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1

Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Arthropoda  

E-print Network

1 Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Arthropoda Most "successful" lineage on Earth greatest biomass (>750 kg per person) numbers of species numbers of individuals number of ecological niches Phylum Arthropoda. Paleobiology supplement to Vol 31(2): 94-112 ARTHROPODA Why so successful? 1. Exoskeleton -allowed invasion

Wagner, Diane

2

Phylum Tardigrada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Online Zoologists" web page features a technical description of the phylum Tardigrada. Written in an outline format, the page includes a definition of the phylum and discusses external features, internal features, reproduction, embryology, ecology and physiology, classification, phylogeny, and references.

Elsberry, Wesley R.

3

Associations between host migration and the prevalence of a protozoan parasite in natural  

E-print Network

Associations between host migration and the prevalence of a protozoan parasite in natural to infection by the obligate protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin and Myers) (Apicomplexa and geographical variation in the prevalence of an obligate protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha

4

Fatty Acid Synthesis in Protozoan Parasites: Unusual Pathways and Novel Drug Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in protozoan parasites are reviewed with a view to targeting this metabolism for drug ther- apy. The type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways derived from bacteria in protozoan relict plastids and mitochondria are examined in dif- ferent groups with emphasis on apicomplexa. The suitability of different enzymes from the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway for

C. D. Goodman; G. I. McFadden

2008-01-01

5

Proteases as regulators of pathogenesis: Examples from the Apicomplexa Hao Li, Matthew A. Child, Matthew Bogyo  

E-print Network

parasites: Plasmodium and Toxoplasma The Apicomplexa comprise a phylum of highly diverse eukaryotic protozoa Plasmodium Toxoplasma Malaria The diverse functional roles that proteases play in basic biological processes precisely coordinate proteolytic events during their highly regulated life cycle inside multiple host cell

Bogyo, Matthew

6

Histone acetylase GCN5 enters the nucleus via importin-alpha in protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 acetylates nucleosomal histones to alter gene expression. How GCN5 gains entry into the nucleus of the cell has not been determined. We have mapped a six-amino acid motif (RKRVKR) that serves as a necessary and sufficient nuclear localization signal (NLS) for GCN5 in the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (TgGCN5). Virtually nothing is known about nucleocytoplasmic transport in these parasites (phylum Apicomplexa), and this study marks the first demonstrated NLS delineated for members of the phylum. The TgGCN5 NLS has predictive value because it successfully identifies other nuclear proteins in three different apicomplexan genomic databases. Given the basic composition of the T. gondii NLS, we hypothesized that TgGCN5 physically interacts with importin-alpha, the main transport receptor in the importin/karyopherin nuclear import pathway. We cloned the importin-alpha gene from T. gondii (TgIMPalpha), which encodes a protein of 545 amino acids that possesses an importin-beta-binding domain and armadillo/beta-catenin-like repeats. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm that TgIMPalpha directly interacts with TgGCN5, but this interaction is abolished if the TgGCN5 NLS is deleted. Taken together, these data argue that TgGCN5 gains access to the parasite nucleus by interacting with TgIMPalpha. Bioinformatics analysis of the T. gondii genome reveals that other components of the importin pathway are present in the organism. This study demonstrates the utility of T. gondii as a model for the study of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking in early eukaryotic cells. PMID:15591057

Bhatti, Micah M; Sullivan, William J

2005-02-18

7

Parasitism by a protozoan in the hemolymph of the giant clam, Tridacna crocea.  

PubMed

A parasitism by a protozoan was found in the giant clam, Tridacna crocea. The parasites were spindle-shaped, 8.6 +/- 0.5 micro m in length and 2.5 +/- 0.3 micro m in width. Structural features of the apical complex of the parasite and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of its 18S rRNA gene sequence indicate that the protozoan belongs to the Apicomplexa. No flagellum was observed in the parasitic protozoan. It infected the eosinophilic granular hemocyte, one of the three types of hemocytes in the clam hemolymph, but it is not known whether it influenced the growth of the clam. PMID:9538023

Nakayama, K; Nishijima, M; Maruyama, T

1998-05-01

8

Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity  

E-print Network

1 Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity How has so much diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 1. Polyp and medusa forms ­ Provide the basic diversity by offering two different ways of life diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 2. Colony formation ­ Most common results of budding ability

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

9

Detailed insights from microarray and crystallographic studies into carbohydrate  

E-print Network

: The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is among the most widespread parasites. The broad host cell range is an intracellular protozoan para- site belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes Plasmodium

Davis, Ben G.

10

First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

2010-05-01

11

Biology of the Phylum Nematomorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with most animal phyla, the Nematomorpha, also known as hair worms, is a relatively understudied metazoan phylum. Although nematomorphs make up only 1 of 3 animal phyla specializing solely on a parasitic life style, little attention has been focused on this enigmatic group scientifically. The phylum contains two main groups. The nectonematids are parasites of marine invertebrates such as

B. Hanelt; F. Thomas; A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

2005-01-01

12

Proteases of Protozoan Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic enzymes seem to play important roles in the life cycles of all medically important protozoan parasites, including the organisms that cause malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, amebiasis, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and trichomoniasis. Proteases from all four major proteolytic classes are utilized by protozoans for diverse functions, including the invasion of host cells and tissues, the degradation of mediators of the immune

Philip J. Rosenthal

1999-01-01

13

Canine protozoan polyradiculoneuritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four pups in a litter of eight Labrador Retrievers suddenly developed hind limb weakness. In three, paralysis ascended rapidly resulting in quadriplegia, cervical weakness, dysphagia and death. Postmortem examination revealed a severe polyradiculoneuritis in which roots, ganglia, and spinal and cranial nerves were heavily infiltrated by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages and contained abundant protozoan pseudocysts. On sections of the

J. F. Cummings; A. Lahunta; M. M. Suter; R. H. Jacobson

1988-01-01

14

The genus atoxoplasma (Protozoa, Apicomplexa).  

PubMed

The apicomplexan protozoan genus Atoxoplasma Garnham, 1950 is resurrected and the family Atoxoplasmatidae n. fam. established for homoxenous blood parasites of birds that develop asexually in both the blood and intestinal cells, and form oocysts that are passed unsporulated in the feces, sporulate on the ground, and then infect new hosts. A list of 19 species of Atoxoplasma is given. Atoxoplasma desseri n. sp. of the evening grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus is named. PMID:7119994

Levine, N D

1982-08-01

15

Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)  

PubMed Central

Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua?+?F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P?=?0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P?=?0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

2014-01-01

16

Waterborne protozoan pathogens.  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites were the most frequently identified etiologic agents in waterborne disease outbreak from 1991 to 1994. The waterborne parasites Giardia lamblia, Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Isospora belli, and the microsporidia are reviewed. For each parasite, the review includes history, life cycle, incidence, symptoms, and therapy. Clinical detection methods are compared, and emerging technologies are discussed. Information on the association of these parasites with waterborne outbreaks is reviewed. Current information on protozoan parasites identified as etiological agents in waterborne outbreaks is discussed. Water industry issues related to recent disease outbreaks are examined in the context of water quality testing regulations for G. lamblia and those proposed for C. parvum. The review identifies the limitations of the American Society of Testing and Materials water-testing method for these parasites. An overview of federal regulations affecting the water industry and laboratories that test for water quality is also provided. The article highlights the importance of the clinical laboratory as a frontline defense for the detection of infectious organisms. The review points to the need for clinical laboratories, physicians, and public health personnel to cooperatively plan and assess the challenge of meeting this potential public health threat. PMID:8993859

Marshall, M M; Naumovitz, D; Ortega, Y; Sterling, C R

1997-01-01

17

TWO NEW EIMERIANS (APICOMPLEXA) FROM INSECTIVOROUS MAMMALS IN MADAGASCAR  

E-print Network

TWO NEW EIMERIANS (APICOMPLEXA) FROM INSECTIVOROUS MAMMALS IN MADAGASCAR Lee Couch, Juha Laakkonen The Journal of #12;#12;TWO NEW EIMERIANS (APICOMPLEXA) FROM INSECTIVOROUS MAMMALS IN MADAGASCAR Lee Couch insectivorous mammals in Madagascar were collected between spring 1999 and fall 2001. In the Afrosoricida, 21

Jernvall, Jukka

18

A transcriptomic analysis of the phylum Nematoda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylum Nematoda occupies a huge range of ecological niches, from free-living microbivores to human parasites. We analyzed the genomic biology of the phylum using 265,494 expressed-sequence tag sequences, corresponding to 93,645 putative genes, from 30 species, including 28 parasites. From 35% to 70% of each species' genes had significant similarity to proteins from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. More

Makedonka Mitreva; Claire Whitton; Marian Thomson; Jennifer Daub; John Martin; Ralf Schmid; Neil Hall; Bart Barrell; Robert H Waterston; James P McCarter; Mark L Blaxter; John Parkinson

2004-01-01

19

DNA barcoding identifies Eimeria species and contributes to the phylogenetics of coccidian parasites (Eimeriorina, Apicomplexa, Alveolata).  

