov, W.

    2014-10-01

    The Omega EP laser (1000 J in 10 ps pulses) was used to investigate a relativistic intensity laser interaction with near-critical density plasma using a transverse proton beam to diagnose the large electromagnetic fields generated. A very low density foam target mounted in a washer provided the near-critical density conditions. The fields from a scaled, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation were inputed into a particle-tracking code to create simulated proton probe images. This allows us to understand the origins of the complex features in the experimental images, including a rapidly expanding sheath field, evidence for ponderomotive channeling and fields at the foam-washer interface. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002028.

  5. Proton conductivity in doped aluminum phosphonate sponges.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jennifer; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Graf, Robert; Klapper, Markus; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Proton-conducting networks (NETs) were prepared successfully by the insertion of phosphonated nanochannels into organic-inorganic hybrid materials that contain Al(3+) as the connector and hexakis(p-phosphonatophenyl)benzene (HPB) as the linker. Noncomplexed phosphonic acid groups remain in the framework, which depends on the ratio of both compounds, to yield a proton conductivity in the region of 10(-3) S cm(-1). This conductivity can be further improved and values as high as Nafion, a benchmark proton-exchange membrane for fuel cell applications, can be obtained by filling the network pores with intrinsic proton conductors. As a result of their sponge-like morphology, aluminum phosphonates adsorb conductive small molecules such as phosphonic acids, which results in a very high proton conductivity of approximately 5 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) at 120 °C and 50 % relative humidity (RH). Contrary to Nafion, the doped networks show a remarkably low temperature dependence of proton conductivity from external humidification. This effect indicates a transport mechanism that is different to the water vehicle mechanism. Furthermore, the materials exhibit an activation energy of 40 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % RH that starts to diminish to 10 kJ mol(-1) at 80 % RH, which is even smaller than the corresponding values obtained for Nafion 117. PMID:24573985

  6. Tumor Volume and Metabolism of Prostate Cancer Determined by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3T Without Endorectal Coil Reveal Potential Clinical Implications in the Context of Radiation Oncology;Prostate cancer; Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging; Radiation oncology; Tumor volume; Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Crehange, Gilles, E-mail: gcrehange@cgfl.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Parfait, Sebastien [Laboratoire Electronique, Informatique et Image - LE2I, Joint Research Unit (UMR) 5158, National Center For Scientific Research (CNRS), Dijon (France); Liegard, Melanie [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Maingon, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Ben Salem, Douraied [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon (France); Cochet, Alexandre [Department of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon (France); Funes de la Vega, Mathilde [Department of Anatomo-Pathology, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon (France); Cormier, Luc [Department of Urology, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon (France); Bonnetain, Franck [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Mirjolet, Celine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Brunotte, Francois; Walker, Paul M. [Laboratoire Electronique, Informatique et Image - LE2I, Joint Research Unit (UMR) 5158, National Center For Scientific Research (CNRS), Dijon (France); Department of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon (France)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether a relationship exists between the tumor volume (TV) or relative choline content determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) at 3T and the clinical prognostic parameters for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: A total of 72 men (mean age, 67.8 {+-} 6.2 years) were stratified as having low-risk (n = 26), intermediate-risk (n = 24), or high-risk (n = 22) PCa. MRSI was performed at 3T using a phased-array coil. Spectra are expressed as the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamines plus creatine/citrate ratios. The mean ratio of the most pathologic voxels and the MRSI-based TV were also determined. Results: The mean values of the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamine plus creatine/citrate ratios were greater for Stage T2b or greater tumors vs. Stage T2a or less tumors: 7.53 {+-} 13.60 vs. 2.31 {+-} 5.65 (p = .018), 8.98 {+-} 14.58 vs. 2.56 {+-} 5.70 (p = .016), and 10.32 {+-} 15.47 vs. 3.55 {+-} 6.16 (p = .014), respectively. The mean MRSI-based TV for Stage T2b or greater and Stage T2a or less tumors was significantly different (2.23 {+-} 2.62 cm{sup 3} vs. 1.26 {+-} 2.06 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = .030). This TV correlated with increased prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.293; p = .012). Patients with high-risk PCa had a larger TV than did the patients with intermediate-risk PCa. A similar result was found for the intermediate-risk group compared with the low-risk group (odds ratio, 1.225; p = .041). Conclusion: Biomarkers expressing the relative choline content and TV were significant parameters for the localization of PCa and could be helpful for determining the prognosis more accurately.

