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Sample records for prototype superfluid helium

  1. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  2. Helium superfluidity. Shapes and vorticities of superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Luis F; Ferguson, Ken R; Cryan, James P; Bacellar, Camila; Tanyag, Rico Mayro P; Jones, Curtis; Schorb, Sebastian; Anielski, Denis; Belkacem, Ali; Bernando, Charles; Boll, Rebecca; Bozek, John; Carron, Sebastian; Chen, Gang; Delmas, Tjark; Englert, Lars; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Hexemer, Alexander; Huth, Martin; Kwok, Justin; Leone, Stephen R; Ma, Jonathan H S; Maia, Filipe R N C; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Neumark, Daniel M; Poon, Billy; Prell, James; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Seifrid, Martin; Siefermann, Katrin R; Sturm, Felix P; Swiggers, Michele; Ullrich, Joachim; Weise, Fabian; Zwart, Petrus; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver; Vilesov, Andrey F

    2014-08-22

    Helium nanodroplets are considered ideal model systems to explore quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, exploring the dynamic properties of individual droplets is experimentally challenging. In this work, we used single-shot femtosecond x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the rotation of single, isolated superfluid helium-4 droplets containing ~10(8) to 10(11) atoms. The formation of quantum vortex lattices inside the droplets is confirmed by observing characteristic Bragg patterns from xenon clusters trapped in the vortex cores. The vortex densities are up to five orders of magnitude larger than those observed in bulk liquid helium. The droplets exhibit large centrifugal deformations but retain axially symmetric shapes at angular velocities well beyond the stability range of viscous classical droplets. PMID:25146284

  3. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…

  4. Vorticity matching in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1991-12-01

    Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'

  5. Detection of Charged Particles in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, Simon Richard

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the measurement of the flux of neutrinos from the sun remains a challenging experimental problem. The ideal detector would be able to detect neutrinos at high rate, in real time, with good energy resolution and would have a threshold which is low enough for investigation of the entire solar neutrino spectrum. A new detection scheme using superfluid helium as a target has been proposed which has the potential to meet most of the criteria of the ideal detector. In this scheme a neutrino would be detected when it elastically scatters off an atomic electron in superfluid helium. The electron loses energy via a number of processes eventually leading to the generation of phonons and rotons in the liquid. At low temperatures these excitations propagate ballistically through the superfluid helium. When the excitations reach the free surface some of them are able to evaporate helium atoms. These atoms can be detected by an array of calorimeters suspended above the liquid surface. In this thesis, results are presented for a small -scale prototype of this type of detector. Experiments have been performed using various radioactive sources to generate energy depositions in the liquid. The results reveal details about the processes of generation of rotons and phonons, the propagation of these excitations through the superfluid, the evaporation of helium atoms and the adsorption of helium atoms onto the wafer. Results are also presented on the detection of fluorescent photons generated in the liquid. One source of energy depositions was 241{rm Am} which produces monoenergetic 5.5 MeV alpha particles. It was found that the ratio of the energy deposited in a calorimeter to the energy deposited in liquid helium was 0.084 when alpha's are emitted parallel to the liquid surface, and 0.020 for alpha's emitted perpendicular. The difference is due to the anisotropic distribution of helium excitations generated. A 113{rm Sn} source of 360 keV electrons stopped in

  6. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.; Anderson, John E.; Gille, John P.; Martin, Tim A.; Marino, John S.; Paynter, Howard L.; Traill, R. Eric; Herzl, Alfred; Gotlib, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Replenishment of superfluid helium (SFHe) offers the potential of extending the on-orbit life of observatories, satellite instruments, sensors and laboratories which operate in the 2 K temperature regime. A reference set of resupply customers was identified as representing realistic helium servicing requirements and interfaces for the first 10 years of superfluid helium tanker (SFHT) operations. These included the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (Astromag), and the Microgravity and Materials Processing Sciences Facility (MMPS)/Critical Point Phenomena Facility (CPPF). A mixed-fleet approach to SFHT utilization was considered. The tanker permits servicing from the Shuttle cargo bay, in situ when attached to the OMV and carried to the user spacecraft, and as a depot at the Space Station. A SFHT Dewar ground servicing concept was developed which uses a dedicated ground cooling heat exchanger to convert all the liquid, after initial fill as normal fluid, to superfluid for launch. This concept permits the tanker to be filled to a near full condition, and then cooled without any loss of fluid. The final load condition can be saturated superfluid with any desired ullage volume, or the tank can be totally filed and pressurized. The SFHT Dewar and helium plumbing system design has sufficient component redundancy to meet fail-operational, fail-safe requirements, and is designed structurally to meet a 50 mission life usage requirement. Technology development recommendations were made for the selected SFHT concept, and a Program Plan and cost estimate prepared for a phase C/D program spanning 72 months from initiation through first launch in 1997.

  7. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  8. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Kittel, P.

    1988-07-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  9. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The accomplishments and recommendations of the two-phase Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study are presented. During the first phase of the study, the emphasis was on defining a comprehensive set of user requirements, establishing SFHT interface parameters and design requirements, and selecting a fluid subsystem design concept. During the second phase, an overall system design concept was constructed based on appropriate analyses and more detailed definition of requirements. Modifications needed to extend the baseline for use with cryogens other than SFHT have been determined, and technology development needs related to the recommended design have been assessed.

  10. Superfluid helium leak sealant study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-one leak specimens were fabricated in the ends of stainless steel and aluminum tubes. Eighteen of these tubes were coated with a copolymer material to seal the leak. The other three specimens were left uncoated and served as control specimens. All 21 tubes were cold shocked in liquid helium 50 times and then the leak rate was measured while the tubes were submerged in superfluid helium at 1.7 K. During the cold shocks two of the coated specimens were mechanically damaged and eliminated from the test program. Of the remaining 16 coated specimens one suffered a total coating failure and resulting high leak rate. Another three of the coated specimens suffered partial coating failures. The leak rates of the uncoated specimens were also measured and reported. The significance of various leak rates is discussed in view of the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Dewar performance.

  11. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  12. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  13. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  14. Vortex reconnection in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Koplik, J. ); Levine, H. )

    1993-08-30

    A useful physical model for superfluid turbulence considers the flow to consist of a dense tangle of vortex lines which evolve and interact. It has been suggested that these vortex lines can dynamically reconnect upon close approach. Here, we consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation model of superfluid quantum mechanics, and use numerical simulation to study this topology changing core-scale process. Our results support the idea that vortex reconnection will occur whenever filaments come within a few core lengths of one another.

  15. Electron Diffraction of Superfluid Helium Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental results of electron diffraction of superfluid helium droplets and droplets doped with phthalocyanine gallium chloride and discuss the possibility of performing the same experiment with a laser aligned sample. The diffraction profile of pure droplets demonstrates dependence on the nozzle temperature, that is, on the average size of the droplets. Larger clusters demonstrate faster decay with increasing momentum transfer, whereas smaller clusters converge to isolated gas phase molecules at source temperatures of 18 K and higher. Electron diffraction of doped droplets shows similar modified molecular scattering intensity as that of the corresponding gas phase molecules. On the basis of fittings of the scattering profile, the number of remaining helium atoms of the doped droplets is estimated to be on the order of hundreds. This result offers guidance in assessing the possibility of electron diffraction from laser aligned molecules doped in superfluid helium droplets. PMID:24920997

  16. Superfluid helium on orbit transfer (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of space flight experiments and entire facilities require superfluid helium as a coolant. Among these are the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (PAMF or Astromag), and perhaps even a future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrument. Because these systems are required to have long operational lifetimes, a means to replenish the liquid helium, which is exhausted in the cooling process, is required. The most efficient method of replenishment is to refill the helium dewars on orbit with superfluid helium (liquid helium below 2.17 Kelvin). To develop and prove the technology required for this liquid helium refill, a program of ground and flight testing was begun. The flight demonstration is baselined as a two flight program. The first, described in this paper, will prove the concepts involved at both the component and system level. The second flight will demonstrate active astronaut involvement and semi-automated operation. The current target date for the first launch is early 1991.

  17. Fiber-Cavity Optomechanics with Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Kashkanova, Anna D.; Shkarin, Alexey B.; Hoch, Scott W.; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Harris, Jack G. E.

    2014-03-01

    In a typical optomechanical device, the resonance frequency of a cavity is coupled to mechanical motion through the radiation pressure force. To date, experimental cavities have predominately coupled to a resonant mechanical mode of a solid structure, often a lithographically-defined beam or membrane. We will describe our progress towards realizing an optomechanical device in which an optical fiber-cavity couples to the acoustic modes of superfluid helium. In this system, the optical modes and the acoustic modes of the superfluid are co-located between the mirrored ends of two fiber optic cables. Changes in the density of the superfluid change the effective length of the cavity which results in a standard, linear optomechanical coupling between the 300 MHz acoustic resonances and the 200 THz optical resonances. This type of device is motivated by the self-aligning nature of the acoustic and optical modes (which eases the difficulties of operating at cryogenic temperatures) and by the low optical and mechanical losses of superfluid helium. Although we expect the mechanical quality factor to be limited by acoustic radiation into the glass fiber, we will describe a proposal to realize a dual-band Bragg mirror to confine the optical and acoustic modes more efficiently. Supported by NSF Grant #1106110, ARO Grant #W911NF-13-1-0104, and the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  18. Production and storage of ultra cold neutrons in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.L.; Lamoreaux, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) concerning the investigation of a new method for the experimental exploitation of ultra-cold neutrons. The production and storage of ultra cold neutrons in superfluid helium has been suggested as a tool for the production of high densities of ultra cold neutrons for fundamental nuclear physics as well as for sensitive measurements for condensed matter. A particular application of this technique has been suggested by Doyle and Lamoreaux that involves the trapping of neutrons in a magnetic field within the superfluid helium volume. Neutron decays within the trap volume are detected by the scintillation light produced in the liquid helium. A cryostat and magnetic trap have been constructed as well as a prototype light detection system. This system was installed on a cold neutron beam line at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility in the summer of 1997. Preliminary results indicate the detection of helium scintillation light from the detection vessel.

  19. Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Gregory P; Paoletti, Matthew S; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R; Lathrop, Daniel P

    2008-09-16

    When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately 1/2, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790

  20. Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Gregory P.; Paoletti, Matthew S.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately ½, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790

  1. A superfluid helium system for an LST IR experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. W., Jr.; Moore, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study program directed toward evaluating the problems associated with cooling an LST instrument to 2 K for a year by using superfluid helium as the cooling means. The results include the parametric analysis of systems using helium only, and systems using helium plus a shield cryogen. A baseline system, using helium only is described. The baseline system is sized for an instrument heat leak of 50 mw. It contains 71 Kg of superfluid helium and has a total, filled weight of 217 Kg. A brief assessment of the technical problems associated with a long life, spaceborne superfluid helium storage system is also made. It is concluded that a one year life, superfluid helium cooling system is feasible, pending experimental verification of a suitable low g vent system.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Pumps for Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, G.; Schumann, B.; Stangl, R.; Binneberg, A.; Wobst, E.

    2004-06-23

    In Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) experiment a large scale superconducting magnet separates charged particles coming from cosmic radiation. Two thermo-mechanical pumps (TMP), operating by use of the Fountain-effect, will be used to supply the current leads and the magnet coil after quench with superfluid helium. These TMP are currently under development at ILK Dresden. Due to the applications the TMP are required to pump a mass flow of 0.2 g/s. After introduction into the basic principles essential for TMP function, we report on the development and tests of the TMP for AMS-02.

  3. Phase order in superfluid helium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell, Steven T.; Faulkner, Michael F.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Taroni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Classic experimental data on helium films are transformed to estimate a finite-size phase order parameter that measures the thermal degradation of the condensate fraction in the two-dimensional superfluid. The order parameter is found to evolve thermally with the exponent β = 3 π^2/128 , a characteristic, in analogous magnetic systems, of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Universal scaling near the BKT fixed point generates a collapse of experimental data on helium and ferromagnetic films, and implies new experiments and theoretical protocols to explore the phase order. These results give a striking example of experimental finite-size scaling in a critical system that is broadly relevant to two-dimensional Bose fluids. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Maxime Clusel, with whom we enjoyed many stimulating discussions on related topics.

  4. Acquisition system testing with superfluid helium. [cryopumping for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John E.; Fester, Dale A.; Dipirro, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Minus one-g outflow tests were conducted with superfluid helium in conjunction with a thermomechanical pump setup in order to study the use of capillary acquisition systems for NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment. Results show that both fine mesh screen and porous sponge systems are capable of supplying superfluid helium to the thermomechanical pump inlet against a one-g head up to 4 cm, fulfilling the SHOOT requirements. Sponge results were found to be reproducible, while the screen results were not.

  5. Possible Stimulation of Nuclear alpha Decay by Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Barabanov, A. L.

    2009-08-28

    It is suggested that superfluid helium (condensate of {sup 4}He atoms) may stimulate nuclear alpha decay in a situation when an alpha emitter moves through superfluid helium with fine-tuned velocity, so that the backward-emitted alpha particle is at rest in the laboratory frame. It is shown that the probability of stimulated alpha decay in this case may be sizable enough to be detected.

  6. Interaction of infrared light with impurity gels in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, A. N.; Efimov, V. B.

    2011-05-01

    Rapid cooling of an impurity-helium mixture into superfluid helium produces a distinctive soft matter—impurity-helium gel, clusters of which coagulate into nanoparticles. The sizes of the particles and their mutual interaction depend on the nature of the impurity atoms and the impurity-helium coupling. Here we describe the setup of and preliminary results from an experiment to study infrared absorption by a water-helium gel. Comparisons of the infrared absorption spectra of the gel and of water and ice suggests a peculiar interaction among water molecules in a water-helium gel.

  7. Design and testing of a superfluid liquid helium cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.M.; Green, M.A.; Levin, S.M.; Smoot, G.F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a cryogenic cooling loop that uses a thermomechanical pump to circulate superfluid liquid helium. The cooling loop test apparatus is designed to prove forced liquid helium flow concepts that will be used on the Astromag superconducting magnet facility. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Liquid acquisition devices for superfluid helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    To transfer superfluid helium (He II) in the milli-g or micro-g environment in orbit, it is necessary to provide a reasonably steady supply of liquid to the inlet of the pump in the supply dewar. To accomplish this without providing an artificial gravity through acceleration requires a liquid acquisition device. Fluid swirl and electrostatic devices have been proposed to orientate the fluid. However, the simplest mechanisms appear to be the use of surface tension or the thermomechanical effect. This paper examines four concepts for providing He II to the inlet of a thermomechanical pump. The devices are a distributed thermomechanical pump, a distributed pump with a main thermomechanical pump, a screened channel system and a vane/sponge combination. Calculations on the efficiency of these types of liquid acquisition devices are made using laboratory data from tests involving small scale devices where applicable. These calculations show that the latter two types of liquid acquisition devices are the most efficient. Questions as to the probability of cavitation and the effect of the residual shuttle acceleration on their operation remain to be answered, however.

  9. Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) operatons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The in-flight tests and the operational sequences of the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment are outlined. These tests include the transfer of superfluid helium at a variety of rates, the transfer into cold and warm receivers, the operation of an extravehicular activity coupling, and tests of a liquid acquisition device. A variety of different types of instrumentation will be required for these tests. These include pressure sensors and liquid flow meters that must operate in liquid helium, accurate thermometry, two types of quantity gauges, and liquid-vapor sensors.

  10. Dynamics of superfluid helium in zero gravity. [Spacelab 2 investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, P. V.

    1981-01-01

    The Spacelab 2 superfluid helium experiment was designed to: (1) examine the behavior of capillary waves and measure their velocity and dampling; (2) study the sloshing motion of bulk superfluid helium in near-zero gravity in order to determine its effects on sensors and attitude control systems for far infrared telescopes; and (3) determine the temperature distributions in the liquid and their correlation with bulk motion. The experiment system includes a helium cryostat with a sensor head and a microcomputer to provide electrical excitation and gather and transmit resultant responses to the experiment teams on the ground. Astronaut intervention is possible.

  11. Superfluid helium cryogenic systems for superconducting RF cavities at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, H.; Hara, K.; Honma, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Kojima, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Kanekiyo, T.; Morita, S.

    2014-01-29

    Recent accelerator projects at KEK, such as the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) for R and D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project and the compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), employ superconducting RF cavities made of pure niobium, which can generate high gradient acceleration field. Since the operation temperature of these cavities is selected to be 2 K, we have developed two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for stable operation of superconducting RF cavities for each of STF and cERL. These two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems are identical in principle. Since the operation mode of the cavities is different for STF and cERL, i.e. the pulse mode for STF and the continuous wave mode for cERL, the heat loads from the cavities are quite different. The 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems mainly consists of ordinary helium liquefiers/refrigerators, 2 K refrigerator cold boxes, helium gas pumping systems and high-performance transfer lines. The 2 K refrigerators and the high-performance transfer lines are designed by KEK. Some superconducting RF cavity cryomodules have been already connected to the 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for STF and cERL respectively, and cooled down to 2 K successfully.

  12. Large quantum superpositions of a nanoparticle immersed in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychkovskiy, O.

    2016-06-01

    Preparing and detecting spatially extended quantum superpositions of a massive object comprises an important fundamental test of quantum theory. These quantum states are extremely fragile and tend to quickly decay into incoherent mixtures due to the environmental decoherence. Experimental setups considered up to date address this threat in a conceptually straightforward way—by eliminating the environment, i.e., by isolating an object in a sufficiently high vacuum. We show that another option exists: decoherence is suppressed in the presence of a strongly interacting environment if this environment is superfluid. Indeed, as long as an object immersed in a pure superfluid at zero temperature moves with a velocity below the critical one, it does not create, absorb, or scatter any excitations of the superfluid. Hence, in this idealized situation the decoherence is absent. In reality the decoherence will be present due to thermal excitations of the superfluid and impurities contaminating the superfluid. We examine various decoherence channels in the superfluid helium at 1 mK. Performing interference experiments in superfluid helium can provide certain practical advantages compared to conventional schemes, e.g., compensation of gravity by the buoyancy force and effective cooling.

  13. Acoustics of the Lambda Transition in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megson, Peter; Meichle, David; Lathrop, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Liquid Helium undergoes a phase transition and becomes a quantum superfluid when cooled below the Lambda transition temperature of 2.17 Kelvin. The superfluid, which is a partial Bose Einstein Condensate, exhibits unique macroscopic properties such as flow without viscosity and ballistic temperature propagation. We have recorded striking audio-frequency sounds using a micro electromechanical microphone (MEMS) present as the Helium goes through the Lambda transition. Characterization of this sound, as well as its relevance to theories of the Lambda transition will be presented.

  14. Energy spectra of finite temperature superfluid helium-4 turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kivotides, Demosthenes

    2014-10-15

    A mesoscopic model of finite temperature superfluid helium-4 based on coupled Langevin-Navier-Stokes dynamics is proposed. Drawing upon scaling arguments and available numerical results, a numerical method for designing well resolved, mesoscopic calculations of finite temperature superfluid turbulence is developed. The application of model and numerical method to the problem of fully developed turbulence decay in helium II, indicates that the spectral structure of normal-fluid and superfluid turbulence is significantly more complex than that of turbulence in simple-fluids. Analysis based on a forced flow of helium-4 at 1.3 K, where viscous dissipation in the normal-fluid is compensated by the Lundgren force, indicate three scaling regimes in the normal-fluid, that include the inertial, low wavenumber, Kolmogorov k{sup −5/3} regime, a sub-turbulence, low Reynolds number, fluctuating k{sup −2.2} regime, and an intermediate, viscous k{sup −6} range that connects the two. The k{sup −2.2} regime is due to normal-fluid forcing by superfluid vortices at high wavenumbers. There are also three scaling regimes in the superfluid, that include a k{sup −3} range that corresponds to the growth of superfluid vortex instabilities due to mutual-friction action, and an adjacent, low wavenumber, k{sup −5/3} regime that emerges during the termination of this growth, as superfluid vortices agglomerate between intense normal-fluid vorticity regions, and weakly polarized bundles are formed. There is also evidence of a high wavenumber k{sup −1} range that corresponds to the probing of individual-vortex velocity fields. The Kelvin waves cascade (the main dynamical effect in zero temperature superfluids) appears to be damped at the intervortex space scale.

  15. Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

  16. Cylindrical standing surface waves in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, R.J.; Fox, N.

    1987-02-01

    A theoretical analysis is given of the resonant frequencies of standing surface waves produced in a cylinder filled with superfluid /sup 4/He. In particular, it is shown that a heat transfer coefficient involved in a recently proposed empirical boundary condition can be related to the Kapitza resistance.

  17. Specifications and Performances of Series Superfluid Helium Safety Relief Valves for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, A.; Fontanive, V.

    2006-04-01

    Protecting the LHC magnets requires safety relief valves operating with 1.9 K pressurized superfluid helium at their inlet. Following the evaluation of prototype valves, a specification for the production of the 360 safety relief valves needed for the LHC was issued. The production of the safety valves was then awarded to an industrial contractor. The performances of pre-series valves were assessed for a variety of aspects including thermal performance, leak tightness in superfluid helium, dynamic behavior and resistance to intensive mechanical cycling. After the initial validation phase the series production was completed within the technical requirements of the specification. This paper describes the characteristics of the safety relief valves and the specifications for their industrial production. The performances of the pre-series valves are presented and an overview of the series production phase is given.

  18. Superfluid helium in fully saturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K. ); Meng, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The flow of superfluid [sup 4]He through spongelike media at full saturation is modeled by the flow of current through an Ohmic network with random resistors. Solving Kirchhoff's equations leads to the conclusion that the superfluid critical point is a percolation threshold, with critical exponent 1.7. The fractal dimension of the percolating cluster is 2.6. These lead to a specific-heat exponent [alpha]=[minus]5.4, by the Josephson hyperscaling relation. Existing experiments apparently do not cover the critical region. Instead, they measure mean-field'' exponents, whose values for Vycor, aerogel, and xerogel can all be reproduced by choosing appropriate distribution functions for the resistors.

  19. Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David J.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under a contract entitled 'Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low Gravity'. This project performed verification tests, over a wide range of accelerations of two Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes of which one incorporates the two-fluid model of superfluid helium (SFHe). Helium was first liquefied in 1908 and not until the 1930s were the properties of helium below 2.2 K observed sufficiently to realize that it did not obey the ordinary physical laws of physics as applied to ordinary liquids. The term superfluidity became associated with these unique observations. The low temperature of SFHe and it's temperature unifonrmity have made it a significant cryogenic coolant for use in space applications in astronomical observations with infrared sensors and in low temperature physics. Superfluid helium has been used in instruments such as the Shuttle Infrared Astronomy Telescope (IRT), the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), the Cosmic Background Observatory (COBE), and the Infrared Satellite Observatory (ISO). It is also used in the Space Infrared Telescope (SIRTF), Relativity Mission Satellite formally called Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), and the Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) presently under development. For GP-B and STEP, the use of SFHE is used to cool Superconducting Quantum Interference Detectors (SQUIDS) among other parts of the instruments. The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment flown in the Shuttle studied the behavior of SFHE. This experiment attempted to get low-gravity slosh data, however, the main emphasis was to study the low-gravity transfer of SFHE from tank to tank. These instruments carried tanks of SFHE of a few hundred liters to 2500 liters. The capability of modeling the behavior of SFHE is important to spacecraft control engineers who must design systems that can overcome disturbances created by the movement of the fluid. In addition instruments such as GP-B and STEP are very

  20. Dynamics of vortex assisted metal condensation in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Popov, Evgeny; Mammetkuliyev, Muhammet; Eloranta, Jussi

    2013-05-28

    Laser ablation of copper and silver targets immersed in bulk normal and superfluid (4)He was studied through time-resolved shadowgraph photography. In normal fluid, only a sub-millimeter cavitation bubble is created and immediate formation of metal clusters is observed within a few hundred microseconds. The metal clusters remain spatially tightly focused up to 15 ms, and it is proposed that this observation may find applications in particle image velocimetry. In superfluid helium, the cavitation bubble formation process is distinctly different from the normal fluid. Due to the high thermal conductivity and an apparent lag in the breakdown of superfluidity, about 20% of the laser pulse energy was transferred directly into the liquid and a large gas bubble, up to several millimeters depending on laser pulse energy, is created. The internal temperature of the gas bubble is estimated to exceed 9 K and the following bubble cool down period therefore includes two separate phase transitions: gas-normal liquid and normal liquid-superfluid. The last stage of the cool down process was assigned to the superfluid lambda transition where a sudden formation of large metal clusters is observed. This is attributed to high vorticity created in the volume where the gas bubble previously resided. As shown by theoretical bosonic density functional theory calculations, quantized vortices can trap atoms and dimers efficiently, exhibiting static binding energies up to 22 K. This, combined with hydrodynamic Bernoulli attraction, yields total binding energies as high as 35 K. For larger clusters, the static binding energy increases as a function of the volume occupied in the liquid to minimize the surface tension energy. For heliophobic species an energy barrier develops as a function of the cluster size, whereas heliophilics show barrierless entry into vortices. The present theoretical and experimental observations are used to rationalize the previously reported metal nanowire assembly in

  1. Vacuum-ultraviolet laser uses superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Vacuum ultra violet laser in wavelength around 0.800 microns is produced by using optical pumping to increase lifetimes of excited metastable molecules in super fluid helium. In method, super fluid helium is pumped electronically to produce excited HE2, and then pumped by circularly polarized 0.9096 - micron radiation to aline excited HE2 molecular spins. High power ultraviolet radiation has potential applications in molecular reaction studies, power transmission in space, and biomedical research.

  2. Laser cooling and control of excitations in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, G. I.; McAuslan, D. L.; Sheridan, E.; Sachkou, Y.; Baker, C.; Bowen, W. P.

    2016-08-01

    Superfluidity is a quantum state of matter that exists macroscopically in helium at low temperatures. The elementary excitations in superfluid helium have been probed with great success using techniques such as neutron and light scattering. However, measurements of phonon excitations have so far been limited to average thermodynamic properties or the driven response far out of thermal equilibrium. Here, we use cavity optomechanics to probe the thermodynamics of phonon excitations in real time. Furthermore, strong light-matter interactions allow both laser cooling and amplification. This represents a new tool to observe and control superfluid excitations that may provide insight into phonon-phonon interactions, quantized vortices and two-dimensional phenomena such as the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. The third sound modes studied here also offer a pathway towards quantum optomechanics with thin superfluid films, including the prospect of femtogram masses, high mechanical quality factors, strong phonon-phonon and phonon-vortex interactions, and self-assembly into complex geometries with sub-nanometre feature size.

  3. Experimental study of ultracold neutron production in pressurized superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Bossy, J.; Farhi, E.; Fertl, M.; Leung, K. K. H.; Rahli, A.; Soldner, T.; Zimmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate experimentally the pressure dependence of the production of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in superfluid helium in the range from saturated vapor pressure to 20 bar. A neutron velocity selector allows the separation of underlying single-phonon and multiphonon processes by varying the incident cold neutron (CN) wavelength in the range from 3.5 to 10 Å. The predicted pressure dependence of UCN production derived from inelastic neutron scattering data is confirmed for the single-phonon excitation. For multiphonon-based UCN production we found no significant dependence on pressure, whereas calculations from inelastic neutron scattering data predict an increase of 43(6)% at 20 bar relative to saturated vapor pressure. From our data we conclude that applying pressure to superfluid helium does not increase the overall UCN production rate at a typical CN guide.

  4. Communication: Electron diffraction of ferrocene in superfluid helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; He, Yunteng; Kong, Wei

    2016-06-14

    We report electron diffraction of ferrocene doped in superfluid helium droplets. By taking advantage of the velocity slip in our pulsed droplet beam using a pulsed electron gun, and by doping with a high concentration of ferrocene delivered via a pulsed valve, we can obtain high quality diffraction images from singly doped droplets. Under the optimal doping conditions, 80% of the droplets sampled in the electron beam are doped with just one ferrocene molecule. Extension of this size selection method to dopant clusters has also been demonstrated. However, incomplete separation of dopant clusters might require deconvolution and modeling of the doping process. This method can be used for studies of nucleation processes in superfluid helium droplets. PMID:27305988

  5. Hydrodynamics of superfluid helium in a single nanohole.

    PubMed

    Savard, M; Dauphinais, G; Gervais, G

    2011-12-16

    The flow of liquid helium through a single nanohole with radius smaller than 25 nm was studied. Mass flow was induced by applying a pressure difference of up to 1.4 bar across a 50 nm thick Si(3)N(4) membrane and was measured directly by means of mass spectrometry. In liquid He I, we experimentally show that the fluid is not clamped by the short pipe with diameter-to-length ratio D/L≃1, despite the small diameter of the nanohole. This viscous flow is quantitatively understood by making use of a model of flow in short pipes. In liquid He II, a two-fluid model for mass flow is used to extract the superfluid velocity in the nanohole for different pressure heads at temperatures close to the superfluid transition. These velocities compare well to existing data for the critical superflow of liquid helium in other confined systems. PMID:22243081

  6. Communication: Electron diffraction of ferrocene in superfluid helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report electron diffraction of ferrocene doped in superfluid helium droplets. By taking advantage of the velocity slip in our pulsed droplet beam using a pulsed electron gun, and by doping with a high concentration of ferrocene delivered via a pulsed valve, we can obtain high quality diffraction images from singly doped droplets. Under the optimal doping conditions, 80% of the droplets sampled in the electron beam are doped with just one ferrocene molecule. Extension of this size selection method to dopant clusters has also been demonstrated. However, incomplete separation of dopant clusters might require deconvolution and modeling of the doping process. This method can be used for studies of nucleation processes in superfluid helium droplets. PMID:27305988

  7. Communication: Electron diffraction of ferrocene in superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Yunteng; Kong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    We report electron diffraction of ferrocene doped in superfluid helium droplets. By taking advantage of the velocity slip in our pulsed droplet beam using a pulsed electron gun, and by doping with a high concentration of ferrocene delivered via a pulsed valve, we can obtain high quality diffraction images from singly doped droplets. Under the optimal doping conditions, 80% of the droplets sampled in the electron beam are doped with just one ferrocene molecule. Extension of this size selection method to dopant clusters has also been demonstrated. However, incomplete separation of dopant clusters might require deconvolution and modeling of the doping process. This method can be used for studies of nucleation processes in superfluid helium droplets.

  8. Metastable Helium Molecules as Tracers in Superfluid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Wright, J. D.; Cahn, S. B.; Nikkel, J. A.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2009-06-12

    Metastable helium molecules generated in a discharge near a sharp tungsten tip immersed in superfluid {sup 4}He are imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. By pulsing the tip, a small cloud of He{sub 2}* molecules is produced. We can determine the normal-fluid velocity in a heat-induced counterflow by tracing the position of a single molecule cloud. As we run the tip in continuous field-emission mode, a normal-fluid jet from the tip is generated and molecules are entrained in the jet. A focused 910 nm pump laser pulse is used to drive a small group of molecules to the first excited vibrational level of the triplet ground state. Subsequent imaging of the tagged molecules with an expanded 925 nm probe laser pulse allows us to measure the flow velocity of the jet. The techniques we developed provide new tools in quantitatively studying the normal fluid flow in superfluid helium.

  9. Metastable helium molecules as tracers in superfluid 4He.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Wright, J D; Cahn, S B; Nikkel, J A; McKinsey, D N

    2009-06-12

    Metastable helium molecules generated in a discharge near a sharp tungsten tip immersed in superfluid 4He are imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. By pulsing the tip, a small cloud of He(2*) molecules is produced. We can determine the normal-fluid velocity in a heat-induced counterflow by tracing the position of a single molecule cloud. As we run the tip in continuous field-emission mode, a normal-fluid jet from the tip is generated and molecules are entrained in the jet. A focused 910 nm pump laser pulse is used to drive a small group of molecules to the first excited vibrational level of the triplet ground state. Subsequent imaging of the tagged molecules with an expanded 925 nm probe laser pulse allows us to measure the flow velocity of the jet. The techniques we developed provide new tools in quantitatively studying the normal fluid flow in superfluid helium. PMID:19658945

  10. Properties of Moving Electron Bubbles in Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Wei; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2006-09-07

    It is well known that the Bernoulli effect modifies the shape of gas bubbles moving through a liquid. In this paper we investigate the influence of the Bernoulli pressure on the shape of electron bubbles moving through superfluid helium. We show that an electron bubble moving through liquid at zero pressure becomes unstable when its velocity reaches approximately 47 m s-1. In addition, the change in shape contributes significantly to the variation of the bubble mobility with velocity.

  11. Superfluidity within a small helium-4 cluster: the microscopic andronikashvili experiment

    PubMed

    Grebenev; Toennies; Vilesov

    1998-03-27

    The infrared spectrum of single oxygen carbon sulfide (OCS) molecules was measured inside large superfluid pure helium-4 droplets and nonsuperfluid pure helium-3 droplets, both consisting of about 10(4) atoms. In the helium-4 droplets, sharp rotational lines were observed, whereas in helium-3 only a broad peak was found. This difference is interpreted as evidence that the narrow rotational lines, which imply free rotations, are a microscopic manifestation of superfluidity. Upon addition of 60 helium-4 atoms to the pure helium-3 droplets, the same sharp rotational lines were found; it appears that 60 is the minimum number needed for superfluidity. PMID:9516103

  12. Three-dimensional nanoparticle dynamics in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathrop, Daniel

    Quantized vortices have been observed in superfluid 4He and AMO trapped atom systems, and have been infered in superfluid 3He and neutron stars. The dynamics of quantum fluids is substantially controlled by the motion of quantized vortices, which are topological phase defects analogous to crystalline dislocations. Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena, including superfluidity, trapped-atom Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, lasers, and the Higgs mechanism. While superfluidity in 4He is one of the first discovered of these, it is one of the least understood, given that the strongly interacting nature of helium makes theory difficult, and that development of local experimental probes is lagging. The advent of three-dimensional flow visualization of particles that trace quantized vortices provides new oportunities to investigate their creation and dynamics. We work to address the following questions using flow visualization in this system: What are field equations that express the coupling of the ordered and disordered parts of the flow? How does vortex reconnection lead to dissipation and breaking of time-reversal invariance? What are the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence at small and large scales? How do quantized vortices form through the lambda transition? This work is supported by the National Science Foundation DMR CMP 1407472.

  13. Three Dimensional Observations of Quantum Vortex Dynamics in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megson, Peter; Lathrop, Daniel

    Liquid helium, when cooled below 2.17 K, becomes a superfluid with exotic physical properties such as flow without friction. Superfluid flow is irrotational except about line-like topological phase defects with quantized circulation, known as quantum vortices. The dynamics of these vortices include events such as reconnection, wherein vortices meet and exchange tails, and Kelvin wave propagation, a possible mechanism for energy dissipation. We observe the dynamics of fluorescent nanoparticles trapped on the vortices using a newly developed 3D stereographic system. This talk will present new observations of reconnection events and analysis comparing vortex reconnection behavior in three dimensions to previous work that observed such events in two-dimensional projection. In particular, we discuss the power law scaling of vortex separation as a function of time and the effect of the initial angle of separation between the vortex filaments.

  14. Critical velocity of superfluid helium flow in narrow pore filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.

    1990-05-01

    The flow rates of superfluid helium passing through a spongelike plug made from a stack of high-porosity cellulose-nitrate membrane filters were measured, comparing three grades of filters: 10, 50, and 200 nm. The critical flow rate was analyzed from the onset of nonzero difference in the chemical potential across the plug. The flow, driven by activating a heater, was measured with an acoustic flowmeter. It is shown that the critical flow rate increases with decreasing filtration grade and that the upper limit of the superfluid flow velocity can be predicted from the quoted filtration grade of the filter and from a shape factor derived from elementary geometric conditions of densely packed spheres. This model yields correct temperature dependence of the critical velocity.

  15. Helium, from He3 Superfluid to Alpha-spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah; Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-04-01

    Accompanying helium-using of ``Two Eagles'' balloon group 2015 World record pacificballoon.com@Flight-Status.php, superfluid He3 offers a unique ``testing ground'' for rapid phase transitions. Recent experiments where a rotating superfluid He3 was locally heated well above the critical temperature by absorption of neutrons [4,5] receved vortex formation under a rapid 2nd order phase transition-I.S. Aranson, et al., Physica C, ``Vortex Matter in Superconductors at Extreme SCALES and Conditions'', v 332, n 1-4, May 2000, h 129. Further for ``alpha-spin resembles the vortex formed as a consequence of the interaction of 4 vortexes'' sought the ``it will be sufficient to calculate the energy shift with the singlet & triplet m = 0-S Gasiorowics: ``Quantum Physics'',2003, h 220 Great acknowledgements to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO/Kompas-Gramedia Group.

  16. Oscillatory motion: quantum whistling in superfluid helium-4.

    PubMed

    Hoskinson, E; Packard, R E; Haard, Thomas M

    2005-01-27

    Fundamental considerations predict that macroscopic quantum systems such as superfluids and the electrons in superconductors will undergo oscillatory motion when forced through a small constriction. Here we induce these oscillations in superfluid helium-4 (4He) by pushing it through an array of nanometre-sized apertures. The oscillations, which are detected as an audible whistling sound, obey the so-called Josephson frequency relation and occur coherently among all the apertures. The discovery of this property in 4He at the relatively high temperature of 2 K (2,000 times higher than the temperature at which a related but different phenomenon occurs in 3He) may pave the way for a new class of practical rotation sensors of unprecedented precision. PMID:15674281

  17. Second Sound Scattering in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosgen, Thomas

    Focusing cavities are used to study the scattering of second sound in liquid helium II. The special geometries reduce wall interference effects and allow measurements in very small test volumes. In a first experiment, a double elliptical cavity is used to focus a second sound wave onto a small wire target. A thin film bolometer measures the side scattered wave component. The agreement with a theoretical estimate is reasonable, although some problems arise from the small measurement volume and associated alignment requirements. A second cavity is based on confocal parabolas, thus enabling the use of large planar sensors. A cylindrical heater produces again a focused second sound wave. Three sensors monitor the transmitted wave component as well as the side scatter in two different directions. The side looking sensors have very high sensitivities due to their large size and resistance. Specially developed cryogenic amplifiers are used to match them to the signal cables. In one case, a second auxiliary heater is used to set up a strong counterflow in the focal region. The second sound wave then scatters from the induced fluid disturbances. Attempts to observe scattering from quantized vortex lines in the rotating parabolic cavity ultimately did not succeed, although a theoretical estimate seems to indicate a basic feasibility.

  18. Heat Transfer through Porous Media in Static Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Baudouy, B.; Juster, F.-P.; Allain, H.; Maekawa, R.

    2006-04-27

    Heat transfer through porous media in static saturated superfluid helium is investigated for porous media with different thickness, porosity and pore size. For large pore diameter, data are analyzed with the tortuosity concept in the pure Gorter-Mellink regime. It is shown that the tortuosity is constant over the temperature range investigated. For smaller pore diameter, the analysis reveals that the permeability is temperature-dependent in the Landau regime. In the intermediate regime, a model, including Landau and Gorter-Mellink regime, predicts a constant tortuosity within 10% but falls short predicting correctly the experimental data over the entire range of temperature.

  19. Reflection of hydrogen atoms from the surface of superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Tiesinga, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    We propose a new method for studying the reflection of a hydrogen atom from a superfluid-helium film. Starting from the narrow width of the reflected angular distribution recently found experimentally, we tentatively extrapolate to the extreme limit of low ripplon wave numbers in which the adiabatic or degenerate-internal-states approximation becomes valid. We obtain simple closed expressions for single- and multiple-ripplon processes, which do not require the integration of a Schroedinger equation for their evaluation and do not depend on the specific form of the potential.

  20. Mechanical pumps for superfluid helium transfer in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenson, M. G.; Swift, W. L.

    1988-02-01

    Two alternate mechanical pump concepts have been identified for the transfer of superfluid helium in space. Both pumps provide flow at sufficient head and have operating characteristics suitable for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) refill mission. One pump operates at a relatively low speed and utilizes mechanical roller bearings, while the other operates at a higher rotational speed using either electromagnetic or tilting pad gas-dynamic bearings. The use of gas bearings requires transfer of normal helium so that the gas pressure within the pump casing is high enough to operate the bearings. The operating characteristics of both pumps are predicted, the dimensions are estimated and major technology issues are identified. The major issues for each pump design are cavitation performance and bearing development. Roller bearings require quantified reliability for operation in space while electromagnetic bearings require basic development as well as a complex control system. The low speed pump has significantly poorer hydraulic efficiency than the high speed pump.

  1. Novel methods to create multielectron bubbles in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Dementyev, Anatoly E; Tempere, J; Silvera, Isaac F

    2011-03-01

    An equilibrium multielectron bubble (MEB) in liquid helium is a fascinating object with a spherical two-dimensional electron gas on its surface. We discuss two ways in which they have been created. For MEBs that have been observed in the dome of a cylindrical cell with an unexpectedly short lifetime, we show analytically why these MEBs can discharge by tunneling. Using a novel method, MEBs have been extracted from a vapor sheath around a hot filament in superfluid helium by applying electric fields up to 15 kV∕cm, and photographed with high-speed video. Charges as high as 1.6×10(-9) C (∼10(10) electrons) have been measured. The latter method provides a means of capture in an electromagnetic trap to allow the study of the extensive exciting properties of these elusive objects. PMID:21456760

  2. Flow of superfluid helium in tubes with heated walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. A.; Mord, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The equations for superfluid helium flowing through a straight tube with heated walls are integrated. The model equations are based on those of Landau as modified for superfluid turbulence by Gorter and Mellink (1949). The model is implemented by the program SUPERFLOW which runs on a personal computer. The effect of the heating level on the mass flux, the energy flux, and the pressure and temperature profiles is investigated. The four types of profiles which occur without sidewall heating are also found with heated walls. The progression through these four types is shown to depend primarily on the dimensionless parameter, defined previously to characterize the unheated profiles, and a dimensionless ratio of heat fluxes. The pressure and temperature maxima which rise well above the boundary values increase significantly with sidewall heating. Approximate design equations for estimating the mass flux and the profiles are presented. The physical basis of the results is discussed. These results are useful in the design of optimal cooling loops and other superfluid flow systems.