PubMed

Partial (? 780 bp) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and near complete nuclear 18S rDNA (? 1,780 bp) sequences were directly compared to assess their relative usefulness as markers for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa). Fifteen new COI partial sequences were obtained using two pairs of new primers from rigorously characterised (sensu Reid and Long, 1979) laboratory strains of seven Eimeria spp. infecting chickens as well as three additional sequences from cloned laboratory strains of Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 and GT1) and Neospora caninum (NC1) that were used as outgroup taxa for phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on COI sequences yielded robust support for the monophyly of individual Eimeria spp. infecting poultry except for the Eimeria mitis/mivati clade; however, the lack of a phenotypically characterised strain of E. mivati precludes drawing any firm conclusions regarding this observation. Unlike in the 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic reconstructions, Eimerianecatrix and Eimeria tenella formed monophyletic clades based on partial COI sequences. A species delimitation test was performed to determine the probability of making a correct identification of an unknown specimen (sequence) based on either complete 18S rDNA or partial COI sequences; in almost all cases, the partial COI sequences were more reliable as species-specific markers than complete 18S rDNA sequences. These observations demonstrate that partial COI sequences provide more synapomorphic characters at the species level than complete 18S rDNA sequences from the same taxa. We conclude that COI performs well as a marker for the identification of coccidian taxa (Eimeriorina) and will make an excellent DNA 'barcode' target for coccidia. The COI locus, in combination with an 18S rDNA sequence as an 'anchor', has sufficient phylogenetic signal to assist in the resolution of apparent paraphylies within the coccidia and likely more broadly within the Apicomplexa. PMID:21515277

Ogedengbe, Joseph D; Hanner, Robert H; Barta, John R

2011-07-01

20

A Toxoplasma type 2C serine-threonine phosphatase is involved in parasite growth in the mammalian host cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a human protozoan parasite that belongs to the phylum of Apicomplexa and causes toxoplasmosis. As the other members of this phylum, T. gondii obligatory multiplies within a host cell by a peculiar type of mitosis that leads to daughter cell assembly within a mother cell. Although parasite growth and virulence have been linked for years, few molecules

Gaelle Jan; Violaine Delorme; Nehmé Saksouk; Marie Abrivard; Virginie Gonzalez; Xavier Cayla; Mohamed-Ali Hakimi; Isabelle Tardieux

2009-01-01

21

Phylogenetic relationships of Hepatozoon (Haemogregarina) boigae, Hepatozoon sp., Haemogregarina clelandi and Haemoproteus chelodina from Australian reptiles to other Apicomplexa based on cladistic analyses of ultrastructural and life-cycle characters.  

PubMed

The phylogeny of representative haemozoan species of the phylum Apicomplexa was reconstructed by cladistic analyses of ultrastructural and life-cycle characteristics. The analysis incorporated 4 apicomplexans previously not included in phylogenetic reconstructions: Haemogregarina clelandi from the Brisbane River tortoise (Emydura signata), Hepatozoon sp. from the slaty grey snake (Stegonotus cucullatus), Hepatozoon (Haemogregarina) boigae from the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), and Haemoproteus chelodina from the saw-shelled tortoise (Elseya latisternum). There was no apparent correlation between parasite phylogeny and that of their vertebrate hosts, but there appeared to be some relationship between parasites and their intermediate hosts, suggestive of parasite/vector co-evolution. PMID:12866793

Jakes, K; O'Donoghue, P J; Cameron, S L

2003-06-01

22

INTRODUCTION The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) consists of  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) consists of approximately 50,000 different://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact115.html). Platyhelminthes are considered by many to occupy an important position in the evolution, as important, abundant and diverse as platyhelminthes are, little is known about the molecular events

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

23

The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

1973-01-01

24

MFR PAPER 1342 Some Protozoan Diseases of  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1342 Some Protozoan Diseases of Decapod Crustaceans Thomas K. Sawyer and Sharon A. Mac protozoan parasites of decapod crustaceans into a brief summary of species which are deserving of con a bibliographic overview of the species of protozoans that are included here, but rather to summarize some of our

25

Multigene eukaryote phylogeny reveals the likely protozoan ancestors of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, choanozoans) and Amoebozoa.  

PubMed

Animals and fungi independently evolved from the protozoan phylum Choanozoa, these three groups constituting a major branch of the eukaryotic evolutionary tree known as opisthokonts. Opisthokonts and the protozoan phylum Amoebozoa (amoebae plus slime moulds) were previously argued to have evolved independently from the little-studied, largely flagellate, protozoan phylum, Sulcozoa. Sulcozoa are a likely evolutionary link between opisthokonts and the more primitive excavate flagellates that have ventral feeding grooves and the most primitive known mitochondria. To extend earlier sparse evidence for the ancestral (paraphyletic) nature of Sulcozoa, we sequenced transcriptomes from six gliding flagellates (two apusomonads; three planomonads; Mantamonas). Phylogenetic analyses of 173-192 genes and 73-122 eukaryote-wide taxa show Sulcozoa as deeply paraphyletic, confirming that opisthokonts and Amoebozoa independently evolved from sulcozoans by losing their ancestral ventral groove and dorsal pellicle: Apusozoa (apusomonads plus anaerobic breviate amoebae) are robustly sisters to opisthokonts and probably paraphyletic, breviates diverging before apusomonads; Varisulca (planomonads, Mantamonas, and non-gliding flagellate Collodictyon) are sisters to opisthokonts plus Apusozoa and Amoebozoa, and possibly holophyletic; Glissodiscea (planomonads, Mantamonas) may be holophyletic, but Mantamonas sometimes groups with Collodictyon instead. Taxon and gene sampling slightly affects tree topology; for the closest branches in Sulcozoa and opisthokonts, proportionally reducing missing data eliminates conflicts between homogeneous-model maximum-likelihood trees and evolutionarily more realistic site-heterogeneous trees. Sulcozoa, opisthokonts, and Amoebozoa constitute an often-pseudopodial 'podiate' clade, one of only three eukaryotic 'supergroups'. Our trees indicate that evolution of sulcozoan dorsal pellicle, ventral pseudopodia, and ciliary gliding (probably simultaneously) generated podiate eukaryotes from Malawimonas-like excavate flagellates. PMID:25152275

Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E; Snell, Elizabeth A; Berney, Cédric; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Lewis, Rhodri

2014-12-01

26

Siliceous Protozoan Plates and Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siliceous protozoan plates and scales are commonly observed on diatom and chrysophyte microscopic slide preparations, however\\u000a they are rarely included in paleolimnological interpretations. A major deterrent to their full exploitation is that plates\\u000a can rarely be identified to the species level, and at times even generic-level identifications are tentative. This relatively\\u000a coarse taxonomic resolution discourages detailed paleoeoenvironmental interpretations. Hopefully, further

Marianne S. V. Douglas; John P. Smol

27

FLAGELLAR REGENERATION IN PROTOZOAN FLAGELLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The flagella of populations of three protozoan species (Ochromonas, Euglena, and Astasia) were amputated,and allowed to regenerate. The kinetics of regeneration,in all species were characterized,by a lag phase during which,there was no apparent flagellar elongation; this phase was,followed,by elongation,at a rate which,constantly decelerated,, the original length was regained. Inhibition by cycloheximide,applied at the time of flagellar amputation showed,that flagellar

Joel L. Rosenbaum; F. M. Child

1967-01-01

28

A newly recorded neogregarine (Protozoa, Apicomplexa), parasite in honey bees  

E-print Network

of Apis mellifera, Bombus hortorum and B terrestris is re- ported to be caused by a parasitic protozoan. Apis / Bombus / neogregarine / protozoan / parasite While continuing our studies (Lipa and Triggiani that the pathogen was a new parasitic protozoan which, based on the type of spores and the life cycle, belongs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and clodinafop-propargyl inhibit the in vitro growth of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis (Phylum Apicomplexa).  

PubMed

We evaluated the growth inhibitory efficacy of the imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole (CLT) and ketoconazole (KC), and the herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (CP), in in vitro cultures of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Clotrimazole was effective in a dose range of 15 to 60 microM (IC50: 11 and 23.5 microM), followed by KC (50 to 100 microM; IC50: 50 and 32 microM) and CP (500 microM; IC50: 265 and 390 microM). In transmission electron microscopy, extensive damage was observed in the cytoplasm of drug-treated parasites. Combinations of CLT/KC, CLT/CP and CLT/KC/CP acted synergistically in both parasites. In contrast, the combination of KC/CP was exclusively effective in B. bovis, but not in B. bigemina. PMID:14636017

Bork, S; Yokoyama, N; Matsuo, T; Claveria, F G; Fujisaki, K; Igarashi, I

2003-10-01

30

Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

31

Photoacoustic spectroscopy of man infecting protozoans  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the fundamentals of photothermal spectroscopy are presented, special emphasis is done in the obtention of the optical absorption spectra. It is shown that this spectroscopy can be used successfully for the monitoring of protozoans that could infect the human. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated in the special case of Leishmania, where it is possible to find that the stage when the protozoan infect vertebrate cells show important differences in relation to the protozoans infecting insects.