  7. Mechanisms of Gadographene-Mediated Proton Spin Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Andy H.; Duch, Matthew C.; Parigi, Giacomo; Rotz, Matthew W.; Manus, Lisa M.; Mastarone, Daniel J.; Dam, Kevin T.; Gits, Colton C.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Hersam, Mark C.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Gd(III) associated with carbon nanomaterials relaxes water proton spins at an effectiveness that approaches or exceeds the theoretical limit for a single bound water molecule. These Gd(III)-labeled materials represent a potential breakthrough in sensitivity for Gd(III)-based contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. A gadographene library encompassing GdCl3, two different Gd(III)-complexes, graphene oxide (GO), and graphene suspended by two different surfactants and subjected to varying degrees of sonication was prepared and characterized for their relaxometric properties. Gadographene was found to perform comparably to other Gd(III)-carbon nanomaterials; its longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) relaxivity is modulated between 12–85 mM?1s?1 and 24–115 mM?1s?1, respectively, depending on the Gd(III)-carbon backbone combination. The unusually large relaxivity and its variance can be understood under the modified Florence model incorporating the Lipari-Szabo approach. Changes in hydration number (q), water residence time (?M), molecular tumbling rate (?R), and local motion (?fast) sufficiently explain most of the measured relaxivities. Furthermore, results implicated the coupling between graphene and Gd(III) as a minor contributor to proton spin relaxation. PMID:24298299

  8. Evaluation of brain edema using magnetic resonance proton relaxation times

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, S. (Baba Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies on the evaluation of water content in cases of brain edema were performed in vivo, using MR proton relaxation times (longitudinal relaxation time, T1; transverse relaxation time, T2). Brain edema was produced in the white matter of cats by the direct infusion method. The correlations between proton relaxation times obtained from MR images and the water content of white matter were studied both in autoserum-infused cats and in saline-infused cats. The correlations between T1 as well as T2 and the water content in human vasogenic brain edema were also examined and compared with the data obtained from the serum group. T1 and T2 showed good correlations with the water content of white matter not only in the experimental animals but also in the clinical cases. The quality of the edema fluid did not influence relaxation time and T1 seemed to represent almost solely the water content of the tissue. T2, however, was affected by the nature of existence of water and was more sensitive than T1 in detecting extravasated edema fluid. It seems feasible therefore to evaluate the water content of brain edema on the basis of T1 values.

  9. A downward revision of a recently reported proton auroral LBH emission efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Correira; D. J. Strickland; J. S. Evans; H. K. Knight; J. H. Hecht

    2011-01-01

    A significantly higher N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emission efficiency for auroral proton precipitation compared to model calculations was reported by Knight et al. (2008) based on a statistical study utilizing coincident far ultraviolet and particle data from the sensors Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) and Special Sensor J\\/5 (SSJ\\/5) on board the DMSP satellite F16. Here, the quantity of interest

  10. Design and operation of a proton microscope for radiography at 800 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mottershead; D. B. Barlow; B. Blind; G. E. Hogan; A. J. Jason; F. E. Merrill; Kevin B. Morley; C. Morris; A. Saunders; R. Valdiviez

    2003-01-01

    A high-magnification high-resolution option is desirable for the study of small-scale dynamic experiments at the LANSCE 800-MeV Proton Radiography Facility. Magnification is achievable by either repowering the existing imaging-lens quadrupoles, using new high-gradient quadrupoles, or some hybrid combination of the two. The large and complex parameter space of magnetic optics solutions was studied extensively with the 3rd order optics code

  11. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Children With Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Moore; Thomas L. Slovis; Harry T. Chugani

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed on six children with Sturge-Weber syndrome following gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI revealed only unilateral involvement in all cases. The mean concentration (mmol\\/kg wet weight) of the neuronal marker N-acetyl-aspartate was significantly reduced by 37% in the ipsilateral gadolinium enhanced volume of interest compared to a similarly placed contralateral volume of

  12. Measurement of Neutron Proton Going to Proton Proton Negative Pion at 443 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Mark Gregory

    Experiment E372 at TRIUMF measured the analyzing powers (A_{rm NO}, A_ {rm SO}, A_{rm LO}) and relative differential cross section for the reaction np to pppi ^- at 443 MeV. We directed a polarized neutron beam on to a liquid hydrogen target and measured the scattered events in a large solid angle detector capable of measuring the velocities and directions of all of the protons produced in the reaction as well as many of the pions. Kinematic analysis of the events allowed us to remove almost all background and resulted in a clean set of np to pppi^- events. These events were binned against appropriate kinematic variables to produce yields which correspond to relative differential cross sections, and asymmetries which correspond to A _{rm NO}, A_{rm SO}, and A_{rm LO }. These results are the first of their kind for this energy. Comparisons to a theoretical model of Kloet and Lomon and a preliminary study using partial waves are presented.