  3. Thermal resistance at a solid/superfluid helium interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiere, Aymeric; Volz, Sebastian; Amrit, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Kapitza in 1941 discovered that heat flowing across a solid in contact with superfluid helium (<2 K) encounters a strong thermal resistance at the interface. Khalatnikov demonstrated theoretically that this constitutes a general phenomenon related to all interfaces at all temperatures, given the dependence of heat transmission on the acoustic impedance (sound velocity × density) of each medium. For the solid/superfluid interface, the measured transmission of heat is almost one hundred times stronger than the Khalatnikov prediction. This discrepancy could be intuitively attributed to diffuse scattering of phonons at the interface but, despite several attempts, a detailed quantitative comparison between theoretical and experimental findings to explain the occurrence of scattering and its contribution to heat transmission had been lacking. Here we show that when the thermal wavelength λ of phonons of the less dense medium (liquid 4He) becomes comparable to the r.m.s. surface roughness σ, the heat flux crossing the interface is amplified; in particular when σ ~ 0.33λ, a spatial resonant mechanism occurs, as proposed by Adamenko and Fuks. We used a silicon single crystal whose surface roughness was controlled and characterized. The thermal boundary resistance measurements were performed from 0.4 to 2 K at different superfluid pressures ranging from saturated vapour pressure (SVP) to above 4He solidification, to eliminate all hypothetical artefact mechanisms. Our results demonstrate the physical conditions necessary for resonant phonon scattering to occur at all interfaces, and therefore constitute a benchmark in the design of nanoscale devices for heat monitoring.

  4. Characterization of quantum vortex dynamics in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichle, David P.

    Liquid helium obtains superfluid properties when cooled below the Lambda transition temperature of 2.17 K. A superfluid, which is a partial Bose Einstein condensate, has many exotic properties including free flow without friction, and ballistic instead of diffusive heat transport. A superfluid is also uniquely characterized by the presence of quantized vortices, dynamical line-like topological phase defects around which all circulation in the flow is constrained. Two vortices can undergo a violent process called reconnection when they approach, cross, and retract having exchanged tails. With a numerical examination of a local, linearized solution near reconnection we discovered a dynamically unstable stationary solution to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which was relaxed to a fully non-linear solution using imaginary time propagation. This investigation explored vortex reconnection in the context of the changing topology of the order parameter, a complex field governing the superfluid dynamics at zero temperature. The dynamics of the vortices can be studied experimentally by dispersing tracer particles into a superfluid flow and recording their motions with movie cameras. The pioneering work of Bewley et al. provided the first visualization technique using frozen gases to create tracer particles. Using this technique, we experimentally observed for the first time the excitation of helical traveling waves on a vortex core called Kelvin waves. Kelvin waves are thought to be a central mechanism for dissipation in this inviscid fluid, as they provide an efficient cascade mechanism for transferring energy from large to microscopic length scales. We examined the Kelvin waves in detail, and compared their dynamics in fully self-similar non-dimensional coordinates to theoretical predictions. Additionally, two experimental advances are presented. A newly invented technique for reliably dispersing robust, nanometer-scale fluorescent tracer particles directly into the

  5. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A.

    2015-01-07

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm{sup −1}) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time.

  6. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-21

    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 10{sup 4} ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 10{sup 5}/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies.

  7. Stability measurements on cored cables in normal and superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.; Kim, S.W.; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.R.; Wilson, M.N.

    1998-07-01

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents.

  8. STABILITY MEASUREMENTS ON CORED CABLES IN NORMAL AND SUPERFLUID HELIUM

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.; SAMPSON,W.B.; KIM,S.W.; LEROY,D.; OBERLI,L.R.; WILSON,M.N.

    1998-05-10

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents.

  9. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-03-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows.

  10. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 104 ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 105/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies. PMID:26298127

  11. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows. PMID:24704871

  12. Imaging of quantum vortices in superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilesov, Andrey

    Helium nanodroplets are especially promising for exploring quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, until very recently, the dynamic properties of individual droplets, such as vorticity, could not be assessed experimentally. Here we investigate the rotation of single superfluid 4-He droplets ranging from 200 to 2000 nm in diameter at T = 0.4 K via single-shot femtosecond X-ray coherent diffractive imaging. The droplets were produced by free jet expansion of liquid helium into vacuum. The angular velocities of the droplets were estimated from the centrifugal distortion and span a range from vanishing to those close to the disintegration limit. For visualization of vortices, Xe atoms were added to the droplets where they gather in cores forming nm-thin filaments. A newly developed phase retrieval technique enables the reconstruction of the instantaneous positions and shapes of the vortices from the diffraction images with about 20 nm resolution. The vorticity attainable in the nano-droplets was found to be about six orders of magnitude larger than achieved in previous experiments in the bulk. Stationary configurations of vortices are represented by triangular lattice in large (2 μm) droplets and symmetric arrangements of few vortices in smaller (200 nm) droplets. Evidence for non-stationary vortex dynamics comes from observation of asymmetric formations of vortices in some droplets. This collaborative work was performed at Linac Coherent Light Source, the free electron laser within SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiments and the full list of collaborators are reported in: L. F. Gomez et. al. Science, 345 (2014) 906.

  13. Recurrences in rotational dynamics and experimental measurement of superfluidity in doped helium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yunjie; Blinov, Nicholas; Jaeger, Wolfgang; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2006-02-28

    We present the first experimental evidence of recurrences in the rotational dynamics of doped helium clusters. Using the dopant molecule as an experimental microscopic probe of superfluidity, we show that in small He{sub N}-N{sub 2}O complexes, superfluidity builds up in stages correlated with the filling and completion of a solvation shell.

  14. Observation of a New Type of Electron Bubble in Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2005-12-31

    We report on the observation of a new type of electron bubble in superfluid helium-4. This object appears to be larger than the normal electron bubble and is associated with the presence of quantized vortices in the liquid.

  15. Selection of ionization paths of K2 on superfluid helium droplets by wave packet interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Marek Bastian; Dufour, Adrien; Achazi, Georg; Patas, Alexander; Scheier, Paul; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2016-08-01

    We report on the control of wave packet dynamics for the ionization of K2 attached to the surface of superfluid helium droplets. The superfluid helium matrix acts as a heat sink and reduces the coherence time of molecular processes by dissipation. We use tailor-shaped pulses in order to activate or inhibit different ionization paths by constructive or destructive wave packet interference. A drastic change of the wave packet dynamics is observed by shifting the phase between the exciting sub pulses.

  16. Imaging Anisotropic Nanoplasma Dynamics in Superfluid Helium Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacellar, Camila; Chatterley, Adam; Lackner, Florian; Pemmaraju, Sri; Tanyag, Rico; Bernando, Charles; Verma, Deepak; O'Connell, Sean; Osipiv, Timur; Ray, Dipanwita; Ferguson, Kenneth; Gorkhover, Tais; Swiggers, Michele; Bucher, Maximilian; Vilesov, Andrey; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of strong-field induced nanoplasmas inside superfluid helium droplets are studied using single-shot, single-particle femtosecond time-resolved X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Intense (~ 1015 W/ cm2, ~ 50 fs) 800 nm laser pulses are employed to initiate nanoplasma formation in sub-micron (200 nm - 600 nm) sized helium droplets. The dynamics of the nanoplasma formation and subsequent droplet evolution are probed by x-rays pulses (~ 100 fs, 600 eV) that are delayed with respect to the near-infrared (NIR) pulses by 10's of femtoseconds to hundreds of picoseconds. Pump-probe time-delay dependent effects in the CDI patterns reveal distinct dynamics evolving on multiple timescales. Very fast (<100 fs) appearing features are possibly indicative of electronic dynamics, while slower (>= 1 ps) dynamics are likely associated with structural changes correlated to nuclear motion including droplet disintegration. In particular, the CDI images exhibit strong indications for anisotropic dynamics governed by the NIR polarization axis, providing previously inaccessible insight into the mechanisms of nanoplasma formation and evolution.

  17. Superfluid helium cryostat for the SIRTF cryogenic telescope assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, Stephen M.; Schweickart, Russell B.; Heurich, Bruce

    2003-03-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the last of NASA's four great observatories, scheduled for launch in January 2003. At the heart of the SIRTF Observatory is the Cryogenic Telescope Assembly (CTA) that provides a 1.4 K heat sink for the SIRTF Science Instruments while cooling the telescope to as low as 5.5 K in order to achieve thea low photon background. This unique cryogenic/thermal system provides the necessary cooling through passive means combined with vapor cooling by the helium gas vented from a 360 liter superfluid helium cryostat. The passive cooling is made possible by the favorable thermal environment achieved in an Earth-trailing solar orbit, with the payload millions of miles from the Earth. The SIRTF Cryostat and integrated CTA have just completed an extended period of cryogenic system performance testing. This testing included mission lifetime assessment, luanch hold capability and in situ characterization and performance measurements of the porous plug liquid-vapor phase separator. We also encountered and recovered from an ice contamination incident within the cryostat. We report here the system and component test results. We also provide recommendations and lessons learned through the operations of the SIRTF system.

  18. Design and Testing of a Superfluid Liquid Helium CoolingLoop

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.M.; Green, M.A.; Levin, S.M.; Smoot, George F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-24

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a cryogenic cooling loop that uses a thermomechanical pump to circulate superfluid liquid helium. The cooling loop test apparatus is designed to prove forced liquid helium flow concepts that will be used on the Astromag superconducting magnet facility.

  19. Path Integral Quantum Monte Carlo Study of Coupling and Proximity Effects in Superfluid Helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Max T.

    When bulk helium-4 is cooled below T = 2.18 K, it undergoes a phase transition to a superfluid, characterized by a complex wave function with a macroscopic phase and exhibits inviscid, quantized flow. The macroscopic phase coherence can be probed in a container filled with helium-4, by reducing one or more of its dimensions until they are smaller than the coherence length, the spatial distance over which order propagates. As this dimensional reduction occurs, enhanced thermal and quantum fluctuations push the transition to the superfluid state to lower temperatures. However, this trend can be countered via the proximity effect, where a bulk 3-dimensional (3d) superfluid is coupled to a low (2d) dimensional superfluid via a weak link producing superfluid correlations in the film at temperatures above the Kosterlitz-Thouless temperature. Recent experiments probing the coupling between 3d and 2d superfluid helium-4 have uncovered an anomalously large proximity effect, leading to an enhanced superfluid density that cannot be explained using the correlation length alone. In this work, we have determined the origin of this enhanced proximity effect via large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of helium-4 in a topologically non-trivial geometry that incorporates the important aspects of the experiments. We find that due to the bosonic symmetry of helium-4, identical particle permutations lead to correlations between contiguous spatial regions at a length scale greater than the coherence length. We show that quantum exchange plays a large role in explaining the anomalous experimental results while simultaneously showing how classical arguments fall short of this task.

  20. Particle Detection in Superfluid Helium: R&D for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, Robert E., Jr.

    2006-03-31

    This report presents a summary of the results from R&D conducted as a feasibility study in the Department of Physics of Brown University for detection of low energy solar neutrinos utilizing a superfluid helium target. The report outlines the results in several areas: 1) development of experimental facilities, 2) energy deposition by electrons and alphas in superfluid helium, 3) development of wafer and metallic magnetic calorimeters, 4) background studies, 5) coded apertures and conceptual design, 6) Detection of single electrons and 7) a simulation of expected performance of a full scale device. Recommendations for possible future work are also presented. A bibliography of published papers and unpublished doctoral theses is included.

  1. Repulsive gravitational effect of a quantum wave packet and experimental scheme with superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hongwei

    2015-08-01

    We consider the gravitational effect of quantum wave packets when quantum mechanics, gravity, and thermodynamics are simultaneously considered. Under the assumption of a thermodynamic origin of gravity, we propose a general equation to describe the gravitational effect of quantum wave packets. In the classical limit, this equation agrees with Newton's law of gravitation. For quantum wave packets, however, it predicts a repulsive gravitational effect. We propose an experimental scheme using superfluid helium to test this repulsive gravitational effect. Our studies show that, with present technology such as superconducting gravimetry and cold atom interferometry, tests of the repulsive gravitational effect for superfluid helium are within experimental reach.

  2. On the mechanism of electromagnetic microwave absorption in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A. Pentegov, V. I.

    2012-08-15

    In experiments on electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption in the microwave range in superfluid (SF) helium [1-3], a narrow EM field absorption line with a width on the order of (20-200) kHz was observed against the background of a wide absorption band with a width of 30-40 GHz at frequencies f{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 110-180 GHz corresponding to the roton gap energy {Delta}{sub r}(T) in the temperature range 1.4-2.2 K. Using the so-called flexoelectric mechanism of polarization of helium atoms ({sup 4}He) in the presence of density gradients in SF helium (HeII), we show that nonresonance microwave absorption in the frequency range 170-200 GHz can be due to the existence of time-varying local density gradients produced by roton excitations in the bulk HeII. The absorption bandwidth is determined by the roton-roton scattering time in an equilibrium Boltzmann gas of rotons, which is t{sub r-r} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} s at T = 1.4 K and decreases upon heating. We propose that the anomalously narrow microwave resonance absorption line in HeII at the roton frequency f{sub 0}(T) = {Delta}r(T)/2{pi}h appears due to the following two factors: (i) the discrete structure of the spectrum of the surface EM resonator modes in the form of a periodic sequence of narrow peaks and (ii) the presence of a stationary dipole layer in HeII near the resonator surface, which forms due to polarization of {sup 4}He atoms under the action of the density gradient associated with the vanishing of the density of the SF component at the solid wall. For this reason, the relaxation of nonequilibrium rotons generated in such a surface dipole layer is strongly suppressed, and the shape and width of the microwave resonance absorption line are determined by the roton density of states, which has a sharp peak at the edge of the roton gap in the case of weak dissipation. The effective dipole moments of rotons in the dipole layer can be directed either along or across the normal to

  3. Flow visualization in superfluid helium-4 using He2 molecular tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei

    Flow visualization in superfluid helium is challenging, yet crucial for attaining a detailed understanding of quantum turbulence. Two problems have impeded progress: finding and introducing suitable tracers that are small yet visible; and unambiguous interpretation of the tracer motion. We show that metastable He2 triplet molecules are outstanding tracers compared with other particles used in helium. These molecular tracers have small size and relatively simple behavior in superfluid helium: they follow the normal fluid motion at above 1 K and will bind to quantized vortex lines below about 0.6 K. A laser-induced fluorescence technique has been developed for imaging the He2 tracers. We will present our recent experimental work on studying the normal-fluid motion by tracking thin lines of He2 tracers created via femtosecond laser-field ionization in helium. We will also discuss a newly launched experiment on visualizing vortex lines in a magnetically levitated superfluid helium drop by imaging the He2 tracers trapped on the vortex cores. This experiment will enable unprecedented insight into the behavior of a rotating superfluid drop and will untangle several key issues in quantum turbulence research. We acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1507386 and the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02 96ER40952.

  4. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2+ and He4+, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)nC+, (He)nCl+, and (He)nCCl+. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  5. Microsolvation of molecules in superfluid helium nanodroplets revealed by means of electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Premke, Tobias; Wirths, Eva-Maria; Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Lehnig, Rudolf; Vdovin, Alexander; Slenczka, Alkwin

    2014-01-01

    The empirical model explaining microsolvation of molecules in superfluid helium droplets proposes a non-superfluid helium solvation layer enclosing the dopant molecule. This model warrants an empirical explanation of any helium induced substructure resolved for electronic transitions of molecules in helium droplets. Despite a wealth of such experimental data, quantitative modeling of spectra is still in its infancy. The theoretical treatment of such many-particle systems dissolved into a quantum fluid is a challenge. Moreover, the success of theoretical activities relies also on the accuracy and self-critical communication of experimental data. This will be elucidated by a critical resume of our own experimental work done within the last ten years. We come to the conclusion that spectroscopic data and among others in particular the spectral resolution depend strongly on experimental conditions. Moreover, despite the fact that none of the helium induced fine structure speaks against the empirical model for solvation in helium droplets, in many cases an unequivocal assignment of the spectroscopic details is not possible. This ambiguity needs to be considered and a careful and critical communication of experimental results is essential in order to promote success in quantitatively understanding microsolvation in superfluid helium nanodroplets. PMID:25077143

  6. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-15

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 4}{sup +}, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl{sub 4} doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He){sub n}C{sup +}, (He){sub n}Cl{sup +}, and (He){sub n}CCl{sup +}. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  7. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams.

    PubMed

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2(+) and He4(+), which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)(n)C(+), (He)(n)Cl(+), and (He)(n)CCl(+). Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets. PMID:26329210

  8. Superfluid-supercritical helium tradeoff analysis for the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gier, H. L.; Stoll, R.; Brooks, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study is made of three methods for obtaining the required cooling of the SIRTF. The first is a supercritical helium system in which the 2 K temperatures are obtained by a Joule-Thomson expander; the second is a superfluid (He II) helium system; and the third is a hybrid system in which supercritical helium provides the major cooling and small He II reservoirs supply specific detector cooling. The superfluid helium system is found to offer superior performance; it would be the system to use if funding were available. The comparative study gives equal weight to performance, operations, and cost. From this point of view, the hybrid system is selected as the best compromise to obtain an operational SIRTF.

  9. Electron impact ionization and multiphoton ionization of doped superfluid helium droplets: A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We compare characteristics of electron impact ionization (EI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI) of doped superfluid helium droplets using the same droplet source. Selected dopant ion fragments from the two ionization schemes demonstrate different dependence on the doping pressure, which could be attributed to the different ionization mechanisms. While EI directly ionizes helium atoms in a droplet therefore has higher yields for bigger droplets (within a limited size range), MPI is insensitive to the helium in a droplet and is only dependent on the number of dopant molecules. The optimal timing of the ionization pulse also varies with the doping pressure, implying a velocity slip among different sized droplets. Calculations of the doping statistics and ionization probabilities qualitatively agree with the experimental data. Our results offer a word of caution in interpreting the pressure and timing dependence of superfluid helium droplets, and we also devise a scheme in achieving a high degree of doping while limiting the contribution of dopant clusters.

  10. Electron impact ionization and multiphoton ionization of doped superfluid helium droplets: A comparison.

    PubMed

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-02-28

    We compare characteristics of electron impact ionization (EI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI) of doped superfluid helium droplets using the same droplet source. Selected dopant ion fragments from the two ionization schemes demonstrate different dependence on the doping pressure, which could be attributed to the different ionization mechanisms. While EI directly ionizes helium atoms in a droplet therefore has higher yields for bigger droplets (within a limited size range), MPI is insensitive to the helium in a droplet and is only dependent on the number of dopant molecules. The optimal timing of the ionization pulse also varies with the doping pressure, implying a velocity slip among different sized droplets. Calculations of the doping statistics and ionization probabilities qualitatively agree with the experimental data. Our results offer a word of caution in interpreting the pressure and timing dependence of superfluid helium droplets, and we also devise a scheme in achieving a high degree of doping while limiting the contribution of dopant clusters. PMID:26931697

  11. Ordinary SQUID interferometers and superfluid helium matter wave interferometers: The role of quantum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, A. I.; Zherikhina, L. N. Tskhovrebov, A. M.; Izmailov, G. N.; Ozolin, V. V.

    2010-08-15

    When comparing the operation of a superfluid helium matter wave quantum interferometer (He SQUID) with that of an ordinary direct-current quantum interferometer (dc SQUID), we estimate their resolution limitation that correspond to quantum fluctuations. An alternative mode of operation of the interferometer as a unified macroquantum system is considered.

  12. Optical and mechanical properties of electron bubbles in superfluid helium-4

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.; Wei, W.; Yang, Y.; Maris, H. J.

    2014-12-15

    A series of experiments has revealed the existence of a large number (about 18) of different types of negative ions in superfluid helium-4. Despite much effort, the physical nature of these “exotic ions” has still not been determined. We discuss possible experiments which may be able to help determine the structure of these objects.

  13. Transformation of second sound into surface waves in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Khalatnikov, I.M.; Kolmakov, G.V.; Pokrovsky, V.L.

    1995-05-01

    The Hamiltonian theory of superfluid liquid with a free boundary is developed. Nonlinear amplitudes of parametric Cherenkov radiation of a surface wave by second sound and the inner decay of second sound waves are found. Threshold amplitudes of second sound waves for these two processes are determined. 4 refs.

  14. Knowledge based and interactive control for the Superfluid Helium On-orbit Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Raymond, Eric A.; Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a Shuttle-based experiment designed to acquire data on the properties of superfluid helium in micro-gravity. Aft Flight Deck Computer Software for the SHOOT experiment is comprised of several monitoring programs which give the astronaut crew visibility into SHOOT systems and a rule based system which will provide process control, diagnosis and error recovery for a helium transfer without ground intervention. Given present Shuttle manifests, this software will become the first expert system to be used in space. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System (CMS) software will provide a near real time highly interactive interface for the SHOOT principal investigator to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. The CMS software is targeted for all phases of the SHOOT project: hardware development, pre-flight pad servicing, in-flight operations, and post-flight data analysis.

  15. The design, construction and testing of floats for use in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, W.L.; Bartlett, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The authors employ a technique which uses superfluid {sup 4}He as a delicate, low noise suspension medium. The goal is to create a new type of torsion balance for earth based gravitational experiments requiring very high sensitivity. As a fluid bearing replacing the classical torsion fiber suspension, liquid helium II offers several unique advantages. Most notable are its extremely low viscosity, high thermal stability, inertness and small thermally driven fluctuations. The authors present the design and performance aspects of buoyant torsional oscillators and the cryogenic system used to maintain the superfluid medium.

  16. A design and critical technology issues for on-orbit resupply of superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Richard A.; Mord, Allan J.

    1990-01-01

    The issues of and the solutions to the critical design and technology areas of the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment, presently under development at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, are discussed. Special attention is given to the SHOOT design requirements for the 10,000-liter superfluid He resupply tanker system, the concept details of the system, and the resupply operations and their analysis. A block diagram of the SHOOT system is included along with fluid management schematic and configuration diagrams of the system and its subsystems. A summary of the dewar performance is also presented.

  17. NMR study of the magnetization of superfluid helium-3-boron and NMR of superfluid helium-3 in aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haard, Thomas Michael

    Pulsed NMR measurements of superfluid 3He confined in 98.2% porosity silica aerogel are reported. The aerogel suppressed the superfluid transition temperature TC and the order parameter magnitude from their bulk values in qualitative agreement with impurity scattering models. Magnetization measurements showed that the superfluid is an equal spin pairing state (ESP). The superfluid exhibited positive NMR frequency shifts with similar temperature dependence to those of the bulk A-phase, only smaller. TC was independent of the magnetic field for H < 1.8 kOe to within the experimental error. At 2.18 kOe an increased suppression of TC and the order parameter was observed. Two layers of solid 3He were adsorbed to the aerogel strands. When these were replaced with solid 4He a non-ESP superfluid state was observed. An experimental cell for measuring the heat capacity of 3He in aerogel was designed and fabricated. It was tested without aerogel by measuring the heat capacity of liquid 3He over a range of temperatures from 1 to 25 mK and at pressures of 7.0, 14.0, and 28.0 bar. The measurements in both the normal and superfluid phases were consistent with the data of Greywall. The discrepancy between static and dynamic measurements of the magnetization of superfluid 3He-B was characterized over a region of the phase diagram by comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and recent SQUID data from other researchers. At the B- to A-phase transition, TAB, the discrepancy was absent at low pressure, but increased to 20% at 26.6 bar and 1.2 kOe. The NMR data were consistent with the weak-coupling-plus (wcp) theory at TAB for most pressures and fields. The Ginzburg-Landau strong-coupling parameter gz/( gz)wcp was determined from NMR results to equal 1.00 +/- 0.03 for all pressures. Combinations of the Ginzburg-Landau beta-parameters are reported that are consistent with this observation.

  18. Lab tests of a thermomechanical pump for shoot. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Boyle, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory tests of a thermomechanical (TM) pump utilizing a commercially available porous disk have been conducted. Various size disks, heater configurations, and outlet flow impedances have been used to characterize scale models of the pump proposed for the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) Flight Experiment. The results yield the scalability of the TM pump to larger diameters, and hence larger pumping rates, the dependence of flow rate on back pressure and heater power, and the limits of pumping speed due to internal losses within the porous disk due to mutual and superfluid friction. Analysis indicates that for low back pressures the flow rate is limited by the superfluid friction rather than the mutual friction. For the porous plug used in the early tests this amounts to a practical limit of 4.4 liters per hour per square centimeter. For a baselined flight plug area of 180 sq cm this yields 790 liters per hour.

  19. Superfluid Helium Testing of a Stainless Steel to Titanium Piping Transition Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyars, W.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Budagov, J.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sabirov, B.

    2010-04-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  20. Superfluid helium testing of a stainless steel to titanium piping transition joint

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Budagov, J.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sabirov, B.; Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  1. Measurement of the lifetime of excited-state electron bubbles in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2005-08-01

    We report on the measurement of the lifetime of bubbles in superfluid helium that contain an electron in the 1P state. The 1P bubbles are produced by laser excitation of ground-state bubbles, and are detected by ultrasonic cavitation. Our measurements show that the lifetime of these excited bubbles is much less than the calculated lifetime for radiative decay and, hence, is determined by a nonradiative mechanism.

  2. Verification testing of the superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, S.; Conaty, C.; Weintz, K.

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a secondary shuttle crossbay payload which flew on the STS-57/Endeavour mission. It was designed to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to resupply liquid helium containers in space, and to develop new technologies that may be used in other future space cryogenic systems. The SHOOT payload consists of two superfluid helium Dewars with helium management cryostats connected by a transfer line, and six avionics boxes for valve and heater control, temperature, pressure and fluid position monitoring and data processing and telemetry. The cryostats contain numerous specialized helium management components; including high and low flow phase separators, liquid/vapour discriminators, flowmeters, liquid level detectors, cryogenic mechanical valves and cryogenic relief valves and burst discs, and two varieties of fluid acquisition systems. To prepare the SHOOT payload for launch a series of functional, structural, thermal and reliability tests were conducted at every level of hardware assembly, from materials tests to system level thermal, structural and functional performance tests. We present here the verification tests and analyses developed and completed at each level of assembly. We discuss the trade-offs considered for, and the success (or failure) of, models and analyses to predict performance results. Finally, we present some lessons learned of potential interest to future cryogenic missions, whether on the Space Shuttle or on expendable launch vehicles.

  3. Laser ionization and spectroscopy of Cu in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    Lindebner, Friedrich; Kautsch, Andreas; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2014-01-01

    Mass and optical spectroscopic methods are used for the analysis of copper (Cu) atoms and clusters doped to helium nanodroplets (HeN). A two-color resonant two-photon ionization scheme is applied to study the Cu 2P1/2,3/2∘←2S1/2 ground state transition. The absorption is strongly broadened for Cu atoms submerged inside helium nanodroplets and a comparison with computed literature values is provided. An observed ejection of the dopant from the droplet is triggered upon excitation, populating energetically lower states. The formation of Cun clusters up to Cu7 inside helium nanodroplets was observed by means of electron impact ionization mass spectroscopy. PMID:25844053

  4. Electron bubbles in helium clusters. II. Probing superfluidity.

    PubMed

    Rosenblit, Michael; Jortner, Joshua

    2006-05-21

    In this paper we present calculations of electron tunneling times from the ground electronic state of excess electron bubbles in ((4)He)(N) clusters (N=6500-10(7), cluster radius R=41.5-478 A), where the equilibrium bubble radius varies in the range R(b)=13.5-17.0 A. For the bubble center located at a radial distance d from the cluster surface, the tunneling transition probability was expressed as A(0)phi(d,R)exp(-betad), where beta approximately 1 A(-1) is the exponential parameter, A(0) is the preexponential factor for the bubble located at the cluster center, and phi(d,R) is a correction factor which accounts for cluster curvature effects. Electron tunneling dynamics is grossly affected by the distinct mode of motion of the electron bubble in the image potential within the cluster, which is dissipative (i.e., tau(D)tau(0)) in superfluid ((4)He)(N) clusters, where tau(D) is the bubble motional damping time (tau(D) approximately 4 x 10(-12) s for normal fluid clusters and tau(D) approximately 10 s for superfluid clusters), while tau(0) approximately 10(-9)-10(-10) s is the bubble oscillatory time. Exceedingly long tunneling lifetimes, which cannot be experimentally observed, are manifested from bubbles damped to the center of the normal fluid cluster, while for superfluid clusters electron tunneling occurs from bubbles located in the vicinity of the initial distance d near the cluster boundary. Model calculations of the cluster size dependence of the electron tunneling time (for a fixed value of d=38-39 A), with lifetimes increasing in the range of 10(-3)-0.3 s for N=10(4)-10(7), account well for the experimental data [M. Farnik and J. P. Toennies, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4176 (2003)], manifesting cluster curvature effects on electron tunneling dynamics. The minimal cluster size for the dynamic stability of the bubble was estimated to be N=3800, which represents the

  5. Detection of excited-state electron bubbles in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Denis; Maris, Humphrey J

    2003-01-17

    We report on experiments in which the pressure oscillation associated with a sound wave is used to explode electron bubbles in liquid helium. Using this technique, we are able to detect the presence of electron bubbles in excited states. PMID:12570553

  6. Quantum transmission of atoms through a slab of superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Williams, C D H; Wyatt, A F G

    2003-08-22

    We describe a measurement of the transmission probability of 4He atoms through a freely suspended slab of superfluid 4He at low temperatures. In our experiment the slab is realized by using an array of parallel cylindrical holes of diameter 51 microm in a glass disc of thickness 190 microm. By controlling the chemical potential, the holes can be made to fill or empty with liquid, and the surface curvature varied. We have measured the transmission of atom beams, generated by a thin-film heater and detected with a sensitive bolometer, through this structure. The results show that the dominant transmission channel is atom-R+ roton-atom with a probability p approximately 0.12 and that R+ rotons can undergo total internal reflection at the free liquid surfaces. PMID:14525250

  7. Linear electron chains on the surface of superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Nikolaenko, V. A.; Gladchenko, S. P.; Sokolov, S. S.

    1998-11-01

    A unique one-dimensional system of linear electron chains on the liquid helium surface is realized experimentally for the first time. This system is created by using the distortion of the helium surface and covering the profiled dielectric substrate in a confining electric field holding electrons in the liquid channels being formed. The carrier mobility in linear electric chains is measured in the temperature interval 0.5-1.8K in confining fields up to 1 kV/cm. It is shown that the electron mobility depends on the purity of the substrate surface. For clean substrates, the mobility increases with decreasing temperature in the entire investigated temperature range. The results of measurements are found to be in accord with the existing theory.

  8. Magnetic Observations of the Superfluid-Superfluid Phase Transition in Liquid Helium Three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Stephen Thomas

    We report observations of the first-order phase transition between the two superfluid phases of ^3He. We supercool a long cylindrical sample of the higher-temperature A phase in a magnetic field in a simple dc magnetometer. We then introduce B phase at one end of the sample and observe its growth into the supercooled A phase via the magnetometer signal. For temperatures above a certain value, rm T_{nom }, the phase interface travels up the tube at a fairly constant velocity, in reasonable agreement with the theory of Leggett and Yip. For temperatures below rm T_{nom} there arises a new interaction between the rapidly moving phase interface and the magnetization of the sample. Our observations allow some characterization of this new interaction.

  9. Electron diffraction of CBr4 in superfluid helium droplets: A step towards single molecule diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the practicality of electron diffraction of single molecules inside superfluid helium droplets using CBr4 as a testing case. By reducing the background from pure undoped droplets via multiple doping, with small corrections for dimers and trimers, clearly resolved diffraction rings of CBr4 similar to those of gas phase molecules can be observed. The experimental data from CBr4 doped droplets are in agreement with both theoretical calculations and with experimental results of gaseous species. The abundance of monomers and clusters in the droplet beam also qualitatively agrees with the Poisson statistics. Possible extensions of this approach to macromolecular ions will also be discussed. This result marks the first step in building a molecular goniometer using superfluid helium droplet cooling and field induced orientation. The superior cooling effect of helium droplets is ideal for field induced orientation, but the diffraction background from helium is a concern. This work addresses this background issue and identifies a possible solution. Accumulation of diffraction images only becomes meaningful when all images are produced from molecules oriented in the same direction, and hence a molecular goniometer is a crucial technology for serial diffraction of single molecules.

  10. Electron diffraction of CBr4 in superfluid helium droplets: A step towards single molecule diffraction.

    PubMed

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-07-21

    We demonstrate the practicality of electron diffraction of single molecules inside superfluid helium droplets using CBr4 as a testing case. By reducing the background from pure undoped droplets via multiple doping, with small corrections for dimers and trimers, clearly resolved diffraction rings of CBr4 similar to those of gas phase molecules can be observed. The experimental data from CBr4 doped droplets are in agreement with both theoretical calculations and with experimental results of gaseous species. The abundance of monomers and clusters in the droplet beam also qualitatively agrees with the Poisson statistics. Possible extensions of this approach to macromolecular ions will also be discussed. This result marks the first step in building a molecular goniometer using superfluid helium droplet cooling and field induced orientation. The superior cooling effect of helium droplets is ideal for field induced orientation, but the diffraction background from helium is a concern. This work addresses this background issue and identifies a possible solution. Accumulation of diffraction images only becomes meaningful when all images are produced from molecules oriented in the same direction, and hence a molecular goniometer is a crucial technology for serial diffraction of single molecules. PMID:27448887

  11. Crystals, liquid crystals and superfluid helium on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    In this thesis we study the ground state of ordered phases grown as thin layers on substrates with smooth spatially varying Gaussian curvature. The Gaussian curvature acts as a source for a one body potential of purely geometrical origin that controls the equilibrium distribution of the defects in liquid crystal layers, thin films of He4 and two dimensional crystals on a frozen curved surface. For superfluids, all defects are repelled (attracted) by regions of positive (negative) Gaussian curvature. For liquid crystals, charges between 0 and 4pi are attracted by regions of positive curvature while all other charges are repelled. As the thickness of the liquid crystal film increases, transitions between two and three dimensional defect structures are triggered in the ground state of the system. Thin spherical shells of nematic molecules with planar anchoring possess four short 12 disclination lines but, as the thickness increases, a three dimensional escaped configuration composed of two pairs of half-hedgehogs becomes energetically favorable. Finally, we examine the static and dynamical properties that distinguish two dimensional crystals constrained to lie on a curved substrate from their flat space counterparts. A generic mechanism of dislocation unbinding in the presence of varying Gaussian curvature is presented. We explore how the geometric potential affects the energetics and dynamics of dislocations and point defects such as vacancies and interstitials.

  12. Grüneisen parameter for gases and superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Mariano; Menegasso, Paulo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Seridonio, Antonio; Lagos, Roberto E.

    2016-09-01

    The Grüneisen ratio (Γ), i.e. the ratio of the thermal expansivity to the specific heat at constant pressure, quantifies the degree of anharmonicity of the potential governing the physical properties of a system. While Γ has been intensively explored in solid state physics, very little is known about its behavior for gases. This is most likely due to the difficulties posed in carrying out both thermal expansion and specific heat measurements in gases with high accuracy as a function of pressure and temperature. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge a comprehensive discussion about the peculiarities of the Grüneisen ratio is still lacking in the literature. Here we report on a detailed and comprehensive overview of the Grüneisen ratio. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of Γ for gases. The main findings of this work are: (i) for the van der Waals gas Γ depends only on the co-volume b due to interaction effects, it is smaller than that for the ideal gas (Γ = 2/3) and diverges upon approaching the critical volume; (ii) for the Bose–Einstein condensation of an ideal boson gas, assuming the transition as first-order, Γ diverges upon approaching a critical volume, similarly to the van der Waals gas; (iii) for 4He at the superfluid transition Γ shows a singular behavior. Our results reveal that Γ can be used as an appropriate experimental tool to explore pressure-induced critical points.

  13. A Structured Approach to Analyze the Influence of Channel Dimensions on Heat Extraction via Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielert, E. R.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Verweij, A. P.

    For the luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, the final focusing quadrupole magnets will be exposed to an increased energy deposition in their coil windings. To have a higher heat transfer rate between cable and superfluid helium bath, the cable insulation has been subject of many studies. Improved cable insulation designs, making use of several layers of Kapton tape wound around Rutherford type cables, allow helium to penetrate via micro-channels, which are left open between adjacent Kapton tape sections. To better understand the thermal behaviour at operating temperatures below and some degrees above the helium lambda transition, besides experimental work, several numerical models have been developed to study the influence of the cable insulation. Here we present a new numerical model based on an earlier presented FEM model, which makes use of coupling variables such that the user can easily and quickly change the parameters of interest, giving the possibility to analyse new ideas effectively.

  14. Performance of all-metal demountable cryogenic seals at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Spivak, Alan L.

    1989-01-01

    Two all-metal demountable cryogenic seals with an outside diameter of 36.6 mm, inside diameter of 27.2 mm, and thickness of 0.51 mm were leak-tested at room temperature (300 K), liquid nitrogen temperature (21 cycles at 77 K), liquid helium temperature (9 cycles at 4.2 K), and superfluid helium temperature (4 cycles at 1.6 K). Each seal was mounted and demounted for 13 cycles. Thickness measurements at 90 deg intervals along the circumference showed a maximum seal compression of 0.038 mm. Leak-rate measurements at all temperatures showed no detectable leak above the helium background level, typically 0.1 x 10(-9) std-cc/sec, during testing.

  15. Performance of all-metal demountable cryogenic seals at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P. L.; Spivak, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Two all-metal demountable cryogenic seals with an outside diameter of 36.6 mm, inside diameter of 27.2 mm and thickness of 0.51 mm were leak-tested at room temperature (300 K), liquid nitrogen temperature (21 cycles at 77 K), liquid helium temperature (nine cycles at 4.2K) and superfluid helium temperature (four cycles at 1.6 K). Each seal was mounted and demounted for 13 cycles. Thickness measurements at 90 deg intervals along the circumference showed a maximum seal compression of 0.038 mm. Leak rate measurements at all temperatures showed no detectable leak above the helium background level, typically 0.1 x 10 exp -9 std cu cm/s, during testing.

  16. Nonlinear optical effects of ultrahigh-Q silicon photonic nanocavities immersed in superfluid helium

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiankai; Zhang, Xufeng; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic nanocavities are a key component in many applications because of their capability of trapping and storing photons and enhancing interactions of light with various functional materials and structures. The maximal number of photons that can be stored in silicon photonic cavities is limited by the free-carrier and thermo-optic effects at room temperature. To reduce such effects, we performed the first experimental study of optical nonlinearities in ultrahigh-Q silicon disk nanocavities at cryogenic temperatures in a superfluid helium environment. At elevated input power, the cavity transmission spectra exhibit distinct blue-shifted bistability behavior when temperature crosses the liquid helium lambda point. At even lower temperatures, the spectra restore to symmetric Lorentzian shapes. Under this condition, we obtain a large intracavity photon number of about 40,000, which is limited ultimately by the local helium phase transition. These new discoveries are explained by theoretical calculations and numerical simulations. PMID:23486445

  17. Exotic Self-trapped States of an Electron in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Veit

    2015-09-01

    We explore the possibility that the fast and exotic negative ions in superfluid helium are electrons bound to quantized vortex structures, the simplest being a ring. In the states we consider, the electron energy is only slightly below the conduction band minimum of bulk helium. To support our proposal, we present two calculations. In the first, we show that the electron pressure on the vortex core is insufficient to cavitate the helium and form an electron bubble. In the second, we estimate the equilibrium radius of the vortex ring that would bind an electron and find it is much smaller than the electron bubble, about 7 Å. The many exotic ions reported in experiments might be bound states of an electron with more complex vortex structures.

  18. Modelling of helium-mediated quench propagation in the LHC prototype test string-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Grzegory, P.; Serio, L.; van Weelderen, R.

    2000-08-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype test string-1, hereafter referred to as the string, is composed of three 10-m long prototype dipole magnets and one 6-m long prototype quadrupole magnet. The magnets are immersed in a pressurized static bath of superfluid helium that is maintained at a pressure of about 1 bar and at a temperature of about 1.9 K. This helium bath constitutes one single hydraulic unit, extending along 42.5 m of the string length. We have measured the triggering of quenches of the string magnets due to the quenching of a single dipole magnet located at the string's extremity, i.e., "quench propagation". Previously reported measurements enabled to establish that in this configuration the quench propagation is mediated by the helium and not by the inter-magnet bus bar connections [L. Coull, D. Hagedorn, G. Krainz, F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, Quench propagation tests on the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: S. Myers, A. Pacheco, R. Pascual, C. Petit-Jean-Genaz, J. Poole (Eds.), Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference - EPAC '96, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, 10-14 June 1996, IOP, Bristol, 1996; F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, L. Serio, Thermo-hydraulic quench propagation at the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: D. Dew-Hughes, R.G. Scurlock, J.H.P. Watson (Eds), 17th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC-17), Bournemouth, UK, 14-17 July 1998, IOP, Bristol, 1998]. We present a model of helium-mediated quench propagation based on the qualitative conclusions of these two previous papers, and on additional information gained from a dedicated series of quench propagation measurements that were not previously reported. We will discuss the specific mechanisms and their main parameters involved at different timescales of the propagation process, and apply the model to make quantitative predictions.

  19. Performance of the relativity mission superfluid helium flight dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmley, R. T.; Bell, G. A.; Frank, D. J.; Murray, D. O.; Whelan, R. A.

    2003-10-01

    The world's largest capacity helium flight dewar has been assembled for use on the Relativity Mission, also known as Gravity Probe-B (GP-B). Acceptance tests performed include (1) weight, (2) proof pressure and leak checks, (3) vacuum bakeout, (4) main tank fill with He I, (5) parasitic heat rate tests, (6) well fill with He I from both the main tank and an external supply dewar, (7) well depletion, (8) conditioning the main tank to He II, (9) porous plug tests, (10) heat pulse meter tests, (11) transferring He II from the main tank to the well with a fountain-effect pump, (12) guard tank fill with He I with a nonvented He II main tank simulating launch pad hold, and (13) guard tank emptying. The measured performance is compared to the previously launched IRAS, COBE, and ISO cryostats. The Relativity Mission spacecraft will be launched in the time span 1999 to 2000.

  20. Superfluid helium 2 liquid-vapor phase separation: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature survey of helium 2 liquid vapor phase separation is presented. Currently, two types of He 2 phase separators are being investigated: porous, sintered metal plugs and the active phase separator. The permeability K(P) shows consistency in porous plug geometric characterization. Both the heat and mass fluxes increase with K(P). Downstream pressure regulation to adjust for varying heat loads and both temperatures is possible. For large dynamic heat loads, the active phase separator shows a maximum heat rejection rate of up to 2 W and bath temperature stability of 0.1 mK. Porous plug phase separation performance should be investigated for application to SIRTF and, in particular, that plugs of from 10 to the minus ninth square centimeters to 10 to the minus eighth square centimeters in conjunction with downstream pressure regulation be studied.

  1. Pseudo- ɛ expansion and critical exponents of superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. I.; Nikitina, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The pseudo- ɛ expansions (τ-series) for critical exponents of the three-dimensional XY model describing λ-transition in liquid helium are derived up to the τ6 terms. Numerical estimates extracted from the τ-series obtained using the Padé-Borel resummation technique, scaling relations and the seven-loop (τ7) estimate for the Fisher exponent η are presented including those for the exponents α and ν measured in experiments with a record accuracy. For the exponent α the procedure argued to be most reliable gives α = - 0.0117, the number that is very close to the most accurate experimental values. It signals that the pseudo- ɛ expansion approach is a powerful tool robust enough to evaluate critical exponents with small absolute errors. The arguments in favor of such a robustness are presented.