Acosta-Avalos, D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Barrio da Urca, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Alvarado-Gil, J. J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Apartado Postal 73 Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan, 97310 (Mexico); Vargas, H. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, CEP 28015-620, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1998-08-28

32

The Life Cycle and Fitness of Gregarine (Apicomplexa)Parasites  

E-print Network

The Life Cycle and Fitness of Gregarine (Apicomplexa)Parasites David Logan & John Janovy, Jr characteristics of gregarine parasites and how they are shaped by their own life cycle stages inside and outside an insect host. The population model is a continuous time dynamics for the parasite stages, and we examine

Logan, David

33

Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction  

SciTech Connect

This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

Luckey, T.D.

1986-11-01

34

Entomophthoromycota: a new phylum and reclassification for entomophthoroid fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One result of the recent phylogenetically based rejection of the phylum Zygomycota was the description of the subphylum Entomophthoromycotina (not assigned to any phylum) for fungi traditionally treated in the order Entomophthorales. More extensive gene-based analyses of these fungi suggest that the...

35

Phylum Arthropoda 1. Insecta, "Palaeoptera", pp. 184-186  

E-print Network

1 INSECTA Phylum Arthropoda 1. Insecta, "Palaeoptera", pp. 184-186 Also see indicated `Boxes' on other pages 2. Evolution of wings pp. 208-211 #12;2 Phylum Arthropoda Arthropod Polyphyly? Sidnie Manton & others have argued that the Arthropoda are polyphyletic - i.e. the common ancestor was not an arthropod

Wagner, Diane

36

2002 Nature Publishing Group Trypanosomatid protozoans are important parasites  

E-print Network

© 2002 Nature Publishing Group REVIEWS Trypanosomatid protozoans are important parasites of humans PARASITE GENETICS COMES OF AGE Stephen M. Beverley Trypanosomatid protozoans cause important diseases

Beverley, Stephen M.

37

INTRODUCTION Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety techniques to images of isolated, frozen-hydrated subpellicular microtubules from the protozoan parasite

Morrissette, Naomi

38

Interferon effects on protozoan infections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of interferon (IFN) on mice infected with two different parasitic protozoans, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the cell cultures, IFN and assays, antibody, and the experimental procedures are described. It is observed that in cells treated with IFN-gamma there is an increased association of T. cruzi with murine macrophages and an increase in the killing of T. cruzi by IFN-gamma-treated murine macrophages. For spleen cells infected with T.b. rhodesiense in vitro, it is detected that live trypanosomes cannot induce IFN in cells from normal mice, but can in cells from immunized mice; and that trypanosome-lysates induce IFN in vitro in cells from normal mice. The data suggest that there is a two-step mechanism for mice against T. cruzi and T.b. rhodesiense.

Sonnenfeld, G.; Wirth, J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.

1985-01-01

39

Barcoding of Arrow Worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) from Three Oceans: Genetic Diversity and Evolution within an Enigmatic Phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrow worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) are abundant planktonic organisms and important predators in many food webs; yet, the classification and evolutionary relationships among chaetognath species remain poorly understood. A seemingly simple body plan is underlain by subtle variation in morphological details, obscuring the affinities of species within the phylum. Many species achieve near global distributions, spanning the same latitudinal bands in

Robert M. Jennings; Ann Bucklin; Annelies Pierrot-Bults

2010-01-01

40

Using the Ciliate Protozoan Vorticella in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methods for collection, culture, observation, and making permanent stained preparations of the protozoan vorticella. Suggestions are made for experiments to investigate growth, reproduction, settlement, ecology, feeding, and osmoregulation. (CS)

Jones, Alick R.

1980-01-01

41

Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida  

E-print Network

LETTERS Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida- tebrate taxa: hemichordates, echinoderms and Xenoturbella1 . The relationships between invertebrate remarkable is the suggestion that cephalochordates are closer to echinoderms than to vertebrates

Kirschner, Marc W.

42

Detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., and Apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the Northeast of Argentina.  

PubMed

Water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the Northeast of Argentina (NEA). However, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. The aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the NEA. Serum samples were tested for B. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test, and N. caninum, T. gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Overall, the proportion of seropositive animals was 6.4, 22.2, 42.2, 25.4, and 50.8 % for brucellosis, leptospirosis, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis, respectively. The proportion of seropositive animals for all diseases was statistically different among herds (p?Apicomplexa protozoans in water buffaloes in the NEA is reported in this study. PMID:23765549

Konrad, José L; Campero, Lucía M; Caspe, Gastón S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Draghi, Graciela; Moore, Dadin P; Crudeli, Gustavo A; Venturini, María C; Campero, Carlos M

2013-11-01

43

COMPOSITE GENOME MAP AND RECOMBINATION PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM THREE ARCHETYPAL LINEAGES OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous animal and human pathogens. T. gondii is amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies, making it a model for the biology of this important group of parasites. To facil...

44

Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa.  

PubMed

I discuss how different feeding modes and related cellular structures map onto the eukaryote evolutionary tree. Centrally important for understanding eukaryotic cell diversity are Loukozoa: ancestrally biciliate phagotrophic protozoa possessing a posterior cilium and ventral feeding groove into which ciliary currents direct prey. I revise their classification by including all anaerobic Metamonada as a subphylum and adding Tsukubamonas. Loukozoa, often with ciliary vanes, are probably ancestral to all protozoan phyla except Euglenozoa and Percolozoa and indirectly to kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and Chromista. I make a new protozoan phylum Sulcozoa comprising subphyla Apusozoa (Apusomonadida, Breviatea) and Varisulca (Diphyllatea; Planomonadida, Discocelida, Mantamonadida; Rigifilida). Understanding sulcozoan evolution clarifies the origins from them of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, Choanozoa) and Amoebozoa, and their evolutionary novelties; Sulcozoa and their descendants (collectively called podiates) arguably arose from Loukozoa by evolving posterior ciliary gliding and pseudopodia in their ventral groove. I explain subsequent independent cytoskeletal modifications, accompanying further shifts in feeding mode, that generated Amoebozoa, Choanozoa, and fungi. I revise classifications of Choanozoa, Conosa (Amoebozoa), and basal fungal phylum Archemycota. I use Choanozoa, Sulcozoa, Loukozoa, and Archemycota to emphasize the need for simply classifying ancestral (paraphyletic) groups and illustrate advantages of this for understanding step-wise phylogenetic advances. PMID:23085100

Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2013-05-01

45

A Model of Protozoan Movement for Artificial Life.  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT A Model of Protozoan Movement for Artificial Life. Alan Dorin, Justin Martin Department of of a Protozoan and a fluid with the density and viscosity of water have e_xtrernely small Reynolds numbers

Dorin, Alan

46

INFLUENCE OF PROTOZOAN GRAZING ON CONTAMINANT BIODEGRADATION. (R825418)  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of protozoan grazing on biodegradation rates in samples from contaminated aquifer sediment was evaluated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Predator¯prey biomass ratios suggested that protozoan grazing might be influencing bacterial populations....

47

ESPÉCIES DO GÊNERO Eimeria (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) EM TAMANDUÁS-BANDEIRA (Myrmecophaga tridactyla LINNAEUS, 1758) EM CATIVEIRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT:- FREITAS, F.L. DA C.; ALMEIDA, K. DE S.; ZANETTI, A.S.; NASCIMENTO, A.A. DO; MACHADO, C. R.; MACHADO, R.Z. (Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity). Espécies do gênero Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) em Tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) em cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1, p.

FAGNER LUIZ DA C. FREITAS; ANDRÉ S. ZANETTI; CÉLIO R. MACHADO; ROSANGELA Z. MACHADO

48

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Protozoan Infections  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we discussed the participation of MIF in the immune response to protozoan parasite infections. As a general trend, MIF participates in the control of parasite burden at the expense of promoting tissue damage due to increased inflammation. PMID:22496958

Bozza, Marcelo T.; Martins, Yuri C.; Carneiro, Letícia A. M.; Paiva, Claudia N.

2012-01-01

49

Inhibition of apoptosis by intracellular protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protozoan parasites which reside inside a host cell avoid direct destruction by the immune system of the host. The infected cell, however, still has the capacity to counteract the invasive pathogen by initiating its own death, a process which is called programmed cell death or apoptosis. Apoptotic cells are recognised and phagocytosed by macrophages and the parasite is potentially eliminated

Volker T. Heussler; Peter Küenzi; Sven Rottenberg

2001-01-01

50

How do Protozoan Parasites Survive inside Macrophages?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During infections with intracellular microbes, macrophages have two roles. On the one hand, they are important effector cells for the control and killing of intracellular bacteria and protozoan parasites by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. On the other hand, macrophages may also serve as long-term host cells that facilitate the replication and survival of the pathogens, for example, by protecting them

C. Bogdan; M. Röllinghoff

1999-01-01

51

Culturing and Using Protozoans in the Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for teachers and students to culture protozoans for use in science laboratories. Sections include setting up a culture area, basic culture media, amoeba culture technique, powdered milk-wheat-rice medium, alfalfa medium, and uses of the protozoa in the laboratory. (PR)

Hummer, Paul J., Jr.