  13. Moving Protons with Pendant Amines: Proton Mobility in a Nickel Catalyst for Oxidation of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    O.Hagan, Molly; Shaw, Wendy J.; Raugei, Simone; Chen, Shentan; Yang, Jenny Y; Kilgore, Uriah J; DuBois, Daniel L; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-09-14

    Proton transport is ubiquitous in chemical and biological processes, including the reduction of dioxygen to water, the reduction of CO? to formate, and the production/oxidation of hydrogen. In this work we describe intramolecular proton transfer between Ni and positioned pendant amines for the hydrogen oxidation electrocatalyst [Ni(PCy?NBn?H)?]²? (PCy?NBn? = 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane). Rate constants are determined by variable-temperature one-dimensional NMR techniques and two-dimensional EXSY experiments. Computational studies provide insight into the details of the proton movement and energetics of these complexes. Intramolecular proton exchange processes are observed for two of the three experimentally observable isomers of the doubly protonated Ni(0) complex, [Ni(PCy?NBn?H)?]²?, which have N–H bonds but no Ni–H bonds. For these two isomers, with pendant amines positioned endo to the Ni, the rate constants for proton exchange range from 10? to 10? s?¹ at 25 °C, depending on isomer and solvent. No exchange is observed for protons on pendant amines positioned exo to the Ni. Analysis of the exchange as a function of temperature provides a barrier for proton exchange of ?G{sup ?} = 11–12 kcal/mol for both isomers, with little dependence on solvent. Density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental observations, suggesting metal-mediated intramolecular proton transfers between nitrogen atoms, with chair-to-boat isomerizations as the rate-limiting steps. Because of the fast rate of proton movement, this catalyst may be considered a metal center surrounded by a cloud of exchanging protons. The high intramolecular proton mobility provides information directly pertinent to the ability of pendant amines to accelerate proton transfers during catalysis of hydrogen oxidation. These results may also have broader implications for proton movement in homogeneous catalysts and enzymes in general, with specific implications for the proton channel in the Ni–Fe hydrogenase enzyme.

  14. Proton Radiography of Shape Charge Jets Penetrating Teflon and Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferm, Eric N.; Burkett, Michael W.; Hull, Larry M.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; McNeil, Wendy V.; Morris, Chris L.; Rightley, Paul M.; Lansce Proton Radiography Team

    2011-06-01

    We have used proton radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to observe viper shaped charge jets penetrating inert and explosive materials. A viper jet was observed penetrating both Teflon and PBX 9501. Radiographs captured the penetration events at several times and are analyzed to determine the density of the materials imaged at each time. The interfaces and shock waves in the flow are clearly evident in the images. Multiple time images allow the determination of the velocities of the interfaces and shock waves. Comparisons are made in the Teflon case with estimates of penetration rates and densities using the quasi-steady approximation analysis used in many terminal ballistics models. The PBX 9501 clearly detonated from the impact of the shape charge jet tip traveling at 9.1 mm/s. The detonation wave is examined to see what support it obtains from the pursing jet and the jet is examined to find the influence of the explosive products on penetration velocity. This experiment gives us experimental results of in-situ penetration process that can be used to verify common modeling techniques and fluid mechanic calculations of the penetration process.

  15. Status of an Atmospheric Cherenkov Imaging Camera for the CANGAROO-III

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    Distance Image centroidalpha Target center gamma proton 10km Shower developments 1TeV Gamma-ray : proton) CANGAROO-II CANGAROO-III Photo Multiplier Tube(PMT) #12;8 Real data Photons of Cherenkov light à Shower matter?? #12;11 Dark matter search ­ Galactic Center n Concentration of Cold Dark Matter toward

  16. Investigation of the Geometric Accuracy of Proton Beam Irradiation in the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi, E-mail: fukumitsun@yahoo.co.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashimoto, Takayuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tohno, Eriko [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Fukuda, Kuniaki; Abei, Masato [Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakae, Takeji; Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the geometric accuracy of proton beam irradiation to the liver by measuring the change in Hounsfield units (HUs) after irradiation. Methods and Materials: We examined 21 patients with liver tumors who were treated with respiratory-gated proton beam therapy (PBT). The radiation dose was 66 GyE in 12 patients and 72.6 GyE in 9 patients. Image registration and reslicing of the computed tomography (CT) results obtained within 1 month before and 3 months after PBT was performed, referring to the planning CT image. The resliced CT images obtained after PBT were subtracted from the images obtained before PBT. We investigated whether the area of the large HU change was consistent with the high-dose distribution area using the location of the largest change in HU around the tumor (peak) on the subtracted CT image and the 90% dose distribution area of the planning CT image. Results: The number of patients (n = 20) whose left-right peaks were within the 90% dose distribution area was significantly larger than the number of patients whose anterior-posterior peaks and superior-inferior peaks were within the 90% dose distribution area (n = 14, n = 13, p = 0.034, and p = 0.02, respectively). Twelve patients exhibited a peak within the 90% dose distribution area in all directions. Nine of the 11 patients with smaller 90% confidence intervals of the percent normalization of the beam cycle (BC; 90% BC) showed a peak within the 90% dose distribution area in six directions, and this percentage was higher than that among the patients with larger 90% BC (3/10, p = 0.03). Conclusion: The geometric accuracy of proton beam irradiation to the liver was higher in the left-right direction than in the other directions. Patients with an irregular respiratory rhythm have a greater risk of a reduced geometric accuracy of PBT in the liver.