  2. Lambda Front Propagation in the Superfluid Helium Contained in the External Auxiliary Bus-Bar Line of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capatina, O.; Poncet, A.; Skoczen, B.

    2004-06-01

    The array of the corrector magnets of the LHC arc, associated with the main and some dispersion suppressor quadrupoles are powered by a special line routed inside the cryostat, running alongside the cold mass of the half-cell. This line, composed of a 50 mm diameter stainless steel tube fixed to the cold mass, houses the superconducting multi-wire cable(s) carrying the 600 A and 6 kA current to the corrector magnets and special quadrupoles. It is cooled down to 1.9 K with pressurized superfluid helium provided by links to the cold-mass placed at regular intervals (one half-cell). The paper is focused on the process of sub-cooling the long channel from 4.5 K down to 1.9 K, including the propagation of the lambda front along the pipeline. The mechanism of sub-cooling is based on a zone of phase transformation traveling along the channel, with the heat transport both in helium and in the copper wires. A new 2-D model, including the radial heat exchange between copper and He II, has been used to study the process. A clamped temperature problem with a jump-like variable section of the channel has been solved. The model has been applied to the analysis of recovery of the line after a quench in the main magnets. A comparison with the measurements in the LHC prototype cell (String 2) is shown.

  3. SHOOT flowmeter and pressure transducers. [for Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, A.; Wilcox, R. A.; Spivak, A. L.; Daney, D. E.; Woodhouse, C. E.

    1990-01-01

    A venturi flowmeter has been designed and constructed for the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment. The calibration results obtained from the SHOOT venturi demonstrate the ability of the flowmeter to meet the requirements of the SHOOT experiment. Flow rates as low as 20 cu dm/h and as high as 800 cu dm/h have been measured. Performances of the SHOOT differential and absolute pressure transducers, which have undergone calibration and vibration tests, are also included. Throughout the tests, the responses of the transducers remained linear and repeatable to within + or - 1 percent of the full scales of the transducers.

  4. A Continuous 4He Refrigerator for Use in a Superfluid Helium Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suwen; Avaloff, D.; Nissen, J. A.; Stricker, D. A.; Lipa, J. A.

    2006-09-07

    In cryogenic applications in space, the base temperature, Tmin of the helium bath in the dewar is typically determined by the design of the porous plug and the associated plumbing. For certain experiments, the required operating temperature of the instrument is lower than the bath temperature. In the laboratory, temperatures below 1.2 K require very large pumps or the use of 3He systems. We have demonstrated a modified 4He refrigerator with a continuous fill from a superfluid helium bath with a base temperature more than 0.5 K below the bath temperature. We describe the operation as well as the mechanism of such a refrigerator. For operation in space the refrigerator would need to be equipped with a porous plug to retain the fluid.

  5. A Report on Superfluid Helium Flow Through Porous Plugs for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    As a background for the study of the nature of superfluid helium flow through porous plugs for other space science uses, preliminary tests on various plugs of a given material, diameter, height, and filtration grade have been performed. Two characteristics of the plugs, pore size and number of channels, have been determined by the bubble test and warm flow test of helium gas through the plugs, respectively. Tests on the flow of He II through the plugs have also been performed. An obvious feature of the results of these tests is that for isothermal measurements of pressure versus mass flow rate below approximately 2.10 K, the flow is separated into two different regimes, indicative of the occurrence of a critical phenomenon.

  6. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Prize Lecture: Quantum Mechanics meets Fluid Dynamics: Visualization of Vortex Reconnection in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena including superfluidity, superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation. While superfluidity in helium-4 was one of the earliest discovered, it is not the best understood, owing to the strong interactions present (making theoretical progress difficult) and the lack of local experimental probes. Quantum fluids, such as superfluid helium-4, are typically described as a mixture of two interpenetrating fluids with distinct velocity fields: a viscous normal fluid akin to water and an inviscid superfluid exhibiting long-range quantum order. In this "two-fluid model," there is no conventional viscous dissipation in the superfluid component and vorticity is confined to atomically-thin vortices with quantized circulation. Turbulence may occur in either fluid component with turbulence in the superfluid exhibiting a complex tangle of quantized vortices, as first envisioned by Feynman. Approximately five years ago, our group discovered that micron-sized hydrogen particles may be used for flow visualization in superfluid helium-4. The particles can trace the motions of the normal fluid or be trapped by the quantized vortices, which enables one to characterize the dynamics of both the normal fluid and superfluid components for the first time. By directly observing and tracking these particles, we have directly confirmed the two-fluid model, observed vortex rings and quantized vortex reconnection, characterized thermal counterflows, and observed the very peculiar nature of quantum turbulence. One of many surprising observations is the existence of power-law tails in the probability distribution of velocities in quantum turbulence, which are in stark contrast to the Gaussian distributions typical of classical fluid turbulence.

  7. Dynamics and Morphology of Superfluid Helium Drops in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, George M.; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an apparatus that makes it possible to observe and study magnetically levitated drops of superfluid helium. The force on a diamagnetic substance in a magnetic field is proportional to the gradient of the square of the magnetic field B. For the magnetic force on helium to be equal to the gravitational force on Earth, it is necessary for the product of B with the field gradient dB/d z to be 21.5 T(exp 2)/cm. In addition, in order for the magnetic field to provide a stable trap, the value of B(exp 2) must increase in all directions in the horizontal plane that passes through the point where the field/field gradient product in the vertical direction has the critical value of 21.5 T(exp 2)/cm. A specially designed superconducting magnet that meets these specifications has been installed in a large helium dewar with optical access. Helium drops levitated by the magnet can be viewed along the axis of the solenoid. The sample chamber within the bore of the magnet is thermally isolated from the magnet and helium reservoir. Its temperature can be varied between 4 and 0.5 K, the lower part of the range being reached using a He-3 refrigerator. Liquid helium can be injected into the magnetic trap using a small capillary. Once a drop is contained in the trap it can be held there indefinitely. With this apparatus we have conducted a number of different types of experiments on helium drops so as to gain information necessary for performing experiments in space. With magnetically levitated drops we are limited to working with drops of 1 cm. or less in diameter. The shape of the drops larger than a few mm diameter can be distorted by the profile of the magnetic field. The study of phenomena such as the initial motion of the surfaces of two drops as they just make contact, requires the use large drops to resolve the behavior of interest. We have performed a detailed investigation of the shape oscillations of superfluid drops.

  8. Study of Temperature Wave Propagation in Superfluid Helium Focusing on Radio-Frequency Cavity Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koettig, T.; Peters, B. J.; Avellino, S.; Junginger, T.; Bremer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) can be used to localize quenches of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. Local hot spots at the cavity surface initiate temperature waves in the surrounding superfluid helium that acts as cooling fluid at typical temperatures in the range of 1.6 K to 2 K. The temperature wave is characterised by the properties of superfluid helium such as the second sound velocity. For high heat load densities second sound velocities greater than the standard literature values are observed. This fast propagation has been verified in dedicated small scale experiments. Resistors were used to simulate the quench spots under controlled conditions. The three dimensional propagation of second sound is linked to OST signals. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the OST signal especially the incident angle dependency. The characterised OSTs are used as a tool for quench localisation on a real size cavity. Their sensitivity as well as the time resolution was proven to be superior to temperature sensors glued to the surface of the cavity.

  9. The Nanostructures Produced by Laser Ablation of Metals in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Eugene B.; Karabulin, Alexander V.; Matyushenko, Vladimir I.; Sizov, Vyacheslav D.; Khodos, Igor I.

    2013-07-01

    The coagulation of impurities in superfluid helium, in contrast to that in all other liquids where spherical colloid particles are usually produced, led to producing thin and long nanowires with regular internal structure. This is due to the presence in HeII of quasi one-dimensional quantized vortices serving as condensation nuclei and providing a catalyzing effect on the process of any impurities coagulation. The metal was introduced into superfluid helium by laser ablation of targets made of gold, copper, nickel, permalloy, indium, lead, tin and bismuth immersed in liquid HeII. For all of these metals, the formation of thin (about 8 nm in diameter), long high-quality nanowires was observed after laser ablation. The structure of nanowires as well as of micron-sized metallic spheres, appeared as products at high laser pulse energy, providing evidence that they were formed via molten state. The spheres are metastable, and under damage of their surface, thousands of nanoballs emerge from their interior. The hollow shells left after this event are similar to those found as the products of laser ablation in normal fluids. The metal ablation into HeII bulk from thin film was found much less effective then that from thick foils.

  10. Superfluid helium-4: On sin phi Josephson weak links and dissipation of third sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joan Audrey

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation reports on two different projects---the development of an experiment designed to study weak links in 4He with a sine-like current-phase relationship and a set of experiments exploring dissipation of third sound in thick films of superfluid 4He. Since Brian Josephson's proposals of phenomena in weakly-linked macroscopic quantum systems over 40 years ago, researchers have been searching for such effects in superfluid 4He. Until recently, it has been believed that technological barriers would prevent the observation of a sine-like current-phase relationship between two weakly linked volumes of superfluid 4He. In this dissertation we report on the fabrication of sub-15nm aperture arrays and preliminary measurements helium flow through the arrays below Tlambda . These measurements show the linear temperature dependence of critical velocity expected in the phase slip regime. Efforts to study the cross-over to the sin φ regime are ongoing. We measured the frequency and line shapes of third sound resonances at temperatures between 0.3 and 2.1K in saturated films approximately 30nm thick, and, from these measurements, calculated the attenuation of the third sound waves. In the past, such measurements have been inconsistent, within as well as among reported work. More recent theory, however, suggests that these variations may point toward vortex-driven dissipation mechanisms. Metastable vortex populations are known to permeate superfluid 4He. Our measurements indicate that attenuation is a strong function of the history of the film, affected by temperature excursions and physical perturbations. We also observe frequency shifting of resonances attributable to trapped circulation and a large increase in dissipation with the introduction of 3He impurities to the film. Taken together with our observation of a dissipation mechanism linear in amplitude, our results provide support for recent proposals of dissipation due to vortex-excitation interactions.

  11. Porous plug and superfluid helium film flow suppressor for the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard Astro-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Kumi; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takaya; Murakami, Masahide; Kanao, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Tsunematsu, Shoji; DiPirro, Michael; Shirron, Peter; SXS Team

    2010-09-01

    Suppression of superfluid helium flow is critical for the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H, to achieve a life time of the liquid helium over 5 years. The superfluid film flow must be sufficiently small, compared to a nominal helium gas flow rate of the SXS (25μg/s). For this purpose, four devices composed of a porous plug, an orifice, a heat exchanger, and knife edge devices will be employed based on the experience of the X-ray microcalorimeter (XRS for X-Ray Spectrometer) onboard Suzaku. The porous plug is a phase separator of the liquid and gas helium. A potential film flow leaking from the porous plug is suppressed by the orifice. Almost all the remaining film flow evaporates at the heat exchanger. The knife edge devices stop the remaining film flow by using atomically sharp edges. In this paper, we describe the principle and design of these four devices.

  12. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs+ is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs+-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 106 helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  13. Magnetotransport in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system on superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaenko, B. A.; Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Gladchenko, S. P.

    2002-11-01

    Magnetotransport in a nondegenerate quasi-one-dimensional electron system on superfluid helium is investigated experimentally. The measurements are performed in perpendicular magnetic fields B⩽2.6 T in the temperature range 0.48-2.05 K with 100-400 nm wide conducting channels. In the region where the carriers are scattered by the helium atoms in the vapor (T>0.9 K) and in the region where the electrons are scattered by ripplons (T<0.9 K) the longitudinal component ρxx of the magnetoresistance of the conducting channels predominantly increases with B. The experimental data in the region of carrier scattering by helium atoms in the vapor agree with the classical Drude law, and in the quantum transport regime with ωcτ>1 (ωc is the cyclotron frequency and τ is the relaxation time of the electron system) the self-consistent Born approximation for a 2D electron system above helium gives a qualitative explanation of the data. It is conjectured that the quantitative differences between the experimental data and the theoretical calculations are due to the difference of the specific features between the experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed systems. The experimental values of the electron mobilities at low temperatures and in weak magnetic fields agree with theoretical calculations for a quasi-one-dimensional system. Weak carrier localization in the experimental electron system explains the negative magnetoresistance of the conducting channels, which was observed in the gas and ripplon carrier scattering regions.

  14. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-07-28

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs{sup +} is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs{sup +}-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 10{sup 6} helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  15. Effect of the permeability of the porous shell on the vapor film thickness during boiling of superfluid helium in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, P. V.; Kryukov, A. P.; Puzina, Yu. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretically study of the boiling of superfluid helium on a cylindrical heater placed in a coaxial porous shell in microgravity. Steady-state transfer processes at the interface are studied using molecular-kinetic methods. The Boltzmann transport equation is solved by the moment method based on the four-moment approximation in the form of a two-sided Maxwellian. The obtained solution is used to calculate the heat flux density in film boiling on a cylindrical heating surface in the case where the film thickness is comparable to the diameter of the heater. The motion of the normal component of the superfluid liquid in pores is described by equations that take into account heat and mass transfer in superfluid helium. The relation between the vapor film thickness and the structural characteristics and geometrical dimensions of the porous shell is obtained. Analysis of the results of the calculations is given.

  16. Thermoluminescence Dynamics During Destructions of Porous Structures Formed by Nitrogen Nanoclusters in Bulk Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraki, Adil; Mao, Shun; McColgan, Patrick T.; Boltnev, Roman E.; Lee, David M.; Khmelenko, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    We studied the dynamics of thermoluminescence during destruction of porous structures formed by nanoclusters of nitrogen molecules containing high concentrations of stabilized nitrogen atoms. The porous structures were formed in bulk superfluid helium by injection of the products of discharges in nitrogen-helium gas mixtures through the liquid helium surface. Fast recombination of nitrogen atoms during warming-up led to explosive destruction of the porous structures accompanied by bright flashes. Intense emissions from the α -group of nitrogen atoms, the β -group of oxygen atoms and the Vegard-Kaplan bands of N_2 molecules were observed at the beginning of destruction. At the end of destruction the M- and β -bands of NO molecules as well as bands of O_2 molecules were also observed. Observation of the emissions from NO molecules at the end of destruction was explained by processes of accumulation of NO molecules in the system due to the large van der Waals interaction of NO molecules. For the first time, we observed the emission of the O_2 molecules at the end of destruction of the porous nitrogen structures as a result of the (NO)_2 dimer formation in solid nitrogen and subsequent processes leading to the appearance of excited O_2 molecules.

  17. Implementation of the thermodynamic and phase transition equations of superfluid helium in CFD software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, R.; Pascali, S.; Vendramini, C.; Baudouy, B.

    2015-12-01

    The cryogenic design of the next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets depends on our ability to simulate the helium heat and mass transfer in the internal structure of these magnets. For that matter accurate tools must be developed such as numerical codes integrating the thermodynamic behavior and phase transition in superfluid helium. We have implemented in 2D and 3D, the He II conservation equations in Fluent© CFD software corresponding to a simplified two-fluid model. It consists of a conventional continuity equation, a modified momentum equation for the total fluid and an energy equation including the Gorter-Mellink internal convection term modeling the turbulence regime. The code is mainly suited to simulate transient and steady-state flow configurations. In addition, a new method has been developed to simulate the He II / He I transition in 2D based on a modified Volume Of Fluid method (VOF). The interface between the two states of liquid helium has been locally recreated in the corresponding cells to properly mimic the second order phase transition (no latent heat). Both steady and unsteady numerical simulation have been performed and compared with different experimental results.

  18. Thermal resistance at a solid/superfluid helium interface.

    PubMed

    Ramiere, Aymeric; Volz, Sebastian; Amrit, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Kapitza in 1941 discovered that heat flowing across a solid in contact with superfluid helium (<2 K) encounters a strong thermal resistance at the interface. Khalatnikov demonstrated theoretically that this constitutes a general phenomenon related to all interfaces at all temperatures, given the dependence of heat transmission on the acoustic impedance (sound velocity  ×  density) of each medium. For the solid/superfluid interface, the measured transmission of heat is almost one hundred times stronger than the Khalatnikov prediction. This discrepancy could be intuitively attributed to diffuse scattering of phonons at the interface but, despite several attempts, a detailed quantitative comparison between theoretical and experimental findings to explain the occurrence of scattering and its contribution to heat transmission had been lacking. Here we show that when the thermal wavelength λ of phonons of the less dense medium (liquid (4)He) becomes comparable to the r.m.s. surface roughness σ, the heat flux crossing the interface is amplified; in particular when σ ≈ 0.33λ, a spatial resonant mechanism occurs, as proposed by Adamenko and Fuks. We used a silicon single crystal whose surface roughness was controlled and characterized. The thermal boundary resistance measurements were performed from 0.4 to 2 K at different superfluid pressures ranging from saturated vapour pressure (SVP) to above (4)He solidification, to eliminate all hypothetical artefact mechanisms. Our results demonstrate the physical conditions necessary for resonant phonon scattering to occur at all interfaces, and therefore constitute a benchmark in the design of nanoscale devices for heat monitoring. PMID:26928639

  19. Ultracold neutron accumulation in a superfluid-helium converter with magnetic multipole reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, O.; Golub, R.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the accumulation of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in a superfluid-helium converter vessel surrounded by a magnetic multipole reflector. We solved the spin-dependent rate equation, employing formulas valid for adiabatic spin transport of trapped UCNs in mechanical equilibrium. Results for saturation UCN densities are obtained in dependence of order and strength of the multipolar field. The addition of magnetic storage to neutron optical potentials can increase the density and energy of the low-field-seeking UCNs produced and serves to mitigate the effects of wall losses on the source performance. It also can provide a highly polarized sample of UCNs without need to polarize the neutron beam incident on the converter. This work was performed in preparation of the UCN source project SuperSUN at the Institut Laue-Langevin.

  20. Structure and Properties of Platinum, Gold and Mercury Nanowires Grown in Superfluid Helium.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Eugene B; Karabulin, Alexander V; Morozov, Andrey A; Matyushenko, Vladimir I; Sizov, Vyacheslav D; Khodos, Igor I

    2014-04-01

    Webs consisting of nanowires made of gold, platinum and mercury were produced by the technique based on laser ablation of metals inside superfluid helium. Their morphology and structure as well as their electrical conductivity have been studied. Diameters of gold and platinum nanowires are 4.5 and 3 nm, respectively. Fortunately, they are close to diameters of nanospheres made of these metals, which, as known from the literature, possess anomalous catalytic activity. Web resistivities for all metals up to room temperature are controlled by conductive electron scattering on a wire surface, thus they are almost independent of T. Nanowires in the webs are electrically interconnected, and therefore the web can be used as a catalyst without any support. Possible advantages of this type of nanocatalyst are outlined. PMID:26274451

  1. Formation of bimetallic clusters in superfluid helium nanodroplets analysed by atomic resolution electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials. PMID:26508471

  2. Photo-induced isomerization and chemical reaction dynamics in superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Jeremy; Douberly, Gary; Miller, Roger

    2008-03-01

    Near threshold photo-induced isomerization and photo-induced chemical reactions have long been sough after as sensitive probes of the underlying potential energy surface. One of the most important questions asked is how the initially bright quantum state couples to the reaction coordinate, and thus relates to energy transfer in general. Helium droplets have now allowed us to stabilize entrance channel clusters behind very small reaction barriers such that vibrational excitation may result in reaction. Through two examples, namely the isomerization of the 2 binary complexes of HF-HCN Douberly et al. PCCP 2005, 7,463, and the induced reaction of the gallium-HCN complex Merritt et al. JPCA 2007, DOI:10.1021/jp074981e we will show how the branching ratios for reaction and predissociation can determined and the influence of the superfluid He solvent.

  3. Design considerations for a micro-g superfluid helium fluid acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The general description, the operation, and the design of a superfluid helium (SFHe) fluid acquisition system (FAS) for use under microgravity conditions is presented. For the type of FAS considered here, where fine-mesh woven screens are used to retain flowing SFHe within a gallery arm (flow) channel, those forces which determine the flow dynamics are the micro-g accelerations, liquid surface tension, and tensile strength and cumulative pressure drops along a flow path that begins at the bulk liquid and ends at the entrance to a pump. For this case, the dimensionless number, N(T) is written as the ratio between the pressure drop across the screen and the surface tension forces at the screen for low fluid velocities. Static Bond number measurements have bene taken for SFHe using 325 x 2300 twilled Dutch screen and have indicated a screen pore hydraulic radius of 0.00031 cm.

  4. Visualization study of the normal-fluid motion in superfluid helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian; Marokov, Alex; Guo, Wei; van Sciver, Steven W.; Ihas, Gary G.; McKinsey, Daniel N.; Vinen, William F.

    2014-03-01

    Flow visualization in superfluid 4He is challenging, yet crucial for attaining a detailed understandingof quantum turbulence. Two problems have impeded progress: finding and introducing suitable tracersthat are small yet visible; and unambiguous interpretation of the tracer motion. Metastable He2 triplet molecules form angstrom-sized bubbles in helium and can be imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. At temperatures above 1 K, helium molecules solely follow the motion of the normal-fluid component without being affected by quantized vortices. In our recent experiments on thermal counterflow, by tracing a thin molecular line created via femtosecond-laser field-ionization technique, we are able to measure the instantaneous normal-fluid velocity field. We show that the obtained velocity probability density function (PDF) obeys a Gaussian distribution. We also discuss the calculated structure function of the novel normal-fluid turbulence in thermal counterflow. The work is supported by the start-up grant of W.G. provided by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University.

  5. On the electric activity of superfluid helium at the excitation of first and second sound waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A. Gurin, A. A.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the electric activity of superfluid helium (HeII) observed in the experiments [3] during the excitation of standing second sound waves in an acoustic resonator can be described in terms of the phenomenological mechanism of the inertial polarization of atoms in a dielectric, in particular, in HeII, when the polarization field induced in the medium is proportional to the mechanical acceleration, by analogy with the Stewart-Tolman effect. The variable relative velocity w = v{sub n} - v{sub s} of the normal and superfluid HeII components that emerges in the second sound wave determines the mean group velocity of rotons, V{sub g} Almost-Equal-To w, with the density of the normal component related to their equilibrium number density in the temperature range 1.3 K {<=} T {<=} 2 K. Therefore, the acceleration of the 4He atoms involved in the formation of a roton excitation is proportional to the time derivative of the relative velocity.w. In this case, the linear local relations between the variable values of the electric induction, electric field strength, and polarization vector should be taken into account. As a result, the variable displacement current induced in the bulk of HeII and the corresponding potential difference do not depend on the anomalously low polarizability of liquid helium. This allows the ratio of the amplitudes of the temperature and potential oscillations in the second sound wave, which is almost independent of T in the above temperature range, consistent with experimental data to be obtained. At the same time, the absence of an electric response during the excitation of first sound waves in the linear regime is related to an insufficient power of the sound oscillations. Based on the experimental data on the excitation of first and second sounds, we have obtained estimates for the phenomenological coefficient of proportionality between the polarization vector and acceleration and for the drag coefficient of helium atoms by rotons in the

  6. Particle trajectories in thermal counterflow of superfluid helium in a wide channel of square cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mantia, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The motion of micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles in thermal counterflow of superfluid helium is studied experimentally by using the particle tracking velocimetry technique. The investigated quantum flow occurs in a square channel of 25 mm sides and 100 mm length, appreciably wider than those employed in previous related experiments. Flow velocities up to 10 mm/s are obtained, corresponding to temperatures between about 1.3 K and 2.1 K, and applied heat fluxes between ca. 50 W/m2 and 500 W/m2. The character of the obtained particle trajectories changes significantly as the imposed mean flow velocity increases. At thermal counterflow velocities lower than approximately 1 mm/s, the particle tracks appear straighter than at larger velocities. On the basis of the current understanding of the underlying physics, it is argued that the outcome is most likely due to the transition to the turbulent state of the investigated flow as, for narrower channels, this transition was reported to occur at larger velocities. The present results confirm that, at least in the parameter ranges investigated to date, the transition to turbulence in thermal counterflow depends on the geometry of the channel where this quantum flow develops.

  7. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity of Superfluid Helium Near its Transition Temperature T(sub lambda) in a 2D Confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerebets, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We report our recent experiments on thermal conductivity measurements of superfluid He-4 near its phase transition in a two-dimensional (2D) confinement under saturated vapor pressure. A 2D confinement is created by 2-mm- and 1-mm-thick glass capillary plates, consisting of densely populated parallel microchannels with cross-sections of 5 x 50 and 1 x 10 microns, correspondingly. A heat current (2 < Q < 400 nW/sq cm) was applied along the channels long direction. High-resolution measurements were provided by DC SQUID-based high-resolution paramagnetic salt thermometers (HRTs) with a nanokelvin resolution. We might find that thermal conductivity of confined helium is finite at the bulk superfluid transition temperature. Our 2D results will be compared with those in a bulk and 1D confinement.

  8. Quasiequilibrium distribution function of anisotropic phonon systems and the interaction of pulses of low-energy phonons in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenko, I.N.; Kitsenko, Yu.A.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Slipko, V.A.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2005-08-01

    The phenomenon of a hot line forming in liquid helium was observed in experiments carried out in the University of Exeter (UK). It arises when two phonon pulses interact and this is theoretically investigated in this paper. To develop the theory we start from the exact quasiequilibrium distribution function that describes anisotropic phonon systems such as a phonon pulse in superfluid helium. This is related to the approximate distribution function, which is more physically intuitive and was used earlier. The local equilibrium distribution function for phonons in the region of a hot line is obtained from the distribution functions for the phonons in the two interacting pulses. In order to explain the results of experiments, we analyze the effect of different pressures when the angle between the two moving pulses in superfluid helium is constant and also the effect of different angles at the saturated vapor pressure. The conditions suitable for the creation of a hot line are found. The results of the calculations are compared with the experimental data.

  9. Properties of slowly rotating helium II and the superfluidity of pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakadze, J.S.; Tsakadze, S.J.

    1980-06-01

    Results of an experimental study of superfluid He II properties in the nonstationary rotation regime are presented. On the basis of an analysis of the experimental data it is shown that the behavior of pulsar rotation (sudden jumps in speed, long relaxation processes) can be explained on the basis of the assumption of neutron superfluid in pulsars.

  10. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M. R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C. A.; Griesmayer, E.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I.; Egorov, N.; Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×1016 proton/cm2, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×1016 p/cm2 irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage.

  11. Simulation of temperature profiles at the superfluid to normal-fluid interface in helium-4 for prediction of temperature measurement accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Hensinger, D.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Duncan, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this work was to model the conditions in a test cell containing normal-fluid and superfluid helium-4 and to predict the accuracy of temperature measurements made on this system in the presence of non-ideal wall materials and probe geometries. A thermal model of helium-4 in the vicinity of its normal-fluid to superfluid transition temperature was used to calculate the temperature profiles within a helium-4 filled experimental test cell. Calculated temperature profiles were used to predict the temperature measurement accuracy which could be expected from a test cell and temperature probe design. The superfluid phase of helium-4 was represented as a highly-conductive, diffusive material to approximate a superconductor of heat. The thermal model included the influences of temperature, heat flux, and hydrostatic pressure on the properties of helium-4. The model was solved for quasi-static temperature profiles using a finite element method and employing a transformed and expanded temperature scale to allow resolution of nK/cm temperature gradients in the presence of a 2 K absolute temperature.

  12. Progress on Electrode Designs and Tests to Generate High Electric Field in Superfluid Liquid Helium-4 for the SNS nEDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wanchun; Beck, Douglas; Cianciolo, Vince; Clayton, Steven; Crawford, Christopher; Currie, Scott; Griffith, William; Ito, Takeyasu; Ramsey, John; Roberts, Amy; Schmid, Richardo; Seidel, George; Wagner, Daniel; Williamson, Steven; Yao, Weijun; SNS nEDM Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The SNS nEDM experiment is aiming to search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) with ultracold neutrons (UCNs) stored in superfluid liquid helium-4 at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with a goal sensitivity of 3×10-28e-cm, an improvement of two orders of magnitude over the current limit. To achieve the goal sensitivity of the EDM searches,it relies on the stable application of a 75 kV/cm electric field across the UCN storage space without breakdowns in superfluid liquid helium-4. The electrode designs and tests on various geometries and coating materials are undergoing. The high voltage tests in superfluid helium-4 are performed in a specially-designed apparatus at temperatures as low as 0.4 K and pressures between saturated vapor pressure (SVP) of liquid helium and 1 atm. These tests would help in a better understanding of the electric breakdown phenomenon in liquid helium-4. In this talk, we will present the latest progress on electrode designs and tests,and their implications of findings that affect the design of the SNS nEDM experiment.

  13. Superfluid turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1993-01-01

    At low temperatures (below 5 Kelvin), helium is a liquid with a very low kinematic viscosity. It was proposed that wind tunnels could be built using liquid helium as the test fluid. The primary advantages of such wind tunnels would be a combination of large Reynolds numbers and a relatively small apparatus. It is hoped that this combination will allow the study of high Reynolds number flows in an academic setting. There are two basic types of liquid helium wind tunnels that can be built, corresponding to the two phases of liquid helium. The high temperature phase (between approximately 2 to 5 Kelvin) is called helium 1 and is a Navier-Stokes fluid. There are no unanswered scientific questions about the design or operation of a wind tunnel in the helium 1 phase. The low temperature phase (below approximately 2 Kelvin) of liquid helium is called helium 2. This is a quantum fluid, meaning that there are some properties of helium 2 which are directly due to quantum mechanical effects and which are not observed in Navier-Stokes fluids. The quantum effects that are relevant to this paper are: (1) helium 2 is well described as a superposition of two separate fluids called the superfluid and the normal fluid. The normal-fluid component is a Navier-Stokes fluid and the superfluid is an irrotational Euler fluid; and (2) circulation in the superfluid exists only in quantized vortex filaments. All quantized vortex filaments have identical circulations kappa and core size a. The objective of the research at CTR was to develop an understanding of the microscopic processes responsible for the observed Navier-Stokes behavior of helium 2 flows.

  14. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.

  15. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.

  16. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features ofmore » the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.« less

  17. Surface Region of Superfluid Helium as an Inhomogeneous Bose-Condensed Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, A.; Stringari, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present arguments that the low density surface region of self-bounded superfluid 4He systems is an inhomogeneous dilute Bose gas, with almost all of the atoms occupying the same single-particle state at T = 0. Numerical evidence for this complete Bose-Einstein condensation was first given by the many-body variational calculations of 4He droplets by Lewart, Pandharipande, and Pieper in 1988 [Phys. Rev. B 37, 4950 (1988)]. We show that the low density surface region can be treated rigorously using a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the Bose order parameter.

  18. Cryogenic Microjet Source for Orthotropic Beams of Ultralarge Superfluid Helium Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisenti, Robert E.; Toennies, J. Peter

    2003-06-01

    Liquid 4He at pressures P0=0.5 30 bars and temperatures T0=1.5 4.2 K is discharged into vacuum through two different 2 μm nozzles. The velocities of the beam of particles obey the Bernoulli equation down to 15 m/sec. With decreasing T0 and increasing P0 the velocity and angular distributions become exceedingly narrow with Δv/v≲1% and Δϑ≲1 mrad. Optical observations indicate that the beam consists of micron-sized droplets (N≳109 atoms). This new droplet source provides opportunities for novel experimental studies of superfluid behavior.

  19. Performance of all-metal demountable cryogenic seals at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Spivak, Alan L.; Kittel, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Two all-metal demountable cryogenic seals with an outside diameter of 36.6 mm, inside diameter of 27.2 mm, and thickness of 0.51 mm were leak-tested at room temperature (300 K), liquid nitrogen temperature (21 cycles at 77 K), liquid helium temperature (9 cycles at 4.2 K), and susperfluid helium temperature (4 cycles at 1.6 K). Each seal was mounted and demounted for 13 cycles. Thickness measurements at 90 deg intervals along the circumference showed a maximum seal compression of 0.038 mm. Leak-rate measurements at all temperatures showed no detectable leak above the helium background level, typically 0.1 x 10(-9) std-cc/sec, during testing.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of HOCl embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets: Probing the dynamical response of the solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul L.; Kelloway, Donald D.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    The rotationally resolved depletion spectrum of hypochlorous acid embedded in helium nanodroplets in the 2.8 μm region is reported. The narrow a-type lines are asymmetrically skewed in the direction of the band origin, and an analysis of their line shapes based on the chirped damped oscillator function introduced by van Staveren and Apkarian [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 054506 (2010)., 10.1063/1.3469816] yields a response time of the helium solvent of 1 ns. The b-type lines are much broader due to the greater number of droplet states available for relaxation of the excited rotational states.

  1. Effect of Kapitza resistance on standing surface waves in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, R.J.; Fox, N.

    1984-06-01

    We analyze theoretically the resonant frequencies of standing surface waves produced by second sound in /sup 4/He. In particular, we show that an empirical heat transfer coefficient involved in a recently proposed boundary condition can be related to Kapitza resistance. We also calculate the heat flux within the helium and deduce that the height of the surface waves is strongly frequency dependent.

  2. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  3. Heat transfer through cyanate ester epoxy mix and epoxy TGPAP - DETDA electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, Slawomir; Four, Aurelian; Canfer, Simon; Jones, Stephanie; Baudouy, Bertrand

    2012-06-01

    A high magnetic field accelerator magnet of 13 T is being developed in Work Package 7 of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD. The application is to enable higher luminosities and energies for accelerators such as the LHC. The high magnetic field demands superconductors that require a heat treatment step such as Nb3Sn. This paper reports thermal tests on conventional composite electrical insulation with pressurized superfluid helium at atmospheric pressure as a coolant. Two composite insulation systems composed of cyanate ester epoxy mix or a tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with Sglass fiber, have been chosen as candidate materials. The knowledge of their thermal properties is necessary for the thermal design and therefore samples have been tested in pressurized He II where heat is applied perpendicularly to the fibers between 1.6 K and 2.0 K. Overall thermal resistance is determined as a function of temperature and the results are compared with other electrical insulation systems used for accelerator magnets.

  4. High resolution electron microscopy of Ag-clusters in crystalline and non-crystalline morphologies grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Fisslthaler, Evelin; Grogger, Werner

    2013-06-07

    We present a first investigation of structural properties of Ag clusters with a diameter of up to 5.5 nm grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets (He{sub N}) and deposited on an amorphous C surface. With high resolution transmission electron microscope images we are able to show that in addition to the crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure, noncrystalline icosahedral (Ih), and decahedral (Dh) morphologies are grown. Relative abundances (56% fcc, 31% Dh, and 13% Ih) as well as the size distribution of each morphology (mean diameters d{sub fcc}=2.62(5) nm, d{sub Dh}=3.34(7) nm, and d{sub Ih}=3.93(2) nm) do not reflect the situation expected from pure energetic considerations, where small Ihs should be followed by medium sized Dhs and large fccs. Instead, kinetic factors seem to play an important role in the formation of these structures, as it appears to be the case for clusters formed by inert gas aggregation. Considering the low temperatures (0.37 K) and extremely high cooling rates, we discuss basic ideas that might lead to a qualitative picture of the cluster formation process inside He{sub N}.

  5. High resolution electron microscopy of Ag-clusters in crystalline and non-crystalline morphologies grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Koch, Markus; Fisslthaler, Evelin; Grogger, Werner; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2013-06-01

    We present a first investigation of structural properties of Ag clusters with a diameter of up to 5.5 nm grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets (He(N)) and deposited on an amorphous C surface. With high resolution transmission electron microscope images we are able to show that in addition to the crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure, noncrystalline icosahedral (Ih), and decahedral (Dh) morphologies are grown. Relative abundances (56% fcc, 31% Dh, and 13% Ih) as well as the size distribution of each morphology (mean diameters d(fcc)=2.62(5) nm, d(Dh)=3.34(7) nm, and d(Ih)=3.93(2) nm) do not reflect the situation expected from pure energetic considerations, where small Ihs should be followed by medium sized Dhs and large fccs. Instead, kinetic factors seem to play an important role in the formation of these structures, as it appears to be the case for clusters formed by inert gas aggregation. Considering the low temperatures (0.37 K) and extremely high cooling rates, we discuss basic ideas that might lead to a qualitative picture of the cluster formation process inside He(N). PMID:23758376

  6. Measurement of the charge transfer efficiency of electrons clocked on superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouret, G.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-06-19

    Electrons floating on the surface of liquid helium are possible qubits for quantum information processing. Varying electric potentials do not modify spin states, which allows their transport on helium using a charge-coupled device (CCD)-like array of underlying gates. This scheme depends on an efficient intergate electron transfer and on the absence of electron traps. We will present a measurement of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of electrons clocked back and forth above a short CCD-like structure. The CTE obtained at low clocking frequencies is 0.999 with an electron density of about 4 electrons/{mu}m{sup 2}. We find no evidence for deep electron trapping.

  7. Ultrasonic Measurements on Superconducting Uranium -PLATINUM(3) and Superfluid HELIUM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenwalla, Shireen

    We present ultrasonic measurements on two highly correlated systems, UPt_3 and ^3He. We have measured the ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting UPt_3 as a function of field and temperature. An anomalous peak has been observed in the longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation in both field and temperature sweeps. We interpret this peak as a signature of a phase transition in the mixed state of UPt _3 which is strong evidence for unconventional superconductivity. We present phase diagrams in the field -temperature plane for different orientations of field. The peak shifts to lower fields as the temperature is increased, roughly tracking H_{c2} . The position of the peak in the field sweep is found to depend strongly on the orientation of the field relative to the c-axis. In contrast to the behavior of H_{c2}, we find that the phase line shifts to lower fields as the field is rotated away from the c-axis into the basal plane. The temperature dependence of the attenuation in zero field goes as T^2, unlike the expected exponential temperature dependence. The ultrasonic measurements on superfluid ^3He investigated the J = 2 collective modes. We have used a new technique involving alternate pressure and temperature sweeps. The results agree reasonably well with previously collected data.

  8. Observation of a New Type of Negative Ion in Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2006-09-07

    In recent work, we have developed a new technique for the study of the properties of electron bubbles (negative ions) in liquid helium. We use ultrasound to measure the critical negative pressure Pc at which an electron bubble becomes unstable and explodes. The value of Pc is affected, for example, by the quantum state of the electron and is reduced if the bubble is attached to a quantized vortex. In the present experiments, we have discovered a new type of object that appears to be larger than the usual electron bubble. We will consider possible explanations of these observations.

  9. Development of a motorized cryovalve for the control of superfluid liquid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Aubrun, J-N.; Zacharie, D. F.; Frank, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of infrared detectors have made possible a wide range of scientific measurements and investigations. One of the requirements for the use of sensitive IR detectors is that the entire instrument be cooled to temperatures approaching absolute zero. The cryogenic cooling system for these instruments is commonly designed as a large dewar containing liquid helium which completely surrounds the apparatus. Thus, there is a need for a remotely controlled, motorized cryovalve that is simple, reliable, and compact and can operate over extended periods of time in cryo-vac conditions. The design, development, and test of a motorized cryovalve with application to a variety of cryogenic systems currently under development is described.

  10. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  11. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-29

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  12. Single and double resonance spectroscopy of methanol embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Raston, Paul L.; Douberly, Gary E.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2014-07-28

    Methanol is one of the simplest molecules that undergo torsional oscillations, and so it has been extensively studied in the gas phase by various spectroscopic techniques. At 300 K, a large number of rotational, torsional, and vibrational energy levels is populated, and this makes for a rather complicated spectrum, which is still not fully understood. It is expected that in going from 300 K to 0.4 K (the temperature of helium nanodroplets) the population distribution of methanol will mainly collapse into two states; the J{sub K} = 0{sub 0} state for the A{sub 1} nuclear spin symmetry species (with I{sub CH{sub 3}} = 3/2), and the J{sub K} = 1{sub −1} state for the E species (I{sub CH{sub 3}} = 1/2). This results in a simplified spectrum that consists of narrow a-type (ΔK = 0) lines and broader b- and c-type (ΔK = ±1) lines. We have recorded the rotovibrational spectrum of CH{sub 3}OH in the OH stretching, CH{sub 3} stretching and bending, CH{sub 3} rocking, and CO stretching regions, and have firmly assigned five bands (v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}, v{sub 3}, v{sub 7}, and v{sub 8}), and tentatively assigned five others (v{sub 9}, 2v{sub 4}, v{sub 4} + v{sub 10}, 2v{sub 10}, and v{sub 4} + v{sub 5}). To our knowledge, the transitions we have assigned within the v{sub 4} + v{sub 10}, 2v{sub 10}, and v{sub 4} + v{sub 5} bands have not yet been assigned in the gas phase, and we hope that considering the very small “matrix” shift in helium nanodroplets (<1 cm{sup −1} for most subband origins of CH{sub 3}OH), those made here can aid in their gas phase identification. Microwave-infrared double resonance spectroscopy was used to confirm the initially tentative a-type infrared assignments in the OH stretching (v{sub 1}) band of A{sub 1} species methanol, in addition to revealing “warm” b-type lines. From a rotovibrational analysis, the B rotational constant is found to be reduced quite significantly (56%) with respect to the gas phase, and the torsional tunneling

  13. Liquid helium-II counterflow in a tube packed with angular particles and application as a superfluid pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenin, B. M.; Hess, G. B.

    1980-09-01

    Observations are reported on the operation of a recirculating superfluid 4He pump capable of driving a stable superfluid flow from subcritical continuously through a wide range of chemical potential head, ranging from very small to moderately large. The pump consists of a superfluid path shunting a thermal counterflow tube. The latter is packed with coarse angular particles, which generate quantized vorticity at a low and reproducible superfluid velocity in the tube, and so improve control of the superfluid flux in the shunt. We have made a limited study of the tube characteristic for conditions other than pure counterflow as a basis for analyzing the pump operation. Applied to a study of the onset of dissipation in an external sample, this pump has proved convinient and free of long relaxation times. Some precautions must be taken in matching the counterflow tube to the sample, to avoid regions of possible instability.

  14. Superfluid helium cryogenics for the large hadron collider project at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Philippe

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be the next research instrument of high-energy physics. Colliding protons at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy and high luminosity, it will probe the structure of matter down to an unprecedentedly fine scale, thus allowing to reproduce in the laboratory phenomena which occurred in the very early universe. On the technological side, the LHC makes use of high-field superconducting magnets for guidance and focusing of the particle beams around the 26.7 km circumference of the machine, to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel. The nominal bending field of 8.65 T is produced in some 1300 twin-aperture dipoles, wound with small-filament Nb sbnd Ti conductor, and operated below 1.9 K in static baths of pressurized helium II, thus taking advantage of its specific properties as cooling fluid. We present the main technical challenges of the LHC cryogenic system, and review the actions of development and the preparatory work in progress.

