, major and trace element and isotope compositions of fertile lherzolites and thus cannot provide viable alternatives to the concept of melt extraction from pristine mantle as the major mechanism of CLM formation. Published data on xenoliths from andesitic volcanoes and on supra-subduction oceanic peridotites  show that the most common rocks in mantle wedge lithosphere are highly refractory harzburgites characterized by a combination of variable but generally high modal opx (18-30%) with very low modal cpx (1.5-3%). At a given olivine (or MgO) content, they have higher opx and silica, and lower cpx, Al and Ca contents than normal refractory peridotite xenoliths in continental basalts; the Mg-Si and Al-Si trends in those rocks resemble those in cratonic peridotites. These features may indicate either fluid fluxing during melting in the mantle wedge or selective post-melting metasomatic enrichments in silica to transform some olivine to opx. High oxygen fugacities and radiogenic Os-isotope compositions in those rocks may be related to enrichments by slab-derived fluids, but these features are not always coupled with trace element enrichments or patterns commonly attributed to "subduction zone metasomatism" deduced from studies of arc volcanic rocks and experiments. The valuable insights provided by experimental work and xenolith case studies are difficult to apply to many natural peridotite series because late-stage processes commonly overlap the evidence for initial melting. References:  Herzberg C., J. Petrol. 45: 2507 (2004).  Ionov D. & Sobolev A., GCA 72 (S1): A410 (2008).  Ionov D., Contrib. Miner. Petrol. (2007)  Ionov D., J. Petrol. doi: 10.1093/petrology/egp090 (2010)
Carlson, R. W.; Ionov, D. A.
high elevation of the Hangay uplift.  Ionov, D.A., Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 154, p455, 2007.  Ionov and Hofmann, EPSL 261, p620, 2007.
Antoine, Bénard; Dmitri A., Ionov
evolve into LREE enriched extreme end-products of veinlets-host rock interaction. Comparison of melt and fluid-rock interaction at sub-moho and late stage levels allow us to establish a complete geochemical model for subduction zones primary magma evolution and impact at mantle depths.  Ionov (2009) J. Petrol. 1-35.  Bénard and Ionov (2009) GCA, 73, Issue 13 Supplement 1, A108.
Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.
The partitioning of trace elements between rock forming minerals in igneous rocks is largely controlled by physical and chemical parameters e.g. temperature, pressure and chemical composition of the minerals and the coexisting melt. In the present study partition coefficients for REE between hornblende, orthopyroxene, feldspars, apatite and clinopyroxene in a suite of co-genetic alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks from the Ural Mountains (Russia) were calculated. The results give insights to the influence of the chemical composition of the parental melt on the partitioning behaviour of the REE. Nepheline-bearing, alkaline melanogabbros (tilaites) are assumed to represent the most fractionated products of the melt that formed the ultramafic cumulates in zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Ural Mountains. Co-genetic with the latter is a suite of olivine gabbros, gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros formed from a tholeiitic parental melt. Negative anomalies for the HFSE along with low Nb and Ta contents and a positive Sr anomaly indicate a subduction related origin of all parental melts. The nepheline gabbros consist predominantly of coarse-grained clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine grained clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, K-feldspar and nepheline with accessory apatite. The tholeiitic gabbros have equigranular to porphyric textures with phenocrysts of olivine, pyroxene and hornblende in a plagioclase rich matrix with olivine hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite. Element concentrations of adjacent matrix grains and rims of phenochrysts were measured with LA-ICPMS. The distribution of REE between hornblende and clinopyroxene in the tholeiitic rocks is similar for most of the elements (DHblCpx(La-Tm) = 2.7-2.8, decreasing to 2.6 and 2.4 for Yb and Lu, respectively). These values are about two times higher than published data (e.g. Ionov et al. 1997). Partition coefficients for orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene systematically decrease from the HREE