  17. How Many Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons Are in Common Elements?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-09-11

    This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in common elements. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ?¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." Here, visitors can find lessons on common elements, elements in a penny, atomic models, Bohr's atomic model (where you can build an atom yourself), and reading the periodic table. Many sections have illustrative images and interactive features, which help students, understand the topics presented, and the final section ends with questions for students to further explore as well as a link to an online version of the periodic table of elements. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or as an out-of-class exploration for students.

  18. Magnetic resonance microscopy of flows and compressions of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems in pupae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Circulatory, respiratory, and digestive motions in Manduca sexta pupae were observed using proton-density weighted and fast-imaging with steady-state free procession magnetic resonance microscopy. Proton-density weighted images clearly differentiated pupal air sacs from the hemolymph and organs because, as expected, the air sacs appeared dark in these images. Steady-state free procession imaging allowed real-time monitoring of respiration and circulation, creating movies of hemolymph circulation. Some of the movies show compression and inflation of the air sacs as well as abdominal movements consistent with previously reported ceolopulses. To our knowledge, this is the first magnetic resonance microscopy study of insect circulation and respiration and these preliminary results demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy for studying in vivo dynamic processes in insects. PMID:20345291

  19. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGF?1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGF?1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGF? Receptor 1 (TGF?R1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGF?1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGF?1, but also in the absence of TGF?1. PMID:22844446

  20. Light Sea Fermions in Electron-Proton and Muon-Proton Interactions

    E-print Network

    U. D. Jentschura

    2014-01-16

    The proton radius conundrum [R. Pohl et al., Nature vol.466, p.213 (2010) and A. Antognini et al., Science vol.339, p.417 (2013)] highlights the need to revisit any conceivable sources of electron-muon nonuniversality in lepton-proton interactions within the Standard Model. Superficially, a number of perturbative processes could appear to lead to such a nonunversality. One of these is a coupling of the scattered electron into an electronic as opposed to a muonic vacuum polarization loop in the photon exchange of two valence quarks, which is present only for electron projectiles as opposed to muon projectiles. However, we can show that this effect actually is part of the radiative correction to the proton's polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift, equivalent to a radiative correction to double scattering. We conclude that any conceivable genuine nonuniversality must be connected with a nonperturbative feature of the proton's structure, e.g., with the possible presence of light sea fermions as constituent components of the proton. If we assume an average of roughly 0.7*10^(-7) light sea positrons per valence quark, then we can show that virtual electron-positron annihiliation processes lead to an extra term in the electron-proton versus muon-proton interaction, which has the right sign and magnitude to explain the proton radius discrepancy.

  1. Charge Delocalization in Proton Channels, I: The Aquaporin Channels and Proton Blockage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanning; Ilan, Boaz; Wu, Yujie; Zhu, Fangqiang; Schulten, Klaus; Voth, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    The explicit contribution to the free energy barrier and proton conductance from the delocalized nature of the excess proton is examined in aquaporin channels using an accurate all-atom molecular dynamics computer simulation model. In particular, the channel permeation free energy profiles are calculated and compared for both a delocalized (fully Grotthuss shuttling) proton and a classical (nonshuttling) hydronium ion along two aquaporin channels, Aqp1 and GlpF. To elucidate the effects of the bipolar field thought to arise from two ?-helical macrodipoles on proton blockage, free energy profiles were also calculated for computational mutants of the two channels where the bipolar field was eliminated by artificially discharging the backbone atoms. Comparison of the free energy profiles between the proton and hydronium cases indicates that the magnitude of the free energy barrier and position of the barrier peak for the fully delocalized and shuttling proton are somewhat different from the case of the (localized) classical hydronium. The proton conductance through the two aquaporin channels is also estimated using Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory for both the Grotthuss shuttling excess proton and the classical hydronium cation. PMID:17056733

  2. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung calculation: Comparison with recent high-precision experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yi; Liou, M.K.; Schreiber, W.M. [Department of Physics and Institute for Nuclear Theory, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Department of Physics, College of Staten Island of the City University of New York, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Proton-proton bremsstrahlung cross sections and analyzing powers have been calculated at 190 MeV by using a one-boson-exchange model. The results are compared with the recently published high-precision Kernfysisch-Versneller-Instituut (KVI) data. Satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment has been found.