  15. Photoinduced molecular dissociation and photoinduced recombination mediated by superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Kautsch, Andreas; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2015-05-14

    We have investigated photoinduced chemical reaction dynamics of cold, isolated Cr2 molecules in helium nanodroplets (HeN), exploiting the quantum state specific spatial separation of solvated and surface locations on the droplet. The molecules are excited to achieve dissociation to a ground state (a(7)S3) and a metastable state (a(5)S2) atom. State specific spatial separation, in combination with efficient translational cooling to avoid ejection, causes the ground state atom to be solvated inside the droplet while the metastable atom migrates to the surface. A barrier between the two reactants formed by the HeN prevents recombination. We apply a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme including the y(5)P°(1,2,3) <-- a(5)S(2) transition of the surface atom as well as a two-laser scheme including the y(7)P°(2,3,4) <-- a(7)S(3) transition of the solvated atom in order to verify the locations and separation of the dissociation products. Furthermore, ionization of the a(5)S2 surface atom triggers solvation followed by geminate recombination with the a(7)S3 atom, which is verified by the detection of Cr2(+) molecular ions. For small Cr clusters, our results indicate that they may be composed of chromium dimers that exhibit the same dissociation behavior. PMID:25894482

  16. Dissipation in Nanoscale Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd

    Pressure driven flow of a superfluid inside a narrow channel can be maintained by the nucleation of vortices and their resulting motion across the flow lines. The maximum velocity of the superfluid is set by a nucleation rate which crucially depends on the microscopic details of the vortices and flow profile. Within the kinetic vortex theory, we have determined the critical superfluid velocity inside a nanoscale constriction and obtain agreement with experimental results for superfluid helium-4 in nanopores. In the small pore limit, when the ratio of pore radius to correlation length is of order unity, we find a drastic suppression of the superfluid velocity that can be understood within the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of resistive fluctuations in thin superconducting wires.

  17. Ultracold-neutron production and up-scattering in superfluid helium between 1.1 K and 2.4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. K. H.; Ivanov, S.; Piegsa, F. M.; Simson, M.; Zimmer, O.

    2016-02-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) were produced in superfluid helium using the PF1B cold-neutron beam facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin. A 4-liter beryllium-coated converter volume with a mechanical valve and windowless stainless-steel extraction system were used to accumulate and guide UCNs to a detector at room temperature. At a converter temperature of 1.08 K the total storage time constant in the vessel was (20.3 ±1.2 )s and the number of UCNs counted after accumulated was 91 700 ±300 . From this, we derive a volumetric UCN production rate of (6.9 ±1.7 ) cm-3s-1 , which includes a correction for losses in the converter during UCN extraction caused by the short storage time, but not accounting for UCN transport and detection efficiencies. The up-scattering rate of UCNs caused by excitations in the superfluid was studied by scanning the temperature between 1.2 K and 2.4 K . Using the temperature-dependent UCN production rate calculated from inelastic neutron scattering data, the only UCN up-scattering process found to occur was from two-phonon scattering. Our analysis for T <1.95 K rules out the contributions from roton-phonon scattering to <29 % (95% C.I.) and from one-phonon absorption to <47 % (95% C.I.) of their predicted levels.

  18. Annihilation of an AB/BA interface pair in superfluid helium-3 as a simulation of cosmological brane interaction.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D Ian; Fisher, Shaun N; Guénault, Anthony M; Haley, Richard P; Kopu, Juha; Martin, Hazel; Pickett, George R; Roberts, John E; Tsepelin, Viktor

    2008-08-28

    This study presents measurements of the transport of quasiparticle excitations in the B phase of superfluid 3He at temperatures below 0.2Tc. We find that creating and then removing a layer of A-phase superfluid leads to a measurable increase in the thermal impedance of the background B phase. This increase must be due to the survival of defects created as the AB and BA interfaces on either side of the A-phase layer annihilate. We speculate that a new type of defect may have been formed. The highly ordered A-B interface may be a good analogy for branes discussed in current cosmology. If so, these experiments may provide insight into how the annihilation of branes can lead to the formation of topological defects such as cosmic strings. PMID:18534941

  19. Implementation of the superfluid helium phase transition using finite element modeling: Simulation of transient heat transfer and He-I/He-II phase front movement in cooling channels of superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielert, E. R.; Verweij, A. P.; Ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the thermal design of high magnetic field superconducting accelerator magnets, the emphasis is on the use of superfluid helium as a coolant and stabilizing medium. The very high effective thermal conductivity of helium below the lambda transition temperature significantly helps to extract heat from the coil windings during steady state and transient heat deposition. The layout and size of the helium channels have a strong effect on the maximum amount of heat that can be extracted from the porously insulated superconducting cables. To better understand the behavior of superfluid helium penetrating the magnet structure and coil windings, simulation based on a three dimensional finite element model can give valuable insight. The 3D geometries of interest can be regarded as a complex network of coupled 1D geometries. The governing physics is thus similar for both geometries and therefore validation of several and different 1D models is performed. Numerically obtained results and published experimental data are compared. Once the viability of the applied methods is proven, they can be incorporated into the 3D geometries. Not only the transport properties in the bulk of the helium are of interest, but also the strong non-linear behavior at the interfaces between solids and superfluid helium (Kapitza conductance) is important from an engineering point of view, since relatively large temperature jumps may occur here. In this work it is shown how He-II behavior in magnet windings can be simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. 1D models are validated by experimental results taken from literature in order to improve existing 2D and 3D models with more complete physics. The examples discussed include transient heat transfer in 1D channels, Kapitza conductance and sub-cooling of normal liquid helium to temperatures below the lambda transition in long channels (phase front movement).

  20. Measured ground performance and predicted orbital performance of the superfluid helium dewar for the Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Richard A.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    A critical component of the Cosmic Background Explorer observatory, which is to be lifted to orbit in 1988, is the 650-l superfluid He dewar housing a far-IR absolute spectrophotometer and a diffuse IR background experiment. Attention is presently given to the results of a four-month-long test program encompassing dewar filling verification, vibration characteristics, thermal performance over orbital lifetime, and aperture cover ejection behavior. No significant flaws have been noted; the orbital cryogen lifetime is projected to be 14 months.

  1. The liquid/vapor boundary in a porous plug. [as separator for superfluid helium and its vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M. J.; Zahniser, J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from measurements of pressure and temperature differences as a function of the flow rate and hydrostatic head for two types of porous plugs for phase separation of superfluid He and He vapor: (1) a plug made of sintered stainless steel, similar to that in the IRAS, IRT, and COBE dewars except for larger pores, and (2) a glass plug with pores of uniform cross section. Results show that a liquid/vapor phase boundary exists at the outer surface of the porous plug for low flows or large hydrostatic heads; as the flow increases or the hydrostatic head decreases, the boundary retreats into the plug. Some hysteresis near the phase boundary retreat was observed in the stainless steel plug.

  2. Superfluid helium sloshing dynamics induced oscillations and fluctuations of angular momentum, force and moment actuated on spacecraft driven by gravity gradient or jitter acceleration associated with slew motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The generalized mathematical formulation of sloshing dynamics for partially filled liquid of cryogenic superfluid helium II in dewar containers driven by the gravity gradient and jitter accelerations associated with slew motion for the purpose to perform scientific observation during the normal spacecraft operation are investigated. An example is given with the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility-Spectroscopy (AXAF-S) for slew motion which is responsible for the sloshing dynamics. The jitter accelerations include slew motion, spinning motion, atmospheric drag on the spacecraft, spacecraft attitude motions arising from machinery vibrations, thruster firing, pointing control of spacecraft, crew motion, etc. Explicit mathematical expressions to cover these forces acting on the spacecraft fluid systems are derived. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the non-inertia frame spacecraft bound coordinate, and solve time-dependent, three-dimensional formulations of partial differential equations subject to initial and boundary conditions. The explicit mathematical expressions of boundary conditions to cover capillary force effect on the liquid-vapor interface in microgravity environments are also derived. The formulations of fluid moment and angular moment fluctuations in fluid profiles induced by the sloshing dynamics, together with fluid stress and moment fluctuations exerted on the spacecraft dewar containers have also been derived. Examples are also given for cases applicable to the AXAF-S spacecraft sloshing dynamics associated with slew motion.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM-COOLED CRYOGENIC VISCOUS COMPRESSOR PROTOTYPE FOR THE ITER VACUUM SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Baylor, Larry R; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Rasmussen, David A; Edgemon, Timothy D; Hechler, Michael P; Barbier, Charlotte N; Pearce, R.J.H.; Kersevan, R.; Dremel, M.; Boissin, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    As part of the vacuum system for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscouscompressor (CVC) is being developed to collect hydrogenic exhaust gases from the toruscryopumps and compress them to a high enough pressure by regeneration for pumping tothe tritium reprocessing facility. Helium impurities that are a byproduct of the fusionreactions pass through the CVC and are pumped by conventional vacuum pumps andexhausted to the atmosphere. Before the development of a full-scale CVC, a representative,small-scale test prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. With cooling provided bycold helium gas, hydrogen gas was introduced into the central column of the test prototypepump at flow rates between 0.001 g/s and 0.008 g/s. Based on the temperatures and flowrates of the cold helium gas, different percentages of hydrogen gas were frozen to the column surface wall as the hydrogen gas flow rate increased. Results from the measured temperatures and pressures will form a benchmark that will be used to judge future heattransfer enhancements to the prototype CVC and to develop a computational fluid dynamicmodel that will help develop design parameters for the full-scale CVC.

  4. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  5. Optimized He 2 cooling systems for space application. Behavior and handling of superfluid helium at G = 0, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, H. D.; Klipping, G.; Lueders, K.; Schotte, K. D.; Schotte, U.; Szuecs, Z.; Ruppert, U.

    1983-06-01

    Increased reliability of He2 cooling systems for space applications is considered. An active phase separator (APS) with annular flow gap of variable length which allows variation of the cooling capacity over a wide range, developed for zero-g tests is described. Helium-tight electrical leadthroughs, a displacement transducer for low temperature application, a ball closure for use in combination with the APS, and gas/liquid detectors were developed. For temperature and liquid level measurement in narrow slits in laboratory as well as flight experiments, temperature sensors were developed. Three thickness measurement methods for He2 films are proposed: optical (1/10 000 to 1/100 mm), crystal (1/10 to the 7th power to 1/10 mm) and capacitive (1/10 to the 6th power to some mm).

  6. Laser spectroscopy of atoms in superfluid helium for the measurement of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of radioactive atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Furukawa, T.; Imamura, K.; Yang, X. F.; Hatakeyama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueno, H.; Asahi, K.; Shimoda, T.; Matsuo, Y.

    2015-11-01

    A new laser spectroscopic method named "OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion catcher)" has been developed for deriving the nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low-yield exotic nuclei. In this method, we observe atomic Zeeman and hyperfine structures using laser-radio-frequency/microwave double-resonance spectroscopy. In our previous works, double-resonance spectroscopy was performed successfully with laser-sputtered stable atoms including non-alkali Au atoms as well as alkali Rb and Cs atoms. Following these works, measurements with 84-87Rb energetic ion beams were carried out in the RIKEN projectile fragment separator (RIPS). In this paper, we report the present status of OROCHI and discuss its feasibility, especially for low-yield nuclei such as unstable Au isotopes.

  7. An Investigation in the Dynamics of Polarized Helium-3 in Superfluid Helium-4 for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) neutron-electric-dipole-moment (nEDM) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swank, Christopher Mark

    To conserve CPT, charge conjugation-parity-time reversal symmetry, the last discrete symmetry believed to be conserved, there must exist T violation. A measurement of the neutron-electric-dipole-moment (nEDM) would be a direct observation of T violation. The measurement of a nEDM requires the detection of a small shift in the Larmor precession frequency due to an applied electric field. The most recent experiment trying to measure the nEDM has been restricted by a systematic effect termed the geometric phase, a frequency shift linear in the electric field of the experiment. A new nEDM experiment is being planned for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It will use spin-polarized 3He as a comagnetometer and detector, and is susceptible to the geometric phase. To investigate, quantify and find ways to reduce this systematic effect is the main goal of this work. The dynamics of polarized 3He in phonon dominated superfluid 4He is investigated. A theory that predicts relaxations and frequency shifts, and hence the geometric phase frequency shift, via correlation functions valid from the ballistic through to the diffuse regime for restricted geometries is presented. For the first time, the lower dimensional correlation functions are shown to be projections of the higher dimensional correlation functions with the proper velocity weighting. The correlation function was measured by gradient induced longitudinal relaxation. The presented theory is shown to adequately predict the data. A previous theory, termed the high frequency theory due to its accurate description of relaxation with spins precessing at approximately the same rate as gas collisions, is also valid in this region. The presented theory is shown to agree with the high frequency theory. The two theories diverge with slightly more ballistic motion than the experiment was able to produce. Diffusion theory is shown to be inadequate to describe the data for the longer scattering

  8. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, S.; Four, A.; Jones, S.; Canfer, S.; Baudouy, B.

    2012-02-01

    In the framework of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD, two composite insulation systems made of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with S-glass fiber have been thermally tested as possible candidates to be the electrical insulation of 13 T Nb3Sn high field magnets under development for this program. Since it is expected to be operated in pressurized superfluid helium at 1.9 K and 1 atm, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance are the most important input parameters for the thermal design of this type of magnet and have been determined in this study. For determining these thermal properties, three sheets of each material with different thicknesses varying from 245 to 598 μm have been tested in steady-state condition in the temperature range of 1.6-2.0 K. The thermal conductivity for the tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) epoxy resin insulation is found to be k = [(34.2 ± 5.5)ṡT - (16.4 ± 8.2)] × 10-3 Wm-1 K-1 and for the cyanate ester epoxy k = [(26.8 ± 4.8)ṡT - (9.6 ± 5.2)] × 10-3 Wm-1 K-1. For the Kapitza resistance, Rk, the best curve fitting the experimental data is described by Rk = (3057 ± 593) × 10-6ṡT (-1.79 ± 0.34) m2 KW-1 for the TGPAP-DETDA insulation and Rk = (4114 ± 971) × 10-6ṡT (-1.73 ± 0.41) m2 KW-1 for the cyanate ester epoxy insulation. Our results are compared with other epoxy based composite electrical insulation found in the literature.

  9. Measurements of the Critical Casimir Effect and Superfluid Density in Saturated Helium-4 Films near T(lambda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, John Bishoy Sam

    Saturated thick films of 4Helium adsorbed on a copper substrate are studied experimentally. The film thickness is measured with an ultra-sensitive capacitance bridge capable of resolving sub-Angstrom changes in film thickness. Through the use of this capacitance bridge, the critical Casimir effect in the films is studied in the vicinity of the lambda transition. Additionally, the copper substrate assembly is used to generate and detect third sound in the film. Measurements are made of the third sound speed and attenuation in thick film from 1.6 K to the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the films. The position of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition relative to the critical Casimir effect in the films is identifieded. It is discovered that the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition occurs at the beginning of the dip in film thickness due to the critical Casimir effect. When the temperature of the system is swept extremely slowly across the lambda transition, a step in film thickness is observed. This step is possibly a non-universal critical Casimir effect. A model of thermal second sound excitations is developed to describe this new observation.

  10. A Superfluid Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    The performance of clocks is limited by the characteristics of the underlying oscillator. Both the quality factor of the oscillator and the signal-to-noise ratio for the resonator state measurement are important. A superfluid helium Helmholtz resonator operating at approx.100mK temperatures has the potential of maintaining frequency stability of 5x10(exp -15)/t(exp 1/2) on the time scale of a few months. The high dynamic range of lossless SQUID position displacement measurement, and low losses associated with the superfluid flow, combined with high mechanical stability of cryogenic assemblies, contribute to the projected stability. Low overall mass of the assembly allows for multiple stages of vibration isolation.

  11. Fermion Superfluidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, Kevin; Truscott, Andrew; Partridge, Guthrie; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Dual evaporation gives 50 million fermions at T = 0.1 T(sub F). Demonstrated suppression of interactions by coherent superposition - applicable to atomic clocks. Looking for evidence of Cooper pairing and superfluidity.

  12. Helium Leak Detection of Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N. G.

    2012-11-01

    Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (BHAVINI) is engaged in construction of 500MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpak am, Chennai. In this very important and prestigious national programme Special Product Division (SPD) of M/s Kay Bouvet Engg.pvt. ltd. (M/s KBEPL) Satara is contributing in a major way by supplying many important sub-assemblies like- Under Water trolley (UWT), Airlocks (PAL, EAL) Container and Storage Rack (CSR) Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) etc for PFBR. SPD of KBEPL caters to the requirements of Government departments like - Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), BARC, Defense, and Government undertakings like NPCIL, BHAVINI, BHEL etc. and other precision Heavy Engg. Industries. SPD is equipped with large size Horizontal Boring Machines, Vertical Boring Machines, Planno milling, Vertical Turret Lathe (VTL) & Radial drilling Machine, different types of welding machines etc. PFBR is 500 MWE sodium cooled pool type reactor in which energy is produced by fissions of mixed oxides of Uranium and Plutonium pellets by fast neutrons and it also breeds uranium by conversion of thorium, put along with fuel rod in the reactor. In the long run, the breeder reactor produces more fuel then it consumes. India has taken the lead to go ahead with Fast Breeder Reactor Programme to produce electricity primarily because India has large reserve of Thorium. To use Thorium as further fuel in future, thorium has to be converted in Uranium by PFBR Technology.

  13. Low temperature uses of helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1970-01-01

    Helium is used for purging and pressurizing cryogenic rocket propellants, welding, atmosphere control, leak detection, and refrigeration. It provides the lowest possible liquid-bath temperature and produces superconductivity in certain materials. Its superfluid effects are used in superconducting magnets.

  14. Studies of Nonconventional Superfluids: Ultrasound Propagation in HELIUM-3-BORON and the Microwave Surface Impedance of the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor Uranium PLATINUM(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuyu

    1990-06-01

    Two nonconventional superfluids, superfluid ^3He-B and the heavy fermion superconductor UPt_3 have been studied using different techniques: (1) A study of ^3He -B was performed in an acoustic sound cell with a path length of 381mum using the single-ended, c.w., acoustic impedance technique. The fundamental frequency of the x-cut quartz transducer employed in the experiments was 12.80 MHz. The following studies were performed: (a) A systematic measurement was made on the pair-breaking edge in zero magnetic field with ultrasonic frequencies of 64.3 MHz, 90.1 MHz, 141.6 MHz and 167.4 MHz, in the pressure range from 3 bar to 28 bar. The results of our measurements indirectly support the temperature scale of Greywall and the weak coupling plus (WCP) model of Rainer and Serene for the gap function. The pair-breaking edge was also measured in magnetic fields up to 1.36 kG perpendicular to the sound propagation direction and the predicted shift of the effective pair-breaking threshold (from 2 Delta(T) in zero field) by Omega = {gamma Hover 1+{1 over3}F_sp{o}{a}(2+Y) }(the renormalized Larmor frequency) has been observed. (b) The (imaginary) squashing mode was excited with sound frequencies of 141.6 MHz and 115.8 MHz. A doublet splitting (of about 0.3 MHz) of this mode was observed. This doublet splitting was found to be strongly pressure and frequency dependent, but independent of the magnetic field (at the low fields studied). Possible causes of this splitting include superfluid flow induced texture effects and finite wavevector (dispersion) effects. (c) Structure was observed with a sound frequency of 64.3 MHz in the vicinity of 2Delta(T) in a magnetic field of about 580 Gauss which is thought to be J_{z} = -1 component of the J = 1^- collective mode. (2) A surface impedance study of heavy Fermion superconductor UPt_3 was performed with an X-band microwave spectrometer (f ~eq 11.42 GHz) integrated with an Oxford 400 TLE dilution refrigerator so as to have top

  15. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  16. Superfluidity in ultracold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    The study of superfluidity has a long and rich history. In Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluidity gives rise to a number of interesting effects, including quantized vortices and persistent currents. In this seminar I will give an introduction to superfluidity in ultracold atoms, including a discussion of the critical velocity and the spectrum of elementary excitations in superfluid systems.

  17. Design of 12-T Yin-Yang magnets operating in subcooled, superfluid helium. [Nb-Ti and Nb/sub 3/Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.; Hoard, R.W.; Baldi, R.

    1981-10-09

    A conceptual design study of a large 12-T yin-yang pair of coils, typical of the plug coils envisioned for a tandem-mirror facility to follow MFTF, has been completed. Because of its larger size and field strength, the magnetic forces are much greater than those experienced on MFTF. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the feasibility of such a device, paying particular attention to mechanical stress and conductor strain. The conductor proposed operates at 15.6 kA and consists of a rectangular half-hard copper stabilizer with a Nb-Ti insert in the low-field regions and Nb/sub 3/Sn in the high field. The coil is divided into four sections in the longitudinal direction, with steel substructure to limit the winding stress to an acceptable level. The conductor is cryostatically stabilized in superfluid He at 1.8K and 1.2 atm, with an operating heat flux of 0.8 W.cm/sup -2/.

  18. Nucleation of Quantized Vortices from Rotating Superfluid Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    The long-term goal of this project is to study the nucleation of quantized vortices in helium II by investigating the behavior of rotating droplets of helium II in a reduced gravity environment. The objective of this ground-based research grant was to develop new experimental techniques to aid in accomplishing that goal. The development of an electrostatic levitator for superfluid helium, described below, and the successful suspension of charged superfluid drops in modest electric fields was the primary focus of this work. Other key technologies of general low temperature use were developed and are also discussed.

  19. Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field. PMID:24647079

  20. Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field.

  1. Theoretical Studies of Liquid He-4 Near the Superfluid Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2002-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies of liquid helium by applying state of the art simulation and finite-size scaling techniques. We calculated universal scaling functions for the specific heat and superfluid density for various confining geometries relevant for experiments such as the confined helium experiment and other ground based studies. We also studied microscopically how the substrate imposes a boundary condition on the superfluid order parameter as the superfluid film grows layer by layer. Using path-integral Monte Carlo, a quantum Monte Carlo simulation method, we investigated the rich phase diagram of helium monolayer, bilayer and multilayer on a substrate such as graphite. We find excellent agreement with the experimental results using no free parameters. Finally, we carried out preliminary calculations of transport coefficients such as the thermal conductivity for bulk or confined helium systems and of their scaling properties. All our studies provide theoretical support for various experimental studies in microgravity.

  2. On charged impurity structures in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The thermoluminescence spectra of impurity-helium condensates (IHC) submerged in superfluid helium have been observed for the first time. Thermoluminescence of impurity-helium condensates submerged in superfluid helium is explained by neutralization reactions occurring in impurity nanoclusters. Optical spectra of excited products of neutralization reactions between nitrogen cations and thermoactivated electrons were rather different from the spectra observed at higher temperatures, when the luminescence due to nitrogen atom recombination dominates. New results on current detection during the IHC destruction are presented. Two different mechanisms of nanocluster charging are proposed to describe the phenomena observed during preparation and warm-up of IHC samples in bulk superfluid helium, and destruction of IHC samples out of liquid helium.

  3. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K

    2014-02-13

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices). PMID:24522597

  4. Study of the single cluster response of a helium-isobutane drift chamber prototype using 8 keV X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoto, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Ripiccini, E.; Voena, C.; Zullo, A.

    2015-03-01

    The identification of single clusters in the electronic signals produced by ionizing particles within a drift chamber is expected to significantly improve the performances of this kind of detectors in terms of particle identification capabilities and space resolution. In order to develop refined cluster recognition algorithms, it is essential to measure the response of the chamber and its electronics to single ionization clusters. This can be done by irradiating the chamber with X-rays. We report here on the studies performed on a drift chamber prototype for the MEG-II experiment at the X-ray facility of the INFN Frascati's National Laboratories ``XLab Frascati''. The prototype is operated with a helium-isobutane mixture and instrumented with high bandwidth custom pre-amplifiers. The results of this study have been used to develop an innovative method for cluster recognition, based on the Wiener filter technique, which has been tested on data collected at the Frascati's Beam Test Facility. As a side measurement, we also performed a study of the gas gain in a configuration which is similar to that of the MEG-II experiment.

  5. Heat Capacity of Superfluid (sup 4)He in the Presence of a Heat Current Near T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso C. P.; Goodstein, David L.; Harter, Alexa W.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic theory of superfluid helium in the presence of a heat current is presented. We show that there is a thermodynamic relation between the heat capacity and the expression ps(W), which describes the depression of the superfluid density with the counterflow velocity W. Using this relation we show that the heat capacity of superfluid super4He in the presence of a heat current diverges at a depressed lambda transition temperature, suggesting the possibility of a new second order phase transition where the superfluid wave function is not the order parameter.

  6. Formation of a Mesa Shaped Phonon Pulse in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, K. E.; Slipko, V. A.

    2010-05-01

    We present a theory for the formation of a mesa shaped phonon pulse in superfluid 4He. Starting from the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid helium, we obtain the system of equations which describe the evolution of strongly anisotropic phonon systems. Such systems can be created experimentally. The solution of the equations are simple waves, which correspond to second sound in the moving phonon pulse. Using these exact solutions, we describe the expansion of phonon pulses in superfluid helium at zero temperature. This theory gives an explanation for the mesa shape observed in the measured phonon angular distributions. Almost all dependencies of the mesa shape on the system parameters can be qualitatively understood.

  7. Anisotropic System of Quasiparticles in Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Slipko, V.A.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2006-02-17

    The thermodynamic properties of anisotropic quasiparticle systems of He II are considered for all degrees of anisotropy. It is shown that the thermodynamic functions of a strongly anisotropic phonon-roton system are mainly determined by rotons at all temperatures. Analytical expressions for the roton thermodynamic functions are obtained for all degrees of anisotropy. The maximum anisotropy is limited by the criterion for thermodynamic stability, which is here derived for the whole temperature range.

  8. Small Multielectron Bubbles in Bulk Superfluid 4He

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Eloranta, Jussi

    2006-09-07

    A computational method for describing multielectron bubbles in bulk superfluid helium (4He) is described. The developed method can be used to study their stability and spectroscopic properties in both singlet and triplet manifolds. Our initial results indicate meta-stability of the spherical two-electron bubble in its singlet ground state.

  9. Superfluid Reynolds number and the transition from potential flow to turbulence in superfluid 4He at millikelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepe, W.

    2015-07-01

    This comment is on Phys. Rev. Lett. 144, 155302 (2015) by M.T. Reeves, T.P. Billam, B.P. Anderson, and A.S. Bradley "Identifying a superfluid Reynolds number via dynamical similarity" where a new superfluid Reynolds number is introduced. This definition is shown to be useful in the data analysis of the finite lifetime of turbulence observed with an oscillating sphere in superfluid helium at mK temperatures in a small velocity interval Δ v = ( v-v c ) just above the critical velocity v c . The very rapid increase in the lifetime with increasing superfluid Reynolds number is compared with the "supertransient" turbulence observed in classical pipe flow.

  10. Test program, helium II orbital resupply coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, William S.

    1991-01-01

    The full scope of this program was to have included development tests, design and production of custom test equipment and acceptance and qualification testing of prototype and protoflight coupling hardware. This program was performed by Ball Aerospace Systems Division, Boulder, Colorado until its premature termination in May 1991. Development tests were performed on cryogenic face seals and flow control devices at superfluid helium (He II) conditions. Special equipment was developed to allow quantified leak detection at large leak rates up to 8.4 x 10(exp -4) SCCS. Two major fixtures were developed and characterized: The Cryogenic Test Fixture (CTF) and the Thermal Mismatch Fixture (Glovebox). The CTF allows the coupling hardware to be filled with liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid helium (LHe) or sub-cooled liquid helium when hardware flow control valves are either open or closed. Heat leak measurements, internal and external helium leakage measurements, cryogenic proof pressure tests and external load applications are performed in this fixture. Special reusable MLI closures were developed to provide repeatable installations in the CTF. The Thermal Mismatch Fixture allows all design configurations of coupling hardware to be engaged and disengaged while measuring applied forces and torques. Any two hardware components may be individually thermally preconditioned within the range of 117 deg K to 350 deg K prior to engage/disengage cycling. This verifies dimensional compatibility and operation when thermally mismatched. A clean, dry GN2 atmosphere is maintained in the fixture at all times. The first shipset of hardware was received, inspected and cycled at room temperature just prior to program termination.

  11. Helicity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    Ideal fluid flow conserves a special quantity known as helicity, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. Helicity can be understood as a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines of the flow, providing an important geometric tool to study diverse physical systems such as turbulent fluids and plasmas. Since superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, a natural question arises: Is there an extra conserved quantity akin to helicity in superfluids? We address the question of a ''superfluid helicity'' theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.

  12. Holographic p -wave superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Yu, Fang

    2014-12-01

    In the probe limit, we numerically construct a holographic p -wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional (5D) anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We find that, for the condensate with the fixed superfluid velocity, the results are similar to the s -wave cases in both 4D and 5D spacetimes. In particular, the Cave of Winds and the phase transition, always being of second order, take place in the 5D case. Moreover, we find that the translating superfluid velocity from second order to first order S/yμ increases with the mass squared. Furthermore, for the supercurrent with fixed temperature, the results agree with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction near the critical temperature. In addition, this complex vector superfluid model is still a generalization of the SU(2) superfluid model, and it also provides a holographic realization of the H e3 superfluid system.

  13. Polarization of He II films upon the relative motion of the superfluid component and the quantized vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, E. K.

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical study of the electrical activity of the saturated superfluid helium (He II) film upon the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components in the film was performed. The polarization vector due to the dipole moments of the quantized vortex rings in He II in the field of van der Waals forces was calculated taking into account the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components. An explicit analytical expression for the electric potential difference arising upon the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components in a torsional oscillator was derived. The obtained time, temperature and relative velocity dependences of the potential difference were in agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Relativistic superfluidity and vorticity from the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chi; Good, Michael R. R.; Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Huang, Kerson

    2014-12-01

    We investigate superfluidity, and the mechanism for creation of quantized vortices, in the relativistic regime. The general framework is a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime for a complex scalar field, whose phase dynamics gives rise to superfluidity. The mechanisms discussed are local inertial forces (Coriolis and centrifugal), and current-current interaction with an external source. The primary application is to cosmology, but we also discuss the reduction to the nonrelativistic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is widely used in describing superfluidity and vorticity in liquid helium and cold-trapped atomic gases.

  15. Ultrabaric relativistic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, G.; Weiss, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ultrabaric superfluid solutions are obtained for Einstein's equations to examine the possibility of the existence of superluminal sound speeds. The discussion is restricted only by requiring the energy-momentum tensor and the equation of state of matter to be represented by full relativistic equations. Only a few universes are known to satisfy the conditions, and those exhibit tension and are inflationary. Superluminal sound velocities are shown, therefore, to be possible for the interior Schwarzchild metric, which has been used to explain the red shift of quasars, and the Stephiani solution (1967). The latter indicates repeated transitions between superluminal and subliminal sound velocities in the hyperbaric superfluid of the early universe.

  16. Vortex knottiness in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William

    2015-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that linked and knotted vortices will spontaneously unknot or untie in both classical fluids and superfluids. This effect would appear to jeopardize any notion of conservation of fluid topology (helicity), but this need not be the case: vortices can transfer their knottedness to helical coils, preserving some measure of the original topology. We ask how this notion of topology preservation behaves in the context of collections of vortices with topology. We address this question by numerical simulations of superfluid vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  17. Squeezing superfluid from a stone: Coupling superfluidity and elasticity in a supersolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, Alan

    2007-03-01

    Superfluidity---the ability of liquid ^4He, when cooled below 2.176 K, to flow without resistance through narrow pores---has long served as a paradigm for the phenomenon of ``off-diagonal long-range order'' (ODLRO) in quantum liquids and superconductors. Supersolidity---the coexistence of ODLRO with the crystalline order of a solid---was proposed theoretically over 35 years ago as an even more exotic phase of solid ^4He, but it has eluded detection. Recently, Kim and Chan [1,2] have reported an anomalous decoupling transition of solid ^4He in a torsional oscillator measurement, and interpret their results as evidence for non-classical rotational inertia and a possible supersolid phase of ^4He. In this talk I will give brief historical review of the theory of and experimental searches for supersolidity. I will then discuss a phenomenological Landau theory of the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) transition in which superfluidity is coupled to the elasticity of the crystalline ^4He lattice, and underscore the implications of this theory for experimental searches for supersolidity [3]. I will also discuss a hydrodynamic model for supersolids, in which the additional broken gauge symmetry in the supersolid phase produces a collective mode that is analogous to second sound in superfluid helium. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature (London) 427, 225 (2004). [2] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004). [3] A. T. Dorsey, P. M. Goldbart, and J. Toner, ``Squeezing superfluid from a stone: Coupling superfluidity and elasticity in a supersolid,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 055301 (2006).

  18. Second sound and the superfluid fraction in a Fermi gas with resonant interactions.

    PubMed

    Sidorenkov, Leonid A; Tey, Meng Khoon; Grimm, Rudolf; Hou, Yan-Hua; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Superfluidity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as liquid helium and neutron stars. It occurs below a critical temperature and leads to peculiar behaviour such as frictionless flow, the formation of quantized vortices and quenching of the moment of inertia. Ultracold atomic gases offer control of interactions and external confinement, providing unique opportunities to explore superfluid phenomena. Many such (finite-temperature) phenomena can be explained in terms of a two-fluid mixture comprising a normal component, which behaves like an ordinary fluid, and a superfluid component with zero viscosity and zero entropy. The two-component nature of a superfluid is manifest in 'second sound', an entropy wave in which the superfluid and the non-superfluid components oscillate with opposite phases (as opposed to ordinary 'first sound', where they oscillate in phase). Here we report the observation of second sound in an ultracold Fermi gas with resonant interactions. The speed of second sound depends explicitly on the value of the superfluid fraction, a quantity that is sensitive to the spectrum of elementary excitations. Our measurements allow us to extract the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction, a previously inaccessible quantity that will provide a benchmark for theories of strongly interacting quantum gases. PMID:23676679

  19. Detecting continuous gravitational waves with a jug of superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Delorenzo, Laura; Pearlman, Adam; Pikovski, Igor; Blencowe, Miles; Schwab, Keith

    We investigate the sensitivity to narrow band, continuous-wave strain fields of a kg-scale optomechanical system formed by the acoustic motion of superfluid helium-4 parametrically coupled to a super-conducting microwave cavity. This narrowband detection scheme is tunable through pressurization of the helium, thereby making both doppler tracking of astrophysical sources and tuning the detector on/off from the source possible. For reasonable experimental parameters, we find that gravitational metric strain fields from nearby pulsars could be detected with a few weeks of integration time.

  20. Detecting continuous gravitational waves with a jug of superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; de Lorenzo, Laura; Pearlman, Adam; Pikovski, Igor; Schwab, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the sensitivity to narrow band, continuous-wave strain fields of a kg-scale optomechanical system formed by the acoustic motion of superfluid helium-4 parametrically coupled to a super-conducting microwave cavity. This narrowband detection scheme is tunable through pressurization of the helium, thereby making both doppler tracking of astrophysical sources and tuning the detector on/off from the source possible. For reasonable experimental parameters, we find that gravitational metric strain fields from nearby pulsars could be detected with a few weeks of integration time.

  1. Superfluidity in Millisecond Pulsars (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, D.; Alpar, A.

    The authors review the evidence for superfluidity in the Vela pulsar, the Crab pulsar and PSR 0525+21, and examine the prospects for observing similar consequences of superfluidity in the already-discovered millisec pulsars. They consider, inter alia, the likelihood of observing glitches, the expected post-glitch behavior, and pulsar heating by energy dissipation due to the creep of neutron vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions of the crust.

  2. Sound modes in holographic superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos

    2009-11-15

    Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

  3. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  4. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  5. Untangling Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Scheeler, Martin W.; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    What is the role of topology, or knottedness, in superfluid phase defects (quantum vortices)? In ideal classical fluids, vortex knots may never untie, and so there is an associated conserved quantity - helicity - which measures how tangled a flow is. One might expect a similar robustness for superfluid defects, however, simulations of the Gross-Pitevskii equation demonstrate that vortex knots and links spontaneously untie and unlink. Nonetheless, the topology dramatically affects the vortex evolution, and a component of the initial helicity is transferred to helical coils as the knots unravel. These effects are remarkably similar to the behavior of tangled vortices in viscous fluids, suggesting they are universal features of non-ideal fluids.

  6. When superfluids are a drag

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David C

    2008-01-01

    The article considers the dramatic phenomenon of seemingly frictionless flow of slow-moving superfluids. Specifically the question of whether an object in a superfluid flow experiences any drag force is addressed. A brief account is given of the history of this problem and it is argued that recent advances in ultracold atomic physics can shed much new light on this problem. The article presents the commonly held notion that sufficiently slow-moving superfluids can flow without drag and also discusses research suggesting that scattering quantum fluctuations might cause drag in a superfluid moving at any speed.

  7. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E

    1999-07-01

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895

  8. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He

    PubMed Central

    Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki

    1999-01-01

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895

  9. Evidence of Bose-Einstein Condensation in solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Moses H. W.

    2005-03-01

    The onset of superfluidity in liquid He-4 below 2.176K is associated with Bose-Einstein condensation where He-4 atoms condensed into a single momentum state and acquire quantum mechanical coherence over macroscopic length scales. Bose- Einstein condensation of alkali atoms in the vapor phase was achieved in 1995 and there is strong evidence for superfluidity in these systems. Perhaps counter to intuition, superfluid-like behavior is thought possible even in solid helium. Recent high Q torsional oscillator measurements found evidence of superflow in solid helium confined in porous media (1) and in bulk solid helium (2), indicating Bose-Einstein condensation very likely occurs in all three phases of matter. (1) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004) (2) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).

  10. Superfluidity of grain boundaries and supersolid behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balibar, Sebastien

    2007-03-01

    We have found that, at the liquid-solid equilibrium pressure Pm, supersolid behavior is due to the superfluidity of grain boundaries in solid helium [1]. After describing this experiment and reviewing some of the related theoretical work [2], we discuss the possibility that , at larger pressure (P > Pm), grain boundaries could also explain the supersolid behavior which was observed with torsional oscillators [3-6]. [1] S. Sasaki, R. Ishiguro, F. Caupin, H.J. Maris, and S. Balibar, Science 313, 1098 (2006)[2] E. Burovski, E. Kozik, A. Kuklov, N. Prokof'ev, and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 165301 (2005)[3] E. Kim and M.H. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004)[4] E. Kim and M.H. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004)[5] A.S.C. Rittner and J.D. Reppy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 165301 (2006)[6] K. Shirahama, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 51, 302 (2006)

  11. Theory of dark matter superfluidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel theory of dark matter (DM) superfluidity that matches the successes of the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) model on cosmological scales while simultaneously reproducing the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology on galactic scales. The DM and MOND components have a common origin, representing different phases of a single underlying substance. DM consists of axionlike particles with mass of order eV and strong self-interactions. The condensate has a polytropic equation of state P ˜ρ3 giving rise to a superfluid core within galaxies. Instead of behaving as individual collisionless particles, the DM superfluid is more aptly described as collective excitations. Superfluid phonons, in particular, are assumed to be governed by a MOND-like effective action and mediate a MONDian acceleration between baryonic matter particles. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not); due to the higher velocity dispersion in clusters, and correspondingly higher temperature, the DM in clusters is either in a mixture of superfluid and the normal phase or fully in the normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of observational signatures: an array of low-density vortices in galaxies; merger dynamics that depend on the infall velocity vs phonon sound speed; distinct mass peaks in bulletlike cluster mergers, corresponding to superfluid and normal components; and interference patters in supercritical mergers. Remarkably, the superfluid phonon effective theory is strikingly similar to that of the unitary Fermi gas, which has attracted much excitement in the cold atom community in recent years. The critical temperature for DM superfluidity is of order mK, comparable to known cold atom Bose-Einstein condensates. Identifying a precise cold atom analog would give important insights on the microphysical interactions underlying DM superfluidity

  12. A cosmic superfluid phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    The universe may have undergone a superfluid-like phase during its evolution, resulting from the injection of nontopological charge into the spontaneously broken vacuum. In the presence of vortices this charge is identified with angular momentum. This leads to turbulent domains on the scale of the correlation length. By restoring the symmetry at low temperatures, the vortices dissociate and push the charges to the boundaries of these domains. The model can be scaled (phenomenologically) to very low energies, it can be incorporated in a late time phase transition and form large scale structure in the boundary layers of the correlation volumes. The novel feature of the model lies in the fact that the dark matter is endowed with coherent motion. The possibilities of identifying this flow around superfluid vortices with the observed large scale bulk motion is discussed. If this identification is possible, then the definite prediction can be made that a more extended map of peculiar velocities would have to reveal large scale circulations in the flow pattern.

  13. Dissipative superfluid dynamics from gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz

    2011-04-01

    Charged asymptotically AdS 5 black branes are sometimes unstable to the condensation of charged scalar fields. For fields of infinite charge and squared mass -4 Herzog was able to analytically determine the phase transition temperature and compute the endpoint of this instability in the neighborhood of the phase transition. We generalize Herzog's construction by perturbing away from infinite charge in an expansion in inverse charge and use the solutions so obtained as input for the fluid gravity map. Our tube wise construction of patched up locally hairy black brane solutions yields a one to one map from the space of solutions of superfluid dynamics to the long wavelength solutions of the Einstein Maxwell system. We obtain explicit expressions for the metric, gauge field and scalar field dual to an arbitrary superfluid flow at first order in the derivative expansion. Our construction allows us to read off the the leading dissipative corrections to the perfect superfluid stress tensor, current and Josephson equations. A general framework for dissipative superfluid dynamics was worked out by Landau and Lifshitz for zero superfluid velocity and generalized to nonzero fluid velocity by Clark and Putterman. Our gravitational results do not fit into the 13 parameter Clark-Putterman framework. Purely within fluid dynamics we present a consistent new generalization of Clark and Putterman's equations to a set of superfluid equations parameterized by 14 dissipative parameters. The results of our gravitational calculation fit perfectly into this enlarged framework. In particular we compute all the dissipative constants for the gravitational superfluid.

  14. Vortex Loops at the Superfluid Lambda Transition: An Exact Theory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    A vortex-loop theory of the superfluid lambda transition has been developed over the last decade, with many results in agreement with experiments. It is a very simple theory, consisting of just three basic equations. When it was first proposed the main uncertainty in the theory was the use Flory scaling to find the fractal dimension of the random-walking vortex loops. Recent developments in high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations have now made it possible to verify the accuracy of this Flory-scaling assumption. Although the loop theory is not yet rigorously proven to be exact, the Monte Carlo results show at the least that it is an extremely good approximation. Recent loop calculations of the critical Casimir effect in helium films in the superfluid phase T < Tc will be compared with similar perturbative RG calculations in the normal phase T > Tc; the two calculations are found to match very nicely right at Tc.

