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1

Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).  

PubMed

The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. PMID:22387010

Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

2012-03-03

2

Dynamic organization of microtubules and microtubule-organizing centers during the sexual phase of a parasitic protozoan, Lecudina tuzetae (Gregarine, Apicomplexa).  

PubMed

Lecudina tuzetae is a parasitic protozoan (Gregarine, Apicomplexa) living in the intestine of a marine polychaete annelid, Nereis diversicolor. Using electron and fluorescence microscopy, we have characterized the dynamic changes in microtubule organization during the sexual phase of the life cycle. The gametocyst excreted from the host worm into seawater consists of two (one male and one female) gamonts in which cortical microtubule arrays are discernible. Each gamont undergoes multiple nuclear divisions without cytokinesis, resulting in the formation of large multinucleate haploid cells. After cellularization, approximately 1000 individual gametes are produced from each gamont within 24 h. Female gametes are spherical and contain interphase cytoplasmic microtubule arrays emanating from a gamma-tubulin-containing site. In male gametes, both interphase microtubules and a flagellum with "6 + 0" axonemal microtubules extend from the same microtubule-organizing site. At the beginning of spore formation, each zygote secretes a wall to form a sporocyst. Following meiotic and mitotic divisions, each sporocyst gives rise to eight haploid cells that ultimately differentiate into sporozoites. The ovoid shaped sporocyst is asymmetric and forms at least two distinctive microtubule arrays: spindle microtubules and microtubule bundles originating from the protruding apical end corresponding to the dehiscence pole of the sporocyst. Because antibodies raised against mammalian centrosome components, such as gamma-tubulin, pericentrin, Cep135, and mitosis-specific phosphoproteins, react strongly with the microtubule-nucleating sites of Lecudina, this protozoan is likely to share common centrosomal antigens with higher eukaryotes. PMID:16240430

Kuriyama, Ryoko; Besse, Colette; Gèze, Marc; Omoto, Charlotte K; Schrével, Joseph

2005-12-01

3

Efficacy of eleven antimicrobials against a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Protozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Apicomplexa are a diverse group of obligate protozoan parasites infesting a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts including humans. These parasites are notoriously difficult to control and many species continue to evolve resistance to commercial antibiotics. In this study, we sought to find an effective chemotherapeutic treatment against arthropod gregarines (Apicomplexa), and to identify candidate compounds for

Shajahan Johny; Amber Merisko; Douglas W Whitman

2007-01-01

4

Chromatin supraorganization, DNA fragmentation, and cell death in erythrocytes of the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae), infected with the protozoan, Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forms of the protozoan of the Hepatozoon genus are detected free in the circulation and also within some of the erythrocytes of infected snakes. In healthy snakes, DNA fragmentation and cell death usually affect a few circulating erythrocytes in agreement with the long life span expected for these cells. In the present study we investigated whether infection by Hepatozoon spp.

Maristela Miyamoto; Maria Luiza S. Mello

2007-01-01

5

Structural and evolutionary divergence of eukaryotic protein kinases in Apicomplexa  

PubMed Central

Background The Apicomplexa constitute an evolutionarily divergent phylum of protozoan pathogens responsible for widespread parasitic diseases such as malaria and toxoplasmosis. Many cellular functions in these medically important organisms are controlled by protein kinases, which have emerged as promising drug targets for parasitic diseases. However, an incomplete understanding of how apicomplexan kinases structurally and mechanistically differ from their host counterparts has hindered drug development efforts to target parasite kinases. Results We used the wealth of sequence data recently made available for 15 apicomplexan species to identify the kinome of each species and quantify the evolutionary constraints imposed on each family of apicomplexan kinases. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific adaptations in selected families, namely cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and CLK/LAMMER, which have been identified as important in the pathogenesis of these organisms. Bayesian analysis of selective constraints imposed on these families identified the sequence and structural features that most distinguish apicomplexan protein kinases from their homologs in model organisms and other eukaryotes. In particular, in a subfamily of CDKs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum crk-5, the activation loop contains a novel PTxC motif which is absent from all CDKs outside Apicomplexa. Our analysis also suggests a convergent mode of regulation in a subset of apicomplexan CDPKs and mammalian MAPKs involving a commonly conserved arginine in the ?C helix. In all recognized apicomplexan CLKs, we find a set of co-conserved residues involved in substrate recognition and docking that are distinct from metazoan CLKs. Conclusions We pinpoint key conserved residues that can be predicted to mediate functional differences from eukaryotic homologs in three identified kinase families. We discuss the structural, functional and evolutionary implications of these lineage-specific variations and propose specific hypotheses for experimental investigation. The apicomplexan-specific kinase features reported in this study can be used in the design of selective kinase inhibitors.

2011-01-01

6

Phylum Tardigrada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Online Zoologists" web page features a technical description of the phylum Tardigrada. Written in an outline format, the page includes a definition of the phylum and discusses external features, internal features, reproduction, embryology, ecology and physiology, classification, phylogeny, and references.

Elsberry, Wesley R.

2009-07-01

7

Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan infrakingdom Alveolata comprises the phyla Ciliophora and Miozoa. The name Myzozoa—sucking life—is introduced here to replace Miozoa (protalveolates, dinoflagellates, Sporozoa, apicomonads) as both subphyla (Dinozoa, Apicomplexa) are commonly or ancestrally myzocytotic feeders. We studied ultrastructurally two contrasting myzocytotic flagellates: Colpodella tetrahymenae sp. n. (predatory on Tetrahymena), with an inner membrane complex like Sporozoa, and Voromonas (=Colpodella) pontica gen.

T. Cavalier-Smith; E. E. Chao

2004-01-01

8

First identification of Sarcocystis tenella (Railliet, 1886) Moulé, 1886 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) by PCR in naturally infected sheep from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis tenella is a dog–sheep protozoan parasite, causing a widespread enzootic muscle parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs. This parasite is pathogenic to sheep and important to the economical production of sheep. The present study was initially aimed to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection and the occurrence of co-infection with other Apicomplexa parasites in 602 Brazilian sheep. Twenty of these

Rodrigo Costa da Silva; Chunlei Su; Helio Langoni

2009-01-01

9

Lateral gene transfer of family A DNA polymerases between thermophilic viruses, aquificae, and apicomplexa.  

PubMed

Bioinformatics and functional screens identified a group of Family A-type DNA Polymerase (polA) genes encoded by viruses inhabiting circumneutral and alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and the US Great Basin. The proteins encoded by these viral polA genes (PolAs) shared no significant sequence similarity with any known viral proteins but were remarkably similar to PolAs encoded by two of three families of the bacterial phylum Aquificae and by several apicoplast-targeted PolA-like proteins found in the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the obligate parasites Plasmodium, Babesia, and Toxoplasma. The viral gene products share signature elements previously associated only with Aquificae and Apicomplexa PolA-like proteins and were similar to proteins encoded by prophage elements of a variety of otherwise unrelated Bacteria, each of which additionally encoded a prototypical bacterial PolA. Unique among known viral DNA polymerases, the viral PolA proteins of this study share with the Apicomplexa proteins large amino-terminal domains with putative helicase/primase elements but low primary sequence similarity. The genomic context and distribution, phylogeny, and biochemistry of these PolA proteins suggest that thermophilic viruses transferred polA genes to the Apicomplexa, likely through secondary endosymbiosis of a virus-infected proto-apicoplast, and to the common ancestor of two of three Aquificae families, where they displaced the orthologous cellular polA gene. On the basis of biochemical activity, gene structure, and sequence similarity, we speculate that the xenologous viral-type polA genes may have functions associated with diversity-generating recombination in both Bacteria and Apicomplexa. PMID:23608703

Schoenfeld, Thomas W; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Floyd, Sally; Lodes, Michael; Mead, David A; Hedlund, Brian P

2013-04-22

10

Phylum-specific environmental DNA analysis reveals remarkably high global biodiversity of Cercozoa (Protozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first 18S rRNA multi-library environmental PCR survey of a single protozoan phylum, Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998, from a range of different habitats. Phylogenetic analysis reveals at least nine novel clades within the phylum, several possibly at the level of order or above. Further experiments are described to ascertain the true ecological and geographical distributions of some clades

David Bass; Thomas Cavalier-Smith

2004-01-01

11

Biology of the Phylum Nematomorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with most animal phyla, the Nematomorpha, also known as hair worms, is a relatively understudied metazoan phylum. Although nematomorphs make up only 1 of 3 animal phyla specializing solely on a parasitic life style, little attention has been focused on this enigmatic group scientifically. The phylum contains two main groups. The nectonematids are parasites of marine invertebrates such as

B. Hanelt; F. Thomas; A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

2005-01-01

12

Repeated secondary loss of adaptin complex genes in the Apicomplexa.  

PubMed

The Apicomplexa include parasites of devastating medical and economic consequence. While obviously essential for their parasitic mechanism, the molecular machinery underpinning membrane-trafficking in many apicomplexans is poorly understood. One potentially key set of players, the adaptins, selects cargo for incorporation into trafficking vesicles. Four distinct adaptin (AP) complexes exist in eukaryotes; AP1 and AP3 are involved in transport between the trans-Golgi Network (TGN) and endosomes, AP4 in TGN to cell surface transport, and AP2 in endocytosis from the cell surface. Of particular interest is the involvement of AP1 in Toxoplasma rhoptry biogenesis. The recent completion of several apicomplexan genomes should jump-start molecular parasitological studies and provide systems-level insight into the apicomplexan adaptin machinery. However, many of the encoded adaptin proteins are annotated conservatively and not to the necessary complex or subunit level. Prompted by previous evidence suggesting the lack of AP3 in Plasmodium falciparum, we undertook homology-searching and phylogenetic analysis to produce a rigorously annotated set of adaptin subunits encoded in diverse apicomplexan genomes. We found multiple losses of adaptins across the phylum; in particular Theileria, Babesia, and Cryptosporidium, but surprisingly not Plasmodium, appear to have lost the entirety of the AP3 complex. The losses correlate with a degenerate Golgi body structure and are reminiscent of recently reported secondary losses of additional endocytic components (i.e. the ESCRTs) in several Apicomplexa. These data may indicate a relaxation of the selective pressure on the apicomplexan endocytic system and, regardless, should greatly facilitate future molecular cell biological investigation of the role of adaptins in these important parasites. PMID:19146987

Nevin, William D; Dacks, Joel B

2008-12-24

13

Waterborne protozoan pathogens.  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites were the most frequently identified etiologic agents in waterborne disease outbreak from 1991 to 1994. The waterborne parasites Giardia lamblia, Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Isospora belli, and the microsporidia are reviewed. For each parasite, the review includes history, life cycle, incidence, symptoms, and therapy. Clinical detection methods are compared, and emerging technologies are discussed. Information on the association of these parasites with waterborne outbreaks is reviewed. Current information on protozoan parasites identified as etiological agents in waterborne outbreaks is discussed. Water industry issues related to recent disease outbreaks are examined in the context of water quality testing regulations for G. lamblia and those proposed for C. parvum. The review identifies the limitations of the American Society of Testing and Materials water-testing method for these parasites. An overview of federal regulations affecting the water industry and laboratories that test for water quality is also provided. The article highlights the importance of the clinical laboratory as a frontline defense for the detection of infectious organisms. The review points to the need for clinical laboratories, physicians, and public health personnel to cooperatively plan and assess the challenge of meeting this potential public health threat.

Marshall, M M; Naumovitz, D; Ortega, Y; Sterling, C R

1997-01-01

14

Comparative genomics of the Rab protein family in Apicomplexan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rab genes encode a subgroup of small GTP-binding proteins within the ras super-family that regulate targeting and fusion of transport vesicles within the secretory and endocytic pathways. These genes are of particular interest in the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa, since a family of Rab GTPases has been described for Plasmodium and most putative secretory pathway proteins in Apicomplexa have conventional predicted

Gordon Langsley; Vera van Noort; Céline Carret; Markus Meissner; Etienne P. de Villiers; Richard Bishop; Arnab Pain

2008-01-01

15

Biology of the phylum nematomorpha.  

PubMed

Compared with most animal phyla, the Nematomorpha, also known as hair worms, is a relatively understudied metazoan phylum. Although nematomorphs make up only 1 of 3 animal phyla specializing solely on a parasitic life style, little attention has been focused on this enigmatic group scientifically. The phylum contains two main groups. The nectonematids are parasites of marine invertebrates such as hermit crabs. The gordiids are parasites of terrestrial arthropods, such as mantids, beetles, and crickets. Members of both of these groups are free-living as adults in marine and freshwaters respectively. In recent years, large strides have been made to understand this group more fully. New information has come from collection efforts, new approaches in organismal biology, modern techniques in microscopy and molecular biology. This review will focus on the advances made in four main areas of research: (1) morphology, (2) taxonomy and systematics, (3) life cycle and ecology and (4) host behavioural alterations. Recent research focus on the structure of both nectonematids and gordiids has added new insights on the morphology of adult worms and juveniles. The nervous system of gordiids is now well described, including the documentation of sensory cells. In addition, the availability of material from the juvenile of several species of gordiids has made it possible to document the development of the parasitic stage. New collections and reinvestigations of museum specimens have allowed for a critical reevaluation of the validity of established genera and species. However, traditional taxonomic work on this group continues to be hampered by two impeding factors: first is the lack of species-specific characters; and second is the problem of intraspecific variation, which has likely led to the description of numerous synonyms. Modern molecular techniques have been used recently to support independently the broad relationships among gordiids. During the turn of the millennium, the study of the life cycle and general ecology of gordiids enjoyed a revival. The pivotal outcome of this research was the domestication of a common American gordiid species, Paragordius varius. This species was the first of this phylum to be laboratory-reared. Through this research, the life cycle of several distantly related gordiid species was investigated. Other work showed that gordiids persist in the environment in the cyst stage by moving through different hosts by paratenesis. These cysts have been shown to retain infectivity for up to a year. These factors have likely contributed to the finding that gordiid cysts are one of the most common metazoans in some aquatic environments. Finally, recent work has focused on elucidating the mechanism of how gordiids make the transition from terrestrially based definitive hosts to a free-living aquatic environment. It has been shown that hosts are manipulated by the parasites to enter water. Using this study system, and using histology and proteomic tools, the method of manipulation used by these parasites is being further investigated. This manipulation, and the reaction of the cricket to this manipulation, has been postulated to benefit both the parasite and the host. Although large strides have been made within the last 10 years in the understanding of nematomorphs, we make the case that a lot of basic information remains to be uncovered. Although seemingly a daunting task, the recent advances in information and techniques lay a solid foundation for the future study of this unique group of parasites. PMID:16182867

Hanelt, B; Thomas, F; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A

2005-01-01

16

A transcriptomic analysis of the phylum Nematoda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylum Nematoda occupies a huge range of ecological niches, from free-living microbivores to human parasites. We analyzed the genomic biology of the phylum using 265,494 expressed-sequence tag sequences, corresponding to 93,645 putative genes, from 30 species, including 28 parasites. From 35% to 70% of each species' genes had significant similarity to proteins from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. More

Makedonka Mitreva; Claire Whitton; Marian Thomson; Jennifer Daub; John Martin; Ralf Schmid; Neil Hall; Bart Barrell; Robert H Waterston; James P McCarter; Mark L Blaxter; John Parkinson

2004-01-01

17

A phylogenetic analysis of the phylum Fibrobacteres.  

PubMed

Members of the phylum Fibrobacteres are highly efficient cellulolytic bacteria, best known for their role in rumen function and as potential sources of novel enzymes for bioenergy applications. Despite being key members of ruminants and other digestive microbial communities, our knowledge of this phylum remains incomplete, as much of our understanding is focused on two recognized species, Fibrobacter succinogenes and F. intestinalis. As a result, we lack insights regarding the environmental niche, host range, and phylogenetic organization of this phylum. Here, we analyzed over 1000 16S rRNA Fibrobacteres sequences available from public databases to establish a phylogenetic framework for this phylum. We identify both species- and genus-level clades that are suggestive of previously unknown taxonomic relationships between Fibrobacteres in addition to their putative lifestyles as host-associated or free-living. Our results shed light on this poorly understood phylum and will be useful for elucidating the function, distribution, and diversity of these bacteria in their niches. PMID:23759599

Jewell, Kelsea A; Scott, Jarrod J; Adams, Sandra M; Suen, Garret

2013-06-05

18

Kinetics of murine delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Eimeria falciformis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).  

PubMed Central

Mice recovering from a primary infection with an intestinal protozoan parasite, Eimeria falciformis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), showed a classic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to oocyst antigen challenge. This reaction was characterized by a biphasic pattern of footpad swelling. The first swelling peaked at 2 h after antigen challenge, whereas the second swelling peaked at 24 to 48 h after challenge. The DTH reaction was transferable with a T-cell-enriched spleen cell population from mice that had recovered from E. falciformis infection. Cytotoxic depletion of immune T cells with anti-L3T4 antibody and complement abrogated DTH transfer, indicating that L3T4-positive T cells were required. A T-cell-enriched spleen cell population from acutely infected mice suppressed the transfer of DTH with immune cells from recovered animals, implicating the existence of infection-induced immunoregulatory cells controlling the parasite-specific immune response during infection. Immune spleen cells also transferred resistance to infection as measured by oocyst production and death rate of recipients. Together, these results indicate that the DTH reaction, induced by infection with E. falciformis, is mediated by L3T4-positive T cells and is associated with resistance to infection.

Shi, Y F; Mahrt, J L; Mogil, R J

1989-01-01

19

Photoacoustic spectroscopy of man infecting protozoans  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the fundamentals of photothermal spectroscopy are presented, special emphasis is done in the obtention of the optical absorption spectra. It is shown that this spectroscopy can be used successfully for the monitoring of protozoans that could infect the human. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated in the special case of Leishmania, where it is possible to find that the stage when the protozoan infect vertebrate cells show important differences in relation to the protozoans infecting insects.

Acosta-Avalos, D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Barrio da Urca, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Alvarado-Gil, J. J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Apartado Postal 73 Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan, 97310 (Mexico); Vargas, H. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, CEP 28015-620, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1998-08-28

20

Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction  

SciTech Connect

This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

Luckey, T.D.

1986-11-01

21

Sterols of the phylum Zygomycota: Phylogenetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterol composition of 42 fungal species representing six of the eight orders of the Zygomycota was determined using gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess whether the distribution of major sterols in this phylum has taxonomic or phylogenetic\\u000a relevance. Ergosterol, 22-dihydroergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, cholesterol, and desmosterol were detected as the major\\u000a sterols among the species studied. Ergosterol was the major sterol

J. D. Weete; S. R. Gandhi

1997-01-01

22

Placozoa – no longer a phylum of one  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a century ago, the simplest of all metazoans was discovered and described as Trichoplax adhaerens[1]. These tiny, flattened animals lack symmetry, mouth, gut, nervous system, and extra-cellular matrix and constitute the apparently monotypic phylum Placozoa. Placozoans diverged early in metazoan history [2–7], making them important organisms for evolutionary research [2,3,8]. Placozoans can be found in warm, shallow, marine

Oliver Voigt; Allen G. Collins; Vicki Buchsbaum Pearse; John S. Pearse; Andrea Ender; Heike Hadrys; Bernd Schierwater

2004-01-01

23

Perkinsus sp. (Phylum Apicomplexa) in Mediterranean clam Ruditapes semidecussatus: ultrastructural observations of the cellular response of the host  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infection caused by a Perkinsus sp. was observed in Ruditapes semidecussatus collected on the western Mediterranean coast (Tarragona, Spain). The trophozoites were generally grouped and surrounded by amorphous material that constituted a nodule. These nodule reactions with trophozoites were located in connective tissue of the gut, hepatopancreas, kidney, gonads, mantle, and gill. Ultrastructural features of the host reaction due

E. Sagristá; M. Durfort; C. Azevedo

1995-01-01

24

Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites  

PubMed Central

The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

2010-01-01

25

Acidobacteria Phylum Sequences in Uranium-Contaminated Subsurface Sediments Greatly Expand the Known Diversity within the Phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and composition of bacteria of the phylum Acidobacteria were surveyed in subsurface sediments from uranium-contaminated sites using amplification of 16S rRNA genes followed by clone\\/sequence analysis. Analysis of sequences from this study and public databases produced a revised and greatly expanded phylogeny of the Acidobacteria phylum consisting of 26 subgroups. Bacteria in the Acidobacteria phylum have been detected

Susan M. Barns; Elizabeth C. Cain; Leslie Sommerville; Cheryl R. Kuske

2007-01-01

26

Phylogenetic relationships within phylum Rotifera: orders and genus Notholca  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated evolutionary relationships among orders in phylum Rotifera and among species in genus Notholca (Rotifera) by computing parsimonious cladograms. All of the most-parsimonious cladograms generated for the ordinal level confirm the view that class Monogononta, superclass Eurotatoria, and phylum Rotifera are monophyletic. Species within the genus Notholca were separated into six groups (clades), but some species have been defined

Robert Lee Wallace; Rebecca Arlene Colburn

1989-01-01

27

Molecular determinants archetypical to the phylum Nematoda  

PubMed Central

Background Nematoda diverged from other animals between 600–1,200 million years ago and has become one of the most diverse animal phyla on earth. Most nematodes are free-living animals, but many are parasites of plants and animals including humans, posing major ecological and economical challenges around the world. Results We investigated phylum-specific molecular characteristics in Nematoda by exploring over 214,000 polypeptides from 32 nematode species including 27 parasites. Over 50,000 nematode protein families were identified based on primary sequence, including ~10% with members from at least three different species. Nearly 1,600 of the multi-species families did not share homology to Pfam domains, including a total of 758 restricted to Nematoda. Majority of the 462 families that were conserved among both free-living and parasitic species contained members from multiple nematode clades, yet ~90% of the 296 parasite-specific families originated only from a single clade. Features of these protein families were revealed through extrapolation of essential functions from observed RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, bioinformatics-based functional annotations, identification of distant homology based on protein folds, and prediction of expression at accessible nematode surfaces. In addition, we identified a group of nematode-restricted sequence features in energy-generating electron transfer complexes as potential targets for new chemicals with minimal or no toxicity to the host. Conclusion This study identified and characterized the molecular determinants that help in defining the phylum Nematoda, and therefore improved our understanding of nematode protein evolution and provided novel insights for the development of next generation parasite control strategies.

2009-01-01

28

Composite genome map and recombination parameters derived from three archetypal lineages of Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous animal and human pathogens. T.gondii is amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies, making it a model for the biology of this important group of parasites. To facilitate forward genetic analysis, we have developed a high- resolution genetic linkage map for T.gondii. The gen-

Asis Khan; Sonya Taylor; Chunlei Su; Aaron J. Mackey; Jon Boyle; Robert Cole; Darius Glover; Keliang Tang; Ian T. Paulsen; Matt Berriman; John C. Boothroyd; Elmer R. Pfefferkorn; J. P. Dubey; James W. Ajioka; David S. Roos; John C. Wootton; L. David Sibley

2005-01-01

29

Nuclear-Encoded Proteins Target to the Plastid in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vestigial, nonphotosynthetic plastid has been identified recently in protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. The apicomplexan plastid, or ``apicoplast,'' is indispensable, but the complete sequence of both the Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast genomes has offered no clue as to what essential metabolic function(s) this organelle might perform in parasites. To investigate possible functions of the apicoplast, we

Ross F. Waller; Patrick J. Keeling; Robert G. K. Donald; Boris Striepen; Emanuela Handman; Naomi Lang-Unnasch; Alan F. Cowman; Gurdyal S. Besra; David S. Roos; Geoffrey I. McFadden

1998-01-01

30

Genome-scale protein expression and structural biology of Plasmodium falciparum and related Apicomplexan organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites from the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for diseases, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis, all of which have significantly higher rates of mortality and morbidity in economically underdeveloped regions of the world. Advances in vaccine development and drug discovery are urgently needed to control these diseases and can be facilitated by production of purified recombinant proteins from Apicomplexan

Masoud Vedadi; Jocelyne Lew; Jennifer Artz; Mehrnaz Amani; Yong Zhao; Aiping Dong; Gregory A. Wasney; Mian Gao; Tanya Hills; Stephen Brokx; Wei Qiu; Sujata Sharma; Angelina Diassiti; Zahoor Alam; Michelle Melone; Anne Mulichak; Amy Wernimont; James Bray; Peter Loppnau; Olga Plotnikova; Kate Newberry; Emayavaram Sundararajan; Simon Houston; John Walker; Wolfram Tempel; Alexey Bochkarev; Ivona Kozieradzki; Aled Edwards; Cheryl Arrowsmith; David Roos; Kevin Kain; Raymond Hui

2007-01-01

31

COMPOSITE GENOME MAP AND RECOMBINATION PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM THREE ARCHETYPAL LINEAGES OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous animal and human pathogens. T. gondii is amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies, making it a model for the biology of this important group of parasites. To facil...

32

Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa.  

PubMed

I discuss how different feeding modes and related cellular structures map onto the eukaryote evolutionary tree. Centrally important for understanding eukaryotic cell diversity are Loukozoa: ancestrally biciliate phagotrophic protozoa possessing a posterior cilium and ventral feeding groove into which ciliary currents direct prey. I revise their classification by including all anaerobic Metamonada as a subphylum and adding Tsukubamonas. Loukozoa, often with ciliary vanes, are probably ancestral to all protozoan phyla except Euglenozoa and Percolozoa and indirectly to kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and Chromista. I make a new protozoan phylum Sulcozoa comprising subphyla Apusozoa (Apusomonadida, Breviatea) and Varisulca (Diphyllatea; Planomonadida, Discocelida, Mantamonadida; Rigifilida). Understanding sulcozoan evolution clarifies the origins from them of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, Choanozoa) and Amoebozoa, and their evolutionary novelties; Sulcozoa and their descendants (collectively called podiates) arguably arose from Loukozoa by evolving posterior ciliary gliding and pseudopodia in their ventral groove. I explain subsequent independent cytoskeletal modifications, accompanying further shifts in feeding mode, that generated Amoebozoa, Choanozoa, and fungi. I revise classifications of Choanozoa, Conosa (Amoebozoa), and basal fungal phylum Archemycota. I use Choanozoa, Sulcozoa, Loukozoa, and Archemycota to emphasize the need for simply classifying ancestral (paraphyletic) groups and illustrate advantages of this for understanding step-wise phylogenetic advances. PMID:23085100

Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2012-10-22

33

Culturing and Using Protozoans in the Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides instructions for teachers and students to culture protozoans for use in science laboratories. Sections include setting up a culture area, basic culture media, amoeba culture technique, powdered milk-wheat-rice medium, alfalfa medium, and uses of the protozoa in the laboratory. (PR)|

Hummer, Paul J., Jr.

1993-01-01

34

ApicoAP: The First Computational Model for Identifying Apicoplast-Targeted Proteins in Multiple Species of Apicomplexa  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa contain a relict prokaryotic-derived plastid called the apicoplast. This organelle is important not only for the survival of the parasite, but its unique properties make it an ideal drug target. The majority of apicoplast-associated proteins are nuclear encoded and targeted post-translationally to the organellar lumen via a bipartite signaling mechanism that requires an N-terminal signal and transit peptide (TP). Attempts to define a consensus motif that universally identifies apicoplast TPs have failed. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we propose a generalized rule-based classification model to identify apicoplast-targeted proteins (ApicoTPs) that use a bipartite signaling mechanism. Given a training set specific to an organism, this model, called ApicoAP, incorporates a procedure based on a genetic algorithm to tailor a discriminating rule that exploits the known characteristics of ApicoTPs. Performance of ApicoAP is evaluated for four labeled datasets of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii, Babesia bovis, and Toxoplasma gondii proteins. ApicoAP improves the classification accuracy of the published dataset for P. falciparum to 94%, originally 90% using PlasmoAP. Conclusions/Significance We present a parametric model for ApicoTPs and a procedure to optimize the model parameters for a given training set. A major asset of this model is that it is customizable to different parasite genomes. The ApicoAP prediction software is available at http://code.google.com/p/apicoap/ and http://bcb.eecs.wsu.edu.

Cilingir, Gokcen; Broschat, Shira L.; Lau, Audrey O. T.

2012-01-01

35

T Cell exhaustion in protozoan disease  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites cause severe morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to chemotherapeutic agents is limited. Although parasites initially evoke a robust immune response, subsequent immunity fails to clear infection, ultimately leading to the chronic stage. This enigmatic situation was initially addressed in chronic viral models, where T cells lose their function, a phenomenon referred to as ’exhaustion‘. However, recent studies demonstrate that this paradigm can be extended to protozoan diseases as well, albeit with notable differences. These studies have revealed that T cell responses generated against Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium sp. and Leishmania sp. can become dysfunctional. This Review discusses T cell exhaustion in parasitic infection, mechanisms of development, and a possible role in disease outcome.

Gigley, Jason P.; Bhadra, Rajarshi; Moretto, Magali M.; Khan, Imtiaz A.

2012-01-01

36

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

37

Mobile genetic elements in protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile genetic elements, by virtue of their ability to move to new chromosomal locations, are considered important in shaping\\u000a the evolutionary course of the genome. They are widespread in the biological kingdom. Among the protozoan parasites several\\u000a types of transposable elements are encountered. The largest variety is seen in the trypanosomatids—Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi andCrithidia fasciculata. They contain elements that

Sudha Bhattacharya; Abhijeet Bakre; Alok Bhattacharya

2002-01-01

38

Comparative Analysis of Apicomplexa and Genomic Diversity in Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

The apicomplexans Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium have developed distinctive adaptations via lineage-specific gene loss and gene innovation in the process of diverging from a common parasitic ancestor. The two lineages have acquired distinct but overlapping sets of surface protein adhesion domains typical of animal proteins, but in no case do they share multidomain architectures identical to animals. Cryptosporidium, but not Plasmodium, possesses an animal-type O-linked glycosylation pathway, along with >30 predicted surface proteins having mucin-like segments. The two parasites have notable qualitative differences in conserved protein architectures associated with chromatin dynamics and transcription. Cryptosporidium shows considerable reduction in the number of introns and a concomitant loss of spliceosomal machinery components. We also describe additional molecular characteristics distinguishing Apicomplexa from other eukaryotes for which complete genome sequences are available.

Templeton, Thomas J.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Anantharaman, Vivek; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Abrahante, Juan E.; Subramanian, G.M.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.; Aravind, L.

2004-01-01

39

Ecology and dynamics of the blood parasite, Hepatozoon tuatarae (Apicomplexa), in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on Stephens Island, New Zealand.  

PubMed

We explored infection patterns and temporal dynamics of the protozoan blood parasite Hepatozoon tuatarae (Apicomplexa) infecting the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), a protected reptile living on Stephens Island, New Zealand. In March 2006, we surveyed tuatara in five study sites to examine spatial variation in infection prevalence, and four times, from May 2005 to November 2006, we recaptured marked individuals within three study sites to examine the temporal dynamics of infection. We also examined how blood-parasite infection patterns were influenced by host sex, body size, and host infestation with ticks (Amblyomma sphenodonti) and mites (Neotrombicula spp.), which are potential vectors of the blood parasite. Infection prevalence (16.9-24% infected) and intensity (<0.01-0.1% blood cells infected) were low in all samples. Infection intensity varied among the five sampled sites in March 2006, but prevalence did not. Neither infection prevalence nor intensity varied with time, and infections were detected in consecutive samples from recaptured individuals for up to 18 mo. Neither survey showed an influence of host sex on infection, but both surveys showed infection intensity declined with increasing host body size, as did infection prevalence in the spatial survey. In the temporal survey, we found a positive relationship between the tick numbers on hosts and blood-parasite infection intensity, which were stronger in two of the sampling periods and among larger hosts. These data suggest that exposure and susceptibility to infection decreases with host size and that ticks, but not mites, are probably the vectors in this ancient host-parasite association of a long-lived (>50 yr) host. PMID:21270002

Godfrey, Stephanie S; Nelson, Nicola J; Bull, C Michael

2011-01-01

40

Lysine Acetylation Is Widespread on Proteins of Diverse Function and Localization in the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

While histone proteins are the founding members of lysine acetylation substrates, it is now clear that hundreds of other proteins can be acetylated in multiple compartments of the cell. Our knowledge of the scope of this modification throughout the kingdom of life is beginning to emerge, as proteome-wide lysine acetylation has been documented in prokaryotes, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, and human cells. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify parasite peptides enriched by immunopurification with acetyl-lysine antibody, we produced the first proteome-wide analysis of acetylation for a protozoan organism, the opportunistic apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The results show that lysine acetylation is abundant in the actively proliferating tachyzoite form of the parasite, which causes acute toxoplasmosis. Our approach successfully identified known acetylation marks on Toxoplasma histones and ?-tubulin and detected over 400 novel acetylation sites on a wide variety of additional proteins, including those with roles in transcription, translation, metabolism, and stress responses. Importantly, an extensive set of parasite-specific proteins, including those found in organelles unique to Apicomplexa, is acetylated in the parasite. Our data provide a wealth of new information that improves our understanding of the evolution of this vital regulatory modification while potentially revealing novel therapeutic avenues. We conclude from this study that lysine acetylation was prevalent in the early stages of eukaryotic cell evolution and occurs on proteins involved in a remarkably diverse array of cellular functions, including those that are specific to parasites.

Jeffers, Victoria

2012-01-01

41

Neuroparasitic Infections: Cestodes, Trematodes, and Protozoans  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection of the nervous system can produce a variety of symptoms and signs. Because symptoms of infection are often mild or nonspecific, diagnosis can be difficult. Familiarity with basic epidemiological characteristics and distinguishing radiographic findings can increase the likelihood of detection and proper treatment of parasitic infection of the nervous system. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for some of the more common infections of the nervous system caused by cestodes, trematodes and protozoans: Echinococcus spp., Spirometra spp. (sparganosis), Paragonimus spp., Schistosoma spp., Trypanosoma spp., Naegleria fowlerii, Acanthamoeba histolytica, and Balamuthia mandrillaris.

Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

2009-01-01

42

Migration of Apicomplexa Across Biological Barriers: The Toxoplasma and Plasmodium Rides  

PubMed Central

The invasive stages of Apicomplexa parasites, called zoites, have been largely studied in in vitro systems, with a special emphasis on their unique gliding and host cell invasive capacities. In contrast, the means by which these parasites reach their destination in their hosts are still poorly understood. We summarize here our current understanding of the cellular basis of in vivo parasitism by two well-studied Apicomplexa zoites, the Toxoplasma tachyzoite and the Plasmodium sporozoite. Despite being close relatives, these two zoites use different strategies to reach their goal and establish infection.

Tardieux, Isabelle; Menard, Robert

2008-01-01

43

Reclassification of Sphaerobacter thermophilus from the subclass Sphaerobacteridae in the phylum Actinobacteria to the class Thermomicrobia (emended description) in the phylum Chloroflexi (emended description).  

PubMed

Sphaerobacter thermophilus was originally classified as the deepest branching member of the phylum Actinobacteria (high-G+C, Gram-positive bacteria) based on 16S rRNA gene comparative analysis. However, the analysis lacked suitable outgroups, and additional 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that it is most closely related to Thermomicrobium roseum, which it also resembles phenotypically. Furthermore, both species are reproducibly affiliated with the phylum Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria), despite T. roseum currently being classified in its own phylum, the Thermomicrobia. Transfer of Sphaerobacter to the class Thermomicrobia, and transfer of the class Thermomicrobia to the phylum Chloroflexi, are proposed. Descriptions for the phylum Chloroflexi and the class Thermomicrobia are emended to reflect the proposed changes in classification. PMID:15545432

Hugenholtz, Philip; Stackebrandt, Erko

2004-11-01

44

Invasion mechanisms among emerging food-borne protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Food-borne parasitic diseases, many known to be more prevalent in poor countries with deficient sanitary conditions, are becoming common worldwide. Among the emerging protozoan parasites, the most prominent is Trypanosoma cruzi, rarely reported in the past to be transmitted by the oral route but currently responsible for frequent outbreaks of acute cases of Chagas disease contracted orally and characterized by high mortality. Several other food-borne protozoans considered emerging include the apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium, as well as Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica. Here, the interactions of these protozoans with the mucosal epithelia of the host are discussed. PMID:21840261

Yoshida, Nobuko; Tyler, Kevin M; Llewellyn, Martin S

2011-08-15

45

Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).  

PubMed

Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are largely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the relationships among and within the main sponge lineages to fully appreciate the evolution of this extraordinary metazoan phylum. PMID:22560777

Wörheide, G; Dohrmann, M; Erpenbeck, D; Larroux, C; Maldonado, M; Voigt, O; Borchiellini, C; Lavrov, D V

2012-01-01

46

Invasion and Intracellular Survival by Protozoan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracellular parasitism has arisen only a few times during the long ancestry of protozoan parasites including in diverse groups such as microsporidians, kinetoplastids, and apicomplexans. Strategies used to gain entry differ widely from injection (e.g. microsporidians), active penetration of the host cell (e.g. Toxoplasma), recruitment of lysosomes to a plasma membrane wound (e.g. Trypanosoma cruzi), to host cell-mediated phagocytosis (e.g. Leishmania). The resulting range of intracellular niches is equally diverse ranging from cytosolic (e.g. T. cruzi) to residing within a nonfusigenic vacuole (e.g. Toxoplasma, Encephalitizoon) or a modified phagolysosome (e.g. Leishmania). These lifestyle choices influence access to nutrients, interaction with host cell signaling pathways, and detection by pathogen recognition systems. As such, intracellular life requires a repertoire of adaptations to assure entry-exit from the cell, as well as to thwart innate immune mechanisms and prevent clearance. Elucidating these pathways at the cellular and molecular level may identify key steps that can be targeted to reduce parasite survival or augment immunological responses and thereby prevent disease.

Sibley, L. David

2013-01-01

47

Protozoan infections of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The review provides current views on human protozoan parasites of the gut. The recognition of the importance of cryptosporidium, cyclospora and microsporidia over the last three decades emphasises the possibility that more pathogenic intestinal protozoa are presently unrecognized. Each of these is a zoonotic infection and the potential for a zoonotic element to the transmission of giardiasis has been recognized. A common theme in increased understanding of the biology and pathological mechanisms involved in causing disease is the application of molecular techniques to the various stages of the parasite life cycle. Molecular methods are increasingly contributing to laboratory diagnosis of these conditions with increased yields of positive results though in the tropics it is likely that fecal microscopy will remain the standard for some time to come. The nitroimidazole compounds are the mainstay of treatment for giardia and amebiasis with no major advance in therapeutics since their role was appreciated. Nitazoxanide was shown to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in the 1990s. PMID:22632642

Wright, Stephen G

2012-06-01

48

Emergence of Species-Specific Transporters During Evolution of the Hemiascomycete Phylum  

PubMed Central

We have traced the evolution patterns of 2480 transmembrane transporters from five complete genome sequences spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica. The use of nonambiguous functional and phylogenetic criteria derived from the TCDB classification system has allowed the identification within the Hemiascomycete phylum of 97 small phylogenetic transporter subfamilies comprising a total of 355 transporters submitted to four distinct evolution patterns named “ubiquitous,” “species specific,” “phylum gains and losses,” or “homoplasic.” This analysis identifies the transporters that contribute to the emergence of species during the evolution of the Hemiascomycete phylum and may aid in establishing novel phylogenetic criteria for species classification.

De Hertogh, Benoit; Hancy, Frederic; Goffeau, Andre; Baret, Philippe V.

2006-01-01

49

Grazing of acidophilic bacteria by a flagellated protozoan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biflagellated protozoan was isolated from an acidic drainage stream located inside a disused pyrite mine. The stream contained copious amounts of “acid streamer” bacterial growths, and the flagellate was observed in situ apparently grazing the streamer bacteria. The protozoan was obligately acidophilic, growing between pH 1.8 and 4.5, but not at pH 1.6 or 5.0, with optimum growth between

Stephen McGinness; D. Barrie Johnson

1992-01-01

50

Evolutionary origin of Plasmodium and other Apicomplexa based on rRNA genes.  

PubMed Central

We have explored the evolutionary history of the Apicomplexa and two related protistan phyla, Dinozoa and Ciliophora, by comparing the nucleotide sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. We conclude that the Plasmodium lineage, to which the malarial parasites belong, diverged from other apicomplexan lineages (piroplasmids and coccidians) several hundred million years ago, perhaps even before the Cambrian. The Plasmodium radiation, which gave rise to several species parasitic to humans, occurred approximately 129 million years ago; Plasmodium parasitism of humans has independently arisen several times. The origin of apicomplexans (Plasmodium), dinoflagellates, and ciliates may be > 1 billion years old, perhaps older than the three multicellular kingdoms of animals, plants, and fungi. Digenetic parasitism independently evolved several times in the Apicomplexa.

Escalante, A A; Ayala, F J

1995-01-01

51

Reclassification of Sphaerobacter thermophilus from the subclass Sphaerobacteridae in the phylum Actinobacteria to the class Thermomicrobia (emended description) in the phylum Chloroflexi (emended description)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphaerobacter thermophilus was originally classified as the deepest branching member of the phylum Actinobacteria (high-G+C, Gram-positive bacteria) based on 16S rRNA gene comparative analysis. However, the analysis lacked suitable outgroups, and additional 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that it is most closely related to Thermomicrobium roseum, which it also resembles phenotypically. Furthermore, both species are reproducibly affiliated with the phylum

Philip Hugenholtz; Erko Stackebrandt

2004-01-01

52

Three Genomes from the Phylum Acidobacteria Provide Insight into the Lifestyles of These Microorganisms in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genomes of three strains from the phylum Acidobacteria were compared. Phylogenetic analysis placed them as a unique phylum. They share genomic traits with members of the Proteobacteria, the Cyanobac- teria, and the Fungi. The three strains appear to be versatile heterotrophs. Genomic and culture traits indicate the use of carbon sources that span simple sugars to more complex

Naomi L. Ward; Jean F. Challacombe; Peter H. Janssen; Bernard Henrissat; Pedro M. Coutinho; Martin Wu; Gary Xie; Daniel H. Haft; Michelle Sait; Jonathan Badger; Ravi D. Barabote; Brent Bradley; Thomas S. Brettin; Lauren M. Brinkac; David Bruce; Todd Creasy; Sean C. Daugherty; Tanja M. Davidsen; Robert T. DeBoy; J. Chris Detter; Robert J. Dodson; A. Scott Durkin; Anuradha Ganapathy; Michelle Gwinn-Giglio; Cliff S. Han; Hoda Khouri; Hajnalka Kiss; Sagar P. Kothari; Ramana Madupu; Karen E. Nelson; William C. Nelson; Ian Paulsen; Kevin Penn; Qinghu Ren; M. J. Rosovitz; Jeremy D. Selengut; Susmita Shrivastava; Steven A. Sullivan; Roxanne Tapia; L. Sue Thompson; Kisha L. Watkins; Qi Yang; Chunhui Yu; Nikhat Zafar; Liwei Zhou; Cheryl R. Kuske

2009-01-01

53

A taxonomic catalogue of Japanese nemerteans (phylum Nemertea).  

PubMed

A literature-based taxonomic catalogue of the nemertean species (Phylum Nemertea) reported from Japanese waters is provided, listing 19 families, 45 genera, and 120 species as valid. Applications of the following species names to forms previously recorded from Japanese waters are regarded as uncertain: Amphiporus cervicalis, Amphiporus depressus, Amphiporus lactifloreus, Cephalothrix filiformis, Cephalothrix linearis, Cerebratulus fuscus, Lineus vegetus, Lineus bilineatus, Lineus gesserensis, Lineus grubei, Lineus longifissus, Lineus mcintoshii, Nipponnemertes pulchra, Oerstedia venusta, Prostoma graecense, and Prostoma grande. The identities of the taxa referred to by the following four nominal species require clarification through future investigations: Cosmocephala japonica, Dicelis rubra, Dichilus obscurus, and Nareda serpentina. The nominal species established from Japanese waters are tabulated. In addition, a brief history of taxonomic research on Japanese nemerteans is reviewed. PMID:17867829

Kajihara, Hiroshi

2007-04-01

54

A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora  

PubMed Central

Genes for the family of green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) have been found in more than 100 species of animals, with some species containing six or more copies producing a variety of colours. Thus far, however, these species have all been within three phyla: Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Chordata. We have discovered GFP-type fluorescent proteins in the phylum Ctenophora, the comb jellies. The ctenophore proteins share the xYG chromophore motif of all other characterized GFP-type proteins. These proteins exhibit the uncommon property of reversible photoactivation, in which fluorescent emission becomes brighter upon exposure to light, then gradually decays to a non-fluorescent state. In addition to providing potentially useful optical probes with novel properties, finding a fluorescent protein in one of the earliest diverging metazoans adds further support to the possibility that these genes are likely to occur throughout animals.

Haddock, Steven H. D.; Mastroianni, Nadia; Christianson, Lynne M.

2010-01-01

55

Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Unexpected Subgenomic Diversity of Magnetotactic Bacteria within the Phylum Nitrospirae ? †  

PubMed Central

A targeted metagenomic approach was applied to investigate magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) within the phylum Nitrospirae in Lake Miyun near Beijing, China. Five fosmids containing rRNA operons were identified. Comparative sequence analysis of a total of 172 kb provided new insights into their genome organization and revealed unexpected subgenomic diversity of uncultivated MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae. In addition, affiliation of two novel MTB with the phylum Nitrospirae was verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. One of them was morphologically similar to “Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum,” but the other differed substantially in cell shape and magnetosome organization from all previously described “Ca. Magnetobacterium bavaricum”-like bacteria.

Lin, Wei; Jogler, Christian; Schuler, Dirk; Pan, Yongxin

2011-01-01

56

Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV\\/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs,

Rebecca L DUNNE; Linda A DUNN; Peter UPCROFT; Peter J O'DONOGHUE; Jacqueline A UPCROFT

2003-01-01

57

Host-lipidome as a potential target of protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Host-lipidome caters parasite interaction by acting as first line of recognition, attachment on the cell surface, intracellular trafficking, and survival of the parasite inside the host cell. Here, we summarize how protozoan parasites exploit host-lipidome by suppressing, augmenting, engulfing, remodeling and metabolizing lipids to achieve successful parasitism inside the host. PMID:23811020

Rub, Abdur; Arish, Mohd; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Ahmed, Niyaz; Akhter, Yusuf

2013-06-27

58

Biomass control in waste air biotrickling filters by protozoan predation  

SciTech Connect

Two protozoan species as well as an uncharacterized protozoan consortium were added to a toluene-degrading biotrickling filter to investigate protozoan predation as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass formation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced from 13.875 kg in a control biotrickling filter to 11.795 kg in a biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The average toluene vapor elimination capacity at 1 g/m{sup 3} toluene and 64 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 3} {center_dot} h) was 31.1 g(m{sup 3} {center_dot} h) in the control and 32.2 g(m{sup 3} {center_dot} h) in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. At higher toluene inlet concentrations, toluene degradation rates increased and were slightly higher in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The lower rate of biomass accumulation after the addition of protozoa was due to an increase of carbon mineralization. Apparent biomass yield coefficients in the control and enriched trickling filter were 0.72 and 0.59 g dry biomass/g toluene, respectively. The results show that protozoan predation may be a useful tool to control biomass in biotrickling filters, however, further stimulation of predation of the biomass immobilized in the reactor is required to ensure long-term stability of biotrickling filters.