1993-01-01

52

The position of the ophiuroidea within the phylum Echinodermata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cladistic analyses of the interclass relationships of the phylum Echinodermata have not provided a phylogeny that is separately supported by both larval and adult characters. Similar to the reported incongruence with cladistic analyses, molecular analyses of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have also given ambiguous results, which could be due to a number of factors. The use of short sequences, systematic

Mary C Harmon

2005-01-01

53

A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes for the family of green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) have been found in more than 100 species of animals, with some species containing six or more copies producing a variety of colours. Thus far, how- ever, these species have all been within three phyla: Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Chordata. We have discovered GFP-type fluorescent proteins in the phylum Ctenophora, the comb jellies.

Steven H. D. Haddock; Nadia Mastroianni; Lynne M. Christianson

2009-01-01

54

Autophagy in Apicomplexa: a life sustaining death mechanism?  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) pathways remain understudied in parasitic protozoa in spite of the fact that they provide potential targets for the development of new therapy. The best understood PCD pathway in higher eukaryotes is apoptosis although emerging evidence also points to autophagy as a mediator of death in certain physiological contexts. Bioinformatic analyses coupled with biochemical and cell biologic studies suggest that parasitic protozoa possess the capacity for PCD including a primordial form of apoptosis. Recent work in Toxoplasma and emerging data from Plasmodium suggest that autophagy-related processes may serve as an additional death promoting pathway in Apicomplexa. Detailed mechanistic studies into the molecular basis for PCD in parasitic protozoa represent a fertile area for investigation and drug development. PMID:22819059

Sinai, Anthony P.; Roepe, Paul D.

2015-01-01

55

Comparative Analysis of Apicomplexa and Genomic Diversity in Eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

The apicomplexans Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium have developed distinctive adaptations via lineage-specific gene loss and gene innovation in the process of diverging from a common parasitic ancestor. The two lineages have acquired distinct but overlapping sets of surface protein adhesion domains typical of animal proteins, but in no case do they share multidomain architectures identical to animals. Cryptosporidium, but not Plasmodium, possesses an animal-type O-linked glycosylation pathway, along with >30 predicted surface proteins having mucin-like segments. The two parasites have notable qualitative differences in conserved protein architectures associated with chromatin dynamics and transcription. Cryptosporidium shows considerable reduction in the number of introns and a concomitant loss of spliceosomal machinery components. We also describe additional molecular characteristics distinguishing Apicomplexa from other eukaryotes for which complete genome sequences are available. PMID:15342554

Templeton, Thomas J.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Anantharaman, Vivek; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Abrahante, Juan E.; Subramanian, G.M.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.; Aravind, L.

2004-01-01

56

Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

1980-04-01

57

The protozoan diseases of hatchery fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following the somewhat bleak picture painted in the consideration of the bacterial diseases of hatchery fish in the last number of The Progressive Fish Culturist, it is a relief to turn to another large group of fish diseases caused by small, single-celled parasitic animals known as the protozoa. To the hatcheryman, the protozoan diseases of fish are just as important as the bacterial diseases for they are equally destructive if allowed to run unchecked. The protozoan diseases are just as common as those caused by bacteria, particularly at those hatcheries which depend upon lakes or streams for their water supplies. However, a very cheery point of difference exists between these two groups of diseases—the protozoan diseases are easier to recognize and, for the most part, they are exceedingly easy to eradicate. To the hatcheryman who has struggled day and night for weeks in an attempt to combat an epidemic wherein he is rewarded immediately by the satisfying sight of a complete recovery of his infected fish as the direct result of his labors.

Fish, F.F.

1935-01-01

58

Named species and hosts of Sarcocystis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A list is given of the present 93 species of the apicomplexan protozoan genus Sarcocystis together with their definitive and intermediate hosts (if known), synonyms, homonyms, lapsi calami, etc. The names of many species of this genus are poorly known, in doubt or controversial due to lack of access to some of the literature and to failure to accept the

Norman D. Levine; Wedad Tadros

1980-01-01

59

An Expanded Genomic Representation of the Phylum Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Molecular surveys of aphotic habitats have indicated the presence of major uncultured lineages phylogenetically classified as members of the Cyanobacteria. One of these lineages has recently been proposed as a nonphotosynthetic sister phylum to the Cyanobacteria, the Melainabacteria, based on recovery of population genomes from human gut and groundwater samples. Here, we expand the phylogenomic representation of the Melainabacteria through sequencing of six diverse population genomes from gut and bioreactor samples supporting the inference that this lineage is nonphotosynthetic, but not the assertion that they are strictly fermentative. We propose that the Melainabacteria is a class within the phylogenetically defined Cyanobacteria based on robust monophyly and shared ancestral traits with photosynthetic representatives. Our findings are consistent with theories that photosynthesis occurred late in the Cyanobacteria and involved extensive lateral gene transfer and extends the recognized functionality of members of this phylum. PMID:24709563

Soo, Rochelle M.; Skennerton, Connor T.; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Imelfort, Michael; Paech, Samuel J.; Dennis, Paul G.; Steen, Jason A.; Parks, Donovan H.; Tyson, Gene W.; Hugenholtz, Philip

2014-01-01

60

Mobile genetic elements in the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the genome of Candidatus Solibacter usitatus Ellin6076, a member of the phylum Acidobacteria, revealed a large number of genes associated with mobile genetic elements. These genes encoded transposases, insertion sequence elements and phage integrases. When the amino acid sequences of the mobile element-associated genes were compared, many of them had high (90–100%) amino acid sequence identities, suggesting that these genes may have recently duplicated and dispersed throughout the genome. Although phage integrase encoding genes were prevalent in the Can. S. usitatus Ellin6076 genome, no intact prophage regions were found. This suggests that the Can. S. usitatus Ellin6076 large genome arose by horizontal gene transfer via ancient bacteriophage and/or plasmid-mediated transduction, followed by widespread small-scale gene duplications, resulting in an increased number of paralogs encoding traits that could provide selective metabolic, defensive and regulatory advantages in the soil environment. Here we examine the mobile element repertoire of Can. S. usitatus Ellin6076 in comparison to other genomes from the Acidobacteria phylum, reviewing published studies and contributing some new analyses. We also discuss the presence and potential roles of mobile elements in members of this phylum that inhabit a variety of environments. PMID:23087842

Challacombe, Jean; Kuske, Cheryl

2012-01-01

61

Biomass control in waste air biotrickling filters by protozoan predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protozoan species as well as an unchar- acterized protozoan consortium were added to a toluene- degrading biotrickling filter to investigate protozoan pre- dation as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass for- mation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced from 13.875 kg in a control biotrickling filter to 11.795 kg in a biotrickling filter enriched with

Huub H. J. Cox; Marc A. Deshusses

1999-01-01

62

Chapter A7. Section 7.3. Protozoan Pathogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Protozoan pathogens are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the principal protozoan pathogens that are known to affect the acceptability of water supplies for public use within the United States. A sampling program for protozoan pathogens should be conducted over an extended period of time because of cyclical and seasonal variations in their concentrations in the environment. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory method that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on protozoan pathogens.

Bushon, Rebecca N.; Francy, Donna S.

2003-01-01

63

Neuroparasitic Infections: Cestodes, Trematodes, and Protozoans  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection of the nervous system can produce a variety of symptoms and signs. Because symptoms of infection are often mild or nonspecific, diagnosis can be difficult. Familiarity with basic epidemiological characteristics and distinguishing radiographic findings can increase the likelihood of detection and proper treatment of parasitic infection of the nervous system. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for some of the more common infections of the nervous system caused by cestodes, trematodes and protozoans: Echinococcus spp., Spirometra spp. (sparganosis), Paragonimus spp., Schistosoma spp., Trypanosoma spp., Naegleria fowlerii, Acanthamoeba histolytica, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. PMID:16170739

Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

2009-01-01

64

Inflammasomes in host response to protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Inflammasomes are multimeric complexes of proteins that are assembled in the host cell cytoplasm in response to specific stress signals or contamination of the cytoplasm by microbial molecules. The canonical inflammasomes are composed of at least three main components: an inflammatory caspase (caspase-1, caspase-11), an adapter molecule (such as ASC), and a sensor protein (such as NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP12, NAIP1, NAIP2, NAIP5, or AIM2). The sensor molecule determines the inflammasome specificity by detecting specific microbial products or cell stress signals. Upon activation, these molecular platforms facilitate restriction of microbial replication and trigger an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis, thus accounting for the genesis of inflammatory processes. Inflammasome activation has been widely reported in response to pathogenic bacteria. However, recent reports have highlighted the important role of the inflammasomes in the host response to the pathogenesis of infections caused by intracellular protozoan parasites. Herein, we review the activation and specific roles of inflammasomes in recognition and host responses to intracellular protozoan parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., and Leishmania spp. PMID:25879291

Zamboni, Dario S; Lima-Junior, Djalma S

2015-05-01

65

The major surface-metalloprotease of the parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, protects against antimicrobial  

E-print Network

The major surface-metalloprotease of the parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, protects against infection by the vector-borne protozoan Leishmania is responsible for substantial worldwide morbidity. Introduction Human infection with the vector-borne protozoan Leish- mania causes substantial worldwide

Engman, David M.

66

In vitro effects of temperature and salinity on fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan parasite  

E-print Network

In vitro effects of temperature and salinity on fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan on fatty acid synthetic activities in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, were tested; Oyster; Parasite; Perkinsus marinus; Protozoan; Salinity; Temperature 1. Introduction Perkinsus marinus

Hartley, Troy W.