  15. Superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, A.; Alm, T.; Lombardo, U.

    1997-02-01

    The onset of superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the BCS theory. A neutron-proton superfluid state in the channel {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} comes about from the interplay between thermal excitations and separation {delta}{mu} of the two Fermi surfaces. The superfluid state disappears above the threshold value of the density-asymmetry parameter {alpha}=(n{sub n}{minus}n{sub p})/n{approx_equal}0.35. For large enough shift between the two Fermi surfaces {delta}{mu}=(1)/(2)({mu}{sub n}{minus}{mu}{sub p}) the transition to the normal state becomes a first-order transition and a second gap solution develops. This solution, however, corresponds to a metastable superfluid state which is unstable with respect to the transition to the normal state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Superfluid Interfaces in Quantum Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kozik, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2005-04-01

    One scenario for the nonclassical moment of inertia of solid 4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Nature (London), NATUAS, 0028-0836 427, 225 (2004), 10.1038/nature02220] is the superfluidity of microcrystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal—the checkerboard lattice solid—we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough interparticle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in 3D, while in 2D the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  17. Conservation of helicity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.

  18. Microwave experiments in He II. New features of undamped superfluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalko, A. S.; Rubets, S. P.; Rudavskiĭ, É. Ya.; Tikhiĭ, V. A.; Tarapov, S. I.; Golovashchenko, R. V.; Derkach, V. N.

    2008-07-01

    The stability and oscillatory properties of superfluid ring flow arising around the cylindrical surface of a disk-shaped dielectric resonator immersed in liquid helium are studied experimentally. The velocity of superfluid flow is controlled with special heat guns, placed in He II and generating counterflows of the normal and superfluid components, directed along the tangent to the cylindrical surface of the resonator. In the experiment the amplitude of the microwave signal passing through the resonator is measured and the effect of the phase and dynamic states of the liquid on the signal amplitude is studied. It is found that periodic oscillations of the signal are observed in the He II state, and each period starts with a sharp spike of the amplitude. It is proposed that this behavior signifies instability of superfluid ring flow due to a change in the number of circulation quanta of the superfluid velocity over a very short time. Another effect is due to the appearance of new periodically repeating resonance peaks, together with the ordinary whispering gallery modes, in the system. The effect is absent above λ point and is attributed to characteristic oscillatory modes of the undamped superfluid flow. Possible reasons for the observed features are analyzed.

  19. Glass-to-Metal Seal Against Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Gatewood, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Simple compression joint with indium gasket forms demountable seal for superfluids. Seal developed for metal lid on glass jar used in experiments on liquid helium. Glass container allows contents to be viewed for such purposes as calibration of liquid-level detectors and adjustments of displacement plungers. Seal contains liquid helium even when temperature drops below 2.19K. Made from inexpensive, commercially available materials and parts.

  20. Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L

    2016-06-24

    We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices. PMID:27391750

  1. Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2016-06-01

    We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices.

  2. Dramatic effect of superfluidity on the collapse of 4He vapor bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, An; Trimeche, A.; Jacquier, Ph.; Grucker, J.

    2016-05-01

    The lifetime of cavitation bubbles produced by an acoustic wave focused in liquid helium-4 is investigated. This lifetime is found to be different by orders of magnitude depending on whether the liquid is superfluid or not. We show that if the liquid is in the superfluid state, the bubble lifetime is well explained by a purely mechanical model, corresponding to the so-called Rayleigh regime. In the normal state, the Rayleigh-Plesset regime applies, in which heat diffusion plays a crucial role and dramatically increases the bubble lifetime.

  3. Liquid helium pumps for in-orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1986-01-01

    Both mechanical and fountain-effect pumps are being considered for use in the in-orbit resupply of superfluid helium to a number of scientific instrument systems. This paper presents a review of the operating characteristics of these pumps. Particular emphasis will be given to the different methods of evaluating the efficiency of these pumps and their effectiveness in a transfer system.

  4. Paramagnetic Attraction of Impurity-Helium Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, E. P.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Impurity-helium solids are formed when a mixture of impurity and helium gases enters a volume of superfluid helium. Typical choices of impurity gas are hydrogen deuteride, deuterium, nitrogen, neon and argon, or a mixture of these. These solids consist of individual impurity atoms and molecules as well as clusters of impurity atoms and molecules covered with layers of solidified helium. The clusters have an imperfect crystalline structure and diameters ranging up to 90 angstroms, depending somewhat on the choice of impurity. Immediately following formation the clusters aggregate into loosely connected porous solids that are submerged in and completely permeated by the liquid helium. Im-He solids are extremely effective at stabilizing high concentrations of free radicals, which can be introduced by applying a high power RF dis- charge to the impurity gas mixture just before it strikes the super fluid helium. Average concentrations of 10(exp 19) nitrogen atoms/cc and 5 x 10(exp 18) deuterium atoms/cc can be achieved this way. It shows a typical sample formed from a mixture of atomic and molecular hydrogen and deuterium. It shows typical sample formed from atomic and molecular nitrogen. Much of the stability of Im-He solids is attributed to their very large surface area to volume ratio and their permeation by super fluid helium. Heat resulting from a chance meeting and recombination of free radicals is quickly dissipated by the super fluid helium instead of thermally promoting the diffusion of other nearby free radicals.

  5. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    SciTech Connect

    Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the {sup 3}He solute in a superfluid {sup 3}He--{sup 4}He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid {sup 4}He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the {sup 3}He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the {sup 3}He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the {sup 3}He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Experimental Study of a Bose Superfluid ``Battery'' for Atomtronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana; Caliga, Seth; Straatsma, Cameron

    2013-05-01

    The two component model of superfluids describes a thermo-mechanical force in which a thermal gradient across the fluid causes a counter-propagating flow of the normal and superfluid components, with the superfluid current propagating toward the ``hot'' portion of the container and the normal component towards the ``cold.'' We observe the energy and flux of a Bose-condensed gas flowing over a barrier in a hybrid magnetic and optical trap using a high-resolution atom chip projection and in-trap imaging system. We introduce a thermal gradient using asymmetric cooling of the condensed gas and the resulting thermo-mechanical force induces a supercurrent flow over the barrier. We observe, as expected, that the energy of the atoms emerging from the barrier is determined by the barrier height. We show that, like the ``fountain effect'' seen in liquid helium-4, the energy of the emerging atoms can be many times higher than the chemical potential as well as the thermal energy of the condensate. Through these experiments we establish that a reservoir of Bose-condensed atoms combined with a cooling mechanism can serve as a ``battery'' to drive the current in an atomtronic circuit.

  7. Study of Flow of Superfluid He-II Very Near Tau(sub lambda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukharsky, Yury; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Pearson, David; Chui, Talso

    1999-01-01

    We report here, preliminary data from an experiment studying flow of superfluid helium through a slit orifice (of sub-micron width) very close to T(sub lambda). Critical supercurrent (I(sub c)) data is obtained from a step function drive to the diaphragm in a Helmholtz resonator cell. The superfluid density (rho(sub s)) data can be obtained from the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz oscillator, as determined by transfer function of the resonator or from the free ringing after the step function excitation. Preliminary data shows that I(sub c) is proportional to (rho(sub s))(exp 1.27) and rho(sub s)) is proportional to tau(exp 0.73), where tau is the reduced temperature. However, the magnitude of I(sub c) is much larger than expected, indicating a possible parallel flow path. Further investigations are in progress. Keywords: superfluid; hydrodynamics; critical exponent

  8. Coherence length of neutron superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    De Blasio, F.V.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Lazzari, G.; Baldo, M.; Schulze, H.

    1997-10-01

    The coherence length of superfluid neutron matter is calculated from the microscopic BCS wave function of a Cooper pair in momentum space making use of recent nucleon-nucleon potential models and including polarization (RPA) effects. We find as our main result that the coherence length is proportional to the Fermi momentum to pairing gap ratio, in good agreement with simple estimates used in the literature, with a nearly interaction independent constant of proportionality. Our calculations can be applied to the problem of inhomogeneous superfluidity of hadronic matter in the crust of a neutron star. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Effect of Helium Elasticity on Torsional Oscillator Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Balibar, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Kim and Chan performed a torsional oscillator measurement of the rotational inertia of solid helium-4. They found frequency changes which were interpreted in terms of a non-classical rotational inertia, that is a partial superfluidity or "supersolidity" of solid helium-4. Since then there have been many further studies using various versions of this technique. One important question that arises in these experiments is the possible effect on the oscillator frequency of changes in the elasticity of the solid helium; this can produce a change in frequency that adds to any effect due to superfluidity. In this paper we give a general discussion of the effect of changes in elasticity on the oscillator frequency and consider how the magnitude of the effect is influenced by the oscillator design. Our results should help make it possible to discriminate between frequency changes due to changes in elasticity and changes due to supersolidity.

  10. A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an

  11. Superfluid Turbulence in a Nonuniform Circular Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Paul Joseph

    The excess dissipation due to the presence of quantized vorticity in flowing helium has been studied extensively. The success of the microscopic theory proposed by Schwarz in describing many properties of this dissipation led to a belief that the major aspects of the problem had been understood at the microscopic level. The experiment of Kafkalidis and Tough demonstrated that a weak one dimensional nonuniformity in the flow field led to a dramatic departure between the observed behavior and the predictions of the Schwarz theory using the local uniformity approximation (LUA). The research presented in this thesis was undertaken to measure the dissipative states for thermal counterflow with a weak two dimensional nonuniformity. The experiment of Kafkalidis and Tough used a flow channel with a high aspect ratio. Such channels are known to exhibit only one state of superfluid turbulence. In this research the channel is circular in cross section and shows two distinct turbulent states (T-I and T-II). This experiment demonstrates that there is no difference in the excess dissipation for flows that are either converging or diverging. The T-I state is described by the same parameters as the T-I state in uniform channels. The turbulence exhibits front behavior at the transition between states. These conclusions are consistent with the LUA. The T-II state is at variance with the LUA, but is consistant with the results found in the Kafkalidis and Tough experiment.

  12. Depression of the Superfluid Transition Temperature in 4He by a Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liang; Lin, Peng; Qi, Xin

    2014-11-01

    The depression of the superfluid transition temperature Tλ in 4He by a heat flow Q is studied. A small sealed cell with a capillary is introduced and a stable and flat superfluid transition temperature plateau is easily obtained by controlling the temperature of the variable-temperature platform and the bottom chamber of the sealed cell. Owing to the depression effect of the superfluid transition temperature by the heat flow, the heat flow through the capillary is changed by the temperature control to obtain multiple temperature plateaus of different heat flows. The thermometer self-heating effect, the residual heat leak of the 4.2 K environment, the temperature difference on the He II liquid column, the Kapiza thermal resistance between the liquid helium and the copper surface of the sealed cell, the temperature gradient of the sealed cell, the static pressure of the He II liquid column and other factors have influence on the depression effect and the influence is analyzed in detail. Twenty experiments of the depression of the superfluid transition temperature in 4He by heat flow are made with four sealed cells in one year. The formula of the superfluid transition temperature pressured by the heat flow is Tλ (Q) = -0.00000103Q + 2.1769108, and covers the range 229 <= Q <= 6462 μW/cm2.

  13. Critical velocity of superfluid helium flow in fine pore filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.

    1990-03-01

    Membrane filters with porosities of more than 70 pct have been proven to be useful for the fabrication of thermomechanical pumps (fountain effect pumps) with mass fluxes up to 1.7 g/sq cm at about 0.25 bar head of pressure. Different pumps made of 14 mm thick stacks of commercially available Sartorius cellulose nitrate membranes with filtration grades of 200, 50 and 10 nm have been investigated at various temperatures between 1.6 K at the inlet and 2.1 K at the outlet. By analysis of pressure and temperature measurements, it is shown that the chemical potential difference between inlet and outlet is zero up to critical flow rates very close to the peak flow and that it increases steeply when the critical flow is exceeded.

  14. Turbulence in pure superfluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, R.A.; Opatowsky, L.B.; Tough, J.T.

    1981-03-09

    A series of experiments is described which provide an unambiguous description of the steady-state properties of turbulence in pure superfluid flow. The turbulence is qualitatively different from that observed in counterflow but comparable to the homogeneous turbulence described by theory.

  15. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  16. A Study on the Heat Transfer Properties of Pressurized Helium II through Fine Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, N.; Nakai, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Murakami, M.; Shintomi, T.

    2006-04-27

    An experimental study was carried out on the heat transfer properties of pressurized superfluid helium in the Gorter-Mellink heat transfer region. By using channels of hydraulic diameter from 5.6 x 10- through 4.81 x 10-3 m, the heat transfer properties of pressurized superfluid helium were measured in the experiment. The temperature dependence of Gorter-Mellink parameter, AGM, is revealed from the experimental results. It is also proven that AGM depend only on temperature, and not on the channel size and shape. The effect of quantized vortices on heat transfer of pressurized superfluid helium is discussed in comparison of the channel diameter with the mean vortex line spacing.

  17. Exchange Frequencies in Helium-4 Crystals with Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard

    2005-03-01

    The torsional oscillator experiments by Kim and Chan indicate the presence of a superfluid flow in solid helium-4 [Science 305 (2004) 1941], which cannot be explained with the properties of a perfect h.c.p. lattice [Ceperley, Bernu, PRL 93 (2004) 155303]. Using path integral Monte Carlohttp://militzer.gl.ciw.edu simulations, we study different types of defects and stacking faults in the crystal by analyzing the frequency of ring-exchanges along the defect lines. This focus lies on identifying a mechanism that could explain the observed 1% superfluid fraction.

  18. Cantilever anemometer based on a superconducting micro-resonator: Application to superfluid turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Salort, J.; Monfardini, A.; Roche, P.-E.

    2012-12-15

    We present a new type of cryogenic local velocity probe that operates in liquid helium (1 K < T < 4.2 K) and achieves a spatial resolution of Almost-Equal-To 0.1 mm. The operating principle is based on the deflection of a micro-machined silicon cantilever which reflects the local fluid velocity. Deflection is probed using a superconducting niobium micro-resonator sputtered on the sensor and used as a strain gauge. We present the working principle and the design of the probe, as well as calibration measurements and velocity spectra obtained in a turbulent helium flow above and below the superfluid transition.

  19. Prototype Secondary Mirror Assembly For The Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1988-04-01

    We describe our concept for a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. SIRTF, a NASA "Great Observatory" to be launched in the 1990's, is a superfluid heliumcooled 1-meter class telescope with much more stringent performance requirements than its precursor the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate near 4 K and provide the functions of 2-axis dynamic tilting ("chopping") in addition to the conventional functions of focus and centering. The PSMA must be able to withstand random vibration testing and provide all of the functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Our PSMA concept employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminum cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feed-back provided by pairs of eddy current position sensors. The actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass providing angular momentum compensation and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose AL/L characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a focus and centering mechanism based upon the six degree of freedom secondary mirror assembly developed for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  20. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) is a recuperative Stirling cycle refrigerator which provides cooling to below 2 K by using a liquid 3He-4He mixture as the working fluid. In 1990, Kotsubo and Swift demonstrated the first SSR, and by 1995, Brisson and Swift had developed an experimental prototype capable of reaching a low temperature of 296 mK. The goal of this thesis was to improve these capabilities by developing a better understanding of the SSR and building SSR's with higher cooling powers and lower ultimate temperatures. This thesis contains four main parts. In the first part, a numerical analysis demonstrates that the optimal design and ultimate performance of a recuperative Stirling refrigerator is fundamentally different from that of a standard regenerative Stirling refrigerator due to a mass flow imbalance within the recuperator. The analysis also shows that high efficiency recuperators remain a key to SSR performance. Due to a quantum effect called Kapitza resistance, the only realistic and economical method of creating higher efficiency recuperators for use with an SSR is to construct the heat exchangers from very thin (12 μm - 25 μm thick) plastic films. The second part of this thesis involves the design and construction of these recuperators. This research resulted in Kapton heat exchangers which are leaktight to superfluid helium and capable of surviving repeated thermal cycling. In the third part of this thesis, two different single stage SSR's are operated to test whether the plastic recuperators would actually improve SSR performance. Operating from a high temperature of 1.0 K and with 1.5% and 3.0% 3He-4He mixtures, these SSR's achieved a low temperature of 291 mK and delivered net cooling powers of 3705 μW at 750 mK, 977 μW at 500 mK, and 409 μW at 400 mK. Finally, this thesis describes the operation of three versions of a two stage SSR. Unfortunately, due to experimental difficulties, the merits of a two stage SSR were not

  1. A Superfluid Film Burner for the nEDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, James; nEDM Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A planned measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) to 10-28 e .cm using the Golub-Lamoreaux method presents complex cryogenic challenges. One such hurdle is the injection of 3He from a polarized atomic beam source into a liquid 4He bath while maintaining the temperature gradient from the cold bath to the warm beam source and minimizing the vapor above the bath. The feasible temperature range for the experiment falls around 400 mK and is constrained from below by the achievable magnetic field gradients, and above by the spin relaxation time of 3He and rate of ultracold neutron up-scattering. The superfluid behavior of 4He below 2.1 K means superfluid film will tend to climb, or ``creep,'' up the sides of the beam tube to reach the warmer space above, creating vapor, resulting in convection and scattering of incident 3He. To stop the superfluid film creep and contain the vapor, a ``film burner'' is under development by the nEDM collaboration. We will describe the effort toward developing a suitable film burner for nEDM, and show preliminary results of a prototype film burner in operation.

  2. Textural domain walls in superfluid 3He-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Takeshi

    Owing to the richness of symmetry, the superfluid 3He serves as a rich repository of topological quantum phenomena. This includes the emergence of surface Majorana fermions and their quantum mass acquisition at the topological critical point. Furthermore, the marriage of the prototype topological superfluid with nanofabrication techniques brings about a rich variety of spontaneous symmetry breaking, such as the formation of the stripe order and nontrivial domain walls. In this work, we examine the possible formation of textural domain walls in the superfluid 3He-B confined to a thin slab with a sub-micron thickness. When an applied magnetic field is much higher than the dipolar field, two nearly degenerate ground states appear, which are characterized by the Ising order associated with the spontaneous breaking of a magnetic order-two symmetry, lcirc;z = + 1 and - 1 . We here discuss the structure of the textural domain wall formed by the spatial modulation of the Ising order, such as low-lying quasiparticle excitations and spontaneous spin current. We also report bosonic modes bound to the textural domain wall.

  3. Blow-down analysis of helium from a cryogenic dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, H. J.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Rhee, M.; Figueroa, O.

    NASA is currently developing Space Shuttle-based refilling of helium using superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT). All the critical components of SHOOT need to be developed through ground-based tests. The helium dewar is one of these components. The Dewar consists of a vacuum vessel enclosing a superinsulated tank. The space between the vacuum vessel and the liquid tank is considered a common vacuum space. In the event that the vacuum is lost, the heat transfers to the dewar and the pressure inside the dewar increases rapidly, resulting in rupture of the dewar due to excessive pressure. Therefore, an emergency vent line is required for release of helium to prevent the dewar from rupturing. The study describes a numerical model for blow-down analysis in an emergency. This qualifies the design of the emergency vent line to be adequate for the assumed heat loads to the helium dewar.

  4. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-09-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.

  5. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  6. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  7. Intrinsic topological superfluidity - fluctuations and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, K.; Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon; Boyack, Rufus

    Recent interest in topological superconductivity is based primarily on exploiting proximity effects to obtain this important phase. However, in cold gases it is possible to contemplate ``intrinsic'' topological superfluidity produced with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field. It is important for such future experiments to establish how low in temperature one needs to go to reach the ordered phase. Similarly, it will be helpful to have a probe of the normal (pseudogap) phase to determine if the ultimate superfluid order will be topological or trivial. In this talk, we address these issues by considering fluctuation effects in such a superfluid, and calculate the critical transition temperature and response functions. We see qualitative signatures of topological superfluidity in spin and charge response functions. We also explore the suppression of superfluidity due to fluctuations, and importantly find that the temperature scales necessary to reach topological superfluidity are reasonably accessible

  8. Microphotonic Forces from Superfluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuslan, D. L.; Harris, G. I.; Baker, C.; Sachkou, Y.; He, X.; Sheridan, E.; Bowen, W. P.

    2016-04-01

    In cavity optomechanics, radiation pressure and photothermal forces are widely utilized to cool and control micromechanical motion, with applications ranging from precision sensing and quantum information to fundamental science. Here, we realize an alternative approach to optical forcing based on superfluid flow and evaporation in response to optical heating. We demonstrate optical forcing of the motion of a cryogenic microtoroidal resonator at a level of 1.46 nN, roughly 1 order of magnitude larger than the radiation pressure force. We use this force to feedback cool the motion of a microtoroid mechanical mode to 137 mK. The photoconvective forces we demonstrate here provide a new tool for high bandwidth control of mechanical motion in cryogenic conditions, while the ability to apply forces remotely, combined with the persistence of flow in superfluids, offers the prospect for new applications.

  9. Reconnection of superfluid vortex bundles.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Sultan Z; Youd, Anthony J; Barenghi, Carlo F

    2008-11-21

    Using the vortex filament model and the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that bundles of quantized vortex lines in He II are structurally robust and can reconnect with each other maintaining their identity. We discuss vortex stretching in superfluid turbulence and show that, during the bundle reconnection process, kelvin waves of large amplitude are generated, in agreement with the finding that helicity is produced by nearly singular vortex interactions in classical Euler flows. PMID:19113421

  10. Critical flow and dissipation in a quasi-one-dimensional superfluid.

    PubMed

    Duc, Pierre-François; Savard, Michel; Petrescu, Matei; Rosenow, Bernd; Del Maestro, Adrian; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-05-01

    In one of the most celebrated examples of the theory of universal critical phenomena, the phase transition to the superfluid state of (4)He belongs to the same three-dimensional (3D) O(2) universality class as the onset of ferromagnetism in a lattice of classical spins with XY symmetry. Below the transition, the superfluid density ρs and superfluid velocity v s increase as a power law of temperature described by a universal critical exponent that is constrained to be identical by scale invariance. As the dimensionality is reduced toward 1D, it is expected that enhanced thermal and quantum fluctuations preclude long-range order, thereby inhibiting superfluidity. We have measured the flow rate of liquid helium and deduced its superfluid velocity in a capillary flow experiment occurring in single 30-nm-long nanopores with radii ranging down from 20 to 3 nm. As the pore size is reduced toward the 1D limit, we observe the following: (i) a suppression of the pressure dependence of the superfluid velocity; (ii) a temperature dependence of v s that surprisingly can be well-fitted by a power law with a single exponent over a broad range of temperatures; and (iii) decreasing critical velocities as a function of decreasing radius for channel sizes below R ≃ 20 nm, in stark contrast with what is observed in micrometer-sized channels. We interpret these deviations from bulk behavior as signaling the crossover to a quasi-1D state, whereby the size of a critical topological defect is cut off by the channel radius. PMID:26601177

  11. Critical flow and dissipation in a quasi–one-dimensional superfluid

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Pierre-François; Savard, Michel; Petrescu, Matei; Rosenow, Bernd; Del Maestro, Adrian; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In one of the most celebrated examples of the theory of universal critical phenomena, the phase transition to the superfluid state of 4He belongs to the same three-dimensional (3D) O(2) universality class as the onset of ferromagnetism in a lattice of classical spins with XY symmetry. Below the transition, the superfluid density ρs and superfluid velocity vs increase as a power law of temperature described by a universal critical exponent that is constrained to be identical by scale invariance. As the dimensionality is reduced toward 1D, it is expected that enhanced thermal and quantum fluctuations preclude long-range order, thereby inhibiting superfluidity. We have measured the flow rate of liquid helium and deduced its superfluid velocity in a capillary flow experiment occurring in single 30-nm-long nanopores with radii ranging down from 20 to 3 nm. As the pore size is reduced toward the 1D limit, we observe the following: (i) a suppression of the pressure dependence of the superfluid velocity; (ii) a temperature dependence of vs that surprisingly can be well-fitted by a power law with a single exponent over a broad range of temperatures; and (iii) decreasing critical velocities as a function of decreasing radius for channel sizes below R ≃ 20 nm, in stark contrast with what is observed in micrometer-sized channels. We interpret these deviations from bulk behavior as signaling the crossover to a quasi-1D state, whereby the size of a critical topological defect is cut off by the channel radius. PMID:26601177

  12. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1990-12-01

    We report on work accomplished in the first 30 months of a research and development program to investigate the feasibility of a new technique to detect solar neutrinos in superfluid helium. Accomplishments include the successful completion of design, construction and operation of the entire cryogenic, mechanical and electronic apparatus. During the last several months we have begun a series of experiments in superfluid helium to test the method. Experimental results include the first observation of the combined physical processes essential to the detection technique: ballistic roton generation by energetic charged particles, quantum evaporation of helium at a free surface and bolometric detection of the evaporated helium by physisorption on a cold silicon wafer. Additional results are also presented.

  13. The Importance of Nonlocal Terms in Superfluid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieve, Rena; Dix, Owen

    2015-03-01

    Simulations of vortex motion in superfluid helium based on the Biot-Savart law plus vortex reconnections can model homogeneous superfluid turbulence. However, the quantitative properties of the turbulent tangle are disturbingly sensitive to details of how the computations are carried out, and in some cases the tangle degenerates unphysically into an arrangement of parallel straight vortices. These problems have been attributed to the reconnection procedure, to the periodic boundary conditions used for most calculations, and to the localized induction approximation (LIA) which often replaces the (non-local) Biot-Savart integral. Previous work using numerical calculation of the complete Biot-Savart integral does not show the same issues as the LIA calculations, but these are time-consuming calculations. We show here that numerical integration over a relatively small region can suffice, as long as the size of the region exceeds the typical intervortex spacing. This result explains why the non-local contribution has a strong effect. It contributes an attraction between nearby vortices that ultimately leads to reconnections, which prevent the vortices from settling into an array of parallel lines.

  14. Dark matter superfluidity and galactic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin

    2016-02-01

    We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the ΛCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ∼mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not): dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  15. Possible Visualization of a Superfluid Vortex Loop Attached to an Oscillating Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemma, E.; Tsubota, M.; Luzuriaga, J.

    2015-06-01

    Visualization using tracer particles is a relatively new tool available for the study of superfluid turbulence and flow, which is applied here to oscillating objects submerged in the liquid. We report observations of a structure seen in videos taken from outside a cryostat filled with superfluid helium at 2 K, which is possibly a vortex loop attached to an oscillator. The feature, which has the shape of an incomplete arch, is visualized due to the presence of solid tracer particles and is attached to a beam oscillating at 38 Hz in the liquid. It has been recorded in videos taken at 240 frames per second, fast enough to take images per period. This makes it possible to follow the structure, and to see that it is not rigid. It moves with respect to the oscillator, and its displacement is in phase with the velocity of the moving beam. Analyzing the motion, we come to the conclusion that we may be observing a superfluid vortex attached to the beam and decorated by the hydrogen particles. An alternative model, considering a solid hydrogen filament, has also been analyzed, but the observed phase between the movement of the beam and the filamentary structure is better explained by the superfluid vortex hypothesis.

  16. Observing the drop of resistance in the flow of a superfluid Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman

    2012-11-29

    The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for superfluids based on ultracold Fermi gases. Here we report direct measurements of the conduction properties of strongly interacting fermions, observing the well-known drop in resistance that is associated with the onset of superfluidity. By varying the depth of the trapping potential in a narrow channel connecting two atomic reservoirs, we observed variations of the atomic current over several orders of magnitude. We related the intrinsic conduction properties to the thermodynamic functions in a model-independent way, by making use of high-resolution in situ imaging in combination with current measurements. Our results show that, as in solid-state systems, current and resistance measurements in quantum gases provide a sensitive probe with which to explore many-body physics. Our method is closely analogous to the operation of a solid-state field-effect transistor and could be applied as a probe for optical lattices and disordered systems, paving the way for modelling complex superconducting devices. PMID:23192151

  17. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  18. Development of low temperature solid state detectors for ultra-cold neutrons within superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. A.; Balashov, S. N.; Green, K.; van der Grinten, M. G. D.; Iaydjiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Shiers, D. B.; Tucker, M. A. H.; Yoshiki, H.; Geltenbort, P.

    2003-04-01

    As part of an R&D programme for the development of a next-generation experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment, in which ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are produced and stored in superfluid 4He (superthermal source), we have developed cryogenic detectors of UCN that can operate in situ within the superfluid. Surface barrier detectors and PIN diode detectors have been tested and proven to work well at temperatures as low as 80 mK. When combined with a layer of 6LiF which converts neutrons to charged particles, these detectors form a reliable UCN detection system which has been tested in liquid helium down to 430 mK. The detectors have operated within superfluid helium for periods of up to 30 days with no signs of degradation. The development of this detection system has enabled us to measure the flux of UCN from a superthermal UCN source with no intervening transmission windows which can attenuate the flux. The addition of thin films of magnetically aligned iron also enables these detectors to be used in situ for neutron spin-polarisation analysis.

  19. Shock compression of liquid helium and helium-hydrogen mixtures : development of a cryogenic capability for shock compression of liquid helium on Z, final report for LDRD Project 141536.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Andrew J.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Shelton, Keegan P.; Hanson, David Lester

    2010-10-01

    This final report on SNL/NM LDRD Project 141536 summarizes progress made toward the development of a cryogenic capability to generate liquid helium (LHe) samples for high accuracy equation-of-state (EOS) measurements on the Z current drive. Accurate data on He properties at Mbar pressures are critical to understanding giant planetary interiors and for validating first principles density functional simulations, but it is difficult to condense LHe samples at very low temperatures (<3.5 K) for experimental studies on gas guns, magnetic and explosive compression devices, and lasers. We have developed a conceptual design for a cryogenic LHe sample system to generate quiescent superfluid LHe samples at 1.5-1.8 K. This cryogenic system adapts the basic elements of a continuously operating, self-regulating {sup 4}He evaporation refrigerator to the constraints of shock compression experiments on Z. To minimize heat load, the sample holder is surrounded by a double layer of thermal radiation shields cooled with LHe to 5 K. Delivery of LHe to the pumped-He evaporator bath is controlled by a flow impedance. The LHe sample holder assembly features modular components and simplified fabrication techniques to reduce cost and complexity to levels required of an expendable device. Prototypes have been fabricated, assembled, and instrumented for initial testing.

  20. One-dimensional electron system over liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Nikolaenko, V. A.; Gladchenko, S. P.

    2000-07-01

    A system close to a one-dimensional (1D) electron system on superfluid helium is realized in the experiments. A profiled substrate with a small dielectric constant is used to create a set of parallel channels on the surface of liquid helium. The mobility of carriers was measured in this system in the temperature range 0.5-1.8 K. For clean substrates the electron mobility increases with decreasing temperature and reaches high values at low temperatures. The results of experiments are found to be in a good agreement with the existing theory.

  1. A Low Power Photoemission Source for Electrons on Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, S.; Sabouret, G.; Lyon, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Electrons on the surface of liquid helium are a widely studied system that may also provide a promising method to implement a quantum computer. One experimental challenge in these studies is to generate electrons on the helium surface in a reliable manner without heating the cryo-system. An electron source relying on photoemission from a zinc film has been previously described using a high power continuous light source that heated the low temperature system. This work has been reproduced more compactly by using a low power pulsed lamp that avoids any heating. About 5×103 electrons are collected on 1 cm2 of helium surface for every pulse of light. A time-resolved experiment suggests that electrons are either emitted over or tunnel through the 1 eV barrier formed by the thin superfluid helium film on the zinc surface. No evidence of trapping or bubble formation is seen.

  2. Absence of supersolidity in solid helium in porous Vycor glass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Y; Chan, Moses H W

    2012-10-12

    In 2004, Kim and Chan carried out torsional oscillator measurements of solid helium confined in porous Vycor glass and found an abrupt drop in the resonant period below 200 mK. The period drop was interpreted as probable experimental evidence of nonclassical rotational inertia. This experiment sparked considerable activities in the studies of superfluidity in solid helium. More recent ultrasound and torsional oscillator studies, however, found evidence that shear modulus stiffening is responsible for at least a fraction of the period drop found in bulk solid helium samples. The experimental configuration of Kim and Chan makes it unavoidable to have a small amount of bulk solid inside the torsion cell containing the Vycor disk. We report here the results of a new helium in Vycor experiment with a design that is completely free from any bulk solid shear modulus stiffening effect. We found no measurable period drop that can be attributed to nonclassical rotational inertia. PMID:23102323

  3. A demountable nonmagnetic multiconductor feedthrough suitable for use in liquid helium applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Christopher D.

    2008-05-01

    A superfluid-helium-tight nonmagnetic electrical feedthrough has been developed by using brass pins embedded within an epoxy resin plug and mounted on a beryllium copper Conflat flange. A method for building these feedthroughs is discussed, and their performance history is described.

  4. Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-18

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings. PMID:24182275

  5. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  6. Dissipative processes in superfluid quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2010-12-01

    We present some results about dissipative processes in fermionic superfluids that are relevant for compact stars. At sufficiently low temperatures the transport properties of a superfluid are dominated by phonons. We report the values of the bulk viscosity, shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of phonons in quark matter at extremely high density and low temperature. Then, we present a new dissipative mechanism that can operate in compact stars and that is named "rocket term". The effect of this dissipative mechanism on superfluid r-mode oscillations is sketched.

  7. Dissipative processes in superfluid quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2010-12-22

    We present some results about dissipative processes in fermionic superfluids that are relevant for compact stars. At sufficiently low temperatures the transport properties of a superfluid are dominated by phonons. We report the values of the bulk viscosity, shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of phonons in quark matter at extremely high density and low temperature. Then, we present a new dissipative mechanism that can operate in compact stars and that is named 'rocket term'. The effect of this dissipative mechanism on superfluid r-mode oscillations is sketched.

  8. Graphene bilayer structures with superfluid magnetoexcitons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study superfluid behavior of a gas of spatially indirect magnetoexcitons with reference to a system of two graphene layers embedded in a multilayer dielectric structure. The system is considered as an alternative of a double quantum well in a GaAs heterostructure. We determine a range of parameters (interlayer distance, dielectric constant, magnetic field, and gate voltage) where magnetoexciton superfluidity can be achieved. Temperature of superfluid transition is computed. A reduction of critical parameters caused by impurities is evaluated and critical impurity concentration is determined. PMID:22353230

  9. Numerical Studies of Properties of Confined Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2003-01-01

    We carry out state of the art simulations of properties of confined liquid helium near the superfluid transition to a degree of accuracy which allows to make predictions for the outcome of fundamental physics experiments in microgravity. First we report our results for the finite-size scaling behavior of heat capacity of superfluids for cubic and parallel-plate geometry. This allows us to study the crossover from zero and two dimensions to three dimensions. Our calculated scaling functions are in good agreement with recently measured specific heat scaling functions for the above mentioned geometries. We also present our results of a quantum simulation of submonolayer of molecular hydrogen deposited on an ideal graphite substrate using path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the monolayer phase diagram is rich and very similar to that of helium monolayer. We are able to uncover the main features of the complex monolayer phase diagram, such as the commensurate solid phases and the commensurate to incommensurate transition, in agreement with the experiments and to find some features which are missing from the experimental analysis.

  10. Producing and imaging a thin line of He2 ∗ molecular tracers in helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Marakov, A.; Guo, W.; Pawlowski, B. T.; Van Sciver, S. W.; Ihas, G. G.; McKinsey, D. N.; Vinen, W. F.

    2015-09-01

    Cryogenic helium-4 has long been recognized as a useful material in fluids research. The unique properties of helium-4 in the gaseous phase and the normal liquid phase allow for the generation of turbulent flows with exceptionally high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. In the superfluid phase, helium-4 exhibits two-fluid hydrodynamics and possesses fascinating properties due to its quantum nature. However, studying the flows in helium-4 has been very challenging largely due to the lack of effective visualization and velocimetry techniques. In this article, we discuss the development of novel instrumentation for flow-visualization in helium based on the generation and imaging of thin lines of metastable He2 ∗ tracer molecules. These molecular tracers are created via femtosecond-laser field-ionization of helium atoms and can be imaged using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. By observing the displacement and distortion of the tracer lines in helium, quantitative information about the flow field can be extracted. We present experimental results in the study of thermal counterflow in superfluid helium that validate the concept of this technique. We also discuss anticipated future developments of this powerful visualization technique.

  11. Producing and imaging a thin line of He*₂ molecular tracers in helium-4.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Marakov, A; Guo, W; Pawlowski, B T; Van Sciver, S W; Ihas, G G; McKinsey, D N; Vinen, W F

    2015-09-01

    Cryogenic helium-4 has long been recognized as a useful material in fluids research. The unique properties of helium-4 in the gaseous phase and the normal liquid phase allow for the generation of turbulent flows with exceptionally high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. In the superfluid phase, helium-4 exhibits two-fluid hydrodynamics and possesses fascinating properties due to its quantum nature. However, studying the flows in helium-4 has been very challenging largely due to the lack of effective visualization and velocimetry techniques. In this article, we discuss the development of novel instrumentation for flow-visualization in helium based on the generation and imaging of thin lines of metastable He*₂ tracer molecules. These molecular tracers are created via femtosecond-laser field-ionization of helium atoms and can be imaged using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. By observing the displacement and distortion of the tracer lines in helium, quantitative information about the flow field can be extracted. We present experimental results in the study of thermal counterflow in superfluid helium that validate the concept of this technique. We also discuss anticipated future developments of this powerful visualization technique. PMID:26429454

  12. Counterflow-induced decoupling in superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Dmytro; L'vov, Victor S.; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    In mechanically driven superfluid turbulence, the mean velocities of the normal- and superfluid components are known to coincide: Un=Us . Numerous laboratory, numerical, and analytical studies showed that under these conditions, the mutual friction between the normal- and superfluid velocity components also couples their fluctuations: un'(r,t) ≈ us'(r,t), almost at all scales. We show that this is not the case in thermally driven superfluid turbulence; here the counterflow velocity Uns≡Un-Us≠0 . We suggest a simple analytic model for the cross-correlation function and its dependence on Uns. We demonstrate that un'(r,t ) and us'(r,t) are decoupled almost in the entire range of separations |r - r'| between the energy-containing scale and intervortex distance.

  13. Pulsar timing noise from superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melatos, Andrew; Link, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Shear-driven turbulence in the superfluid interior of a neutron star exerts a fluctuating torque on the rigid crust, causing the rotational phase to walk randomly. The phase fluctuation spectrum is calculated analytically for incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence and is found to be red; the half-power point is set by the observed spin-down rate, the crust-superfluid lag and the dynamical response time of the superfluid. Preliminary limits are placed on the latter quantities using selected time- and frequency-domain data. It is found that measurements of the normalization and slope of the power spectrum are reproduced for reasonable choices of the turbulence parameters. The results point preferentially to the neutron star interior containing a turbulent superfluid rather than a turbulent Navier-Stokes fluid. The implications for gravitational wave detection by pulsar timing arrays are discussed briefly.

  14. Quantum Coherence in a Superfluid Josephson Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki

    2011-02-04

    We report a new kind of experiment in which we take an array of nanoscale apertures that form a superfluid {sup 4}He Josephson junction and apply quantum phase gradients directly along the array. We observe collective coherent behaviors from aperture elements, leading to quantum interference. Connections to superconducting and Bose-Einstein condensate Josephson junctions as well as phase coherence among the superfluid aperture array are discussed.

  15. Perturbation Theory for Superfluid in Nonuniform Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshida, Shinji; Kato, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    Perturbation theory of superfluid fraction in terms of nonuniform potential is constructed. We find that the coefficient of the leading term is determined by the dynamical structure factor or density fluctuation of the system. The results for the ideal Bose gas and the interacting Bose system with linear dispersion are consistent to implications from Landau's criterion. We also find that the superfluidity of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with K>2 is shown to be stable against nonuniform potential.

  16. Instability of Superfluid across Feshbach Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, C.-H.; Wu, S.-T.; Yip, Sungkit

    2006-09-07

    We consider a dilute atomic gas comprising two species of Fermions with unequal concentrations. We study at zero temperature the atom-molecule mixture with inter-species low-energy scatterings induced by a Feshbach resonance. To examine the stability of this superfluid, we calculate the chemical potential and the superfluid density for fixed individual concentrations. We find that the system can have distinct properties compared to the ordinary Bose-Fermi mixture due to the unbound fermions.

  17. Andreev-Majorana bound states in superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Silaev, M. A. Volovik, G. E.

    2014-12-15

    We consider Andreev-Majorana (AM) bound states with zero energy on surfaces, interfaces, and vortices in different phases of the p-wave superfluids. We discuss the chiral superfluid {sup 3}He-A and time reversal invariant phases: superfluid {sup 3}He-B, planar and polar phases. The AM zero modes are determined by topology in the bulk and disappear at the quantum phase transition from the topological to nontopological state of the superfluid. The topology demonstrates the interplay of dimensions. In particular, the zero-dimensional Weyl points in chiral superfluids (the Berry phase monopoles in momentum space) give rise to the one-dimensional Fermi arc of AM bound states on the surface and to the one-dimensional flat band of AM modes in the vortex core. The one-dimensional nodal line in the polar phase produces a two-dimensional flat band of AM modes on the surface. The interplay of dimensions also connects the AM states in superfluids with different dimensions. For example, the topological properties of the spectrum of bound states in three-dimensional {sup 3}He-B are connected to the properties of the spectrum in the two-dimensional planar phase (thin film)

  18. Superfluidity of magnons in ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery

    The magnon Bose-Einstein condensation in Yttirum Iron Garnet films at room temperature was discovered by the Münster experimental group (S.O. Demokritov) in 2006. Since the magnon condensate is coherent the natural question is whether the condensate is superfluid. Though the normal magnon density exceeds the condensate density in about 100 times, the velocity of the superfluid part is by 5-7 decimal orders larger than that of the normal part at the same field gradients. Thus, the spin current is dominated by the condensate, i.e. superfluid. A deeper obstacle is that the phase trapping is inconsistent with the free motion whose phase linearly depends on coordinate. The superfluidity can start only after submission of a finite (threshold) energy to the condensate by an external source. At energy close to threshold, the phase on long intervals of length remains close to the trapped values and changes by 2 π on a comparatively short intervals (phase solitons). The superfluid velocity remains almost zero between solitons and acquires finite value inside solitons. At large energy the superfluidity of magnons becomes close to a uniform flow.

  19. Temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient of liquid-helium film.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Olli, E. E.; Saffren, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    We have determined the accommodation coefficient, gamma, of a helium film from 1.15 to 4 K by measuring the time constant of a rotating superconducting Nb sphere levitated in vapor and covered with a saturated helium film. The conventional assumption of the phenomenological theory of superfluidity, that the order parameter psi vanishes at the free surface of helium II, implies that gamma, is unity and independent of temperature. We find that gamma, is nearly unity above the lambda point, suffers an abrupt drop close to T-lambda, and gradually levels off to the value of about 0.8 at lower temperatures.