Cox, H.H.J.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

1999-01-20

59

Discovery of the Novel Candidate Phylum "Poribacteria" in Marine Sponges  

PubMed Central

Marine sponges (Porifera) harbor large amounts of commensal microbial communities within the sponge mesohyl. We employed 16S rRNA gene library construction using specific PCR primers to provide insights into the phylogenetic identity of an abundant sponge-associated bacterium that is morphologically characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound nucleoid. In this study, we report the presence of a previously unrecognized evolutionary lineage branching deeply in the domain Bacteria that is moderately related to the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydia lines of decent. Because members of this lineage showed <75% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known bacterial phyla, we suggest the status of a new candidate phylum, named “Poribacteria”, to acknowledge the affiliation of the new bacterium with sponges. The affiliation of the morphologically conspicuous sponge bacterium with the novel phylogenetic lineage was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with newly designed probes targeting different sites of the poribacterial 16S rRNA. Consistent with electron microscopic observations of cell compartmentalization, the fluorescence signals appeared in a ring-shaped manner. PCR screening with “Poribacteria”-specific primers gave positive results for several other sponge species, while samples taken from the environment (seawater, sediments, and a filter-feeding tunicate) were PCR negative. In addition to a report for Planctomycetes, this is the second report of cell compartmentalization, a feature that was considered exclusive to the eukaryotic domain, in prokaryotes.

Fieseler, Lars; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Hentschel, Ute

2004-01-01

60

BIOMASS CONTROL IN WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS BY PROTOZOAN PREDATION. (R825392)  

EPA Science Inventory

Two protozoan species as well as an uncharacterized protozoan consortium were added to a toluene-degrading biotrickling filter to investigate protozoan predation as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass formation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced from 13.875 k...

61

Multiple tubulin forms in ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena and Paramecium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Tetrahymena and Paramecium species are widely used representatives of the phylum Ciliata. Ciliates are particularly suitable model organisms for studying\\u000a the functional heterogeneity of tubulins, since they provide a wide range of different microtubular structures in a single\\u000a cell. Sequencing projects of the genomes of members of these two genera are in progress. Nearly all members of the tubulin\\u000a superfamily

L. Libusová; P. Dráber

2006-01-01

62

Record of a gregarine (Apicomplexa: Neogregarinida) in the abdomen of the termite Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Coptotermes gestroi is an exotic species of termite that is a pest of great economical importance in Brazil. This paper relates the occurrence of a coelomic gregarine (Apicomplexa: Neogregarinida) in the abdomen of the foraging workers recently collected from field colonies of this termite. The termite hosts presented large, white abdomens because they carried 1 up to 3 cysts of gregarines filled with numerous lemon-shaped spores. Earlier developmental stages of this gregarine were not observed in the scanning microscope preparations nor in the histological slides of the infected termites. However, the lemon-shaped spores suggest a parasite gregarine of Mattesia genus, family Lipotrophidae. PMID:17888946

Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Casarin, Fabiana E; Constantini, Joice P

2007-08-14

63

Molecular Phylogenetic Relatedness of Frenkelia spp. (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) to Sarcocystis falcatula Stiles 1893: Is the Genus Sarcocystis Paraphyletic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coccidians Frenkelia microti and F. glareoli (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) form tissue cysts in the brain of small rodents (intermediate hosts) while oocysts are formed in the intestine of final hosts, buzzards of the genus Buteo. The inclusion of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences (SSU rRNA) of both Frenkelia species into the SSU rRNA trees of other, tissue cyst-

Jan Votypka; Vaclav Hypša; Milan Jirku; Jaroslav Flegr; Jiri Vavra; Julius Lukes

1998-01-01

64

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Multi-Subunit Tethering Complexes Demonstrates an Ancient Pan-Eukaryotic Complement and Sculpting in Apicomplexa  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during, and possibly pre-dating, the move from free-living marine algae to deadly human parasites.

Klinger, Christen M.; Klute, Mary J.; Dacks, Joel B.

2013-01-01

65

[Community characteristics of soil ciliated protozoan at Dapeng Peninsula].  

PubMed

With the qualitative and quantitative analysis, the community characteristics of soil ciliated protozoan sample from Dapeng Peninsula, Guangdong province was studied. The comunity consisted of 42 species of ciliates, including 4 new records in China. The major species were Cohnilembus vexillarius, Colpoda henneguy, Clopoda steinii, Histriculus muscorum, Gonostomum affine, Drepanomonas revolata, Leptopharynx costatus and Dileptus alpinus. Culturing the ciliated protozoan in laboratory showed that the species succession of domimant speies during the culture was from Gonostomum affine and Histriculus muscorum n the early stage to Cohnilembus vexillaria, and then to Colpoda spp. The difference of soil cliated communities between in Dapeng Peninsula and other regions was compared, and the possible factors affecting the difference were analyzed. PMID:11767648

Xu, R; Sun, Y

2000-06-01

66

Neutrophils cast extracellular traps in response to protozoan parasites  

PubMed Central

Release of extracellular traps by neutrophils is a now well-established phenomenon that contributes to the innate response to extracellular bacterial and fungal pathogens. The importance of NETs during protozoan infection has been less explored, but recent findings suggest an emerging role for release of neutrophil-derived extracellular DNA in response to this class of microbial pathogens. The present review summarizes findings to date regarding elicitation of NETs by Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Eimeria bovis, and Leishmania spp.

Abdallah, Delbert S. Abi; Denkers, Eric Y.

2012-01-01

67

Fine structure and putative feeding mechanism of the archigregarine Selenidium orientale (Apicomplexa: Gregarinomorpha).  

PubMed

Archigregarines are considered one of the most plesiomorphic groups of Apicomplexa. Until recently, however, this viewpoint was based mainly on the results of the detailed investigation of a single species, Selenidium hollandei. The present study of the fine structure of trophozoites of another archigregarine species Selenidium orientale Bogolepova, 1953. (Apicomplexa, Archigregarinida, as proposed by Grassé and Schrével), with special reference to the forebody structure of the attached individuals, allows more confident discussion of the plesiomorphic status of the archigregarines. Specimens of S. orientale were collected from the midgut of the Pacific sipunculid Themiste pyroides Chamberlain, 1920. The ultrastructure of the trophozoites generally corresponds to that of other studied species of Selenidium. Differences in the forebody structure between S. orientale and S. hollandei do not conflict with Schrével's hypothesis on the feeding function of the apical complex in archigregarine trophozoites, although they suggest that, in S. orientale at least, the cytostome is not a persistent structure, but re-opens for each sucking event, and Selenidium trophozoites feed by intermittent sucking of host cytoplasm. Microtubules in the axial zone of the mucron neck may mediate the transport of food vacuoles. PMID:17126539

Simdyanov, Timur G; Kuvardina, Olga N

2006-11-28

68

Electing a candidate: a speculative history of the bacterial phylum OP10.  

PubMed

In 1998, a cultivation-independent survey of the microbial community in Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, detected 12 new phyla within the Domain Bacteria. These were dubbed 'candidate divisions' OP1 to OP12. Since that time the OP10 candidate division has been commonly detected in various environments, usually as part of the rare biosphere, but occasionally as a predominant community component. Based on 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, OP10 comprises at least 12 class-level subdivisions. However, despite this broad ecological and evolutionary diversity, all OP10 bacteria have eluded cultivation until recently. In 2011, two reference species of OP10 were taxonomically validated, removing the phylum from its 'candidate' status. Construction of a highly resolved phylogeny based on 29 universally conserved genes verifies its standing as a unique bacterial phylum. In the following paper we summarize what is known and what is suspected about the newest described bacterial phylum, the Armatimonadetes. PMID:22497633

Dunfield, Peter F; Tamas, Ivica; Lee, Kevin C; Morgan, Xochitl C; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

2012-04-13

69

Cytokinesis arrest and nuclear fission in low density populations of trichomonad protozoan.  

PubMed

Cell growth of anaerobic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus was analyzed. This protozoan usually proliferates in extremely high density, but protozoan parasites were dispersed uniformly in F-bouillon medium and cell division stopped temporarily. However, nuclear fission continued and giant polynucleated cells formed. Later, cell division resumed and cells returned to normal form. In conditioned medium, cytokinesis of the dispersed parasites did not stop. Results indicated that T. foetus cells secreted an extracellular factor that influenced cytokinesis. PMID:12426470

Hayashi, Hiromi; Sakai, Hitomi; Minakuchi-Fujiwara, Wakako; Takayama, Miki; Nakamura-Murata, Michiko; Kamo, Ryoko; Funakoshi, Kanako; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Kanemaru, Kaori; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Oyama, Yasuo; Shinohara, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshihiro

2002-10-01

70

Vertebrate Cell Cycle Modulates Infection by Protozoan Parasites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronized HeLa cell populations were exposed to Trypanosoma cruzi or Toxoplasma gondii, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that cause Chagas' disease and toxoplasmosis, respectively, in humans. The ability of the two parasites to infect HeLa cells increased as the HeLa cells proceeded from the G1 phase to the S phase of their growth cycle and decreased as the cells entered G2-M. Characterization of the S-phase cell surface components responsible for this phenomenon could be beneficial in the development of vaccines against these parasitic diseases.

Dvorak, James A.; Crane, Mark St. J.

1981-11-01

71

Physiological Studies of the Rumen Protozoan Ophryoscolex caudatus Eberlein1  

PubMed Central

The rumen ciliate Ophryoscolex caudatus fermented starch with the production of acetic, butyric, and lactic acids plus CO2 and H2. Cellulose was not significantly metabolized although pectin was rapidly attacked in the Warburg apparatus. The protein sources, cottonseed, soybean, and linseed oil meals, and the amino acids, dl-alanine, dl-valine, and dl-leucine, were utilized by the protozoan, whereas ammonia was demonstrated as an end product of nitrogenous metabolism. Methods for the separation of O. caudatus from mixed rumen contents are described. Images FIG. 1

Williams, P. P.; Davis, R. E.; Doetsch, R. N.; Gutierrez, J.

1961-01-01

72

Chromatin modifications, epigenetics, and how protozoan parasites regulate their lives  

PubMed Central

Chromatin structure plays a vital role in epigenetic regulation of protozoan parasite gene expression. Epigenetic gene regulation impacts parasite virulence, differentiation and cell cycle control. Recent work in many laboratories has elucidated the functions of histone modifying proteins that regulate parasite gene expression by chemical modification of constituent nucleosomes. A major focus of investigation has been characterizing post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones and identifying the enzymes that are responsible. Despite conserved features and specificity common to all eukaryotes, parasite enzymes involved in chromatin modification have unique functions that regulate unique aspects of parasite biology.

Croken, Matthew M.; Nardelli, Sheila C.; Kim, Kami

2012-01-01

73

A new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the greenfinch Carduelis chloris (Passeriformes: Fringillidae).  

PubMed

A new species of isosporan (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the greenfinch, Carduelis chloris (Passeriformes: Fringillidae), in England. Oocysts of Isospora daszaki n.sp. are spherical to subspherical, 18.8 × 20.3 (16.8-22.4 × 16.8-25.2) ?m, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.08 (1.07-1.1). Micropyle, polar granules and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporocysts are 9.4 × 14.8 (8.4-11.2 × 12.6-18.2) ?m, a shape index of 1.6, with Stieda and substieda bodies. Gamogony was seen in the ileum, and merozoites were present in blood lymphocytes. PMID:22706904

Ball, S J; Brown, M A; Snow, K R

2012-06-16

74

Isospora canaria Box, 1975 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from canaries Serinus canaria Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Isospora canaria Box, 1975 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is reported and described from canaries Serinus canaria (Linnaeus) in southeast Brazil. Its oöcysts are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 24.4 × 22.2 ?m, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~1.2 ?m. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 17.6 × 10.6 ?m. The Stieda body is nipple-like, and substieda body is prominent and homogeneous. The sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules. The sporozoite has anterior and posterior refractile bodies and a nucleus. The report of this coccidium recovered from exotic canaries in South America is relevant to native passerines, mainly to Carduelis yarrellii, which are listed as vulnerable species by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). PMID:23595491

Berto, Bruno P; Ferreira, Ildemar; Flausino, Walter; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G

2013-04-18

75

Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia,

Shaobin Hou; Kira S Makarova; Jimmy HW Saw; Pavel Senin; Benjamin V Ly; Zhemin Zhou; Yan Ren; Jianmei Wang; Michael Y Galperin; Marina V Omelchenko; Yuri I Wolf; Natalya Yutin; Eugene V Koonin; Matthew B Stott; Michelle A Crowe; Angela V Smirnova; Peter F Dunfield; Lu Feng; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

76

Complete Genome Sequence of Acidaminococcus intestini RYC-MR95, a Gram-Negative Bacterium from the Phylum Firmicutes  

PubMed Central

Acidaminococcus intestini belongs to the family Acidaminococcaceae, order Selenomonadales, class Negativicutes, phylum Firmicutes. Negativicutes show the double-membrane system of Gram-negative bacteria, although their chromosomal backbone is closely related to that of Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. The complete genome of a clinical A. intestini strain is here presented.

D'Auria, Giuseppe; Galan, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez-Alcayna, Manuel; Moya, Andres; Baquero, Fernando; Latorre, Amparo

2011-01-01

77

Phylogenetic delineation of the novel phylum Armatimonadetes (former candidate division OP10) and definition of two novel candidate divisions.  

PubMed

Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences associated with the phylum Armatimonadetes were analyzed using multiple phylogenetic methods, clarifying both the phylum boundary and the affiliation of previously ambiguous groupings. Here we define the Armatimonadetes as 10 class-level groups and reclassify two previously associated groups as candidate divisions WS1 and FBP. PMID:23377935

Lee, K C Y; Herbold, C W; Dunfield, P F; Morgan, X C; McDonald, I R; Stott, M B

2013-02-01

78

Phylogenetic Delineation of the Novel Phylum Armatimonadetes (Former Candidate Division OP10) and Definition of Two Novel Candidate Divisions  

PubMed Central

Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences associated with the phylum Armatimonadetes were analyzed using multiple phylogenetic methods, clarifying both the phylum boundary and the affiliation of previously ambiguous groupings. Here we define the Armatimonadetes as 10 class-level groups and reclassify two previously associated groups as candidate divisions WS1 and FBP.

Herbold, C. W.; Dunfield, P. F.; Morgan, X. C.; McDonald, I. R.; Stott, M. B.

2013-01-01

79

Isospora bocamontensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Vieillot) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the endangered yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Vieillot) in southern Brazil. Isospora bocamontensis n. sp. has oöcysts which are subspheroidal, measure 32.1 × 28.9 ?m and have a smooth, bilayered wall c.1.5 ?m thick. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is sometimes present. Its sporocysts are\\u000a ellipsoidal and 17.3 × 12.2 ?m

Larissa Q. Pereira; Bruno P. Berto; Walter Flausino; Maristela Lovato; Carlos W. G. Lopes

2011-01-01

80

Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented. PMID:23448656

Buchmann, Kurt

2013-03-01

81

The roles of intramembrane proteases in protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Intramembrane proteolysis is widely conserved throughout different forms of life, with three major types of proteases being known for their ability to cleave peptide bonds directly within the transmembrane domains of their substrates. Although intramembrane proteases have been extensively studied in humans and model organisms, they have only more recently been investigated in protozoan parasites, where they turn out to play important and sometimes unexpected roles. Signal peptide peptidases are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and signal peptide degradation from exported proteins. Recent studies suggest that repurposing inhibitors developed for blocking presenilins may be useful for inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium, and possibly other protozoan parasites, by blocking signal peptide peptidases. Rhomboid proteases, originally described in the fly, are also widespread in parasites, and are especially expanded in apicomplexans. Their study in parasites has revealed novel roles that expand our understanding of how these proteases function. Within this diverse group of parasites, rhomboid proteases contribute to processing of adhesins involved in attachment, invasion, intracellular replication, phagocytosis, and immune evasion, placing them at the vertex of host-parasite interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. PMID:24099008

Sibley, L David

2013-12-01

82

Phylogenomics-Based Reconstruction of Protozoan Species Tree  

PubMed Central

We have developed a semi-automatic methodology to reconstruct the phylogenetic species tree in Protozoa, integrating different phylogenetic algorithms and programs, and demonstrating the utility of a supermatrix approach to construct phylogenomics-based trees using 31 universal orthologs (UO). The species tree obtained was formed by three major clades that were related to three groups of data: i) Species containing at least 80% of UO (25/31) in the concatenated multiple alignment or supermatrix, this clade was called C1, ii) Species containing between 50%–79% (15–24/31) of UO called C2, and iii) Species containing less than 50% (1–14/31) of UO called C3. C1 was composed by only protozoan species, C2 was composed by species related to Protozoa, and C3 was composed by some species of C1 (Protozoa) and C2 (related to Protozoa). Our phylogenomics-based methodology using a supermatrix approach proved to be reliable with protozoan genome data and using at least 25 UO, suggesting that (a) the more UO used the better, (b) using the entire UO sequence or just a conserved block of it for the supermatrix produced similar phylogenomic trees.

Ocana, Kary A.C.S.; Davila, Alberto M.R.

2011-01-01

83

A Detoxifying Oxygen Reductase in the Anaerobic Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica has four genes that encode flavodiiron proteins, which are bacterial-type oxygen or nitric oxide reductases and were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The EhFdp1 gene has higher expression in virulent than in nonvirulent Entamoeba strains and species, hinting that the response to oxidative stress may be one correlate of virulence potential. We demonstrate that EhFdp1 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica and that the protein levels are markedly increased (up to ?5-fold) upon oxygen exposure. Additionally, we produced fully functional recombinant EhFdp1 and demonstrated that this enzyme is a specific and robust oxygen reductase but has poor nitric oxide reductase activity. This observation represents a new mechanism of oxygen resistance in the anaerobic protozoan pathogen E. histolytica.

Vicente, Joao B.; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel

2012-01-01

84

Gene Discovery by EST Sequencing in Toxoplasma gondii Reveals Sequences Restricted to the Apicomplexa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To accelerate gene discovery and facilitate genetic mapping in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we have generated >7000 new ESTs from the 58 ends of randomly selected tachyzoite cDNAs. Comparison of the ESTs with the existing gene databases identified possible functions for more than 500 new T. gondii genes by virtue of sequence motifs shared with conserved protein families, including

James W. Ajioka; John C. Boothroyd; Brian P. Brunk; Adrian Hehl; Ledeana Hillier; Ian D. Manger; Marco Marra; G. Christian Overton; David S. Roos; Kiew-Lian Wan; Robert Waterston; L. David Sibley

1998-01-01

85

The phylum Nanoarchaeota: Present knowledge and future perspectives of a unique form of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Nanoarchaeota” are a novel archaeal phylum, forming a unique, deep branch in the 16S rRNA based phylogenetic tree of life. “Nanoarchaeum equitans”, the first cultivated representative, is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic nano-sized coccus with a genome size of about 490 kb. Growth occurs only in coculture with a new chemolithoautotrophic Ignicoccus species.

Harald Huber; Michael J. Hohn; Karl O. Stetter; Reinhard Rachel

2003-01-01

86

A Broad Molecular Phylogeny of Ciliates: Identification of Major Evolutionary Trends and Radiations within the Phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular architecture of ciliates is one of the most complex known within eukaryotes. Detailed systematic schemes have thus been constructed through extensive comparative morphological and ultrastructural analysis of the ciliature and of its internal cytoskeletal derivatives (the infraciliature), as well as of the architecture of the oral apparatus. In recent years, a consensus was reached in which the phylum

Anne Baroin-Tourancheau; Pilar Delgado; Roland Perasso; Andre Adoutte

1992-01-01

87

Widespread vertical transmission and associated host sex-ratio distortion within the eukaryotic phylum Microspora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical transmission (VT) and associated manipulation of host reproduction are widely reported among prokaryotic endosymbionts. Here, we present evidence for widespread use of VT and associated sex-ratio distortion in a eukaryotic phylum. The Microspora are an unusual and diverse group of eukaryotic parasites that infect all animal phyla. Following our initial description of a microsporidian that feminizes its crus- tacean

Rebecca S. Terry; Judith E. Smith; Rosie G. Sharpe; Thierry Rigaud; D. T. J. Littlewood; J. E. Ironside; D. Rollinson; D. Bouchon; C. MacNeil; J. T. A. Dick; A. M. Dunn

2004-01-01

88

A Molecular Phylogenetic Framework for the Phylum Ctenophora Using 18S rRNA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the phylum Ctenophora, by use of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from most of the major taxa. The ctenophores form a distinct monophyletic group that, based on this gene phylogeny, is most closely related to the cnidarians. Our results suggest that the ancestral ctenophore was tentaculate and cydippid-like and that the presently

Mircea Podar; Steven H. D. Haddock; Mitchell L. Sogin; G. Richard Harbison

2001-01-01

89

Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain UCD-TDU (Phylum Actinobacteria).  

PubMed

Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain UCD-TDU, a member of the phylum Actinobacteria. The assembly contains 3,746,321 bp (in 8 scaffolds). This strain was isolated from a residential toilet as part of an undergraduate student research project to sequence reference genomes of microbes from the built environment. PMID:23516225

Bendiks, Zachary A; Lang, Jenna M; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

2013-03-21

90

Draft Genome Sequence of Kocuria sp. Strain UCD-OTCP (Phylum Actinobacteria)  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of Kocuria sp. strain UCD-OTCP, a member of the phylum Actinobacteria, isolated from a restaurant chair cushion. The assembly contains 3,791,485 bp (G+C content of 73%) and is contained in 68 scaffolds.

Coil, David A.; Doctor, Jessica I.; Lang, Jenna M.; Darling, Aaron E.

2013-01-01

91

Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi  

PubMed Central

Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB.

Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jorg; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

92

Newly isolated but uncultivated magnetotactic bacterium of the phylum Nitrospirae from Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in the phylum Nitrospirae synthesize up to hundreds of intracellular bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes. In the present study, a watermelon-shaped magnetotactic bacterium (designated MWB-1) from Lake Beihai in Beijing, China, was characterized. This uncultivated microbe was identified as a member of the phylum Nitrospirae and represents a novel phylogenetic lineage with ?6% 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from all currently described MTB. MWB-1 contained 200 to 300 intracellular bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes and showed a helical swimming trajectory under homogeneous magnetic fields; its magnetotactic velocity decreased with increasing field strength, and vice versa. A robust phylogenetic framework for MWB-1 and all currently known MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae was constructed utilizing maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms, which yielded strong evidence that the Nitrospirae MTB could be divided into four well-supported groups. Considering its population densities in sediment and its high numbers of magnetosomes, MWB-1 was estimated to account for more than 10% of the natural remanent magnetization of the surface sediment. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae are more diverse than previously realized and can make important contributions to the sedimentary magnetization in particular environments. PMID:22113917

Lin, Wei; Li, Jinhua; Pan, Yongxin

2011-11-23

93

Newly Isolated but Uncultivated Magnetotactic Bacterium of the Phylum Nitrospirae from Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in the phylum Nitrospirae synthesize up to hundreds of intracellular bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes. In the present study, a watermelon-shaped magnetotactic bacterium (designated MWB-1) from Lake Beihai in Beijing, China, was characterized. This uncultivated microbe was identified as a member of the phylum Nitrospirae and represents a novel phylogenetic lineage with ?6% 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from all currently described MTB. MWB-1 contained 200 to 300 intracellular bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes and showed a helical swimming trajectory under homogeneous magnetic fields; its magnetotactic velocity decreased with increasing field strength, and vice versa. A robust phylogenetic framework for MWB-1 and all currently known MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae was constructed utilizing maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms, which yielded strong evidence that the Nitrospirae MTB could be divided into four well-supported groups. Considering its population densities in sediment and its high numbers of magnetosomes, MWB-1 was estimated to account for more than 10% of the natural remanent magnetization of the surface sediment. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae are more diverse than previously realized and can make important contributions to the sedimentary magnetization in particular environments.

Li, Jinhua; Pan, Yongxin

2012-01-01

94

Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally called the candidate phylum OP10.  

PubMed

A novel aerobic, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, strain YO-36(T), isolated from the rhizoplane of an aquatic plant (a reed, Phragmites australis) inhabiting a freshwater lake in Japan, was morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically characterized. Strain YO-36(T) was Gram-negative and ovoid to rod-shaped, and formed pinkish hard colonies on agar plates. Strain YO-36(T) grew at 20-40 °C with optimum growth at 30-35 °C, whilst no growth was observed at 15 °C or 45 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-8.5 with an optimum at pH 6.5. Strain YO-36(T) utilized a limited range of substrates, such as sucrose, gentiobiose, pectin, gellan gum and xanthan gum. The strain contained C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1), C(14 : 0) and C(15 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acids and menaquinone-12 as the respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YO-36(T) belonged to the candidate phylum OP10 comprised solely of environmental 16S rRNA gene clone sequences except for two strains, P488 and T49 isolated from geothermal soil in New Zealand; strain YO-36(T) showed less than 80 % sequence similarity to strains P488 and T47. Based on the phylogetic and phenotypic findings, a new genus and species, Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the isolate (type strain YO-36(T) ?=?NBRC 105658(T) ?=?DSM 23562(T)). In addition, a new bacterial phylum named Armatimonadetes phyl. nov. is proposed for the candidate phylum OP10 represented by A. rosea gen. nov., sp. nov. and Armatimonadaceae fam. nov., Armatimonadales ord. nov., and Armatimonadia classis nov. PMID:20622056

Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Meng, Xian-Ying; Hanada, Satoshi; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

2010-07-09

95

Phylogeny and molecular signatures for the phylum Thermotogae and its subgroups.  

PubMed

Thermotogae species are currently identified mainly on the basis of their unique toga and distinct branching in the rRNA and other phylogenetic trees. No biochemical or molecular markers are known that clearly distinguish the species from this phylum from all other bacteria. The taxonomic/evolutionary relationships within this phylum, which consists of a single family, are also unclear. We report detailed phylogenetic analyses on Thermotogae species based on concatenated sequences for many ribosomal as well as other conserved proteins that identify a number of distinct clades within this phylum. Additionally, comprehensive analyses of protein sequences from Thermotogae genomes have identified >60 Conserved Signature Indels (CSI) that are specific for the Thermotogae phylum or its different subgroups. Eighteen CSIs in important proteins such as PolI, RecA, TrpRS and ribosomal proteins L4, L7/L12, S8, S9, etc. are uniquely present in various Thermotogae species and provide molecular markers for the phylum. Many CSIs were specific for a number of Thermotogae subgroups. Twelve of these CSIs were specific for a clade consisting of various Thermotoga species except Tt. lettingae, which was separated from other Thermotoga species by a long branch in phylogenetic trees; Fourteen CSIs were specific for a clade consisting of the Fervidobacterium and Thermosipho genera and eight additional CSIs were specific for the genus Thermosipho. In addition, the existence of a clade consisting of the deep branching species Petrotoga mobilis, Kosmotoga olearia and Thermotogales bacterium mesG1 was supported by seven CSIs. The deep branching of this clade was also supported by a number of CSIs that were present in various Thermotogae species, but absent in this clade and all other bacteria. Most of these clades were strongly supported by phylogenetic analyses based on two datasets of protein sequences and they identify potential higher taxonomic grouping (viz. families) within this phylum. We also report 16 CSIs that are shared by either some or all Thermotogae species and some species from other taxa such as Archaea, Aquificae, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomus, Chloroflexi and eukaryotes. The shared presence of some of these CSIs could be due to lateral gene transfers between these groups. However, no clear preference for any particular group was observed in this regard. The molecular probes based on different genes/proteins, which contain these Thermotogae-specific CSIs, provide novel and highly specific means for identification of both known as well as previously unknown Thermotogae species in different environments. Additionally, these CSIs also provide valuable tools for genetic and biochemical studies that could lead to discovery of novel properties that are unique to these bacteria. PMID:21503713

Gupta, Radhey S; Bhandari, Vaibhav

2011-04-19

96

A partial phylogenetic analysis of the "flavobacter-bacteroides" phylum: basis for taxonomic restructuring.  

PubMed

On the basis of small subunit rRNA sequence analyses five major subgroups within the flavobacteria-bacteroides phylum have been defined. These are tentatively designated the cytophaga subgroup (comprising largely Cytophaga species), the flavobacter subgroup (comprising the true flavobacteria and the polyphyletic genus Weeksella), the bacteroides subgroup (comprising the bacteroides and certain cytophaga-like bacteria), the sphingobacter subgroup (which contains the known sphingolipid-producing members of the phylum), and the saprospira subgroup (comprising particular species of Flexibacter, Flavobacterium, Haliscomenobacter, and, of course, the genus Saprospira). These groupings are given not only by evolutionary distance analysis, but can be defined and distinguished on the basis of a simple small subunit rRNA signatures. PMID:11541229

Gherna, R; Woese, C R

1992-12-01

97

A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chytridiomycota (chytrids) is the only phylum of true Fungi that reproduces with motile spores (zoospores). Chytrids currently are classified into five orders based on habitat, zoospore characters and life cycles. In this paper we estimate the phylogeny of the chytrids with DNA sequences from the ribosomal RNA operon (18S+5.8S+28S subunits). To our surprise the morphologically reduced para- sites Olpidium and

Timothy Y. James; Peter M. Letcher; Joyce E. Longcore; Sharon E. Mozley-Standridge; David Porter; Martha J. Powell; Gareth W. Griffith; R. Vilgalys

2006-01-01

98

Distribution and culturability of the uncultivated ‘AGG58 cluster’ of the Bacteroidetes phylum in aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum are abundant in aquatic habitats when assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation and in some 16S rRNA gene libraries. In this study 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed with bacterial primers that amplify Bacteroidetes sequences well (27F, 1492R) from coastal seawater near Plymouth (UK) during a phytoplankton bloom. Most of the clones (66%, 106\\/160)

Louise A. O’Sullivan; Katherine E. Fuller; Ellen M. Thomas; Carol M. Turley; John C. Fry; Andrew J. Weightman

2004-01-01

99

A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic symbiont  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to small subunit ribosomal RNA (ss rRNA) sequence comparisons all known Archaea belong to the phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and-indicated only by environmental DNA sequences-to the `Korarchaeota'. Here we report the cultivation of a new nanosized hyperthermophilic archaeon from a submarine hot vent. This archaeon cannot be attached to one of these groups and therefore must represent an unknown phylum

Harald Huber; Michael J. Hohn; Reinhard Rachel; Tanja Fuchs; Verena C. Wimmer; Karl O. Stetter

2002-01-01

100

Unravelling the genetic diversity of ruminal bacteria belonging to the CFB phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biology approaches were employed to examine the genetic diversity of bacteria from the Cytophaga\\/Flexibacter\\/Bacteroides (CFB) phylum in the rumen of cattle. By this means we were able to identify cultured strains that represent some of the larger CFB clusters previously identified only by PCR amplification and sequencing. Complete 16S rDNA sequences were obtained for 16 previously isolated rumen strains,

Andreja Ramšak; Matjaž Peterka; Kiyoshi Tajima; Jenny C. Martin; Jacqueline Wood; Moira E. A. Johnston; Roustam I. Aminov; Harry J. Flint; Gorazd Avguštin

2000-01-01

101

Molecular Evidence for Inclusion of the Phylum Pentastomida in the Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic status of the phylum Pentastomida (tongue worms) was considered on the basis of comparison of nucleotide sequences of 18s ribosomal RNA from the pentastome Porocephalus crotali, the branchiuran crustacean fish louse Argulus nobilis, other crustaceans, and representatives of the Annelida, Chelicerata, Myria- poda, and Insecta. Maximum parsimony and invariants (at P < 0.04) analyses support an Argulus\\/PorocephaZus clade,

L. G. Abele; W. Kim; B. E. FelgenhaueQ

102

Detection and in situ identification of representatives of a widely distributed new bacterial phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning from soil samples taken periodically from a field with genetically modified plants. Sequence analyses of the cloned rDNAs indicated that 140 of them clustered apart from known bacterial phyla. Based on 31 full sequences a new phylum could be defined. It includes Holophaga foetida, `Geothrix fermentans' and

Wolfgang Ludwig; Stephan H. Bauer; Marc Bauer; Iris Held; Gudrun Kirchhof; Renate Schulze; Ingrid Huber; Stefan Spring; Anton Hartmann; Karl Heinz Schleifer

1997-01-01

103

Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.  

PubMed

The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

2012-11-02

104

Enrichment and molecular detection of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria of the NC10 phylum.  

PubMed

Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification was recently assigned to bacteria belonging to the uncultured phylum NC10. In this study, we incubated sediment from a eutrophic ditch harboring a diverse community of NC10 bacteria in a bioreactor with a constant supply of methane and nitrite. After 6 months, fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria dominated the resulting population. The enrichment culture oxidized methane and reduced nitrite to dinitrogen gas. We assessed NC10 phylum diversity in the inoculum and the enrichment culture, compiled the sequences currently available for this bacterial phylum, and showed that of the initial diversity, only members of one subgroup had been enriched. The growth of this subgroup was monitored by quantitative PCR and correlated to nitrite-reducing activity and the total biomass of the culture. Together, the results indicate that the enriched subgroup of NC10 bacteria is responsible for anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to nitrite reduction. Due to methodological limitations (a strong bias against NC10 bacteria in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and inhibition by commonly used stopper material) the environmental distribution and importance of these bacteria could be largely underestimated at present. PMID:19329658

Ettwig, Katharina F; van Alen, Theo; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka T; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

2009-03-27

105

Improving the coverage of the cyanobacterial phylum using diversity-driven genome sequencing  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterial phylum encompasses oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes of a great breadth of morphologies and ecologies; they play key roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The chloroplasts of all photosynthetic eukaryotes can trace their ancestry to cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria also attract considerable interest as platforms for “green” biotechnology and biofuels. To explore the molecular basis of their different phenotypes and biochemical capabilities, we sequenced the genomes of 54 phylogenetically and phenotypically diverse cyanobacterial strains. Comparison of cyanobacterial genomes reveals the molecular basis for many aspects of cyanobacterial ecophysiological diversity, as well as the convergence of complex morphologies without the acquisition of novel proteins. This phylum-wide study highlights the benefits of diversity-driven genome sequencing, identifying more than 21,000 cyanobacterial proteins with no detectable similarity to known proteins, and foregrounds the diversity of light-harvesting proteins and gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Additionally, our results provide insight into the distribution of genes of cyanobacterial origin in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Moreover, this study doubles both the amount and the phylogenetic diversity of cyanobacterial genome sequence data. Given the exponentially growing number of sequenced genomes, this diversity-driven study demonstrates the perspective gained by comparing disparate yet related genomes in a phylum-wide context and the insights that are gained from it.

Shih, Patrick M.; Wu, Dongying; Latifi, Amel; Axen, Seth D.; Fewer, David P.; Talla, Emmanuel; Calteau, Alexandra; Cai, Fei; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole; Rippka, Rosmarie; Herdman, Michael; Sivonen, Kaarina; Coursin, Therese; Laurent, Thierry; Goodwin, Lynne; Nolan, Matt; Davenport, Karen W.; Han, Cliff S.; Rubin, Edward M.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Woyke, Tanja; Gugger, Muriel; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

2013-01-01

106

Improving the coverage of the cyanobacterial phylum using diversity-driven genome sequencing.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterial phylum encompasses oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes of a great breadth of morphologies and ecologies; they play key roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The chloroplasts of all photosynthetic eukaryotes can trace their ancestry to cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria also attract considerable interest as platforms for "green" biotechnology and biofuels. To explore the molecular basis of their different phenotypes and biochemical capabilities, we sequenced the genomes of 54 phylogenetically and phenotypically diverse cyanobacterial strains. Comparison of cyanobacterial genomes reveals the molecular basis for many aspects of cyanobacterial ecophysiological diversity, as well as the convergence of complex morphologies without the acquisition of novel proteins. This phylum-wide study highlights the benefits of diversity-driven genome sequencing, identifying more than 21,000 cyanobacterial proteins with no detectable similarity to known proteins, and foregrounds the diversity of light-harvesting proteins and gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Additionally, our results provide insight into the distribution of genes of cyanobacterial origin in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Moreover, this study doubles both the amount and the phylogenetic diversity of cyanobacterial genome sequence data. Given the exponentially growing number of sequenced genomes, this diversity-driven study demonstrates the perspective gained by comparing disparate yet related genomes in a phylum-wide context and the insights that are gained from it. PMID:23277585

Shih, Patrick M; Wu, Dongying; Latifi, Amel; Axen, Seth D; Fewer, David P; Talla, Emmanuel; Calteau, Alexandra; Cai, Fei; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole; Rippka, Rosmarie; Herdman, Michael; Sivonen, Kaarina; Coursin, Therese; Laurent, Thierry; Goodwin, Lynne; Nolan, Matt; Davenport, Karen W; Han, Cliff S; Rubin, Edward M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Woyke, Tanja; Gugger, Muriel; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

2012-12-31

107

Occurrence of Apicomplexa-like structures in the digestive gland of Strombus gigas throughout the Caribbean.  

PubMed

The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a marine resource of ecological and economical importance in the Caribbean region. Given its importance in this region, and the critical status of most populations, the reproductive biology of this species has been studied to support management decisions. It was from these studies that a generalized sporozoan infection was detected. This study describes the geographic distribution of a coccidian (Apicomplexa) parasite infecting the digestive gland of S. gigas throughout the Caribbean. The parasite was present in every location sampled. Based on histological analysis, the parasites from all locations are similar and appear to complete their life cycle within the digestive gland. The highest occurrence of the parasites was registered in samples from Puerto Rico (54 parasites per field) and Martinique (45 parasites per field). The lowest incidence was registered on the Mexican coast of Yucatan peninsula, at Alacranes and Chinchorro with 17 parasites per field. Data showed significant differences among sites (Kruskal Wallis H=106.957; p ? 0.05). The abundance of parasites found in the digestive ducts and in the faeces suggests the liberation of parasites to the environment. A gradual decrease in abundance was found from East to West of the Caribbean sea. PMID:20851703

Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Frenkiel, Liliane; Brulé, Thierry; Montero, Jorge; Cárdenas, Erick Baqueiro

2010-09-21

108

Phylogenetic relationships of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) based on molecular, morphologic, and life-cycle characters.  

PubMed

To evaluate higher-level affinities of Hepatozoon species within Apicomplexa, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 2 parasites (Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon canis) of dogs and 1 (Hepatozoon catesbianae) of bullfrogs. Sequences from other apicomplexans among the Sarcocystiidae, Eimeriidae, Theileriidae, Plasmodiidae, Cryptosporiidae, and Babesiidae, a Perkinsus species and 2 dinoflagellates were obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Hepatozoon form a monophyletic group distinct from representatives of other apicomplexan families. Although equivocal, our analysis indicated that Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium are sister taxa and that Hepatozoon is basal to them. To evaluate phylogenetic affinities among H. americanum, H. canis, and other species of Hepatozoon, we examined 18 morphologic and life-cycle features of 13 species currently assigned to Hepatozoon. This analysis indicates paraphyly of Hepatozoon (as currently arranged) because Hepatozoon lygosomarum was found most closely related to Hemolivia mauritanicum. These results, combined with results of previous studies, support elevating Hepatozoon to familial level (Hepatozoidae) as originally suggested by Wenyon in 1926. Both DNA sequence data and morphologic and life-cycle characters support a sister-group relationship between H. americanum and H. canis. PMID:10780559

Mathew, J S; Van Den Bussche, R A; Ewing, S A; Malayer, J R; Latha, B R; Panciera, R J

2000-04-01

109

Current Developments in the Therapy of Protozoan Infections  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites cause serious human and zoonotic infections, including life-threatening diseases such as malaria, African and American trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. These diseases are no more common in the developed world, but together they still threaten about 40% of the world population (WHO estimates). Mortality and morbidity are high in developing countries, and the lack of vaccines makes chemotherapy the only suitable option. However, available antiparasitic drugs are hampered by more or less marked toxic side effects and by the emergence of drug resistance. As the main prevalence of parasitic diseases occurs in the poorest areas of the world, the interest of the pharmaceutical companies in the development of new drugs has been traditionally scarce. The establishment of public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases is changing this situation, allowing the exploitation of the technological advances that took place during the past decade related to genomics, proteomics, and in silico drug discovery approaches. These techniques allowed the identification of new molecular targets that in some cases are shared by different parasites. In this review we outline the recent developments in the fields of protease and topoisomerase inhibitors, antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides, and RNA interference. We also report on the rapidly developing field of new vectors (micro and nano particles, mesoporous materials) that in some cases can cross host or parasite natural barriers and, by selectively delivering new or already in use drugs to the target site, minimize dosage and side effects.

Zucca, Mario; Savoia, Dianella

2011-01-01

110

Eimeria maxima phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase: locus sequencing, characterization, and cross-phylum comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) may play an important role in host-cell invasion by the Eimeria species, protozoan parasites which can cause severe intestinal disease in livestock. Here, we report the structural organization\\u000a of the PIP5K gene in Eimeria maxima (Weybridge strain). Two E. maxima BAC clones carrying the E. maxima PIP5K (EmPIP5K) coding sequences were selected for shotgun sequencing, yielding

Mei-Yen Goh; Mei-Zhen Pan; Damer P. Blake; Kiew-Lian Wan; Beng-Kah Song

2011-01-01

111

Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

PubMed

1. As parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, there should be strong selection for hosts to evolve and maintain defence mechanisms against their parasites. One way in which hosts may protect themselves against parasitism is through altered behaviours, but such defences have been much less studied than other forms of parasite resistance. 2. We studied whether monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use altered behaviours to protect themselves and their offspring against the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers (1970), Journal of Protozoology, 17, p. 300). In particular, we studied whether (i) monarch larvae can avoid contact with infectious parasite spores; (ii) infected larvae preferentially consume therapeutic food plants when given a choice or increase the intake of such plants in the absence of choice; and (iii) infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal plants that make their offspring less sick. 3. We found that monarch larvae were unable to avoid infectious parasite spores. Larvae were also not able to preferentially feed on therapeutic food plants or increase the ingestion of such plants. However, infected female butterflies preferentially laid their eggs on food plants that reduce parasite growth in their offspring. 4. Our results suggest that animals may use altered behaviours as a protection against parasites and that such behaviours may be limited to a single stage in the host-parasite life cycle. Our results also suggest that animals may use altered behaviours to protect their offspring instead of themselves. Thus, our study indicates that an inclusive fitness approach should be adopted to study behavioural defences against parasites. PMID:21939438

Lefèvre, Thierry; Chiang, Allen; Kelavkar, Mangala; Li, Hui; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Oliver, Lindsay; Potini, Yamini; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

2011-09-21

112

Iminoribitol transition state analogue inhibitors of protozoan nucleoside hydrolases.  

PubMed

Nucleoside N-ribohydrolases from protozoan parasites are targets for inhibitor design in these purine-auxotrophic organisms. Purine-specific and purine/pyrimidine-nonspecific nucleoside hydrolases have been reported. Iminoribitols that are 1-substituted with meta- and para-derivatized phenyl groups [(1S)-substituted 1, 4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitols] are powerful inhibitors for the nonspecific nucleoside N-ribohydrolases, but are weak inhibitiors for purine-specific isozymes [Parkin, D. W., Limberg, G., Tyler, P. C., Furneaux, R. H., Chen, X.-Y., and Schramm, V. L. (1997) Biochemisty 36, 3528-3534]. Binding of these inhibitors to nonspecific nucleoside hydrolase occurs primarily via interaction with the iminoribitol, a ribooxocarbenium ion analogue of the transition state. Weaker interactions arise from hydrophobic interactions between the phenyl group and the purine/pyrimidine site. In contrast, the purine-specific enzymes obtain equal catalytic potential from leaving group activation and ribooxocarbenium ion formation. Knowledge of the reaction mechanisms and transition states for these enzymes has guided the design of isozyme-specific transition state analogue inhibitors. New synthetic efforts have produced novel inhibitors that incorporate features of the leaving group hydrogen-bonding sites while retaining the iminoribitol group. These compounds provide the first transition state analogue inhibitors for purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase. The most inhibitory 1-substituted iminoribitol heterocycle is a sub-nanomolar inhibitor for the purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Novel nanomolar inhibitors are also described for the nonspecific nucleoside hydrolase from Crithidia fasciculata. The compounds reported here are the most powerful iminoribitol inhibitors yet described for the nucleoside hydrolases. PMID:10529186

Miles, R W; Tyler, P C; Evans, G B; Furneaux, R H; Parkin, D W; Schramm, V L

1999-10-01

113

First Cultivation and Ecological Investigation of a Bacterium Affiliated with the Candidate Phylum OP5 from Hot Springs ?  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic group termed OP5 was originally discovered in the Yellowstone National Park hot spring and proposed as an uncultured phylum; the group was afterwards analyzed by applying culture-independent approaches. Recently, a novel thermophilic chemoheterotrophic filamentous bacterium was obtained from a hot spring in Japan that was enriched through various isolation procedures. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolate have revealed that it is closely related to the OP5 phylum that has mainly been constructed with the environmental clones retrieved from thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic environments. It appears that the lineage is independent at the phylum level in the domain Bacteria. Therefore, we designed a primer set for the 16S rRNA gene to specifically target the OP5 phylum and performed quantitative field analysis by using the real-time PCR method. Thus, the 16S rRNA gene of the OP5 phylum was detected in some hot-spring samples with the relative abundance ranging from 0.2% to 1.4% of the prokaryotic organisms detected. The physiology of the above-mentioned isolate and the related environmental clones indicated that they are scavengers contributing to the sulfur cycle in nature.

Mori, Koji; Sunamura, Michinari; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Miyoshi, Youko; Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Urabe, Tetsuro

2008-01-01

114

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti†  

PubMed Central

We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ?3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis.

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoit; Augagneur, Yoann; Bres, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Francoise; Delbecq, Stephane; Moubri-Menage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frederic; Wincker, Patrick; Vivares, Christian P.; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Schetters, Theo P.; Krause, Peter J.; Gorenflot, Andre; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valerie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-01-01

115

Cytoskeleton of Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

The Apicomplexa are a phylum of diverse obligate intracellular parasites including Plasmodium spp., the cause of malaria; Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum, opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised individuals; and Eimeria spp. and Theileria spp., parasites of considerable agricultural importance. These protozoan parasites share distinctive morphological features, cytoskeletal organization, and modes of replication, motility, and invasion. This review summarizes our current understanding of the cytoskeletal elements, the properties of cytoskeletal proteins, and the role of the cytoskeleton in polarity, motility, invasion, and replication. We discuss the unusual properties of actin and myosin in the Apicomplexa, the highly stereotyped microtubule populations in apicomplexans, and a network of recently discovered novel intermediate filament-like elements in these parasites.

Morrissette, Naomi S.; Sibley, L. David

2002-01-01

116

A plastid of probable green algal origin in Apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa contain three genetic elements: the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes characteristic of virtually all eukaryotic cells and a 35-kilobase circular extrachromosomal DNA. In situ hybridization techniques were used to localize the 35-kilobase DNA of Toxoplasma gondii to a discrete organelle surrounded by four membranes. Phylogenetic analysis of the tufA gene encoded by the 35-kilobase genomes of coccidians T. gondii and Eimeria tenella and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum grouped this organellar genome with cyanobacteria and plastids, showing consistent clustering with green algal plastids. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Apicomplexa acquired a plastid by secondary endosymbiosis, probably from a green alga. PMID:9045615

Köhler, S; Delwiche, C F; Denny, P W; Tilney, L G; Webster, P; Wilson, R J; Palmer, J D; Roos, D S

1997-03-01

117

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti.  

PubMed

We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ?3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis. PMID:22833609

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoît; Augagneur, Yoann; Brès, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Delbecq, Stéphane; Moubri-Ménage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Vivarès, Christian P; Schwarz, Ralph T; Schetters, Theo P; Krause, Peter J; Gorenflot, André; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valérie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-07-24

118

Methane oxidation by an extremely acidophilic bacterium of the phylum Verrucomicrobia.  