  3. Proton-proton physics with the ALICE muon spectrometer at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bastid, N., E-mail: nicole.bastid@clermont.in2p3.f [IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Blaise Pascal, LPC Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2008-09-15

    ALICE, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC, has also an important proton-proton physics program. The ALICE muon spectrometer will be presented and the corresponding physics analysis will be reviewed. A particular emphasis will be placed on heavy-flavor measurement.

  4. Hot proton anisotropies and cool proton temperatures in the outer magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S.P.; Moldwin, M.B.; Thomsen, M.F.; Winske, D.; McComas, D.J.

    1994-11-01

    The plasma sheet and ring current ions of the outer magnetosphere typically exhibit an anisotropy such that the perpendicular temperature is greater than the parallel temperature. If such an anisotropy is sufficiently large, the electromagnetic proton cyclotron instability will be excited. This instability is studied using linear Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations for a homogeneous plasma model representative of conditions in the outer magnetosphere. The model includes a hot anisotropic proton component and a cool, initially isotropic proton component. Theory and simulations both predict that there is a threshold hot proton anisotropy for this instability which depends inversely on the parallel {beta} of the hot component. The simulations are also used to examine the nonlinear response of the cool protons to the proton cyclotron instability; the late-time temperature of the cool protons is found to increase as the relative hot proton density increases. Analysis of plasma observations obtained by the Los Alamos magnetospheric plasma analyzer in geosynchronous orbit finds that the hot ion anisotropy is indeed bounded by the predicted {beta}-independent threshold.

  5. Proton beam radiotherapy for uveal melanoma: Results of Curie Institut–Orsay Proton Therapy Center (ICPO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remi. Dendale; Livia Lumbroso-Le Rouic; Georges Noel; Loïc Feuvret; Christine Levy; Sabine Delacroix; Anne Meyer; Catherine Nauraye; Alejandro Mazal; Hamid Mammar; Paul Garcia; François D’Hermies; Eric Frau; Corine Plancher; Bernard Asselain; Pierre Schlienger; Jean Jacques Mazeron; Laurence Desjardins

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports the results of proton beam radiotherapy based on a retrospective series of patients treated for uveal melanoma at the Orsay Center. Methods and Materials: Between September 1991 and September 2001, 1,406 patients with uveal melanoma were treated by proton beam radiotherapy. A total dose of 60 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) was delivered in 4 fractions on

  6. Clustering phenomena from two-particle angular correlations in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions

    E-print Network

    Li, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Results on two-particle angular correlations in proton-proton (/-s = 200 and 410 GeV) ,Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions (js = 200 GeV) are presented over a broad range of pseudorapidity ([eta]) and azimuthal angle ([phi]). The ...

  7. Predicted Rates of Secondary Malignancies From Proton Versus Photon Radiation Therapy for Stage I Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Charles B., E-mail: csimone@alumni.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (United States); O'Meara, William P. [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Belard, Arnaud [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); O'Connell, John [Radiation Oncology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Photon radiotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma. Single-dose carboplatin therapy and observation have emerged as alternative options due to concerns for acute toxicities and secondary malignancies from radiation. In this institutional review board-approved study, we compared photon and proton radiotherapy for stage I seminoma and the predicted rates of excess secondary malignancies for both treatment modalities. Methods and Material: Computed tomography images from 10 consecutive patients with stage I seminoma were used to quantify dosimetric differences between photon and proton therapies. Structures reported to be at increased risk for secondary malignancies and in-field critical structures were contoured. Reported models of organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates based on organ equivalent dose were used to determine the excess absolute risk of secondary malignancies. Calculated values were compared with tumor registry reports of excess secondary malignancies among testicular cancer survivors. Results: Photon and proton plans provided comparable target volume coverage. Proton plans delivered significantly lower mean doses to all examined normal tissues, except for the kidneys. The greatest absolute reduction in mean dose was observed for the stomach (119 cGy for proton plans vs. 768 cGy for photon plans; p < 0.0001). Significantly more excess secondary cancers per 10,000 patients/year were predicted for photon radiation than for proton radiation to the stomach (4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.22-5.01), large bowel (0.81; 95% CI, 0.39-1.01), and bladder (0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.58), while no difference was demonstrated for radiation to the pancreas (0.02; 95% CI, -0.01-0.06). Conclusions: For patients with stage I seminoma, proton radiation therapy reduced the predicted secondary cancer risk compared with photon therapy. We predict a reduction of one additional secondary cancer for every 50 patients with a life expectancy of 40 years from the time of radiation treatment with protons instead of photons. Proton radiation therapy also allowed significant sparing of most critical structures examined and warrants further study for patients with seminoma, to decrease radiation-induced toxicity.