  20. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  1. Experimental Studies of the Growth Kinetics of Methane Clathrate Hydrates & Superfluid Hydrodynamics on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey David

    This thesis details the experimental findings of three distinct research projects. The first studies the growth kinetics of methane clathrate hydrates grown under the influence of multiple factors including surfactants, porous media, substrate wetting properties, and salt content. The second investigates the flow behaviors of superfluid helium through single, high aspect ratio nanopipes. The third models the frequency response of a quartz tuning fork in high pressure normal and superfluid helium and demonstrates how quartz tuning forks can be used as cheap, small, in situ, cryogenic pressure gauges. The first project reports studies of the kinetics of growth of methane hydrates from liquid water containing small amounts of surfactant (<500 ppm of sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). The kinetics are monitored using simultaneous measurements of the uptake of methane detected by a pressure drop in the gas phase, and either visual observations of the amount of liquid water and solid phase in the reaction vessel, or in situ micro-Raman measurements or in situ NMR measurements. These diagnostics show that the uptake of methane and the conversion of liquid water to a solid phase do not occur simultaneously; the uptake of gas always lags the visual and spectroscopic signatures of the disappearance of liquid water and the formation of solid. The evidence suggests that the SDS causes water to form an intermediate immobile solid-like state before combining with the methane to form hydrate. The growth mechanism is related to the surfactant and disappears for low SDS concentrations (<25 ppm). Also reported are studies of the growth rates of methane hydrates as a function of substrate wetting properties, driving force, and growth media. The second project studies pressure driven flow of superfluid helium through single high aspect ratio glass nanopipes into a vacuum has been studied for a wide range of pressure drop (0--30 atm), reservoir temperature (0.8--2.5K), pipe lengths (1-30mm

  2. Motion of a helical vortex filament in superfluid 4He under the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    Very recently, Shivamoggi ["Vortex motion in superfluid 4He: Reformulation in the extrinsic vortex-filament coordinate space," Phys. Rev. B 84, 012506 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.012506 studied the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a Kelvin wave on a vortex filament in superfluid 4He, and obtained some results in a cubic approximation. Presently, we study the motion of helical vortex filaments in superfluid 4He under the exact fully nonlinear LIA considered in potential form by Van Gorder ["Fully nonlinear local induction equation describing the motion of a vortex filament in superfluid 4He," J. Fluid Mech. 707, 585 (2012)], 10.1017/jfm.2012.308 and obtained from the Biot-Savart law through the equations of Hall and Vinen ["The rotation of liquid helium II. I. Experiments on the propagation of second sound in uniformly rotating helium II," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 204 (1956)], 10.1098/rspa.1956.0214 including superfluid friction terms. Nonlinear dispersion relations governing the helical Kelvin wave on such a vortex filament are derived in exact form, from which we may exactly calculate the phase and group velocity of the Kelvin wave. With this, we classify the motion of a helical Kelvin wave on a vortex filament under the LIA. The dispersion relations and results, which follow are exact in nature, in contrast to most results in the literature, which are usually numerical approximations. As such, our results accurately capture the qualitative behavior of the Kelvin waves under the LIA. Extensions to other frameworks are discussed.

  3. Greenbrier Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-18

    This case study describes a prototype home that is the model home for the Homes at Greenbrier in Oakdale, Connecticut, and demonstrates the builder's concept of “attainable sustainable” of offering high performance homes at mid-market prices.

  4. Study of helium transfer technology for STICCR: Fluid management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. J.; Yuan, S. W. K.; Grove, R. K.; Lheureux, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a long life cryogenically cooled space based telescope for infrared astronomy from 2 to 700 microns currently under study and planned for launch in the mid 90's. SIRTF will operate as a multi-user facility, initially carrying 3 instruments at the focal plane. It will be cooled to below 2 K by superfluid liquid helium to achieve radiometric sensitivity limited only by the statistical fluctuations in the natural infrared background radiation over most of its spectral range. The lifetime of the mission will be limited by the lifetime of the liquid helium supply, and is currently baselined to be 2 years. Candidates are reviewed for a liquid management device to be used in the resupply of liquid helium, and for the selection of an appropriate candidate.

  5. Dynamics of low-energy helium vapor pulses.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, A; Lidke, K A; Williams, M C; Giese, C F; Halley, J W

    2003-02-01

    We report results of experiments in which pulses of helium vapor are produced by a current pulse in a chromium film covered with superfluid helium at around 0.3 K. The pulses were detected by a titanium bolometer operating at 0.47 K. The shape of the detected signal is a strong function of the power of the initiating current pulse. For low powers the signal from a single current pulse also contains a single peak, but for higher powers, a single current pulse produces two and then at the highest powers, three peak signals. To analyze the origin of these phenomena we report results of hybrid gas-dynamics and hydrodynamics simulations, which demonstrate that the signals arise from shock waves formed in the vapor. The shock waves form due to the presence of a gradient in the small ambient background of helium vapor in the chamber and are extremely sensitive to the pulse power. PMID:12636804

  6. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fratangelo, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The ILC (International Linear Collider) is a proposed new major particle accelerator. It consists of two 20 km long linear accelerators colliding electrons and positrons at an energy exceeding 500 GeV, Achieving this collision energy while keeping reasonable accelerator dimensions requires the use of high electric field superconducting cavities as the main acceleration element. These cavities are operated at l.3 GHz inside an appropriate container (He vessel) at temperatures as low as 1.4 K using superfluid Helium as the refrigerating medium. The purpose of this thesis, in the context of the ILC R&D activities currently in progress at Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), is the mechanical study of an ILC superconducting cavity and Helium vessel prototype. The main goals of these studies are the determination of the limiting working conditions of the whole He vessel assembly, the simulation of the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps and the assessment of the Helium vessel's efficiency. In addition this thesis studies the requirements to certify the compliance with the ASME Code of the whole cavity/vessel assembly. Several Finite Elements Analyses were performed by the candidate himself in order to perform the studies listed above and described in detail in Chapters 4 through 8. ln particular the candidate has developed an improved procedure to obtain more accurate results with lower computational times. These procedures will be accurately described in the following chapters. After an introduction that briefly describes the Fennilab and in particular the Technical Division (where all the activities concerning with this thesis were developed), the first part of this thesis (Chapters 2 and 3) explains some of the main aspects of modem particle accelerators. Moreover it describes the most important particle accelerators working at the moment and the basic features of the ILC project. Chapter 4 describes all the activities that were done to certify

  7. Spectroscopy of the copper dimer in normal fluid, superfluid, and solid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Moroshkin, P.; Toennies, J. P.; Weis, A.

    2010-10-21

    Copper atoms and molecules are laser ablated into bulk liquid and solid helium, and the emission spectra of the laser excited D{yields}X, B{yields}X, and a{yields}X transitions of Cu{sub 2} are observed to exhibit clearly resolved vibrational bands. Surprisingly, for the D{yields}X and the B{yields}X transitions, no differences were observed for superfluid He at 1.5 K, for the normal liquid at 2.65 K, or for the 1.5 K solid at higher pressures of about 30 bars. An interpretation based on the bubble model indicates that the interaction with the He matrix is much weaker than in the case of the alkali atoms. Compared to other solid rare gas matrices, the line shifts and line widths in condensed helium are much smaller by nearly an order of magnitude.

  8. Development and testing of superfluid-cooled 900 MHz NMR magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hideo; Sato, Akio; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Fumiaki; Wada, Hitoshi; Ito, Satoshi; Miki, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Kawate, Yoshio; Fukui, Shigeo

    2001-09-01

    As the preliminary step for the 1 GHz NMR spectrometer, a 900 MHz class NMR magnet was fabricated and was successfully operated in December 1999. The magnet is made of 15% Sn-bronze-processed (Nb,Ti) 3Sn, Ta-reinforced (Nb,Ti) 3Sn, and NbTi conductors. All the coils are cooled with pressurized superfluid helium. The magnet generated a field of 21.20 T in a driven mode and then operated in a persistent mode at 21.17 T corresponding to a proton NMR frequency of 901.2 MHz. During the magnet excitation for 24 h, the superfluid bath temperature was kept constant to below 1.6 K using an automatic control system. After several excitation tests, the magnet was quenched and the rupture disk of the magnet vessel was broken. The size of the cold safety valve and the structure of the rupture disk have been checked and modified. Before the reassembly of the magnet cryostat, the modified superfluid cooler for cooling the magnet bath was tested.

  9. Thermionic emission and a novel electron collector in a liquid helium environment.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Dementyev, Anatoly E; Tempere, Jacques; Silvera, Isaac F

    2009-04-01

    We study two techniques to create electrons in a liquid helium environment. One is thermionic emission of tungsten filaments in a low temperature cell in the vapor phase with a superfluid helium film covering all surfaces; the other is operating a glowing filament immersed in bulk liquid helium. We present both the steady state and rapid sweep I-V curves and the electron current yield. These curves, having a negative dynamic resistance region, differ remarkably from those of a vacuum tube filament. A novel low temperature vapor-phase electron collector for which the insulating helium film on the collector surface can be removed is used to measure emission current. We also discuss our achievement of producing multielectron bubbles in liquid helium by a new method. PMID:19405669

  10. Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.

  11. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Manuel, Cristina; Sarkar, Sreemoyee; Tarrus, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  12. Single impurity in ultracold Fermi superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lei; Baksmaty, Leslie O.; Pu, Han; Hu Hui; Chen Yan

    2011-06-15

    The role of impurities as experimental probes in the detection of quantum material properties is well appreciated. Here we study the effect of a single classical magnetic impurity in trapped ultracold Fermi superfluids. Depending on its shape and strength, a magnetic impurity can induce single or multiple midgap bound states in a superfluid Fermi gas. The multiple midgap states could coincide with the development of a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase within the superfluid. As an analog of the scanning tunneling microsope, we propose a modified rf spectroscopic method to measure the local density of states which can be employed to detect these states and other quantum phases of cold atoms. A key result of our self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes calculations is that a magnetic impurity can controllably induce an FFLO state at currently accessible experimental parameters.

  13. Holographic vortex liquids and superfluid turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong; Adams, Allan

    2013-07-26

    Superfluid turbulence is a fascinating phenomenon for which a satisfactory theoretical framework is lacking. Holographic duality provides a systematic approach to studying such quantum turbulence by mapping the dynamics of a strongly interacting quantum liquid into the dynamics of classical gravity. We use this gravitational description to numerically construct turbulent flows in a holographic superfluid in two spatial dimensions. We find that the superfluid kinetic energy spectrum obeys the Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling law, with energy injected at long wavelengths undergoing a direct cascade to short wavelengths where dissipation by vortex annihilation and vortex drag becomes efficient. This dissipation has a simple gravitational interpretation as energy flux across a black hole event horizon. PMID:23888034

  14. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan-Xia; Duan, Wen-Shan

    2012-11-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases. A Kadomtsev—Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) regime, Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) regime, and unitarity regime. One-lump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained, and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases. The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.

  15. Note on zero temperature holographic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Minyong; Lan, Shanquan; Niu, Chao; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2016-06-01

    In this note, we have addressed various issues on zero temperature holographic superfluids. First, inspired by our numerical evidence for the equality between the superfluid density and particle density, we provide an elegant analytic proof for this equality by a boost trick. Second, using not only the frequency domain analysis but also the time domain analysis from numerical relativity, we identify the hydrodynamic normal modes and calculate out the sound speed, which is shown to increase with the chemical potential and saturate to the value predicted by the conformal field theory in the large chemical potential limit. Third, the generic non-thermalization is demonstrated by the fully nonlinear time evolution from a non-equilibrium state for our zero temperature holographic superfluid. Furthermore, a conserved Noether charge is proposed in support of this behavior.

  16. Oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.; Langlois, D.

    2002-11-01

    We develop a general formalism to treat, in general relativity, the nonradial oscillations of a superfluid neutron star about static (non-rotating) configurations. The matter content of these stars can, as a first approximation, be described by a two-fluid model: one fluid is the neutron superfluid, which is believed to exist in the core and inner crust of mature neutron stars; the other fluid is a conglomerate of all charged constituents (crust nuclei, protons, electrons, etc.). We use a system of equations that governs the perturbations both of the metric and of the matter variables, whatever the equation of state for the two fluids. The entrainment effect is explicitly included. We also take the first step towards allowing for the superfluid to be confined to a part of the star by allowing for an outer envelope composed of ordinary fluid. We derive and implement the junction conditions for the metric and matter variables at the core-envelope interface, and briefly discuss the nature of the involved phase transition. We then determine the frequencies and gravitational-wave damping times for a simple model equation of state, incorporating entrainment through an approximation scheme which extends present Newtonian results to the general relativistic regime. We investigate how the quasinormal modes of a superfluid star are affected by changes in the entrainment parameter, and unveil a series of avoided crossings between the various modes. We provide a proof that, unless the equation of state is very special, all modes of a two-fluid star must radiate gravitationally. We also discuss the future detectability of pulsations in a superfluid star and argue that it may be possible (given advances in the relevant technology) to use gravitational-wave data to constrain the parameters of superfluid neutron stars.

  17. Copper dimer interactions on a thermomechanical superfluid {sup 4}He fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi

    2015-05-28

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid {sup 4}He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain. The dimers first accelerate towards the fountain surface and once the surface layer is crossed, they penetrate into the liquid and further slow down to Landau critical velocity by creating a vortex ring. Theoretical lineshape calculations support the assignment of the experimentally observed bands to Cu{sub 2} solvated in the bulk liquid. The vibronic progressions are decomposed of a zero-phonon line and two types of phonon bands, which correlate with solvent cavity interface compression (t < 200 fs) and expansion (200 < t < 500 fs) driven by the electronic excitation. The presented experimental method allows to perform molecular spectroscopy in bulk superfluid helium where the temperature and pressure can be varied.

  18. Exploring the Macroscopic Quantum Physics of Motion with Superfluid He-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Laura; Pearlman, Aaron; Schwab, Keith

    We demonstrate the use of superfluid helium-4 as an extremely low loss optomechanical element. We form an optomechanical system with a cylindrical niobium superconducting TE011 resonator whose 40 cm3 inner cylindrical cavity is filled with 4He. Coupling is realized via the variations in permittivity resulting from the density profile of the acoustic modes. Acoustic losses in helium-4 below 500 mK are governed by the intrinsic nonlinearity of sound, leading to an attenuation which drops as T4, indicating the possibility of quality factors (Q) over 1010 at 10 mK. In our lowest loss mode, we demonstrate this T4 law at temperatures down to 50 mK, realizing an acoustic Q of 1.35*108 at 8.1 kHz. When coupled with a low phase noise microwave source, we expect this system to be utilized as a probe of macroscopic quantized motion, for precision measurements to search for fundamental physical length scales, and as a continuous gravitational wave detector. Our estimates suggest that a resonant superfluid acoustic system could exceed the sensitivity of current broad-band detectors for narrow-band sources such as pulsars. De Lorenzo, L. A. and Schwab, K. C., New J. Phys. 16, 113020 (2014).

  19. Superfluid light in bulk nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Carusotto, Iacopo

    2014-09-01

    We review how the paraxial approximation naturally leads to a hydrodynamic description of light propagation in a bulk Kerr nonlinear medium in terms of a wave equation analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the order parameter of a superfluid. The main features of the many-body collective dynamics of the fluid of light in this propagating geometry are discussed: generation and observation of Bogoliubov sound waves in the fluid of light is first described. Experimentally accessible manifestations of superfluidity are then highlighted. Perspectives in view of realizing analogue models of gravity are finally given. PMID:25197252

  20. Superfluid light in bulk nonlinear media

    PubMed Central

    Carusotto, Iacopo

    2014-01-01

    We review how the paraxial approximation naturally leads to a hydrodynamic description of light propagation in a bulk Kerr nonlinear medium in terms of a wave equation analogous to the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for the order parameter of a superfluid. The main features of the many-body collective dynamics of the fluid of light in this propagating geometry are discussed: generation and observation of Bogoliubov sound waves in the fluid of light is first described. Experimentally accessible manifestations of superfluidity are then highlighted. Perspectives in view of realizing analogue models of gravity are finally given. PMID:25197252

  1. Superfluid-like turbulence in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    A network of vortices in a superfluid system exhibits turbulent behavior. It is argued that the universe may have experienced such a phase of superfluid-like turbulence due to the existence of a coherent state with non-topological charge and a network of global strings. The unique feature of a distribution of turbulent domains is that it can yield non-gravitationally induced large-scale coherent velocities. It may be difficult, however, to relate these velocities to the observed large-scale bulk motion.

  2. How superfluid vortex knots untie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Kauffman, Louis H.; Irvine, William T. M.

    2016-07-01

    Knots and links often occur in physical systems, including shaken strands of rope and DNA (ref. ), as well as the more subtle structure of vortices in fluids and magnetic fields in plasmas. Theories of fluid flows without dissipation predict these tangled structures persist, constraining the evolution of the flow much like a knot tied in a shoelace. This constraint gives rise to a conserved quantity known as helicity, offering both fundamental insights and enticing possibilities for controlling complex flows. However, even small amounts of dissipation allow knots to untie by means of `cut-and-splice’ operations known as reconnections. Despite the potentially fundamental role of these reconnections in understanding helicity--and the stability of knotted fields more generally--their effect is known only for a handful of simple knots. Here we study the evolution of 322 elemental knots and links in the Gross-Pitaevskii model for a superfluid, and find that they universally untie. We observe that the centreline helicity is partially preserved even as the knots untie, a remnant of the perfect helicity conservation predicted for idealized fluids. Moreover, we find that the topological pathways of untying knots have simple descriptions in terms of minimal two-dimensional knot diagrams, and tend to concentrate in states which are twisted in only one direction. These results have direct analogies to previous studies of simple knots in several systems, including DNA recombination and classical fluids. This similarity in the geometric and topological evolution suggests there are universal aspects in the behaviour of knots in dissipative fields.

  3. Re-investigating Solid Helium under DC Rotation with a Rigid Torsional Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewon; Tsuiki, Tomoya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Shirahama, Keiya; Kono, Kimitoshi; Choi, Hyoungsoon; Kim, Eunseong

    The resonant period drop observed in a torsional oscillator (TO) containing solid helium first interpreted as the signature of supersolid is now generally accepted as the shear modulus change of solid helium at low temperature. However, there are still several aspects in solid helium that remain unresolved. For instance, the striking DC rotation effect on the TO experiments was observed without altering the shear modulus of solid helium. The DC rotation is not expected to change the elastic property of solid helium while it can destroy superfluidity. Therefore, the DC rotation effect was considered as the strong evidence of superfluidity in solid helium. Here, we re-examine the effect of DC rotation by utilizing a rigidly constructed TO. Previous DC rotation experiments were performed with a TO exhibiting high reduction ratio of the period, which can be attributed to non-ideal construction of the TO. It is plausible that the resonance period and dissipation of non-ideal TO can be more susceptible to environmental vibration caused by the DC rotation. The response of the rigid TO under DC rotation will be reported to test the validity of the previous interpretation thoroughly.

  4. Squeezing Superfluid from a Stone: Coupling Superfluidity and Elasticity in a Supersolid

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, Alan T.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Toner, John

    2006-02-10

    Starting from the assumption that the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) phase transition is continuous, we develop a phenomenological Landau theory of the transition in which superfluidity is coupled to the elasticity of the crystalline {sup 4}He lattice. We find that the elasticity does not affect the universal properties of the superfluid transition, so that in an unstressed crystal the well-known {lambda} anomaly in the heat capacity of the superfluid transition should also appear at the NS-SS transition. We also find that the onset of supersolidity leads to anomalies in the elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients near the transition and, conversely, that inhomogeneous lattice strains can induce local variations of the superfluid transition temperature, leading to a broadened transition.

  5. (abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

  6. Supersolidity of helium-4: Disordered scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svistunov, Boris

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon of supersolidity in helium, a non-dissipative transport of 4He-atoms through 4He-crystals, is an amazing achievement in the low-temperature physics. A microscopic interpretation of the phenomenon of non-classical rotational inertia originally discovered by Kim and Chan remains highly controversial. The only direct observation of a superflow through solid 4He is the one reported recently by Ray and Hallock. First-principle simulations by Amherst-ETH-Alberta-CUNY collaboration, while unquestionably showing that a perfect hcp 4He crystal is not a supersolid, reveal disordered mechanisms of supersolidity: superfluid dislocations, grain boundaries, and ridges. Also possible is a metastable amorphous supersolid, the so-called superglass.

  7. Excitations of Superfluid He4 Beyond the Roton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, Asaad; Glyde, Henry

    2001-03-01

    Excitations of Superfluid ^4He Beyond the Roton. A. R. SAKHEL and H. R. GLYDE, University of Delaware - We present a Quantum Field Theoretical Model that reproduces the basic features of the temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) as observed in the inelastic-neutron scattering results at IRIS, (J.V. Pierce, R.T. Azuah, B.Fåk, A.R. Sakhel, H.R. Glyde, and W.G. Stirling, to be published.) UK. The range of the wavevector Q beyond the roton (Q > 2.0Åis considered. The model is able to simulate the decay of the excitations into two rotons when the excitation energy exceeds 2Δ, where Δ is the roton energy. The model is based on the formulation of S(Q,ω) of Gavoret and Nozières.(J. Gavoret and Nozières, Ann. Phys.), 28, 349-399 (1964). The component of dynamic susceptibility involving the condensate is modelled by an equation of the form: \\chis = n n_0(T) Λ G Λ where Λ is a vertex, G the renormalized single particle Green's function, n the density of ^4He at SVP and n_0(T) the condensate fraction as a function of temperature. The dynamic susceptibility involving states above the condensate is modelled by a damped harmonic oscillator function.(H. R. Glyde, Excitation in Liquid and Solid Helium), Oxford, Clarendron Press (1994).

  8. Electric breakdown and ionization detection in normal liquid and superfluid 4He for the SNA nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcz, Maciej

    Helium throughout the pressure-temperature phase space, between 1 bar and the saturation curve and between 4.2 K and 1.7 K. A new breakdown hysteresis in liquid helium was discovered and is attributed to the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation sites inside the liquid. A phenomenological model involving the Townsend breakdown mechanism and Paschen's Law in liquid helium is proposed. In addition, the many challenges faced by efficient scintillation detection in the cryogenic environment of the nEDM experiment motivated additional studies at CEEM. To test the effect of an electric field on scintillation in superfluid, a SF test cell was constructed inside a dilution refrigerator and it was found that the scintil- lation intensity from a 241Am source in the cell, is reduced at high electric fields. Alternatives to scintillation detection for the nEDM experiment were also explored and the test cell was reconfigured to operate as a superfluid ionization chamber. The superfluid ionization chamber was tested with 241Am in pulse mode and current mode configurations. While the pulse mode in superfluid, which relies on the drift velocity of charges, is hindered by quasi-particle excitations in superfluid, results of current mode measurements appear promising. To further explore the prospect of cryogenic ionization detection, a detector cryo-stat capable of detecting neutrons using a 10B converter was also constructed at CEEM and tested at the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS). The neutron detector cryostat has the benefit of being able to modulate the ioniza- tion source which was not possible with the superfluid ionization chamber. Tests with argon gas led to the development of more efficient boron targets. The cryogenic test of ionization detection in current mode will be discussed.

  9. SMIILE Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran

    2011-09-01

    In this paper the prototype of SMIILE tool (currently stands for: Software Metrics—Independent of Input LanguagE) will be described. Crucial characteristic of this tool is its independency of input programming language for supported software metrics. This characteristic is based on usage of newly introduced type of syntax trees—enriched Concrete Syntax Trees (eCST) for source code representation. MSCI: 68N30 Mathematical aspects of software engineering (specification, verification, metrics, requirements, etc.)

  10. Nonlocal Magnetoresistance Mediated by Spin Superfluidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2015-10-01

    The electrical response of two diffusive metals is studied when they are linked by a magnetic insulator hosting a topologically stable (superfluid) spin current. We discuss how charge currents in the metals induce a spin supercurrent state, which in turn generates a magnetoresistance that depends on the topology of the electrical circuit. This magnetoresistance relies on phase coherence over the entire magnet and gives direct evidence for spin superfluidity. We show that driving the magnet with an ac current allows coherent spin transport even in the presence of U(1)-breaking magnetic anisotropy that can preclude dc superfluid transport. Spin transmission in the ac regime shows a series of resonance peaks as a function of frequency. The peak locations, heights, and widths can be used to extract static interfacial properties, e.g., the spin-mixing conductance and effective spin Hall angle, and to probe dynamic properties such as the spin-wave dispersion. Thus, ac transport may provide a simpler route to realizing nonequilbrium coherent spin transport and a useful way to characterize the magnetic system, serving as a precursor to the realization of dc superfluid spin transport.

  11. Superfluidity and Chaos in low dimensional circuits.

    PubMed

    Arwas, Geva; Vardi, Amichay; Cohen, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of superfluidity is the appearance of "vortex states" carrying a quantized metastable circulating current. Considering a unidirectional flow of particles in a ring, at first it appears that any amount of scattering will randomize the velocity, as in the Drude model, and eventually the ergodic steady state will be characterized by a vanishingly small fluctuating current. However, Landau and followers have shown that this is not always the case. If elementary excitations (e.g. phonons) have higher velocity than that of the flow, simple kinematic considerations imply metastability of the vortex state: the energy of the motion cannot dissipate into phonons. On the other hand if this Landau criterion is violated the circulating current can decay. Below we show that the standard Landau and Bogoliubov superfluidity criteria fail in low-dimensional circuits. Proper determination of the superfluidity regime-diagram must account for the crucial role of chaos, an ingredient missing from the conventional stability analysis. Accordingly, we find novel types of superfluidity, associated with irregular or chaotic or breathing vortex states. PMID:26315272

  12. Magnus force in superfluids and superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B. |

    1997-01-01

    The forces on the vortex, transverse to its velocity, are considered. In addition to the superfluid Magnus force from the condensate (superfluid component), there are transverse forces from thermal quasiparticles and external fields violating the Galilean invariance. The forces between quasiparticles and the vortex originate from interference of quasiparticles with trajectories on the left and on the right from the vortex like similar forces for electrons interacting with the thin magnetic-flux tube (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). These forces are derived for phonons from the equations of superfluid hydrodynamics, and for BCS quasiparticles from the Bogolyubov{endash}de Gennes equations. The effect of external fields breaking Galilean invariance is analyzed for vortices in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array. The symmetry analysis of the classical equations for the array shows that the total transverse force on the vortex vanishes. Therefore the Hall effect which is linear in the transverse force is absent also. This means that the Magnus force from the superfluid component {ital exactly} cancels with the transverse force from the external fields. The results of other approaches are also brought together for discussion. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Measurements with a recuperative superfluid Stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Swift, G.W.; Brisson, J.G.

    1995-08-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator cooled to 168 mK using a 4.9% {sup 3}He- {sup 4}He mixture and exhausting its waste heat at 383 mK. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for 4.9%, 17%, and 36% mixtures. At the highest concentration, a dissipation mechanism of unknown origin is observed.

  14. Superfluid 3He—the Early Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.; Leggett, A. J.

    2011-08-01

    A history is given of liquid 3He research from the time when 3He first became available following World War II through 1972 when the discovery of the superfluid phases was made. The Fermi liquid nature was established early on, and the Landau Fermi liquid theory provided a framework for understanding the interactions between the Fermions (quasiparticles). The theory's main triumph was to predict zero sound, which was soon discovered experimentally. Experimental techniques are treated, including adiabatic demagnetization, dilution refrigerator technology, and Pomeranchuk cooling. A description of the superfluid 3He discovery experiments using the latter two of these techniques is given. While existing theories provided a basis for understanding the newly discovered superfluid phases in terms of ℓ>0 Cooper pairs, the unexpected stability of the A phase in the high- P, high- T region of the phase diagram needed for its explanation a creative leap beyond the BCS paradigm. The use of sum rules to interpret some of the unusual magnetic resonance in liquid 3He is discussed. Eventually a complete theory of the spin dynamics of superfluid 3He was developed, which predicted many of the exciting phenomena subsequently discovered.

  15. Untying vortex knots in fluids and superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Scheeler, Martin; Kedia, Hridesh; Irvine, William T. M.

    Recent work has demonstrated that vortex knots appear to always untie in fluids and superfluids. Should we expect the same behavior from these two very different systems? I will discuss this unknotting behavior, both quantitatively - through helicity - and qualitatively through the geometry and topology of the vortex lines as they evolve.

  16. Superfluidity and Chaos in low dimensional circuits

    PubMed Central

    Arwas, Geva; Vardi, Amichay; Cohen, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of superfluidity is the appearance of “vortex states” carrying a quantized metastable circulating current. Considering a unidirectional flow of particles in a ring, at first it appears that any amount of scattering will randomize the velocity, as in the Drude model, and eventually the ergodic steady state will be characterized by a vanishingly small fluctuating current. However, Landau and followers have shown that this is not always the case. If elementary excitations (e.g. phonons) have higher velocity than that of the flow, simple kinematic considerations imply metastability of the vortex state: the energy of the motion cannot dissipate into phonons. On the other hand if this Landau criterion is violated the circulating current can decay. Below we show that the standard Landau and Bogoliubov superfluidity criteria fail in low-dimensional circuits. Proper determination of the superfluidity regime-diagram must account for the crucial role of chaos, an ingredient missing from the conventional stability analysis. Accordingly, we find novel types of superfluidity, associated with irregular or chaotic or breathing vortex states. PMID:26315272

  17. Flight model performance test results of a helium dewar for the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Kanao, Ken'ichi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Hoshika, Shunji; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoichi; DiPirro, Mike; Shirron, Peter

    2016-03-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite, scheduled to be launched in fiscal year 2015. The mission includes a soft X-ray spectrometer instrument (SXS), which contains an X-ray micro calorimeter operating at 50 mK by using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The heat sink of the ADR is superfluid liquid helium below 1.3 K. The required lifetime of the superfluid helium is 3 years or more. In order to realize this lifetime, we have improved the thermal performance from the engineering model (EM) while maintaining the mechanical performance. Then, we have performed a thermal test of the flight model (FM). The results were that the heat load to the helium tank was reduced to below 0.8 mW in the FM from 1.2 mW in the EM. Therefore, the lifetime of the superfluid helium is more than 3 years with 30 L of liquid helium. In this paper, the thermal design and thermal test results are described.

  18. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector. Progress report, November 1, 1991--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Superfluid helium possesses unique properties that enable it to be used as the major component of a very sensitive calorimetric detector: it is extremely pure, and the energy deposited in it is carried out by elementary excitations of the liquid which can produce quantum evaporation of He atoms at a free surface. It has a major advantage of being able to achieve very low background levels. Experimental results presented on the development of helium-4 detector include sensitivity, heat capacity of wafer-calorimeters, coincidence measurements, spectrum of alpha particles in helium, and quantum evaporation: angular dependence and efficiency. 29 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  20. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  1. Electronic prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopcroft, J.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of automation in space are significant. The science base needed to support this automation not only will help control costs and reduce lead-time in the earth-based design and construction of space stations, but also will advance the nation's capability for computer design, simulation, testing, and debugging of sophisticated objects electronically. Progress in automation will require the ability to electronically represent, reason about, and manipulate objects. Discussed here is the development of representations, languages, editors, and model-driven simulation systems to support electronic prototyping. In particular, it identifies areas where basic research is needed before further progress can be made.

  2. Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L

    2010-11-04

    A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane

  3. Sintered plug flow modulation of a vapor-liquid phase separator for a helium II vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is a system for modulation of a superfluid (helium II) flow in a vapor-liquid phase separator, for use in cryogenic storage tanks in future space missions. The system consists of a semicircular mechanically operated shutter, downstream of the separator plug, rotated at 0.1 rpm to control the operational surface area of the separator. The mass flow rate was varied from 10 to 22 mg/s. Pressure gradients across the plug are also discussed.

  4. Thermophysical properties of Helium-4 from 0. 8 to 1500 K with pressures to 2000 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, V.D.; Mccarty, R.D.

    1989-11-01

    Tabular summary data of the thermophysical properties of fluid helium are given for temperatures from 0.8 to 1500 K, with pressures to 2000 MPa between 75 and 300 K, or to 100 MPa outside of this temperature band. Properties include density, specific heats, enthalpy, entropy, internal energy, sound velocity, expansivity, compressibility, thermal conductivity, and viscosity. The data are calculated from a computer program which is available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The computer program is based on carefully fitted state equations for both normal and superfluid helium.

  5. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component

    PubMed Central

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879

  6. Abnormal superfluid fraction of harmonically trapped few-fermion systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2014-06-13

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia I(q). Analogous abnormal behavior of I(q) has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. PMID:24972215

  7. Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2014-05-01

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this paper determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. Support by the NSF is acknowledged.

  8. Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2014-06-01

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments.

  9. Numerical simulation of cavitating flow of liquid helium in venturi channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Kamijo, Kenjiro

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of the two-dimensional cavitating flow of liquid helium through a venturi channel near the lambda point are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new multi-phase superfluid cooling systems. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model with generalized curvilinear coordinates system are presented, and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the cavitating flow of liquid helium though venturi channel is shown in detail, and it is also found that the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow based on the thermomechanical effect is conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid-to-gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Cavitating Flow of Liquid Helium inHorizontal Converging-Diverging Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Kamijo, Kenjiro

    The basic characteristics of the two-dimensional cavitating flow of liquid helium through a horizontal converging-diverging channel near the lambda point are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new multiphase superfluid cooling systems. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multifluid model with generalized curvilinear coordinates system are presented, and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the cavitating flow of liquid helium though horizontal converging-diverging channel is shown in detail, and it is also found that the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow based on the thermo mechanical effect is conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid- to gas-phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase.

  11. Numerical simulation of cavitating flow of liquid helium in a pipe using multi-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, J.; Oike, M.; Kamijo, K.

    2002-05-01

    The two-dimensional characteristics of the cavitating flow of liquid helium in a pipe are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new cryogenic engineering applications. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model are presented and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the turbulent cavitating flow of liquid helium passing through the orifice is shown in detail, and it is also found that the phase transition of the normal fluid to the superfluid and the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow are conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid to gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase. According to these theoretical results, the fundamental characteristics of the cryogenic cavitating flow are predicted.

  12. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry.

  13. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711

  14. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, A K; Matveenko, S I; Yudson, V I; Shlyapnikov, G V

    2016-01-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of HOCl Embedded in Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Kelloway, Donald; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    The infrared depletion spectrum of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets has been measured in the region near 2.8 μm. The spectrum consists of baseline resolved a-type lines and a broad convoluted b-type feature. The a-type lines are asymmetrically skewed in the direction of the band origin, and an analysis of their line shapes based on the chirped damped oscillator function introduced by van Staveren and Apkarian yields a response time of the helium solvent of 1 ns. The b-type lines are much broader due to the greater number of droplet states available for relaxation of the excited rotational states. M. N. van Staveren, and V. A. Apkarian J. Chem. Phys., 132, 054506 (2010).

  16. Helium Droplets Doped with Sulfur and C60

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of sulfur are grown by passing superfluid helium nanodroplets through a pickup cell filled with sulfur vapor. In some experiments the droplets are codoped with C60. The doped droplets are collided with energetic electrons and the abundance distributions of positively and negatively charged cluster ions are recorded. We report, specifically, distributions of Sm+, Sm–, and C60Sm– containing up to 41 sulfur atoms. We also observe complexes of sulfur cluster anions with helium; distributions are presented for HenSm– with n ≤ 31 and m ≤ 3. The similarity between anionic and cationic C60Sm± spectra is in striking contrast to the large differences between spectra of Sm+ and Sm–. PMID:26045732

  17. Investigation Development Plan for Reflight of the Small Helium-cooled Infrared Telescope Experiment. Volume 1: Investigation and Technical/management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope (IRT) is designed to survey extended celestial sources of infrared radiation between 4 and 120 micrometers wavelength. It will provide data regarding Space Shuttle induced environmental contamination and the zodical light. And, it will provide experience in the management of large volumes of superfluid helium in the space environment.

  18. Experimental study of nanofluidics and phase transitions of normal and superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Angel Enriques

    This thesis addresses the experimental results of two different research topics. The first is the experimental work of pressure driven flows in the smallest, single nanotubes ever investigated. The nanotube boundary conditions and slip lengths from argon, nitrogen, water, and helium experiments were analyzed and compared to macroscopic boundary conditions. The second research topic discusses the work on ellipsometric and quartz microbalance measurements of the 2D superfluid phase diagram of 4He on alkali substrates. Ellipsometric results of sodium on HOPG provide the first evidence of the existence of the 2D critical point on an intermediate strength substrate. Pressure driven flows through single nanopores and microtubes were measured with a calibrated mass spectrometer with pressure drops up to 30 Atm. The nanopores were between 30 nm to 600 nm in diameter and etched in mica and PET membranes of several microns thickness. Microtubes several inches long of fused quartz and nickel material were tested with diameters between 1.8 micron and 25 micron. For 4He and argon gas we observed the flow transition between the free molecular and continuum regimes at 293 K and 77 K. No discrepancy between the macroscopic theory and the 30 nm nanopore data was found. Because of the exceptionally low viscosity of gaseous helium the laminar-turbulent transition could also be observed within these submicron channels. The small viscosity of 4He was too small to dampen inertial effects at a Reynolds number of 2000. In addition to single phase gas flows, our experimental technique also allows us to investigate flows in which the nano or micro scale pipe is either partially or completely filled with liquids. The position of the intrinsic liquid/vapor interface was important for understanding this type of flow. Strong evaporation and cooling at the liquid-vapor interface can lead to freezing for conventional fluids such as nitrogen and water, which in turn leads to complex intermittent

  19. Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states

    SciTech Connect

    Wreszinski, Walter F.

    2015-01-15

    We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system.

  20. Bistability in a Driven-Dissipative Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Ott, Herwig

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength γ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site, to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of γ , the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and an incoherent branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a nonequilibrium phase transition.

  1. Bistability in a Driven-Dissipative Superfluid.

    PubMed

    Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Ott, Herwig

    2016-06-10

    We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength γ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site, to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of γ, the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and an incoherent branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a nonequilibrium phase transition. PMID:27341243

  2. Bosonic topological phase in a paired superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazit, Snir; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2016-03-01

    We study an effective model of two interacting species of bosons in two dimensions, which is amenable to sign problem free Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to conventional ground states, we access a paired superfluid which is also a topological phase, protected by the remaining U (1 ) ×Z2 symmetry. This phase arises from the condensation of a composite object, the bound state of vortices and antivortices of one species, to a boson of the second species. We introduce a bulk response function, the Ising analog of the quantized Hall effect, to diagnose the topological phase. The interplay of broken symmetry and topology leads to interesting effects such as fractionally charged vortices in the paired superfluid. Possible extensions towards realistic models of cold atomic bosons are discussed.

  3. Magnus and Iordanskii Forces in Superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, C.

    1997-08-01

    The transverse force acting on a quantized vortex in a superfluid is a problem that has eluded a complete understanding for more than three decades. In this Letter I calculate the {ital superfluid } velocity part of the transverse force in a way closely related to Laughlin{close_quote}s argument for the quantization of conductance in the quantum Hall effect. A combination of this result, the {ital vortex} velocity part of the transverse force found by Thouless, Ao, and Niu [Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 3758 (1996)], and Galilean invariance shows that there cannot be a transverse force proportional to the normal fluid velocity. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Role of superfluidity in nuclear incompressibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, E.

    2009-07-15

    Nuclei are propitious tools to investigate the role of the superfluidity in the compressibility of a Fermionic system. The centroid of the Giant Monopole Resonance (GMR) in Tin isotopes is predicted using a constrained Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov approach, ensuring a full self-consistent treatment. Superfluidity is found to favour the compressibitily of nuclei. Pairing correlations explain why doubly magic nuclei such as {sup 208}Pb are stiffer compared to open-shell nuclei. Fully self-consistent predictions of the GMR on an isotopic chain should be the way to microscopically extract both the incompressibility and the density dependence of a given energy functional. The macroscopic extraction of K{sub sym}, the asymmetry incompressibility, is questioned. Investigations of the GMR in unstable nuclei are called for. Pairing gap dependence of the nuclear matter incompressibility should also be investigated.

  5. Tunable anisotropic superfluidity in optical Kagome superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, Axel; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Tao; Eggert, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    We study the extended Bose-Hubbard model for the optical Kagome superlattice which is generated by enhancing the long wavelength laser in one direction. By combining Quantum Monte Carlo simulations with the Generalized Effective Potential Landau Theory, we find not only the Mott insulator-superfluid quantum phase transition, but also striped solid phases with non-integer filling factors. Furthermore, we determine with high accuracy the quantum phase diagram for different trap potential offsets. Due to the delicate interplay between onsite repulsion and artificial symmetry breaking, the superfluid density turns out to be anisotropic which reveals its tensorial property. Counterintuitively, the bias of the anisotropy is alternating between x- and y-direction while tuning the particle number or the hopping strength. Finally, we discuss how to observe such phenomenon experimentally, in particular via time-of-flight absorption measurements. Supported by OPTIMAS and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via the SFB/TR49

  6. Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids.

    PubMed

    Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E; Barnett, Ryan

    2016-07-20

    We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general 'synthetic' gauge fields. PMID:27219843

  7. Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E.; Barnett, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross–Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general ‘synthetic’ gauge fields.

  8. Phase transitions three-component superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, Johan; Babaev, Egor

    2014-03-01

    We discuss phase transitions in three-component models of superfluidity and superconductivity. We present Monte Carlo simulations showing that for certain types of inter-component interactions, these systems exhibit novel types of first order phase transitions that are driven by spin-waves. Supported by NSF CAREER Award DMR-0955902, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences andSwedish Research Council.

  9. Superfluidity of grain boundaries and supersolid behavior.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Ishiguro, R; Caupin, F; Maris, H J; Balibar, S

    2006-08-25

    When two communicating vessels are filled to a different height with liquid, the two levels equilibrate because the liquid can flow. We have looked for such equilibration with solid (4)He. For crystals with no grain boundaries, we see no flow of mass, whereas for crystals containing several grain boundaries, we detect a mass flow. Our results suggest that the transport of mass is due to the superfluidity of grain boundaries. PMID:16873608

  10. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    PubMed Central

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper–Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition. PMID:26586543

  11. Generation of dark-bright soliton trains in superfluid-superfluid counterflow.

    PubMed

    Hamner, C; Chang, J J; Engels, P; Hoefer, M A

    2011-02-11

    The dynamics of two penetrating superfluids exhibit an intriguing variety of nonlinear effects. Using two distinguishable components of a Bose-Einstein condensate, we investigate the counterflow of two superfluids in a narrow channel. We present the first experimental observation of trains of dark-bright solitons generated by the counterflow. Our observations are theoretically interpreted by three-dimensional numerical simulations for the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and the analysis of a jump in the two relatively flowing components' densities. Counterflow-induced modulational instability for this miscible system is identified as the central process in the dynamics. PMID:21405475

  12. Probing quantum and classical turbulence analogy in von Kármán liquid helium, nitrogen, and water experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Michel, B.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Lehner, Th.