PubMed

Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria consume methane as it diffuses away from methanogenic zones of soil and sediment. They act as a biofilter to reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere, and they are therefore targets in strategies to combat global climate change. No cultured methanotroph grows optimally below pH 5, but some environments with active methane cycles are very acidic. Here we describe an extremely acidophilic methanotroph that grows optimally at pH 2.0-2.5. Unlike the known methanotrophs, it does not belong to the phylum Proteobacteria but rather to the Verrucomicrobia, a widespread and diverse bacterial phylum that primarily comprises uncultivated species with unknown genotypes. Analysis of its draft genome detected genes encoding particulate methane monooxygenase that were homologous to genes found in methanotrophic proteobacteria. However, known genetic modules for methanol and formaldehyde oxidation were incomplete or missing, suggesting that the bacterium uses some novel methylotrophic pathways. Phylogenetic analysis of its three pmoA genes (encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase) placed them into a distinct cluster from proteobacterial homologues. This indicates an ancient divergence of Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria methanotrophs rather than a recent horizontal gene transfer of methanotrophic ability. The findings show that methanotrophy in the Bacteria is more taxonomically, ecologically and genetically diverse than previously thought, and that previous studies have failed to assess the full diversity of methanotrophs in acidic environments. PMID:18004300

Dunfield, Peter F; Yuryev, Anton; Senin, Pavel; Smirnova, Angela V; Stott, Matthew B; Hou, Shaobin; Ly, Binh; Saw, Jimmy H; Zhou, Zhemin; Ren, Yan; Wang, Jianmei; Mountain, Bruce W; Crowe, Michelle A; Weatherby, Tina M; Bodelier, Paul L E; Liesack, Werner; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2007-11-14

119

Protozoan grazing on bacteria at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake  

SciTech Connect

Protozoan grazing on bacteria has been hypothesized to link the detrital and grazer food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The current study of protozoan bacterivory, evaluated methods, quantified bacterivory, and evaluated the role of protozoa at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake ecosystem, Lake Anna, Virginia. Three limnetic methods for determining protozoan bacterivory were tested for applicability at the sediment-water interface. The eucaryote inhibitor, cycloheximide, was found unsatisfactory because it did not uniformly inhibit growth of target eucaryotes, and because it inhibited non-target anaerobic procaryotes. The filtration method was found to have limited application in sediment systems due to filtrational loss of particle-associated bacteria. The dilution method was tested for violations of its critical assumptions: bacterial growth is exponential; grazing mortality is proportional to the dilution factor; and bacterial growth rates are unaltered under experimental conditions. These assumptions were found not to be violated, and this method was used in subsequent grazing experiments. Carbon loading to the acidified arm of Lake Anna was 41 {times} 10{sup 6} g C {times} y{sup {minus}1}. This appears to be adequate carbon loading to support bacterial production and, in turn, protozoan bacterivory and production. Though there is no direct evidence that zooplankton graze on protozoa in this system, however, there is sufficient protozoan production to support an additional trophic level.

Tremaine, S.C.

1988-01-01

120

Protozoan parasites in group-living primates: testing the biological island hypothesis.  

PubMed

A series of articles by W.J. Freeland published in the 1970s proposed that social organization and behavioral processes were heavily influenced by parasitic infections, which led to a number of intriguing hypotheses concerning how natural selection might act on social factors because of the benefits of avoiding parasite infections. For example, Freeland [1979] showed that all individuals within a given group harbored identical gastrointestinal protozoan faunas, which led him to postulate that social groups were akin to "biological islands" and suggest how this isolation could select specific types of ranging and dispersal patterns. Here, we reexamine the biological island hypothesis by quantifying the protozoan faunas of the same primate species examined by Freeland in the same location; our results do not support this hypothesis. In contrast, we quantified two general changes in protozoan parasite community of primates in the study area of Kibale National Park, Uganda, over the nearly 35 years between sample collections: (1) the colobines found free of parasites in the early 1970s are now infected with numerous intestinal protozoan parasites and (2) groups are no longer biological islands in terms of their protozoan parasites. Whatever the ultimate explanation for these changes, our findings have implications for studies proposing selective forces shaping primate behavior and social organization. PMID:21898515

Chapman, Colin A; Bowman, Dwight D; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Goldberg, Tony L; Rothman, Jessica M; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Walsh, Chesley

2011-09-06

121

Use of Monodispersed, Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria to Estimate In Situ Protozoan Bacterivory †  

PubMed Central

We have developed a procedure for preparing monodispersed, fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB), which may be used to measure virtually instantaneous rates of protozoan bacterivory in natural waters. FLB can be prepared both from natural bacterioplankton assemblages and from clonal isolates and can be stored in frozen suspension or freeze-dried without apparent loss of fluorescence intensity. They are not toxic to protozoa and can be metabolized to support bacterivorous protozoan growth rates equal to those on the same strain of unstained, viable bacteria. In experiments comparing uptake of FLB with uptake of fluorescent latex microspheres by protozoan assemblages in a salt marsh tidal creek, we found that both pelagic oligotrichous ciliates and phagotrophic flagellates ingested FLB with a frequency 4- to 10-fold greater than they ingested the microspheres. Consequently, it appears that the use of latex microspheres leads to underestimation of protozoan bacterivory and that the FLB technique is superior for estimating instantaneous rates of in situ protozoan grazing on bacterioplankton. Images

Sherr, Barry F.; Sherr, Evelyn B.; Fallon, Robert D.

1987-01-01

122

Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential.  

PubMed

Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this "slurry effect" on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, (14)C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in "intact" soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. PMID:22763328

Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R; Brandt, Kristian K; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

2012-07-02

123

A Review of Recent Patents on the Protozoan Parasite HSP90 as a Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Diseases caused by protozoan parasites are still an important health problem. These parasites can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which are severe and have high morbidity or mortality if untreated. Since they are still uncontrolled, it is important to find novel drug targets and develop new therapies to decrease their remarkable social and economic impact on human societies. In the past years, human HSP90 has become an interesting drug target that has led to a large number of investigations both at state organizations and pharmaceutical companies, followed by clinical trials. The finding that HSP90 has important biological roles in some protozoan parasites like Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii and trypanosomatids has allowed the expansion of the results obtained in human cancer to these infections. This review summarizes the latest important findings showing protozoan HSP90 as a drug target and presents three patents targeting T. gondii, P. falciparum and trypanosomatids HSP90.

Angel, Sergio O; Matrajt, Mariana; Echeverria, Pablo C

2013-01-01

124

CD40-CD40L Interaction in Immunity Against Protozoan Infections  

PubMed Central

Activation of the immune system against protozoan infections relies particularly on two specific signals provided by cognate interaction of T cells with antigen presenting cells (APCs). The first signal is attributed to binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) to peptide/MHC complexes on the surface of APCs, whereas the second signal is triggered through binding of several costimulatory molecules on the surface of APCs with their corresponding receptors on T cells. Among these costimulatory signallings, CD40/CD40L interactions have been particularly investigated in protozoan infection models with regard to their potential to amplify cell-mediated immunity against intracellular parasites. This article reviews current studies of the potential role of CD40/CD40L interaction in the modulation of immune responses against some protozoan parasites and highlights recent developments regarding manipulation of this interaction for promoting control of parasite infections.

Chamekh, Mustapha

2007-01-01

125

Parasites and malignancies, a review, with emphasis on digestive cancer induced by Cryptosporidium parvum (Alveolata: Apicomplexa)  

PubMed Central

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identifies ten infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites) able to induce cancer disease in humans. Among parasites, a carcinogenic role is currently recognized to the digenetic trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, leading to bladder cancer, and to Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini, which cause cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, several reports suspected the potential association of other parasitic infections (due to Protozoan or Metazoan parasites) with the development of neoplastic changes in the host tissues. The present work shortly reviewed available data on the involvement of parasites in neoplastic processes in humans or animals, and especially focused on the carcinogenic power of Cryptosporidium parvum infection. On the whole, infection seems to play a crucial role in the etiology of cancer.

Benamrouz, S.; Conseil, V.; Creusy, C.; Calderon, E.; Dei-Cas, E.; Certad, G.

2012-01-01

126

Investigating the origins of triploblasty: `mesodermal' gene expression in a diploblastic animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum, Cnidaria; class, Anthozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoderm played a crucial role in the radiation of the triploblastic Bilateria, permitting the evolution of larger and more complex body plans than in the diploblastic, non- bilaterian animals. The sea anemone Nematostella is a non- bilaterian animal, a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydras and jellyfish) is the likely sister group of the

Mark Q. Martindale; Kevin Pang; John R. Finnerty

2004-01-01

127

Genome Sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an Anaerobic Bacterium from the Phylum Lentisphaerae, Isolated from the Human Gastrointestinal Tract?  

PubMed Central

Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastrointestinal tract.

van Passel, Mark W. J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen Walston; Sims, David; Brettin, Thomas S.; Detter, John C.; Han, Shunsheng; Larimer, Frank W.; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikolaos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, P. Paul; de Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

2011-01-01

128

Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

Mark W. J. Van Passel; Ravi Kant; Airi Palva; Susan Lucas; A Copeland; Alla L. Lapidus; Tijana Glavina Del Rio; Eileen Dalin; Hope Tice; David Bruce; Lynne A. Goodwin; Sam Pitluck; Karen W. Davenport; David Sims; J. Chris Detter; Cliff Han; Frank W Larimer; Miriam L Land; Loren John Hauser; Nikos C Kyrpides; Galina Ovchinnikova; Paul Richardson; Willem M. De Vos; Hauke Smidt; Erwin G. Zoetendal

2011-01-01

129

Activity-Based Metagenomic Screening and Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Ruminal Protozoan Glycoside Hydrolases?†  

PubMed Central

The rumen, the foregut of herbivorous ruminant animals such as cattle, functions as a bioreactor to process complex plant material. Among the numerous and diverse microbes involved in ruminal digestion are the ruminal protozoans, which are single-celled, ciliated eukaryotic organisms. An activity-based screen was executed to identify genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes present in the metatranscriptome of a bovine ruminal protozoan-enriched cDNA expression library. Of the four novel genes identified, two were characterized in biochemical assays. Our results provide evidence for the effective use of functional metagenomics to retrieve novel enzymes from microbial populations that cannot be maintained in axenic cultures.

Findley, Seth D.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Sommer-Hurley, Andrea; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Tipton, Peter; Arnett, Krista; Porter, James H.; Kerley, Monty; Stacey, Gary

2011-01-01

130

Comparative genomics of the Rab protein family in Apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Rab genes encode a subgroup of small GTP-binding proteins within the ras super-family that regulate targeting and fusion of transport vesicles within the secretory and endocytic pathways. These genes are of particular interest in the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa, since a family of Rab GTPases has been described for Plasmodium and most putative secretory pathway proteins in Apicomplexa have conventional predicted signal peptides. Moreover, peptide motifs have now been identified within a large number of secreted Plasmodium proteins that direct their targeting to the red blood cell cytosol, the apicoplast, the food vacuole and Maurer's clefs; in contrast, motifs that direct proteins to secretory organelles (rhoptries, micronemes and microspheres) have yet to be defined. The nature of the vesicle in which these proteins are transported to their destinations remains unknown and morphological structures equivalent to the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi stacks typical of other eukaryotes cannot be visualised in Apicomplexa. Since Rab GTPases regulate vesicular traffic in all eukaryotes, and this traffic in intracellular parasites could regulate import of nutrient and drugs and export of antigens, host cell modulatory proteins and lactate we compare and contrast here the Rab families of Apicomplexa. PMID:18468471

Langsley, Gordon; van Noort, Vera; Carret, Céline; Meissner, Markus; de Villiers, Etienne P; Bishop, Richard; Pain, Arnab

2008-02-08

131

Brevifollis gellanilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a gellan-gum-degrading bacterium of the phylum Verrucomicrobia.  

PubMed

The taxonomic properties of strain DC2c-G4(T), a Gram-staining-negative, ovoid, gellan-gum-degrading bacterial isolate, were examined. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences identified this isolate as a member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and closest to the genus Prosthecobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between this isolate and any of the type strains of species of the genus Prosthecobacter were less than 95 %. In addition, the absence of a single prostheca and the predominant menaquinone MK-7(H2) supported the differentiation of this isolate from the genus Prosthecobacter. Here, we propose Brevifollis gellanilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate the isolate. The type strain of the type species is DC2c-G4(T) (= NBRC 108608(T) = CIP 110457(T)). PMID:23416572

Otsuka, Shigeto; Suenaga, Taku; Vu, Hoan Thi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Akira; Senoo, Keishi

2013-02-15

132

Identification of a possible respiratory arsenate reductase in Denitrovibrio acetiphilus, a member of the phylum Deferribacteres.  

PubMed

Denitrovibrio acetiphilus N2460(T) is one of the few members of the phylum Deferribacteres with a sequenced genome. N2460(T) was capable of growing with dimethyl sulfoxide, selenate, or arsenate provided as a terminal electron acceptor, and we identified 15 genes that could possibly encode respiratory reductases for these compounds. The protein encoded by one of these genes, YP_003504839, clustered with respiratory arsenate reductases on a phylogenetic tree. Transcription of the gene for YP_003504839, Dacet_2121, was highly induced when arsenate was provided as a terminal electron acceptor. Dacet_2121 exists in a possible operon that is distinct from the previously characterized respiratory arsenate reductase operon in Shewanella sp. ANA-3. PMID:23955655

Denton, Kyle; Atkinson, Morgan M; Borenstein, Stacey P; Carlson, Alexis; Carroll, Thomas; Cullity, Kristen; Demarsico, Casey; Ellowitz, Daniel; Gialtouridis, Andrea; Gore, Rachel; Herleikson, April; Ling, Albee Yun; Martin, Rachael; McMahan, Katherine; Naksukpaiboon, Piangfan; Seiz, Audrey; Yearwood, Katrina; O'Neill, James; Wiatrowski, Heather

2013-08-18

133

"Endomicrobia": cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose digestion by wood-feeding termites depends on the mutualistic interaction of unusual, flagellate protists located in their hindgut. Most of the flagellates harbor numerous prokaryotic endosymbionts of so-far-unknown identity and function. Using a full-cycle molecular approach, we show here that the endosymbionts of the larger gut flagellates of Reticulitermes santonensis belong to the so-called termite group 1 (TG-1) bacteria, a group of clones previously obtained exclusively from gut homogenates of Reticulitermes speratus that are only distantly related to other bacteria and are considered a novel bacterial phylum based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with specifically designed oligonucleotide probes confirmed that TG-1 bacteria are indeed located within the flagellate cells and demonstrated that Trichonympha agilis (Hypermastigida) and Pyrsonympha vertens (Oxymonadida) harbor phylogenetically distinct populations of symbionts (<95% sequence similarity). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the symbionts are small, spindle-shaped cells (0.6 microm in length and 0.3 microm in diameter) surrounded by two membranes and located within the cytoplasm of their hosts. The symbionts of the two flagellates are described as candidate species in the candidate genus "Endomicrobium." Moreover, we provide evidence that the members of the TG-1 phylum, for which we propose the candidate name "Endomicrobia," are phylogenetically extremely diverse and are present in and also restricted to the guts of all lower termites and wood-feeding cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus, the only insects that are in an exclusive, obligately mutualistic association with such unique cellulose-fermenting protists. PMID:15746350

Stingl, Ulrich; Radek, Renate; Yang, Hong; Brune, Andreas

2005-03-01

134

Three Genomes from the Phylum Acidobacteria Provide Insight into the Lifestyles of These Microorganisms in Soils? †  

PubMed Central

The complete genomes of three strains from the phylum Acidobacteria were compared. Phylogenetic analysis placed them as a unique phylum. They share genomic traits with members of the Proteobacteria, the Cyanobacteria, and the Fungi. The three strains appear to be versatile heterotrophs. Genomic and culture traits indicate the use of carbon sources that span simple sugars to more complex substrates such as hemicellulose, cellulose, and chitin. The genomes encode low-specificity major facilitator superfamily transporters and high-affinity ABC transporters for sugars, suggesting that they are best suited to low-nutrient conditions. They appear capable of nitrate and nitrite reduction but not N2 fixation or denitrification. The genomes contained numerous genes that encode siderophore receptors, but no evidence of siderophore production was found, suggesting that they may obtain iron via interaction with other microorganisms. The presence of cellulose synthesis genes and a large class of novel high-molecular-weight excreted proteins suggests potential traits for desiccation resistance, biofilm formation, and/or contribution to soil structure. Polyketide synthase and macrolide glycosylation genes suggest the production of novel antimicrobial compounds. Genes that encode a variety of novel proteins were also identified. The abundance of acidobacteria in soils worldwide and the breadth of potential carbon use by the sequenced strains suggest significant and previously unrecognized contributions to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Combining our genomic evidence with available culture traits, we postulate that cells of these isolates are long-lived, divide slowly, exhibit slow metabolic rates under low-nutrient conditions, and are well equipped to tolerate fluctuations in soil hydration.

Ward, Naomi L.; Challacombe, Jean F.; Janssen, Peter H.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Wu, Martin; Xie, Gary; Haft, Daniel H.; Sait, Michelle; Badger, Jonathan; Barabote, Ravi D.; Bradley, Brent; Brettin, Thomas S.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Bruce, David; Creasy, Todd; Daugherty, Sean C.; Davidsen, Tanja M.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Detter, J. Chris; Dodson, Robert J.; Durkin, A. Scott; Ganapathy, Anuradha; Gwinn-Giglio, Michelle; Han, Cliff S.; Khouri, Hoda; Kiss, Hajnalka; Kothari, Sagar P.; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, Karen E.; Nelson, William C.; Paulsen, Ian; Penn, Kevin; Ren, Qinghu; Rosovitz, M. J.; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Sullivan, Steven A.; Tapia, Roxanne; Thompson, L. Sue; Watkins, Kisha L.; Yang, Qi; Yu, Chunhui; Zafar, Nikhat; Zhou, Liwei; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2009-01-01

135

A broad molecular phylogeny of ciliates: identification of major evolutionary trends and radiations within the phylum.  

PubMed Central

The cellular architecture of ciliates is one of the most complex known within eukaryotes. Detailed systematic schemes have thus been constructed through extensive comparative morphological and ultrastructural analysis of the ciliature and of its internal cytoskeletal derivatives (the infraciliature), as well as of the architecture of the oral apparatus. In recent years, a consensus was reached in which the phylum was divided in eight classes as defined by Lynn and Corliss [Lynn, D. H. & Corliss, J. O. (1991) in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates: Protozoa (Wiley-Liss, New York), Vol. 1, pp. 333-467]. By comparing partial sequences of the large subunit rRNA molecule, and by using both distance-matrix and maximum-parsimony-tree construction methods (checked by boot-strapping), we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 22 species belonging to seven of these eight classes. At low taxonomic levels, the traditional grouping of the species is generally confirmed. At higher taxonomic levels, the branching pattern of these seven classes is resolved in several deeply separated major branches. Surprisingly, the first emerging one contains the heterotrichs and is strongly associated with a karyorelictid but deeply separated from hypotrichs. The litostomes, the oligohymenophorans, and the hypotrichs separate later in a bush-like topology hindering the resolution of their order of diversification. These results show a much more ancient origin of heterotrichs than was classically assumed, indicating that asymmetric, abundantly ciliated oral apparatuses do not correspond to "highly evolved" traits as previously thought. They also suggest the occurrence of a major radiative explosion in the evolutionary history of the ciliates, yielding five of the eight classes of the phylum. These classes appear to differ essentially according to the cytoskeletal architecture used to shape and sustain the cellular cortex (a process of essential adaptative and morphogenetic importance in ciliates).

Baroin-Tourancheau, A; Delgado, P; Perasso, R; Adoutte, A

1992-01-01

136

Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.  

PubMed

Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction. PMID:21842162

Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

2011-08-13

137

Nanoarchaea: representatives of a novel archaeal phylum or a fast-evolving euryarchaeal lineage related to Thermococcales?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivable archaeal species are assigned to two phyla - the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota - by a number of important genetic differences, and this ancient split is strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis. The recently described hyperthermophile Nanoarchaeum equitans, harboring the smallest cellular genome ever sequenced (480 kb), has been suggested as the representative of a new phylum - the

Celine Brochier; Simonetta Gribaldo; Yvan Zivanovic; Fabrice Confalonieri; Patrick Forterre

2005-01-01

138

A new Apicomplexa-specific protein kinase family : multiple members in Plasmodium falciparum, all with an export signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium spp. is a major health burden in tropical countries. The development of new control tools, including vaccines and drugs, is urgently needed. The availability of genome sequences from several malaria parasite species provides a basis on which to identify new potential intervention targets. Database mining for orthologs to the Plasmodium

Achim G Schneider; Odile Mercereau-Puijalon

2005-01-01

139

Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The feral Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) population on Hirta, St Kilda, is host to a diverse component parasite community, but previous parasitological studies of the population have only focussed on the metazoan species. This paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and 11 species of Eimeria in Soay sheep across

B. H. CRAIG; J. G. PILKINGTON; L. E. B. KRUUK; J. M. PEMBERTON

2007-01-01

140

Effects of Shock Loads of Salt on Protozoan Communities of Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effects of wastewater salinity variations on communities of microorganisms taken from activated sludge were studied. Batch cultures were grown for 96 h at final salt concentrations of 3, 5, 10, 20 and 40 NaCl g\\/l. Protozoa and small metazoa was counted and ciliated protozoan species in these cultures were identified. An increase in salt concentration from 3 to

Humbert SALVAD; Meritxell MAS; Ma Pilar GRACIA

141

Evidence of Gene Diminution during the Formation of the Macronucleus in the Protozoan, Stylonychia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of events by which a macronucleus is formed from a micronucleus after conjugation in the ciliated protozoan, Stylonychia, suggests that genetic diminution may occur. This idea is supported by determinations of the density profiles and melting curves for micro- and macronuclear DNAs. Macronuclear DNA consists of a single density component and melts as if it were a single

C. J. Bostock; D. M. Prescott

1972-01-01

142

Developing vaccines to control protozoan parasites in ruminants: Dead or alive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protozoan parasites are among some of the most successful organisms worldwide, being able to live and multiply within a very wide range of hosts. The diseases caused by these parasites cause significant production losses in the livestock sector involving reproductive failure, impaired weight gain, contaminated meat, reduced milk yields and in severe cases, loss of the animal. In addition, some

Elisabeth A. Innes; Paul M. Bartley; Mara Rocchi; Julio Benavidas-Silvan; Alison Burrells; Emily Hotchkiss; Francesca Chianini; German Canton; Frank Katzer

2011-01-01

143

DNA microarray-based detection and identification of waterborne protozoan pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA microarray with 21 oligonucleotide probes was developed to detect most of the common waterborne protozoan pathogens. The DNA microarray accurately identified 3 test protozoa strains based on the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence. The detection limit was approximately 1×103 target genes, or 50 Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, per assay. As a parallel study to verify the efficiency of

Dae-Young Lee; Peter Seto; Renata Korczak

2010-01-01

144

Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In aquaculture production mortality resulting from a single pathogen is rare. More likely, multiple disease agents are present and responsible for disease losses. The ciliated protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a common parasite of freshwater fish and frequently causes mass kills of culture...

145

Ultrastructural modification of the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda following chronic exposure to partially degraded crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protozoa are important consumers of the microflora that biodegrade oil spills. In the study presented, the ultrastructural effects induced by chronic oil stress in the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda are discussed. Colpidia were grown in control cultures containing a dilute organic medium and a dense suspension of prey bacteria. After 20 days' oil exposure, C. colpoda contained more stained cytoplasmic

Andrew Rogerson; Jacques Berger

1982-01-01

146

Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ?  

PubMed Central

The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

Bare, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

2011-01-01

147

Inducing factors for encystment and excystment in ciliated protozoan Colpoda sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In many kinds of protozoans, cyst formation (encystment) and excystment which involves structural transformation processes constitute the drastic process of cell reconstruction mediated by signaling chains including gene expression that is triggered by environmental signals. In order to establish a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms of encystment and excystment, we aimed to elucidate the environmental factors that

Tomoko WATOH; Masahito YAMAOKA; Michiko NAGAO; Kazuo OGINUMA

2003-01-01

148

Improvements in transfection efficiency and tests of RNA interference (RNAi) approaches in the protozoan parasite Leishmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches which eliminate mRNA expression directly are ideally suited for reverse genetics applications in eukaryotic microbes which are asexual diploids, such as the protozoan parasite Leishmania. RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been successful in many species, including the related parasite Trypanosoma brucei. For RNAi tests in Leishmania, we developed improved protocols for transient and stable DNA transfection, attaining efficiencies of

Kelly A. Robinson; Stephen M. Beverley

2003-01-01

149

Competition of two suspension-feeding protozoan populations for a growing bacterial population in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical studies for ecosystems involving 2 predators competing for a growing prey population have shown that the 2 competitors can coexist in a state of sustained oscillations for a range of values of the system parameters. For the case of 1 suspension-feeding protozoan population, recent experimental observations suggest that the predator-prey interaction is complicated by the ability of the bacteria

Basil C. Baltzis; A. G. Fredrickson

1984-01-01

150

Effects of the Protozoan Parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the Fitness of Monarch Butterflies ( Danaus plexippus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the survival and reproduction of monarch butterflies. Because larvae in natural populations are likely to experience a wide range of natural parasite population densities, we examined the effects of increasing spore density (0, 10, 100, or 1000 spores per larva) on host fitness. Parasites had little effect on monarch

Sonia M. Altizer; Karen S. Oberhauser

1999-01-01

151

Interconnection between organellar functions, development and drug resistance in the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe disease in animals and humans. In AIDS patients, for example, the encephalitis it produces is a major cause of death. Part of the very successful strategy adopted by the parasite centers on its ability to differentiate from the actively growing tachyzoite form to a chronic, almost latent state called the bradyzoite. The molecular

Stanislas Tomavo; John C. Boothroyd

1995-01-01

152

Study of the interactions between copper, cadmium, and ferbam using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay.  

PubMed

The toxicity of a copper-cadmium-ferbam mixture has been studied using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay. The assays were designed according to the factorial experiments method, associated with multiple regression analysis. The results show that, at the concentrations tested, a synergy occurs between cadmium and ferbam, whereas the copper is only oligodynamic. PMID:1282874

Sekkat, N; Le Dû, A; Jouany, J M; Guerbet, M

1992-12-01

153

Toxicity of alum sludge extracts to a freshwater alga, protozoan, fish, and marine bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alum sludges from ten water treatment plants throughout North America were subjected to a battery of toxicity tests which included the S. capricornutum growth test, the fathead minnow survival and growth test, a protozoan mortality test, and the Microtox® test. S. capricornutum was more sensitive than any other test species to sludge extracts. Algal growth inhibition was observed in extracts

D. B. George; S. G. Berk; V. D. Adams; R. S. Ting; R. O. Roberts; L. H. Parks; R. C. Lott

1995-01-01

154

The Meaning of Death: Evolution and Ecology of Apoptosis in Protozoan Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that an apoptosis-like, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious infectious diseases of humans, companion animals, wildlife, and livestock. Whilst apoptosis is an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defence in multicellular organisms, its occurrence in unicellular parasites appears counter-intuitive and

Sarah E. Reece; Laura C. Pollitt; Nick Colegrave; Andy Gardner

2011-01-01

155

Incidence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal protozoan parasites in populations of Swiss dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the most important abortifacient organisms in cattle worldwide. The dog is known to act as definitive host although its potential role as infection source for bovines still remains unelucidated. The aim of the present study was to compile initial epidemiological data on the prevalence and incidence of N. caninum in Swiss dogs

H. Sager; C. Steiner Moret; N. Müller; D. Staubli; M. Esposito; G. Schares; M. Hässig; K. Stärk; B. Gottstein

2006-01-01

156

Plasmid encoded antibiotics inhibit protozoan predation of Escherichia coli K12.  

PubMed

Bacterial plasmids and phages encode the synthesis of toxic molecules that inhibit protozoan predation. One such toxic molecule is violacein, a purple pigmented, anti-tumour antibiotic produced by the Gram-negative soil bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. In the current experiments a range of Escherichia coli K12 strains were genetically engineered to produce violacein and a number of its coloured, biosynthetic intermediates. A bactivorous predatory protozoan isolate, Colpoda sp.A4, was isolated from soil and tested for its ability to 'graze' on various violacein producing strains of E. coli K12. A grazing assay was developed based on protozoan "plaque" formation. Using this assay, E. coli K12 strains producing violacein were highly resistant to protozoan predation. However E. coli K12 strains producing violacein intermediates, showed low or no resistance to predation. In separate experiments, when either erythromycin or pentachlorophenol were added to the plaque assay medium, protozoan predation of E. coli K12 was markedly reduced. The inhibitory effects of these two molecules were removed if E. coli K12 strains were genetically engineered to inactivate the toxic molecules. In the case of erythromycin, the E. coli K12 assay strain was engineered to produce an erythromycin inactivating esterase, PlpA. For pentachlorophenol, the E. coli K12 assay strain was engineered to produce a PCP inactivating enzyme pentachlorophenol-4-monooxygenase (PcpB). This study indicates that in environments containing large numbers of protozoa, bacteria which use efflux pumps to remove toxins unchanged from the cell may have an evolutionary advantage over bacteria which enzymatically inactivate toxins. PMID:21839110

Ahmetagic, Adnan; Philip, Daniel S; Sarovich, Derek S; Kluver, Daniel W; Pemberton, John M

2011-08-03

157

Postinoculation Protozoan Establishment and Association Patterns of Methanogenic Archaea in the Ovine Rumen?  

PubMed Central

Association patterns between archaea and rumen protozoa were evaluated by analyzing archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from ovine rumen inoculated with different protozoa. Five protozoan inoculation treatments, fauna free (negative control), holotrich and cellulolytic protozoa, Isotricha and Dasytricha spp., Entodinium spp., and total fauna (type A) were tested. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR, and phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the impact of the protozoan inoculants on the respective archaeal communities. Protozoan 18S ribosomal DNA clone libraries were also evaluated to monitor the protozoal population that was established by the inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal clones associated with the fauna-free, the Entodinium, and the type A inoculations clustered primarily with uncultured phylotypes. Polyplastron multivesiculatum was the predominant protozoan strain established by the holotrich and cellulolytic protozoan treatment, and this resulted predominantly in archaeal clones affiliated with uncultured and cultured methanogenic phylotypes (Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and Methanobacterium bryantii). Furthermore, the Isotricha and Dasytricha inoculation treatment resulted primarily in archaeal clones affiliated with Methanobrevibacter smithii. This report provides the first assessment of the influence of protozoa on archaea within the rumen microbial community and provides evidence to suggest that different archaeal phylotypes associate with specific groups of protozoa. The observed patterns may be linked to the evolution of commensal and symbiotic relationships between archaea and protozoa in the ovine rumen environment. This report further underscores the prevalence and potential importance of a rather large group of uncultivated archaea in the ovine rumen, probably unrelated to known methanogens and undocumented in the bovine rumen.

Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Teather, Ronald M.; Ivan, Michael; Forster, Robert J.

2007-01-01

158

Isolation and survey of novel fluoroacetate-degrading bacteria belonging to the phylum Synergistetes.  

PubMed

Microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated compounds in anaerobic environments is well known, but the degradation of fluorinated compounds under similar conditions has rarely been described. Here, we report on the isolation of a bovine rumen bacterium that metabolizes fluoroacetate under anaerobic conditions, the mode of degradation and its presence in gut ecosystems. The bacterium was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the phylum Synergistetes and was designated strain MFA1. Growth was stimulated by amino acids with greater quantities of amino acids metabolized in the presence of fluoroacetate, but sugars were not fermented. Acetate, formate, propionate, isobutryate, isovalerate, ornithine and H(2) were end products of amino acid metabolism. Acetate was the primary end product of fluoroacetate dehalogenation, and the amount produced correlated with the stoichiometric release of fluoride which was confirmed using fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance ((19) F NMR) spectroscopy. Hydrogen and formate produced in situ were consumed during dehalogenation. The growth characteristics of strain MFA1 indicated that the bacterium may gain energy via reductive dehalogenation. This is the first study to identify a bacterium that can anaerobically dehalogenate fluoroacetate. Nested 16S rRNA gene-specific PCR assays detected the bacterium at low numbers in the gut of several herbivore species. PMID:22372434

Davis, Carl K; Webb, Richard I; Sly, Lindsay I; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Chris S

2012-03-20

159

'Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum:' an aerobic chlorophotoheterotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi defined by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics  

PubMed Central

An uncultured member of the phylum Chlorobi, provisionally named ‘Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum', occurs in the microbial mats of alkaline siliceous hot springs at the Yellowstone National Park. ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' was investigated through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' is a member of a novel, family-level lineage of Chlorobi, a chlorophototroph that synthesizes type-1 reaction centers and chlorosomes similar to cultivated relatives among the green sulfur bacteria, but is otherwise very different physiologically. ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' is proposed to be an aerobic photoheterotroph that cannot oxidize sulfur compounds, cannot fix N2, and does not fix CO2 autotrophically. Metagenomic analyses suggest that ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' depends on other mat organisms for fixed carbon and nitrogen, several amino acids, and other important nutrients. The failure to detect bchU suggests that ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' synthesizes bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) d, and thus it occupies a different ecological niche than other chlorosome-containing chlorophototrophs in the mat. Transcription profiling throughout a diel cycle revealed distinctive gene expression patterns. Although ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' probably photoassimilates organic carbon sources and synthesizes most of its cell materials during the day, it mainly transcribes genes for BChl synthesis during late afternoon and early morning, and it synthesizes and assembles its photosynthetic apparatus during the night.

Liu, Zhenfeng; Klatt, Christian G; Ludwig, Marcus; Rusch, Douglas B; Jensen, Sheila I; Kuhl, Michael; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

2012-01-01

160

Phylogenetic reference data for systematics and phylotaxonomy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from phylum to species level.  

PubMed

Although the molecular phylogeny, evolution and biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are becoming clearer, phylotaxonomically reliable sequence data are still limited. To fill this gap, a data set allowing resolution and environmental tracing across all taxonomic levels is provided. Two overlapping nuclear DNA regions, totalling c. 3 kb, were analysed: the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (up to 1800 bp) and a fragment spanning c. 250 bp of the SSU rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (c. 475-520 bp) and c. 800 bp of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both DNA regions together could be analysed for 35 described species, the SSU rDNA for c. 76 named and 18 as yet undefined species, and the ITS region or LSU rDNA, or a combination of both, for c. 91 named and 16 as yet undefined species. Present phylogenetic analyses, based on the three rDNA markers, provide reliable and robust resolution from phylum to species level. Altogether, 109 named species and 27 cultures representing as yet undefined species were analysed. This study provides a reference data set for molecular systematics and environmental community analyses of AMF, including analyses based on deep sequencing. PMID:22150759

Krüger, Manuela; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Stockinger, Herbert; Schüssler, Arthur

2011-12-09

161

'Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum:' an aerobic chlorophotoheterotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi defined by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.  

PubMed

An uncultured member of the phylum Chlorobi, provisionally named 'Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum', occurs in the microbial mats of alkaline siliceous hot springs at the Yellowstone National Park. 'Ca. T. aerophilum' was investigated through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. 'Ca. T. aerophilum' is a member of a novel, family-level lineage of Chlorobi, a chlorophototroph that synthesizes type-1 reaction centers and chlorosomes similar to cultivated relatives among the green sulfur bacteria, but is otherwise very different physiologically. 'Ca. T. aerophilum' is proposed to be an aerobic photoheterotroph that cannot oxidize sulfur compounds, cannot fix N(2), and does not fix CO(2) autotrophically. Metagenomic analyses suggest that 'Ca. T. aerophilum' depends on other mat organisms for fixed carbon and nitrogen, several amino acids, and other important nutrients. The failure to detect bchU suggests that 'Ca. T. aerophilum' synthesizes bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) d, and thus it occupies a different ecological niche than other chlorosome-containing chlorophototrophs in the mat. Transcription profiling throughout a diel cycle revealed distinctive gene expression patterns. Although 'Ca. T. aerophilum' probably photoassimilates organic carbon sources and synthesizes most of its cell materials during the day, it mainly transcribes genes for BChl synthesis during late afternoon and early morning, and it synthesizes and assembles its photosynthetic apparatus during the night. PMID:22456447

Liu, Zhenfeng; Klatt, Christian G; Ludwig, Marcus; Rusch, Douglas B; Jensen, Sheila I; Kühl, Michael; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

2012-03-29

162

Culture-independent characterization of a novel, uncultivated magnetotactic member of the Nitrospirae phylum.  

PubMed

A magnetotactic bacterium, designated strain LO-1, of the Nitrospirae phylum was detected and concentrated from a number of freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments in southern Nevada. The closest phylogenetic relative to LO-1 is Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum based on a 91.2% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequence. Chemical and cell profiles of a microcosm containing water and sediment show that cells of strain LO-1 are confined to the oxic-anoxic interface and the upper regions of the anaerobic zone which in this case, occurred in the sediment. This microorganism is relatively large, ovoid in morphology and usually biomineralizes three braid-like bundles of multiple chains of bullet-shaped magnetosomes that appeared to be enclosed in a magnetosome membrane. Cells of LO-1 had an unusual three-layered unit membrane cell wall and contained several types of inclusions, some of which are sulfur-rich. Strain LO-1 is motile by means of a single bundle of sheathed flagella and exhibits the typical 'wobbling' motility and helical swimming ('flight') path of the magnetotactic cocci. This study and reports from others suggest that LO-1-like organisms are widespread in sediments of freshwater to brackish natural aquatic environments. PMID:20977572

Lefèvre, Christopher T; Frankel, Richard B; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Bazylinski, Dennis A

2010-10-26

163

Identification of signature proteins that are distinctive of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum.  

PubMed

The members of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum, which include many species that are resistant to extreme radiation, as well as several thermophiles, have been recognized solely on the basis of their branching patterns in 16S rRNA and other phylogenetic trees. No biochemical or physiological characteristic is currently known that is unique to this group of species. To identify genes/proteins that are exclusive of this group of species, systematic protein basic local alignment tool (Blastp) searches were carried out on each open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of Deinococcus radiodurans. These studies identified 65 proteins that were only found in all three sequenced Deinococcus-Thermus genomes (viz. D. radiodurans, D. geothermalis and Thermus thermophilus), but not in any other bacteria. In addition, these studies also identified 206 proteins that are exclusively found in the two Deinocococci species, and 399 proteins that are unique to D. radiodurans. The identified proteins, which represent a genetic repertoire distinctive to the Deinococcus-Thermus group, or to Deinococci species, provide novel molecular markers for their identification and characterization. The cellular functions of most of these proteins are not known and their studies should prove useful in identifying novel biochemical and physiological characteristics that are exclusive of these groups of bacteria and also those responsible for the extreme radiation resistance of Deinococci. PMID:18076002

Griffiths, Emma; Gupta, Radhey S

2007-09-01

164

Characterization of taxonomically restricted genes in a phylum-restricted cell type  

PubMed Central

Background Despite decades of research, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the evolution of morphological diversity remain poorly understood. While current models assume that species-specific morphologies are governed by differential use of conserved genetic regulatory circuits, it is debated whether non-conserved taxonomically restricted genes are also involved in making taxonomically relevant structures. The genomic resources available in Hydra, a member of the early branching animal phylum Cnidaria, provide a unique opportunity to study the molecular evolution of morphological novelties such as the nematocyte, a cell type characteristic of, and unique to, Cnidaria. Results We have identified nematocyte-specific genes by suppression subtractive hybridization and find that a considerable portion has no homologues to any sequences in animals outside Hydra. By analyzing the transcripts of these taxonomically restricted genes and mining of the Hydra magnipapillata genome, we find unexpected complexity in gene structure and transcript processing. Transgenic Hydra expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter under control of one of the taxonomically restricted gene promoters recapitulate faithfully the described expression pattern, indicating that promoters of taxonomically restricted genes contain all elements essential for spatial and temporal control mechanisms. Surprisingly, phylogenetic footprinting of this promoter did not reveal any conserved cis-regulatory elements. Conclusions Our findings suggest that taxonomically restricted genes are involved in the evolution of morphological novelties such as the cnidarian nematocyte. The transcriptional regulatory network controlling taxonomically restricted gene expression may contain not yet characterized transcription factors or cis-regulatory elements.

Milde, Sabine; Hemmrich, Georg; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Khalturin, Konstantin; Wittlieb, Jorg; Bosch, Thomas CG

2009-01-01

165

Evolutionary relationships within the protostome phylum Sipuncula: a molecular analysis of ribosomal genes and histone H3 sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the members of the phylum Sipuncula are investigated by means of DNA sequence data from three nuclear markers, two ribosomal genes (18S rRNA and the D3 expansion fragment of 28S rRNA), and one protein-coding gene, histone H3. Phylogenetic analysis via direct optimization of DNA sequence data using parsimony as optimality criterion is executed for 12 combinations

Amy B Maxmen; Burnett F King; Edward B Cutler; Gonzalo Giribet

2003-01-01

166

Phylogenetic Relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) Based on Nuclear 18S rDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic relationships within the corals and anemones (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Anthozoa) are based upon few morphological characters. The significance of any given character is debatable, and there is little fossil record available for deriving evolutionary relationships. We analyzed complete 18S ribosomal sequences to examine subclass-level and ordinal-level organization within the Anthozoa. We suggest that the Subclass Ceriantipatharia is not an

Ewann A. Berntson; Scott C. France; Lauren S. Mullineaux

1999-01-01

167

Phylogenetic Relationships of Orders Within the Class Colpodea (Phylum Ciliophora) Inferred from Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Molecular analyses have been used recently to refine our knowledge of phylogenetic relationships within the ciliated protozoa\\u000a (phylum Ciliophora). A current Hennigian phylogeny of the orders in the class Colpodea, based on light and electron microscopic\\u000a analyses, makes three important assumptions with regard to apomorphic character states, namely, (1) that the kreyellid silver\\u000a line evolved early in colpodean phylogeny,

Denis H. Lynn; Andre ´-Denis G. Wright; Martin Schlegel; Wilhelm Foissner

1999-01-01

168

Filamentous Bacterium Eikelboom Type 0092 in Activated Sludge Plants in Australia Is a Member of the Phylum Chloroflexi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular data show that the filamentous bacterium Eikelboom type 0092, frequently seen in Australian activated sludge plants, is a member of the phylum Chloroflexi. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes designed against cloned 16S rRNA sequences from a full-scale enhanced biological phosphate removal- activated sludge plant community, where this was a dominant filament morphotype, suggest that it can exist as

Lachlan Speirs; Tadashi Nittami; Simon McIlroy; Sarah Schroeder; Robert J. Seviour

2009-01-01

169

Besnoitia neotomofelis n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the southern plains woodrat ( Neotoma micropus).  

PubMed

Certain species of the protozoan genus Besnoitia cause clinical disease in livestock and wildlife. In the present paper a new species, Besnoitia neotomofelis is described from the southern planes woodrat (Neotoma micropus). The parasite was detected by bioassay of woodrat tissues in outbred Swiss Webster mice in an attempt to isolate Toxoplasma gondii. Initially, the organism was misdiagnosed as T. gondii because it was highly pathogenic for mice and its tachyzoites resembled T. gondii tachyzoites. Further studies revealed that it differed structurally and biologically from T. gondii. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and maintained in vitro in bovine monocytes and African green monkey kidney cells, and in vivo in mice. Non-dividing, uninucleate tachyzoites were approximately 1 x 5 ?m in size. Longitudinally-cut bradyzoites in tissue sections measured 1.5-1.6 x 7.7-9.3 ?m. Tissue cysts were microscopic, up to 210 ?m long, and were infective orally to mice. Cats fed tissue cysts shed unsporulated 13 x 14 ?m sized oocysts. All mice inoculated with B. neotomofelis died of acute besnoitiosis, irrespective of the dose, and Norwegian rats became infected but remained asymptomatic. Entero-epithelial stages (schizonts, gamonts) were found in cats fed tissue cysts. Large (up to 40 x 50 ?m) first-generation schizonts developed in the lamina propria of the small intestine of cats. A second generation of small sized (8 ?m) schizonts containing 4-8 merozoites was detected in enterocytes of the small intestine. Gamonts and oocysts were seen in goblet cells of the small intestinal epithelium. Tachyzoites were present in mesenteric lymph nodes of cats. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. neotomofelis was related to other Besnoitia species from rodents, rabbits, and opossums. Besnoitia neotomofelis is distinct from the 3 other species of Besnoitia, B. wallacei, B. darlingi and B. oryctofelisi that utilize cats as a definitive host. PMID:20561393

Dubey, J P; Yabsley, M J

2010-06-21

170

Genomic analysis of "Elusimicrobium minutum," the first cultivated representative of the phylum "Elusimicrobia" (formerly termite group 1).  

PubMed

Organisms of the candidate phylum termite group 1 (TG1) are regularly encountered in termite hindguts but are present also in many other habitats. Here, we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of "Elusimicrobium minutum" strain Pei191(T), the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut, and we discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, nonribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of "Elusimicrobia" (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PMID:19270133

Herlemann, D P R; Geissinger, O; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W; Kunin, V; Sun, H; Lapidus, A; Hugenholtz, P; Brune, A

2009-03-06

171

Genome analysis of Elusimicrobium minutum, the first cultivated representative of the Elusimicrobia phylum (formerly Termite Group 1)  

SciTech Connect

The candidate phylum Termite group 1 (TG1), is regularly 1 encountered in termite hindguts but is present also in many other habitats. Here we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of Elusimicrobium minutum strain Pei191{sup T}, the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut and discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a Gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of Elusimicrobia (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

Herlemann, D. P. R.; Geissinger, O.; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W.; Kunin, V.; Sun, H.; Lapidus, A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Brune, A.

2009-02-01

172

Cellulase and other polymer-hydrolyzing activities of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a symbiotic protozoan from termites  

SciTech Connect

Crude extracts of the anaerobic, cellulolytic protozoan Trichomitopsis termopsidis possessed endo-..beta..-1,4-glucanase and cellobiase activities, as evidenced by hydrolytic action on carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, respectively. Cell extracts also hydrolyzed microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose displayed optima at pH 5 and at 30 degrees C, and glucose was the sole product liberated. Cellulolytic activities of T. termopsidis appeared to be entirely cell associated. Hydrolytic activity was also detected against Douglas fir wood powder, xylan, starch, and protein, but not chitin. The importance of these enyzmes in the nutrition of T. termopsidis is discussed in terms of the natural habitat of this protozoan (the hindgut of wood-eating termites). 31 references.

Odelson, D.A.; Breznak, J.A.

1985-03-01

173

Cellulase and Other Polymer-Hydrolyzing Activities of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a Symbiotic Protozoan from Termites.  

PubMed

Crude extracts of the anaerobic, cellulolytic protozoan Trichomitopsis termopsidis possessed endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and cellobiase activities, as evidenced by hydrolytic action on carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, respectively. Cell extracts also hydrolyzed microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose displayed optima at pH 5 and at 30 degrees C, and glucose was the sole product liberated. Cellulolytic activities of T. termopsidis appeared to be entirely cell associated. Hydrolytic activity was also detected against Douglas fir wood powder, xylan, starch, and protein, but not chitin. The importance of these enzymes in the nutrition of T. termopsidis is discussed in terms of the natural habitat of this protozoan (the hindgut of wood-eating termites). PMID:16346755

Odelson, D A; Breznak, J A

1985-03-01

174

Cellulase and Other Polymer-Hydrolyzing Activities of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a Symbiotic Protozoan from Termites †  

PubMed Central

Crude extracts of the anaerobic, cellulolytic protozoan Trichomitopsis termopsidis possessed endo-?-1,4-glucanase and cellobiase activities, as evidenced by hydrolytic action on carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, respectively. Cell extracts also hydrolyzed microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose displayed optima at pH 5 and at 30°C, and glucose was the sole product liberated. Cellulolytic activities of T. termopsidis appeared to be entirely cell associated. Hydrolytic activity was also detected against Douglas fir wood powder, xylan, starch, and protein, but not chitin. The importance of these enzymes in the nutrition of T. termopsidis is discussed in terms of the natural habitat of this protozoan (the hindgut of wood-eating termites).