  8. A potential role for guanine nucleotide-binding protein in the regulation of endosomal proton transport.

    PubMed Central

    Gurich, R W; Codina, J; DuBose, T D

    1991-01-01

    The effects of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and GTP-gamma-S, known activators of GTP binding proteins, on proton transport were investigated in endosome-enriched vesicles (endosomes). Endosomes were prepared from rabbit renal cortex following the intravenous injection of FITC-dextran. The rate of intravesicular acidification was determined by measuring changes in fluorescence of FITC-dextran. Both GTP and GTP-gamma-S stimulated significantly the initial rate of proton transport. In contrast, GDP-beta-S, which does not activate GTP binding proteins, inhibited proton transport. The rank order of stimulation was GTP-gamma-S greater than GTP greater than control greater than GDP-beta-S. GTP-gamma-S stimulation of proton transport was also observed under conditions in which chloride entry was eliminated, i.e., 0 mM external chloride concentration in the presence of potassium/valinomycin voltage clamping. GTP-gamma-S did not affect proton leak in endosomes as determined by collapse of H+ ATPase-generated pH gradients. ADP ribosylation by treatment of endosomal membranes with pertussis toxin revealed two substrates corresponding to the 39-41 kD region and comigrating with alpha i subunits. Pretreatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin had no effect on proton transport in the absence of GTP or GTP-gamma-S. However, pretreatment with pertussis toxin blocked the stimulation of proton transport by GTP. In contrast, as reported in other membranes by others previously, pertussis toxin did not prevent the stimulation of proton transport by GTP-gamma-S. These findings, taken together, indicate that GTP binding proteins are present in endosomal membranes derived from renal cortex and that activation of G protein by GTP and GTP-gamma-S stimulates proton transport in a rank order identical to that reported for other transport pathways modulated by Gi proteins. Therefore, these studies suggest that G proteins are capable of stimulating the vacuolar H ATPase of endosomes directly. Images PMID:1850757

  9. A SURVEY OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE-INDUCED DAMAGE AND SPALL IN SELECTED METALS USING PROTON RADIOGRAPHY.

    SciTech Connect

    Holtkamp, D. B.; Clark, D. A.; Ferm, E. N.; Gallegos, R. A.; Hammon, D.; Hemsing, W. F.; Hogan, G. E.; Holmes, V. H.; King, N.. S.P; liljestrand, R.; Lopez, R. P.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Morley, K. B.; Murray, M. M.; Pazuchanics, P. D.; Prestridge, K. P.; Quintana, J. P.; Saunders, A.; Schafer, T.; Shinas, M. A.

    2003-07-01

    Multiple spall and damage layers can be created in metal when the free surface reflects a Taylor wave generated by high explosives. These phenomena have been explored in different thicknesses of several metals (tantalum, copper, 6061 T6-aluminum, and tin) using high-energy proton radiography. Multiple images (up to 21) can be produced of the dynamic evolution of damaged material on the microsecond time scale with a <50 ns “shutter” time. Movies and multiframe still images of areal and (Abel inverted) volume densities are presented. An example of material that is likely melted on release (tin) is also presented..

  10. Automatic Segmentation of Non-enhancing Brain Tumors in Magnetic Resonance Images

    E-print Network

    Hall, Lawrence O.

    weighted images, T1, T2 and proton density PD. Fuzzy c-means FCM clustering is a widely used clusteringAutomatic Segmentation of Non-enhancing Brain Tumors in Magnetic Resonance Images Lynn M. Fletcher,hall,goldgof@csee.usf.edu, murtagh@rad.usf.edu. #12;2 Abstract Tumor segmentation from magnetic resonance MR images may aid in tumor

  11. Gas phase infrared multiple-photon dissociation spectra of methanol, ethanol and propanol proton-bound dimers, protonated propanol and the propanol\\/water proton-bound dimer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis D. Fridgen; Luke Macaleese; Terry B. McMahon; Joel Lemaire; Philippe Maitre

    2006-01-01

    The infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of three homogenous proton-bound dimers are presented and the major features are assigned based on comparisons with the neutral alcohol and with density functional theory calculations. As well, the IRMPD spectra of protonated propanol and the propanol\\/water proton-bound dimer (or singly hydrated protonated propanol) are presented and analysed. Two primary IRMPD photoproducts were observed

  12. Proton and antiproton distributions at midrapidity in proton-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearden, I. G.; Bøggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Dodd, J.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fields, D. E.; Franz, A.; Hansen, A. G.; Holzer, E. B.; Humanic, T. J.; Jacak, B. V.; Jayanti, R.; Kalechofsky, H.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leltchouk, M.; Lörstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Medvedev, A.; Miyabayashi, A.; Murray, M.; Nishimura, S.; Pandey, S. U.; Piuz, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sarabura, M.; Spegel, M.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sumi, Y.; van Hecke, H.; Willis, W. J.; Wolf, K.; Xu, N.