67

Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates. Protozoan communities were sampled in 1978 from the South River near Waynesboro, Virginia, and compared with a study carried out in 1972. Five study stations were located above and below sources of pollution. Species richness followed the same pattern as in the 1972 study except at Station 2 (just below

M. S. Henebry; J. Jr. Cairns

1980-01-01

68

OYSTER SERUM AGGLUTININS AND RESISTANCE TO PROTOZOAN PARASITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Serum agglutinins or lectins are reported to be induced in marine molluscs by exposure to bacteria and may enhance bacterial clearance from the host; however, there is a little information on possible relationships between lectins and protozoan parasites of molluscs. wo protozoan...

69

A Type III Protein Arginine Methyltransferase from the Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma brucei*  

E-print Network

A Type III Protein Arginine Methyltransferase from the Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma brucei methyltransferases (PRMTs). The ancient protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, possesses five putative PRMTs, a rela

Clarke, Steven

70

Protective Immunity Against the Protozoan Leishmania chagasi Is Induced by Subclinical Cutaneous Infection with Virulent  

E-print Network

Protective Immunity Against the Protozoan Leishmania chagasi Is Induced by Subclinical Cutaneous chagasi, the protozoan causing South American visceral leishmaniasis, causes diverse sequelae ranging from

Beverley, Stephen M.

71

MORN1 has a conserved role in asexual and sexual development1 across the Apicomplexa2  

E-print Network

1 MORN1 has a conserved role in asexual and sexual development1 across the Apicomplexa2 3 4 Running erythrocytic schizogony of Plasmodium falciparum. During asexual proliferation MORN17 is associated. These data fit a model10 with a conserved role for MORN1 during IMC assembly in all variations of asexual11

Gubbels, Marc-Jan

72

Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

2014-01-01

73

Chordate evolution and the three-phylum system.  

PubMed

Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although the origin and evolution of chordates has been studied for more than a century, few authors have intimately discussed taxonomic ranking of the three chordate groups themselves. Accumulating evidence shows that echinoderms and hemichordates form a clade (the Ambulacraria), and that within the Chordata, cephalochordates diverged first, with tunicates and vertebrates forming a sister group. Chordates share tadpole-type larvae containing a notochord and hollow nerve cord, whereas ambulacrarians have dipleurula-type larvae containing a hydrocoel. We propose that an evolutionary occurrence of tadpole-type larvae is fundamental to understanding mechanisms of chordate origin. Protostomes have now been reclassified into two major taxa, the Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, whose developmental pathways are characterized by ecdysis and trochophore larvae, respectively. Consistent with this classification, the profound dipleurula versus tadpole larval differences merit a category higher than the phylum. Thus, it is recommended that the Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa, Ambulacraria and Chordata be classified at the superphylum level, with the Chordata further subdivided into three phyla, on the basis of their distinctive characteristics. PMID:25232138

Satoh, Noriyuki; Rokhsar, Daniel; Nishikawa, Teruaki

2014-11-01

74

Chordate evolution and the three-phylum system  

PubMed Central

Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although the origin and evolution of chordates has been studied for more than a century, few authors have intimately discussed taxonomic ranking of the three chordate groups themselves. Accumulating evidence shows that echinoderms and hemichordates form a clade (the Ambulacraria), and that within the Chordata, cephalochordates diverged first, with tunicates and vertebrates forming a sister group. Chordates share tadpole-type larvae containing a notochord and hollow nerve cord, whereas ambulacrarians have dipleurula-type larvae containing a hydrocoel. We propose that an evolutionary occurrence of tadpole-type larvae is fundamental to understanding mechanisms of chordate origin. Protostomes have now been reclassified into two major taxa, the Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, whose developmental pathways are characterized by ecdysis and trochophore larvae, respectively. Consistent with this classification, the profound dipleurula versus tadpole larval differences merit a category higher than the phylum. Thus, it is recommended that the Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa, Ambulacraria and Chordata be classified at the superphylum level, with the Chordata further subdivided into three phyla, on the basis of their distinctive characteristics. PMID:25232138

Satoh, Noriyuki; Rokhsar, Daniel; Nishikawa, Teruaki

2014-01-01

75

The Fibrobacteres: an important phylum of cellulose-degrading bacteria.  

PubMed

The phylum Fibrobacteres currently comprises one formal genus, Fibrobacter, and two cultured species, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Fibrobacter intestinalis, that are recognised as major bacterial degraders of lignocellulosic material in the herbivore gut. Historically, members of the genus Fibrobacter were thought to only occupy mammalian intestinal tracts. However, recent 16S rRNA gene-targeted molecular approaches have demonstrated that novel centres of variation within the genus Fibrobacter are present in landfill sites and freshwater lakes, and their relative abundance suggests a potential role for fibrobacters in cellulose degradation beyond the herbivore gut. Furthermore, a novel subphylum within the Fibrobacteres has been detected in the gut of wood-feeding termites, and proteomic analyses have confirmed their involvement in cellulose hydrolysis. The genome sequence of F. succinogenes rumen strain S85 has recently suggested that within this group of organisms a "third" way of attacking the most abundant form of organic carbon in the biosphere, cellulose, has evolved. This observation not only has evolutionary significance, but the superior efficiency of anaerobic cellulose hydrolysis by Fibrobacter spp., in comparison to other cellulolytic rumen bacteria that typically utilise membrane-bound enzyme complexes (cellulosomes), may be explained by this novel cellulase system. There are few bacterial phyla with potential functional importance for which there is such a paucity of phenotypic and functional data. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of the Fibrobacteres phylum, its taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology and potential as a source of novel glycosyl hydrolases of biotechnological importance. PMID:22213055

Ransom-Jones, Emma; Jones, David L; McCarthy, Alan J; McDonald, James E

2012-02-01

76

Reclassification of Sphaerobacter thermophilus from the subclass Sphaerobacteridae in the phylum Actinobacteria to the class Thermomicrobia (emended description) in the phylum Chloroflexi (emended description)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphaerobacter thermophilus was originally classified as the deepest branching member of the phylum Actinobacteria (high-G+C, Gram-positive bacteria) based on 16S rRNA gene comparative analysis. However, the analysis lacked suitable outgroups, and additional 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that it is most closely related to Thermomicrobium roseum, which it also resembles phenotypically. Furthermore, both species are reproducibly affiliated with the phylum

Philip Hugenholtz; Erko Stackebrandt

2004-01-01

77

Diversity and Habitat Niche Modeling of Candidate Archaeal Phylum Aigarchaeota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

';Aigarchaeota' (formerly known as pSL4 and Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group I (HWCGI)) is a candidate phylum of Archaea known only by 16S rRNA gene fragments from cultivation-independent microbial surveys and a single composite genome from Candidatus ';Caldiarchaeum subterraneum', an inhabitant of a subterranean gold mine in Japan. Sequences reported in various publications are found exclusively in geothermal settings, but a comprehensive assessment has not yet been performed. We mined public databases for 16S rRNA gene sequences related to known ';Aigarchaeota' and used a combination of approaches to rigorously define the phylogenetic boundaries of the phylum. The analyses supported the proposed relationship between ';Aigarchaeota', Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Korarchaeota in the so-called 'TACK superphylum' and identified ~200 16S rRNA genes and gene fragments belonging to ';Aigarchaeota', including those recovered from terrestrial geothermal systems on several continents (North America, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania) and marine geothermal and subsurface samples in both the Atlantic and Pacific. ';Aigarchaeota' belonged to at least three family- to order-level groups and at least seven genus-level groups. All genus-level groups were recovered from geographically distant locations, suggesting a global distribution within amenable habitats. ';Aigarchaeota'-specific primers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes were designed using SP-Designer and reviewed using the Ribosomal Database Project Probe Match tool. The primers will be used to determine the presence and abundance of ';Aigarchaeota' in a wide variety of samples from terrestrial geothermal systems in the western U.S. and Asia. These phylogenetic data, along with a large geochemical database, will be analyzed using multivariate statistics to develop biogeographic and habitat niche models for ';Aigarchaeota'. This study offers the first coherent view of the distribution and diversity of the ';Aigarchaeota' and lays the groundwork for further inquiry into how environmental factors might control the presence and abundance of this candidate phylum in geothermal environments.

Alba, T. W.; Goertz, G.; Williams, A. J.; Cole, J. K.; Murugapiran, S. K.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.

2013-12-01

78

Ycf93 (Orf105), a small apicoplast-encoded membrane protein in the relict plastid of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum that is conserved in Apicomplexa.  