Odelson, David A.; Breznak, John A.

1985-01-01

175

Volume-regulatory Amino Acid Release from the Protozoan Parasite Crithidia luciliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The unicellular protozoan parasite, Crithidia luciliae, responded to osmotic swelling by undergoing a regulatory volume decrease. This process was accompanied by the efflux of amino\\u000a acids (predominantly alanine, proline and glycine). The relative loss of the electroneutral amino acids proline, valine, alanine\\u000a and glycine was greater than that for the anionic amino acid, glutamate; there was negligible loss of

J. D. H. Bursell; J. Kirk; S. T. Hall; A. M. Gero; K. Kirk

1996-01-01

176

Arsenic oxidation and bioaccumulation by the acidophilic protozoan, Euglena mutabilis, in acid mine drainage (Carnoulès, France).  

PubMed

In the acid stream (pH 2.5-4.7) originating from the Carnoulès mine tailings, the acidophilic protozoan Euglena mutabilis grows with extremely high sulfate (1.9-4.9 g/l), iron (0.7-1.7 g/l) and arsenic concentrations (0.08-0.26 g/l). Strong variations in flow rate and high sulfate concentrations (up to 4.9 g/l) have been registered in early winter and might be the reason for the reduction in cell number of the protozoan from October to December 2001. No relation was established between arsenic concentration and/or speciation and abundance of the protozoan in the stream. Arsenite, which is the most toxic form, predominates in water. The oxidation of arsenite to arsenate occurred within a few days in laboratory experiments when E. mutabilis was present in Reigous Creek water and synthetic As(III)-rich culture medium. Methylated compounds (MMA, DMA) were not identified in the culture media. The protozoan bioaccumulated As in the cell (336 +/- 112 microg As/g dry wt.) as inorganic arsenite (105 +/- 52 microg As/g dry wt.) and arsenate (231 +/- 112 microg As/g dry wt.). Adsorption of As at the cell surface reached 57 mg/g dry wt. in the As(V) form for E. mutabilis grown in 250 mg/l As(III) synthetic medium. Both intracellular accumulation and adsorption at the cell surface increased for increasing As(III) concentration in the medium but the concentration factor in the cell relative to soluble As decreased. PMID:15016511

Casiot, Corinne; Bruneel, Odile; Personné, Jean-Christian; Leblanc, Marc; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

2004-03-29

177

Effect of protozoan predation on relative abundance of fast- and slow-growing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Survival of six bacterial species with different growth rates was tested in raw sewage and sewage rendered free of protozoa. When the six species were inoculated at the same densities into sewage containing protozoa, the three slow-growing species were rapidly eliminated, and two of the three fast-growing species survived in detectable numbers. It is suggested that in environments with intense protozoan predation, protozoa may alter composition of bacterial communities by eliminating slow-growing bacteria.

Sinclair, J.L.; Alexander, M.

1989-01-01

178

Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus, which may be involved in transcriptional regulation of the major surface protein gene\\u000a P270 of the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, was purified and characterized in the present study. The complete 4844-base-pair complementary DNA sequence of the viral\\u000a genome reveals overlapping cap and pol genes with a putative ribosomal frame-shifting signal within the overlap region.

Irina N. Bessarab; Rui Nakajima; Hsing-Wei Liu; Jung-Hsiang Tai

2011-01-01

179

Transcriptome Analysis of the Model Protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, Using Deep RNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a well-studied single-celled eukaryote model organism for cellular and molecular biology. However, the lack of extensive T. thermophila cDNA libraries or a large expressed sequence tag (EST) database limited the quality of the original genome annotation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis RNA-seq study describes the first deep sequencing analysis of the T. thermophila transcriptome during the three major

Jie Xiong; Xingyi Lu; Zhemin Zhou; Yue Chang; Dongxia Yuan; Miao Tian; Zhigang Zhou; Lei Wang; Chengjie Fu; Eduardo Orias; Wei Miao

2012-01-01

180

Inactivation of the Bacteriophage MS2 by the Ciliated Protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the range of biological mechanisms responsible for the inactivation of viruses in man-made and natural water systems is poorly understood, the involvement of the free-living ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, in viral inactivation was investigated. The ciliate was found to remove the bacteriophage MS2 when the phage and ciliate were co-incubated in a simple salt solution. MS2 was enumerated as

Marcel D. O. Pinheiro; Mary E. Power; Barb J. Butler; Vivian R. Dayeh; Robin Slawson; Lucy E. J. Lee; Denis H. Lynn; Niels C. Bols

181

Cellulase and other polymer-hydrolyzing activities of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a symbiotic protozoan from termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of the anaerobic, cellulolytic protozoan Trichomitopsis termopsidis possessed endo-..beta..-1,4-glucanase and cellobiase activities, as evidenced by hydrolytic action on carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, respectively. Cell extracts also hydrolyzed microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose displayed optima at pH 5 and at 30 degrees C, and glucose was the sole product liberated. Cellulolytic activities of T. termopsidis appeared to be

D. A. Odelson; J. A. Breznak

1985-01-01

182

Composition of benthic protozoan communities along a depth transect in the eastern Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benthic protozoans were investigated along a transect in the eastern Mediterranean Sea from the Ionian to the Levantine Sea. Sediment samples were taken during Meteor cruise 25\\/1 in May and June 1993 at water depths of between 156 and 4617m with a box corer and a multiple corer. A semi-quantitative cultivation technique was applied by placing sediment in petri

K. Hausmann; N. Hülsmann; I. Polianski; S. Schade; M. Weitere

2002-01-01

183

A Population Survey of Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes Isolated from Salt Marsh Sediments along the East Coast of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population diversity of cultured isolates of the phylum Bacteroidetes was investigated from salt-marsh sediments. A total of 44 isolates that belonged to this phylum were isolated either from high-dilution plates or from end-dilution most-probable-number (MPN) tubes. The majority of the isolates came from Virginia, with others isolated from salt marshes in Delaware and North Carolina. All the isolates were

C. Lydell; L. Dowell; M. Sikaroodi; P. Gillevet; D. Emerson

2004-01-01

184

Prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan infections in suckling piglets.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was performed on 20 pig breeding farms in southern Hesse, central Germany, to evaluate the prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites in unweaned piglets. Faecal samples of 514 clinically unaffected piglets of different age (< 1 to 5-7 weeks) were examined using the sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration technique. Infections with the following protozoan species were detected: Balantidium coli (16 of 20 farms), Entamoeba sp. (15), Jodamoeba sp. (14), Isospora (I.) suis (9), Chilomastix sp. (6) and Eimeria spp. (6). The protozoan species differed in the start and course of (oo)cyst excretion. I. suis oocysts and Jodamoeba cysts were detected already in the first week of life whereas shedding of the other parasites started later on. The prevalence of Isospora oocyst excretion increased to a maximum (18%) in 2-3 weeks old animals followed by a sharp decline. The proportion of Balantidium, Entamoeba or Jodamoeba positive suckling piglets continously increased until the age of 5-7 weeks to 60%, 52% and 22%, respectively, whereas that of Chilomastix positive animals remained on a low level of 8-12% independent of the age. Eimeria oocysts were found transiently in the faeces of 1-4 weeks old piglets. PMID:17009710

Damriyasa, I Made; Bauer, Christian

185

The Protozoan Neospora caninum Directly Triggers Bovine NK Cells To Produce Gamma Interferon and To Kill Infected Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer (NK) cells are considered to be key players in the early innate responses to protozoan infections, primarily indirectly by producing gamma interferon (IFN-) in response to cytokines, like inter- leukin 12 (IL-12). We demonstrate that live, as well as heat-inactivated, tachyzoites of Neospora caninum ,a Toxoplasma-like protozoan, directly trigger production of IFN- from purified, IL-2-activated bovine NK cells.

Preben Boysen; Siv Klevar; Ingrid Olsen; Anne K. Storset

2006-01-01

186

Nitrification expanded: discovery, physiology and genomics of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium from the phylum Chloroflexi.  

PubMed

Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) catalyze the second step of nitrification, a major process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, but the recognized diversity of this guild is surprisingly low and only two bacterial phyla contain known NOB. Here, we report on the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic nitrite oxidizer that belongs to the widespread phylum Chloroflexi not previously known to contain any nitrifying organism. This organism, named Nitrolancetus hollandicus, was isolated from a nitrifying reactor. Its tolerance to a broad temperature range (25-63?°C) and low affinity for nitrite (K(s)=1?mM), a complex layered cell envelope that stains Gram positive, and uncommon membrane lipids composed of 1,2-diols distinguish N. hollandicus from all other known nitrite oxidizers. N. hollandicus grows on nitrite and CO(2), and is able to use formate as a source of energy and carbon. Genome sequencing and analysis of N. hollandicus revealed the presence of all genes required for CO(2) fixation by the Calvin cycle and a nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR) similar to the NXR forms of the proteobacterial nitrite oxidizers, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus. Comparative genomic analysis of the nxr loci unexpectedly indicated functionally important lateral gene transfer events between Nitrolancetus and other NOB carrying a cytoplasmic NXR, suggesting that horizontal transfer of the NXR module was a major driver for the spread of the capability to gain energy from nitrite oxidation during bacterial evolution. The surprising discovery of N. hollandicus significantly extends the known diversity of nitrifying organisms and likely will have implications for future research on nitrification in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:22763649

Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Lücker, Sebastian; Vejmelkova, Dana; Kostrikina, Nadezhda A; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Le Paslier, Denis; Muyzer, Gerard; Wagner, Michael; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daims, Holger

2012-07-05

187

Complete genome of Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum, a chlorophyll-based photoheterotroph belonging to the phylum Acidobacteria.  

PubMed

Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum, which naturally inhabits microbial mats of alkaline siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, is the only known chlorophototroph in the phylum Acidobacteria. The Ca. C. thermophilum genome was composed of two chromosomes (2,683,362 bp and 1,012,010 bp), and both encoded essential genes. The genome included genes to produce chlorosomes, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein, bacteriochlorophylls a and c as principal pigments, and type-1, homodimeric reaction centres. Ca. C. thermophilum is an aerobic photoheterotroph that lacks the ability to synthesize several essential nutrients. Key genes of all known carbon fixation pathways were absent, as were genes for assimilatory nitrate and sulfate reduction and vitamin B(12) synthesis. Genes for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine and leucine) were also absent, but genes for catabolism of these compounds were present. This observation suggested that Ca. C. thermophilum may synthesize branched-chain amino acids from an intermediate(s) of the catabolic pathway by reversing these reactions. The genome encoded an aerobic respiratory electron transport chain that included NADH dehydrogenase, alternative complex III and cytochrome oxidase. The chromosomes of the laboratory isolate were compared with assembled, metagenomic scaffolds from the major Ca. C. thermophilum population in hot-spring mats. The larger chromosomes of the two populations were highly syntenous but significantly divergent (~13%) in sequence. In contrast, the smaller chromosomes have undergone numerous rearrangements, contained many transposases, and might be less constrained by purifying selection than the large chromosomes. Some transposases were homologous to those of mat community members from other phyla. PMID:21951563

Garcia Costas, Amaya M; Liu, Zhenfeng; Tomsho, Lynn P; Schuster, Stephan C; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

2011-09-27

188

Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria  

PubMed Central

Background Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using 18S rDNA sequence data have challenged this interpretation, and have shown that Polypodium is a close relative to myxozoans and together they share a closer affinity to bilaterians than cnidarians. Due to the variable rates of 18S rDNA sequences, these results have been suggested to be an artifact of long-branch attraction (LBA). A recent study, using multiple protein coding markers, shows that the myxozoan Buddenbrockia, is nested within cnidarians. Polypodium was not included in this study. To further investigate the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium, we have performed phylogenetic analyses of metazoans with 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Results Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal of the long-branched myxozoans from the 18S dataset also results in Polypodium being nested within Cnidaria. These results suggest that previous reports showing that Polypodium and Myxozoa form a sister group to Bilateria were an artifact of long-branch attraction. Conclusion By including 28S rDNA sequences and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa, we demonstrate that previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium can be reconciled. Specifically, the data presented provide evidence that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata. The former hypothesis is consistent with the traditional view that Polypodium should be placed in its own cnidarian class, Polypodiozoa.

2008-01-01

189

Wandonia haliotis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Cryomorphaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes.  

PubMed

A novel, strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, yellow-orange-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from abalone (Haliotis discus) under aquaculture in seawater off the Wando coast, Southern Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cells of strain Haldis-1(T) were catalase- and oxidase-positive rods with flexirubin pigments. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Haldis-1(T) formed a distinct lineage within the family Cryomorphaceae and could be distinguished from the related genera Lishizhenia and Fluviicola. Strain Haldis-1(T) shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 92.5 and 92.4 % with Lishizhenia caseinilytica UST040201-001(T) and Fluviicola taffensis RW262(T), respectively. The DNA G+C content was 38.1 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (38.6 %), C(15 : 0) 2-OH (20.3 %) and C(15 : 0) (10.7 %). Growth was observed at 25-42 degrees C (optimum 30-37 degrees C) and at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 6.5-8.0). On the basis of polyphasic analysis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain Haldis-1(T) represents a novel genus and species within the family Cryomorphaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes, for which the name Wandonia haliotis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Haldis-1(T) (=KCTC 22610(T) =NBRC 105642(T)). PMID:19654361

Lee, Dong-Heon; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Moon, Sung-Ran; Ahn, Samyoung; Lee, Young Sun; Jung, Jae Sung; Jeon, Che Ok; Whang, Kyung-Sook; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

2009-08-04

190

Isolation and Characterization of Soil Bacteria That Define Terriglobus gen. nov., in the Phylum Acidobacteria?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria in the phylum Acidobacteria are widely distributed and abundant in soils, but their ecological roles are poorly understood, owing in part to a paucity of cultured representatives. In a molecular survey of acidobacterial diversity at the Michigan State University Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site, 27% of acidobacterial 16S rRNA gene clones in a never-tilled, successional plant community belonged to subdivision 1, whose relative abundance varied inversely with soil pH. Strains of subdivision 1 were isolated from these never-tilled soils using low-nutrient medium incubated for 3 to 4 weeks under elevated levels of carbon dioxide, which resulted in a slightly acidified medium that matched the pH optima of the strains (between 5 and 6). Colonies were approximately 1 mm in diameter and either white or pink, the latter due to a carotenoid(s) that was synthesized preferentially under 20% instead of 2% oxygen. Strains were gram-negative, aerobic, chemo-organotrophic, nonmotile rods that produced an extracellular matrix. All strains contained either one or two copies of the 16S rRNA encoding gene, which along with a relatively slow doubling time (10 to 15 h at ca. 23°C) is suggestive of an oligotrophic lifestyle. Six of the strains are sufficiently similar to one another, but distinct from previously named Acidobacteria, to warrant creation of a new genus, Terriglobus, with Terriglobus roseus defined as the type species. The physiological and nutritional characteristics of Terriglobus are consistent with its potential widespread distribution in soil.

Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Breznak, John A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

191

Influence of Plant Polymers on the Distribution and Cultivation of Bacteria in the Phylum Acidobacteria ? †  

PubMed Central

Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant bacteria in soil. Although they have been characterized as versatile heterotrophs, it is unclear if the types and availability of organic resources influence their distribution in soil. The potential for organic resources to select for different acidobacteria was assessed using molecular and cultivation-based approaches with agricultural and managed grassland soils in Michigan. The distribution of acidobacteria varied with the carbon content of soil: the proportion of subdivision 4 sequences was highest in agricultural soils (ca. 41%) that contained less carbon than grassland soils, where the proportions of subdivision 1, 3, 4, and 6 sequences were similar. Either readily oxidizable carbon or plant polymers were used as the sole carbon and energy source to isolate heterotrophic bacteria from these soils. Plant polymers increased the diversity of acidobacteria cultivated but decreased the total number of heterotrophs recovered compared to readily oxidizable carbon. Two phylogenetically novel Acidobacteria strains isolated on the plant polymer medium were characterized. Strains KBS 83 (subdivision 1) and KBS 96 (subdivision 3) are moderate acidophiles with pH optima of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Both strains grew slowly (? = 0.01 h?1) and harbored either 1 (strain KBS 83) or 2 (strain KBS 96) copies of the 16S rRNA encoding gene—a genomic characteristic typical of oligotrophs. Strain KBS 83 is a microaerophile, growing optimally at 8% oxygen. These metabolic characteristics help delineate the niches that acidobacteria occupy in soil and are consistent with their widespread distribution and abundance.

Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

192

[Formation and diversity of parasitophorous vacuoles in parasitic protozoa. The Coccidia (Sporozoa, Apicomplexa)].  

PubMed

Data on parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation in host cells (HC) harbouring different intracellular protozoan parasites have been reviewed and critically analysed, with special reference to the main representatives of the Coccidia. The vacuole membrane (PVM) is the interface between host and parasite, playing a role in nutrient acquisition by the parasite from the HC. The PV phenomenon is regarded as a generalized HC response to the introduction of alien bodies (microorganisms), which eventually reflects the evolutionary established host-parasite relationships at cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Special attention has been paid to the existing morpho-functional diversity of the PVs within the same genera and species of parasites, and even at different stages of the parasite life cycle. The PVM is generally considered to derive from the HC plasmalemma, whose biochemical composition undergoes significant changes as the intravacuolar parasite grows. The original HC proteins are selectively excluded from the PVM, while those of the parasite are incorporated. As the result, the changed PVM becomes not fusigenic for HC lysosomes. For Toxoplasma gondii and other cyst-forming coccidia (Isospora, Sarcocystis), a definite correlation has been noticed between the extent of rhoptry and dense granule secrets released by a zoite during HC internalization, on the one hand, and the pattern of the PV that forms, on the other one. In T. gondii, tachyzoites, known to discharge abundant secrets, commonly force the development of PVs limited with a single unit membrane and equipped with a tubulovesicular network in the lumen. Unlike, bradyzoites known to be deficient in secretory materials trigger the formation of PVs with a three-membrane lining composed of the changed invaginated plasmalemma in addition to two membranes of endoplasmic reticulum. The two different types of PV harbour, respectively, exoenteric and enteric stages of T. gondii, the latter being confined to the cat intestine only. Unlike, all endogenous stages of the classic intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) develop within PVs limited with a single membrane, with some invaginations extending into the PV lumen. Unusual PV patterns are characteristic of the extracytoplasmic eimerian coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Epieimeria) and adeleid haemogreagarines (Karyolysus). In cyst-forming coccidia, the PVM is actively involved in tissue cyst wall formation, thus protecting the encysted parasites from recognition by the host immune system. All this strongly suggests that the PV is far from being an indifferent membraneous vesicle containing a parasite, but represents a metabolically active compartment in infected cells. Since all the coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites, the mode of their intimate interaction with the HC, largely accomplished via the PV and its membrane, is vital for their survival as biological species. PMID:14520865

Be?er, T V; Svezhova, N V; Radchenko, A I; Sidorenko, N V

2003-01-01

193

Revision of Geneiorhynchus Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Actinocephalidae: Acanthosporinae) with Recognition of Four New Species of Geneiorhynchus and Description of Geneiorhynchus manifestus n. sp. Parasitizing Naiads of the Green Darner, Anax junius (Odonata: Aeshnidae) in the Texas Big Thicket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geneiorhynchus manifestus n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) is described from the naiads of Anax junius (Odonata: Aeshnidae) collected from the Big Sandy Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve, Polk County, Texas, U.S.A. The genus Geneiorhynchus is revised and its constituent species reviewed. Descriptions are provided for 2 previously named species, Geneiorhynchus monnieri from naiads of Libellula depressa (Odonata: Libellulidae)

Richard E. Clopton; Tamara J. Cook; Jerry L. Cook

2007-01-01

194

Caldisericum exile gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic, filamentous bacterium of a novel bacterial phylum, Caldiserica phyl. nov., originally called the candidate phylum OP5, and description of Caldisericaceae fam. nov., Caldisericales ord. nov. and Caldisericia classis nov.  

PubMed

An anaerobic, thermophilic, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium, strain AZM16c01(T), isolated from a hot spring in Japan [Mori, K., Sunamura, M., Yanagawa, K., Ishibashi, J., Miyoshi, Y., Iino, T., Suzuki, K. & Urabe, T. (2008). Appl Environ Microbiol 74, 6223-6229] was characterized in detail. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis had revealed that strain AZM16c01(T) was the first cultivated representative of the candidate phylum OP5. The cells were multicellular filaments with a single polar flagellum. The strain contained iso-C(17 : 0) as the major fatty acid and menaquinone-8(H(6)), menaquinone-8(H(8)) and menaquinone-8(H(10)) as the respiratory quinones. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain AZM16c01(T) was 34.6 mol%. Optimum growth was obtained at 65 degrees C, pH 6.5 and in the absence of NaCl, with a doubling time of 10.6 h. On the basis of the results of phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the characterization of the strain in this study, we propose the name Caldisericum exile gen. nov., sp. nov. for strain AZM16c01(T) (=NBRC 104410(T)=DSM 21853(T)). In addition, we propose the new phylum name Caldiserica phyl. nov. for the candidate phylum OP5 represented by C. exile gen. nov., sp. nov., and Caldisericaceae fam. nov., Caldisericales ord. nov. and Caldisericia classis nov. PMID:19628600

Mori, Koji; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Sakiyama, Yayoi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

2009-07-23

195

Measurement of the effects of cadmium stress on protozoan grazing of bacteria (bacterivory) in activated sludge by fluorescence microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cadmium stress on protozoan bacterivory in sewage sludge was measured by experimentally exposing sludge communities to 0 to 150 mg of Cd per liter for up to 6 h and then determining the rates of protozoan grazing on bacteria, using a double-staining technique and epifluorescence microscopy. Bacterivory was measured by incubating the sludge with fluorescently labeled bacterium-sized latex beads and directly observing ingestion of the beads and bacterial cells in the sludge by epifluorescence microscopy of preserved samples. Staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and acridine orange permitted the simultaneous determination of protozoan numbers and bacterivory activity as estimated by the number of bacterial cells and bacterium-sized latex beads ingested by the representative ciliate Aspidisca costata. Enumeration with latex beads proved to be an effective way of estimating bacterivory in sludges subjected to heavy-metal stress. This technique should prove useful for determining the effects of other chemical stresses on protozoan numbers and bacterivory in organic-rich environments. Although the number of protozoa declined significantly only after exposure to 100 mg of Cd per liter for 4 h, grazing, as indicated by bead ingestion, was significantly inhibited by Cd concentrations of > 25 mg/liter in < 1 h, and exposure to 100 mg of Cd per liter effectively stopped protozoan grazing within 1 h of exposure. Protozoan ingestion of latex beads and bacteria was inversely correlated to Cd concentration and exposure time. The reduction of protozoan bacterivory by Cd provides a possible explanation for the increase in suspended bacteria in the effluents of metal-stressed treatment facilities.

Hoffman, R.L.; Atlas, R.M.

1987-10-01

196

Genome sequence of Lentisphaera araneosa HTCC2155T, the type species of the order Lentisphaerales in the phylum Lentisphaerae.  

PubMed

Information on the genome content of deeply branching phyla with very few cultured members is invaluable for expanding understanding of microbial evolution. Lentisphaera araneosa HTCC2155(T) was isolated from the Oregon coast using dilution-to-extinction culturing. It is a marine heterotroph found in surface and mesopelagic waters in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and has the unusual property of producing a net-like matrix of secreted exopolysaccharide. Here we present the genome sequence of L. araneosa HTCC2155(T), importantly, one of only two sequenced members of the phylum Lentisphaerae. PMID:20363947

Thrash, J Cameron; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Vergin, Kevin L; Morris, Robert M; Giovannoni, Stephen J

2010-04-02

197

Protozoan Grazing, Bacterial Activity, and Mineralization in Two-Stage Continuous Cultures  

PubMed Central

In two-stage continuous cultures, at bacterial concentrations, biovolumes, and growth rates similar to values found in Lake Vechten, ingestion rates of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) increased from 2.3 bacteria HNAN?1 · h?1 at a growth rate of 0.15 day?1 to 9.2 bacteria · HNAN?1 · h?1 at a growth rate of 0.65 day?1. On a yeast extract medium with a C/N/P ratio of 100:15:1.2 (Redfield ratio), a mixed bacterial population showed a yield of 18% (C/C) and a specific carbon content of 211 fg of C · ?m?3. The HNAN carbon content and yield were estimated at 127 fg of C · ?m?3 and 47% (C/C). Although P was not growth limiting, HNAN accelerated the mineralization of PO4-P from dissolved organic matter by 600%. The major mechanism of P remineralization appeared to be direct consumption of bacteria by HNAN. N mineralization was performed mainly (70%) by bacteria but was increased 30% by HNAN. HNAN did not enhance the decomposition of the relatively mineral-rich dissolved organic matter. An accelerated decomposition of organic carbon by protozoa may be restricted to mineral-poor substrates and may be explained mainly by protozoan nutrient regeneration. Growth and grazing in the cultures were compared with methods for in situ estimates. Thymidine incorporation by actively growing bacteria yielded an empirical conversion factor of 1.1 × 1018 bacteria per mol of thymidine incorporated into DNA. However, nongrowing bacteria also showed considerable incorporation. Protozoan grazing was found to be accurately measured by uptake of fluorescently labeled bacteria, whereas artificial fluorescent microspheres were not ingested, and selective prokaryotic inhibitors blocked not only bacterial growth but also protozoan grazing.

Bloem, Jaap; Starink, Mathieu; Bar-Gilissen, Marie-Jose B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

1988-01-01

198

Protozoan Response to the Addition of Bacterial Predators and Other Bacteria to Soil †  

PubMed Central

Representatives of several categories of bacteria were added to soil to determine which of them might elicit responses from the soil protozoa. The various categories were nonobligate bacterial predators of bacteria, prey bacteria for these predators, indigenous bacteria that are normally present in high numbers in soil, and non-native bacteria that often find their way in large numbers into soil. The soil was incubated and the responses of the indigenous protozoa were determined by most-probable-number estimations of total numbers of protozoa. Although each soil was incubated with only one species of added bacteria, the protozoan response for the soil was evaluated by using most-probable-number estimations of several species of bacteria. The protozoa did not respond to incubation of the soil with either Cupriavidus necator, a potent bacterial predator, or one of its prey species, Micrococcus luteus. C. necator also had no effect on the protozoa. Therefore, in this case, bacterial and protozoan predators did not interact, except for possible competition for bacterial prey cells. The soil protozoa did not respond to the addition of Arthrobacter globiformis or Bacillus thuringiensis. Therefore, the autochthonous state of Arthrobacter species in soil and the survival of B. thuringiensis were possibly enhanced by the resistance of these species to protozoa. The addition of Bacillus mycoides and Escherichia coli cells caused specific responses by soil protozoa. The protozoa that responded to E. coli did not respond to B. mycoides or any other bacteria, and vice versa. Therefore, addition to soil of a nonsoil bacterium, such as E. coli, did not cause a general increase in numbers of protozoa or in protozoan control of the activities of other bacteria in the soil.

Casida, L. E.

1989-01-01

199

Recycling and uptake of Si(OH)4 when protozoan grazers feed on diatoms.  

PubMed

Herbivory of microzooplankton is an emerging key factor of diatom mortality in the ocean. As part of the microbial loop, protozoan grazers also feed on bacteria that accelerate the degradation of diatom detritus. The potentially pivotal effect of microzooplankton grazing on Si(OH)(4) recycling was investigated with cultures of single-celled diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chaetoceros gracilis, and heterotrophic protozoans, the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the ciliate Strombidium sp. Both grazers ingested diatoms and the bacteria in the non-axenic cultures. C. gracilis, whose frustule is "armed" with setae, was less suitable as a prey than T. pseudonana. Ingestion rates of T. pseudonana were comparable for O. marina and Strombidium, but the dinoflagellate produced two orders of magnitude more detrital bSiO(2) than the ciliate, due to the higher abundance reached by O. marina. Total net release of Si(OH)(4) was lower in the grazing treatments compared to the control possibly due to the reduced bacterial growth by microzooplankton bacterivory, and to the transient protection of detrital bSiO(2) in discarded feeding vacuoles. Over the first 24h, microzooplankton grazing even led to enhanced uptake of Si(OH)(4) by diatoms, confirming the potential of grazing to influence the silicification of diatom frustules. Subsequently however, the Si dynamics in bottles with grazers turned rapidly from net uptake to net Si(OH)(4) release. Protozoan grazers hence tie Si(OH)(4) recycling into the microbial loop by producing detrital bSiO(2). PMID:20022558

Schultes, Sabine; Lambert, Christophe; Pondaven, Philippe; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Jansen, Sandra; Ragueneau, Olivier

2009-12-21

200

The epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections in south-west Cameroon.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of the prevalence, intensity and effects of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections was undertaken among patients at the Buea Hospital Annex located in Buea sub-division of Cameroon. Stool samples from 356 subjects (174 males and 182 females) were collected and processed using standard concentration methods. Our results showed that 31.0% of subjects were infected with intestinal helminths and the prevalence was higher in females (32.4%) than in males (30.5%). A significantly higher prevalence was observed in rural (47.2%) than in urban areas (21.0%); significance < 0.1%. Prevalence was highest among those aged between 6 and 12 years (41.4%). The total prevalence of intestinal helminth infections were 19.3% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.0% for hookworm and 11.8% for Trichuris trichiura. The intensity of infection was unevenly distributed, with very heavy loads concentrated in a few individuals. Data also showed that 28.1% (100/356) of the subjects were infected with protozoans. Females showed a higher prevalence (28.6%; 52/182) than males (20.7%; 36/174). Also, there was a significantly higher prevalence in rural (34.0%; 49/144) than urban areas (18.4%; 39/212); significance < 0.1%. The age group 6-12 years again had a higher prevalence (37.1%; 26/70). The total prevalence of intestinal protozoans was: Entamoeba histolytica (24.4%), Entamoeba coli (11.2%) and Giardia lamblia (0.6%). These relatively heavy prevalences in patients may be reduced by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water supply, good sewage management and a congenial environment will all help to minimize infection. PMID:21281528

Mbuh, J V; Ntonifor, N H; Ojong, J

2011-01-31

201

Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.  

PubMed

This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described. PMID:23871855

Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

2013-07-17

202

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF): A Key Player in Protozoan Infections  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by the pituitary gland and multiple cell types, including macrophages (Mø), dendritic cells (DC) and T-cells. Upon releases MIF modulates the expression of several inflammatory molecules, such as TNF-?, nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). These important MIF characteristics have prompted investigators to study its role in parasite infections. Several reports have demonstrated that MIF plays either a protective or deleterious role in the immune response to different pathogens. Here, we review the role of MIF in the host defense response to some important protozoan infections.

de Dios Rosado, Juan; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

2011-01-01

203

Arsenic oxidation and bioaccumulation by the acidophilic protozoan, Euglena mutabilis, in acid mine drainage (Carnoulès, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the acid stream (pH 2.5–4.7) originating from the Carnoulès mine tailings, the acidophilic protozoan Euglena mutabilis grows with extremely high sulfate (1.9–4.9 g\\/l), iron (0.7–1.7 g\\/l) and arsenic concentrations (0.08–0.26 g\\/l). Strong variations in flow rate and high sulfate concentrations (up to 4.9 g\\/l) have been registered in early winter and might be the reason for the reduction in

Corinne Casiot; Odile Bruneel; Jean-Christian Personné; Marc Leblanc; Françoise Elbaz-Poulichet

2004-01-01

204

An immunofluorescence technique for staining ciliated protozoans: highlighting cytoplasmic microtubular arrays and stages of micronuclear meiosis.  

PubMed

Ciliated protozoans represent useful organisms for studying the processes involved in the induction and progression of meiosis. In this short report we describe a technique that has allowed us to examine different meiosis phases during the sexual reproduction of Blepharisma japonicum. In order to visualize the phases of meiosis, sexually reproducing pairs were stained by an enhanced technique of anti-tubuline indirect immunofluorescence. Meiotic micronuclei, particularly those showing metaphase spindles, were clearly highlighted. The technique also heavily decorates the main microtubular cytoplasmic arrays in Blepharisma. PMID:10936463

Santangelo, G; Bruno, P

2001-02-01

205

Identification of a New Rhoptry Neck Complex RON9/RON10 in the Apicomplexa Parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites secrete and inject into the host cell the content of specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries, which take part into critical processes such as host cell invasion and modulation of the host cell immune response. The rhoptries are structurally and functionally divided into two compartments. The apical duct contains rhoptry neck (RON) proteins that are conserved in Apicomplexa and are involved in formation of the moving junction (MJ) driving parasite invasion. The posterior bulb contains rhoptry proteins (ROPs) unique to an individual genus and, once injected in the host cell act as effector proteins to co-opt host processes and modulate parasite growth and virulence. We describe here two new RON proteins of Toxoplasma gondii, RON9 and RON10, which form a high molecular mass complex. In contrast to the other RONs described to date, this complex was not detected at the MJ during invasion and therefore was not associated to the MJ complex RON2/4/5/8. Disruptions of either RON9 or RON10 gene leads to the retention of the partner in the ER followed by subsequent degradation, suggesting that the RON9/RON10 complex formation is required for proper sorting to the rhoptries. Finally, we show that the absence of RON9/RON10 has no significant impact on the morphology of rhoptry, on the invasion and growth in fibroblasts in vitro or on virulence in vivo. The conservation of RON9 and RON10 in Coccidia and Cryptosporidia suggests a specific relation with development in intestinal epithelial cells.

Lamarque, Mauld H.; Papoin, Julien; Finizio, Anne-Laure; Lentini, Gaelle; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Candolfi, Ermanno; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Lebrun, Maryse

2012-01-01

206

PROTOMAGALHAENSIA RICHARDSONI N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: EUGREGARINIDA: BLABERICOLIDAE), A NEW GREGARINE PARASITIZING THE GIANT LOBSTER COCKROACH, HENSCHOUTEDENIA FLEXIVITTA (DICTYOPTERA: BLABERIDAE).  

PubMed

Abstract Protomagalhaensia richardsoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) is described from the giant lobster cockroach, Henschoutedenia flexivitta (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blaberidae: Oxyhaloinae: Nauphoetini). Oocysts within the genus are dolioform with polar plates. Those of Protomagalhaensia granulosae, Protomagalhaensia wolfi, and Protomagalhaensia blaberae possess distinct apical spines and a sagittal depression that are absent or reduced in P. richardsoni and Protomagalhaensia cerastes. Oocysts of P. richardsoni are significantly longer with larger sporozoite-bearing cavities than those of P. blaberae, P. cerastes, P. granulosae, and P. wolfi (external oocyst length 8.07 µm vs 7.42 µm, 7.50 µm, 6.87 µm, 7.56 µm, respectively; internal oocyst length 6.94 µm vs 6.44 µm, 6.77 µm, 6.09 µm, 6.72 µm, respectively). All 5 species are also distinguished by unique oocyst length/width ratios. No unique morphological structure distinguishes among the gametocysts of Protomagalhaensia species, but gametocysts of P. richardsoni are significantly shorter than those of P. blaberae, P. cerastes, P. granulosae, and P. wolfi (gametocyst length 184.3 µm vs 325.15 µm, 253.27 µm, 273.63 µm, 218.3 µm, respectively). No structurally unique morphological gamont feature distinguishes among species of Protomagalhaensia. Rather, species distinctions are morphometric in nature. In general, gamonts of P. richardsoni are readily distinguished from those of P. cerastes and P. wolfi based on size alone: the latter species being roughly half the size of P. richardsoni. Gamonts of P. richardsoni are most similar to those of P. granulosae and P. blaberae but with relatively smaller primites and more slender satellites. PMID:23659501

Fauver, Joseph R; Clopton, Richard E; Clopton, Debra T

2013-05-01

207

The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation 'Melainabacteria'. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01102.001. PMID:24137540

Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E

2013-10-01

208

The ultramicrobacterium "Elusimicrobium minutum" gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the termite group 1 phylum.  

PubMed

Insect intestinal tracts harbor several novel, deep-rooting clades of as-yet-uncultivated bacteria whose biology is typically completely unknown. Here, we report the isolation of the first representative of the termite group 1 (TG1) phylum from sterile-filtered gut homogenates of a humivorous scarab beetle larva. Strain Pei191(T) is a mesophilic, obligately anaerobic ultramicrobacterium with a gram-negative cell envelope. Cells are typically rod shaped, but cultures are pleomorphic in all growth phases (0.3 to 2.5 microm long and 0.17 to 0.3 microm wide). The isolate grows heterotrophically on sugars and ferments D-galactose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucosamine, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and alanine as major products but only if amino acids are present in the medium. PCR-based screening and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Pei191(T) belongs to the "intestinal cluster," a lineage of hitherto uncultivated bacteria present in arthropod and mammalian gut systems. It is only distantly related to the previously described so-called "endomicrobia" lineage, which comprises mainly uncultivated endosymbionts of termite gut flagellates. We propose the name "Elusimicrobium minutum" gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain, Pei191(T) = ATCC BAA-1559(T) = JCM 14958(T)) for the first isolate of this deep-branching lineage and the name "Elusimicrobia" phyl. nov. for the former TG1 phylum. PMID:19270135

Geissinger, Oliver; Herlemann, Daniel P R; Mörschel, Erhard; Maier, Uwe G; Brune, Andreas

2009-03-06

209

Symbiosis and insect diversification: an ancient symbiont of sap-feeding insects from the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes.  

PubMed

Several insect groups have obligate, vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts that provision hosts with nutrients that are limiting in the diet. Some of these bacteria have been shown to descend from ancient infections. Here we show that the large group of related insects including cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, spittlebugs, and planthoppers host a distinct clade of bacterial symbionts. This newly described symbiont lineage belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes indicate that the symbiont phylogeny is completely congruent with the phylogeny of insect hosts as currently known. These results support the ancient acquisition of a symbiont by a shared ancestor of these insects, dating the original infection to at least 260 million years ago. As visualized in a species of spittlebug (Cercopoidea) and in a species of sharpshooter (Cicadellinae), the symbionts have extraordinarily large cells with an elongate shape, often more than 30 mum in length; in situ hybridizations verify that these correspond to the phylum Bacteroidetes. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" is proposed as the name of the new symbiont. PMID:16332876

Moran, Nancy A; Tran, Phat; Gerardo, Nicole M

2005-12-01

210

The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation ‘Melainabacteria’. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01102.001

Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E

2013-01-01

211

Mannosylglucosylglycerate biosynthesis in the deep-branching phylum Planctomycetes: characterization of the uncommon enzymes from Rhodopirellula baltica.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic pathway for the rare compatible solute mannosylglucosylglycerate (MGG) accumulated by Rhodopirellula baltica, a marine member of the phylum Planctomycetes, has been elucidated. Like one of the pathways used in the thermophilic bacterium Petrotoga mobilis, it has genes coding for glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) and mannosylglucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate (MGPG) synthase (MggA). However, unlike Ptg. mobilis, the mesophilic R. baltica uses a novel and very specific MGPG phosphatase (MggB). It also lacks a key enzyme of the alternative pathway in Ptg. mobilis - the mannosylglucosylglycerate synthase (MggS) that catalyses the condensation of glucosylglycerate with GDP-mannose to produce MGG. The R. baltica enzymes GpgS, MggA, and MggB were expressed in E. coli and characterized in terms of kinetic parameters, substrate specificity, temperature and pH dependence. This is the first characterization of genes and enzymes for the synthesis of compatible solutes in the phylum Planctomycetes and for the synthesis of MGG in a mesophile. PMID:23921581

Cunha, Sofia; d'Avó, Ana Filipa; Mingote, Ana; Lamosa, Pedro; da Costa, Milton S; Costa, Joana

2013-08-01

212

Conservation of proteobacterial magnetosome genes and structures in an uncultivated member of the deep-branching Nitrospira phylum  

PubMed Central

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a phylogenetically diverse group which uses intracellular membrane-enclosed magnetite crystals called magnetosomes for navigation in their aquatic habitats. Although synthesis of these prokaryotic organelles is of broad interdisciplinary interest, its genetic analysis has been restricted to a few closely related members of the Proteobacteria, in which essential functions required for magnetosome formation are encoded within a large genomic magnetosome island. However, because of the lack of cultivated representatives from other phyla, it is unknown whether the evolutionary origin of magnetotaxis is monophyletic, and it has been questioned whether homologous mechanisms and structures are present in unrelated MTB. Here, we present the analysis of the uncultivated “Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum” from the deep branching Nitrospira phylum by combining micromanipulation and whole genome amplification (WGA) with metagenomics. Target-specific sequences obtained by WGA of cells, which were magnetically collected and individually sorted from sediment samples, were used for PCR screening of metagenomic libraries. This led to the identification of a genomic cluster containing several putative magnetosome genes with homology to those in Proteobacteria. A variety of advanced electron microscopic imaging tools revealed a complex cell envelope and an intricate magnetosome architecture. The presence of magnetosome membranes as well as cytoskeletal magnetosome filaments suggests a similar mechanism of magnetosome formation in “Cand. M. bavaricum” as in Proteobacteria. Altogether, our findings suggest a monophyletic origin of magnetotaxis, and relevant genes were likely transferred horizontally between Proteobacteria and representatives of the Nitrospira phylum.

Jogler, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Kolinko, Sebastian; Niebler, Martina; Amann, Rudolf; Petersen, Nikolai; Kube, Michael; Schuler, Dirk

2011-01-01

213

Conservation of proteobacterial magnetosome genes and structures in an uncultivated member of the deep-branching Nitrospira phylum.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a phylogenetically diverse group which uses intracellular membrane-enclosed magnetite crystals called magnetosomes for navigation in their aquatic habitats. Although synthesis of these prokaryotic organelles is of broad interdisciplinary interest, its genetic analysis has been restricted to a few closely related members of the Proteobacteria, in which essential functions required for magnetosome formation are encoded within a large genomic magnetosome island. However, because of the lack of cultivated representatives from other phyla, it is unknown whether the evolutionary origin of magnetotaxis is monophyletic, and it has been questioned whether homologous mechanisms and structures are present in unrelated MTB. Here, we present the analysis of the uncultivated "Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum" from the deep branching Nitrospira phylum by combining micromanipulation and whole genome amplification (WGA) with metagenomics. Target-specific sequences obtained by WGA of cells, which were magnetically collected and individually sorted from sediment samples, were used for PCR screening of metagenomic libraries. This led to the identification of a genomic cluster containing several putative magnetosome genes with homology to those in Proteobacteria. A variety of advanced electron microscopic imaging tools revealed a complex cell envelope and an intricate magnetosome architecture. The presence of magnetosome membranes as well as cytoskeletal magnetosome filaments suggests a similar mechanism of magnetosome formation in "Cand. M. bavaricum" as in Proteobacteria. Altogether, our findings suggest a monophyletic origin of magnetotaxis, and relevant genes were likely transferred horizontally between Proteobacteria and representatives of the Nitrospira phylum. PMID:21191098

Jogler, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Kolinko, Sebastian; Niebler, Martina; Amann, Rudolf; Petersen, Nikolai; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Schüler, Dirk

2010-12-29

214

The Bacillus subtilis spore coat provides "eat resistance" during phagocytic predation by the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila  

PubMed Central

Bacillus spores are highly resistant to many environmental stresses, owing in part to the presence of multiple “extracellular” layers. Although the role of some of these extracellular layers in resistance to particular stresses is known, the function of one of the outermost layers, the spore coat, is not completely understood. This study sought to determine whether the spore coat plays a role in resistance to predation by the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, which uses phagocytosis to ingest and degrade other microorganisms. Wild-type dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis were efficiently ingested by the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila but were neither digested nor killed. However, spores with various coat defects were killed and digested, leaving only an outer shell termed a rind, and supporting the growth of Tetrahymena. A similar rind was generated when coat-defective spores were treated with lysozyme alone. The sensitivity of spores with different coat defects to predation by T. thermophila paralleled the spores' sensitivities to lysozyme. Spore killing by T. thermophila was by means of lytic enzymes within the protozoal phagosome, not by initial spore germination followed by killing. These findings suggest that a major function of the coat of spores of Bacillus species is to protect spores against predation. We also found that indigestible rinds were generated even from spores in which cross-linking of coat proteins was greatly reduced, implying the existence of a coat structure that is highly resistant to degradative enzymes.

Klobutcher, Lawrence A.; Ragkousi, Katerina; Setlow, Peter

2006-01-01

215

Assessment of waterborne protozoan passage through conventional drinking water treatment process in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) differing in source water and treatment capacity were investigated for the potential passage of waterborne protozoan (oo)cysts through conventional processing. DWTP I (15,000 L/s), DWTP II (7,500 L/s) and DWTP III (4,300 L/s) provide drinking water for approximately 2.7 million inhabitants of the Metropolitan District of Caracas (Venezuela). The US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was used to analyze raw water and finished drinking water samples collected from the three plants. (Oo)cyst recovery efficiencies varied between 23 and 84%. The concentration of confirmed (oo)cysts detected in raw water samples ranged between 1 and 100 per 100 L. (Oo)cyst levels in finished water samples ranged from 2 to 25 per 100 L. These data indicated that the conventional treatment process to produce finished water at two filtration plants was not effective in preventing the passage of protozoan (oo)cysts. Monitoring strategies that include multiple microbial indicators and waterborne pathogens are strongly recommended for accurate source water characterization and for verification of the effectiveness of treatment process barriers to microbial breakthrough in the finished water. PMID:22717757

Betancourt, Walter Q; Mena, Kristina D

2012-06-01

216

[Metacaspases and their role in the life cycle of human protozoan parasites].  

PubMed

Metacaspases are caspase-related cysteine-proteases that are present in organisms devoid of caspases such as plants, yeast, and protozoan parasites. Since caspases are important effector molecules in mammalian apoptosis, the possible role of metacaspases in programmed cell death has been evaluated in the organisms where they are expressed. In some species of the human protozoan parasites Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., metacaspases have been involved in programmed cell death, although a role of metacaspases in recycling processes in T. brucei has also been suggested. Metacaspases are also expressed in Plasmodium spp., however their role in these organisms is still unknown. More than one metacaspase gene is present in some of these parasites, which suggests that these proteins are physiologically redundant or have different functions depending on their localization and protein interactions. The catalytic activity of metacaspases is different from that of caspases-again noting that metacaspase genes are absent in mammals. These characteristics make metacaspases and their activating mechanisms interesting subjects of research in the development of new drug targets for the treatment of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and malaria. A summary of the literature on metacaspases is provided, and Latin American researchers are encouraged to more actively explore the metacaspase potential. PMID:20436999

González, Iveth J

2009-09-01

217

The phylogenetic placement of the non-phototrophic, Gram-positive thermophile 'Thermobaculum terrenum' and branching orders within the phylum 'Chloroflexi' inferred from gene order comparisons.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of an anaerobic, non-spore-forming thermophile 'Thermobaculum terrenum' was investigated on the basis of gene order data from completely sequenced bacterial genomes. Gene order data can be an excellent source of phylogenetic information. Shared gene arrangements are unlikely to have arisen by chance convergence. They are likely to reflect common ancestry. 'Thermobaculum terrenum' was found to share three gene arrangements that are present uniquely in genomes of members of the phylum 'Chloroflexi', indicating convincingly that 'Thermobaculum terrenum' is a member of this phylum. Branching orders within the phylum 'Chloroflexi' were inferred by identifying monophyletic groups of species, which were circumscribed by characteristic gene arrangements. The branching orders thus inferred were in good agreement with previously reported phylogenies based on single 16S rRNA gene sequences and on multiple protein sequences. The gene order comparisons revealed a close phylogenetic affinity of 'Thermobaculum terrenum' to Sphaerobacter thermophilus and Thermomicrobium roseum. PMID:20833875

Kunisawa, Takashi

2010-09-10

218

[Morphology and diagnosis of the oral protozoans Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis using the Giemsa-Romanovsky stain].  