    2014-12-15

    We report measurements of the dissipation in the Superfluid helium high REynold number von Kármán flow experiment for different forcing conditions. Statistically steady flows are reached; they display a hysteretic behavior similar to what has been observed in a 1:4 scale water experiment. Our macroscopical measurements indicate no noticeable difference between classical and superfluid flows, thereby providing evidence of the same dissipation scaling laws in the two phases. A detailed study of the evolution of the hysteresis cycle with the Reynolds number supports the idea that the stability of the steady states of classical turbulence in this closed flow is partly governed by the dissipative scales. It also supports the idea that the normal and the superfluid components at these temperatures (1.6 K) are locked down to the dissipative length scale.

  13. Interaction of Ions, Atoms and Small Molecules with Quantized Vortex Lines in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloranta, Jussi; Matteo, David; Williams, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3+,He* (3 S), He2*(3Σu) and e-) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid 4He is calculated using density functional methods at 0 K. The technique yields the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or from the trapping potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with a re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significant binding energies to the vortex lines below 1 K where the thermally assisted escape process becomes very inefficient. Even at higher temperatures the trapping times, especially for larger clusters, are sufficiently long that the observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or thermally assisted escape. A new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He*. Work supported by the NSF, Grants CHE-1262306 and DMR-1205734, and the Interdisciplinary Research Institute for the Sciences.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Superfluid Transition: What may We learn on orbit?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Linear response (specifically, Fourier's Law) in He-4 has been observed to fail in heat flow experiments near the superfluid transition. A detailed analysis of the data suggests that the hydrostatic pressure gradient across the helium column limits the divergence of the correlation length in our earth-based experiments. This is consistent with other observations, such as the surprising lack of mutual friction and hysteresis near the superfluid transition, and a 'rounding' of the transition that appears to be independent of heat flux in the low heat flux limit. I will discuss these unusual results from earth-based measurements, and will show predictions for the very different results that may result when we make our measurements on orbit as part of the M1 Mission of the Low- Temperature, Microgravity Physics Facility. This work has been funded by the Fundamental Physics Discipline within the Physical Sciences Research Office of NASA, and is conducted by the DYNAMX (UNM) and CQ (Caltech) Groups, with assistance from the Low Temperature Science and Quantum Sensors Group at JPL.

  15. A possible explanation for the discrepancy in electron persistent current amplitudes: A superfluid persistent current analog

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, J.D. )

    1992-10-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in normal electron persistent currents' that result from the wave nature of electrons in a normal metal ring for which inelastic electron-phonon scattering has been reduced so that the electron maintains phase coherence around the ring. The application of the current theory of electron transport, which includes the effects of elastic scattering in a disordered potential field, produces an expression that disagrees with the experimental measurements by Webb, et al. The author presents here an acoustic analog of wave mechanical electrons in a disordered circular waveguide and derives an expression that agrees with the results of the electron persistent current measurements. The acoustic analog shows that the expression derived from electron transport is also correct, but only under conditions that do not correspond to the actual method used in measuring the electron persistent currents. A proposed experiment to test the model using superfluid helium in a disordered scattering field is presented.

  16. Universality of the Phonon-Roton Spectrum in Liquids and Superfluidity of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Viktor; Trigger, Sergey; Litinski, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Based on numerous experimental data on inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering in liquids, we assert that the phonon-roton spectrum of collective excitations, predicted by Landau for superfluid helium, is a universal property of the liquid state. We show that the existence of the roton minimum in the spectrum of collective excitations is caused by the short-range order in liquids. Using the virial theorem, we assume that one more branch of excitations should exist in He II, whose energy spectrum differs from the phonon-roton spectrum. Such excitations are associated with the pole of single-particle Green function, which can have a gap at small values of momenta.

  17. A cryogenic test stand for full length SSC magnets with superfluid capability

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Mazur, P.O.

    1989-02-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility performs testing of the full scale SSC magnets on test stands capable of simulating the cryogenic environment of the SSC main ring. One of these test stands, Stand 5, also has the ability to operate the magnet under test at temperatures from 1.8K to 4.5K with either supercritical helium or subcooled liquid, providing at least 25 Watts of refrigeration. At least 50 g/s flow is available from 2.3K to 4.5K, whereas superfluid operation occurs with zero flow. Cooldown time from 4.5K to 1.8K is 1.5 hours. A maximum current capability of 10,000 amps is provided, as is instrumentation to monitor and control the cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the cryogenic design of this test stand. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Superfluidity or supersolidity as a consequence of off-diagonal long-range order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2005-07-01

    We present a general derivation of Hess-Fairbank effect or nonclassical rotational inertial (NCRI), i.e., the refusal to rotate with its container, as well as the quantization of angular momentum, as consequences of off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO) in an interacting Bose system. Afterwards, the path integral formulation of superfluid density is rederived without ignoring the centrifugal potential. Finally and in particular, for a class of variational wave functions used for solid helium, treating the constraint of single-valuedness boundary condition carefully, we show that there is no ODLRO and, especially, demonstrate explicitly that NCRI cannot be possessed in absence of defects, even though there exist zero-point motion and exchange effect.

  19. Acoustic Spectroscopy of Superfluid 3He in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J. P.; Choi, H.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W. P.

    2006-09-07

    We have designed an experiment to study the role of global anisotropic quasiparticle scattering on the dirty aerogel superfluid 3He system. We observe significant regions of two stable phases at temperatures below the superfluid transition at a pressure of 25 bar for a 98% aerogel.

  20. Pinning down the superfluid and measuring masses using pulsar glitches

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Espinoza, Cristóbal M.; Antonopoulou, Danai; Andersson, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars are known for their superb timing precision, although glitches can interrupt the regular timing behavior when the stars are young. These glitches are thought to be caused by interactions between normal and superfluid matter in the crust of the star. However, glitching pulsars such as Vela have been shown to require a superfluid reservoir that greatly exceeds that available in the crust. We examine a model in which glitches tap the superfluid in the core. We test a variety of theoretical superfluid models against the most recent glitch data and find that only one model can successfully explain up to 45 years of observational data. We develop a new technique for combining radio and x-ray data to measure pulsar masses, thereby demonstrating how current and future telescopes can probe fundamental physics such as superfluidity near nuclear saturation. PMID:26601293

  1. Superfluid response of two-dimensional parahydrogen clusters in confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Idowu, Saheed; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2015-04-07

    We study by computer simulations the effect of confinement on the superfluid properties of small two-dimensional (2D) parahydrogen clusters. For clusters of fewer than twenty molecules, the superfluid response in the low temperature limit is found to remain comparable in magnitude to that of free clusters, within a rather wide range of depth and size of the confining well. The resilience of the superfluid response is attributable to the “supersolid” character of these clusters. We investigate the possibility of establishing a bulk 2D superfluid “cluster crystal” phase of p-H{sub 2}, in which a global superfluid response would arise from tunnelling of molecules across adjacent unit cells. The computed energetics suggests that for clusters of about ten molecules, such a phase may be thermodynamically stable against the formation of the equilibrium insulating crystal, for values of the cluster crystal lattice constant possibly allowing tunnelling across adjacent unit cells.

  2. Pinning down the superfluid and measuring masses using pulsar glitches.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wynn C G; Espinoza, Cristóbal M; Antonopoulou, Danai; Andersson, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Pulsars are known for their superb timing precision, although glitches can interrupt the regular timing behavior when the stars are young. These glitches are thought to be caused by interactions between normal and superfluid matter in the crust of the star. However, glitching pulsars such as Vela have been shown to require a superfluid reservoir that greatly exceeds that available in the crust. We examine a model in which glitches tap the superfluid in the core. We test a variety of theoretical superfluid models against the most recent glitch data and find that only one model can successfully explain up to 45 years of observational data. We develop a new technique for combining radio and x-ray data to measure pulsar masses, thereby demonstrating how current and future telescopes can probe fundamental physics such as superfluidity near nuclear saturation. PMID:26601293

  3. Observation of microwave superfluid phenomena of multiple phase magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Kazuhito; Kono, Buhei

    2015-05-01

    We observe superfluid phenomena by microwaves irradiation to multiple phase magnetic fluid in room temperature or room pressure. Ferromagnetism transformation of diamagnetic or paramagnetic particles in multiple phase magnetic fluid containing constant rate of ferromagnetic particles, diamagnetic or paramagnetic particles mixing organic polyphenol and irradiation of microwaves is, observed by superexchange interaction. Superfluid phenomena are observed by irradiation of microwaves to aforementioned multiple phase of magnetic fluid containing ferromagnetism transformed diamagnetic or paramagnetic particles with ferromagnetic particles. Mixing semiconductor pigments amplifying superfluid energy by photosensitivity is observed. Visible light LED selecting wavelength is irradiated to superfluid condition of aforementioned multiple phase magnetic fluid thus magnetic field and energy of superfluid is enhanced by light quantum amplification effect.

  4. Thermal instabilities and Rayleigh breakup of ultrathin silver nanowires grown in helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Volk, Alexander; Knez, Daniel; Thaler, Philipp; Hauser, Andreas W; Grogger, Werner; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2015-10-14

    Ag nanowires with diameters below 6 nm are grown within vortex containing superfluid helium nanodroplets and deposited onto a heatable substrate at cryogenic temperatures. The experimental setup allows an unbiased investigation of the inherent stability of pristine silver nanowires, which is virtually impossible with other methods due to chemical processes or templates involved in standard production routes. We demonstrate by experiment and by adaption of a theoretical model that initially continuous wires disintegrate into chains of spheres. This phenomenon is well described by a Rayleigh-like breakup mechanism when the substrate is heated to room temperature. Our findings clarify the recent discussions on the cause of the observed segmented patterns, where a breakup during deposition [Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108, 155302] or mechanisms intrinsic to the helium droplet mediated growth process [Spence et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 6903] have been proposed. The experimental setup confirms the validity of previous suggestions derived from bulk superfluid helium experiments [Gordon et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 25229] for the helium droplet system, and further allows a much more accurate determination of the breakup temperature. PMID:26367114

  5. Disposal of hypergolic propellants. Phase 6, task 1: The cryogenic scrubber prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J.; Sivik, H. E.; Folger, E.; Spearman, E.

    1976-01-01

    A cryogenic scrubber prototype (CSP) was evaluated as a means of removing monomethylhydrazine (MMH) vapor and dinitrogen textroxide (NTO) vapor from nitrogen or helium vent gas stream. The concept, laboratory data, design, construction and experimentation are discussed.

  6. Faraday waves in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.

    2008-10-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study the formation of Faraday waves in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature confined in a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of an infinite cylindrical geometry and analytically evaluate the wavelength of the Faraday pattern. The effect of the axial confinement is fully taken into account in the numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations, and shows that the infinite cylinder geometry provides a very good description of the phenomena.

  7. Sound emission due to superfluid vortex reconnections.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, M; Winiecki, T; Samuels, D C; Barenghi, C F; Adams, C S

    2001-02-19

    By performing numerical simulations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we make direct quantitative measurements of the sound energy released due to superfluid vortex reconnections. We show that the energy radiated expressed in terms of the loss of vortex line length is a simple function of the reconnection angle. In addition, we study the temporal and spatial distribution of the radiation and show that energy is emitted in the form of a sound pulse with a wavelength of a few healing lengths. PMID:11290155

  8. Kelvin waves cascade in superfluid turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kivotides, D; Vassilicos, J C; Samuels, D C; Barenghi, C F

    2001-04-01

    We study numerically the interaction of four initial superfluid vortex rings in the absence of any dissipation or friction. We find evidence for a cascade of Kelvin waves generated by individual vortex reconnection events which transfers energy to higher and higher wave numbers k. After the vortex reconnections occur, the energy spectrum scales as k(-1) and the curvature spectrum becomes flat. These effects highlight the importance of Kelvin waves and reconnections in the transfer of energy within a turbulent vortex tangle. PMID:11290112

  9. Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2011-04-15

    Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

  10. Higgs instability in gapless superfluidity/superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we explore the Higgs instability in the gapless superfluid/superconducting phase. This is in addition to the (chromo)magnetic instability that is related to the fluctuations of the Nambu-Goldstone bosonic fields. While the latter may induce a single-plane-wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state, the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity. In the case of the 2-flavor color superconductivity state the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. But this does not exclude the possibility that it can be completely removed in other exotic states such as the gapless color-flavor locked state.

  11. Vortex gyroscope imaging of planar superfluids.

    PubMed

    Powis, A T; Sammut, S J; Simula, T P

    2014-10-17

    We propose a robust imaging technique that makes it possible to distinguish vortices from antivortices in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates from a single image of the density of the atoms. Tilting the planar condensate prior to standard absorption imaging excites a generalized gyroscopic mode of the condensate, revealing the sign and location of each vortex. This technique is anticipated to enable experimental measurement of the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum of the condensate and the observation of a negative-temperature phase transition of the vortex gas, driven by two-dimensional superfluid turbulence. PMID:25361263

  12. Limited Quantum Helium Transportation through Nano-channels by Quantum Fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Tomonori

    2016-07-01

    Helium at low temperatures has unique quantum properties such as superfluidity, which causes it to behave differently from a classical fluid. Despite our deep understanding of quantum mechanics, there are many open questions concerning the properties of quantum fluids in nanoscale systems. Herein, the quantum behavior of helium transportation through one-dimensional nanopores was evaluated by measuring the adsorption of quantum helium in the nanopores of single-walled carbon nanohorns and AlPO4-5 at 2–5 K. Quantum helium was transported unimpeded through nanopores larger than 0.7 nm in diameter, whereas quantum helium transportation was significantly restricted through 0.4-nm and 0.6-nm nanopores. Conversely, nitrogen molecules diffused through the 0.4-nm nanopores at 77 K. Therefore, quantum helium behaved as a fluid comprising atoms larger than 0.4–0.6 nm. This phenomenon was remarkable, considering that helium is the smallest existing element with a (classical) size of approximately 0.27 nm. This finding revealed the presence of significant quantum fluctuations. Quantum fluctuation determined the behaviors of quantum flux and is essential to understanding unique quantum behaviors in nanoscale systems.

  13. Limited Quantum Helium Transportation through Nano-channels by Quantum Fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    Helium at low temperatures has unique quantum properties such as superfluidity, which causes it to behave differently from a classical fluid. Despite our deep understanding of quantum mechanics, there are many open questions concerning the properties of quantum fluids in nanoscale systems. Herein, the quantum behavior of helium transportation through one-dimensional nanopores was evaluated by measuring the adsorption of quantum helium in the nanopores of single-walled carbon nanohorns and AlPO4-5 at 2-5 K. Quantum helium was transported unimpeded through nanopores larger than 0.7 nm in diameter, whereas quantum helium transportation was significantly restricted through 0.4-nm and 0.6-nm nanopores. Conversely, nitrogen molecules diffused through the 0.4-nm nanopores at 77 K. Therefore, quantum helium behaved as a fluid comprising atoms larger than 0.4-0.6 nm. This phenomenon was remarkable, considering that helium is the smallest existing element with a (classical) size of approximately 0.27 nm. This finding revealed the presence of significant quantum fluctuations. Quantum fluctuation determined the behaviors of quantum flux and is essential to understanding unique quantum behaviors in nanoscale systems. PMID:27363671

  14. Chemical reactions studied at ultra-low temperature in liquid helium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Huisken, Friedrich; Krasnokutski, Serge A.

    2012-11-27

    Low-temperature reaction rates are important ingredients for astrophysical reaction networks modeling the formation of interstellar matter in molecular clouds. Unfortunately, such data is difficult to obtain by experimental means. In an attempt to study low-temperature reactions of astrophysical interest, we have investigated relevant reactions at ultralow temperature in liquid helium droplets. Being prepared by supersonic expansion of helium gas at high pressure through a nozzle into a vacuum, large helium clusters in the form of liquid droplets constitute nano-sized reaction vessels for the study of chemical reactions at ultra-low temperature. If the normal isotope {sup 4}He is used, the helium droplets are superfluid and characterized by a constant temperature of 0.37 K. Here we present results obtained for Mg, Al, and Si reacting with O{sub 2}. Mass spectrometry was employed to characterize the reaction products. As it may be difficult to distinguish between reactions occurring in the helium droplets before they are ionized and ion-molecule reactions taking place after the ionization, additional techniques were applied to ensure that the reactions actually occurred in the helium droplets. This information was provided by measuring the chemiluminescence light emitted by the products, the evaporation of helium atoms by the release of the reaction heat, or by laser-spectroscopic identification of the reactants and products.

  15. Chemical reactions studied at ultra-low temperature in liquid helium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisken, Friedrich; Krasnokutski, Serge A.

    2012-11-01

    Low-temperature reaction rates are important ingredients for astrophysical reaction networks modeling the formation of interstellar matter in molecular clouds. Unfortunately, such data is difficult to obtain by experimental means. In an attempt to study low-temperature reactions of astrophysical interest, we have investigated relevant reactions at ultralow temperature in liquid helium droplets. Being prepared by supersonic expansion of helium gas at high pressure through a nozzle into a vacuum, large helium clusters in the form of liquid droplets constitute nano-sized reaction vessels for the study of chemical reactions at ultra-low temperature. If the normal isotope 4He is used, the helium droplets are superfluid and characterized by a constant temperature of 0.37 K. Here we present results obtained for Mg, Al, and Si reacting with O2. Mass spectrometry was employed to characterize the reaction products. As it may be difficult to distinguish between reactions occurring in the helium droplets before they are ionized and ion-molecule reactions taking place after the ionization, additional techniques were applied to ensure that the reactions actually occurred in the helium droplets. This information was provided by measuring the chemiluminescence light emitted by the products, the evaporation of helium atoms by the release of the reaction heat, or by laser-spectroscopic identification of the reactants and products.

  16. Limited Quantum Helium Transportation through Nano-channels by Quantum Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    Helium at low temperatures has unique quantum properties such as superfluidity, which causes it to behave differently from a classical fluid. Despite our deep understanding of quantum mechanics, there are many open questions concerning the properties of quantum fluids in nanoscale systems. Herein, the quantum behavior of helium transportation through one-dimensional nanopores was evaluated by measuring the adsorption of quantum helium in the nanopores of single-walled carbon nanohorns and AlPO4-5 at 2–5 K. Quantum helium was transported unimpeded through nanopores larger than 0.7 nm in diameter, whereas quantum helium transportation was significantly restricted through 0.4-nm and 0.6-nm nanopores. Conversely, nitrogen molecules diffused through the 0.4-nm nanopores at 77 K. Therefore, quantum helium behaved as a fluid comprising atoms larger than 0.4–0.6 nm. This phenomenon was remarkable, considering that helium is the smallest existing element with a (classical) size of approximately 0.27 nm. This finding revealed the presence of significant quantum fluctuations. Quantum fluctuation determined the behaviors of quantum flux and is essential to understanding unique quantum behaviors in nanoscale systems. PMID:27363671

  17. Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang

    As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.

  18. Superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. N.; Shen, H.

    2010-02-15

    We study the {sup 1}S{sub 0} superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons in neutron star matter and neutron stars. We use the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to calculate the properties of neutron star matter. In the RMF approach, the meson-hyperon couplings are constrained by reasonable hyperon potentials that include the updated information from recent developments in hypernuclear physics. To examine the {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing gap of {Lambda} hyperons, we employ several {Lambda}{Lambda} interactions based on the Nijmegen models and used in double-{Lambda} hypernuclei studies. It is found that the maximal pairing gap obtained is a few tenths of a MeV. The magnitude and the density region of the pairing gap are dependent on the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction and the treatment of neutron star matter. We calculate neutron star properties and find that whether the {sup 1}S{sub 0} superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons exists in the core of neutron stars mainly depends on the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction used.

  19. Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2011-05-23

    We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.

  20. Optical interferometry in superfluid {sup 3}He-B

    SciTech Connect

    Alles, H.; Ruutu, J.P.; Babkin, A.V.; Hakonen, P.J.; Sonin, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    The authors report interferometric measurements in 0.1...1 mm thick films of superfluid {sup 3}He-B. The menisci of three different rotational states of the superfluid were observed and analyzed theoretically using two-fluid hydrodynamics: These are (i) the equilibrium vortex state in which the superfluid and the normal components corotate (solid body rotation), (ii) the vortex-free state (the Landau state), in which only the normal component rotates, and (iii) the quasistationary vortex state in which only the superfluid fraction rotates (pure superfluid rotation). The Landua state manifested itself by a reduced parabolic meniscus at rotation speeds below the critical angular velocity {Omega}{sub c}{approx_lt} 0.2 rad/s for vortex formation. Transition from the Landua state to the equilibrium vortex state yielded a sudden deepening of the meniscus when {Omega}{sub c} was exceeded. After a rapid halt of the cryostat, the authors observed a novel meniscus which was produced by the superfluid rotation while the normal component was at rest. The enhanced depth of this meniscus is governed by the reactive mutual friction parameter B{prime}. By employing laser light, both for imaging and for thermomechanical excitation, the authors measured the response of a thin superfluid layer to a heat pulse and analyzed it within the theory of two fluid hydrodynamics. The data were employed, using the dispersion relation for thin film oscillations, to deduce the second viscosity coefficient {zeta}{sub 3} close to T{sub c}.

  1. Zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Li; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Junkun

    2016-08-01

    We initiate the investigation of the zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders, where besides the vacuum phase, two one component superfluid phases, the coexistent superfluid phase has also been found in the anti-de Sitter soliton background for the first time. We construct the complete phase diagram in the e - μ plane by numerics, which is consistent with our qualitative analysis. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding optical conductivity and sound speed by the linear response theory. The onset of the pole of optical conductivity at ω =0 indicates that the spontaneous breaking phase always represents the superfluid phase, and the residue of the pole is increased with the chemical potential, which is consistent with the fact that the particle density is essentially the superfluid density for zero temperature superfluids. In addition, the resulting sound speed demonstrates the nonsmoothness at the critical points as the order parameter of the condensate, which indicates that the phase transitions can also be identified by the behavior of the sound speed. Moreover, as expected from the boundary conformal field theory, the sound speed saturates to 1/√{2 } at the large chemical potential limit for our two component holographic superfluid model.

  2. Thermophysical properties of Helium-4 from 0.8 to 1500 K with pressures to 2000 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arp, Vincent D.; Mccarty, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Tabular summary data of the thermophysical properties of fluid helium are given for temperatures from 0.8 to 1500 K, with pressures to 2000 MPa between 75 and 300 K, or to 100 MPa outside of this temperature band. Properties include density, specific heats, enthalpy, entropy, internal energy, sound velocity, expansivity, compressibility, thermal conductivity, and viscosity. The data are calculated from a computer program which is available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The computer program is based on carefully fitted state equations for both normal and superfluid helium.

  3. The impact of doping rates on the morphologies of silver and gold nanowires grown in helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Hauser, Andreas W; Steurer, Johannes; Grogger, Werner; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2016-01-21

    Silver and gold nanowires are grown within superfluid helium nanodroplets and investigated by high resolution electron microscopy after surface deposition. The wire morphologies depend on the rate of metal atom doping in the pickup sequence. While high doping rates result in a polycrystalline face-centered cubic nanowire structure, at lower doping rates the initial fivefold-symmetry seems to be preserved. An explanation for this observation is given by computer simulations, which allow the derivation of timescales for the nanowire growth process inside helium nanodroplets. PMID:26603482

  4. Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere. [due to accidental loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated dewar shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

  5. Weyl superfluidity in a three-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W Vincent

    2015-01-30

    Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. PMID:25679898

  6. Superfluidity of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of polaritons

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, Michiel; Savona, Vincenzo

    2010-02-01

    We study theoretically superfluidity in a driven-dissipative Bose gas out of thermal equilibrium, and discuss the relation with conventional superfluids. We show how the superfluid behavior is characterized by a dramatic increase in the lifetime of a quantized vortex and point out the influence of the spatial geometry of the condensate. We apply our study to a condensate of polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity, whose properties can be directly inferred from optical spectroscopy. We propose three different experimental schemes to measure the vorticity of the polariton condensate.

  7. Structure of compact stars in a pion superfluid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shijun

    2014-06-01

    The gross structure of compact stars composed of pion superfluid quark matter is investigated in the frame of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Under the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme, the uncertainty of the thermodynamic functions for inhomogeneous states is cured, and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state that appeared in the hard cutoff scheme is removed from the phase diagram of the pion superfluid. Different from the unpaired quark matter and color superconductor, the strongly coupled pion superfluid is a possible candidate of compact stars with mass M ≃3M⊙ and radius R ≃14 km.

  8. Supercritical superfluid and vortex unbinding following a quantum quench

    SciTech Connect

    Mathey, L.; Polkovnikov, A.

    2009-10-15

    We study the dynamics of the relative phase of a bilayer of two-dimensional superfluids after the two superfluids have been decoupled, using truncated Wigner approximation. On short time scales the relative phase shows 'light-cone'-like thermalization and creates a metastable superfluid state, which can be supercritical. On longer time scales this state relaxes to a disordered state due to dynamical vortex unbinding. This scenario of dynamically suppressed vortex proliferation constitutes a reverse-Kibble-Zurek effect. We observe dynamics of creation of vortex-antivortex pairs and their consequent motion. Our predictions can be directly measured in interference experiments [Z. Hadzibabic et al., Nature (London) 441, 1118 (2006)].

  9. Lenr:. Superfluids, Self-Trapping and Non-Self States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR ion band state models involve deuteron many-body systems resembling superfluids. The physics of atom Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices teaches that superfluid behavior occurs when the potential barriers between adjacent potential wells permit high tunneling rates and the well potentials are shallow. These superfluids have fractional occupation of individual wells. Well periodic symmetry is not affected by the presence of the atoms. This behavior suggests that deuterons in a lattice should be in non-self-trapping sites, which may indicate that D+Bloch occupies the Pd tetrahedral sites.

  10. The Descending Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  11. Noncavitating Pump For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael; Swift, Walter; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Immersion pump features high efficiency in cryogenic service. Simple and reliable centrifugal pump transfers liquid helium with mass-transfer efficiency of 99 percent. Liquid helium drawn into pump by helical inducer, which pressurizes helium slightly to prevent cavitation when liquid enters impeller. Impeller then pressurizes liquid. Purpose of pump to transfer liquid helium from supply to receiver vessel, or to provide liquid helium flow for testing and experimentation.

  12. Massless surface waves between two different superfluid phases of 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoshchenko, I.

    2016-04-01

    An interface between two media is a topologically stable two-dimensional object where 3D-symmetry breaks which allows for the existence of many exotic excitations. A direct way to explore surface excitations is to investigate their interaction with the surface waves, such as very well known capillary-gravity waves and crystallization waves. Helium remains liquid down to absolute zero where bulk excitations are frozen out and do not mask the interaction of the waves with the surface states. Here we show the possibility of the massless wave which can propagate along the surface between two different superfluids phases of 3He . The displacement of the surface in this wave occurs due to the transition of helium atoms from one phase to another, so that there is no flow of particles as densities of phases are equal. We calculate the dispersion of the wave in which the inertia is provided by spin supercurrents, and the restoring force is magnetic field gradient. We calculate the dissipation of the wave and show the preferable conditions to observe it.

  13. Large amplitude motion of the acetylene molecule within acetylene-neon complexes hosted in helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Briant, M; Mengesha, E; de Pujo, P; Gaveau, M-A; Soep, B; Mestdagh, J-M; Poisson, L

    2016-06-28

    Superfluid helium droplets provide an ideal environment for spectroscopic studies with rotational resolution. Nevertheless, the molecular rotation is hindered because the embedded molecules are surrounded by a non-superfluid component. The present work explores the dynamical role of this component in the hindered rotation of C2H2 within the C2H2-Ne complex. A HENDI experiment was built and near-infrared spectroscopy of C2H2-Ne and C2H2 was performed in the spectral region overlapping the ν3/ν2 + ν4 + ν5 Fermi-type resonance of C2H2. The comparison between measured and simulated spectra helped to address the above issue. PMID:27263427

  14. Electron-impact ionization mass-spectrometry of molecules and clusters in a pulsed helium droplet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengfu; Brereton, Scott; Ellis, Andrew M.

    2006-03-01

    A pulsed helium droplet source has been developed and characterized. The nozzle geometry was found to be critical in allowing controlled tuning of helium nanodroplet size by variation of the stagnation pressure and temperature. The average droplet size scales according to a simple p,T scaling law, placing pulsed helium nanodroplet sources on a par with cw sources for the first time. Using this pulsed source, the ability of helium nanodroplets to impede ion fragmentation in electron impact mass spectrometry has been explored. A number of haloalkanes and C1--C6 alcohols were selected as the target species. The presence of helium alters the fragmentation patterns when compared with the gas phase, with some ion product channels being more strongly affected than others. Parent ion intensities are also enhanced by the helium for alcohols, but only for the two cyclic alcohols studied, cyclopentanol and cyclohexanol, is this effect large enough to transform the parent ion from a minor product (in the gas phase) into the most abundant ion in the helium droplet experiments. The results obtained are difficult to explain solely by rapid cooling of the excited parent ions by the surrounding superfluid helium, although this undoubtedly takes place. A second factor also seems to be involved, a cage effect which favors hydrogen atom loss over other fragmentation channels.

  15. Dislocation-induced superfluidity in a model supersolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Goswami, Debajit; Yoo, Chi-Deuk; Dorsey, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The effect of an edge dislocation in inducing superfluidity is explored by coupling the elastic strain field of the dislocation to the superfluid density, and solving the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau theory. It is shown that superfluid density is induced along a single dislocation below a critical temperature determined by the ground state solution of a 2D Schr"odinger equation with a dipolar potential. This superfluid behavior can be described by a 1D Ginzburg-Landau equation obtained through a weakly nonlinear analysis. We then extend our analysis to a network of dislocation lines considered before by Shevchenko and Toner, which could serve as a model for superflow through solid ^4He. The effect of fluctuations and dynamics are included through a full time dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  16. Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, Deborah N.; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Pons, Jose A.

    2009-03-06

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B > or approx. 10{sup 13} G. At a density of {rho}{approx_equal}10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3}, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature {approx_equal}10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  17. Identifying a Superfluid Reynolds Number via Dynamical Similarity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, M T; Billam, T P; Anderson, B P; Bradley, A S

    2015-04-17

    The Reynolds number provides a characterization of the transition to turbulent flow, with wide application in classical fluid dynamics. Identifying such a parameter in superfluid systems is challenging due to their fundamentally inviscid nature. Performing a systematic study of superfluid cylinder wakes in two dimensions, we observe dynamical similarity of the frequency of vortex shedding by a cylindrical obstacle. The universality of the turbulent wake dynamics is revealed by expressing shedding frequencies in terms of an appropriately defined superfluid Reynolds number, Re(s), that accounts for the breakdown of superfluid flow through quantum vortex shedding. For large obstacles, the dimensionless shedding frequency exhibits a universal form that is well-fitted by a classical empirical relation. In this regime the transition to turbulence occurs at Re(s)≈0.7, irrespective of obstacle width. PMID:25933320

  18. Stability of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Windisch, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored relative to well-separated triplets of so-called semi-superfluid color flux tubes. However, the short-range interaction (metastable versus unstable) has not been established. In this paper we perform numerical calculations using the effective theory of the condensate field, mapping the regions in the parameter space of coupling constants where the vortices are metastable versus unstable. For the case of zero-gauge coupling we analytically identify a candidate for the unstable mode and show that it agrees well with the results of the numerical calculations. We find that in the region of the parameter space that seems likely to correspond to real-world CFL quark matter the vortices are unstable, indicating that if such matter exists in neutron star cores it is very likely to contain semi-superfluid color flux tubes rather than superfluid vortices.

  19. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2012-06-01

    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  20. Geometric symmetries in superfluid vortex dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kozik, Evgeny; Svistunov, Boris

    2010-10-01

    Dynamics of quantized vortex lines in a superfluid feature symmetries associated with the geometric character of the complex-valued field, w(z)=x(z)+iy(z), describing the instant shape of the line. Along with a natural set of Noether's constants of motion, which - apart from their rather specific expressions in terms of w(z) - are nothing but components of the total linear and angular momenta of the fluid, the geometric symmetry brings about crucial consequences for kinetics of distortion waves on the vortex lines, the Kelvin waves. It is the geometric symmetry that renders Kelvin-wave cascade local in the wave-number space. Similar considerations apply to other systems with purely geometric degrees of freedom.

  1. Superfluid 4He dynamics beyond quasiparticle excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvois, K.; Campbell, C. E.; Dawidowski, J.; Fâk, B.; Godfrin, H.; Krotscheck, E.; Lauter, H.-J.; Lichtenegger, T.; Ollivier, J.; Sultan, A.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of superfluid 4He at and above the Landau quasiparticle regime is investigated by high-precision inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the dynamic structure factor. A highly structured response is observed above the familiar phonon-maxon-roton spectrum, characterized by sharp thresholds for phonon-phonon, maxon-roton, and roton-roton coupling processes. The experimental dynamic structure factor is compared to the calculation of the same physical quantity by a dynamic many-body theory including three-phonon processes self-consistently. The theory is found to provide a quantitative description of the dynamics of the correlated bosons for energies up to about three times that of the Landau quasiparticles.

  2. Resource Article: Experiments with Vortices in Superfluid Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian P.

    2010-12-01

    Observations of quantized vortices in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates were first reported in 1999. Over the next 10 years, more than 70 papers describing experiments involving vortices in superfluid atomic gases were published in scientific journals. This resource article provides a guide to the published experimental studies related to quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluid Fermi gases. A BibTex-formatted bibliography document listing these published studies is also available electronically.

  3. Quasi-periodic oscillations in superfluid magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, A.; Lander, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    We study the time evolution of axisymmetric oscillations of superfluid magnetars with a poloidal magnetic field and an elastic crust, working in Newtonian gravity. Extending earlier models, we study the effects of composition gradients and entrainment on the magneto-elastic wave spectrum and on the potential identification of the observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We use two-fluid polytropic equations of state to construct our stellar models, which mimic realistic composition gradient configurations. The basic features of the axial axisymmetric spectrum of normal fluid stars are reproduced by our results and in addition we find several magneto-elastic waves with a mixed character. In the core, these oscillations mimic the shear mode pattern of the crust as a result of the strong dynamical coupling between these two regions. Incorporating the most recent entrainment configurations in our models, we find that they have a double effect on the spectrum: the magnetic oscillations of the core have a frequency enhancement, while the mixed magneto-elastic waves originating in the crust are moved towards the frequencies of the single-fluid case. The distribution of lower frequency magneto-elastic oscillations for our models is qualitatively similar to the observed magnetar QPOs with ν < 155 Hz. In particular, some of these QPOs could represent mixed magneto-elastic oscillations with frequencies not greatly different from the crustal modes of an unmagnetized star. We find that many QPOs could even be accounted for using a model with a relatively weak polar field of Bp ≃ 3 × 1014 G, because of the superfluid enhancement of magnetic oscillations. Finally, we discuss the possible identification of 625 and 1837 Hz QPOs either with non-axisymmetric modes or with high-frequency axisymmetric QPOs excited by crustal mode overtones.

  4. Sloshing dynamics on rotating helium dewar tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The generalized mathematical formulation of sloshing dynamics for partially filled liquid of cryogenic superfluid helium II in dewar containers driven by both the gravity gradient and jitter accelerations applicable to scientific spacecraft which is eligible to carry out spinning motion and/or slew motion for the purpose to perform scientific observation during the normal spacecraft operation are investigated. An example is given with Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) spacecraft which is responsible for the sloshing dynamics. The jitter accelerations include slew motion, spinning motion, atmospheric drag on the spacecraft, spacecraft attitude motions arising from machinery vibrations, thruster firing, pointing control of spacecraft, crew motion, etc. Explicit mathematical expressions to cover these forces acting on the spacecraft fluid systems are derived. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics were based on the non-inertia frame spacecraft bound coordinate, and solve time dependent, three-dimensional formulations of partial differential equations subject to initial and boundary conditions. The explicit mathematical expressions of boundary conditions to cover capillary force effect on the liquid vapor interface in microgravity environments are also derived. The formulations of fluid moment and angular moment fluctuations in fluid profiles induced by the sloshing dynamics, together with fluid stress and moment fluctuations exerted on the spacecraft dewar containers were derived. Results were widely published in the open journals.

  5. Instability of superfluid flow in the neutron star core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, B.

    2012-04-01

    Pinning of superfluid vortices to magnetic flux tubes in the outer core of a neutron star supports a velocity difference of ˜105 cm s-1 between the neutron superfluid and the proton-electron fluid as the star spins down. Under the Magnus force that arises on the vortex array, vortices undergo vortex creep through thermal activation or quantum tunnelling. We examine the hydrodynamic stability of this situation. Vortex creep introduces two low-frequency modes, one of which is unstable above a critical wavenumber for any non-zero flow velocity of the neutron superfluid with respect to the charged fluid. For typical pinning parameters of the outer core, the superfluid flow is unstable over wavelengths λ≲ 10 m and over time-scales of ˜(λ/1 m)1/2 yr down to ˜1 d. The vortex lattice could degenerate into a tangle, and the superfluid flow would become turbulent. We suggest that superfluid turbulence could be responsible for the red timing noise seen in many neutron stars, and find a predicted spectrum that is generally consistent with observations.

  6. Josephson effect in fermionic superfluids across the BEC-BCS crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtolina, Giacomo; Burchianti, Alessia; Amico, Andrea; Neri, Elettra; Xhani, Klejdja; Seman, Jorge Amin; Trombettoni, Andrea; Smerzi, Augusto; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The Josephson effect is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that reveals the broken symmetry associated with any superfluid state. Here we report on the observation of the Josephson effect between two fermionic superfluids coupled through a thin tunneling barrier. We show that the relative population and phase are canonically conjugate dynamical variables throughout the crossover from the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid regime. For larger initial excitations from equilibrium, the dynamics of the superfluids become dissipative, which we ascribe to the propagation of vortices through the superfluid bulk. Our results highlight the robust nature of resonant superfluids.

  7. Josephson effect in fermionic superfluids across the BEC-BCS crossover.

    PubMed

    Valtolina, Giacomo; Burchianti, Alessia; Amico, Andrea; Neri, Elettra; Xhani, Klejdja; Seman, Jorge Amin; Trombettoni, Andrea; Smerzi, Augusto; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo

    2015-12-18

    The Josephson effect is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that reveals the broken symmetry associated with any superfluid state. Here we report on the observation of the Josephson effect between two fermionic superfluids coupled through a thin tunneling barrier. We show that the relative population and phase are canonically conjugate dynamical variables throughout the crossover from the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid regime. For larger initial excitations from equilibrium, the dynamics of the superfluids become dissipative, which we ascribe to the propagation of vortices through the superfluid bulk. Our results highlight the robust nature of resonant superfluids. PMID:26680193

  8. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flow of Liquid Helium in a Vertical Converging-Diverging Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, J.; Kamijo, K.

    2004-06-01

    The basic characteristics of the two-dimensional cavitating flow of liquid helium through a vertical converging-diverging nozzle near the lambda point are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new multiphase He II cooling systems. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model with generalized curvilinear coordinates system are presented, and several multiphase flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the cavitating flow of liquid helium though a vertical converging-diverging nozzle is shown in detail, and it is also found that the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow based on the thermomechanical effect is conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid to gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase.

  10. Toward Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of Solvent-Solute Energy Transfer in Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacellar, C.; Ziemkiewicz, M. P.; Leone, S. R.; Neumark, D. M.; Gessner, O.

    2015-05-01

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets provide a unique cryogenic matrix for high resolution spectroscopy and ultracold chemistry applications. With increasing photon energy and, in particular, in the increasingly important Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) regime, the droplets become optically dense and, therefore, participate in the EUV-induced dynamics. Energy- and charge-transfer mechanisms between the host droplets and dopant atoms, however, are poorly understood. Static energy domain measurements of helium droplets doped with noble gas atoms (Xe, Kr) indicate that Penning ionization due to energy transfer from the excited droplet to dopant atoms may be a significant relaxation channel. We have set up a femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging experiment to probe these dynamics directly in the time-domain. Droplets containing 104 to 106 helium atoms and a small percentage (<10-4) of dopant atoms (Xe, Kr, Ne) are excited to the 1s2p Rydberg band by 21.6 eV photons produced by high harmonic generation (HHG). Transiently populated states are probed by 1.6 eV photons, generating time-dependent photoelectron kinetic energy distributions, which are monitored by velocity map imaging (VMI). The results will provide new information about the dynamic timescales and the different relaxation channels, giving access to a more complete physical picture of solvent-solute interactions in the superfluid environment. Prospects and challenges of the novel experiment as well as preliminary experimental results will be discussed.

  11. Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Alkali Trimers on Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, C.; Grüner, B.; Fechner, L.; Mudrich, M.; Stienkemeier, F.; Hauser, A. W.; Ernst, W. E.

    2010-06-01

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets offer the opportunity to study dopant molecules in the sub-Kelvin range with only weak matrix perturbations. Femtosecond wave packet spectroscopy has been shown to be well suited to obtain high resolution vibrational spectra of cold alkali molecules in weakly bound high-spin states. In a pump-probe scheme a first laser pulse excites a vibrational wave packet that evolves on the molecular potential and is probed by a second ionizing pulse. We present spectroscopic data on Rb_3 and K_3 showing different vibronic progressions. These are assigned with the help of high level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of the bare trimers. M. Mudrich, P. Heister, T. Hippler, C. Giese, O. Dulieu and F. Stienkemeier, Phys. Rev. A 80, 042512 (2009) J. Nagl, G. Auböck, A.W. Hauser, O. Allard, C. Callegari and W.E. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063001 (2008)

  12. Aerodynamic testing in cryogenic nitrogen gas - A precursor to testing in superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Testing techniques for transonic cryogenic tunnels using nitrogen as the test fluid are presented. The measurement of static aerodynamic coefficients used to determine component efficiency is discussed, focusing on tests of two-dimensional airfoils at transonic Mach numbers. Also, three-dimensional tests of complete configurations and sidewall mounted wings are examined. Consideration is given to time-dependent phenomena, fluid mechanics, nonintrusive laser techniques, the detection of transition and separation, and testing for flutter, buffet, and oscillating airfoil characteristics.

  13. Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A.

    2015-02-14

    The interaction of a number of impurities (H{sub 2}, Ag, Cu, Ag{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}, Li, He{sub 3}{sup +}, He{sup *} ({sup 3}S), He{sub 2}{sup ∗} ({sup 3}Σ{sub u}), and e{sup −}) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He{sup *}.

  14. Helium-refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, J.R.; Millar, B.; Sutherland, A.

    1995-08-01

    The design, procurement, and preliminary construction was completed for adding two more wet expansion engines to two helium refrigerators. These will be added in mid-year FY 1995. In addition a variable speed drive will be added to an existing helium compressor. This is part of an energy conservation upgrade project to reduce operating costs from the use of electricity and liquid nitrogen. This project involves the replacement of Joule-Thompson valves in the refrigerators with expansion engines resulting in system efficiency improvements of about 30% and improved system reliability.

  15. Contribution to the study of heat transfer mechanisms in He. Application to the stabilization of superconductors by superfluid He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, D.