    1998-02-01

    Experiment NA44 has measured proton and antiproton distributions at midrapidity in sulphur and proton collisions with nuclear targets at 200 and 450 GeV/c per nucleon respectively. The inverse slopes of transverse mass distributions increase with system size for both protons and antiprotons but are slightly lower for antiprotons. This could happen if antiprotons are annihilated in the nuclear medium. The antiproton yield increases with system size and centrality and is largest at midrapidity. The proton yield also increases with system size and centrality, but decreases from backward rapidity to midrapidity. The stopping of protons at these energies lies between the full stopping and nuclear transparency scenarios. The data are in reasonable agreement with RQMD predictions except for the antiproton yields from sulphur-nucleus collisions.

  13. Expected proton signal sizes in the PRaVDA Range Telescope for proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, T.; Esposito, M.; Poludniowski, G.; Taylor, J.; Waltham, C.; Parker, D. J.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Allinson, N. M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-05-01

    Proton radiotherapy has demonstrated benefits in the treatment of certain cancers. Accurate measurements of the proton stopping powers in body tissues are required in order to fully optimise the delivery of such treaments. The PRaVDA Consortium is developing a novel, fully solid state device to measure these stopping powers. The PRaVDA Range Telescope (RT), uses a stack of 24 CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) to measure the residual proton energy after the patient. We present here the ability of the CMOS sensors to detect changes in the signal sizes as the proton traverses the RT, compare the results with theory, and discuss the implications of these results on the reconstruction of proton tracks.

  14. Decorating titanate nanotubes with protonated 1,2,4-triazole moieties for anhydrous proton conduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xinmiao; Niu, Huifang; Tu, Zhengkai; Feng, Jiwen; Pan, Mu; Zhang, Haining

    2014-10-15

    Anhydrous proton conducting materials based on surface attachment of protonated 1,2,4-triazole moieties on titanate nanotubes are prepared through self-assembly technique. (1)H MAS NMR spectra have revealed that the triazole moieties located at the outer surface of nanotubes. The distance between two ionic groups at the surface is observed to be shorter than 1nm, which may facilitate the formation of continuous proton conducting domains, leading to easy proton transport through segmental motion and structural re-organization in the absence of water. The maximum proton conductivity of the synthesized materials reaches about 2.4×10(-3)Scm(-1) at 160°C under anhydrous conditions. PMID:25080383

  15. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process. PMID:25164748

  16. Factors influencing the accuracy of beam range estimation in proton therapy using prompt gamma emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, FMFC; Landry, G.; Cambraia Lopes, P.; Dedes, G.; Smeets, J.; Schaart, D. R.; Parodi, K.; Verhaegen, F.

    2014-08-01

    In-vivo imaging is a strategy to monitor the range of protons inside the patient during radiation treatment. A possible method of in-vivo imaging is detection of secondary ‘prompt’ gamma (PG) photons outside the body, which are produced by inelastic proton-nuclear interactions inside the patient. In this paper, important parameters influencing the relationship between the PG profile and percentage depth dose (PDD) in a uniform cylindrical phantom are explored. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the new Geant4 based code TOPAS for mono-energetic proton pencil beams (range: 100-250?MeV) and an idealized PG detector. PG depth profiles are evaluated using the inflection point on a sigmoid fit in the fall-off region of the profile. A strong correlation between the inflection point and the proton range determined from the PDD is found for all conditions. Variations between 1.5?mm and 2.7?mm in the distance between the proton range and the inflection point are found when either the mass density, phantom diameter, or detector acceptance angle is changed. A change in cut-off energy of the detector could induce a range difference of maximum 4?mm. Applying time-of-flight discrimination during detection, changing the primary energy of the beam or changing the elemental composition of the tissue affects the accuracy of the range prediction by less than 1?mm. The results indicate that the PG signal is rather robust to many parameter variations, but millimetre accurate range monitoring requires all medium and detector properties to be carefully taken into account.

  17. Functional polymers for anhydrous proton transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikkannagari, Nagamani