PubMed

In the microscopic diagnosis of Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis is the technically and time not demanding native preparation of a culture, in which both protozoans can be detected according to their typical motility, determining. In the permanent preparation of the culture stained according to Giemsa-Romanovsky, which has also documentary character, are all of the characteristic cell organelles stainable, enabling so their detection without their typical motility. Staining according to Giemsa-Romanovsky is technically simple and not time consuming, not very laborious, low cost and the coloration is permanent, that means optimal for the diagnostic of oral protozoans in permanent preparations. (Fig. 5, Ref. 4.) PMID:9919761

Vráblic, J; Vodrázka, J; Tomová, S; Staník, R; Catár, G

1998-11-01

219

Phylogenetic Diversity, Localization, and Cell Morphologies of Members of the Candidate Phylum TG3 and a Subphylum in the Phylum Fibrobacteres, Recently Discovered Bacterial Groups Dominant in Termite Guts? †  

PubMed Central

Recently we discovered two novel, deeply branching lineages in the domain Bacteria from termite guts by PCR-based analyses of 16S rRNA (Y. Hongoh, P. Deevong, T. Inoue, S. Moriya, S. Trakulnaleamsai, M. Ohkuma, C. Vongkaluang, N. Noparatnaraporn, and T. Kudo, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:6590-6599, 2005). Here, we report on the specific detection of these bacteria, the candidate phylum TG3 (Termite Group 3) and a subphylum in the phylum Fibrobacteres, by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the guts of the wood-feeding termites Microcerotermes sp. and Nasutitermes takasagoensis. Both bacterial groups were detected almost exclusively from the luminal fluid of the dilated portion in the hindgut. Each accounted for approximately 10% of the total prokaryotic cells, constituting the second-most dominant groups in the whole-gut microbiota. The detected cells of both groups were in undulate or vibroid forms and apparently resembled small spirochetes. The cell sizes were 0.2 to 0.4 by 1.3 to 6.0 ?m and 0.2 to 0.3 by 1.3 to 4.9 ?m in the TG3 and Fibrobacteres, respectively. Using PCR screenings with specific primers, we found that both groups are distributed among various termites. The obtained clones formed monophyletic clusters that were delineated by the host genus rather than by the geographic distance, implying a robust association between these bacteria and host termites. TG3 clones were also obtained from a cockroach gut, lake sediment, rice paddy soil, and deep-sea sediments. Our results suggest that the TG3 and Fibrobacteres bacteria are autochthonous gut symbionts of various termites and that the TG3 members are also widely distributed among various other environments.

Hongoh, Yuichi; Deevong, Pinsurang; Hattori, Satoshi; Inoue, Tetsushi; Noda, Satoko; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Kudo, Toshiaki; Ohkuma, Moriya

2006-01-01

220

Genetic Predisposition to Self-Curing Infection with the Protozoan Leishmania chagasi: A Genome Wide Scan  

PubMed Central

The protozoan Leishmania chagasi can cause disseminated, fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or asymptomatic human infection. We hypothesized that genetic factors contribute to this variable response to infection. A family study was performed in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, northeast Brazil. Subjects were assessed for VL or asymptomatic infection, defined as a positive delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test response to Leishmania antigen without disease symptoms. A genome scan of 405 microsatellite markers in 1254 subjects was analyzed for regions of linkage. The results indicated loci of potential linkage to DTH response on chromosomes 2, 13, 15 and 19, and a novel region of potential interest for VL on chromosome 9. An understanding of the genetic factors determining whether an individual will develop symptomatic or asymptomatic infection with L. chagasi may illuminate proteins essential for immune protection against this parasitic disease; findings could reveal strategies for immunotherapy or prevention.

Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Duggal, Priya; Ettinger, Nicholas A.; Nascimento, Eliana T.; Monteiro, Gloria R.; Cabral, Angela P.; Pontes, Nubia N.; Lacerda, Henio G.; Queiroz, Paula V.; Maia, Carlos G.; Pearson, Richard D.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Beaty, Terri H.; Wilson, Mary E.

2008-01-01

221

Ultrastructural modification of the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda following chronic exposure to partially degraded crude oil  

SciTech Connect

Protozoa are important consumers of the microflora that biodegrade oil spills. In the study presented, the ultrastructural effects induced by chronic oil stress in the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda are discussed. Colpidia were grown in control cultures containing a dilute organic medium and a dense suspension of prey bacteria. After 20 days' oil exposure, C. colpoda contained more stained cytoplasmic inclusions than ciliates grown in the control media. Although the extent of Sudan Black staining in the oil-stressed cells indicates the presence of lipids, these droplets are better termed lipid-hydrocarbon (LH) inclusions until their definitive composition is known. C. colpoda accumulated significant quantities of lipid-hydrocarbons accounting for up to 20% of their cellular volume. Studies are currently being conducted to characterized these inclusions and to evaluate the effects of feeding these ''oil-labeled'' prey to predators, an important issue with the increasing concern about the biomagnification of environmental pollutants. (JMT)

Rogerson, A.; Berger, J.

1982-06-01

222

Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. This not only relates to the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary implications but also to the impact on the parasite-host interactions within mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. During recent years, common functions of apoptosis and autophagy in protozoa and during parasitic infections have emerged. Here, we review how distinct cell death pathways in Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium or Toxoplasma may contribute to regulation of parasite cell densities in vectors and mammalian hosts, to differentiation of parasites, to stress responses, and to modulation of the host immunity. The examples provided indicate crucial roles of PCD in parasite biology. The existence of PCD pathways in these organisms and the identification as being critical for parasite biology and parasite-host interactions could serve as a basis for developing new anti-parasitic drugs that take advantage of these pathways.

2010-01-01

223

Enteric Protozoan Parasites in Rural Areas of Bandar-Abbas, Southern Iran: Comparison of Past and Present Situation  

PubMed Central

Background: The main goal was to address the prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites in rural areas of Bandar-Abbas, southern Iran and to compare the results with the only conducted study in 1978. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from 2009 through 2010 on the 565 fecal samples. Formalin-ether concentration technique was performed and the analysis was carried out using Chi-square test in SPSS software version 13.5. Finally, the comparison of our results with the only previous study which was accomplished by Sheiban and Rezaeian in 1978 was done. Results: The overall prevalence of the protozoan parasites was 48.8%. However, the prevalence of pathogen parasites was 23%. Previous research in 1978 showed 80.4% infectivity. The most protozoan parasites were Blastocystis hominis (25.53%), Giardia lamblia (17.2%) and Entamoeba coli (15.95%). Previous study in 1978 found Entamoeba coli as the most common protozoa. Our finding revealed that the rate of single infectivity was much higher compared to previous research. The most frequency of infection was in children. Conclusion: The remarkable decrease of protozoan parasites is mainly due to progress in health care in the villages; however more effort should be done with the goal of eradicating infectious agents.

Kuzehkanani, A Bairami; Rezaei, S; Babaei, Z; Niyyati, M; Hashemi, SN; Rezaeian, M

2011-01-01

224

The disinfection efficacy of a point-of-use water treatment system against bacterial, viral and protozoan waterborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A point-of-use (POU) water treatment system (WTS), comprised of a presed activated carbon block filter followed by an ultraviolet (UV) light reactor, was evaluated for microbial disinfection efficacy following the general guidelines of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Guide Standard and Protocol for Testing Microbiological Water Purifiers. The POU WTS was challenged against bacterial, viral and protozoan waterborne pathogens

Morteza Abbaszadegan; Michaela N. Hasan; Charles P. Gerba; Peter F. Roessler; Barth R. Wilson; Roy Kuennen; Eric Van Dellen

1997-01-01

225

ARACHIDONIC ACID SYNTHETIC PATHWAYS IN THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE PERKINSUS MARINUS: EVIDENCE OF USAGE OF A DELTA-8 PATHWAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is capable of synthesizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids including the essential fatty acid, arachidonic acid [AA; 20:4(n6)]. Eukaryotes employ either delta-6 or delta-8 desaturase pathway or both to synthesize AA. To el...

226

Migratory behaviour and host-parasite co-evolution in natural populations of monarch butterflies infected with a protozoan parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, varies dramatically among natural populations of monarch butterflies. One potential cause of this variation is that host resistance or parasite virulence differs among populations due to underlying variation in host migratory behaviour and parasite transmission. In this study, I examined the geographic variation in host and parasite characteristics using reciprocal cross-infection experiments,

Sonia M. Altizer

2001-01-01

227

The Protozoan Neospora caninum Directly Triggers Bovine NK Cells To Produce Gamma Interferon and To Kill Infected Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are considered to be key players in the early innate responses to protozoan infections, primarily indirectly by producing gamma interferon (IFN-?) in response to cytokines, like interleukin 12 (IL-12). We demonstrate that live, as well as heat-inactivated, tachyzoites of Neospora caninum, a Toxoplasma-like protozoan, directly trigger production of IFN-? from purified, IL-2-activated bovine NK cells. This response occurred independently of IL-12 but was increased by the addition of the cytokine. A similar IFN-? response was measured in cocultures of NK cells and N. caninum-infected autologous fibroblasts. However, no NK cell-derived IFN-? response was detected when cells were cultured with soluble antigens from the organism, indicating that intact tachyzoites or nonsoluble components are necessary for NK cell triggering. Furthermore, N. caninum-infected autologous fibroblasts had increased susceptibility to NK cell cytotoxicity compared to uninfected fibroblasts. This cytotoxicity was largely mediated by a perforin-mediated mechanism. The activating receptor NKp46 was involved in cytotoxicity against fibroblasts but could not explain the increased cytotoxicity against infected targets. Interestingly, N. caninum tachyzoites were able to infect cultured NK cells, in which tachyzoites proliferated inside parasitophorous vacuoles. Together, these findings underscore the role of NK cells as primary responders during a protozoan infection, describe intracellular protozoan infection of NK cells in vitro for the first time, and represent the first functional study of purified bovine NK cells in response to infection.

Boysen, Preben; Klevar, Siv; Olsen, Ingrid; Storset, Anne K.

2006-01-01

228

Filamentous Bacterium Eikelboom Type 0092 in Activated Sludge Plants in Australia Is a Member of the Phylum Chloroflexi?  

PubMed Central

Molecular data show that the filamentous bacterium Eikelboom type 0092, frequently seen in Australian activated sludge plants, is a member of the phylum Chloroflexi. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes designed against cloned 16S rRNA sequences from a full-scale enhanced biological phosphate removal-activated sludge plant community, where this was a dominant filament morphotype, suggest that it can exist as two variants, differing in their trichome diameter. When applied to samples from several treatment plants in eastern Australia, each FISH probe targeted only the type 0092 filament morphotype against which it was designed. The patterns of FISH signals generated with both were consistent with the ribosomes not being evenly distributed but arranged as intracellular aggregates. The FISH survey data showed that these two variants appeared together in most but not all of the plants examined. None stained positively for intracellular presence of either poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates or polyphosphate.

Speirs, Lachlan; Nittami, Tadashi; McIlroy, Simon; Schroeder, Sarah; Seviour, Robert J.

2009-01-01

229

The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction.  

PubMed

Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred. PMID:11542160

Weisburg, W G; Giovannoni, S J; Woese, C R

1989-01-01

230

Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis  

PubMed Central

Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate). Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan). BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value < 10-5) hits and further Gene Ontology (GO) analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289). Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

Abernathy, Jason W; Xu, Peng; Li, Ping; Xu, De-Hai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Klesius, Phillip; Arias, Covadonga; Liu, Zhanjiang

2007-01-01

231

Structure of a Protozoan Virus from the Human Genitourinary Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is an obligate human genitourinary parasite and the most frequent cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Most clinical isolates of T. vaginalis are persistently infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from the genus Trichomonasvirus, family Totiviridae, which appear to influence not only protozoan biology but also human disease. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1 (TVV1) virions, as determined by electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral image reconstruction. The structure reveals a T = 1 capsid comprising 120 subunits, 60 in each of two nonequivalent positions, designated A and B, as previously observed for fungal Totiviridae family members. The putative protomer is identified as an asymmetric AB dimer consistent with either decamer or tetramer assembly intermediates. The capsid surface is notable for raised plateaus around the icosahedral 5-fold axes, with canyons connecting the 2- and 3-fold axes. Capsid-spanning channels at the 5-fold axes are unusually wide and may facilitate release of the viral genome, promoting dsRNA-dependent immunoinflammatory responses, as recently shown upon the exposure of human cervicovaginal epithelial cells to either TVV-infected T. vaginalis or purified TVV1 virions. Despite extensive sequence divergence, conservative features of the capsid reveal a helix-rich fold probably derived from an ancestor shared with fungal Totiviridae family members. Also notable are mass spectrometry results assessing the virion proteins as a complement to structure determination, which suggest that translation of the TVV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in fusion with its capsid protein involves ?2, and not +1, ribosomal frameshifting, an uncommonly found mechanism to date.

Parent, Kristin N.; Takagi, Yuko; Cardone, Giovanni; Olson, Norman H.; Ericsson, Maria; Yang, May; Lee, Yujin; Asara, John M.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Baker, Timothy S.; Nibert, Max L.

2013-01-01

232

Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR?=?1.748, 95% CI?=?1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR?=?1.820, 95% CI?=?1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened provision of educational health programs, health services in all governorates including rural areas. Furthermore, it is also essential to find radical solutions to the recent water crises in Yemen.

Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2011-01-01

233

Nanoarchaea: representatives of a novel archaeal phylum or a fast-evolving euryarchaeal lineage related to Thermococcales?  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivable archaeal species are assigned to two phyla - the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota - by a number of important genetic differences, and this ancient split is strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis. The recently described hyperthermophile Nanoarchaeum equitans, harboring the smallest cellular genome ever sequenced (480 kb), has been suggested as the representative of a new phylum - the Nanoarchaeota - that would have diverged before the Crenarchaeota/Euryarchaeota split. Confirming the phylogenetic position of N. equitans is thus crucial for deciphering the history of the archaeal domain. Results We tested the placement of N. equitans in the archaeal phylogeny using a large dataset of concatenated ribosomal proteins from 25 archaeal genomes. We indicate that the placement of N. equitans in archaeal phylogenies on the basis of ribosomal protein concatenation may be strongly biased by the coupled effect of its above-average evolutionary rate and lateral gene transfers. Indeed, we show that different subsets of ribosomal proteins harbor a conflicting phylogenetic signal for the placement of N. equitans. A BLASTP-based survey of the phylogenetic pattern of all open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome of N. equitans revealed a surprisingly high fraction of close hits with Euryarchaeota, notably Thermococcales. Strikingly, a specific affinity of N. equitans and Thermococcales was strongly supported by phylogenies based on a subset of ribosomal proteins, and on a number of unrelated molecular markers. Conclusion We suggest that N. equitans may more probably be the representative of a fast-evolving euryarchaeal lineage (possibly related to Thermococcales) than the representative of a novel and early diverging archaeal phylum.

Brochier, Celine; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Zivanovic, Yvan; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Forterre, Patrick

2005-01-01

234

Protozoan bacterivory and Escherichia coli survival in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

The development of bacterial communities in drinking water distribution systems leads to a food chain which supports the growth of macroorganisms incompatible with water quality requirements and esthetics. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems and their trophic relationships. This study was done to quantify the microbial communities (especially bacteria and protozoa) and obtain direct and indirect proof of protozoan feeding on bacteria in two distribution networks, one of GAC water (i.e., water filtered on granular activated carbon) and the other of nanofiltered water. The nanofiltered water-supplied network contained no organisms larger than bacteria, either in the water phase (on average, 5 x 10(7) bacterial cells liter-1) or in the biofilm (on average, 7 x 10(6) bacterial cells cm-2). No protozoa were detected in the whole nanofiltered water-supplied network (water plus biofilm). In contrast, the GAC water-supplied network contained bacteria (on average, 3 x 10(8) cells liter-1 in water and 4 x 10(7) cells cm-2 in biofilm) and protozoa (on average, 10(5) cells liter-1 in water and 10(3) cells cm-2 in biofilm). The water contained mostly flagellates (93%), ciliates (1.8%), thecamoebae (1.6%), and naked amoebae (1.1%). The biofilm had only ciliates (52%) and thecamoebae (48%). Only the ciliates at the solid-liquid interface of the GAC water-supplied network had a measurable grazing activity in laboratory test (estimated at 2 bacteria per ciliate per h). Protozoan ingestion of bacteria was indirectly shown by adding Escherichia coli to the experimental distribution systems. Unexpectedly, E. coli was lost from the GAC water-supplied network more rapidly than from the nanofiltered water-supplied network, perhaps because of the grazing activity of protozoa in GAC water but not in nanofiltered water. Thus, the GAC water-supplied network contained a functional ecosystem with well-established and structured microbial communities, while the nanofiltered water-supplied system did not. The presence of protozoa in drinking water distribution systems must not be neglected because these populations may regulate the autochthonous and allochthonous bacterial populations. PMID:9435076

Sibille, I; Sime-Ngando, T; Mathieu, L; Block, J C

1998-01-01

235

Comparing the tolerance limits of selected bacterial and protozoan species to nickel in wastewater systems.  

PubMed

Heavy-metal resistant microorganisms play a significant role in the treatment of industrial wastewater. The detoxifying ability of these resistant microorganisms can be manipulated for bioremediation of heavy metals in wastewater systems. This study aimed at comparing the tolerance limit of selected wastewater protozoan species (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.) against Ni(2+) with that of selected bacterial species (Bacillus licheniformis-ATCC12759, Brevibacillus laterosporus-ATCC64 and Pseudomonas putida-ATCC31483) commonly found in wastewater systems. The isolates were exposed to various concentrations of Ni(2+) in mixed liquor and their tolerance to Ni(2+) assessed at different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, 8 and 10). The physicochemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) of the media and the growth rates of the isolates were measured using standard methods. In terms of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the results revealed that the isolates could tolerate Ni(2+) at concentrations ranging between 32 and 52ppm for protozoa and between 52 and 84ppm for bacteria. B. licheniformis-ATCC12759 was the most tolerant bacterial species (MIC: 84ppm-Ni(2+)) while Peranema sp. was the most tolerant protozoan species (MIC: 52ppm-Ni(2+)). At 10 and/or 20ppm-Ni(2+) the growth of B. licheniformis-ATCC12759 (6.30 days(-1) for 10 and 5.73 days(-1) for 20ppm-Ni(2+)), P. putida-ATCC31483 (6.02 days(-1) for 10 and 5.31 days(-1) for 20ppm-Ni(2+)) and Peranema sp. (2.15 days(-1) for 10ppm-Ni(2+)) was stimulated after one day of incubation. Statistical evidence showed significant differences (p=0.0065) between the MIC of the six isolates and positive correlations between COD and the growth rates of isolates (r=0.8999/0.8810 for bacteria/protozoa). The tolerance limit of all isolates was significantly dependent on the pH and the temperature. The study suggests that these isolates can be used for the bioremediation of nickel in industrial wastewater systems. PMID:22014510

Kamika, I; Momba, M N B

2011-10-19

236

Protozoan Bacterivory and Escherichia coli Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

PubMed Central

The development of bacterial communities in drinking water distribution systems leads to a food chain which supports the growth of macroorganisms incompatible with water quality requirements and esthetics. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems and their trophic relationships. This study was done to quantify the microbial communities (especially bacteria and protozoa) and obtain direct and indirect proof of protozoan feeding on bacteria in two distribution networks, one of GAC water (i.e., water filtered on granular activated carbon) and the other of nanofiltered water. The nanofiltered water-supplied network contained no organisms larger than bacteria, either in the water phase (on average, 5 × 107 bacterial cells liter?1) or in the biofilm (on average, 7 × 106 bacterial cells cm?2). No protozoa were detected in the whole nanofiltered water-supplied network (water plus biofilm). In contrast, the GAC water-supplied network contained bacteria (on average, 3 × 108 cells liter?1 in water and 4 × 107 cells cm?2 in biofilm) and protozoa (on average, 105 cells liter?1 in water and 103 cells cm?2 in biofilm). The water contained mostly flagellates (93%), ciliates (1.8%), thecamoebae (1.6%), and naked amoebae (1.1%). The biofilm had only ciliates (52%) and thecamoebae (48%). Only the ciliates at the solid-liquid interface of the GAC water-supplied network had a measurable grazing activity in laboratory test (estimated at 2 bacteria per ciliate per h). Protozoan ingestion of bacteria was indirectly shown by adding Escherichia coli to the experimental distribution systems. Unexpectedly, E. coli was lost from the GAC water-supplied network more rapidly than from the nanofiltered water-supplied network, perhaps because of the grazing activity of protozoa in GAC water but not in nanofiltered water. Thus, the GAC water-supplied network contained a functional ecosystem with well-established and structured microbial communities, while the nanofiltered water-supplied system did not. The presence of protozoa in drinking water distribution systems must not be neglected because these populations may regulate the autochthonous and allochthonous bacterial populations.

Sibille, I.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Mathieu, L.; Block, J. C.

1998-01-01

237

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2008-01-06

238

ApiEST-DB: analyzing clustered EST data of the apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

ApiEST-DB (http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/paradbs-servlet/) provides integrated access to publicly available EST data from protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. The database currently incorporates a total of nearly 100,000 ESTs from several parasite species of clinical and/or veterinary interest, including Eimeria tenella, Neospora caninum, Plasmodium falciparum, Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii. To facilitate analysis of these data, EST sequences were clustered and assembled to form consensus sequences for each organism, and these assemblies were then subjected to automated annotation via similarity searches against protein and domain databases. The underlying relational database infrastructure, Genomics Unified Schema (GUS), enables complex biologically based queries, facilitating validation of gene models, identification of alternative splicing, detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms, identification of stage-specific genes and recognition of phylogenetically conserved and phylogenetically restricted sequences. PMID:14681425

Li, Li; Crabtree, Jonathan; Fischer, Steve; Pinney, Deborah; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sibley, L David; Roos, David S

2004-01-01

239

Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ?  

PubMed Central

Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes.

Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

2011-01-01

240

Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010.  

PubMed

The present update gives a comprehensive review of worldwide waterborne parasitic protozoan outbreaks that occurred and were published globally between January 2004 and December 2010. At least one hundred and ninety-nine outbreaks of human diseases due to the waterborne transmission of parasitic protozoa occurred and were reported during the time period from 2004 to 2010. 46.7% of the documented outbreaks occurred on the Australian continent, 30.6% in North America and 16.5% in Europe. Cryptosporidium spp. was the etiological agent in 60.3% (120) of the outbreaks, Giardia lamblia in 35.2% (70) and other protozoa in 4.5% (9). Four outbreaks (2%) were caused by Toxoplasma gondii, three (1.5%) by Cyclospora cayetanensis. In two outbreaks (1%) Acanthamoeba spp. was identified as the causative agent. In one outbreak, G. lamblia (in 17.6% of stool samples) and Cryptosporidium parvum (in 2.7% of stool samples) as well as Entamoeba histolytica (in 9.4% of stool samples) and Blastocystis hominis (in 8.1% of stool samples) were detected. In those countries that are likely affected most a lack of surveillance systems is noticeable. However, countries that established surveillance systems did not establish an international standardization of reporting systems. PMID:22048017

Baldursson, Selma; Karanis, Panagiotis

2011-10-20

241

Nitazoxanide for the treatment of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in Mexico.  

PubMed

A study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide as a single agent for the treatment of a broad spectrum of mixed parasitic infections, both protozoa and helminths, was conducted at a primary school in San Pedro Tolimán, Querétaro, Mexico. Three faecal samples from 1824 adults and children were screened for the presence of oocysts, cysts, trophozoites, eggs or larvae of intestinal protozoa or helminths. Two hundred and forty-six adults and children infected with at least one protozoan and 2 helminths were given 7.5 mg/kg of nitazoxanide (500 mg to adults and 200 mg to children less than 12 years old) every 12 h for 3 consecutive days. Faecal samples were examined on days 6, 7, 8, 13, 14 and 15 (+/- 1) following initiation of treatment, using formalin-ether concentration and Kato-Katz egg counting. Treatment with nitazoxanide was 71-100% effective in eliminating evidence of infection with Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis hominis, Isospora belli, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana. Haematology and clinical chemistry values obtained before and after treatment remained unaffected by nitazoxanide. The drug was well tolerated, with only 15 patients (6.1%) reporting mild abdominal pain that lasted less than 24 h. PMID:9580117

Romero Cabello, R; Guerrero, L R; Muñóz García, M R; Geyne Cruz, A

242

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly  

PubMed Central

Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models.

Lefevre, Thierry; Williams, Amanda Jo; de Roode, Jacobus C.

2011-01-01

243

Cultivation and phylogenetic characterization of a newly recognized human pathogenic protozoan.  

PubMed

An intraerythrocytic protozoan (WA1) recently isolated from a patient in Washington State was shown to be morphologically identical to Babesia microti but biologically and genetically distinct. Continuous growth of WA1 was established in stationary erythrocyte cultures. Hybridization of a chemiluminescent Babesia-specific DNA probe to Southern blots of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA showed that WA1 could be distinguished from other Babesia species that were antigenically cross-reactive (Babesia gibsoni and babesial parasites from desert bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis nelsoni) or known to infect humans (B. microti, Babesia divergens, and Babesia equi), or both. A 1436-bp portion of the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene of WA1 was sequenced and analyzed. Genetic distance analysis showed that WA1 is most closely related to the canine pathogen B. gibsoni and lies within a phylogenetic cluster with Theileria species and B. equi. The methodology described will be useful for improved diagnosis and identification of human protozoal pathogens. PMID:8169390

Thomford, J W; Conrad, P A; Telford, S R; Mathiesen, D; Bowman, B H; Spielman, A; Eberhard, M L; Herwaldt, B L; Quick, R E; Persing, D H

1994-05-01

244

Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish.  

PubMed

Protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich) and bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish, which cause high fish mortality. Currently there is no information available for the effect of parasitism by Ich on survival of channel catfish and invasion of A. hydrophila in fish tissues following exposure to A. hydrophila. A trial was conducted in this study to: (1) determine whether A. hydrophila increased fish mortality in Ich-parasitized channel catfish; and (2) compare the bacterial quantity in different tissues between non-parasitized and Ich-parasitized catfish by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results demonstrated that the Ich-parasitized catfish showed significantly (P<0.05) higher mortality (80%) when exposed to A. hydrophila by immersion than non-parasitized fish (22%). Low mortality was observed in catfish exposed to Ich alone (35%) or A. hydrophila alone (22%). A. hydrophila in fish tissues were quantified by qPCR using a pair of gene-specific primers and reported as genome equivalents per mg of tissue (GEs/mg). Skin, gill, kidney, liver and spleen in Ich-parasitized fish showed significantly higher load of A. hydrophila (9400-188,300 GEs/mg) than non-parasitized fish (4700-42,100 GEs/mg) after exposure to A. hydrophila. This study provides evidence that parasite infections enhance bacterial invasion and cause high fish mortality. PMID:22033433

Xu, De-Hai; Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Shoemaker, Craig A

2011-09-17

245

Metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in St Kilda Soay sheep.  

PubMed

For hundreds of years, the unmanaged Soay sheep population on St Kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. Important parasite taxa in young Soay sheep are strongyles (Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 Eimeria species) and keds (Melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this research, associations between the intensity of different parasite taxa were investigated. Secondly, the intensities of different parasite taxa were tested for associations with variation in host weight, which is itself a determinant of over-winter survival in the host population. In lambs, the intensity of strongyle eggs was positively correlated with that of Nematodirus spp. eggs, while in yearlings and adults strongyle eggs and coccidia oocysts were positively correlated. In lambs and yearlings, of the parasite taxa tested, only strongyle eggs were significantly and negatively associated with host weight. However, in adult hosts, strongyles and coccidia were independently and negatively associated with host weight. These results are consistent with the idea that strongyles and coccidia are exerting independent selection on Soay sheep. PMID:18215336

Craig, B H; Tempest, L J; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

2008-01-24

246

Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda.  

PubMed

The feral Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) population on Hirta, St Kilda, is host to a diverse component parasite community, but previous parasitological studies of the population have only focussed on the metazoan species. This paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and 11 species of Eimeria in Soay sheep across 3 years of varying host population density. Prevalence and intensity of almost all species of protozoa significantly decreased with host age, with the exception of E. granulosa, which increased in prevalence with host age. The prevalence of C. parvum appeared to vary positively with host population density but that of G. duodenalis did not vary significantly with density. Most species of Eimeria showed a distinct lag in infection level following the host population crash of 2002, taking up to 2 years to decrease. Mixed Eimeria species intensity and diversity were highest in 2002, a year of low host density. Parasite diversity decreased with host age and was higher in males. There were 5 positive pair-wise associations between protozoa species in terms of prevalence. The results of this study highlight the potential for protozoal infection to shape the evolution of parasite resistance in wild host populations harbouring diverse parasite species. PMID:16978448

Craig, B H; Pilkington, J G; Kruuk, L E B; Pemberton, J M

2006-09-18

247

Covalent bonding of protein to polyamine in the cyst coat of the protozoan Colpoda steinii.  

PubMed

1. High-voltage electrophoresis and chromatography before and after reaction with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulphonyl chloride have identified putrescine and spermidine in hydrolysates of cyst coat proteins from the protozoan Colpoda steinii. 2. Amounts present varied with putrescine up to 19.7 and spermidine up to 16.9 residues per 1000 amino acid residues. 3. The amines were not, in the main, removed by acid or alkaline extraction or by reprecipitation. They were present in hydrolysates of peptides isolated electrophoretically from acid-degraded coat protein. 4. Proteolysis of oxidised coat protein produced a soluble core polypeptide to which the major proportion of the amines were attached and which had a simple composition. It was composed almost entirely of glutamic acid or glutamine, glycine, serine and cysteic acid, these residues being present in the approximate ratio of 10:2:1:1. 5. When coat protein was treated with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulphonyl chloride and hydrolysed no fully substituted amines could be detected but putrescine with one group substituted and spermidine derivatives with one and two groups substituted were present. PMID:6800792

Tibbs, J

1982-03-01

248

Phototaxis in the ciliated protozoan Ophryoglena flava: dose-effect curves and action spectrum determination.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of positive phototactic orientation of cells of the ciliated protozoan Ophryoglena flava has been measured for white light, broad-band blue and red light, and narrow-band monochromatic light, using a laboratory-developed computer aided system. The white-light fluence rate-response curve shows that there is no negative phototaxis in the fluence rate range investigated (0-15 W/m2) and no adaptation phenomena; it is very well fitted by a hyperbolic function; the fluence rate curves under broad band blue and red light (full width at half maximum, FWHM= 100 nm) can be fitted by the same model. The saturation level is, within experimental errors, the same for the three curves, indicating that there are no chromaticity effects and that if there is more than one photoreceptor pigment, they act independently of each other. The fluence rate-response curves determined under narrow band monochromatic light (FWHM = 10 nm) can also be fitted by the same model and show, within experimental errors, the same saturation level. An action spectrum for positive phototaxis at 10-nm intervals has been calculated from fluence rate-response curves: it shows three maxima, at 420, 540 and 590 nm. This action spectrum is significantly different from the ones for photomotile responses in Blepharisma japonicum, Stentor coeruleus and Chlamydodon mnemosyne, whereas it resembles the ones of Paramecium bursaria and Fabrea salina. PMID:11100836

Cadetti, L; Marroni, F; Marangoni, R; Kuhlmann, H W; Gioffré, D; Colombetti, G

2000-08-01

249

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

PubMed

Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models. PMID:20843849

Lefèvre, Thierry; Williams, Amanda Jo; de Roode, Jacobus C

2010-09-15

250

The first suicides: a legacy inherited by parasitic protozoans from prokaryote ancestors  

PubMed Central

It is more than 25 years since the first report that a protozoan parasite could die by a process resulting in a morphological phenotype akin to apoptosis. Since then these phenotypes have been observed in many unicellular parasites, including trypanosomatids and apicomplexans, and experimental evidence concerning the molecular pathways that are involved is growing. These observations support the view that this form of programmed cell death is an ancient one that predates the evolution of multicellularity. Here we review various hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of apoptosis, and look for support for these hypotheses amongst the parasitic protists as, with the exception of yeast, most of the work on death mechanisms in unicellular organisms has focussed on them. We examine the role that addiction modules may have played in the original eukaryote cell and the part played by mitochondria in the execution of present day cells, looking for examples from Leishmania spp. Trypanosoma spp. and Plasmodium spp. In addition, the expanding knowledge of proteases, nucleases and other molecules acting in protist execution pathways has enabled comparisons to be made with extant Archaea and bacteria and with biochemical pathways that evolved in metazoans. These comparisons lend support to the original sin hypothesis but also suggest that present-day death pathways may have had multifaceted beginnings.

2013-01-01

251

Migratory Dermal Dendritic Cells Act as Rapid Sensors of Protozoan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DC), including those of the skin, act as sentinels for intruding microorganisms. In the epidermis, DC (termed Langerhans cells, LC) are sessile and screen their microenvironment through occasional movements of their dendrites. The spatio-temporal orchestration of antigen encounter by dermal DC (DDC) is not known. Since these cells are thought to be instrumental in the initiation of immune responses during infection, we investigated their behavior directly within their natural microenvironment using intravital two-photon microscopy. Surprisingly, we found that, under homeostatic conditions, DDC were highly motile, continuously crawling through the interstitial space in a G?i protein-coupled receptor–dependent manner. However, within minutes after intradermal delivery of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, DDC became immobile and incorporated multiple parasites into cytosolic vacuoles. Parasite uptake occurred through the extension of long, highly dynamic pseudopods capable of tracking and engulfing parasites. This was then followed by rapid dendrite retraction towards the cell body. DDC were proficient at discriminating between parasites and inert particles, and parasite uptake was independent of the presence of neutrophils. Together, our study has visualized the dynamics and microenvironmental context of parasite encounter by an innate immune cell subset during the initiation of the immune response. Our results uncover a unique migratory tissue surveillance program of DDC that ensures the rapid detection of pathogens.

Ng, Lai Guan; Hsu, Alice; Mandell, Michael A.; Roediger, Ben; Hoeller, Christoph; Mrass, Paulus; Iparraguirre, Amaya; Cavanagh, Lois L.; Triccas, James A.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Scott, Phillip; Weninger, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

252

A rhodopsin immunoanalog in the related photosensitive protozoans Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus.  

PubMed

Immunoblotting of isolated cell membrane fractions from ciliates Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus with a polyclonal antibody raised against rhodopsin revealed one strong protein band of about 36 kDa, thought to correspond to protozoan rhodopsin. Inspection of both ciliates labeled with the same antibody using a confocal microscope confirmed the immunoblotting result and demonstrated the presence of these rhodopsin-like molecules localized within the cell membrane area. Immunoblot analysis of the ciliate membrane fractions resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified two distinct 36 kDa spots at pIs of 4.5 and 7.0 for Blepharisma, and three spots at pIs of 4.4, 5.0 and 6.0 for Stentor, indicating a possible mixture of phosphorylated rhodopsin species in these cells. The obtained results suggest that both Blepharisma and the related ciliate Stentor contain within the cell membrane the rhodopsin-like proteins, which may be involved as receptor molecules in the sensory transduction pathway mediating motile photoresponses in these protists as in other species of lower eukaryota. PMID:18754050

Fabczak, Hanna; Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Fabczak, Stanis?aw

2008-07-02

253

The meaning of death: evolution and ecology of apoptosis in protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

The discovery that an apoptosis-like, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious infectious diseases of humans, companion animals, wildlife, and livestock. Whilst apoptosis is an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defence in multicellular organisms, its occurrence in unicellular parasites appears counter-intuitive and has proved highly controversial: according to the Darwinian notion of "survival of the fittest", parasites are expected to evolve strategies to maximise their proliferation, not death. The prevailing, and untested, opinion in the literature is that parasites employ apoptosis to "altruistically" self-regulate the intensity of infection in the host/vector. However, evolutionary theory tells us that at most, this can only be part of the explanation, and other non-mutually exclusive hypotheses must also be tested. Here, we explain the evolutionary concepts that can explain apoptosis in unicellular parasites, highlight the key questions, and outline the approaches required to resolve the controversy over whether parasites "commit suicide". We highlight the need for integration of proximate and functional approaches into an evolutionary framework to understand apoptosis in unicellular parasites. Understanding how, when, and why parasites employ apoptosis is central to targeting this process with interventions that are sustainable in the face of parasite evolution. PMID:22174671

Reece, Sarah E; Pollitt, Laura C; Colegrave, Nick; Gardner, Andy

2011-12-08

254

A transposon toolkit for gene transfer and mutagenesis in protozoan parasites  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Treatment and control of these diseases are complicated partly due to the intricate biology of these organisms. The interactions of species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and trypanosomes with their hosts are mediated by an unusual control of gene expression that is not fully understood. The availability of the genome sequence of these protozoa sets the stage for using more comprehensive, genome-wide strategies to study gene function. Transposons are effective tools for the systematic introduction of genetic alterations and different transposition systems have been adapted to study gene function in these human pathogens. A mariner transposon toolkit for use in vivo or in vitro in Leishmania parasites has been developed and can be used in a variety of applications. These modified mariner elements not only permit the inactivation of genes, but also mediate the rescue of translational gene fusions, bringing a major contribution to the investigation of Leishmania gene function. The piggyBac and Tn5 transposons have also been shown to mobilize across Plasmodium spp. genomes circumventing the current limitations in the genetic manipulation of these organisms.

Damasceno, Jeziel D.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Tosi, Luiz R. O.

2009-01-01

255

The NMR solution structure of the pheromone Er-2 from the ciliated protozoan Euplotes raikovi.  

PubMed Central

The NMR structure of the pheromone Er-2 from the ciliated protozoan Euplotes raikovi has been determined in aqueous solution. The structure of this 40-residue protein was calculated with the distance geometry program DIANA from 621 distance constraints and 89 dihedral angle constraints; the program OPAL was employed for the energy minimization. For a group of 20 conformers used to characterize the solution structure, the average pairwise RMS deviation from the mean structure calculated for the backbone heavy atoms N, C alpha, and C' of residues 3-37 was 0.31 A. The molecular architecture is dominated by an up-down-up bundle of 3 short helices of residues 5-11, 14-20, and 23-33, which is similar to the structures of the homologous pheromones Er-1 and Er-10. Novel structural features include a well-defined N-cap on the first helix, a 1-residue deletion in the second helix resulting in the formation of a 3(10)-helix rather than an alpha-helix as found in Er-1 and Er-10, and the simultaneous presence of 2 different conformations for the C-terminal tetrapeptide segment, i.e., a major conformation with the Leu 39-Pro 40 peptide bond in the trans form and a minor conformation with this peptide bond in the cis form.

Ottiger, M.; Szyperski, T.; Luginbuhl, P.; Ortenzi, C.; Luporini, P.; Bradshaw, R. A.; Wuthrich, K.

1994-01-01

256

Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic\\u000a areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine\\u000a is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation,\\u000a nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory

Afzal Husain; Ghulam Jeelani; Dan Sato; Tomoyoshi Nozaki

2011-01-01

257

Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan photodynamically active pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blepharismin is an endogenous photosensitizing pigment found in the protozoan Blepharisma. This pigment inhibited the generation of Superoxide anion (O2?) in neutrophils not only via a diacylglycerol-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent reaction but also by an arachidonate-induced PKC-independent reaction. The inhibition was light and concentration dependent for both reactions. Light-activated inhibition was strong at wavelengths between 520 and 570nm but

Yoshiya Watanabe; Keisuke E-ige; Hirotsugu Kobuchi; Yoji Kato; Tatsuomi Matsuoka; Toshihiko Utsumi; Tamotsu Yoshioka; Alan A. Horton; Kozo Utsumi

1995-01-01

258

Protozoan bioassays of soil amended with sewage sludge and heavy metals, using the common soil ciliate Colpoda steinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common soil protozoan Colpoda steinii was used to study the toxicity of sulphate solutions of Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn. The growth of C. steinii was reduced by 50% in the presence of 0.10, 0.22, 0.25, and 0.85 mg litre-1 of Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn, respectively, during 24 h of incubation at 25°C, as calculated from a regression

T. A. Forge; M. L. Berrow; J. F. Darbyshire; A. Warren

1993-01-01

259

Scyphidia Tholiformis, a Peritrichous Protozoan Found on the Gills and External Surfaces of Micropterus Dolomieu and Micropterus Salmoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scyphidia tholiformis is an urn-shaped peritrichous protozoan measuring about 59 microns in length and 35 microns in width. It possesses a double row of cilia about one-third of the distance from the anterior end of the body and has a large scopula which is variable in shape and provides a large surface for attachment. The macronucleus is long and band-like,

Eugene W. Surber

1943-01-01

260

Decreasing prevalence of rhizosphere IAA producing and seedling root growth promoting bacteria with barley development irrespective of protozoan grazing regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley was grown in soil with either bacteria and a mixed protozoan community (Mixed protozoa) or bacteria and a single vahlkampfiid\\u000a amoebal species (Single amoeba). We assessed the influence of plant age (day 29, 43 and 57 after sowing) on two aspects of\\u000a rhizosphere bacterial functioning: (1) the proportion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria and (2) the effect\\u000a of

Mette Vestergård; Lisa Bjørnlund; Frédéric Henry; Regin Rønn

2007-01-01

261

[Occurrence of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis Leidy, 1846 (Kinetoplasta: Bodonea: Cryptobiidae) in the garden snail, Helix aspersa].  

PubMed

In this survey, the prevalence and cytological features of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis living in the bursa copulatrix of the garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller 1774 found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated. The prevalence of Cryptobia helicis in garden snails collected in the spring of 2005 was found to be 68.65%. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Cryptobia helicis in the garden snail Helix aspersa found in Turkey. PMID:18351561

Göçmen, Bayram; Gürelli, Gözde

2008-01-01

262

Blepharismin produced by a protozoan Blepharisma functions as an antibiotic effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ciliated protozoan, Blepharisma japonicum, produces a photosensitive red pigment, blepharismin (BLR). This study showed that the pigment inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) resistant to arbekacin (ABK), which is the most effective aminoglycoside antibiotic against MRSA and used world wide. Although the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BLR to the ABK-resistant MRSA strain

Bijaya Pant; Yoji Kato; Takanori Kumagai; Tatsuomi Matsuoka; Masanori Sugiyama

1997-01-01

263

Blepharismins, produced by the protozoan, Blepharisma japonicum, form ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blepharismins are polycyclic quinones found in the pigment granules of the ciliated protozoan, Blepharisma. Exposure to purified blepharismins results in lethal damage to several other ciliates. We here report that, at cytotoxic concentrations, blepharismins formed cation-selective channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. The channels formed in a diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer had a K+\\/Cl? permeability ratio of 6.6:1. Single channel recordings revealed

Yoshinori Muto; Tatsuomi Matsuoka; Akemi Kida; Yukio Okano; Yutaka Kirino

2001-01-01

264

Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for\\u000a parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when\\u000a females scatter

Jacobus C. de Roode; Jean Chi; Rachel M. Rarick; Sonia Altizer

2009-01-01

265

Regulation of guanylyl cyclase by intracellular Ca 2+ in relation to the infectivity of the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neuronal type Ca2+ stimulated nitric oxide synthase was earlier reported by us to be present in the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. As part of nitric oxide-cyclic GMP transduction signaling operative in higher eukaryotes and involved in the long-term potentiation, a soluble guanylyl cyclase has also been detected in this lower eukaryote. However, detailed biochemical characterization revealed the enzyme to

Sudipan Karmakar; Anindita Ukil; Snigdha Mukherjee; Pijush K. Das

2006-01-01

266

Use of Sequence-Specific Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides to Determine the Protozoan Parasite Antigen Recognized by Nonspecific Cytotoxic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The antigen on the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena pyriformis recognized by catfish nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCC) is a 46- to 48-kDa protein referred to as NKTag. The complete cDNA-derived\\u000a amino acid sequence of NKTag has been obtained. The antigenic determinant of NKTag corresponding to the NCC binding site has\\u000a been determined with synthetic peptides in target cell competition experiments. To

Liliana Jaso-Friedmann; Donald L. Evans

2000-01-01

267

Occurrence, removal and accumulation in sludge of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in a full-scale anaerobic pond in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

The present paper investigates the occurrence, removal, and accumulation of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in a large anaerobic pond treating municipal wastewater of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). With a hydraulic retention time of 6.5 days, the anaerobic pond achieved 100% removal of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts most of the time, except during the hot period. The average residual concentrations of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in the effluent were respectively 0.45 eggs/L (minimum 0 and maximum 3), and 5.4 cysts/L (minimum 0 and maximum 26). Protozoan cysts accumulation in sludge averaged 1,613 cysts/g total solids. Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana were the main helminth species found in the sludge. After 7 years of operation, the sludge in the pond still contained a high level of viable helminth eggs evaluated at 42%. PMID:23128639

Konaté, Yacouba; Maiga, Amadou Hama; Basset, Didier; Picot, Bernadette; Casellas, Claude

2013-01-01

268

Seasonal dominance of CL500-11 bacterioplankton (phylum Chloroflexi) in the oxygenated hypolimnion of Lake Biwa, Japan.  

PubMed

Uncultured bacteria affiliated with the CL500-11 cluster (phylum Chloroflexi) were first reported from the oxygenated hypolimnion of Crater Lake (USA) as a predominant bacterioplankton, although this dominance has not been reported in other environments. In this study, we showed that CL500-11 is also dominant in the oxygenated hypolimnion of Lake Biwa (Japan) and followed its spatiotemporal succession using fluorescent in situ hybridization. CL500-11 cells were almost absent [< 1% of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells] at the beginning of the stratification period, dominated (> 10% of DAPI-stained cells; maximum = 16.5%) in the hypolimnion during the stratification period, and decreased to below the detection limit with the collapse of the thermocline. This pattern was observed over two annual cycles. A longitudinal assessment also showed that CL500-11 was the dominant bacterium in the hypolimnion over the whole lake, but was generally undetectable in the stratified epilimnion. These data suggest that CL500-11 is acclimated to the oxygenated hypolimnion and is a potentially important component of the pelagic biogeochemical cycling of the lake. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that almost all CL500-11 sequences previously deposited in the database were detected from hypolimnion or holomictic water in deep oxic freshwater lakes, suggesting that the bacteria may form one of the common lineages residing in an aerobic hypolimnetic niche. PMID:22809435

Okazaki, Yusuke; Hodoki, Yoshikuni; Nakano, Shin-ichi

2012-08-20

269

Ecophysiology of Uncultured Filamentous Anaerobes Belonging to the Phylum KSB3 That Cause Bulking in Methanogenic Granular Sludge? †  

PubMed Central

A filamentous bulking of a methanogenic granular sludge caused by uncultured filamentous bacteria of the candidate phylum KSB3 in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system has been reported. To characterize the physiological traits of the filaments, a polyphasic approach consisting of rRNA-based activity monitoring of the KSB3 filaments using the RNase H method and substrate uptake profiling using microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) was conducted. On the basis of rRNA-based activity, the monitoring of a full-scale UASB reactor operated continuously revealed that KSB3 cells became active and predominant (up to 54% of the total 16S rRNA) in the sludge when the carbohydrate loading to the system increased. Batch experiments with a short incubation of the sludge with maltose, glucose, fructose, and maltotriose at relatively low concentrations (approximately 0.1 mM) in the presence of yeast extract also showed an increase in KSB3 rRNA levels under anaerobic conditions. MAR-FISH confirmed that the KSB3 cells took up radioisotopic carbons from [14C]maltose and [14C]glucose under the same incubation conditions in the batch experiments. These results suggest that one of the important ecophysiological characteristics of KSB3 cells in the sludge is carbohydrate degradation in wastewater and that high carbohydrate loadings may trigger an outbreak of KSB3 bacteria, causing sludge bulking in UASB systems.