PubMed

Malaria parasites retain a relict plastid (apicoplast) from a photosynthetic ancestor shared with dinoflagellate algae. The apicoplast is a useful drug target; blocking housekeeping pathways such as genome replication and translation in the organelle kills parasites and protects against malaria. The apicoplast of Plasmodium falciparum encodes 30 proteins and a suite of rRNAs and tRNAs that facilitate their expression. orf105 is a hypothetical apicoplast gene that would encode a small protein (PfOrf105) with a predicted C-terminal transmembrane domain. We produced antisera to a predicted peptide within PfOrf105. Western blot analysis confirmed expression of orf105 and immunofluorescence localised the gene product to the apicoplast. Pforf105 encodes a membrane protein that has an apparent mass of 17.5 kDa and undergoes substantial turnover during the 48-hour asexual life cycle of the parasite in blood stages. The effect of actinonin, an antimalarial with a putative impact on post-translational modification of apicoplast proteins like PfOrf105, was examined. Unlike other drugs perturbing apicoplast housekeeping that induce delayed death, actinonin kills parasites immediately and has an identical drug exposure phenotype to the isopentenyl diphosphate synthesis blocker fosmidomycin. Open reading frames of similar size to PfOrf105, which also have predicted C-terminal trans membrane domains, occur in syntenic positions in all sequenced apicoplast genomes from Phylum Apicomplexa. We therefore propose to name these genes ycf93 (hypothetical chloroplast reading frame 93) according to plastid gene nomenclature convention for conserved proteins of unknown function. PMID:24705170

Goodman, Christopher D; McFadden, Geoffrey I

2014-01-01

79

A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora.  

PubMed

Genes for the family of green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) have been found in more than 100 species of animals, with some species containing six or more copies producing a variety of colours. Thus far, however, these species have all been within three phyla: Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Chordata. We have discovered GFP-type fluorescent proteins in the phylum Ctenophora, the comb jellies. The ctenophore proteins share the xYG chromophore motif of all other characterized GFP-type proteins. These proteins exhibit the uncommon property of reversible photoactivation, in which fluorescent emission becomes brighter upon exposure to light, then gradually decays to a non-fluorescent state. In addition to providing potentially useful optical probes with novel properties, finding a fluorescent protein in one of the earliest diverging metazoans adds further support to the possibility that these genes are likely to occur throughout animals. PMID:20018790

Haddock, Steven H D; Mastroianni, Nadia; Christianson, Lynne M

2010-04-22

80

A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora  

PubMed Central

Genes for the family of green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) have been found in more than 100 species of animals, with some species containing six or more copies producing a variety of colours. Thus far, however, these species have all been within three phyla: Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Chordata. We have discovered GFP-type fluorescent proteins in the phylum Ctenophora, the comb jellies. The ctenophore proteins share the xYG chromophore motif of all other characterized GFP-type proteins. These proteins exhibit the uncommon property of reversible photoactivation, in which fluorescent emission becomes brighter upon exposure to light, then gradually decays to a non-fluorescent state. In addition to providing potentially useful optical probes with novel properties, finding a fluorescent protein in one of the earliest diverging metazoans adds further support to the possibility that these genes are likely to occur throughout animals. PMID:20018790

Haddock, Steven H. D.; Mastroianni, Nadia; Christianson, Lynne M.

2010-01-01

81

Invasion and Intracellular Survival by Protozoan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracellular parasitism has arisen only a few times during the long ancestry of protozoan parasites including in diverse groups such as microsporidians, kinetoplastids, and apicomplexans. Strategies used to gain entry differ widely from injection (e.g. microsporidians), active penetration of the host cell (e.g. Toxoplasma), recruitment of lysosomes to a plasma membrane wound (e.g. Trypanosoma cruzi), to host cell-mediated phagocytosis (e.g. Leishmania). The resulting range of intracellular niches is equally diverse ranging from cytosolic (e.g. T. cruzi) to residing within a nonfusigenic vacuole (e.g. Toxoplasma, Encephalitizoon) or a modified phagolysosome (e.g. Leishmania). These lifestyle choices influence access to nutrients, interaction with host cell signaling pathways, and detection by pathogen recognition systems. As such, intracellular life requires a repertoire of adaptations to assure entry-exit from the cell, as well as to thwart innate immune mechanisms and prevent clearance. Elucidating these pathways at the cellular and molecular level may identify key steps that can be targeted to reduce parasite survival or augment immunological responses and thereby prevent disease. PMID:21349087

Sibley, L. David

2013-01-01

82

Intraerythrocytic merogony in Haemogregarina koppiensis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae).  

PubMed

During October 2003, a specimen of Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch, 1795) was captured at low tide, with a hand net, in a rock pool at Koppie Alleen, De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. This fish was heavily parasitized by unidentified gnathiid praniza larvae, caligid copepods identified as Caligus tetrodontis Barnard, 1948, cymothoid isopods identified as Cinusa tetrodontis (Schioedte et Meinert, 1884), and the blood protozoan Haemogregarina koppiensis Smit et Davies, 2001. Giemsa-stained blood smears from this fish revealed new and unusual stages of merogony for H. koppiensis that included small, rounded, likely intraerythrocytic merozoites arranged in circles of eight around the host nucleus. Host cells appeared ghost-like and enlarged compared with normal erythrocytes. Identical merozoites, usually in clusters of up to 16, were also observed free of host cells. The pattern of merogony seen in H. koppiensis is unusual for a fish haemogregarine. PMID:16270810

Smit, Nico J; Davies, Angela J

2005-09-01

83

Candidate phylum TM6 genome recovered from a hospital sink biofilm provides genomic insights into this uncultivated phylum  

PubMed Central

The “dark matter of life” describes microbes and even entire divisions of bacterial phyla that have evaded cultivation and have yet to be sequenced. We present a genome from the globally distributed but elusive candidate phylum TM6 and uncover its metabolic potential. TM6 was detected in a biofilm from a sink drain within a hospital restroom by analyzing cells using a highly automated single-cell genomics platform. We developed an approach for increasing throughput and effectively improving the likelihood of sampling rare events based on forming small random pools of single-flow–sorted cells, amplifying their DNA by multiple displacement amplification and sequencing all cells in the pool, creating a “mini-metagenome.” A recently developed single-cell assembler, SPAdes, in combination with contig binning methods, allowed the reconstruction of genomes from these mini-metagenomes. A total of 1.07 Mb was recovered in seven contigs for this member of TM6 (JCVI TM6SC1), estimated to represent 90% of its genome. High nucleotide identity between a total of three TM6 genome drafts generated from pools that were independently captured, amplified, and assembled provided strong confirmation of a correct genomic sequence. TM6 is likely a Gram-negative organism and possibly a symbiont of an unknown host (nonfree living) in part based on its small genome, low-GC content, and lack of biosynthesis pathways for most amino acids and vitamins. Phylogenomic analysis of conserved single-copy genes confirms that TM6SC1 is a deeply branching phylum. PMID:23754396

McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Badger, Jonathan H.; Edlund, Anna; Novotny, Mark; Yee-Greenbaum, Joyclyn; Vyahhi, Nikolay; Hall, Adam P.; Yang, Youngik; Dupont, Christopher L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Chitsaz, Hamidreza; Allen, Andrew E.; Yooseph, Shibu; Tesler, Glenn; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Friedman, Robert M.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Venter, J. Craig; Lasken, Roger S.

2013-01-01

84

Evolutionary origin of Plasmodium and other Apicomplexa based on rRNA genes.  

PubMed Central

We have explored the evolutionary history of the Apicomplexa and two related protistan phyla, Dinozoa and Ciliophora, by comparing the nucleotide sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. We conclude that the Plasmodium lineage, to which the malarial parasites belong, diverged from other apicomplexan lineages (piroplasmids and coccidians) several hundred million years ago, perhaps even before the Cambrian. The Plasmodium radiation, which gave rise to several species parasitic to humans, occurred approximately 129 million years ago; Plasmodium parasitism of humans has independently arisen several times. The origin of apicomplexans (Plasmodium), dinoflagellates, and ciliates may be > 1 billion years old, perhaps older than the three multicellular kingdoms of animals, plants, and fungi. Digenetic parasitism independently evolved several times in the Apicomplexa. PMID:7597031

Escalante, A A; Ayala, F J

1995-01-01

85

Transfection of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus.  

PubMed

Ongoing efforts for sequencing the genome of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, together with functional genomic initiatives, have continued to provide invaluable information about genes and metabolic pathways that not only will increase our understanding of its biology, but also have the potential to reveal useful targets for intervention. The lack of molecular tools for the functional characterization of genes of interest, however, has hindered progress in this regard. Here we report the development and validation of transfection methodology for this parasite. We first selected from our P. marinus EST collection a highly expressed gene, which we designated "MOE" (PmMOE), to which we fused at the C-terminus the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene (pPmMOE-GFP). The exogenous DNA was introduced into the trophozoite stage of the parasite by electroporation using the Nucleofector technology. The transfection efficiency was 37.8% with fluorescence detected as early as 14 h after electroporation, with the transfectants still remaining fluorescent after 8 months even in the absence of drug selection. The 5' flanking region was essential for transcription; constructs with 100 and 204 bp flanking the transcription start site also drove transcription effectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses was consistent with integration by non-homologous recombination. This transfection technique, the first one reported for a member of the Perkinsozoa, provides a new tool for studies of gene regulation and expression, protein targeting, and protein-protein interactions, and should significantly contribute to gain further insight into the biology of Perkinsus spp. PMID:17996961

Fernández-Robledo, José A; Lin, Zhuoer; Vasta, Gerardo R

2008-01-01

86

Isospora mionectesi sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from the grey-hooded flycatcher, Mionectes rufiventris in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new isosporoid coccidian (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) species from the grey-hooded flycatcher, Mionectes rufiventris, from Brazil, is reported in the current study. Isospora mionectesi sp. nov. oocysts are ellipsoidal, 28.3 × 21.2 µm, with smooth, bilayered wall, ?1.3 µm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are\\u000a absent, but one or two polar granules are present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 19.7 × 11.7 µm.