    Anhydrous proton conducting polymers are highly sought after for applications in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). N-heterocycles (eg. imidazole, triazole, and benzimidazole), owing to their amphoteric nature, have been widely studied to develop efficient anhydrous proton transporting polymers. The proton conductivity of N-heterocyclic polymers is influenced by several factors and the design and development of polymers with a delicate balance among various synergistic and competing factors to provide appreciable proton conductivities has been a challenging task. In this thesis, the proton transport (PT) characteristics of polymers functionalized with two diverse classes of functional groups--- N-heterocycles and phenols have been investigated and efforts have been made to develop the molecular design criteria for the design and development of efficient proton transporting functional groups and polymers. The proton conduction pathway in 1H-1,2,3-triazole polymers is probed by employing structurally analogous N-heterocyclic (triazole, imidazole, and pyrazole) and benz-N-heterocyclic (benzotriazole, benzimidazole, and benzopyrazole) polymers. Imidazole-like pathway was found to dominate the proton conductivity of triazole and pyrazole-like pathway makes only a negligible contribution, if any. Polymers containing benz-N-heterocycles exhibited higher proton conductivity than those with the corresponding N-heterocycles. Pyrazole-like functional groups, i.e. the molecules with two nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other, were found not to be good candidates for PT applications. A new class of proton transporting functional groups, phenols, has been introduced for anhydrous PT. One of the highlighting features of phenols over N-heterocycles is that the hydrogen bond donor/acceptor reorientation can happen on a single -OH site, allowing for facile reorientational dynamics in Grotthuss PT and enhanced proton conductivities in phenolic polymers. Unlike the case of N-heterocycles, comparable conductivities were achieved between poly (3,4,5-trihydroxy) styrene and the corresponding small molecule, pyrogallol. This observation suggests that reorientation should be considered as a crucial design parameter for PT functional groups. The PT characteristics of phenol-based biaryl polymers are studied and compared with the analogous phenol-based linear styrenic polymers. The two-dimensional disposition of -OH moieties in biaryl polymers, although resulted in lower apparent activation energies (Ea), did not improve the net proton conductivity due to the accompanying increase in glass transition temperature (Tg). Thus, the ease of synthesis and lower Tg values of phenol-based styrene polymers make the styrenic polymer architecture preferable over the biaryl architecture. Finally, the synthesis of a series of poly(3,4-dihydroxy styrene)-b-polystyrene block copolymers has been demonstrated via anionic polymerization. These block copolymers will provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the effect of nanoscale morphology on proton transport.

  18. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, M. R.; Galloway, R. A.; DeSanto, L. [IBA Industrial, Inc., 151 Heartland Boulevard, Edgewood, NY 11717 (United States); Jongen, Y. [IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-03-10

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron registered system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic mass analyzer inserted between the ion source and the acceleration tube will select the protons and reject heavier ions. A sorption pump near the ion source will minimize the flow of neutral hydrogen gas into the acceleration tube. For BNCT, a lithium target for generating epithermal neutrons is being developed that will be capable of dissipating the high power (>40 kW) of the proton beam. For NRA, special targets will be used to generate gamma rays with suitable energies for exciting nuclides typically present in explosive materials. Proton accelerators with such high-current and high-power capabilities in this energy range have not been developed previously.

  19. Proton transfer pathways in Photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations and the 1.9-Å crystal structure of Photosystem II (Umena, Y., Kawakami, K., Shen, J.-R., and Kamiya, N. (2011) Nature 473, 55-60), we investigated the H-bonding environment of the redox active tyrosine, TyrD and obtained insights that help explain its slow redox kinetics and the stability of TyrD radical. The water molecule distal to TyrD, 4 Å away from the phenolic O of TyrD (OTyrD) , corresponds to the presence of the tyrosyl radical state. The water molecule proximal to TyrD, in H-bonding distance to OTyrD, corresponds to the presence of the unoxidised tyrosine. The H+ released upon oxidation of TyrD is transferred to the proximal water, which shifts to the distal position, triggering a concerted proton transfer pathway involving D2-Arg180 and a series of waters, through which the proton reaches the aqueous phase at D2-His61. The water movement linked to the ejection of the proton from the hydrophobic environment near TyrD makes oxidation slow and quasi-irreversible, explaining the great stability of the TyrD radical. A symmetry-related proton pathway associated with TyrZ is pointed out and this is associated with one of the Cl- sites. This may represent a proton pathway functional in the water oxidation cycle.

  20. Proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, X.

    1985-01-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles were prepared from bovine brain catalyze ATP-driven proton translocation and a /sup 32/Pi-ATP exchange reaction. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) at 1 mM and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) at 0.5 mM inhibit the pump completely, whereas neither vanadate, efrapeptin, NaN/sub 3/, nor mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor has an effect. The coated vesicle proton pump is characterized by ATP specificity. dATP, but no other nucleotide, can replace ATP as a substrate. The pump is electrogenic and the electrogenicity is neutralized by chloride or bromide serving as co-ions. ATP-driven proton translocation can be observed in the absence of chloride, provided that the membrane potential is collapsed by K/sup +/ moving out in the presence of valinomycin. Chloride transport can be observed independent of proton movements in the absence of ATP, provided that an inside positive membrane potential is generated by K/sup +/ influx in the presence of valinomycin. The proton-translocating ATPase of coated vesicles was solubilized with a nonionic detergent polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether, and purified about 700 fold to near homogeneity. During purification the enzymatic activity was lost. A purified brain phospholipid fraction restored the activity and was subsequently identified as phosphatidylserine.