Yamada, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Kae; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Koji; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi; Hiraishi, Akira; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2011-01-01

270

In situ detection and quantification of uncultured members of the phylum Nitrospirae abundant in methanogenic wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

In upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating high-strength organic wastewaters, uncultured phylotypes belonging to the phylum Nitrospirae were assumed to play a key role in the treatment processes because of their high abundance as determined by 16S rRNA gene-based clone library analyses (Narihiro et al. (27)). A comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of the phylotypes, commonly found in anaerobic mesophilic sludges, revealed that these phylotypes formed a coherent clade at the family to genus levels with no cultured representatives. To determine the abundance and distribution in methanogenic waste/wastewater treatment sludges, 16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR measurements and 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out. A specific gene primer/probe for the uncultured clade was developed and used for quantitative PCR and in situ detection of the targeted cells within the sludge granules. In all the six UASB sludges treating food-processing organic wastewaters, the phylotypes were detected at a range of 0.1 to 10.9% of total 16S rRNA genes. FISH revealed that the gene probe reacted with coccoid or irregular coccoid-like cells in the middle and inner layers of sludge granules of a UASB reactor, in which the Nitrospirae phylotypes were found in abundance by real-time PCR analyses. PMID:21566361

Iguchi, Akinori; Terada, Takeshi; Narihiro, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2009-01-01

271

Characterization of filamentous bacteria, belonging to candidate phylum KSB3, that are associated with bulking in methanogenic granular sludges.  

PubMed

A fatal bulking phenomenon was found to occur occasionally in the methanogenic granular sludge of a mesophilic (35-40 degrees C), full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating organic wastewater discharged from a sugar manufacturing factory. A vast number of filamentous cells were observed in the bulking sludge that were morphologically distinct from the previously recognized anaerobic bulking agent Anaerolinea thermophila. 16S rRNA gene-based analyses of the microbial populations in the bulking sludge revealed that the dominant filamentous organisms were members of proposed candidate bacterial phylum, KSB3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the healthy sludge granules showed that the KSB3 filaments were the dominant granule surface population suggesting that they are fundamental constituents of the sludge granules and that they occasionally overgrow in the reactor, possibly triggering the filamentous bulking. We surveyed 10 additional mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sludges for the presence and diversity of KSB3 populations. Bacteria closely related to the characterized KSB3 filaments were present in two types of mesophilically grown UASB sludge granules treating actual wastewater discharged from sugar-processing industries. PMID:18043635

Yamada, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Koji; Hugenholtz, Philip; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2007-05-31

272

Ecophysiology of uncultured filamentous anaerobes belonging to the phylum KSB3 that cause bulking in methanogenic granular sludge.  

PubMed

A filamentous bulking of a methanogenic granular sludge caused by uncultured filamentous bacteria of the candidate phylum KSB3 in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system has been reported. To characterize the physiological traits of the filaments, a polyphasic approach consisting of rRNA-based activity monitoring of the KSB3 filaments using the RNase H method and substrate uptake profiling using microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) was conducted. On the basis of rRNA-based activity, the monitoring of a full-scale UASB reactor operated continuously revealed that KSB3 cells became active and predominant (up to 54% of the total 16S rRNA) in the sludge when the carbohydrate loading to the system increased. Batch experiments with a short incubation of the sludge with maltose, glucose, fructose, and maltotriose at relatively low concentrations (approximately 0.1 mM) in the presence of yeast extract also showed an increase in KSB3 rRNA levels under anaerobic conditions. MAR-FISH confirmed that the KSB3 cells took up radioisotopic carbons from [(14)C]maltose and [(14)C]glucose under the same incubation conditions in the batch experiments. These results suggest that one of the important ecophysiological characteristics of KSB3 cells in the sludge is carbohydrate degradation in wastewater and that high carbohydrate loadings may trigger an outbreak of KSB3 bacteria, causing sludge bulking in UASB systems. PMID:21257808

Yamada, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Kae; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Koji; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi; Hiraishi, Akira; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2011-01-21

273

The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' of bacteria: phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and endosymbiont members of various gut flagellated protists.  

PubMed

The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' (TG1) of bacteria, which is abundant in termite guts but has no culturable representative, was investigated with respect to the in situ localization, distribution, and diversity. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and FISH in termite guts, a number of lineages of TG1 members were identified as endosymbionts of a variety of gut flagellated protists from the orders Trichonymphida, Cristamonadida, and Oxymonadida that are mostly unique to termites. However, the survey in various environments using specific PCR primers revealed that TG1 members were also present in termites, a cockroach, and the bovine rumen that typically lack these protist orders. Most of the TG1 members from gut flagellates, termites, cockroaches, and the rumen formed a monophyletic subcluster that showed a shallow branching pattern in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting their recent diversification. Although endosymbionts of the same protist genera tended to be closely related, the endosymbiont lineages were often independent of the higher level classifications of their host protist and were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree. It appears that their cospeciation is not the sole rule for the diversification of TG1 members of endosymbionts. PMID:17391329

Ohkuma, Moriya; Sato, Tomoyuki; Noda, Satoko; Ui, Sadaharu; Kudo, Toshiaki; Hongoh, Yuichi

2007-03-28

274

Rubritalea marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine representative of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', isolated from a sponge (Porifera).  

PubMed

A marine bacterium, strain Pol012(T), was isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Axinella polypoides and subsequently characterized as belonging to subphylum 1 of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. Strain Pol012(T) was non-motile, Gram-negative, coccoid or rod-shaped and red in colour. The menaquinones MK-8 and MK-9 were detected. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 50.9 mol%. Growth was possible at temperatures between 8 and 30 degrees C and at pH values between 6.8 and 8.2. The closest cultured relative of strain Pol012(T) was Akkermansia muciniphila (83 % sequence similarity), while the closest environmental 16S rRNA gene sequence was the marine clone Arctic96BD-2 (95 % sequence similarity). Strain Pol012(T) is the first marine pure-culture representative of 'Verrucomicrobia' subphylum 1 and represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Rubritalea marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Pol012(T) (=DSM 177716(T)=CIP 108984(T)). PMID:16957108

Scheuermayer, Matthias; Gulder, Tobias A M; Bringmann, Gerhard; Hentschel, Ute

2006-09-01

275

Remarkable phylum selectivity of a Schistocerca gregaria trypsin inhibitor: the possible role of enzyme-inhibitor flexibility.  

PubMed

A 35-mer polypeptide isolated from the hemolymph of desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (SG) proved to be a canonical inhibitor of bovine trypsin (K(i) = 0.2 microM). Despite having a trypsin-specific arginine at the primary specificity P(1) site, it inhibits bovine chymotrypsin almost as well (K(i) = 2 microM). Furthermore, while the latter reactivity improves 10(4)-fold by the single replacement of P(1) Arg by Leu, changing P(1)' from Lys to Met only moderately improves trypsin affinity (K(i) = 30 nM). The apparent low compatibility to trypsin, however, is not observed vs two arthropodal trypsins: SG peptides with P(1) Arg inhibit crayfish and shrimp trypsins with K(i) values in the picomolar range. This unprecedented high discrimination between orthologous enzymes is postulated to derive from flexibility differences in the protein-protein interaction. The more than four orders of magnitude phylum selectivity makes these peptides prospective candidates for agricultural use. PMID:11831848

Patthy, András; Amir, Sumaira; Malik, Zulfiquar; Bódi, Arpád; Kardos, József; Asbóth, Bence; Gráf, László

2002-02-15

276

Rubritalea squalenifaciens sp. nov., a squalene-producing marine bacterium belonging to subdivision 1 of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out to clarify the status of a Gram-negative, heterotrophic mesophile that was isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. The strain, designated HOact23(T), was a non-motile, rod-shaped (0.44-0.53x0.65-0.79 microm) bacterium. The strain produced squalene and a red-pink carotenoid pigment. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 52.4 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C(14 : 0) (43.1 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (20.6 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (18.1 %), and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-9 (90.8 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, the strain formed a distinct group within subdivision 1 in the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. It showed a range of phenotypic properties that distinguished it from its closest relative, Rubritalea marina Pol012(T) (94.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that strain HOact23(T) should be classified within a novel species in the genus Rubritalea. The name proposed for the taxon is Rubritalea squalenifaciens sp. nov., with the type strain HOact23(T) (=MBIC08254(T)=DSM 18772(T)). PMID:17625207

Kasai, Hiroaki; Katsuta, Atsuko; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yokota, Akira; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

2007-07-01

277

Geoarchaeota: a new candidate phylum in the Archaea from high-temperature acidic iron mats in Yellowstone National Park.  

PubMed

Geothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an outstanding opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of metabolic processes necessary for life in extreme environments including low pH, high temperature, low oxygen and elevated concentrations of reduced iron. Previous phylogenetic studies of acidic ferric iron mats from YNP have revealed considerable diversity of uncultivated and undescribed archaea. The goal of this study was to obtain replicate de novo genome assemblies for a dominant archaeal population inhabiting acidic iron-oxide mats in YNP. Detailed analysis of conserved ribosomal and informational processing genes indicates that the replicate assemblies represent a new candidate phylum within the domain Archaea referred to here as 'Geoarchaeota' or 'novel archaeal group 1 (NAG1)'. The NAG1 organisms contain pathways necessary for the catabolism of peptides and complex carbohydrates as well as a bacterial-like Form I carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex likely used for energy conservation. Moreover, this novel population contains genes involved in the metabolism of oxygen including a Type A heme copper oxidase, a bd-type terminal oxidase and a putative oxygen-sensing protoglobin. NAG1 has a variety of unique bacterial-like cofactor biosynthesis and transport genes and a Type3-like CRISPR system. Discovery of NAG1 is critical to our understanding of microbial community structure and function in extant thermophilic iron-oxide mats of YNP, and will provide insight regarding the evolution of Archaea in early Earth environments that may have important analogs active in YNP today. PMID:23151644

Kozubal, Mark A; Romine, Margaret; Jennings, Ryan deM; Jay, Zack J; Tringe, Susannah G; Rusch, Doug B; Beam, Jacob P; McCue, Lee Ann; Inskeep, William P

2012-11-15

278

Effect of pH on Isolation and Distribution of Members of Subdivision 1 of the Phylum Acidobacteria Occurring in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH strongly influenced the development of colonies by members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria on solid laboratory media. Significantly more colonies of this group formed at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.0. At pH 5.5, 7 to 8% of colonies that formed on plates that were incubated for 4 months were formed by subdivision 1 acidobacteria. These

Michelle Sait; Kathryn E. R. Davis; Peter H. Janssen

2006-01-01

279

Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward Crown Clades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inference of evolutionary relationships between nematodes is severely hampered by their conserved morphology, the high frequency of homoplasy, and the scarcity of phylum-wide molecular data. To study the origin of nematode radiation and to unravel the phylogenetic relationships between distantly related species, 339 nearly full-length small-subunit rDNA sequences were analyzed from a diverse range of nematodes. Bayesian inference revealed a

Martijn Holterman; Wurff van der A. W. G; Elsen van den S. J. J; Megen van H. H. B; A. M. T. Bongers; Oleksandr Holovachov; Jaap Bakker; Johannes Helder

2006-01-01

280

Phylogenetic Position of the Hexactinellida Within the Phylum Porifera Based on the Amino Acid Sequence of the Protein Kinase C from Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent analyses of genes encoding proteins typical for multicellularity, especially adhesion molecules and receptors, favor\\u000a the conclusion that all metazoan phyla, including the phylum Porifera (sponges), are of monophyletic origin. However, none\\u000a of these data includes cDNA encoding a protein from the sponge class Hexactinellida. We have now isolated and characterized\\u000a the cDNA encoding a protein kinase C, belonging

Michael Kruse; Sally P. Leys; Isabel M. Müller; Werner E. G. Müller

1998-01-01

281

Observations on the morphology of some North American nemertines with consequent taxonomic changes and a reassessment of the architectonics of the phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of the nemertine species from the western North Atlantic were originally described from life in the nineteenth\\u000a century. Many of these were established by A. E. Verrill who had ‘an eye for species’ no matter which phylum he was working\\u000a with, and thus when living nemertines which he described are encountered, they can usually be recognized. The morphology

Nathan W. Riser

1993-01-01

282

In situ hybridisation identifies the gill as a portal of entry for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa), the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) is an important pathogen affecting salmonid culture in Western Europe and North America. All of the\\u000a available oligonucleotide probes developed for the PCR amplification of PKX DNA were examined for their ability to detect\\u000a PKX in fixed tissue sections using in situ hybridisation. Out of the 12 probes examined, only four stained PKX in tissue sections.\\u000a The

D. J. Morris; A. Adams; R. H. Richards

2000-01-01

283

Characterization of Melioribacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium from the class Ignavibacteria, and a proposal of a novel bacterial phylum Ignavibacteriae.  

PubMed

A novel moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic chemoorganotrophic bacterium strain P3M-2(T) was isolated from a microbial mat developing on the wooden surface of a chute under the flow of hot water (46°C) coming out of a 2775-m-deep oil exploration well (Tomsk region, Russia). Strain P3M-2(T) is a moderate thermophile and facultative anaerobe growing on mono-, di- or polysaccharides by aerobic respiration, fermentation or by reducing diverse electron acceptors [nitrite, Fe(III), As(V)]. Its closest cultivated relative (90.8% rRNA gene sequence identity) is Ignavibacterium album, the only chemoorganotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi. New genus and species Melioribacter roseus are proposed for isolate P3M-2(T) . Together with I.?album, the new organism represents the class Ignavibacteria assigned to the phylum Chlorobi. The revealed group includes a variety of uncultured environmental clones, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of some of which have been previously attributed to the candidate division ZB1. Phylogenetic analysis of M.?roseus and I.?album based on their 23S rRNA and RecA sequences confirmed that these two organisms could represent an even deeper, phylum-level lineage. Hence, we propose a new phylum Ignavibacteriae within the Bacteroidetes-Chlorobi group with a sole class Ignavibacteria, two families Ignavibacteriaceae and Melioribacteraceae and two species I.?album and M.?roseus. This proposal correlates with chemotaxonomic data and phenotypic differences of both organisms from other cultured representatives of Chlorobi. The most essential differences, supported by the analyses of complete genomes of both organisms, are motility, facultatively anaerobic and obligately organotrophic mode of life, the absence of chlorosomes and the apparent inability to grow phototrophically. PMID:23297868

Podosokorskaya, Olga A; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Gavrilov, Sergey N; Mardanov, Andrey V; Merkel, Alexander Y; Karnachuk, Olga V; Ravin, Nikolay V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Kublanov, Ilya V

2013-01-09

284

Chthoniobacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov., the first pure-culture representative of subdivision two, spartobacteria classis nov., of the phylum verrucomicrobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylum Verrucomicrobia is increasingly recognized as an environmentally significant group of bacteria, particularly in soil habitats. At least six subdivisions of the Verrucomicrobia are resolved by comparative analysis of 16S rRNA genes, mostly obtained directly from environmental samples. To date, only two of these subdivisions (1 and 4) have characterized pure-culture representatives. We have isolated and characterized the first

Parveen Sangwan; Xiaolei Chen; Philip Hugenholtz; Peter H. Janssen

2004-01-01

285

Surface membrane carbohydrate alterations of a flagellated protozoan mediated by bacterial endosymbiotes.  

PubMed Central

Crithidia oncopelti, a parasitic trypanosomatid protozoan of insects, normally contains intracellular symbiotic bacteria. As shown earlier, the protozoa can be rid of their endosymbiotes by chloramphenicol, producing a symbiote-free cell line. Here surface-membrane carbohydrate ligands of the symbiote-containing and symbiote-free strains were compared by lectin-mediated agglutination, lectin-ultrastructure localization. [3H] lectin-binding, and fluorescent lectin staining. Symbiote-free organisms consistently had 3-fold higher agglutination titers than symbiote-containing cells with concanavalin A. Conversely, symbiote-containing flagellates had 2- to 3-fold greater agglutination titers with a fucose-binding lectin than symbiote-free organisms. Ultrastructure results showed that more of concanavalin A-horseradish peroxidase-diaminobenzidine reaction product was present at the surface of symbiote-free than on symbiote-containing cells. Treatment with [3H]concanavalin A revealed that surface membrane sites available per cell for [3H]lectin-binding ranged from 6.2 to 7.4 x 10(4) and from 24 to 27 x 10(4) for symbiote-containing and symbiote-free organisms, respectively, i.e., the mean binding level of the latter for the lectin was 3.5 times greater than that of the former. Moreover, symbiote-free cells fluoresced more than symbiote-containing organisms after staining with fluorescein-labeled concanavalin A. Apparently, the prokaryotic endosymbiotes somehow alter the quantity of saccharide ligands in the C. oncopelti surface membrane. Images

Dwyer, D M; Chang, K P

1976-01-01

286

Effects of the protozoan parasite ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the fitness of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the survival and reproduction of monarch butterflies. Because larvae in natural populations are likely to experience a wide range of natural parasite population densities, we examined the effects of increasing spore density (0, 10, 100, or 1000 spores per larva) on host fitness. Parasites had little effect on monarch survival or reproduction, except at the highest dose. Monarchs inoculated with 1000 spores per larva had decreased survival to eclosion, and this effect was more severe when larvae were inoculated at an earlier stage (first versus third instar). Monarchs inoculated with higher spore densities also emerged with smaller wingspans and lower body mass than noninoculated adults. Infection with the highest dose of O. elektroscirrha led to decreased male lifespan and reproductive success, but females infected with O. elektroscirrha did not experience a significant decline in lifetime fecundity. However, heavily infected females in outdoor enclosures were less active than uninfected females and gained weight during their adult lifespan. Among samples of adult monarchs captured in natural populations, parasite loads were associated with butterfly condition and activity. Heavily infected adults captured breeding in western North America and southern Florida were smaller than uninfected monarchs. Among overwintering adults in Mexico and California, mating activity was positively associated with higher parasite loads. In addition, the proportion of adults with low and intermediate spore loads (as opposed to no spores) was higher among adults with greater wing tatter and scale loss. Our findings of minor effects of O. elektroscirrha on the survival and reproduction of monarch butterflies are consistent with the expectation that maternally transmitted parasites should have little or no effect on host fitness compared with horizontally transmitted parasites. However, because our laboratory studies demonstrated that monarchs exposed to the highest parasite density experienced decreased larval survival, smaller adult size, and shorter adult lifespans, additional transmission routes are likely to be important for parasite maintenance in natural populations. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10388550

Altizer; Oberhauser

1999-07-01

287

Interaction network of the 14-3-3 protein in the ancient protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis.  

PubMed

14-3-3s are phosphoserine/phosphotreonine binding proteins that play pivotal roles as regulators of multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. The flagellated protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, the causing agent of giardiasis, is a valuable simplified eukaryotic model. A single 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3) is expressed in Giardia, and it is directly involved in the differentiation of the parasite into cyst. To define the overall functions of g14-3-3, the protein interactome has been investigated. A transgenic G. duodenalis strain was engineered to express a FLAG-tagged g14-3-3 under its own promoter. Affinity chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis have been used to purify and identify FLAG-g14-3-3-associated proteins from trophozoites and encysting parasites. A total of 314 putative g14-3-3 interaction partners were identified, including proteins involved in several pathways. Some interactions seemed to be peculiar of one specific stage, while others were shared among the different stages. Furthermore, the interaction of g14-3-3 with the giardial homologue of the CDC7 protein kinase (gCDC7) was characterized, leading to the identification of a multiprotein complex containing not only g14-3-3 and gCDC7 but also a newly identified and highly divergent homologue of DBF4, the putative regulatory subunit of gCDC7. The relevance of g14-3-3 interactions in G. duodenalis biology was discussed. PMID:22452640

Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Sayadi, Ahmed; Crescenzi, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

2012-04-11

288

Nutrition and Growth Characteristics of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a Cellulolytic Protozoan from Termites †  

PubMed Central

Putatively axenic cultures of Trichomitopsis termopsidis 6057, isolated by M. A. Yamin (J. Protozool. 25:535-538, 1978) from the hindgut of Zootermopsis termites, apparently contained methanogenic bacteria, inasmuch as small amounts of CH4 were produced during growth. However, T. termopsidis could be “cured” of methanogenic activity by incubation in the presence of bromoethanesulfonate. Both the cured derivative (6057C) and the parent strain (6057) required NaHCO3 and fetal bovine serum for good growth; the presence of yeast extract in media was stimulatory. Growth of both strains was markedly improved by substituting heat-killed cells of Bacteroides sp. strain JW20 (a termite gut isolate) for heat-killed rumen bacteria in media as a source of bacterial cell material. Heat-killed Bacteroides sp. strain JW20 was the best of a number of bacteria tested, and under these conditions H2 was a major protozoan fermentation product. Growth of T. termopsidis strains was further improved by co-cultivation in the presence of Methanospirillum hungatii. M. hungatii was the best of a number of H2-consuming bacteria tested, and under these conditions CH4, but not H2, was produced, indicating interspecies transfer of H2 between the protozoa and M. hungatii. Both strains of T. termopsidis used powdered, particulate forms of cellulose (e.g., pure cellulose, corncob, cereal leaves) as fermentable energy sources, although powdered wood, chitin, or xylan supported little or no growth. Cells of the cellulose-forming coccus Sarcina ventriculi also served as a fermentable energy source, but these were used poorly as a source of bacterial cell material. The only substantial difference between T. termopsidis 6057 and 6057C was that the latter grew poorly or not at all with rumen bacteria as a source of bacterial cell material. The improved growth of T. termopsidis in vitro should facilitate further studies on the cell biology and biochemistry of these symbiotic, anaerobic protozoa. Images

Odelson, David A.; Breznak, John A.

1985-01-01

289

Nutrition and Growth Characteristics of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a Cellulolytic Protozoan from Termites.  

PubMed

Putatively axenic cultures of Trichomitopsis termopsidis 6057, isolated by M. A. Yamin (J. Protozool. 25:535-538, 1978) from the hindgut of Zootermopsis termites, apparently contained methanogenic bacteria, inasmuch as small amounts of CH(4) were produced during growth. However, T. termopsidis could be "cured" of methanogenic activity by incubation in the presence of bromoethanesulfonate. Both the cured derivative (6057C) and the parent strain (6057) required NaHCO(3) and fetal bovine serum for good growth; the presence of yeast extract in media was stimulatory. Growth of both strains was markedly improved by substituting heat-killed cells of Bacteroides sp. strain JW20 (a termite gut isolate) for heat-killed rumen bacteria in media as a source of bacterial cell material. Heat-killed Bacteroides sp. strain JW20 was the best of a number of bacteria tested, and under these conditions H(2) was a major protozoan fermentation product. Growth of T. termopsidis strains was further improved by co-cultivation in the presence of Methanospirillum hungatii. M. hungatii was the best of a number of H(2)-consuming bacteria tested, and under these conditions CH(4), but not H(2), was produced, indicating interspecies transfer of H(2) between the protozoa and M. hungatii. Both strains of T. termopsidis used powdered, particulate forms of cellulose (e.g., pure cellulose, corncob, cereal leaves) as fermentable energy sources, although powdered wood, chitin, or xylan supported little or no growth. Cells of the cellulose-forming coccus Sarcina ventriculi also served as a fermentable energy source, but these were used poorly as a source of bacterial cell material. The only substantial difference between T. termopsidis 6057 and 6057C was that the latter grew poorly or not at all with rumen bacteria as a source of bacterial cell material. The improved growth of T. termopsidis in vitro should facilitate further studies on the cell biology and biochemistry of these symbiotic, anaerobic protozoa. PMID:16346754

Odelson, D A; Breznak, J A

1985-03-01

290

Transcriptional regulation of two stage-specifically expressed genes in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two distinct enolase isoenzymes known as ENO1 and ENO2, respectively. To understand differential gene expression during tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion, we have characterized the two T.gondii enolase promoters. No homology could be found between these sequences and no TATA or CCAAT boxes were evident. The differential activation of the ENO1 and ENO2 promoters during tachyzoite to bradyzoite differentiation was investigated by deletion analysis of 5?-flanking regions fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter followed by transient transfection. Our data indicate that in proliferating tachyzoites, the repression of ENO1 involves a negative distal regulatory region (nucleotides ?1245 to ?625) in the promoter whereas a proximal regulatory region in the ENO2 promoter directs expression at a low level. In contrast, the promoter activity of ENO1 is highly induced following the conversion of tachyzoites into resting bradyzoites. The ENO2 promoter analysis in bradyzoites showed that there are two upstream repression sites (nucleotides ?1929 to ?1067 and ?456 to ?222). Furthermore, electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of DNA-binding proteins in tachyzoite and bradyzoite nuclear lysates that bound to stress response elements (STRE), heat shock-like elements (HSE) and other cis-regulatory elements in the upstream regulatory regions of ENO1 and ENO2. Mutation of the consensus AGGGG sequence, completely abolished protein binding to an oligonucleotide containing this element. This study defines the first characterization of cis-regulatory elements and putative transcription factors involved in gene regulation of the important pathogen T.gondii.

Kibe, Michael K.; Coppin, Alexandra; Dendouga, Najoua; Oria, Gabrielle; Meurice, Edwige; Mortuaire, Marlene; Madec, Edwige; Tomavo, Stanislas

2005-01-01

291

Experimental studies of protozoan response to intense magnetic fields and forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense static magnetic fields of up to 31 Tesla were used as a novel tool to manipulate the swimming mechanics of unicellular organisms. It is shown that homogenous magnetic fields alter the swimming trajectories of the single cell protozoan Paramecium caudatum, by aligning them parallel to the applied field. Immobile neutrally buoyant paramecia also oriented in magnetic fields with similar rates as the motile ones. It was established that the magneto-orientation is mostly due to the magnetic torques acting on rigid structures in the cell body and therefore the response is a non-biological, passive response. From the orientation rate of paramecia in various magnetic field strengths, the average anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the cell was estimated. It has also been demonstrated that magnetic forces can be used to create increased, decreased and even inverted simulated gravity environments for the investigation of the gravi-responses of single cells. Since the mechanisms by which Earth's gravity affects cell functioning are still not fully understood, a number of methods to simulate different strength gravity environments, such as centrifugation, have been employed. Exploiting the ability to exert magnetic forces on weakly diamagnetic constituents of the cells, we were able to vary the gravity from -8 g to 10 g, where g is Earth's gravity. Investigations of the swimming response of paramecia in these simulated gravities revealed that they actively regulate their swimming speed to oppose the external force. This result is in agreement with centrifugation experiments, confirming the credibility of the technique. Moreover, the Paramecium's swimming ceased in simulated gravity of 10 g, indicating a maximum possible propulsion force of 0.7 nN. The magnetic force technique to simulate gravity is the only earthbound technique that can create increased and decreased simulated gravities in the same experimental setup. These findings establish a general technique for applying continuously variable forces to cells or cell populations suitable for exploring their force transduction mechanisms.

Guevorkian, Karine

292

Oxidative stress resistance genes contribute to the pathogenic potential of the anaerobic protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

The protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, invades the host colon causing significant tissue destruction and inflammation. Upon host infection, the parasite is confronted with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that cause large-scale changes in gene expression profiles, which likely support the parasite’s adaptation to the host environment. We have previously identified oxidative and nitrosative stress responsive genes using whole-genome expression profiling. Functional studies on two such genes are now reported and demonstrate that they have roles in parasite virulence. EHI_056680 encodes a small hypothetical protein named E. histolytica stress-induced adhesion factor (EhSIAF); EHI_188210 encodes a putative phospholipid transporting P-type ATPase/flippase (EhPTPA). Over-expression of each protein in E. histolytica trophozoites enhanced parasite survival in response to oxidative stress. Exposure to oxidative and nitrosative stress did not affect the localization of EhSIAF or EhPTPA but markedly increased EhPTPA protein levels. Interestingly, over-expression of each gene resulted in parasites with increased adherence to healthy mammalian cells, but increased adherence to apoptotic cells was noted only in EhSIAF over-expressing parasites. However, despite having increased adherence to both healthy and apoptotic host cells, EhSIAF-over-expressing parasites were reduced in their ability to destroy mammalian cell monolayers, raising the intriguing possibility that EhSIAF over-expression caused signaling defects or resulted in a dominant negative phenotype. Over-expression of EhSIAF and EhPTPA also resulted in decreased motility in a transwell motility assay. Thus, we have confirmed that two genes that are upregulated by ROS confer increased resistance to oxidative stress and have identified an unexpected role of EhSIAF and EhPTPA in host cell adherence and a role of EhSIAF in parasite virulence. Our data imply that stress response genes may play multi-factorial roles in amoebic pathogenesis.

Rastew, Elena; Vicente, Joao B.; Singh, Upinder

2012-01-01

293

ENTERIC COCCIDIOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites normally found in the intestinal tract. They belong to phylum Apicomplexa, class Sporozoasida, order Eucoccidiorida, and, depending on the species, family Eimeriidae, Cryptosporidiidae, or Sarcocystidae. Coccidian genera that infect cats and dogs are Iso...

294

Plasmodium possesses dynein light chain classes that are unique and conserved across species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Within the Apicomplexa, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium are parasites of considerable medical importance while Theileria and Eimeria are animal pathogens. P. falciparum is particularly important as it causes malaria, resulting in more than 1 million deaths each year. The malaria parasite actively invades the host cell in which it propagates and several proteins associated

Elijah K. Githui; Etienne P. De Villiers; Andrew G. McArthur

2009-01-01

295

Colpodella spp.-like Parasite Infection in Woman, China  

PubMed Central

The phylum Apicomplexa comprises intracellular protozoa that include many human pathogens. Their nearest relatives are chromerids and colpodellids. We report a case of a Babesia spp.–like relapsing infection caused by a newly described microorganism related to the Apicomplexa. This case is highly suggestive of a previously undescribed type of colpodellid that infects vertebrates.

Yuan, Cong L.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Krause, Peter J.; Horak, Ales; Bent, Stephen; Rollend, Lindsay

2012-01-01

296

Phylogenetic relationships of orders within the class colpodea (Phylum ciliophora) inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences  

PubMed

Molecular analyses have been used recently to refine our knowledge of phylogenetic relationships within the ciliated protozoa (phylum Ciliophora). A current Hennigian phylogeny of the orders in the class Colpodea, based on light and electron microscopic analyses, makes three important assumptions with regard to apomorphic character states, namely, (1) that the kreyellid silver line evolved early in colpodean phylogeny, separating bryometopids, such as Bryometopus, from all other colpodeans; (2) that the macro-micronuclear complex is an autapomorphy of the cyrtolophosidids, such as Platyophrya; and (3) that merotelokinetal stomatogenesis is an apomorphic character of colpodids, such as Colpoda, Bresslaua, and Pseudoplatyophrya. These predictions of relationships within the class Colpodea were investigated by determining the complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences for the colpodid Bresslaua vorax, the grossglockneriid Pseudoplatyophrya nana, and the cyrtolophosidid Platyophrya vorax and a partial sequence for the bryometopid Bryometopus sphagni. These sequences were combined with the previously published complete SSrRNA sequences for the colpodid Colpoda inflata and the bursariomorphid Bursaria truncatella. The affiliations were assessed using both distance matrix and maximum-parsimony analyses. The tree topologies for the class Colpodea were identical in all analyses, with bootstrap support for bifurcations always exceeding 60%. The results suggest the following. (1) Since the clade including Bryometopus and its sister taxon, Bursaria, is never basal, the kreyellid silver-line system evolved later in colpodean phylogeny and does not separate bryometopids from all other colpodeans. (2) Since Platyophrya is always the sister taxon to the other five genera, there is a fundamental phylogenetic significance for its macro-micronuclear complex. (3) Since the colpodids, Colpoda, Bresslaua, and Pseudoplatyophrya, always group in one clade, merotelokinetal stomatogenesis appears to be a derived character state. PMID:10198126

Lynn; Wright; Schlegel; Foissner

1999-05-01

297

Wide genetic diversity of picoplanktonic green algae (Chloroplastida) in the Mediterranean Sea uncovered by a phylum-biased PCR approach.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of picoplanktonic (i.e. cells that can pass through a 3 mum pore-size filter) green algae was investigated in the Mediterranean Sea in late summer by a culture-independent approach. Genetic libraries of the 18S rRNA gene were constructed using two different primer sets. The first set is commonly used to amplify the majority of eukaryotic lineages, while the second was composed of a general eukaryotic forward primer and a reverse primer biased towards the phylum Chloroplastida. A total of 3980 partial environmental sequences were obtained: 1668 using the general eukaryotic primer set and 2312 using the Chloroplastida-biased primer set. Of these sequences, 65 (4%) and 594 (26%) belonged to the Chloroplastida respectively. A 99.5% sequence similarity cut-off value allowed classification of these 659 Chloroplastida sequences into 74 different operational taxonomic units. A majority of the Chloroplastida sequences (99%) belonged to the prasinophytes. In addition to the seven independent prasinophyte lineages previously described, we discovered two new clades (clades VIII and IX), as well as a significant genetic diversity at the species and subspecies levels, notably among the genera Crustomastix, Dolichomastix and Mamiella (Mamiellales), but also within Pyramimonas and Halosphaera (Pyramimonadales). Such diversity within prasinophytes has not previously been observed by cloning approaches, illustrating the power of using targeted primers for clone library construction. Prasinophyte assemblages differed especially in relation to nutrient levels. Micromonas and Ostreococcus were mainly recovered from mesotrophic areas, whereas Mamiella, Crustomastix and Dolichomastix were mostly detected in oligotrophic surface waters. Within genera such as Ostreococcus or Crustomastix for which several clades were observed, depth seemed to be the main factor controlling differential distribution of genotypes. PMID:18430015

Viprey, Manon; Guillou, Laure; Ferréol, Martial; Vaulot, Daniel

2008-04-21

298

Single-cell genomics reveals the lifestyle of Poribacteria, a candidate phylum symbiotically associated with marine sponges.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a single-cell genomics approach for the functional characterization of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, members of which are nearly exclusively found in marine sponges. The microbial consortia of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba were singularized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and individual microbial cells were subjected to phi29 polymerase-mediated 'whole-genome amplification'. Pyrosequencing of a single amplified genome (SAG) derived from a member of the Poribacteria resulted in nearly 1.6 Mb of genomic information distributed among 554 contigs analyzed in this study. Approximately two-third of the poribacterial genome was sequenced. Our findings shed light on the functional properties and lifestyle of a possibly ancient bacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The Poribacteria are mixotrophic bacteria with autotrophic CO(2)-fixation capacities through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The cell wall is of Gram-negative origin. The Poribacteria produce at least two polyketide synthases (PKSs), one of which is the sponge-specific Sup-type PKS. Several putative symbiosis factors such as adhesins (bacterial Ig-like domains, lamininin G domain proteins), adhesin-related proteins (ankyrin, fibronectin type III) and tetratrico peptide repeat domain-encoding proteins were identified, which might be involved in mediating sponge-microbe interactions. The discovery of genes coding for 24-isopropyl steroids implies that certain fossil biomarkers used to date the origins of metazoan life on earth may possibly be of poribacterial origin. Single-cell genomic approaches, such as those shown herein, contribute to a better understanding of beneficial microbial consortia, of which most members are, because of the lack of cultivation, inaccessible by conventional techniques. PMID:20613790

Siegl, Alexander; Kamke, Janine; Hochmuth, Thomas; Piel, Jörn; Richter, Michael; Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas; Hentschel, Ute

2010-07-08

299

Understanding alternative fluxes/effluxes through comparative metabolic pathway analysis of phylum actinobacteria using a simplified approach.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are known for their diverse metabolism and physiology. Some are dreadful human pathogens whereas some constitute the natural flora for human gut. Therefore, the understanding of metabolic pathways is a key feature for targeting the pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the symbiotic ones. A big challenge faced today is multiple drug resistance by Mycobacterium and other pathogens that utilize alternative fluxes/effluxes. With the availability of genome sequence, it is now feasible to conduct the comparative in silico analysis. Here we present a simplified approach to compare metabolic pathways so that the species specific enzyme may be traced and engineered for future therapeutics. The analyses of four key carbohydrate metabolic pathways, i.e., glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, tri carboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway suggest the presence of alternative fluxes. It was found that the upper pathway of glycolysis was highly variable in the actinobacterial genomes whereas lower glycolytic pathway was highly conserved. Likewise, pentose phosphate pathway was well conserved in contradiction to TCA cycle, which was found to be incomplete in majority of actinobacteria. The clustering based on presence and absence of genes of these metabolic pathways clearly revealed that members of different genera shared identical pathways and, therefore, provided an easy method to identify the metabolic similarities/differences between pathogenic and symbiotic organisms. The analyses could identify isoenzymes and some key enzymes that were found to be missing in some pathogenic actinobacteria. The present work defines a simple approach to explore the effluxes in four metabolic pathways within the phylum actinobacteria. The analysis clearly reflects that actinobacteria exhibit diverse routes for metabolizing substrates. The pathway comparison can help in finding the enzymes that can be used as drug targets for pathogens without effecting symbiotic organisms within the same host. This may help to prevail over the multiple drug resistance, for designing broad spectrum drugs, in food industries and other clinical research areas. PMID:24055419

Verma, Mansi; Lal, Devi; Saxena, Anjali; Anand, Shailly; Kaur, Jasvinder; Kaur, Jaspreet; Lal, Rup

2013-09-18

300

Molecular Characterization of Ciliate Diversity in Stream Biofilms? †  

PubMed Central

Free-living protozoa are thought to be of fundamental importance in aquatic ecosystems, but there is limited understanding of their diversity and ecological role, particularly in surface-associated communities such as biofilms. Existing eukaryote-specific PCR primers were used to survey 18S rRNA gene sequence diversity in stream biofilms but poorly revealed protozoan diversity, demonstrating a need for protozoan-targeted primers. Group-specific PCR primers targeting 18S rRNA genes of the protozoan phylum Ciliophora were therefore designed and tested using DNA extracted from cultured protozoan isolates. The two most reliable primer combinations were applied to stream biofilm DNA, followed by cloning and sequencing analysis. Of 44 clones derived from primer set 384F/1147R, 86% were of probable ciliate origin, as were 25% of 44 clones detected by primer set 121F/1147R. A further 29% of 121F/1147R-detected clones matched sequences from the closely related phylum Apicomplexa. The highly ciliate-specific primer set 384F/1147R was subsequently used in PCRs on biofilm DNA from four streams exhibiting different levels of human impact, revealing differences in ciliate sequence diversity in samples from each site. Of a total of 240 clones, 73% were of probable ciliate origin; 54 different putative ciliate sequences were detected from throughout seven taxonomic ciliate classes. Sequences from Oligohymenophorea were most commonly detected in all samples, followed by either Spirotrichea or Phyllopharyngea. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profile-based analysis of clones suggested a potentially higher level of diversity than did sequencing. Nevertheless, newly designed PCR primers 384F/1147R were considered to provide an effective molecular basis for characterization of ciliate diversity in stream biofilms.

Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

2008-01-01

301

Clathrin-dependent pathways and the cytoskeleton network are involved in ceramide endocytosis by a parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia.  

PubMed

Although identified as an early-diverged protozoan, Giardia lamblia shares many similarities with higher eukaryotic cells, including an internal membrane system and cytoskeleton, as well as secretory pathways. However, unlike many other eukaryotes, Giardia does not synthesize lipids de novo, but rather depends on exogenous sources for both energy production and organelle or membrane biogenesis. It is not known how lipid molecules are taken up by this parasite and if endocytic pathways are involved in this process. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that highly regulated and selective lipid transport machinery is present in Giardia and necessary for the efficient internalization and intracellular targeting of ceramide molecules, the major sphingolipid precursor. Using metabolic and pathway inhibitors, we demonstrate that ceramide is internalized through endocytic pathways and is primarily targeted into perinuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Further investigations suggested that Giardia uses both clathrin-dependent pathways and the actin cytoskeleton for ceramide uptake, as well as microtubule filaments for intracellular localization and targeting. We speculate that this parasitic protozoan has evolved cytoskeletal and clathrin-dependent endocytic mechanisms for importing ceramide molecules from the cell exterior for the synthesis of membranes and vesicles during growth and differentiation. PMID:17087963

Hernandez, Yunuen; Castillo, Cynthia; Roychowdhury, Sukla; Hehl, Adrian; Aley, Stephen B; Das, Siddhartha

2006-10-12

302

Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon. PMID:22654317

Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

2011-05-15

303

[Biochemical composition of crustacean zooplankton and their grazing on phytoplankton and ciliated protozoans in a recently founded reservoir (Sahela, Morocco].  

PubMed

In order to assess the impact of crustacean zooplankton on phytoplankton and protozoan ciliates in the Sahela reservoir under semi-arid climate, we conducted experiments during the period from July to December 1999 at the deepest point in the lake (15 m). Samplings and measurements were carried out in diffusion chambers submerged in situ over a period of 7 h without (control chambers) and with (experimental chambers) crustacean zooplankton. During these experiments, counts were conducted on phytoplankton and ciliates to determine the abundance and the mortality of these organisms due to zooplankton in each diffusion chambers at t = 0 and t = 7 h of incubation. The study showed that the growth rates of phytoplankton and ciliates populations varied between 0.02 and 0.05 h-1 and from 0.01 to 0.07 h-1, respectively. The mortality caused by zooplankton grazing fluctuated from 0.07 to 0.2 h-1 of phytoplankton and from 0.01 to 0.2 h-1 of ciliates. These mortalities were significantly and positively correlated with the growth rates (r = 0.8; p < 0.02; n = 9). Moreover, the heavy predation by the crustacean zooplankton was exerted on small-sized phytoplankton and ciliates and we demonstrated the relationships between protozoans and zooplankton for the transfer of matter and energy in aquatic food webs. Furthermore, the crustacean zooplankton metabolism was different, whether zooplankton was present in diffusion chambers or in the lake. PMID:14608696

Derraz, Khalid; Elalami, Rachid; Atiki, Ilham; Mhamdi, Mohamed Alaoui

2003-08-01

304

Improvement on the visualization of cytoskeletal structures of protozoan parasites using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).  

PubMed

The association of high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), with a more efficient system of secondary electron (SE) collection and in-lens specimen position, provided a great improvement in the specimen's topographical contrast and in the generation of high-resolution images. In addition, images obtained with the use of the high-resolution backscattered electrons (BSE) detector provided a powerful tool for immunocytochemical analysis of biological material. In this work, we show the contribution of the FESEM to the detailed description of cytoskeletal structures of the protozoan parasites Herpetomonas megaseliae, Trypanosoma brucei and Giardia lamblia. High-resolution images of detergent extracted H. megaseliae and T. brucei showed the profile of the cortical microtubules, also known as sub-pellicular microtubules (SPMT), and protein bridges cross-linking them. Also, it was possible to visualize fine details of the filaments that form the lattice-like structure of the paraflagellar rod (PFR) and its connection with the axoneme. In G. lamblia, it was possible to observe the intricate structure of the adhesive disk, funis (a microtubular array) and other cytoskeletal structures poorly described previously. Since most of the stable cytoskeletal structures of this protozoan rely on tubulin, we used the BSE images to accurately map immunolabeled tubulin in its cytoskeleton. Our results suggest that the observation of detergent extracted parasites using FESEM associated to backscattered analysis of immunolabeled specimens represents a new approach for the study of parasite cytoskeletal elements and their protein associations. PMID:15995880

Sant'Anna, Celso; Campanati, Loraine; Gadelha, Catarina; Lourenço, Daniela; Labati-Terra, Letícia; Bittencourt-Silvestre, Joana; Benchimol, Marlene; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa Leal; De Souza, Wanderley

2005-07-02

305

Naiadocystis phykoterion n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Hirmocystidae), from the Mexican pygmy grasshopper, Paratettix mexicanus (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae), in the Texas big thicket with recognition of three previously described species of Naiadocystis.  

PubMed

Naiadocystis phykoterion n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Hirmocystidae), is described from the Mexican pygmy grasshopper, Paratettix mexicanus (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae), collected from sandbars along Harmon Creek, Walker County, Texas, in the western edge of the Texas Big Thicket. Naiadocystis n. gen. is distinguished by the form of the epimerite complex, a simple cordoid or toroid epimerite with an interior obconoid structure resembling a funnel that tapers to a distinct axial canal bisecting the protomerite, which is conspicuous in all stages of development, and a satellite protomerite reduced to a linearly crateriform cup or sucker that receives and enfolds posterior end of primite deutomerite. Association is precocious, caudofrontal, and biassociative. Gametocysts are spherical. Sporoducts are present but vestigial and irregular in number. Oocysts are broadly elliptoid with 4 small spherical polar knobs, 1 each at 30 degrees, 150 degrees, 210 degrees, and 330 degrees, and dehisce en masse. The species described herein are differentiated by their overall size and relative proportion of cellular structures. Naiadocystis acantholobae (Hoshide, 1952) n. comb., Naiadocystis acrydiinarum (Semans, 1939) n. comb., and Naiadocystis tetrigis (Corbel, 1968) n. comb. are recognized as members of Naiadocystis previously placed within Gregarina (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Gregarinidae). PMID:15165052

Clopton, R E; Cook, T J; Cook, J L

2004-04-01

306

Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E. histolytica ADHE to bacterial ADHE than to the G. lamblia ADHE. The 6-kDa FD of E. histolytica and G. lamblia were most similar to those of the archaebacterium Methanosarcina barkeri and the delta-purple bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, respectively, while the 12-kDa FD of the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome was most similar to the 12-kDa FD of gamma-purple bacterium Pseudomonas putida. E. histolytica genes (and probably G. lamblia genes) encoding fermentation enzymes therefore likely derive from bacteria by horizontal transfer, although it is not clear from which bacteria these amebic genes derive. These are the first nonorganellar fermentation enzymes of eukaryotes implicated to have derived from bacteria.

Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

1997-01-01

307

Recombinant expression of the antimicrobial peptide polyphemusin and its activity against the protozoan oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus.  

PubMed

Polyphemusin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide isolated from hemocytes of the North American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. To date the polyphemusin used for scientific analyses has been purified from the natural materials or obtained by chemical synthesis. We report here the recombinant expression in Escherichia coli, and subsequent purification, of a polyphemusin analogue (rLim1). To prevent toxicity of the antimicrobial peptide in the highly susceptible E. coli host, we used a carboxy-terminal fusion protein cloning strategy provided by a maltose-binding protein (MBP) gene fusion system (New England Biolabs). Antimicrobial activity of recombinant polyphemusin was similar to that seen with amidated native polyphemusin peptide. When rLim1 was tested for antibiotic activity against the apicomplexan protozoan oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus, complete inhibition was observed at 12 micrograms/ml, and partial inhibition at 8 micrograms/ml. PMID:9284563

Pierce, J C; Maloy, W L; Salvador, L; Dungan, C F

1997-09-01

308

Protozoan and myxozoan infections in wild gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia.  

PubMed

A total of 150 gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L., from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia, were studied for protozoan and myxozoan parasites. The parasitological survey revealed the presence of ectoparasites (Amyloodinium ocellatum Brown, 1931, Trichodina lepsii Lom, 1962 on the gills) and endoparasites (Ceratomyxa sparusaurati Sitjà-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1995 infecting the gallbladder, and Eimeria sparis Sitjà-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1996 parasitizing the intestine). This is the first record of Amyloodinium ocellatum, Trichodina lepsii, Ceratomyxa sparusaurati, and Eimeria sparis in S. aurata from Tunisian waters. Data on prevalence and intensity of infection are provided. A comparison of the present species with previously described species in cultured gilthead seabream from other Mediterranean countries is also presented. In this study Trichodina lepsii is identified for the first time in Sparus aurata. A taxonomic description of this species based on silver nitrate method is provided. PMID:22807047

Bahri, Sihem

2012-05-13

309

Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan photodynamically active pigment.  