Bruno P. Berto; Walter Flausino; Hermes Ribeiro Luz; Ildemar Ferreira; Carlos Wilson G. Lopes

2009-01-01

87

Xenoturbellida: the fourth deuterostome phylum and the diet of worms.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of the marine worm Xenoturbella bocki in 1915 by Sixten Bock and its first published description by Einar Westblad (Westblad,1949, Arkiv Zoologi 1:3-29), Xenoturbella was generally allied to the turbellarian flatworms, perhaps most closely to acoelomorphs. In 1997, however, analyses of ribosomal DNA (Norén and Jondelius, 1997, Nature 390:31-32) and developing oocytes (Israelsson, 1997, Nature 390:32) [and, subsequently, embryos (Israelsson, 1999, Proc R Soc Lond B 266:835-841)] recovered from Xenoturbella specimens led to the surprising conclusion that it was in fact a highly degenerate bivalve mollusc. Bourlat et al. showed in 2003 that this result was due to contamination from bivalves in its diet (Bourlat et al.,2003, Nature 424:925-928). Our analyses showed Xenoturbella is a deuterostome, related to the Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates). Subsequent work has shown that Xenoturbellida is a separate lineage from the Ambulacraria and therefore constitutes the fourth deuterostome phylum (Bourlat et al.,2006, Nature 444:85-88). I consider this phylogenetic position in the light of what is known of its genetics, morphology, and ontogeny. I examine what this phylogenetic position for Xenoturbella can tell us about its own evolution and what light this might shine on the common ancestor of the deuterostomes and hence on the origins of the chordates. PMID:18821586

Telford, Maximilian J

2008-11-01

88

Tractable Mammalian Cell Infections with Protozoan-primed Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Many intracellular bacterial pathogens use freshwater protozoans as a natural reservoir for proliferation in the environment. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, gains a pathogenic advantage over in vitro cultured bacteria when first harvested from protozoan cells prior to infection of mammalian macrophages. This suggests that important virulence factors may not be properly expressed in vitro. We have developed a tractable system for priming L. pneumophila through its natural protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii prior to mammalian cell infection. The contribution of any virulence factor can be examined by comparing intracellular growth of a mutant strain to wild-type bacteria after protozoan priming. GFP-expressing wild-type and mutant L. pneumophila strains are used to infect protozoan monolayers in a priming step and allowed to reach late stages of intracellular growth. Fluorescent bacteria are then harvested from these infected cells and normalized by spectrophotometry to generate comparable numbers of bacteria for a subsequent infection into mammalian macrophages. For quantification, live bacteria are monitored after infection using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and by colony plating. This technique highlights and relies on the contribution of host cell-dependent gene expression by mimicking the environment that would be encountered in a natural acquisition route. This approach can be modified to accommodate any bacterium that uses an intermediary host as a means for gaining a pathogenic advantage. PMID:23609210

Drennan, Samuel L.; Lama, Amrita; Doron, Ben; Cambronne, Eric D.

2013-01-01

89

Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates. Protozoan communities were sampled in 1978 from the South River near Waynesboro, Virginia, and compared with a study carried out in 1972. Five study stations were located above and below sources of pollution. Species richness followed the same pattern as in the 1972 study except at Station 2 (just below a major source of pollution) where a marked improvement in water quality occurred. Numbers of species increased significantly downstream from a source of pollution. This study provides evidence that protozoan communities may be used effectively in the assessment of water pollution and that results compare favorably with those based on macroinvertebrates which are more expensive to collect.

Henebry, M.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Cairns, J. Jr.

1980-01-01

90

Necrotizing lung infection caused by the protozoan Balantidium coli  

PubMed Central

Balantidium coli, a ciliated protozoan, is well known to cause intestinal infection in humans. Extraintestinal spread to the peritoneal cavity and genitourinary tract has rarely been reported. There have also been a few cases of lung involvement from this parasite. A case of B coli causing a thick-walled right upper lobe cavity in an organic farmer who had contact with aerosolized pig manure is reported. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid examined for ova and parasite revealed trophozoites of B coli in large numbers. Treatment with doxycycline hyclate led to marked improvement. Necrotizing lung infection caused by the protozoan B coli should be considered in individuals who report contact with pigs. PMID:18159451

Sharma, Sat; Harding, Godfrey

2003-01-01

91

Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica): effects of temperature on the uptake and  

E-print Network

Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica): effects labeled palmitic acid (FLC16) and phosphatidylcholine (FLPC) and lipase activities in the oyster protozoan incorporation, lipid metabolism, Chromatography, Parasitic protozoan, Perkinsus marinus, Oyster, Crassostrea

Hartley, Troy W.

92

The importance of zooplankton-protozoan trophic couplings in Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The importance,of the zooplankton-protozoan,trophic coupling was determined,experimentally by measured,changes in protozoan,growth rates with increasing zooplankton,biomass. In five of six experiments conducted in Lake Michigan, a significant inverse relationship between protozoan growth and zooplankton biomass was observed (avg r2 = 70%), Zooplankton clearance rates on protozoan assemblages (range, 1.0-6.2 ml (pg dry wt)-I d ‘1 were comparable to those previously

HUNTER J. CARRICK; GARY L. FAHNENSTIEL; EUGENE F. STOERMER; ROBERT G. WETZEL

1991-01-01

93

B-Cell Response during Protozoan Parasite Infections  

PubMed Central

In this review, we discuss how protozoan parasites alter immature and mature B cell compartment. B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, considered innate like B cells, are activated during protozoan parasite infections, and they generate short lived plasma cells providing a prompt antibody source. In addition, protozoan infections induce massive B cell response with polyclonal activation that leads to hypergammaglobulnemia with serum antibodies specific for the parasites and self and/or non related antigens. To protect themselves, the parasites have evolved unique ways to evade B cell immune responses inducing apoptosis of MZ and conventional mature B cells. As a consequence of the parasite induced-apoptosis, the early IgM response and an already establish humoral immunity are affected during the protozoan parasite infection. Moreover, some trypanosomatides trigger bone marrow immature B cell apoptosis, influencing the generation of new mature B cells. Simultaneously with their ability to release antibodies, B cells produce cytokines/quemokines that influence the characteristic of cellular immune response and consequently the progression of parasite infections. PMID:22315659

Amezcua Vesely, María C.; Bermejo, Daniela A.; Montes, Carolina L.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Eva V.; Gruppi, Adriana

2012-01-01

94

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PROTOZOAN DETECTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been a proliferation of techniques and methods reported for analysis of water samples to determine the presence of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Many of the proposed methods are presented as complete procedures, which include sampli...

95

Expression of a Bacterial Gene in a Trypanosomatid Protozoan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and reproducible assay for DNA-mediated transfection in the trypanosomatid protozoan Leptomonas seymouri has been developed. The assay is based on expression of the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene flanked by Leptomonas DNA fragments that are likely to contain necessary elements for gene expression in trypanosomes. After electroporation of cells in the presence of plasmid DNA, CAT

Vivian Bellofatto; George A. M. Cross

1989-01-01

96

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PROTOZOAN DETECTION METHODS.  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been a proliferation of techniques and methods reported for analysis of water samples to determine the presence of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Many of the proposed methods are presented as complete procedures, which include sampli...

97

Programmed cell death in the unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we have demonstrated some features characterizing programmed cell death (PCD) in the unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral Leishmaniasis. We report that PCD is initiated in stationary phase cultures of promastigotes and both in actively growing cultures of axenic amastigotes and promastigotes upon treatment with anti Leishmanial drugs (Pentostam and amphotericin B).

N Lee; S Bertholet; A Debrabant; J Muller; R Duncan; H L Nakhasi

2002-01-01

98

Biomass control in waste air biotrickling filters by protozoan predation  

SciTech Connect

Two protozoan species as well as an uncharacterized protozoan consortium were added to a toluene-degrading biotrickling filter to investigate protozoan predation as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass formation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced from 13.875 kg in a control biotrickling filter to 11.795 kg in a biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The average toluene vapor elimination capacity at 1 g/m{sup 3} toluene and 64 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 3} {center_dot} h) was 31.1 g(m{sup 3} {center_dot} h) in the control and 32.2 g(m{sup 3} {center_dot} h) in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. At higher toluene inlet concentrations, toluene degradation rates increased and were slightly higher in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The lower rate of biomass accumulation after the addition of protozoa was due to an increase of carbon mineralization. Apparent biomass yield coefficients in the control and enriched trickling filter were 0.72 and 0.59 g dry biomass/g toluene, respectively. The results show that protozoan predation may be a useful tool to control biomass in biotrickling filters, however, further stimulation of predation of the biomass immobilized in the reactor is required to ensure long-term stability of biotrickling filters.