Doucet, Luc-Serge; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Ashchepkov, Igor
contents. The broad range of heavy REE appears to be controlled by the presence and the abundance of garnet and is also related to microstructures such that granular spinel harzburgites have lower HREE contents than "fertile" porphyroclastic garnet lherzolites. Trace elements in cpx and garnet have equilibrated patterns in porphyroclastic peridotites and complex sinusoidal shapes in granular peridotites. Bulk-rock major element compositions show important variations in Mg# (0.89 - 0.93), SiO2 (41.5 - 46.6%), Al2O3 (0.3 - 4%) and CaO (0.3 - 4%). As for compatible trace elements, the major element compositions appear to be related to microstructures. Calculated modal compositions show highly variable opx contents (4.5 - 24%), which are generally lower than in Kaapvaal peridotites but are similar to those from the North Atlantic craton . Overall, modal compositions and the contents of low-mobility elements, are consistent with an origin by variable degrees of partial melting of fertile mantle [1-3]. The range in FeO contents (6-8.5%) may indicate either variable melting depths  or post-melting enrichments. Enrichments in SiO2 show some similarities to those in supra-subduction xenoliths ; enrichments in highly incompatible elements can be explained by metasomatism with possible involvement of subduction-related fluids. Strong correlations between chemical compositions and microstructures indicate the involvement of tectonic processes in melt percolation and metasomatism. We suggest that the cratonic lithosphere in Siberia was formed in three stages: (1) formation of proto-cratonic mantle by high-degree melting at variable depth, (2) accretion of the proto-craton domains in subduction-related settings, (3) metasomatism commonly accompanied by deformation.  Boyd et al (1997) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 128, 228-246.  Herzberg (2004) J. Petrol. 45, 2507-2530.  Wittig et al (2008) Lithos 71, 289-322.  Ionov (2009) J. Petrol. In press
Doucet, L. S.; Ionov, D. A.; Brey, G. P.; Golovin, A. V.; Ashchepkov, I. V.
combined Os and Nd isotope data suggest that the cratonic mantle beneath Udachnaya was formed simultaneously with the assembly of the Siberian craton about 2 Ga ago, but that the majority of garnet peridotites, in particular high-T rocks from the base of the lithosphere, were affected by metasomatism, possibly in the late Proterozoic. The widespread metasomatism could have ben caused by large-scale asthenospheric upwelling. Unmetasomatised garnet-bearing peridotites are very rare among kimberlite-hosted xenoliths, hence in the lithospheric mantle, in Siberia and elsewhere.  Boyd et al (1997) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 128, 228-246.  Simon et al.(2003) Lithos. 71, 289-322. Ionov et al (2010) J. Petrol. 51, 2177-2210.  Herzberg (2004) J. Petrol. 45, 2507-2530.  Doucet et al. (2011) Gold. Conf. Abs. 2011, 777
Ishimaru, S.; Arai, S.; Tamura, A.; Okrugin, V. M.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.
We have a large amount of data about petrological and geochemical features of upper mantle peridotites based on researches of mantle xenoliths, ophiolites or solid intrusions. But the nature of sub-arc mantle, especially beneath a volcanic front, has not been fully understood due to the scarcity of occurrences of mantle-derived materials there. Kamchatka Peninsula is one of the active volcanic arcs, having 29 active volcanoes, and 13 volcanoes of them contain cognate or mantle peridotite xenoliths (Erlich et al., 1979). Peridotite xenoliths derived from the upper mantle beneath the volcanic front are expected from 9 of them (Erlich et al., 1979). Avachinsky (Avacha) volcano is the most famous of them because of its easy accessibility and high xenolith production. Peridotite xenoliths from Avacha record high degree of melting and multiple stages of metasomatism (e.g., Ishimaru et al., 2007; Ionov, 2010). Formation of secondary orthopyroxenes replacing olivine is one of characteristics of arc-derived peridotite xenoliths (e.g., Arai & Kida, 2000; McInnes et al., 2001). In addition, we found peculiar metasomatisms, e.g., Ni enrichment (e.g., Ishimaru and Arai, 2008), in the Avacha peridotite xenolith suite. Here, we show petrological and geochemical features of ultramafic xenoliths from Bezymyanny volcano, central Kamchatka, to obtain a more generalized view of the sub-front mantle. We examined 2 harzburgite xenoliths from Bezymyanny. They are composed of fine-grained minerals (cf. Arai and Kida, 2000), and occasionally contain hornblende and/or phlogopite. Almost all orthopyroxenes show irregular shapes and replace olivine, indicating a secondary origin. At the boundary between the harzburgite and host andesite, we observed hornblende and secondary orthopyroxenes. At the xenoliths' interior, Fo content of olivine and Cr# (= Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) of chromian spinel are high, 91-92 and 0.43-0.69, respectively, and the Fo content decreases to 76 at the boundary
Ashchepkov, Igor; Karmanov, Nikolai; Kanakin, Sergei; Ntaflos, Theodoros
Pleistocene Bartoy volcanoes 1.5-0.8 Ma (Ashchepkov et al., 2003) represent variable set of hydrous cumulates and megacrysts and peridotite mantle xenoliths from spinel facies (Ashchepkov, 1991; Ionov, Kramm, 1992). Hydrous peridotites give series of the temperature groups: 1) deformed Fe - lherzolites (1200-1100o) , 2) Phl porhyroclastiμ (1100-1020o), 3) Amph -Phl (1020-940o), 4) Dry protogranular (1020-940o), 5)Amph equigranular (940-880o) and 6) dry and fine grained (880-820o). and Fe-rich poikilitic (700-600o) (Ashchepkov, 1991). T according (Nimis, Taylor, 2000) The sequence of the megacrysts crystallized on the wall of basaltic feeder in pre - eruption stage is starting from HT dark green websterites (1300-1200o), black Cpx- Gar varieties (1250-1200o) evolved to Phl -CPx (1200-1130o) and Cpx - Kaers (1130-1020o) - Cpx low in TiO2., Ilm and San (<1000o) like in Vitim (Ashchepkov et la., 2011). The differentiation trends looks branched but the question if they. Differentiation ain relatively large magma bodies p produced Ga- Cpx (+Amph-Phl- Ilm +-San) and then Cpx-Gar -Pl cumulates in( ~8-12 kbar) interval. In the ToC-Fe# diagram the Intermediate trend between lherzolites and megacrysts sub parallel to lherzolitic is correspondent to the fractionation of the hydrous alkali basalt melts in vein network created from the highly H2O bearing basaltic derivates formed in intermediate magma chambers. The interaction of the peridotites with the pulsing rising and evolving basaltic system produced the wall rock metasomatism and separate groups of peridotites in different levels of mantle column. PT calculations show two PT path and probably melt intrusion events. Trace elements in glass from crystalline basalts show Zr, Pb dips and Ta, Nb, Sr enrichment for the black megacrystalline Cpx , Gar series. They show link with evolved basalts by HFSE, Ba enrichment but Cpx from kaersutite and further Gar - Cpx cumulates show depressions in Ta, Nb, Zr, and Pb moderate
Prikhodko, V.; Ashchepkov, I.; Ntaflos, T.; Barkar, A.; Vysotsky, S.; Esin, S.; Kutolin, V.; Prussevich, A.
-Koppy rivers and Mount Kurgan) show that in lava plateau stage Cpx in spinel facies have LREE Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta depleted patterns common for subduction related mantle melts. The Pliocene post erosion lava xenoliths's CPX reveal humped REE patterns, small depletions in Zr deeper in Ta corresponding to minor garnet in source. Clinopyroxenes from Amph- bearing websteritis are closer in TRE to to melts burn in garnet- bearing lherzolites (HFSE enriched U, Th spidergrams indication carbonatite metasomatism. Cpx in Podgelbanochny xenoliths (Ionov, 1995) reveal LREE - Th, U, Nb, Ta enriched content probably related to carbonatitic metasomatism or melts formed after decomposition of Amph - Phl measomaic association. The small Zr and Pb minima suppose sulfide and minor rutile precipitation. The host plume of Pliocene basalts are close to derived from primitive mantle source deviating in Sr (peak) small fluctuations in Zr- Hf. Reconstructed with KD parental liquids for websterites from MountKurgan are close to erupted lavas in La/Ybn . Melts parental for Cr- Di in the xenoliths from Podgelbanochny are more enriched. The sequence of xenolths show the sequent enrichment of the mantle columns beneath basaltic plateaus with the melts of subduction related to plume source. RBRF grant 11-05-00060.