PubMed

Blepharismin is an endogenous photosensitizing pigment found in the protozoan Blepharisma. This pigment inhibited the generation of superoxide anion (O2-.) in neutrophils not only via a diacylglycerol-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent reaction but also by an arachidonate-induced PKC-independent reaction. The inhibition was light and concentration dependent for both reactions. Light-activated inhibition was strong at wavelengths between 520 and 570 nm but not above 610 nm. PKC activity in neutrophils and from rat brain was inhibited by blepharismin in a light- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, arachidonate-activated NADPH oxidase activity in a cell-free system was also inhibited by the pigment in a light- and concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that blepharismin inhibits NADPH oxidase activation through the non-specific inhibition of various membrane-bound enzymes and that this inhibition may also be correlated with that of PKC. PMID:7872958

Watanabe, Y; Edashige, K; Kobuchi, H; Kato, Y; Matsuoka, T; Utsumi, T; Yoshioka, T; Horton, A A; Utsumi, K

1995-02-14

310

Blepharismin produced by a protozoan Blepharisma functions as an antibiotic effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

A ciliated protozoan, Blepharisma japonicum, produces a photosensitive red pigment, blepharismin (BLR). This study showed that the pigment inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) resistant to arbekacin (ABK), which is the most effective aminoglycoside antibiotic against MRSA and used world wide. Although the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BLR to the ABK-resistant MRSA strain was 6.25 micrograms/ml in dark, it was decreased to 1.25 micrograms/ml by irradiation with white light of 65 W/m2 for 30 min, suggesting that the antibacterial activity of BLR is photoactivated. Our findings suggested that the antibacterial activity of BLR in dark is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, we found that BLR is bactericidal and enhances synergistically the antibacterial activity of ABK. PMID:9345766

Pant, B; Kato, Y; Kumagai, T; Matsuoka, T; Sugiyama, M

1997-10-01

311

Blepharismins, produced by the protozoan, Blepharisma japonicum, form ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes.  

PubMed

Blepharismins are polycyclic quinones found in the pigment granules of the ciliated protozoan, Blepharisma. Exposure to purified blepharismins results in lethal damage to several other ciliates. We here report that, at cytotoxic concentrations, blepharismins formed cation-selective channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. The channels formed in a diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer had a K(+)/Cl(-) permeability ratio of 6.6:1. Single channel recordings revealed the conductance to be quite heterogeneous, ranging from 0.2 to 2.8 nS in solutions containing 0.1 M KCl, possibly reflecting different states of aggregation of blepharismin. Our observations suggest that channel formation is a cytotoxic mechanism of blepharismin's action against predatory protozoa. PMID:11728465

Muto, Y; Matsuoka, T; Kida, A; Okano, Y; Kirino, Y

2001-11-23

312

Studies on synergistic toxic effects of copper and dithiocarbamate pesticides with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum (Stokes).  

PubMed

The toxicity of seven dithiocarbamates and interactions occurring with copper were studied with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum. No product was toxic at 0.1 mg liter-1. Thiram and mancozeb are the most toxic products (lethal at 1 mg liter-1) and ziram and propineb the least toxic. Concerning interactions with copper, no or slight interactions were observed with propineb and mancozeb, although a strong synergistic toxic effect was observed in a previous work with two structurally related products, maneb and zineb. On the contrary, the responses observed with alkyl-related dithiocarbamates (ferbam and ziram) and ethylene bis-related dithiocarbamates (nabam, thiram, and metiram) are in correlation with the results known in the literature. The synergistic toxic effect of copper and dithiocarbamates thus seems to be related mainly to the alkyl- or the ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate structure, but is not constant for molecules associated with metals (propineb, mancozeb, maneb, and zineb). PMID:2114279

Bonnemain, H; Dive, D

1990-06-01

313

Herbicides to curb human parasitic infections: in vitro and in vivo effects of trifluralin on the trypanosomatid protozoans.  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a major tropical disease for which current chemotherapies, pentavalent antimonials, are inadequate and cause severe side effects. It has been reported that trifluralin, a microtubule-disrupting herbicide, is inhibitory to Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, the in vitro effect of trifluralin on different species of trypanosomatid protozoans was determined. In addition to L. amazonensis, trifluralin is effective against Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica, which cause cutaneous infections, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral disease, Leishmania panamensis, which may cause mucocutaneous infection, and Trypanosoma brucei, an important human and veterinary pathogen. Moreover, most encouragingly, trifluralin is effective in vivo as a topical ointment against L. major and Leishmania mexicana murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Thus, trifluralin is a promising lead drug for several related, prevalent tropical diseases: leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis of animals, and, possibly, African trypanosomiasis in humans. Images Fig. 4

Chan, M M; Grogl, M; Chen, C C; Bienen, E J; Fong, D

1993-01-01

314

Correlation between CD4 counts of HIV patients and enteric protozoan in different seasons – An experience of a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Protozoan infections are the most serious among all the superimposed infections in HIV patients and claim a number of lives every year. The line of treatment being different for diverse parasites necessitates a definitive diagnosis of the etiological agents to avoid empirical treatment. Thus, the present study has been aimed to elucidate the associations between diarrhoea and CD4 counts

Lekha Tuli; Anil K Gulati; Shyam Sundar; Tribhuban M Mohapatra

2008-01-01

315

Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the Eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica): effects of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of fluorescent lipid analogs and lipase activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of fluorescent labeled palmitic acid (FLC16) and phosphatidylcholine (FLPC) and lipase activities in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, meront stage were tested at 10, 18, and 28°C. Temperature significantly affected not only the uptake, assimilation, and metabolism of both FLC16 and FLPC in P. marinus, but also its triacylglycerol (TAG)

Fu-Lin E Chu; P Soudant; E. D Lund

2003-01-01

316

Detritus as a potential food source for protozoans: utilization of fine particulate plant detritus by a heterotrophic flagellate, Chilomonas paramecium , and a ciliate, Tetrahymena pyriformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the direct utilization of fine particulate detritus (dried and homogenized plant material in the size range\\u000a of bacteria) as a food source for protozoans using axenic cultures of the cryptomonad, heterotrophic flagellate, Chilomonas paramecium, and the hymenostome ciliate, Tetrahymena pyriformis. When fed media containing only particulate detritus, these species revealed growth rates similar to those reported for field

Anja Scherwass; Yvonne Fischer; Hartmut Arndt

2005-01-01

317

Studies on environmental management of mercury (ii), chromium (vi) and zinc (ii) with respect to the impact on some arthropods and protozoans — toxicity of zinc (ii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuation of our earlier reports on the impact of heavy metals on certain annelids, amphibian larvae and arthropods, we present here studies on the impact of mercury (II), chromium (VI) and zinc (II) on copepod Cyclops sp. and larvae of mosquito Aedes aegypti relative to protozoans, cladocerans, molluscs and rotifers. The impact studies were done with the aid of

S. A. Abbasi; P. C. Nipaney; R. Soni

1988-01-01

318

A Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Family Is Restricted to the Germ Line Micronucleus of the Ciliated Protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila undergoes extensive programmed DNA rearrangements during the development of a somatic macronucleus from the germ line micronucleus in its sexual cycle. To investigate the relationship between programmed DNA rearrangements and transposable elements, we iden- tified several members of a family of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (retroposons) in T. thermophila, the first characterized in the

Jeffrey S. Fillingham; Trine A. Thing; Nama Vythilingum; Alex Keuroghlian; Deanna Bruno; G. Brian Golding; Ronald E. Pearlman

2004-01-01

319

Expression profiling using random genomic DNA microarrays identifies differentially expressed genes associated with three major developmental stages of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major  

Microsoft Academic Search

To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental transitions. However, previous efforts to identify genes showing stage regulated changes in transcript abundance have yielded relatively few. Here we used expression profiling to assess changes in transcript abundance in three stages: replicating promastigotes and infective non-replicating metacyclics, which occur in the sand

Natalia S Akopyants; Robin S Matlib; Elena N Bukanova; Matthew R Smeds; Bernard H Brownstein; Gary D Stormo; Stephen M Beverley

2004-01-01

320

Whole animal and gill tissue oxygen uptake in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica: Effects of hypoxia, hypercapnia, air exposure, and infection with the protozoan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, lives in shallow coastal waters and experiences many different environmental extremes including hypoxia, hypercapnia and air exposure and many oysters are infected with the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. The effects of these conditions on oyster metabolism, as measured by oxygen uptake, were investigated. Mild hypercapnia had no effect on the ability of oysters to regulate

Libby L. Willson; Louis E. Burnett

321

Protozoan Grazing and Bacterial Production in Stratified Lake Vechten Estimated with Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria and by Thymidine Incorporation  

PubMed Central

In stratified Lake Vechten, The Netherlands, protozoan grazing was estimated on the basis of uptake of fluorescently labeled bacteria and compared with bacterial production estimated on the basis of thymidine incorporation. By using a grazer-free mixed bacterial population from the lake in continuous culture, an empirical relationship between cell production and thymidine incorporation was established. Thymidine incorporation into total cold-trichloroacetic-acid-insoluble macromolecules yielded a relatively constant empirical conversion factor of ca. 1018 (range, 0.38 × 1018 to 1.42 × 1018) bacteria mol of thymidine?1 at specific growth rates (?) ranging from 0.007 to 0.116 h?1. Although thymidine incorporation has been assumed to measure DNA synthesis thymidine incorporation appeared to underestimate the independently measured bacterial DNA synthesis by at least 1.5- to 13-fold, even if all incorporated label was assumed to be in DNA. However, incorporation into DNA was found to be insignificant as measured by conventional acid-base hydrolysis. Methodological problems of the thymidine technique are discussed. Like the cultures, Lake Vechten bacteria showed considerable thymidine incorporation into total macromolecules, but no significant incorporation into DNA was found by acid-base hydrolysis. This applied not only to the low-oxygen hypo- and metalimnion but also to the aerobic epilimnion. Thus, the established empirical conversion factor for thymidine incorporation into total macromolecules was used to estimate bacterial production. Maximum production rates (141 × 106 bacteria liter?1 h?1; ?, 0.012 h?1) were found in the metalimnion and were 1 order of magnitude higher than in the epi- and hypolimnion. In all three strata, the estimated bacterial production was roughly balanced by the estimated protozoan grazing. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates were the major consumers of the bacterial production and showed maximum numbers (up to 40 × 106 heterotrophic nanoflagellates liter?1) in the microaerobic metalimnion.

Bloem, Jaap; Ellenbroek, Frank M.; Bar-Gilissen, Marie-Jose B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

1989-01-01

322

Ardenticatena maritima gen. nov., sp. nov., a ferric iron- and nitrate-reducing bacterium of the phylum 'Chloroflexi' isolated from an iron-rich coastal hydrothermal field, and description of Ardenticatenia classis nov.  

PubMed

A novel thermophilic, chemoheterotrophic, Gram-negative-staining, multicellular filamentous bacterium, designated strain 110S(T), was isolated from an iron-rich coastal hydrothermal field in Japan. The isolate is facultatively aerobic and chemoheterotrophic. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences nested strain 110S(T) in a novel class-level clone cluster of the phylum 'Chloroflexi'. The isolate grows by dissimilatory iron- and nitrate-reduction under anaerobic conditions, which is the first report of these abilities in the phylum 'Chloroflexi'. The organism is capable of growth with oxygen, ferric iron and nitrate as a possible electron acceptor, has a wide range of growth temperatures, and tolerates higher NaCl concentrations for growth compared to the other isolates in the phylum. Using phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain 110S(T) (= JCM 17282(T) = NBRC 107679(T) = DSM 23922(T) = KCTC 23289(T) = ATCC BAA-2145(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species in a new genus, Ardenticatena maritima gen. nov., sp. nov. In addition, as strain 110S(T) apparently constitutes a new class of the phylum 'Chloroflexi' with other related uncultivated clone sequences, we propose Ardenticatenia classis nov. and the subordinate taxa Ardenticatenales ord. nov. and Ardenticatenaceae fam. nov. PMID:23378114

Kawaichi, Satoshi; Ito, Norihiro; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Takashi; Sako, Yoshihiko

2013-02-01

323

Phylogenetic relationships of the Nassulida within the phylum Ciliophora inferred from the complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences of Furgasonia blochmanni, Obertrumia georgiana, and Pseudomicrothorax dubius.  

PubMed

Using comparisons of complete small subunit rRNA sequences from the ciliated protozoans Furgasonia blochmanni, Obertrumia georgiana, and Pseudomicrothorax dubius we inferred the phylogenetic position of the Nassulida (Class Nassophorea) within the Ciliophora. In distance matrix analyses the Nassulida share a common ancestry with the colpodean ciliate Colpoda inflata. Distance matrix and parsimony methods convincingly demonstrate that the Nassulida plus Colpodida are members of a complex ciliate assemblage that also includes the oligohymenophorans and phyllopharyngeans. These phylogenetic inferences are largely congruent with recent analyses of 23S-like rRNA gene sequences and morphogenetic features. Groups traditionally thought to represent ancestral lineages now appear as highly derived ciliates. In contrast, heterotrichs which were considered to represent a highly evolved group, diverge at the base of the ciliates. PMID:7757053

Bernhard, D; Leipe, D D; Sogin, M L; Schlegel, K M

324

Temporal population dynamics of dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and its relationship to environmental factors and protozoan grazers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological processes and interrelationships between protists, either autotrophic or heterotrophic, and environmental factors in mariculture ponds are largely unknown. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of potentially harmful dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller, and its relationship to physico-chemical factors and protozoan grazers over a complete cycle in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, Northern China. P. minimum occurred frequently in low numbers from June to August, followed by a sharp increase from the middle of August, reaching a single maximum peak value of 2.2×105 cells L-1 in October. Temporal variation in abundance was positively correlated with dissolved nitrogen, but showed a significant inverse relationship to abundance of the dominant ciliates, Tintinnopsis lohmanni and Askenasia stellaris. The results provide statistical evidence that the number of P. minimum increased with increasing nitrogen, and the suppression or shortening of algal bloom may be associated with protozoan grazers, such as Tintinnopsis lohmanni, in mariculture ponds.

Xu, Henglong; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Joong-Ki; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

2010-01-01

325

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene induced by light stimulation in the protozoan Blepharisma japonicum.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone that is inducible by light stimulation was cloned by a differential screening method from a cDNA library of the protozoan Blepharisma japonicum, and the light-dependent expression was checked by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a glutathione S-transferase (GST) that has not been characterized in the protozoa. Multiple alignment of B. japonicum GST (BjGST1), known protozoan, and mammalian alpha-, micro-, pi-, sigma-, theta-, zeta-, kappa-, and omega-class GSTs suggested that the BjGST1 may be a novel class GST. Furthermore, highly conserved amino acid residues among the GSTs and the substrate specificity of recombinant BjGST1 showed that BjGST1 is related to alpha-, micro-, pi-, and sigma-class GSTs rather than the other class of GSTs. PMID:14987763

Takada, Yuichi; Uda, Kouji; Kawamura, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Tatsuomi

2004-02-16

326

Cloning, Characterization, and Inhibition Studies of a ?-Carbonic Anhydrase from Leishmania donovani chagasi , the Protozoan Parasite Responsible for Leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an infection provoked by protozoans belonging to the genus Leishmania . Among the many species and subsepecies of such protozoa, Leishmania donovani chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis. A ?-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) was cloned and characterized from this organism, denominated here LdcCA. LdcCA possesses effective catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat of 9.35 × 10(5) s(-1) and kcat/KM of 5.9 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). A large number of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and 5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazoles were investigated as LdcCA inhibitors. The sulfonamides were medium potency to weak inhibitors (KI values of 50.2 nM-9.25 ?M), whereas some heterocyclic thiols inhibited the enzyme with KIs in the range of 13.4-152 nM. Some of the investigated thiols efficiently inhibited the in vivo growth of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes, by impairing the flagellar pocket and movement of the parasites and causing their death. The ?-CA from Leishmania spp. is proposed here as a new antileishmanial drug target. PMID:23977960

Syrjänen, Leo; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Corte-Real, Suzana; Salonen, Terhi; Pan, Peiwen; Vullo, Daniela; Parkkila, Seppo; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

2013-09-13

327

Infection with the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae modifies in vitro haemocyte activities of flat oyster Ostrea edulis.  

PubMed

Bonamia ostreae is an intracellular protozoan parasite, infecting haemocytes of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Oyster defence mechanisms mainly rely on haemocytes. In the present study in vitro interactions between parasites and flat oyster haemocytes were investigated using flow cytometry and light microscopy. Haemocyte parameters including: non specific esterase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytosis were monitored using flow cytometry after 2 h cell incubation with live and dead B. ostreae. Two ratios of parasites per haemocyte were tested (5:1 and 10:1), haemocytes alone were used as controls and the experiment was carried out three times. Flow cytometry revealed a decrease of non specific esterase activities and ROS production by haemocytes after incubation with live parasites, while there was little difference in phagocytosis activity when compared with controls. Similarly, dead parasites induced a decrease in haemocyte activities but to a lesser extent compared to live parasites. These results suggest that B. ostreae actively contributes to the modification of haemocyte activities in order to ensure its own intracellular survival. PMID:19358892

Morga, Benjamin; Arzul, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; Renault, Tristan

2009-04-07

328

Passive immunization of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by use of murine monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Fish acquire immunity against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following sublethal infection. The immune response includes the elaboration of humoral antibodies against a class of abundant surface membrane proteins referred to as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). Antibodies against these proteins immobilize the parasite in vitro, suggesting a potential role for the i-antigens in protective immunity. To test this hypothesis, passive immunization experiments were carried out with naive channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, using immobilizing murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Fish were completely protected against lethal challenge following intraperitoneal injection of 20 to 200 micrograms of MAb. Although fish succumbed to infection at lower doses, palliative effects were observed with as little as 2 micrograms of antibody. In experiments in which animals were challenged at various times following inoculation, an inverse relationship between parasite load and serum immobilizing activity was seen. Of seven MAbs which conferred protection, all were immunoglobulin G class antibodies. The only immobilizing MAb that failed to protect was an immunoglobulin M antibody that was absent from surface mucosa as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The implications of these findings for the development of a vaccine against I. multifiliis and immunity against surface pathogens of fish are discussed.

Lin, T L; Clark, T G; Dickerson, H

1996-01-01

329

Molecular approaches to elucidating innate and acquired immune responses to Babesia bovis, a protozoan parasite that causes persistent infection.  

PubMed

For many vector-transmitted protozoal parasites, immunological control of acute infection leads to a state of persistent infection during which parasitemias may cycle unnoticed in infected but otherwise clinically healthy animals. Achieving persistent infection is a strategy that favors parasitism, since both host and, therefore, parasite survive, and endemically infected animal populations provide a reservoir of parasites continually available for subsequent transmission. Examples of the major economically important protozoan pathogens that cause persistent infection in mammals include the related Theileria and Babesia parasites as well as Trypanosoma species. Control of acute infection and maintenance of clinical immunity against subsequent infection are determined by the interplay of innate and acquired immune responses. This review will focus on approaches taken to gain an understanding of the molecular basis for innate and acquired immunity against the hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle, Babesia bovis. Knowledge of mechanisms used by the parasite to survive within infected cattle from acute to persistent infection combined with definition of the correlates of protective immunity in cattle should be applicable to designing effective vaccines. PMID:11707299

Brown, W C

2001-11-22

330

Cysteine Protease-Binding Protein Family 6 Mediates the Trafficking of Amylases to Phagosomes in the Enteric Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis plays a pivotal role in nutrient acquisition and evasion from the host defense systems in Entamoeba histolytica, the intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis. We previously reported that E. histolytica possesses a unique class of a hydrolase receptor family, designated the cysteine protease-binding protein family (CPBF), that is involved in trafficking of hydrolases to lysosomes and phagosomes, and we have also reported that CPBF1 and CPBF8 bind to cysteine proteases or ?-hexosaminidase ?-subunit and lysozymes, respectively. In this study, we showed by immunoprecipitation that CPBF6, one of the most highly expressed CPBF proteins, specifically binds to ?-amylase and ?-amylase. We also found that CPBF6 is localized in lysosomes, based on immunofluorescence imaging. Immunoblot and proteome analyses of the isolated phagosomes showed that CPBF6 mediates transport of amylases to phagosomes. We also demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal cytosolic region of CPBF6 is engaged in the regulation of the trafficking of CPBF6 to phagosomes. Our proteome analysis of phagosomes also revealed new potential phagosomal proteins.

Furukawa, Atsushi; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko

2013-01-01

331

Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).  

PubMed

Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when females scatter spores onto eggs and host plant leaves during oviposition; spores can also be transmitted between mating adults. Monarch larvae were experimentally infected and emerging adult females were mated and monitored in individual outdoor field cages. We provided females with fresh host plant material daily and quantified their lifespan and lifetime fecundity. Parasite transmission was measured by counting the numbers of parasite spores transferred to eggs and host plant leaves. We also quantified spores transferred from infected females to their mating partners. Infected monarchs had shorter lifespans and lower lifetime fecundity than uninfected monarchs. Among infected females, those with higher parasite loads transmitted more parasite spores to their eggs and to host plant leaves. There was also a trend for females with greater parasite loads to transmit more spores to their mating partners. These results demonstrate that high parasite loads on infected butterflies confer a strong fitness advantage to the parasite by increasing between-host transmission. PMID:19418070

de Roode, Jacobus C; Chi, Jean; Rarick, Rachel M; Altizer, Sonia

2009-05-06

332

Styrax japonica supplementation diet enhances the innate immune response in Epinephelus bruneus against bacterial and protozoan infections.  

PubMed

Kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus, fed for 30 days with 0% (control), 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of Styrax japonica supplementation diets, led to reductions in mortality after being challenged with a bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) and a ciliate protozoan (Uronema marinum). The enriched diets significantly increased the survival rate as compared to the controls. The phagocytic and respiratory activities were significantly increased in kelp groupers given 1.0% and 2.0% enriched diets. The complement activity, lysozyme activity, serum bactericidal activity, and total protein level significantly increased with any enriched diet against the pathogens; however antiprotease activity and myeloperoxidase levels significantly increased only with 1.0% and 2.0% enriched diets while the ?2-macroglobulin level was significantly enhanced with 1.0% enriched diet. The study suggests that incorporation of S. japonica at 1.0% and 2.0% level in the diet significantly enhances the immune responses in the kelp grouper E. bruneus against V. harveyi and U. marinum. PMID:21824474

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2011-07-30

333

Anion inhibition studies of the ?-carbonic anhydrase from the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

The protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, encodes an ?-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), TcCA, which was recently shown to be crucial for its life cycle. Thiols, a class of strong TcCA inhibitors, were also shown to block the growth of the pathogen in vitro. Here we report the inhibition of TcCA by inorganic and complex anions and other molecules interacting with zinc proteins, such as sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic/arsonic acids. TcCA was inhibited in the low micromolar range by iodide, cyanate, thiocyanate, hydrogensulfide and trithiocarbonate (KIs in the range of 44-93 ?M), but the best inhibitor was diethyldithiocarbamate (KI=5 ?M). Sulfamide showed an inhibition constant of 120 ?M, but sulfamic acid was much less effective (KI of 10.6 mM). The discovery of diethyldithiocarbamate as a low micromolar TcCA inhibitor may be useful to detect leads for developing anti-Trypanosoma agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to clinically used drugs (benznidazole, nifurtimox) for which significant resistance emerged. PMID:23790722

Pan, Peiwen; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Scozzafava, Andrea; Parkkila, Seppo; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

2013-06-06

334

Lipidomic Analysis Reveals That Phosphatidylglycerol and Phosphatidylethanolamine are Newly Generated Phospholipids in an Early-Divergent Protozoan, Giardia lamblia  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic protozoan Giardia lamblia is known to not synthesize membrane lipids de novo. Therefore, it is possible that lipids in the small intestine, where trophozoites colonize, play key roles in regulating the growth and differentiation of this important pathogen. The focus of the current study is to conduct a complete lipidomic analysis and to test the hypothesis that Giardia has some ability to generate new phospholipids (PLs). Using mass spectrometry, now we show that phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) are major PLs followed by phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) in non-encysting and encysting trophozoites, as well in cysts. The fatty acids attached to these PLs consist mostly of palmitate, palmitoleate, oleate, and linoleate. Results also indicate that PGs and PEs, unlike PCs, are not present in bovine bile and serum, the major sources of lipids of the culture medium, and that they could therefore be produced by fatty acid and headgroup remodeling reactions, circumventing the synthesis of entirely new PLs via de novo pathways. Genomic and transcriptional analyses show the presence of giardial phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (gpgs) and phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (gpsd) genes, which are expressed throughout the life cycle. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses further indicated that both genes are of prokaryotic origin and that they have undergone duplication in the course of the evolution. Our studies suggest that the abundance of PG in Giardia is unique among eukaryotes and that its synthesis thus could serve as a potential target for developing new therapies against this waterborne parasite.

Yichoy, Mayte; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Shpak, Max; Aguilar, Clemente; Aley, Stephen B.; Almeida, Igor C.; Das, Siddhartha

2009-01-01

335

Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common.  

PubMed

We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4-67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans. PMID:21795265

Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

2011-07-27

336

Influence of water chemistry on the distribution of an acidophilic protozoan in an acid mine drainage system at the abandoned Green Valley coal mine, Indiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euglena mutabilis, a benthic photosynthetic protozoan that intracellularly sequesters Fe, is variably abundant in the main effluent channel that contains acid mine drainage (AMD) discharging from the Green Valley coal mine site in western Indiana. Samples of effluent (pH 3.0–4.6) taken from the main channel and samples of contaminated stream water (pH 3.3 to 8.0) collected from an adjacent stream

S. S. Brake; H. K. Dannelly; K. A. Connors; S. T. Hasiotis

2001-01-01

337

Using a green fluorescent protein gene-labeled p-nitrophenol-degrading Moraxella strain to examine the protective effect of alginate encapsulation against protozoan grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gfp-labeled p-nitrophenol-degrading Moraxella strain G21 was used to study grazing of a Tetrahymena thermophila strain in liquid medium. This allowed visualization of the feeding process. Under an epifluorescent microscope, individual G21 fluorescent cells could be seen in vacuoles within the protozoans. Most of the G21 cells appeared to be lysed by T. thermophila and green fluorescent protein released from

Kam Tin Leung; Jae-Seong So; Magdalena Kostrzynska; Hung Lee; Jack T Trevors

2000-01-01

338

Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii Dopamine, a missing link between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic protozoan, infects about 30–60% of people worldwide. The latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. life-long presence of cysts in the brain and muscular tissues, has no effect on human health. However, infected subjects score worse in psychomotor performance tests and have different personality profiles than Toxoplasma-negative subjects. The mechanism of this effect is unknown; however, it is supposed that

Jaroslav Flegr; Marek Preiss; Ji??? Klose; Jan Havl???ek; Martina Vitáková; Petr Kodym

2003-01-01

339

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene induced by light stimulation in the protozoan Blepharisma japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone that is inducible by light stimulation was cloned by a differential screening method from a cDNA library of the protozoan Blepharisma japonicum, and the light-dependent expression was checked by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a glutathione S-transferase (GST) that has not been characterized in the protozoa. Multiple alignment

Yuichi Takada; Kouji Uda; Kazuo Kawamura; Tatsuomi Matsuoka

2004-01-01

340

Roseivirga ehrenbergii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes', isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of a novel marine bacterium isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata collected in the Sea of Japan was established. Cells of the strain studied, designated KMM 6017T, were strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, pink-pigmented, non-motile by gliding, Gram-negative and oxidase-, catalase-, beta-galactosidase- and alkaline phosphatase-positive. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strain occupied a distinct lineage within the phylum 'Bacteroidetes' and formed a cluster with [Flexibacter] tractuosus and Reichenbachia agariperforans. The G+C content of the DNA of KMM 6017T was 40.2 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant fatty acids were i15 : 1, i15 : 0 and i17 : 0 3-OH (34.2, 24 and 7.7 %, respectively). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacterium was assigned to the genus Roseivirga gen. nov., as Roseivirga ehrenbergii gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is KMM 6017T (=KCTC 12282T=LMG 22567T). PMID:15653879

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Lee, Dong Hyuck; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Shevchenko, Lyudmila S; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V; Lee, Kang Hyun; Bae, Kyung Sook

2005-01-01

341

Porifericola rhodea gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated by the bait-streaked agar technique.  

PubMed

A strictly aerobic, gram-negative, non-motile, reddish-pink pigmented, rod-shaped strain designated N5EA6-3A2B(T), was isolated from an unidentified marine sponge by use of a bait-streaked agar technique. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate represented a distinct and deep evolutionary lineage of descent in the family Flammeovirgaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and clustered with as yet uncultured bacteria. The most closely related established species was Roseivirga spongicola UST030701-084(T) (89% sequence similarity) in the family of Flammeovirgaceae. The strain could be differentiated phenotypically and physiologically from recognized members of the family Flammeovirgaceae. The G+C content of DNA was 43 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and iso-C15:0, C16:1?5c and iso-C17:0 3-OH were the major fatty acids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the name Porifericola rhodea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Porifericola rhodea is N5EA6-3A2B(T) (=MBIC08357(T) = NBRC 107748(T)). PMID:21416335

Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Park, Sanghwa; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

2011-03-18

342

Phylogenetic relationships within the class Oligohymenophorea, phylum Ciliophora, inferred from the complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences of Colpidium campylum, Glaucoma chattoni, and Opisthonecta henneguyi.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships within the class Oligohymenophorea, phylum Ciliophora, were investigated by determining the complete small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene sequences for the hymenostomes Colpidium campylum, Glaucoma chattoni, and the peritrich Opisthonecta henneguyi. The affiliations of the oligohymenophoreans were assessed using both distance matrix (DM) and maximum parsimony (MP) analyses. Variations do exist in the phylogenies created by the two methods. However, the basic tree topologies are consistent. In both the DM and MP analyses the hymenostomes (C. campylum, G. chattoni, and the tetrahymenas) all form a very tight group associated with the peritrich O. henneguyi. The Tetrahymena lineage was monophyletic whereas Colpidium and Glaucoma were more closely related to each other than either was to the tetrahymenas. The monophyly of the genus Tetrahymena in the present analysis supports the phylogenies determined from morphological data and molecular sequence data from the histone H3II/H4II region of the genome. The perplexing and controversial phylogenetic position of the peritrichs is once again depicted in the present analysis. The distinctiveness of the peritrich Opisthonecta from both hymenostome and nassophorean ciliates based on evolutionary distances suggests that the elevation of the peritrichs to a higher taxonomic rank should be reconsidered. PMID:1840618

Greenwood, S J; Sogin, M L; Lynn, D H

1991-08-01

343

Litorilinea aerophila gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic member of the class Caldilineae, phylum Chloroflexi, isolated from an intertidal hot spring.  

PubMed

A thermophilic, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, filamentous bacterium, strain PRI-4131(T), was isolated from an intertidal hot spring in Isafjardardjup, NW Iceland. The strain grew chemo-organotrophically on various carbohydrates. The temperature range for growth was 40-65 °C (optimum 55 °C), the pH range was pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and the NaCl range was 0-3?% (w/v) (optimum 0.5?%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain PRI-4131(T) represented a distinct lineage within the class Caldilineae of the phylum http://dx.doi.org/10.1601/nm.550Chloroflexi. The highest levels of sequence similarity, about 91?%, were with Caldilinea aerophila STL-6-O1(T) and Caldilinea tarbellica D1-25-10-4(T). Fermentative growth was not observed for strain PRI-4131(T), which, in addition to other characteristics, distinguished it from the two Caldilinea species. Owing to both phylogenetic and phenotypic differences from the described members of the class Caldilineae, we propose to accommodate strain PRI-4131(T) in a novel species in a new genus, Litorilinea aerophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Litorilinea aerophila is PRI-4131(T) (?=?DSM 25763(T) ?=?ATCC BAA-2444(T)). PMID:22771681

Kale, Varsha; Björnsdóttir, Snædís H; Friðjónsson, Ólafur H; Pétursdóttir, Sólveig K; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Óli

2012-07-06

344

A Genome-Wide Over-Expression Screen Identifies Genes Involved in Phagocytosis in the Human Protozoan Parasite, Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Functional genomics and forward genetics seek to assign function to all known genes in a genome. Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite for which forward genetics approaches have not been extensively applied. It is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery and liver abscess, and infection is prevalent in developing countries that cannot prevent its fecal-oral spread. It is responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality. Given that the E. histolytica genome has been sequenced, it should be possible to apply genomic approaches to discover gene function. We used a genome-wide over-expression screen to uncover genes regulating an important virulence function of E. histolytica, namely phagocytosis. We developed an episomal E. histolytica cDNA over-expression library, transfected the collection of plasmids into trophozoites, and applied a high-throughput screen to identify phagocytosis mutants in the population of over-expressing cells. The screen was based on the phagocytic uptake of human red blood cells loaded with the metabolic toxin, tubercidin. Expression plasmids were isolated from trophozoites that survived exposure to tubercidin-charged erythrocytes (phagocytosis mutants), and the cDNAs were sequenced. We isolated the gene encoding profilin, a well-characterized cytoskeleton-regulating protein with a known role in phagocytosis. This supports the validity of our approach. Furthermore, we assigned a phagocytic role to several genes not previously known to function in this manner. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide forward genetics screen to be applied to this pathogen. The study demonstrates the power of forward genetics in revealing genes regulating virulence in E. histolytica. In addition, the study validates an E. histolytica cDNA over-expression library as a valuable tool for functional genomics.

King, Ada V.; Welter, Brenda H.; Koushik, Amrita B.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Temesvari, Lesly A.

2012-01-01

345

A genome-wide over-expression screen identifies genes involved in phagocytosis in the human protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Functional genomics and forward genetics seek to assign function to all known genes in a genome. Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite for which forward genetics approaches have not been extensively applied. It is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery and liver abscess, and infection is prevalent in developing countries that cannot prevent its fecal-oral spread. It is responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality. Given that the E. histolytica genome has been sequenced, it should be possible to apply genomic approaches to discover gene function. We used a genome-wide over-expression screen to uncover genes regulating an important virulence function of E. histolytica, namely phagocytosis. We developed an episomal E. histolytica cDNA over-expression library, transfected the collection of plasmids into trophozoites, and applied a high-throughput screen to identify phagocytosis mutants in the population of over-expressing cells. The screen was based on the phagocytic uptake of human red blood cells loaded with the metabolic toxin, tubercidin. Expression plasmids were isolated from trophozoites that survived exposure to tubercidin-charged erythrocytes (phagocytosis mutants), and the cDNAs were sequenced. We isolated the gene encoding profilin, a well-characterized cytoskeleton-regulating protein with a known role in phagocytosis. This supports the validity of our approach. Furthermore, we assigned a phagocytic role to several genes not previously known to function in this manner. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide forward genetics screen to be applied to this pathogen. The study demonstrates the power of forward genetics in revealing genes regulating virulence in E. histolytica. In addition, the study validates an E. histolytica cDNA over-expression library as a valuable tool for functional genomics. PMID:22905196

King, Ada V; Welter, Brenda H; Koushik, Amrita B; Gordon, Lindsay N; Temesvari, Lesly A

2012-08-14

346

Growth of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica in 5-azacytidine has limited effects on parasite gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background In higher eukaryotes DNA methylation regulates important biological functions including silencing of gene expression and protection from adverse effects of retrotransposons. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, a DNA methyltransferase has been identified and treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, has been reported to attenuate parasite virulence. However, the overall extent of DNA methylation and its subsequent effects on global gene expression in this parasite are currently unknown. Results In order to identify the genome-wide effects of DNA methylation in E. histolytica, we used a short oligonucleotide microarray representing 9,435 genes (~95% of all annotated amebic genes) and compared the expression profile of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS parasites with those treated with 23 ?M 5-AzaC for up to one week. Overall, 2.1% of genes tested were transcriptionally modulated under these conditions. 68 genes were upregulated and 131 genes down regulated (2-fold change; p-value < 0.05). Sodium-bisulfite treatment and sequencing of genes indicated that there were at least two subsets of genes with genomic DNA methylation in E. histolytica: (i) genes that were endogenously silenced by genomic DNA methylation and for which 5-AzaC treatment induced transcriptional de-repression, and (ii) genes that have genomic DNA methylation, but which were not endogenously silenced by the methylation. We identified among the genes down regulated by 5-AzaC treatment a cysteine proteinase (2.m00545) and lysozyme (52.m00148) both of which have known roles in amebic pathogenesis. Decreased expression of these genes in the 5-AzaC treated E. histolytica may account in part for the parasites reduced cytolytic abilities. Conclusion This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA-methylation in Entamoeba histolytica and indicates that DNA methylation has relatively limited effects on gene expression in this parasite.

Ali, Ibne Karim M; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Hackney, Jason A; Singh, Upinder

2007-01-01

347

IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i. PMID:22634886

Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

348

Pair of unusual GCN5 histone acetyltransferases and ADA2 homologues in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

GCN5 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) essential for development in mammals and critical to stress responses in yeast. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a serious opportunistic pathogen. The study of epigenetics and gene expression in this ancient eukaryote has pharmacological relevance and may facilitate the understanding of these processes in higher eukaryotes. Here we show that the disruption of T. gondii GCN5 yields viable parasites, which were subsequently employed in a proteomics study to identify gene products affected by its loss. Promoter analysis of these TgGCN5-dependent genes, which were mostly parasite specific, reveals a conserved T-rich element. The loss of TgGCN5 does not attenuate virulence in an in vivo mouse model. We also discovered that T. gondii is the only invertebrate reported to date possessing a second GCN5 (TgGCN5-B). TgGCN5-B harbors a strikingly divergent N-terminal domain required for nuclear localization. Despite high homology between the HAT domains, the two TgGCN5s exhibit differing substrate specificities. In contrast to TgGCN5-A, which exclusively targets lysine 18 of H3, TgGCN5-B acetylates multiple lysines in the H3 tail. We also identify two ADA2 homologues that interact differently with the TgGCN5s. TgGCN5-B has the potential to compensate for TgGCN5-A, which probably arose from a gene duplication unique to T. gondii. Our work reveals an unexpected complexity in the GCN5 machinery of this primitive eukaryote. PMID:16400169

Bhatti, Micah M; Livingston, Meredith; Mullapudi, Nandita; Sullivan, William J

2006-01-01

349

Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in China  

PubMed Central

China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in Chinese apiaries. We thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee RNA viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative Apis mellifera ligustica and native Apis cerana cerana colonies in China. We found the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), but not that of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) or Kashmir bee virus (KBV). DWV was the most prevalent in the tested samples. Phylogenies of Chinese viral isolates demonstrated that genetically heterogeneous populations of BQCV, CBPV, DWV, and A. cerana-infecting SBV, and relatively homogenous populations of IAPV and A. meliifera-infecting new strain of SBV with single origins, are spread in Chinese apiaries. Similar to previous observations in many countries, Nosema ceranae, but not Nosema apis, was prevalent in the tested samples. Crithidia mellificae, but not Apicystis bombi was found in five samples, including one A. c. cerana colony, demonstrating that C. mellificae is capable of infecting multiple honey bee species. Based on kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequences, the C. mellificae isolate from A. c. cerana represents a novel haplotype with 19 nucleotide differences from the Chinese and Japanese isolates from A. m. ligustica. This suggests that A. c. cerana is the native host for this specific haplotype. The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, was detected in one A. m. ligustica colony. Our results demonstrate that honey bee RNA viruses, N. ceranae, C. mellificae, and tracheal mites are present in Chinese apiaries, and some might be originated from native Asian honey bees.

Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Li, Tianbang; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

2013-01-01

350

Culture-dependent and independent analyses of the microbial communities inhabiting the giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) rhizoplane and isolation of a variety of rarely cultivated organisms within the phylum Verrucomicrobia.  

PubMed

The microbial communities of the rhizoplane, the surface part of roots, in aquatic plants are not understood at all. In this study, we analyzed microbial communities in the rhizoplane of a floating aquatic plant, giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza), based on cultivation-dependent and independent analyses. The cultivation-based analysis using agar and gellan gum plates revealed that the rhizoplane isolates were affiliated with four bacterial lineages; the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, microbes belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia accounted for 24% of all the isolates, suggesting that the rhizoplane of S. polyrrhiza forms a specific habitat for the organisms within this phylum. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene cloning showed that the clonal sequences were affiliated with eight bacterial classes and phyla: the classes Alphaproteobacteria (14% total clones), Betaproteobacteria (45%), Gammaproteobacteria (2%) and Deltaproteobacteria (2%), and the phyla Bacteroidetes (11%), Verrucomicrobia (2%), Planctomycetes (2%) and Cyanobacteria (22%). Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in the rhizoplane between culture-dependent and independent methods revealed that 33% of the taxonomic groups of bacterial species detected in the molecular analysis were cultivable. Our findings suggest that the microbes in the rhizoplane of giant duckweed are comprised of a diverse array of readily cultured organisms including a variety of strains within the Verrucomicrobia, a well-known phylum that contains a number of yet-to-be cultivated organisms. PMID:21576886

Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Mori, Kazuhiro

2010-01-01

351

Altered Protozoan and Bacterial Communities and Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Monensin-Treated Wastewater from a Dairy Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Surviving predation is a fitness trait of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that provides ample time for the pathogen to be transported from reservoirs (e.g. dairies and feedlots) to farm produce grown in proximity. Ionophore dietary supplements that inhibit rumen protozoa may provide such a selective advantage for EcO157 to proliferate in lagoons as the pathogen is released along with the undigested supplement as manure washings. This study evaluated the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157, protozoan and bacterial communities in wastewater treated with monensin. Although total protozoa and native bacteria were unaffected by monensin, the time for 90% decrease in EcO157 increased from 0.8 to 5.1 days. 18S and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of wastewater samples revealed that monensin eliminated almost all colpodean and oligohymenophorean ciliates, probably facilitating the extended survival of EcO157. Total protozoan numbers remained high in treated wastewater as monensin enriched 94% of protozoan sequences undetected with untreated wastewater. Monensin stimulated 30-fold increases in Cyrtohymena citrina, a spirotrichean ciliate, and also biflagellate bicosoecids and cercozoans. Sequences of gram-negative Proteobacteria increased from 1% to 46% with monensin, but gram-positive Firmicutes decreased from 93% to 46%. It is noteworthy that EcO157 numbers increased significantly (P<0.01) in Sonneborn medium containing monensin, probably due to monensin-inhibited growth of Vorticella microstoma (P<0.05), a ciliate isolated from wastewater. We conclude that dietary monensin inhibits ciliate protozoa that feed on EcO157. Feed supplements or other methods that enrich these protozoa in cattle manure could be a novel strategy to control the environmental dissemination of EcO157 from dairies to produce production environments.

Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

2013-01-01

352

Protozoan protein tyrosine phosphatases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of the published experimental data on protein tyrosine phosphatases from parasitic protozoa, in silico analysis based on the availability of completed genomes and to place available data for individual phosphatases from different unicellular parasites into the comparative and evolutionary context. We analysed the complement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) in

Alexandra V. Andreeva; Mikhail A. Kutuzov

2008-01-01

353

Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p?protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p?

2013-01-01

354

Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater in an industrial three-reactor plant: effect of aeration regime on performances and on protozoan and bacterial communities.  

PubMed

An industrial three-reactor plant treating 45 m(3) d(-1) of dairy wastewater was monitored to investigate the effect of different aeration regimes on performance efficiency and to find relationships with bacterial and protozoan communities in the activated sludge. During the study, the plant was maintained at six different "on/off" cycles of the blower (45/15, 15/15, 15/45, 30/30, 30/45 and 30/60 min), providing between 30.2 and 90.6 kg O(2) d(-1), and the main chemical/biochemical parameters (COD, BOD, NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), etc.) were determined. When at least 45.4 kg O(2) d(-1) (30/45) were provided, COD removal efficiencies were always in the range 88-94% but decreased to about 70% under aeration regimes 15/45 and 30/60. Ammonium ion degradation performance was compromised only in the lowest aeration regime (15/45). Total number of protozoa and their species richness, and bacterial viable counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were used to characterize the microbiota of the activated sludge. Cell abundances and community structures of protozoa and bacteria were very similar in the three aerated reactors but changed with the aeration regimes. In particular, the 15/45 and 30/60 regimes led to low protozoan diversity with prevalence of flagellates of the genus Trepomonas at the expense of the mobile and sessile forms and, thus, to a less efficient activated sludge as indicated by Sludge Biotic Index values (3 and 4.5 for the two regimes, respectively). The structure of the bacterial community strongly changed when the aeration regimes varied, as indicated by the low similarity values between the DGGE profiles. On the contrary, number of viable bacteria and values of the biodiversity index remained stable throughout the whole experimentation. Taken together, the results of the present study clearly indicate that aeration regime variations strongly influence the structure of both protozoan and bacterial communities and, above all, that a high biodiversity among protozoan populations in the activated sludge is prerequisite for high performances in dairy wastewater treatment. PMID:22503428

Tocchi, Carlo; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Manzi, Rodolfo; Vinciguerra, Vittorio; Vincigurerra, Vittorio; Petruccioli, Maurizio

2012-03-30

355

Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. PMID:23437821

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

2013-03-14

356

Oligosphaera ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium isolated from methanogenic sludge, and description of Oligosphaeria classis nov. in the phylum Lentisphaerae.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium, designated 8KG-4(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from salted vegetable production processes. Cells of strain 8KG-4(T) were non-motile, spherical and 0.7-1.5 µm in diameter (mean, 1.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed under any culture conditions tested. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth 25-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (range, pH 6.5-7.5), and could grow fermentatively on glucose, ribose, xylose, galactose and sucrose. The main end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. Organic acids, alcohols and amino acids were not utilized for growth. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe(III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate represented a previously uncultured lineage at the subphylum level within the phylum Lentisphaerae known as 'WWE2 subgroup I'. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0), C(16?:?0) and anteiso-C(17?:?0). Respiratory quinones were not detected. The most abundant polar lipid of strain 8KG-4(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. A novel genus and species, Oligosphaera ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain 8KG-4(T) (?=?JCM 17152(T)?=?DSM 24202(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.5160(T)). In addition, we formally propose Oligosphaeria classis nov. and the subordinate taxa Oligosphaerales order nov. and Oligosphaeraceae fam. nov. PMID:22523166

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Guo, Rong-Bo; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2012-04-20

357

Microbial community analysis in the roots of aquatic plants and isolation of novel microbes including an organism of the candidate phylum OP10.  

PubMed

A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40-4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5-3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms. PMID:22791047

Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

2012-01-01

358

Analysis of genome content evolution in pvc bacterial super-phylum: assessment of candidate genes associated with cellular organization and lifestyle.  