    1980-04-01

    Models were developed of the mechanics of heat transfer between a solid and liquid or superfluid helium in the case where the thermal perturbation applied to the solid is of sufficiently long duration to be able to speak of continuous evacuation and where the perturbation is of short duration to speak of a transient state. The mechanics of heat transfer were studied in the steady state in the case of a channel locally heated in vertical and horizontal position by saturated helium and at one atmosphere. Heat transfer curves were obtained by measuring the temperature of the solid and the thermal gradients in the fluid. Numerical values are given for the maximum propagation flows and minimum recovery flows, heat transfer coefficients, thermal oscillation phenomena and hysteresis phenomena according to the geometrical parameters of the pipe, the surface state of the solid, the relative dimensions of the solid and the liquid volume, the state and nature of the fluid. The thermal fluctuations found experimentally in certain temperature and pressure conditions are interpreted in terms of the formation of gas bubbles on the surface of the solid and in terms of acoustic wave phenomena in the channel and the cavity created by the helium bath.

  16. Cryogenic design of the liquid helium experiment ``critical dynamics in microgravity``

    SciTech Connect

    Moeur, W.A.; Adriaans, M.J.; Boyd, S.T.; Strayer, D.M.; Duncan, R.V. |

    1995-10-01

    Although many well controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven far away from equilibrium as a phase transition occurs. The cryogenic design of an experiment to study the dynamic aspect of critical phenomena is reported here. Measurements of the thermal gradient across the superfluid (He II) -- normal fluid (He I) interface in helium under microgravity conditions will be performed as a heat flux holds the system away from equilibrium. New technologies are under development for this experiment, which is in the definition phase for a space shuttle flight.

  17. A supercritical helium dewar for the Infrared Background Signature Survey experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkert, Guenther; Lange, Guenter; Lieb, H.; Seidel, A.

    1990-11-01

    A superfluid helium dewar design for operation under supercritical conditions is described. The dewar consists of a 300 1 volume cylinder toroidal tank suspended from the vacuum shell by preloaded GFC chains. Three ventgas cooled radiation shields surround the tank. The optics is mounted to a flange at the He tank being conductively cooled. The optics temperature is allowed to float with the tank temperature going from 4.8 to 10 K while holding the tank pressure constant at 2.8 bar. The focal planes of the IR sensor are actively heated and held at a constant temperature of 10.5 and 14.2 K.

  18. Stabilization of He2(A(sup 3)Sigma(sub u)(+)) molecules in liquid helium by optical pumping for vacuum UV laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique is disclosed for achieving large populations of metastable spin-aligned He2(a 3 Sigma u +) molecules in superfluid helium to obtain lasing in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength regime around 0.0800 micron m by electronically exciting liquid (superfluid) helium with a comparatively low-current electron beam and spin aligning the metastable molecules by means of optical pumping with a modestly-powered (100mW) circularly-polarized continuous wave laser operating at, for example, 0.9096 or 0.4650 micron m. Once a high concentration of spin-aligned He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) is achieved with lifetimes of a few milliseconds, a strong microwave signal destroys the spin alignment and induces a quick collisional transition of He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) molecules to the a 1 Sigma u + state and thereby a lasing transition to the X 1 Sigma g + state.

  19. The Kaonic Helium Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lucherini, V.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Zmeskal, J.; Fiorini, C.; Longoni, A.; Frizzi, T.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Koike, T.; Ponta, T.; Soltau, H.; Lechner, P.; Struder, L.

    2005-12-01

    The only three existent kaonic helium X-ray transition measurements at present are referring to the transitions to 2p level. These measurements are more than 30 years old and the obtained results, affected by big errors, are much larger than those predicted by optical models. It is thought that the optical model is inadequate, due to the presence of the ∧(1405) resonance, not properly taken into account. Because the nucleons in the helium nucleus are tightly bound, the effective energy of the K-p interaction (1432 MeV at threshold) is in helium much closer to the energy of the resonance than in other nuclei. It is then planned to measure the kaonic helium X-ray transitions to the 2p level in the framework of the SIDDHARTA (SIlicon Drift Detector for Hadronic Atom Research by Timing Application) experiment, at the DAΦNE collider of Frascati National Laboratories, and to confirm or not the discrepancy reported by the previous experiments with a much smaller error.

  20. On Helium Anions in Helium Droplets: Interpreting Recent Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauracher, Andreas; Huber, Stefan E.

    2014-10-01

    Helium droplets provide an ideal environment to study elementary processes in atomic systems at very low temperatures. Here, we discuss properties of charged and neutral, atomic and molecular helium species formed in helium droplets upon electron impact. By studying their interaction with atomic ground state helium we find that He, He2 and excited (metastable) He*- are well bound within the helium droplet. In comparison, He* , He2* and He2* are found to be squeezed out due to energetic reasons. We also present the formation pathways of atomic and molecular helium anions in helium droplets. Transition barriers in the energetic lowest He*- - He interaction potentials prevent molecule formation at the extremely low temperatures in helium droplets. In contrast, some excited states allow a barrier-free formation of molecular helium (anions). With these theoretical results at hand we can interpret recent experiments in which the resonant formation of atomic and molecular helium anions was observed. Furthermore, we give an outlook on the implications of the presence of these anionic species in doped helium droplets with regard to charge transfer reactions. Austrian Fund Agency (FWF, I 978-N20, DK+ project Computational Interdisciplinary Modelling W1227-N16)/Austrian Ministry of Science (BMWF, Konjunkturpaket II, UniInfrastrukturprogramm of the Focal Point Scientific Computing).

  1. Dipolar Bogolons: From Superfluids to Pfaffians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, Siddharth; Kivelson, Steven; Shankar, R.; Sondhi, Shivaji; Spivak, Boris

    2012-02-01

    We study neutral fermionic `Bogolons' which are quasiparticle excitations of gapped phases that arise due to fermion (BCS) pairing, such as superfluids, superconductors, and paired quantum Hall states. As we demonstrate, a na"ive construction of a quasiparticle wavepacket by solving the mean-field BCS equations leads to a contradiction: there is a net electrical current even when the group velocity vanishes. Resolution of this paradox requires the computation of supercurrents in the wavepacket state, typically a complicated exercise in self-consistency. In this Letter we demonstrate that these corrections may be approximately calculated from correlations in the mean-field ground state, and lead to a divergence-free, dipolar current pattern associated with the quasiparticle. When Maxwell electrodynamics is included, as appropriate to a superconductor, this pattern is confined over a penetration depth. For paired quantum Hall states of composite fermions, the Maxwell term is replaced by a Chern-Simons term, which leads to a dipolar charge distribution, paralleling Read's observation that composite fermions are neutral dipoles.

  2. Microscopic characterization of overpressurized superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Vitali, E.; Reatto, L.; Galli, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied static and dynamical properties of superfluid 4He at T=0 K in the pressure range from -6 up to 87 atm well above freezing into the metastable region. Zero temperature properties have been obtained with the exact shadow path integral ground state (SPIGS) method. Information about dynamic structure factors at different pressures have been obtained from imaginary time correlation functions via the genetic inversion via falsification of theories (GIFT) method. In the full pressure range sharp roton excitations are always present in the spectral functions. The roton energy decreases at higher pressures in good agreement with experimental data also in the metastable region. The roton energies have essentially a linear trend with pressure, going from about 7.4 K near freezing to about 4.3 K at about 87 atm. The pressure at which the linear trend would extrapolate to a zero roton energy turns out to be about 170 atm. At T=0 K, no sign of metastable glass phase has been found; the disordered systems studied at pressures above about 87 atm readily start homogeneous nucleation processes. Our results in the metastable phase for the condensate fractions and roton gaps differ remarkably from previous ones obtained via a diffusion Monte Carlo study.

  3. Quench dynamics of a superfluid Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, G.L.; Leggett, A.J.

    2005-04-01

    With an eye toward the interpretation of so-called 'cosmological' experiments performed on the low-temperature phases of {sup 3}He, in which regions of the superfluid are destroyed by local heating with neutron radiation, we have studied the behavior of a Fermi gas subjected to uniform variations of an attractive BCS interaction parameter {lambda}. In {sup 3}He, the quenches induced by the rapid cooling of the 'hot spots' back through the transition may lead to the formation of vortex loops via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A consideration of the free energy available in the quenched region for the production of such vortices reveals that the Kibble-Zurek scaling law gives at best a lower bound on the defect spacing. Further, for quenches that fall far outside the Ginzburg-Landau regime, the dynamics on the pair subspace, as initiated by quantum fluctuations, tends irreversibly to a self-driven steady state with a gap {delta}{sub {infinity}}={epsilon}{sub C}(e{sup 2/N(0){lambda}}-1){sup -1/2}. In weak coupling, this is only half the BCS gap, the extra energy being taken up by the residual collective motion of the pairs.

  4. Buoyancy and g-modes in young superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.; Ho, W. C. G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the local dynamics of a realistic neutron-star core, including composition gradients, superfluidity and thermal effects. The main focus is on the gravity g-modes, which are supported by composition stratification and thermal gradients. We derive the equations that govern this problem in full detail, paying particular attention to the input that needs to be provided through the equation of state and distinguishing between normal and superfluid regions. The analysis highlights a number of key issues that should be kept in mind whenever equation of state data is compiled from nuclear physics for use in neutron-star calculations. We provide explicit results for a particular stellar model and a specific nucleonic equation of state, making use of cooling simulations to show how the local wave spectrum evolves as the star ages. Our results show that the composition gradient is effectively dominated by the muons whenever they are present. When the star cools below the superfluid transition, the support for g-modes at lower densities (where there are no muons) is entirely thermal. We confirm the recent suggestion that the g-modes in this region may be unstable, but our results indicate that this instability will be weak and would only be present for a brief period of the star's life. Our analysis accounts for the presence of thermal excitations encoded in entrainment between the entropy and the superfluid component. Finally, we discuss the complete spectrum, including the normal sound waves and, in superfluid regions, the second sound.

  5. Squeezing Superfluid from a Stone: Coupling Superfluidity and Elasticity in a Supersolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, John

    2007-05-01

    Superfluidity - the ability of liquid 4He, when cooled below 2.176 K, to flow without resistance through narrow pores - is one of the most amazing phenomena in physics. Supersolidity - the coexistence of superfluid behavior with the crystalline order of a solid---was proposed theoretically long ago as an even more exotic phase of solid 4He, but it has eluded detection until recently. In 2004, Kim and Chan( E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature (London) 427, 225 (2004); E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).) reported the onset of "nonclassical rotational inertia" in a torsional oscillator experiment with solid 4He, and they interpret their results as indicating the onset of supersolidity. In this talk, I'll describe what a supersolid is, discuss the Chan et al experiments (in the process revealing how to tell a raw from a hard boiled egg), and present the theory I've recently developed (with Paul Goldbart of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Alan Dorsey of University of Florida) of the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) phase transition.

  6. Helium anion formation inside helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour Al Maalouf, Elias; Reitshammer, Julia; Ribar, Anita; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of He∗- is examined with improved electron energy resolution of about 100 meV utilizing a hemispherical electron monochromator. The work presented provides a precise determination of the three previously determined resonance peak positions that significantly contribute to the formation of He∗- inside helium nanodroplets in the energy range from 20 eV to 29.5 eV. In addition, a new feature is identified located at 27.69 ± 0.18 eV that we assign to the presence of O2 as a dopant inside the droplet. With increasing droplet size a small blue shift of the resonance positions is observed. Also for the relatively low electron currents used in the present study (i.e., 15-70 nA) a quadratic dependence of the He∗- ion yield on the electron current is observed.

  7. Modeling and Commissioning of a Cold Compressor String for the Superfluid Cryogenic Plant at Fermilab's Cryo-module Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueresin, C.; Decker, L.; Treite, P.

    In 2011, Linde Cryogenics, a division of Linde Process Plants, Tulsa, Oklahoma, was awarded the contract to deliver a 500 W at 2 K superfluid cryogenic plant to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, Illinois, USA. This system includes a cold compressor string with three centrifugal compressors and a vacuum pump skid with five volumetric pumps in parallel used to pump down helium to its saturation pressure corresponding to 2 K. Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen Switzerland engineered and supplied the cold compressor system and commissioned it with its control logic to cover the complete range of system operation. The paper outlines issues regarding compressor design, compressor string modeling, control algorithms, controller performance, and surge protection.

  8. Working model of the London moment readout system. [the study of super fluid plug operation using liquid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, J. B.; Karr, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a porous plug which has liquid helium on one side and which is pumped on under vacuum on the other side are discussed. The system investigated consists of a container of liquid helium which is well isolated, and the only means for mass flow out of the container is through a plug mode of porous material. The plug was assumed to have liquid helium on the container side while the other side of the plug is evacuated. Three cases were considered: (1) perfect evacuation with zero pressure, (2) evacuation through a chocked orifice, and (3) evacuation through a long, small diameter pipe with heating. Mass flow rates were determined along with mass flow at temperature above the lambda point temperature. Solutions were obtained for normal and superfluid velocity.

  9. Skyrmion Superfluidity in Two-Dimensional Interacting Fermionic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Giandomenico; Cirio, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a multi-layered honeycomb lattice model of interacting fermions which supports a new kind of parity-preserving skyrmion superfluidity. We derive the low-energy field theory describing a non-BCS fermionic superfluid phase by means of functional fermionization. Such effective theory is a new kind of non-linear sigma model, which we call double skyrmion model. In the bi-layer case, the quasiparticles of the system (skyrmions) have bosonic statistics and replace the Cooper-pairs role. Moreover, we show that the model is also equivalent to a Maxwell-BF theory, which naturally establishes an effective Meissner effect without requiring a breaking of the gauge symmetry. Finally, we map effective superfluidity effects to identities among fermionic observables for the lattice model. This provides a signature of our theoretical skyrmion superfluidy that can be detected in a possible implementation of the lattice model in a real quantum system. PMID:26083978

  10. Many-body characterization of particle-conserving topological superfluids.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Dukelsky, Jorge; Cobanera, Emilio; Esebbag, Carlos; Beenakker, Carlo

    2014-12-31

    What distinguishes trivial superfluids from topological superfluids in interacting many-body systems where the number of particles is conserved? Building on a class of integrable pairing Hamiltonians, we present a number-conserving, interacting variation of the Kitaev model, the Richardson-Gaudin-Kitaev chain, that remains exactly solvable for periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Our model allows us to identify fermion parity switches that distinctively characterize topological superconductivity (fermion superfluidity) in generic interacting many-body systems. Although the Majorana zero modes in this model have only a power-law confinement, we may still define many-body Majorana operators by tuning the flux to a fermion parity switch. We derive a closed-form expression for an interacting topological invariant and show that the transition away from the topological phase is of third order. PMID:25615376

  11. Weyl Superfluidity in a Three-dimensional Dipolar Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W. Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, DARPA-OLE-ARO, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation and The Pittsburgh Foundation, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, and NSF of China.

  12. Quantum vortex dynamics in two-dimensional neutral superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-C. Joseph; Duine, R. A.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2010-01-15

    We derive an effective action for the vortex-position degree of freedom in a superfluid by integrating out condensate phase- and density-fluctuation environmental modes. When the quantum dynamics of environmental fluctuations is neglected, we confirm the occurrence of the vortex Magnus force and obtain an expression for the vortex mass. We find that this adiabatic approximation is valid only when the superfluid droplet radius R, or the typical distance between vortices, is very much larger than the coherence length xi. We go beyond the adiabatic approximation numerically, accounting for the quantum dynamics of environmental modes and capturing their dissipative coupling to condensate dynamics. For the case of an optical-lattice superfluid, we demonstrate that vortex motion damping can be adjusted by tuning the ratio between the tunneling energy J and the on-site interaction energy U. We comment on the possibility of realizing vortex-Landau-level physics.

  13. A minimal model for finite temperature superfluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, N.; Krüger, C.; Comer, G. L.; Samuelsson, L.

    2013-12-01

    Building on a recently improved understanding of the problem of heat flow in general relativity, we develop a hydrodynamical model for coupled finite temperature superfluids. The formalism is designed with the dynamics of the outer core of a mature neutron star (where superfluid neutrons are coupled to a conglomerate of protons and electrons) in mind, but the main ingredients are relevant for a range of analogous problems. The entrainment between material fluid components (the condensates) and the entropy (the thermal excitations) plays a central role in the development. We compare and contrast the new model to previous results in the literature, and provide estimates for the relevant entrainment coefficients that should prove useful in future applications. Finally, we consider the sound-wave propagation in the system in two simple limits, demonstrating the presence of second sound if the temperature is sub-critical, but absence of this phenomenon above the critical temperature for superfluidity.

  14. Thermal and Quantum Mechanical Noise of a Superfluid Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    A potential application of a superfluid gyroscope is for real-time measurements of the small variations in the rotational speed of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Such rotational jitter, if not measured and corrected for, will be a limiting factor on the resolution potential of a GPS system. This limitation will prevent many automation concepts in navigation, construction, and biomedical examination from being realized. We present the calculation of thermal and quantum-mechanical phase noise across the Josephson junction of a superfluid gyroscope. This allows us to derive the fundamental limits on the performance of a superfluid gyroscope. We show that the fundamental limit on real-time GPS due to rotational jitter can be reduced to well below 1 millimeter/day. Other limitations and their potential mitigation will also be discussed.

  15. Quantum Hall Superfluids in Topological Insulator Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilahun, Dagim; Lee, Byounghak; Hankiewicz, E. M.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators have protected Dirac-cone surface states. In this Letter we argue that gapped excitonic superfluids with spontaneous coherence between top and bottom surfaces can occur in the topological insulator (TI)-thin-film quantum Hall regime. We find that the large dielectric constants of TI materials increase the layer separation range over which coherence survives and decrease the superfluid sound velocity, but have little influence on the superfluid density or on the charge gap. The coherent state at total Landau-level filling factor νT=0 is predicted to be free of edge modes, qualitatively altering its transport phenomenology compared to the widely studied case of νT=1 in GaAs double-quantum wells.

  16. Quantum Hall superfluids in topological insulator thin films.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Dagim; Lee, Byounghak; Hankiewicz, E M; MacDonald, A H

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators have protected Dirac-cone surface states. In this Letter we argue that gapped excitonic superfluids with spontaneous coherence between top and bottom surfaces can occur in the topological insulator (TI)-thin-film quantum Hall regime. We find that the large dielectric constants of TI materials increase the layer separation range over which coherence survives and decrease the superfluid sound velocity, but have little influence on the superfluid density or on the charge gap. The coherent state at total Landau-level filling factor νT=0 is predicted to be free of edge modes, qualitatively altering its transport phenomenology compared to the widely studied case of νT=1 in GaAs double-quantum wells. PMID:22243013

  17. Emergence of classical rotation in superfluid Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Angela; Hennessy, Tara; Busch, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Phase transitions can modify quantum behavior on mesoscopic scales and give access to new and unusual quantum dynamics. Here we investigate the superfluid properties of a rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensate as a function of changes in the interaction energy and in particular through the phase transition from miscibility to immiscibility. We show that the breaking of one of the hallmarks of superfluid flow, namely, the quantization condition on circulation, is continuous throughout an azimuthal phase-separation process and displays intriguing flow dynamics. We find that the resulting currents are stable for long times and possess a boundary between the two condensate components that exhibits classical solid-body rotation, despite the quantum nature of superfluid flow. To support this coexistence of classical and quantum behavior the system develops a unique velocity flow profile, which includes unusual radial flow in regions near the boundary.

  18. Tunable anisotropic superfluidity in an optical kagome superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Tao; Eggert, Sebastian; Pelster, Axel

    2015-07-01

    We study the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on the kagome lattice with a broken sublattice symmetry. Such a superlattice structure can naturally be created and tuned by changing the potential offset of one sublattice in the optical generation of the frustrated lattice. The superstructure gives rise to a rich quantum phase diagram, which is analyzed by combining quantum Monte Carlo simulations with the generalized effective potential Landau theory. Mott phases with noninteger filling and a characteristic order along stripes are found, which show a transition to a superfluid phase with an anisotropic superfluid density. Surprisingly, the direction of the superfluid anisotropy can be tuned by changing the particle number, the hopping strength, or the interaction. Finally, we discuss characteristic signatures of anisotropic phases in time-of-flight absorption measurements.

  19. Structured Weyl Points in Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermionic Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that a Weyl point, widely examined in 3D Weyl semimetals and superfluids, can develop a pair of nondegenerate gapless spheres. Such a bouquet of two spheres is characterized by three distinct topological invariants of manifolds with full energy gaps, i.e., the Chern number of a 0D point inside one developed sphere, the winding number of a 1D loop around the original Weyl point, and the Chern number of a 2D surface enclosing the whole bouquet. We show that such structured Weyl points can be realized in the superfluid quasiparticle spectrum of a 3D degenerate Fermi gas subject to spin-orbit couplings and Zeeman fields, which supports Fulde-Ferrell superfluids as the ground state.

  20. Second sound shock waves and critical velocities in liquid helium 2. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. N.

    1979-01-01

    Large amplitude second-sound shock waves were generated and the experimental results compared to the theory of nonlinear second-sound. The structure and thickness of second-sound shock fronts are calculated and compared to experimental data. Theoretically it is shown that at T = 1.88 K, where the nonlinear wave steepening vanishes, the thickness of a very weak shock must diverge. In a region near this temperature, a finite-amplitude shock pulse evolves into an unusual double-shock configuration consisting of a front steepened, temperature raising shock followed by a temperature lowering shock. Double-shocks are experimentally verified. It is experimentally shown that very large second-sound shock waves initiate a breakdown in the superfluidity of helium 2, which is dramatically displayed as a limit to the maximum attainable shock strength. The value of the maximum shock-induced relative velocity represents a significant lower bound to the intrinsic critical velocity of helium 2.

  1. Helium-4 Experiments near T-lambda in a Low-Gravity Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuanming; Larson, Melora; Israelsson, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    We report our studies of gravity cancellation in a liquid helium sample cell along the lambda-line using a low-gravity simulator facility. The simulator consists of a superconducting magnet capable of producing B(delta-B/delta-z) = 22squareT)/cm. We have verified experimentally that the simulator can cancel gravity to about 0.01g in a cylindrical sample volume of 0.5 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm in height. This allows us to approach more closely the superfluid transition without entering the normal-superfluid two phase region induced by gravity. We also present the measurements of T-c(Q,P): depression of the superfluid transition temperature by a heat current(Q) along the lambda-line (P). The results are consistent with the Renormalization-group theory calculation. Measurements of thermal expansion coefficient in a heat current will also be discussed. The work has been carried out by JPL, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  2. Superfluid spin transport through easy-plane ferromagnetic insulators.

    PubMed

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2014-06-01

    Superfluid spin transport-dissipationless transport of spin-is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where the spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed in a magnetically mediated negative electron-drag experiment. PMID:24949786

  3. Mott-superfluid transition of q-deformed bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeć, T. K.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of q-deformation of the bosonic algebra on the Mott-superfluid transition for interacting lattice bosons described by the Bose-Hubbard model is studied using mean-filed theory. It has been shown that the Mott state proliferates and the initial periodicity of the Mott lobes as a function of the chemical potential disappears as the q-deformation increases. The ground state phase diagram as a function of the q-parameter exhibits superfluid order, which intervenes in narrow regions between Mott lobes, demonstrating the new concept of statistically induced quantum phase transition.

  4. Anisotropic phases of superfluid ^{3}he in compressed aerogel.

    PubMed

    Li, J I A; Zimmerman, A M; Pollanen, J; Collett, C A; Halperin, W P

    2015-03-13

    It has been shown that the relative stabilities of various superfluid states of ^{3}He can be influenced by anisotropy in a silica aerogel framework. We prepared a suite of aerogel samples compressed up to 30% for which we performed pulsed NMR on ^{3}He imbibed within the aerogel. We identified A and B phases and determined their magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams as a function of strain. From these results, we infer that the B phase is distorted by negative strain forming an anisotropic superfluid state more stable than the A phase. PMID:25815941

  5. Anisotropic superfluidity in the two-species polar Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2010-12-15

    We study the superfluid pairing in a two-species gas of heteronuclear fermionic molecules with equal density. The interplay of the isotropic s-wave interaction and anisotropic long-range dipolar interaction reveals rich physics. We find that the single-particle momentum distribution has a characteristic ellipsoidal shape that can be reasonably represented by a deformation parameter {alpha} defined similarly to the normal phase. Interesting momentum-dependent features of the order parameter are identified. We calculate the critical temperatures of both the singlet and triplet superfluids, suggesting a possible pairing symmetry transition by tuning the s-wave or dipolar interaction strength.

  6. Quantum Hall Superfluids in Topological Insulator Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilahun, Dagim; Lee, Byounghak; Hankiewicz, Ewelina; MacDonald, Allan

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators have protected Dirac-cone surface states. In this paper we propose magnetic field induced topological insulator thin film ordered states in which coherence is established spontaneously between top and bottom surfaces. We find that the large dielectric constants of these materials increases the layer separation range over which coherence survives and decreases the superfluid sound velocity, but has little influence on superfluid density or charge gap. The coherent state at total Landau-level filling factor νT=0 is predicted to be free of edge modes, qualitatively altering its transport phenomenology.

  7. Anisotropic Fermi Superfluid via p-Wave Feshbach Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.-H.; Yip, S.-K.

    2005-08-12

    We investigate theoretically fermionic superfluidity induced by Feshbach resonance in the orbital p-wave channel and determine the general phase diagram. In contrast with superfluid {sup 3}He, due to the dipole interaction, the pairing is extremely anisotropic. When this dipole interaction is relatively strong, the pairing has symmetry k{sub z}. When it is relatively weak, it is of symmetry k{sub z}+i{beta}k{sub y} (up to a rotation about k{sub z}, here {beta}<1). A phase transition between these two states can occur under a change in the magnetic field or the density of the gas.

  8. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  9. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  10. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics in superfluid /sup 4/He: Homogeneous superfluid turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, K.W.

    1988-08-01

    The behavior of a tangle of quantized vortex lines subject to uniform superfluid and normal-fluid driving velocities is investigated. The dynamical equation of the quantized vortices in the local approximation is supplemented by the assumption that when two such singularities cross, they undergo a reconnection. The properties of the dynamical equation, when combined with the assumption of homogeneity, imply numerous scaling relations, which are in fact observed experimentally. The primitive dynamical rules are utilized to perform extensive numerical simulations of the vortex tangle, using not only periodic, but also smooth-wall and rough-wall boundary conditions. All lead to the same homogeneous vortex-tangle state, although the case of periodic boundary conditions requires an additional trick to eliminate artificial features. The quantitative results obtained from these simulations are found to be in excellent absolute agreement with a large variety of experiments, including recent studies of the vortex-tangle anisotropy.

  11. Helium anion formation inside helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Elias Jabbour Al; Reitshammer, Julia; Ribar, Anita; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of He∗- is examined with improved electron energy resolution of about 100 meV utilizing a hemispherical electron monochromator. The work presented provides a precise determination of the three previously determined resonance peak positions that significantly contribute to the formation of He∗- inside helium nanodroplets in the energy range from 20 eV to 29.5 eV. In addition, a new feature is identified located at 27.69 ± 0.18 eV that we assign to the presence of O2 as a dopant inside the droplet. With increasing droplet size a small blue shift of the resonance positions is observed. Also for the relatively low electron currents used in the present study (i.e., 15-70 nA) a quadratic dependence of the He∗- ion yield on the electron current is observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  12. Third Sound Generation in Superfluid 4He Films Adsorbed on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaia, Vito; Menachekanian, Emin; Williams, Gary

    2014-03-01

    A technique is developed for generating third sound in superfluid 4He films coating the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Third sound is a thickness and temperature wave of the helium film, and in our case we detect the temperature oscillations with a carbon resistance bolometer. The nanotubes are packed in an annular resonator that is vibrated with a mechanical shaker assembly consisting of a permanent magnet mounted on springs, and surrounded by a superconducting coil. The coil is driven with an oscillating current, vibrating the cell at that frequency. Sweeping the drive frequency over the range 100-200 Hz excites the resonant third sound mode of the cell, seen as a high-Q signal in the FFT analysis of the bolometer signal. A problem with our original cell was that the mechanical drive would also shake the dilution refrigerator cooling the cell to low temperatures, and increasing the drive would start to heat up the refrigerator and the cell, which were rigidly coupled together. A new configuration now suspends the cell as a pendulum on a string, with thermal contact made by copper wires. Piezo sensor measurements show this reduces the vibration reaching the refrigerator by two orders of magnitude, which should allow measurements at lower temperatures.

  13. Ion formation upon electron collisions with valine embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Nikolaus; Ralser, Stefan; Renzler, Michael; Harnisch, Martina; Kaiser, Alexander; Denifl, Stefan; Böhme, Diethard K.; Scheier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We report here experimental results for the electron ionization of large superfluid helium nanodroplets with sizes of about 105 atoms that are doped with valine and clusters of valine. Spectra of both cations and anions were monitored with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass resolution >4000). Clear series of peaks with valine cluster sizes up to at least 40 and spaced by the mass of a valine molecule are visible in both the cation and anion spectra. Ion efficiency curves are presented for selected cations and anions at electron energies up to about 40 eV and these provide insight into the mode of ion formation. The measured onset of 24.59 eV for cations is indicative of valine ionization by He+ whereas broad resonances at 2, 10 and 22 eV (and beyond) in the formation of anions speak to the occurrence of various modes of dissociative electron attachment by collisions with electrons or He*- and the influence of droplet size on the relative importance of these processes. Comparisons are also made with gas phase results and these provide insight into a matrix effect within the superfluid helium nanodroplet. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  14. Quartz Tuning Fork Pressure Gauge for High-Pressure Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, J.; Velasco, A.; Taborek, P.

    2016-08-01

    We have measured the quality factor Q and the frequency f of a 32-kHz quartz tuning fork immersed in liquid ^4 He between 0.9 and 3.0 K, over pressures ranging from the saturated vapor pressure to ≈ 25 atm. At constant pressure, as a function of temperature, the quality factor and frequency have strong features related to the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction. At constant temperature, Q depends on the superfluid fraction, while the frequency is a smooth function of pressure. The behavior is explained using a simple hydrodynamic model. The liquid helium viscosity is obtained from measured values of Q, and together with tabulated values of the helium density as a function of pressure and temperature, the frequency shift can be parameterized as a function of temperature and pressure. The observed sensitivity is ≈ 7.8 Hz/atm. The quartz tuning fork provides a compact low power method of measuring the pressure in the bulk liquid.

  15. Dynamical Models for Sloshing Dynamics of Helium 2 Under Low-G Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Long, Y. T.

    1997-01-01

    Coupling of sloshing dynamics within a partially filled rotating dewar of superfluid helium 2 with spacecraft dynamics are investigated in response to the realistic environmental disturbance forces and torques acting on the spacecraft during normal operation. This study investigates: (1) the rotating bubble of superfluid helium 2 reacting to combined environmental disturbances, including gravity gradient, aerodynamic, and magnetic forces and torques; (2) characteristics of slosh reaction forces and torques coupling with spacecraft dynamics; (3) the contribution of slosh dynamics to over-all spacecraft dynamics; and (4) activating of attitude and translation control system. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the rotational frame, while the spacecraft dynamics is associated with non-rotational frame. Results show that the contributions of spacecraft dynamics are driven by the environmental disturbances coupling with slosh dynamics. Without considering the effects of environmental disturbances-driven slosh dynamics acting on spacecraft coupling with the spacecraft dynamics may lead to the wrong results for the development of spacecraft system guidance and attitude control techniques.

  16. Sub-micron solid air tracers for quantum vortices and liquid helium flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Enrico; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluids has received increased attention recently because of novel techniques developed to visualize them directly. One of these techniques [G. P. Bewley et al., Nature 441, 588 (2006)] visualized quantized vortices and their reconnections in superfluid flows of 4He by using solid hydrogen tracers of micron-size or larger. The present work improves upon the previous technique by using substantially smaller particles created by injecting atmospheric air diluted in helium gas. These smaller particles are detectable thanks to the higher index of refraction of nitrogen compared to hydrogen and thanks to an improved visualization setup. The optical counting estimate, which agrees with terminal velocity estimates, suggests that the tracer diameter is typically 400 ± 200 nm and could be as small as 200 nm; being smaller, but not so small as to be influenced by thermal motion, the particles get trapped on the vortices faster, perturb the vortices less, possess smaller Stokes drag, and stay trapped on fast-moving vortices, as also on vortices generated closer to the superfluid transition temperature. Unlike the past, the ability to create particles in the superfluid state directly (instead of creating them above the λ-point and cooling the fluid subsequently), ensures greater temperature stability for longer periods, and enables the tracking of long and isolated vortices. These advantages have also led to the direct visualization of Kelvin waves. The use of other seed gases could lead to the visualization of even smaller tracers for quantized vortices. We discuss the visualization setup and provide suggestions for further improvement.

  17. Sub-micron solid air tracers for quantum vortices and liquid helium flows.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Enrico; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R; Lathrop, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluids has received increased attention recently because of novel techniques developed to visualize them directly. One of these techniques [G. P. Bewley et al., Nature 441, 588 (2006)] visualized quantized vortices and their reconnections in superfluid flows of (4)He by using solid hydrogen tracers of micron-size or larger. The present work improves upon the previous technique by using substantially smaller particles created by injecting atmospheric air diluted in helium gas. These smaller particles are detectable thanks to the higher index of refraction of nitrogen compared to hydrogen and thanks to an improved visualization setup. The optical counting estimate, which agrees with terminal velocity estimates, suggests that the tracer diameter is typically 400 ± 200 nm and could be as small as 200 nm; being smaller, but not so small as to be influenced by thermal motion, the particles get trapped on the vortices faster, perturb the vortices less, possess smaller Stokes drag, and stay trapped on fast-moving vortices, as also on vortices generated closer to the superfluid transition temperature. Unlike the past, the ability to create particles in the superfluid state directly (instead of creating them above the λ-point and cooling the fluid subsequently), ensures greater temperature stability for longer periods, and enables the tracking of long and isolated vortices. These advantages have also led to the direct visualization of Kelvin waves. The use of other seed gases could lead to the visualization of even smaller tracers for quantized vortices. We discuss the visualization setup and provide suggestions for further improvement. PMID:26931890

  18. Equilibrium helical order in radially confined superfluid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiman, Joshua; Sauls, J. A.

    An exciting prediction of confined superfluid 3He is the presence of spontaneously broken translational symmetry, resulting in a superfluid phase that has a different translational symmetry than that of the confining geometry. Such phases have been described theoretically in films, cylinders, and ribbons. We predict an inhomogeneous superfluid phase with helical order that is energetically stable within cylindrical channels of radius comparable to the Cooper pair coherence length. By incorporating extensions to standard Ginzburg-Landau (GL) strong-coupling theory that accurately reproduce the bulk phase diagram at high pressures and allow tuneable boundary conditions, we find this new phase to be stable at both high and low pressures and favored by boundary conditions with strong pairbreaking. We present superfluid phase diagrams as functions of pressure, temperature, and channel radius showing the regions of stability for this ``spiral'' phase relative to those phases previously predicted for the channel. Transverse NMR frequency shifts are a possible experimental signature of this phase, and we present calculations of these shifts as functions of rf pulse tipping angle, field orientation, and temperature. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1508730.

  19. Order-disorder oscillations in exciton-polariton superfluids.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroki; Aioi, Tomohiko; Kadokura, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-11

    The dynamics of an exciton-polariton superfluid resonantly pumped in a semiconductor microcavity are investigated by mean-field theory. Modulational instability develops into crystalline order, and then, ordered and disordered states alternately form. It is found that the crystalline order at rest can coexist with superflow. PMID:23383923

  20. Disorder effects in the evolution from BCS to BEC superfluidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li; de Melo, Carlos A. R. Sa

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the effects of disorder on the critical temperature of superfluids during the evolution from BCS to BEC. For s-wave superfluids we find that the critical temperature is weakly affected by disorder in the BCS regime as described in Anderson’s theorem, even less affected by disorder at zero chemical potential (near unitarity), but strongly affected by disorder in the BEC regime, where Anderson's theorem does not apply. This suggests that the superfluid is more robust to the effects of disorder at the interaction parameter where the chemical potential vanishes (close to unitarity). We construct a three dimensional phase diagram of critical temperature, disorder and interaction parameter [1], and show that there are regions of localized superfluidity, as well as insulating regions due to Anderson localization of fermions (BCS regime) and molecular bosons (BEC regime). The phase diagram for higher angular momentum (e.g. p-wave and d-wave) is also analyzed, where the effects of disorder are much more dramatic in the BCS regime in comparison to the s-wave case because pair breaking is strong, while the disorder effects in BEC regime are similar to what occurs in the s-wave case. [1] Li Han, C. A. R. Sa de Melo, arXiv:0812.xxxx

  1. Photonic tuning of Beliaev damping in a superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kónya, G.; Szirmai, G.; Nagy, D.; Domokos, P.

    2014-05-01

    We show that the Beliaev damping of elementary excitations in a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate can undergo resonant enhancement by several orders of magnitude when the superfluid is interacting with a far-detuned radiation field of an optical resonator. The photonic tuning of the quasiparticle damping can be controlled by an external laser drive.

  2. Helium jet dispersion to atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Hasna J.

    On the event of loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated helium dewar, high rate of heat transfer into the tank occurs. The rapid boiling of liquid helium causes the burst disk to rupture at four atmospheres and consequently the helium passes to the atmosphere through vent lines. The gaseous helium forms a vertical buoyant jet as it exits the vent line into a stagnant environment. Characterization of the gaseous jet is achieved by detailed analysis of the axial and radial dependence of the flow parameters.

  3. Helium cryopumping for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1988-05-01

    Large quantities of helium and hydrogen isotopes will be exhausted continuously from fusion power reactors. This paper summarizes two development programs undertaken to address vacuum pumping for this application: (i) A continuous duty cryopump for pumping helium and/or hydrogen species using charcoal sorbent and (ii) a cryopump configuration with an alternative shielding arrangement using charcoal sorbent or argon spray. A test program evaluated automatic pumping of helium, helium pumping by charcoal cryosorption and with argon spray, and cryosorption of helium/hydrogen mixtures. The continuous duty cryopump pumped helium continuously and conveniently. Helium pumping speed was 7.7 l/s/cm/sup 2/ of charcoal, compared to 5.8 l/s/cm/sup 2/ for the alternative pump. Helium speed using argon spray was 18% of that obtained by charcoal cryosorption in the same (W-panel) pump. During continuous duty cryopump mixture tests with helium and hydrogen copumped on charcoal, gas was released sporadically. Testing was insufficient to explain this unacceptable event.

  4. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2014) (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  9. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  10. Superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition of a spin-orbit-coupled Fulde-Ferrell superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ye; Liu, Xia -Ji; He, Lianyi; Long, Gui -Lu; Hu, Hui

    2015-02-09

    We theoretically investigate the superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition of a two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas with both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. It was recently predicted that, by tuning the two Zeeman fields, the system may exhibit different exotic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid phases, including the gapped FF, gapless FF, gapless topological FF, and gapped topological FF states. Due to the FF paring, we show that the superfluid density (tensor) of the system becomes anisotropic. When an in-plane Zeeman field is applied along the x direction, the tensor component along the y direction ns,yy is generally larger than ns,xx in most parameter space. At zero temperature, there is always a discontinuity jump in ns,xx as the system evolves from a gapped FF into a gapless FF state. With increasing temperature, such a jump is gradually washed out. The critical BKT temperature has been calculated as functions of the spin-orbit-coupling strength, interatomic interaction strength, and in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. We predict that the novel FF superfluid phases have a significant critical BKT temperature, typically at the order of 0.1TF, where TF is the Fermi degenerate temperature. Furthermore, their observation is within the reach of current experimental techniques in cold-atom laboratories.

  11. Superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition of a spin-orbit-coupled Fulde-Ferrell superfluid

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, Ye; Liu, Xia -Ji; He, Lianyi; Long, Gui -Lu; Hu, Hui

    2015-02-09

    We theoretically investigate the superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition of a two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas with both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. It was recently predicted that, by tuning the two Zeeman fields, the system may exhibit different exotic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid phases, including the gapped FF, gapless FF, gapless topological FF, and gapped topological FF states. Due to the FF paring, we show that the superfluid density (tensor) of the system becomes anisotropic. When an in-plane Zeeman field is applied along the x direction, the tensor component along the y direction ns,yy is generally larger thanmore » ns,xx in most parameter space. At zero temperature, there is always a discontinuity jump in ns,xx as the system evolves from a gapped FF into a gapless FF state. With increasing temperature, such a jump is gradually washed out. The critical BKT temperature has been calculated as functions of the spin-orbit-coupling strength, interatomic interaction strength, and in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. We predict that the novel FF superfluid phases have a significant critical BKT temperature, typically at the order of 0.1TF, where TF is the Fermi degenerate temperature. Furthermore, their observation is within the reach of current experimental techniques in cold-atom laboratories.« less

  12. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  13. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2001-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  14. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics in superfluid /sup 4/He: Line-line and line-boundary interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, K.W.

    1985-05-01

    The dynamical behavior of arbitrarily configured, interacting quantized vortex filaments is investigated by means of numerical experiments and analytical estimates. Several prototype situations of interest in the theory of superfluid turbulence and critical velocities are considered. It is shown that if a vortex loop approaches a surface to within a critical distance, a localized cusplike deformation is generated which drives the vortex into the surface at a well-defined point. If the vortex is reconnected to the surface in this limit, the two ends which now terminate on the surface quickly move apart. The entire process can be well approximated by making a simple reconnection at the critical distance. A similar process is found to occur when two vortex filaments try to cross, with two cusps developing which bring the lines together at a point in such a way that a line-line reconnection naturally ensues. More complicated versions of the reconnection process occur when a vortex terminates on a flat surface which contains a pinning site in the form of a local protrusion. Such a vortex is captured by the pinning site when it approaches to within a critical distance. Once a vortex is pinned, it requires a finite flow velocity to free it from the pinning site. At the depinning velocity, the vortex reconnects to the flat surface and moves off. An analytical depinning criterion involving both normal and superfluid velocities is derived, and found to be in good agreement with the numerical experiments.

  15. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  16. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  17. A helium regenerative compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors.

  18. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  19. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, C.E.

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  20. LENS: Prototyping Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek

    2013-04-01

    The Low-Energy Neutrino Spectrometer (LENS) prototyping program is broken into two phases. The first of these is μLENS, a small prototype to study the light transmission in the as built LENS scintillation lattice--- a novel detector method of high segmentation in a large liquid scintillation detector. The μLENS prototype is currently deployed and taking data at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) near Virginia Tech. I will discuss the Scintillation Lattice construction methods and schemes of the μLENS program for running with minimal channels instrumented to date ˜41 compared to full coverage 216). The second phase of prototyping is the miniLENS detector for which construction is under way. I will discuss the overall design from the miniLENS Scintillation Lattice to the shielding.