PubMed

The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae (PVC) super-phylum contains bacteria with either complex cellular organization or simple cell structure; it also includes organisms of different lifestyles (pathogens, mutualists, commensal, and free-living). Genome content evolution of this group has not been studied in a systematic fashion, which would reveal genes underlying the emergence of PVC-specific phenotypes. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 26 PVC genomes and several outgroup species. We inferred HGT, duplications, and losses by reconciliation of 27,123 gene trees with the species phylogeny. We showed that genome expansion and contraction have driven evolution within Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, respectively, and balanced each other in Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. We also found that for a large number of genes in PVC genomes the most similar sequences are present in Acidobacteria, suggesting past and/or current ecological interaction between organisms from these groups. We also found evidence of shared ancestry between carbohydrate degradation genes in the mucin-degrading human intestinal commensal Akkermansia muciniphila and sequences from Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that glycoside hydrolases are transferred laterally between gut microbes and that the process of carbohydrate degradation is crucial for microbial survival within the human digestive system. Further, we identified a highly conserved genetic module preferentially present in compartmentalized PVC species and possibly associated with the complex cell plan in these organisms. This conserved machinery is likely to be membrane targeted and involved in electron transport, although its exact function is unknown. These genes represent good candidates for future functional studies. PMID:23221607

Kamneva, Olga K; Knight, Stormy J; Liberles, David A; Ward, Naomi L

2012-01-01

359

Chthoniobacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov., the first pure-culture representative of subdivision two, spartobacteria classis nov., of the phylum verrucomicrobia  

SciTech Connect

The phylum Verrucomicrobia is increasingly recognized as an environmentally significant group of bacteria, particularly in soil habitats. At least six subdivisions of the Verrucomicrobia are resolved by comparative analysis of 16S rRNA genes, mostly obtained directly from environmental samples. To date, only two of these subdivisions (1 and 4) have characterized pure-culture representatives. We have isolated and characterized the first known pure-culture representative of subdivision 2. Strain Ellin428 is an aerobic heterotrophic bacterium that is able to grow with many of the saccharide components of plant biomass but does not grow with amino acids or organic acids other than pyruvate. Cells are yellow, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and gram-stain negative, and they contain peptidoglycan with direct cross-linkages of the A1{gamma} meso-Dpm type. The isolate grows well at 25 C on a variety of standard biological media, including some used in the routine cultivation of bacteria from soil. The pH range for growth is 4.0 to 7.0. Low levels of menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11 were detected. The major cellular fatty acids are C{sub 14:0}, a-C{sub 15:0}, C{sub 16:1{omega}7c}, and/or 2OH i-C{sub 15:0}, and C{sub 16:0}. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 61 mol percent. We propose a new genus and species, Chthoniobacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov., with isolate Ellin428 as the type strain, and a new class for the subdivision to which it belongs, Spartobacteria classis nov. Environmental sequences indicate that the class Spartobacteria is largely represented by globally distributed, abundant, and active soil bacteria.

Sangwan, Parveen; Chen, Xiaolei; Hugenholtz, Philip; Janssen, Peter H.

2004-03-15

360

Synthesis, Solution Structure, and Phylum Selectivity of a Spider ?-Toxin That Slows Inactivation of Specific Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Subtypes*  

PubMed Central

Magi 4, now renamed ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a, is a 43-residue neurotoxic peptide from the venom of the hexathelid Japanese funnel-web spider (Macrothele gigas) with homology to ?-hexatoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders. It binds with high affinity to receptor site 3 on insect voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels but, unlike ?-hexatoxins, does not compete for the related site 3 in rat brain despite being previously shown to be lethal by intracranial injection. To elucidate differences in NaV channel selectivity, we have undertaken the first characterization of a peptide toxin on a broad range of mammalian and insect NaV channel subtypes showing that ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a selectively slows channel inactivation of mammalian NaV1.1, NaV1.3, and NaV1.6 but more importantly shows higher affinity for insect NaV1 (para) channels. Consequently, ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a induces tonic repetitive firing of nerve impulses in insect neurons accompanied by plateau potentials. In addition, we have chemically synthesized and folded ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a, ascertained the bonding pattern of the four disulfides, and determined its three-dimensional solution structure using NMR spectroscopy. Despite modest sequence homology, we show that key residues important for the activity of scorpion ?-toxins and ?-hexatoxins are distributed in a topologically similar manner in ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a. However, subtle differences in the toxin surfaces are important for the novel selectivity of ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a for certain mammalian and insect NaV channel subtypes. As such, ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a provides us with a specific tool with which to study channel structure and function and determinants for phylum- and tissue-specific activity.

Yamaji, Nahoko; Little, Michelle J.; Nishio, Hideki; Billen, Bert; Villegas, Elba; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Tytgat, Jan; Nicholson, Graham M.; Corzo, Gerardo

2009-01-01

361

Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.  

PubMed

We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed. PMID:22013749

Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

2011-09-01

362

The Ciliated Protists: Phylum Ciliophora  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMEDIA Associates has added two new image galleries -- ciliated protists and bacteria -- to its online collection of educational materials on the diversity of life. While many of the products created by BioMEDIA must be purchased, their image galleries may be viewed free of charge. The two new galleries each contain beautiful, colorful photos that are as much digital art as they are teaching tools for biology. Some of the images contain related roll-over text describing some aspect of the organism's biology. The ciliate gallery would be especially useful for students attempting to locate ciliate specimens under the microscope for the first time, providing them with a clear search image. The ciliate gallery also includes a free video clip about ciliate diversity, best viewed with a high-speed connection.

2002-01-01

363

Bellilinea caldifistulae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Longilinea arvoryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi isolated from methanogenic propionate-degrading consortia.  

PubMed

Thermophilic (strain GOMI-1(T)) and mesophilic (strain KOME-1(T)) strains were isolated from two different cultures of propionate-degrading consortia obtained from thermophilic digester sludge and rice paddy soil, respectively. The two strains were non-spore-forming, non-motile and Gram-negative. Both strains were obligately anaerobic micro-organisms, showing multicellular filamentous morphotypes more than 100 mum in length. The cell width for strain GOMI-1(T) was 0.2-0.4 mum and that of strain KOME-1(T) was 0.4-0.6 mum. Strain GOMI-1(T) could grow at 45-65 degrees C with a pH range of 6.0-7.5 (optimum growth at 55 degrees C, pH 7.0). The temperature range for growth of strain KOME-1(T) was 30-40 degrees C and the pH range was pH 5.0-8.5 (optimum growth around 37 degrees C, pH 7.0). Yeast extract was required for growth of both strains. Strain GOMI-1(T) was able to grow with a number of carbohydrates in the presence of yeast extract. In yeast extract-containing medium, strain KOME-1(T) could utilize proteins and a limited range of sugars for growth. The G+C contents of the DNA of strains GOMI-1(T) and KOME-1(T) were respectively 54.7 and 57.6 mol%. Major fatty acids of strain GOMI-1(T) were C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0), whereas those of strain KOME-1(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(14 : 0). Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains GOMI-1(T) and KOME-1(T), the strains were placed in different phylogenetic positions in the class Anaerolineae of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi. Their phenotypic and genetic traits strongly supported the conclusion that the strains should be described as two independent taxa in the class Anaerolineae. Hence, we propose the names Bellilinea caldifistulae gen. nov., sp. nov., and Longilinea arvoryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., for strains GOMI-1(T) and KOME-1(T). The type strains of Bellilinea caldifistulae and Longilinea arvoryzae are respectively GOMI-1(T) (=JCM 13669(T) =DSM 17877(T)) and KOME-1(T) (=JCM 13670(T) =KTCC 5380(T)). PMID:17911301

Yamada, Takeshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2007-10-01

364

DNA from Protozoan Parasites Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and T. brucei Is Mitogenic for B Lymphocytes and Stimulates Macrophage Expression of Interleukin12, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Nitric Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of innate immune responses by genomic DNA from bacteria and several nonvertebrate organisms represents a novel mechanism of pathogen recognition. We recently demonstrated the CpG- dependent mitogenic activity of DNA from the protozoan parasite Babesia bovis for bovine B lymphocytes (W. C. Brown, D. M. Estes, S. E. Chantler, K. A. Kegerreis, and C. E. Suarez, Infect. Immun.

LISL K. M. SHODA; KIMBERLY A. KEGERREIS; CARLOS E. SUAREZ; ISABEL RODITI; RICARDO S. CORRAL; GUSTAVO M. BERTOT; JUNZO NORIMINE; WENDY C. BROWN

2001-01-01

365

Protein substrates of a novel secretion system are numerous in the bacteroidetes phylum and have in common a cleavable C-terminal secretion signal, extensive post-translational modification, and cell-surface attachment.  

PubMed

The secretion of certain proteins in Porphyromonas gingivalis is dependent on a C-terminal domain (CTD). After secretion, the CTD is cleaved prior to extensive modification of the mature protein, probably with lipopolysaccharide, therefore enabling attachment to the cell surface. In this study, bioinformatic analyses of the CTD demonstrated the presence of three conserved sequence motifs. These motifs were used to construct Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) that predicted 663 CTD-containing proteins in 21 fully sequenced species of the Bacteroidetes phylum, while no CTD-containing proteins were predicted in species outside this phylum. Further HMM searching of Cytophaga hutchinsonii led to a total of 171 predicted CTD proteins in that organism alone. Proteomic analyses of membrane fractions and culture fluid derived from P. gingivalis and four other species containing predicted CTDs (Parabacteroides distasonis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and C. hutchinsonii) demonstrated that membrane localization, extensive post-translational modification, and CTD-cleavage were conserved features of the secretion system. The CTD cleavage site of 10 different proteins from 3 different species was determined and found to be similar to the cleavage site previously determined in P. gingivalis, suggesting that homologues of the C-terminal signal peptidase (PG0026) are responsible for the cleavage in these species. PMID:24007199

Veith, Paul D; Nor Muhammad, Nor A; Dashper, Stuart G; Liki?, Vladimir A; Gorasia, Dhana G; Chen, Dina; Byrne, Samantha J; Catmull, Deanne V; Reynolds, Eric C

2013-09-23

366

Organisation and sequence determination of glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II in Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II encodes the first enzymic step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is essential for Toxoplasma gondii replication and virulence. In this study, we characterised the primary structure of a 28kb gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. The carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene was interrupted by 36 introns. The predicted protein encoded by the 37 carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II exons was a 1,687 amino acid polypeptide with an N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase domain fused with C-terminal carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains. This bifunctional organisation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is unique, so far, to protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Babesia, Toxoplasma) or zoomastigina (Trypanosoma, Leishmania). Apicomplexan parasites possessed the largest carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II enzymes due to insertions in the glutamine amidotransferase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains that were not present in the corresponding gene segments from bacteria, plants, fungi and mammals. The C-terminal allosteric regulatory domain, the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase linker domain and the oligomerisation domain were also distinct from the corresponding domains in other species. The novel C-terminal regulatory domain may explain the lack of activation of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II by the allosteric effector 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate. Toxoplasma gondii growth in vitro was markedly inhibited by the glutamine antagonist acivicin, an inhibitor of glutamine amidotransferase activity typically associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II, guanosine monophosphate synthetase, or CTP synthetase. PMID:12547350

Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

2003-01-01

367

TREP, a novel protein necessary for gliding motility of the malaria sporozoite.  

PubMed

The invasive stages of parasites of the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa have the capacity to traverse host tissues and invade host cells using a unique type of locomotion called gliding motility. Gliding motility is powered by a sub-membranous actin-myosin motor, and the force generated by the motor is transduced to the parasite surface by transmembrane proteins of the apicomplexan-specific thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. These proteins possess short cytoplasmic tails that interact with the actin-myosin motor via the glycolytic enzyme aldolase. Gliding motility of the Plasmodium sporozoite, the stage of the malaria parasite that is transmitted by the mosquito to the mammalian host, depends on the TRAP protein. We describe a second protein, herein termed TREP, which also plays a role in the gliding motility of the Plasmodium sporozoite. TREP is a transmembrane protein that possesses a short cytoplasmic tail typical of members of the TRAP family of proteins, as well as a large extracellular region that contains a single thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain. TREP transcripts are expressed predominantly in oocyst stage sporozoites. Plasmodium berghei sporozoites harbouring a disrupted TREP gene have a highly diminished capacity to invade mosquito salivary glands and display a severe defect in gliding motility. We conclude that the gliding motility of the Plasmodium sporozoite in the mosquito depends on at least two proteins, TRAP and TREP. PMID:19000911

Combe, Audrey; Moreira, Cristina; Ackerman, Susan; Thiberge, Sabine; Templeton, Thomas J; Ménard, Robert

2008-10-25

368

Structure and Function of a G-actin Sequestering Protein with a Vital Role in Malaria Oocyst Development inside the Mosquito Vector*  

PubMed Central

Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are evolutionary conserved G-actin-binding proteins that regulate microfilament turnover. CAPs have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal adenylate cyclase binding domain, a central proline-rich segment, and a C-terminal actin binding domain. Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, express small CAP orthologs with homology to the C-terminal actin binding domain (C-CAP). Here, we demonstrate by reverse genetics that C-CAP is dispensable for the pathogenic Plasmodium blood stages. However, c-cap(-) parasites display a complete defect in oocyst development in the insect vector. By trans-species complementation we show that the Cryptosporidium parvum ortholog complements the Plasmodium gene functions. Purified recombinant C. parvum C-CAP protein binds actin monomers and prevents actin polymerization. The crystal structure of C. parvum C-CAP shows two monomers with a right-handed ?-helical fold intercalated at their C termini to form the putative physiological dimer. Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages. This study also exemplifies how Plasmodium reverse genetics combined with biochemical and structural analyses of orthologous proteins can offer a fast track toward systematic gene characterization in apicomplexan parasites.

Hliscs, Marion; Sattler, Julia M.; Tempel, Wolfram; Artz, Jennifer D.; Dong, Aiping; Hui, Raymond; Matuschewski, Kai; Schuler, Herwig

2010-01-01

369

Structural Evidence for Actin-like Filaments in Toxoplasma gondii Using High-Resolution Low-Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is representative of a large group of parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa, which share a highly unusual motility system that is crucial for locomotion and active host cell invasion. Despite the importance of motility in the pathology of these unicellular organisms, the motor mechanisms for locomotion remain uncertain, largely because only limited data exist about composition and organization of the cytoskeleton. By using cytoskeleton stabilizing protocols on membrane-extracted parasites and novel imaging with high-resolution low-voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM), we were able to visualize for the first time a network of actin-sized filaments just below the cell membrane. A complex cytoskeletal network remained after removing the actin-sized fibers with cytochalasin D, revealing longitudinally arranged, subpellicular microtubules and intermediate-sized fibers of 10 nm, which, in stereo images, are seen both above and below the microtubules. These approaches open new possibilities to characterize more fully the largely unexplored and unconventional cytoskeletal motility complex in apicomplexan parasites.

Schatten, Heide; Sibley, L. David; Ris, Hans

2003-08-01

370

Population Abundance of Potentially Pathogenic Organisms in Intestinal Microbiome of Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) Shown with 16S rRNA Gene-Based Microbial Community Analysis  

PubMed Central

Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) prefer human habitats because of their versatility in feeding accompanied with human food consumption. Therefore, it is important from a public health viewpoint to characterize their intestinal microbiota. However, no studies have been involved in molecular characterization of the microbiota based on huge and reliable number of data acquisition. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis coupled with the next-generation DNA sequencing techniques was applied to the taxonomic classification of intestinal microbiome for three jungle crows. Clustering of the reads into 130 operational taxonomic units showed that at least 70% of analyzed sequences for each crow were highly homologous to Eimeria sp., which belongs to the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The microbiotas of three crows also contained potentially pathogenic bacteria with significant percentages, such as the genera Campylobacter and Brachyspira. Thus, the profiling of a large number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in crow intestinal microbiomes revealed the high-frequency existence or vestige of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

Maeda, Isamu; Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Nozawa-Takeda, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Naoki; Tani, Yuri; Naito, Taki; Sugita, Shoei

2013-01-01

371

Species concepts and malaria parasites: detecting a cryptic species of Plasmodium.  

PubMed Central

Species of malaria parasite (phylum Apicomplexa: genus Plasmodium) have traditionally been described using the similarity species concept (based primarily on differences in morphological or life-history characteristics). The biological species concept (reproductive isolation) and phylogenetic species concept (based on monophyly) have not been used before in defining species of Plasmodium. Plasmodium azurophilum, described from Anolis lizards in the eastern Caribbean, is actually a two-species cryptic complex. The parasites were studied from eight islands, from Puerto Rico in the north to Grenada in the south. Morphology of the two species is very similar (differences are indistinguishable to the eye), but one infects only erythrocytes and the other only white blood cells. Molecular data for the cytochrome b gene reveal that the two forms are reproductively isolated; distinct haplotypes are present on each island and are never shared between the erythrocyte-infecting and leucocyte-infecting species. Each forms a monophyletic lineage indicating that they diverged before becoming established in the anoles of the eastern Caribbean. This comparison of the similarity, biological and phylogenetic species concepts for malaria parasites reveals the limited value of using only similarity measures in defining protozoan species.

Perkins, S L

2000-01-01

372

Cytokine and chemokine responses to helminth and protozoan parasites and to fungus and mite allergens in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background In rural sub-Saharan Africa, endemic populations are often infected concurrently with several intestinal and intravascular helminth and protozoan parasites. A specific, balanced and, to an extent, protective immunity will develop over time in response to repeated parasite encounters, with immune responses initially being poorly adapted and non-protective. The cellular production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in response to helminth, protozoan antigens and ubiquitous allergens were studied in neonates, children, adults and the elderly. Results In children schistosomiasis prevailed (33%) while hookworm and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was found in up to half of adults and the elderly. Mansonella perstans filariasis was only present in adults (24%) and the elderly (25%). Two or more parasite infections were diagnosed in 41% of children, while such polyparasitism was present in 34% and 38% of adults and the elderly. Cytokine and chemokine production was distinctively inducible by parasite antigens; pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokine IL-19 was activated by Entamoeba and Ascaris antigens, being low in neonates and children while IL-19 production enhanced “stepwise” in adults and elderly. In contrast, highest production of MIP-1delta/CCL15 was present in neonates and children and inducible by Entamoeba-specific antigens only. Adults and the elderly had enhanced regulatory IL-27 cytokine responses, with Th2-type chemokines (MCP-4/CCL13, Eotaxin-2/CCL24) and cytokines (IL-33) being notably inducible by helminth- and Entamoeba-specific antigens and fungus-derived allergens. The lower cellular responsiveness in neonates and children highlighted the development of a parasite-specific cellular response profile in response to repeated episodes of exposure and re-infection. Conclusions Following repeated exposure to parasites, and as a consequence of host inability to prevent or eliminate intestinal helminth or protozoa infections, a repertoire of immune responses will evolve with lessened pro-inflammatory and pronounced regulatory cytokines and chemokines; this is required for partial parasite control as well as for preventing inadequate and excessive host tissue and organ damage.

2013-01-01

373

Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.  

PubMed

An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16?:?0, i17?:?0 and ai17?:?0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2?% (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) (?=?DSM 23976(T)?=?ICMP 18418(T)). PMID:21097641

Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

2010-11-19

374

Current Therapeutics, Their Problems, and Sulfur-Containing-Amino-Acid Metabolism as a Novel Target against Infections by "Amitochondriate" Protozoan Parasites  

PubMed Central

The “amitochondriate” protozoan parasites of humans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis share many biochemical features, e.g., energy and amino acid metabolism, a spectrum of drugs for their treatment, and the occurrence of drug resistance. These parasites possess metabolic pathways that are divergent from those of their mammalian hosts and are often considered to be good targets for drug development. Sulfur-containing-amino-acid metabolism represents one such divergent metabolic pathway, namely, the cysteine biosynthetic pathway and methionine ?-lyase-mediated catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, which are present in T. vaginalis and E. histolytica but absent in G. intestinalis. These pathways are potentially exploitable for development of drugs against amoebiasis and trichomoniasis. For instance, l-trifluoromethionine, which is catalyzed by methionine ?-lyase and produces a toxic product, is effective against T. vaginalis and E. histolytica parasites in vitro and in vivo and may represent a good lead compound. In this review, we summarize the biology of these microaerophilic parasites, their clinical manifestation and epidemiology of disease, chemotherapeutics, the modes of action of representative drugs, and problems related to these drugs, including drug resistance. We further discuss our approach to exploit unique sulfur-containing-amino-acid metabolism, focusing on development of drugs against E. histolytica.

Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2007-01-01

375

An assessment of the use of drug and non-drug interventions in the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, a protozoan parasite of freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Infection by the ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 causes significant economic losses in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. Following the ban on the use of malachite green for treating food fish, there has been extensive research aimed at identifying suitable replacements. In this paper we critically assess drug and non-drug interventions, which have been tested for use or have been employed against this parasite and evaluate possibilities for their application in farm systems. Current treatments include the administration of formaldehyde, sodium chloride (salt), copper sulphate and potassium permanganate. However, purportedly more environmentally friendly drugs such as humic acid, potassium ferrate (VI), bronopol and the peracetic acid-based products have recently been tested and represent promising alternatives. Further investigation, is required to optimize the treatments and to establish precise protocols in order to minimize the quantity of drug employed whilst ensuring the most efficacious performance. At the same time, there needs to be a greater emphasis placed on the non-drug aspects of management strategies, including the use of non-chemical interventions focusing on the removal of free-swimming stages and tomocysts of I. multifiliis from farm culture systems. Use of such strategies provides the hope of more environmentally friendly alternatives for the control of I. multifiliis infections. PMID:22078025

Picón-Camacho, S M; Marcos-Lopez, M; Bron, J E; Shinn, A P

2011-11-14

376

Identification, partial purification and inhibition by guanine analogues of a novel enzymic activity which phosphorylates guanosine to GMP in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella.  

PubMed Central

From oocysts of the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella, responsible for avian coccidiosis, we have partially purified and characterized a novel enzymic activity which specifically phosphorylates guanosine to GMP. The enzyme is able to use several phosphate donors, in the order: acetyl phosphate (Ac-P) > ATP > UTP > CTP > phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) > dUTP > or = dATP. The low specificity of this enzyme for the phosphate donor suggested that it be named guanosine phosphotransferase (GPTase). This enzyme is biochemically distinct from the previously described adenosine kinase (AK) and hypoxanthine/xanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRTase), and may enable the parasite to synthesize guanine nucleotides under conditions of imbalance between adenine and guanine nucleotides. Because of its possible role in the purine salvage pathways, we have studied the effect of several guanine and guanosine analogues, recently synthesized in our laboratory, on the activity of GPTase in vitro. GPTase is specifically inhibited in the micromolar range by several substituted N2-phenylguanine bases. These results indicate that, as previously found for AK and HXGPRTase, GPTase could be a potential target for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Images Figure 3

Maga, G; Spadari, S; Wright, G E; Focher, F

1994-01-01

377

Characterization of a Defensin from the Sand Fly Phlebotomus duboscqi Induced by Challenge with Bacteria or the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania major  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are major components of the innate immune response of epithelial cells. In insect vectors, these peptides may play a role in the control of gut pathogens. We have analyzed antimicrobial peptides produced by the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi, after challenge by injected bacteria or feeding with bacteria or the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. A new hemolymph peptide with antimicrobial activity was identified and shown to be a member of the insect defensin family. Interestingly, this defensin exhibits an antiparasitic activity against the promastigote forms of L. major, which reside normally within the sand fly midgut. P. duboscqi defensin could be induced by both hemolymph or gut infections. Defensin mRNA was induced following infection by wild-type L. major, and this induction was much less following infections with L. major knockout mutants that survive poorly in sand flies, due to specific deficiencies in abundant cell surface glycoconjugates containing phosphoglycans (including lipophosphoglycan). The ability of gut pathogens to induce gut as well as fat body expression of defensin raises the possibility that this antimicrobial peptide might play a key role in the development of parasitic infections.

Boulanger, Nathalie; Lowenberger, Carl; Volf, Petr; Ursic, Raul; Sigutova, Lucie; Sabatier, Laurence; Svobodova, Milena; Beverley, Stephen M.; Spath, Gerald; Brun, Reto; Pesson, Bernard; Bulet, Philippe

2004-01-01

378

A Systematic Screen to Discover and Analyze Apicoplast Proteins Identifies a Conserved and Essential Protein Import Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa cause diseases that impact global health and economy. These unicellular eukaryotes possess a relict plastid, the apicoplast, which is an essential organelle and a validated drug target. However, much of its biology remains poorly understood, in particular its elaborate compartmentalization: four membranes defining four different spaces. Only a small number of organellar proteins have been

Lilach Sheiner; Jessica L. Demerly; Nicole Poulsen; Wandy L. Beatty; Olivier Lucas; Michael S. Behnke; Michael W. White; Boris Striepen

2011-01-01

379

en hospedadores murinos experimentalmente inmunosuprimidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium spp. es un protozoario parásito pertenecien- te al Phylum Apicomplexa, el cual ha sido estudiado amplia- mente a nivel humano y veterinario por ser el causante de la criptosporidiosis. En este trabajo estudiamos la diseminación tisular del parásito utilizando dos grupos de hospedadores murinos: uno constituido por ratones infectados y tratados con ciclofosfamida (CPA) por su efecto inmunosupresor y

Elizabeth Bruzual; Pilar Hurtado; Lucila Arcay

2008-01-01

380

Epigenomic Modifications Predict Active Promoters and Gene Structure in Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model organism Toxoplasma gondii, we characterized the epigenetic organization and transcription patterns of a

Mathieu Gissot; Krystyna A Kelly; James W Ajioka; John M Greally; Kami Kim

2007-01-01

381

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the Eimeria tenella microneme protein MIC2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Apicomplexan pathogens of the species Eimeria cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease of chickens, which has a major economic impact on the poultry industry. Members of the phylum Apicomplexa share an assortment of unique secretory organelles (rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules) that me...

382

Population genetics, diversity and spread of virulence in Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Globally, an estimated third of the human population harbors infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a single-celled eukaryotic parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa (Dubey, 2010). Most infected persons are unaware of, and evidently unharmed by, the parasite cysts established in their muscles and/...

383

Advances in Cryptosporidium Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Cryptosporidium is one of over 300 genera that include 4800 named species in the phylum Apicomplexa. There are 16 species of Cryptosporidium and nearly 40 unnamed cryptosporidia called genotypes based on significant rRNA or other gene sequence differences. A genotype is a temporary descrip...

384

The protozoan parasite Theileria annulata alters the differentiation state of the infected macrophage and suppresses musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (MAF) transcription factors  

PubMed Central

The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes a debilitating disease of cattle called Tropical Theileriosis. The parasite predominantly invades bovine macrophages (m?) and induces host cell transformation by a mechanism that has not been fully elucidated. Infection is associated with loss of characteristic m? functions and phenotypic markers, indicative of host cell de-differentiation. We have investigated the effect of T. annulata infection on the expression of the m? differentiation marker c-maf. The up-regulation of c-maf mRNA levels observed during bovine monocyte differentiation to m? was suppressed by T. annulata infection. Furthermore, mRNA levels for c-maf and the closely related transcription factor mafB were significantly lower in established T. annulata-infected cell-lines than in bovine monocyte-derived m?. Treatment of T. annulata-infected cells with the theileriacidal drug buparvaquone induced up-regulation of c-maf and mafB, which correlated with altered expression of down-stream target genes, e.g. up-regulation of integrin B7 and down-regulation of IL12A. Furthermore, T. annulata infection is associated with the suppression of the transcription factors, Pu.1 and RUNX1, and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) which are also involved in the regulation of monocyte/m? differentiation. We believe these results provide the first direct evidence that T. annulata modulates the host m? differentiation state, which may diminish the defence capabilities of the infected cell and/or promote cell proliferation. Musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (MAF) transcription factors play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival; therefore, regulation of these genes may be a major mechanism employed by T. annulata to survive within the infected m?.

Jensen, Kirsty; Makins, Giles D.; Kaliszewska, Anna; Hulme, Martin J.; Paxton, Edith; Glass, Elizabeth J.

2009-01-01

385

The protozoan parasite Theileria annulata alters the differentiation state of the infected macrophage and suppresses musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (MAF) transcription factors.  

PubMed

The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes a debilitating disease of cattle called Tropical Theileriosis. The parasite predominantly invades bovine macrophages (m phi) and induces host cell transformation by a mechanism that has not been fully elucidated. Infection is associated with loss of characteristic m phi functions and phenotypic markers, indicative of host cell de-differentiation. We have investigated the effect of T. annulata infection on the expression of the m phi differentiation marker c-maf. The up-regulation of c-maf mRNA levels observed during bovine monocyte differentiation to m phi was suppressed by T. annulata infection. Furthermore, mRNA levels for c-maf and the closely related transcription factor mafB were significantly lower in established T. annulata-infected cell-lines than in bovine monocyte-derived m phi. Treatment of T. annulata-infected cells with the theileriacidal drug buparvaquone induced up-regulation of c-maf and mafB, which correlated with altered expression of down-stream target genes, e.g. up-regulation of integrin B7 and down-regulation of IL12A. Furthermore, T. annulata infection is associated with the suppression of the transcription factors, Pu.1 and RUNX1, and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) which are also involved in the regulation of monocyte/m phi differentiation. We believe these results provide the first direct evidence that T. annulata modulates the host m phi differentiation state, which may diminish the defence capabilities of the infected cell and/or promote cell proliferation. Musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (MAF) transcription factors play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival; therefore, regulation of these genes may be a major mechanism employed by T. annulata to survive within the infected m phi. PMID:19303416

Jensen, Kirsty; Makins, Giles D; Kaliszewska, Anna; Hulme, Martin J; Paxton, Edith; Glass, Elizabeth J

2009-03-19

386

Metabolome analysis revealed increase in S-methylcysteine and phosphatidylisopropanolamine synthesis upon L-cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

L-cysteine is ubiquitous in all living organisms and is involved in a variety of functions, including the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and glutathione and the regulation of the structure, stability, and catalysis of proteins. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, L-cysteine plays an essential role in proliferation, adherence, and defense against oxidative stress; however, the essentiality of this amino acid in the pathways it regulates is not well understood. In the present study, we applied capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry to quantitate charged metabolites modulated in response to L-cysteine deprivation in E. histolytica, which was selected as a model for examining the biological roles of L-cysteine. L-cysteine deprivation had profound effects on glycolysis, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism, with sharp decreases in the levels of L-cysteine, L-cystine, and S-adenosylmethionine and a dramatic accumulation of O-acetylserine and S-methylcysteine. We further demonstrated that S-methylcysteine is synthesized from methanethiol and O-acetylserine by cysteine synthase, which was previously considered to be involved in sulfur-assimilatory L-cysteine biosynthesis. In addition, L-cysteine depletion repressed glycolysis and energy generation, as it reduced acetyl-CoA, ethanol, and the major nucleotide di- and triphosphates, and led to the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates. Interestingly, L-cysteine depletion increased the synthesis of isopropanolamine and phosphatidylisopropanolamine, and it was confirmed that their increment was not a result of oxidative stress but was a specific response to L-cysteine depletion. We also identified a pathway in which isopropanolamine is synthesized from methylglyoxal via aminoacetone. To date, this study represents the first case where L-cysteine deprivation leads to drastic changes in core metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. PMID:20923776

Husain, Afzal; Sato, Dan; Jeelani, Ghulam; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Ali, Vahab; Suematsu, Makoto; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2010-10-05

387

Haloferula rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., Haloferula harenae sp. nov., Haloferula phyci sp. nov., Haloferula helveola sp. nov. and Haloferula sargassicola sp. nov., five marine representatives of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'.  

PubMed

Six Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacteria designated strains YM23-227(T), 06SJR1-1(T), AK18-024(T), 05IJR53-1(T), MN1-1037(T) and MN1-1047 were isolated from various marine environments and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Preliminary analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolates could be affiliated with the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The strains shared approximately 94-100 % sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 94 % similarity with members of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae with validly published names. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strains YM23-227(T) and 06SJR1-1(T) was less than 70 %, a value that is accepted as a phylogenetic definition of a species. The cell wall peptidoglycan of the strains contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The novel isolates produced carotenoid pigments and squalene. The DNA G+C contents of the six strains were 63-65 mol%. The major menaquinone was MK-9 and iso-C(14 : 0) was the major fatty acid. Based on the evidence from the polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that the six strains should be classified as representing a new genus and five novel species of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', for which the names Haloferula rosea gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain 06SJR1-1(T)=MBIC08340(T)=KCTC 22201(T)), Haloferula harenae sp. nov. (type strain YM23-227(T)=MBIC08299(T)=KCTC 22198(T)), Haloferula phyci sp. nov. (type strain AK18-024(T)=MBIC08341(T)=KCTC 22200(T)), Haloferula helveola sp. nov. (type strain 05IJR53-1(T)=MBIC08342(T)=KCTC 22199(T)) and Haloferula sargassicola sp. nov. (type strain MN1-1037(T)=MBIC08343(T)=KCTC 22202(T)) are proposed. PMID:18984682

Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Katsuta, Atsuko; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

2008-11-01

388

Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov.  

PubMed

A phylogenetically novel aerobic bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reactor operated under enhanced biological phosphorus removal conditions for wastewater treatment. The isolation strategy used targeted slowly growing polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria by combining low-speed centrifugations and prolonged incubation on a low-nutrient medium. The isolate, designated strain T-27T, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. Cells often appeared to divide by budding replication. Strain T-27T grew at 25-35 degrees C with an optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C, whilst no growth was observed below 20 degrees C or above 37 degrees C within 20 days incubation. The pH range for growth was 6.5-9.5, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Strain T-27T was able to utilize a limited range of substrates, such as yeast extract, polypepton, succinate, acetate, gelatin and benzoate. Neisser staining was positive and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells displayed a yellow fluorescence, indicative of polyphosphate inclusions. Menaquinone 9 was the major respiratory quinone. The cellular fatty acids of the strain were mainly composed of iso-C15:0, C16:1 and C14:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66 mol%. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T-27T belongs to candidate division BD (also called KS-B), a phylum-level lineage in the bacterial domain, to date comprised exclusively of environmental 16S rDNA clone sequences. Here, a new genus and species are proposed, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (type strain T-27T=JCM 11422T=DSM 14586T) gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Environmental sequence data indicate that this phylum is widespread in nature and has a phylogenetic breadth (19% 16S rDNA sequence divergence) that is greater than well-known phyla such as the Actinobacteria (18% divergence). PMID:12892144

Zhang, Hui; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Hanada, Satoshi; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kim, Hongik; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

2003-07-01

389

Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a chiton, and description of Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov., Holophagaceae fam. nov., Holophagales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. in the phylum 'Acidobacteria'.  

PubMed

Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)). PMID:18984699

Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Kurahashi, Midori; Yanagi, Kensuke; Yokota, Akira; Harayama, Shigeaki

2008-11-01

390

Calcium regulation in protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium ion (Ca2+) is used as a major signaling molecule in a diverse range of eukaryotic cells including several human parasitic protozoa, such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania spp, Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ca2+ is critical for invasion of intracellular parasites, and its cytosolic concentration is regulated by the

Silvia NJ Moreno; Roberto Docampo

2003-01-01

391

Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of

Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz; Juan Fernando Alzate; Ewan Thomas MacLeod; Carsten Günter Kurt Lüder; Nicolas Fasel; Hilary Hurd

2010-01-01

392

RNA interference in protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary RNA interference or RNAi is defined as the mecha- nism through which gene-specific, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers degradation of homologous transcripts. Besides providing an invaluable tool to downregulate gene expression in a variety of organ- isms, it is now evident that RNAi extends its tentacles into both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and is involved in a variety of

Elisabetta Ullu; Christian Tschudi; Tirtha Chakraborty

2004-01-01

393

Induction of tachyzoite egress from cells infected with the protozoan Neospora caninum by nitro- and bromo-thiazolides, a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum represents an important pathogen causing stillbirth and abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) and its deacetylated metabolite tizoxanide (TIZ) are nitro-thiazolyl-salicylamide drugs with a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity in vitro and in vivo. In order to generate compounds potentially applicable in food and breeding animals, the nitro group was removed, and the thiazole-moiety was modified by other functional groups. We had shown earlier that replacement of the nitro-group by a bromo-moiety did not notably affect in vitro efficacy of the drugs against N. caninum. In this study we report on the characterization of two bromo-derivatives, namely Rm4822 and its de-acetylated putative metabolite Rm4847 in relation to the nitro-compounds NTZ and TIZ. IC(50) values for proliferation inhibition were 4.23 and 4.14 microM for NTZ and TIZ, and 14.75 and 13.68 microM for Rm4822 and Rm4847, respectively. Complete inhibition (IC(99)) was achieved at 19.52 and 22.38 microM for NTZ and TIZ, and 18.21 and 17.66 microM for Rm4822 and Rm4847, respectively. However, in order to exert a true parasiticidal effect in vitro, continuous culture of infected fibroblasts in the presence of the bromo-thiazolide Rm4847 was required for a period of 3 days, while the nitro-compound TIZ required 5 days continuous drug exposure. Both thiazolides induced rapid egress of N. caninum tachyzoites from their host cells, and egress was inhibited by the cell membrane permeable Ca(2+)-chelator BAPTA-AM. Host cell entry by N. caninum tachyzoites was inhibited by Rm4847 but not by TIZ. Upon release from their host cells, TIZ-treated parasites remained associated with the fibroblast monolayer, re-invaded neighboring host cells and resumed proliferation in the absence of the drug. In contrast, Rm4847 inhibited host cell invasion and respective treated tachyzoites did not proliferate further. This demonstrated that bromo- and nitro-thiazolides exhibit differential effects against the intracellular protozoan N. caninum and bromo-thiazolides could represent a valuable alternative to the nitro-thiazolyl-salicylamide drugs. PMID:17481636

Esposito, Marco; Moores, Shelley; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

2007-03-30

394

Subpellicular Microtubules in Apicomplexa and Trypanosomatids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in various processes such as the establishment of cell shape, cell locomotion, and\\u000a the intracellular motility of various structures found in eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are among the most conspicuous structures\\u000a in the cytoskeleton. They can be found free in the cytoplasm, forming the mitotic spindle or assembled in various structures.\\u000a A special type of

Wanderley de Souza; Marcia Attias

395

Some corrections in Haemogregarine (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) nomenclature.  

PubMed

The nomenclature of three genera in the family Haemogregarinidae (Haemogregarina, Karyolysus, and Hepatozoon) has been reviewed and the following new names are introduced to replace homonyms or for previously unnamed species: haemogregarina carlosi n. nom., in the erythrocytes of the lizard Lacerta ocellata; Haemogregarina tincae n. nom., in the stomach and intestine of the tench Tinca tinca; Hepatozoon insectivorae n. sp., in the leucocytes of the shrews Sorex araneus and Crocidura leucodon; Hepatozoon krampitzi n. sp., in the leucocytes of the vole Microtus oeconomus; Hepatozoon peromysci n. sp., in the leucocytes of the deermice Peromyscus boylii and P. truei gilberti; and Hepatozoon pallida (Pessoa et al., 1971) n. comb., in the erythrocytes of the snake Thamnodynastes pallidus nattereri. PMID:6757414

Levine, N D

1982-11-01

396

Discovery of the Novel Candidate Phylum \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sponges (Porifera) harbor large amounts of commensal microbial communities within the sponge mesohyl. We employed 16S rRNA gene library construction using specific PCR primers to provide insights into the phylogenetic identity of an abundant sponge-associated bacterium that is morphologically characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound nucleoid. In this study, we report the presence of a previously unrecognized evolutionary

Lars Fieseler; Matthias Horn; Michael Wagner; Ute Hentschel

2004-01-01

397

Bacterial protein structures reveal phylum dependent divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein sequence space is vast compared to protein fold space. This raises important questions about how structures adapt to evolutionary changes in protein sequences. A growing trend is to regard protein fold space as a continuum rather than a series of discrete structures. From this perspective, homologous protein structures within the same functional classification should reveal a constant rate of

Matthew D. Shortridge; Thomas Triplet; Peter Z. Revesz; Mark A. Griep; Robert Powers

2011-01-01

398

Bacterial Protein Structures Reveal Phylum Dependent Divergence  

PubMed Central

Protein sequence space is vast compared to protein fold space. This raises important questions about how structures adapt to evolutionary changes in protein sequences. A growing trend is to regard protein fold space as a continuum rather than a series of discrete structures. From this perspective, homologous protein structures within the same functional classification should reveal a constant rate of structural drift relative to sequence changes. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classification system was used to annotate homologous bacterial protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The structures and sequences of proteins within each COG were compared against each other to establish their relatedness. As expected, the analysis demonstrates a sharp structural divergence between the bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, each COG had a distinct sequence/structure relationship, indicating that different evolutionary pressures affect the degree of structural divergence. However, our analysis also shows the relative drift rate between sequence identity and structure divergence remains constant.

Shortridge, Matthew D.; Triplet, Thomas; Revesz, Peter; Griep, Mark A.; Powers, Robert

2011-01-01

399

Occurrence of Collagen in the Phylum Mollusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSIDERABLE interest has recently been shown in the occurrence of a collagen type of protein among the various invertebrate groups. X-ray diffraction1,2 studies have explored a wide range of examples, and more recently chemical investigations have used various chromatographic techniques to determine the composition of certain preparations3-5. Most of this work has been performed on tissues from single species bearing

S. C. Melnick

1958-01-01

400

Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia Differing in Host Range and Transmission Strategy  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J.; Cotton, James A.; Harris, David; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Konen-Waisman, Stephanie; Latham, Sophia M.; Mourier, Tobias; Norton, Rebecca; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Sohal, Amandeep; Wasmuth, James D.; Brunk, Brian; Grigg, Michael E.; Howard, Jonathan C.; Parkinson, John; Roos, David S.; Trees, Alexander J.; Berriman, Matthew; Pain, Arnab; Wastling, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

401

DNA topoisomerases in apicomplexan parasites: promising targets for drug discovery  

PubMed Central

The phylum Apicomplexa includes a large group of protozoan parasites responsible for a wide range of animal and human diseases. Destructive pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, causative agents of human malaria, Cryptosporidium parvum, responsible of childhood diarrhoea, and Toxoplasma gondii, responsible for miscarriages and abortions in humans, are frequently associated with HIV immunosuppression in AIDS patients. The lack of effective vaccines, along with years of increasing pressure to eradicate outbreaks with the use of drugs, has favoured the formation of multi-drug resistant strains in endemic areas. Almost all apicomplexan of medical interest contain two endosymbiotic organelles that contain their own mitochondrial and apicoplast DNA. Apicoplast is an attractive target for drug testing because in addition to harbouring singular metabolic pathways absent in the host, it also has its own transcription and translation machinery of bacterial origin. Accordingly, apicomplexan protozoa contain an interesting mixture of enzymes to unwind DNA from eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins. On the one hand, the main mechanism of DNA unwinding includes the scission of one—type I—or both DNA strands—type II eukaryotic topoisomerases, establishing transient covalent bonds with the scissile end. These enzymes are targeted by camptothecin and etoposide, respectively, two natural drugs whose semisynthetic derivatives are currently used in cancer chemotherapy. On the other hand, DNA gyrase is a bacterial-borne type II DNA topoisomerase that operates within the apicoplast and is effectively targeted by bacterial antibiotics like fluoroquinolones and aminocoumarins. The present review is an update on the new findings concerning topoisomerases in apicomplexan parasites and the role of these enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents.

Garcia-Estrada, Carlos; Prada, Christopher Fernandez; Fernandez-Rubio, Celia; Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco; Balana-Fouce, Rafael

2010-01-01

402

The parasite specific substitution matrices improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced successfully in recent years and this would help in understanding the biology of apicomplexan parasites. The members of the phylum Apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium etc) that cause some of the deadly diseases in humans and animals. In our earlier studies, we have shown that the standard BLOSUM matrices are not suitable for compositionally biased apicomplexan proteins. So we developed a novel series (SMAT and PfFSmat60) of substitution matrices which performed better in comparison to standard BLOSUM matrices and developed ApicoAlign, a sequence search and alignment tool for apicomplexan proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the higher specificity of these matrices and make an attempt to improve the annotation of apicomplexan kinases and proteases. Results The ROC curves proved that SMAT80 performs best for apicomplexan proteins followed by compositionally adjusted BLOSUM62 (PSI-BLAST searches), BLOSUM90 and BLOSUM62 matrices in terms of detecting true positives. The poor E-values and/or bit scores given by SMAT80 matrix for the experimentally identified coccidia-specific oocyst wall proteins against hematozoan (non-coccidian) parasites further supported the higher specificity of the same. SMAT80 uniquely detected (missed by BLOSUM) orthologs for 1374 apicomplexan hypothetical proteins against SwissProt database and predicted 70 kinases and 17 proteases. Further analysis confirmed the conservation of functional residues of kinase domain in one of the SMAT80 detected kinases. Similarly, one of the SMAT80 detected proteases was predicted to be a rhomboid protease. Conclusions The parasite specific substitution matrices have higher specificity for apicomplexan proteins and are helpful in detecting the orthologs missed by BLOSUM matrices and thereby improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins which are hypothetical or with unknown function.

2012-01-01

403

A review of the infection, genetics, and evolution of Neospora caninum: from the past to the present.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of current knowledge on Neospora caninum in the context of other apicomplexan parasites and with an emphasis on: life cycle, disease, epidemiology, immunity, control and treatment, evolution, genomes, and biological databases and web resources. N. caninum is an obligate, intracellular, coccidian, protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection can cause the clinical disease neosporosis, which most notably is associated with abortion in cattle. These abortions are a major root cause of economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. N. caninum has been detected in every country in which a study has been specifically conducted to detect this parasite in cattle. The major mode of transmission in cattle is transplacental (or vertical) transmission and several elements of the N. caninum life cycle are yet to be studied in detail. The outcome of an infection is inextricably linked to the precise timing of the infection coupled with the status of the immune system of the dam and foetus. There is no community consensus as to whether it is the dam's pro-inflammatory cytotoxic response to tachyzoites that kills the foetus or the tachyzoites themselves. From economic analysis the most cost-effective approach to control neosporosis is a vaccine. The perfect vaccine would protect against both infection and the clinical disease, and this implies a vaccine is needed that can induce a non-foetopathic cell mediated immunity response. Researchers are beginning to capitalise on the vast potential of -omics data (e.g. genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes) to further our understanding of pathogens but especially to identify vaccine and drug targets. The recent publication of a genome for N. caninum offers vast opportunities in these areas. PMID:22985682

Goodswen, Stephen J; Kennedy, Paul J; Ellis, John T

2012-09-15

404

Genetic comparison of Neospora caninum with Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relationship ofNeospora caninum to protozoa classified in the family Sarcocystidae of the phylum Apicomplexa, the genomes ofN. caninum, threeToxoplasma gondii strains (RHa, CEP, TPR) and threeSarcocystis species (S. tenella, S. muris, S. gigantea) that were thought to be closely related coccidia were compared by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The genomic

Zhi-Gang Guo; Alan M. Johnson

1995-01-01

405

A Complex Small RNA Repertoire Is Generated by a Plant\\/Fungal-Like Machinery and Effected by a Metazoan-Like Argonaute in the Single-Cell Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In RNA silencing, small RNAs produced by the RNase-III Dicer guide Argonaute-like proteins as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) to regulate gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Here, we have characterized the RNA silencing machinery and exhaustive small RNAome of Toxoplasma gondii, member of the Apicomplexa, a phylum of animal- and human-infecting parasites that cause extensive health and economic damages

Laurence Braun; Dominique Cannella; Philippe Ortet; Mohamed Barakat; Céline F. Sautel; Sylvie Kieffer; Jérôme Garin; Olivier Bastien; Olivier Voinnet; Mohamed-Ali Hakimi

2010-01-01

406

Complete Gene Map of the Plastid-like DNA of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria parasites, and other parasitic protists of the Phylum Apicomplexa, carry a plastid-like genome with greatly reduced sequence complexity. This 35 kb DNA circle resembles the plastid DNA of non-photosynthetic plants, encoding almost exclusively components involved in gene expression. The complete gene map described here includes genes for duplicated large and small subunit rRNAs, 25 species of tRNA, three subunits

Paul W. Denny; Peter R. Preiser; Kaveri Rangachari; Kate Roberts; Anjana Roy; Andrea Whyte; Malcolm Strath; Daphne J. Moore; Peter W. Moore; Donald H. Williamson

1996-01-01

407

Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in

Jennifer L Gordon; L David Sibley

2005-01-01

408

Coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa N.D. Levine, 1970) as type-specimens\\u000a of newly described species has long been problematical. Conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises\\u000a such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. As an alternative,\\u000a chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to

R. B. Williams; P. Thebo; R. N. Marshall; J. A. Marshall

2010-01-01