Cox, H.H.J.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

1999-01-20

99

Acute Toxicity Test of Landfill Leachates Using Protozoan Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate contains high concentrations of organic matter, ammonia, metals, and other toxic compounds, which may pose serious risks to ecosystems and human health. In order to set up the appropriate toxicological criteria for the leachate, leachate toxicity tests with various organisms need to be conducted. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the toxicity of leachate using the protozoan

Ting Liu; Zhulei Chen; Qian Fu; Bofen Shi; Lie Yang

2010-01-01

100

Two new septate junctions in the phylum Coelenterata.  

PubMed

Freeze-fracture of fixed and unfixed tissue, lanthanum tracer and conventional thin-section studies have revealed 2 new types of septate junction in the class Anthozoa, phylum Coelenterata. These new junctions have the 15-18-nm intercellular spacing of all other described septate junctions and are found around the apical circumference of cells lining a lumen or outside edge. However, in freeze-fracture replicas and tangential views of lanthanum-impregnated tissue, they are seen to be quite different from other known septate junction types. One of the new junctions is found in endothelial tissue such as that lining the gut or the inside of the tentacles. In tangential view it is seen to consist of relatively short, straight, double septa, again with lateral projections. In feeeze-fracture of unfixed tissue, the junction consists of double rows of particles on the P face, the particles of one row being rounded, those of the other being elongated at right angles to the line of the septum. This dichotomy in particle size is unexpected, as the 2 halves of the septa as seen in tangential view are symmetrical. In freeze-fracture of fixed material the particle arrays remain on the P face and appear similar to those of unfixed material, but never as clear. In fixed tissue, some distortion had occurred and in extreme cases septa appear as a single broad jumbled row of particles. In this double septa junction, the rows of particles seen in freeze-fracture are occasionally seen to anastomose with a septum dividing into 2 and a third row of particles aligning with the 2 new septa to form their double particle rows. In both fixed and unfixed tissues, the E face of the junction consists of wide, shallow grooves. The second of the new junctions occurs in epithelial tissue, such as around the outer edge of sea-anemone tentacles, and consists of long wavy septa with lateral projections. In views where these projections appear longest, they arise predominantly from one side of the septa. In freeze-fracture of both fixed and unfixed tissue, this junction appears as rows of closely spaced particles on the P face. Occasionally rows of particles are seen on the E face, but usually this face is characterized by shallow grooves. In some aspects these 2 new junctions have features in common with the Hydra type junction also found in the Coelenterata. In all 3 types septa are relatively straight, rather than pleated, and there are lateral projections on the septa. PMID:6105160

Green, C R; Flower, N E

1980-04-01

101

Assembly-History Dynamics of a Pitcher-Plant Protozoan Community in Experimental Microcosms  

E-print Network

Assembly-History Dynamics of a Pitcher-Plant Protozoan Community in Experimental Microcosms Kohmei independently in a two-way factorial design to follow community assembly in a three-species aquatic protozoan BD, Miller TE (2012) Assembly-History Dynamics of a Pitcher-Plant Protozoan Community in Experimental

Miller, Thomas E.

102

Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda  

E-print Network

Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda B. H. This paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, Eimeria spp. INTRODUCTION Enteric protozoan parasites are ubiquitous

Nussey, Dan

103

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 133 (2004) 4551 Arachidonic acid synthetic pathways of the oyster protozoan parasite,  

E-print Network

of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus: evidence for usage of a delta-8 pathway Fu-Lin E. Chua Received 24 June 2003; accepted 28 August 2003 Abstract The meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite; Oyster; Oyster parasite; Perkinsus marinus 1. Introduction Although parasitic protozoans effectively

Hartley, Troy W.

2004-01-01

104

Phospholipid biosynthesis in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus Eric D. Lund, Fu-Lin E. Chu *  

E-print Network

Phospholipid biosynthesis in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus Eric D. Lund, Fu is a protozoan parasite that causes high mortality in its commercially and ecologically important host; Phospholipids 1. Introduction Successful replication of protozoan parasites is pre- dicated on their ability

Hartley, Troy W.

105

The Meaning of Death: Evolution and Ecology of Apoptosis in Protozoan Parasites  

E-print Network

Review The Meaning of Death: Evolution and Ecology of Apoptosis in Protozoan Parasites Sarah E in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious that forms of apoptosis occur in unicellular protozoan parasites, but whether this is apoptosis has proved

Gardner, Andy

106

BIOMASS CONTROL IN WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS BY PROTOZOAN PREDATION. (R825392)  

EPA Science Inventory

Two protozoan species as well as an uncharacterized protozoan consortium were added to a toluene-degrading biotrickling filter to investigate protozoan predation as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass formation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced from 13.875 k...

107

Recycling and Uptake of Si(OH)4 when Protozoan Grazers Feed on Diatoms  

E-print Network

1 Recycling and Uptake of Si(OH)4 when Protozoan Grazers Feed on Diatoms Sabine Schultesa,1 of diatom mortality in the ocean. As part of the microbial loop, protozoan grazers also feed on bacteria and Chaetoceros gracilis, and heterotrophic protozoans, the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the ciliate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

New Species of Odonaticola Sarkar et Haldar, 1981 (Apicomplexa: Conoidasida) from Dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Descriptions of four new species of the genus Odonaticola Sarkar et Haldar, 1981 (Apicomplexa: Conoidasida) from dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) in the family Libellulidae in West Bengal are presented. These include: Odonaticola bradinopyga sp. n. from Bradinopyga geminata; O. aspinosa sp. n. from Crocothemis servilia servilia; O. abhoypura sp. n. from Pantala flavescens and O. amojya sp. n. from C.

Suhritosh BISWAS; Monali CHATTERJEE; Durga P. HALDAR

109

Molecular Phylogenetic Relatedness of Frenkelia spp. (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) to Sarcocystis falcatula Stiles 1893: Is the Genus Sarcocystis Paraphyletic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coccidians Frenkelia microti and F. glareoli (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) form tissue cysts in the brain of small rodents (intermediate hosts) while oocysts are formed in the intestine of final hosts, buzzards of the genus Buteo. The inclusion of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences (SSU rRNA) of both Frenkelia species into the SSU rRNA trees of other, tissue cyst-

Jan Votypka; Vaclav Hypša; Milan Jirku; Jaroslav Flegr; Jiri Vavra; Julius Lukes

1998-01-01

110

Evidence for the widespread distribution of CRISPR-Cas system in the Phylum Cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Members of the phylum Cyanobacteria inhabit ecologically diverse environments. However, the CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR associated genes), an extremely adaptable defense system, has not been surveyed in this phylum. We analyzed 126 cyanobacterial genomes and, surprisingly, found CRISPR-Cas in the majority except the marine subclade (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), in which cyanophages are a known force shaping their evolution. Multiple observations of CRISPR loci in the absence of cas1/cas2 genes may represent an early stage of losing a CRISPR-Cas locus. Our findings reveal the widespread distribution of their role in the phylum Cyanobacteria and provide a first step to systematically understanding CRISPR-Cas systems in cyanobacteria. PMID:23628889

Cai, Fei; Axen, Seth D; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

2013-05-01

111

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Multi-Subunit Tethering Complexes Demonstrates an Ancient Pan-Eukaryotic Complement and Sculpting in Apicomplexa  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during, and possibly pre-dating, the move from free-living marine algae to deadly human parasites. PMID:24086721

Klinger, Christen M.; Klute, Mary J.; Dacks, Joel B.

2013-01-01

112

Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa.  

PubMed

Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during, and possibly pre-dating, the move from free-living marine algae to deadly human parasites. PMID:24086721

Klinger, Christen M; Klute, Mary J; Dacks, Joel B

2013-01-01

113

Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: evidence from mitochondrial genome structure.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationships of the Recent cnidarian classes remain one of the classic problems in invertebrate zoology. We survey the structure of the mitochondrial genome in representatives of the four extant cnidarian classes and in the phylum Ctenophora. We find that all anthozoan species tested possess mtDNA in the form of circular molecules, whereas all scyphozoan, cubozoan, and hydrozoan species tested display mtDNA in the form of linear molecules. Because ctenophore and all other known metazoan mtDNA is circular, the shared occurrence of linear mtDNA in three of the four cnidarian classes suggests a basal position for the Anthozoa within the phylum. Images PMID:1356268

Bridge, D; Cunningham, C W; Schierwater, B; DeSalle, R; Buss, L W

1992-01-01

114

The Physiological Tolerance of Two Species of Protozoans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protozoans are single-celled heterotrophic organisms that belong to several Phyla. They vary widely in their morphology and method of reproduction as well as in their ecological niches. The two species that you will study belong to different phyla and obviously have very different habitats. This inquiry examines the differences in pH tolerance between the two species and relates these differences to their respective niches.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Sergio A. Orminati N:A. Orminati; Sergio ORG:Ranney School REV:2005-04-13 END:VCARD

1995-06-03

115

Neutrophils cast extracellular traps in response to protozoan parasites  

PubMed Central

Release of extracellular traps by neutrophils is a now well-established phenomenon that contributes to the innate response to extracellular bacterial and fungal pathogens. The importance of NETs during protozoan infection has been less explored, but recent findings suggest an emerging role for release of neutrophil-derived extracellular DNA in response to this class of microbial pathogens. The present review summarizes findings to date regarding elicitation of NETs by Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Eimeria bovis, and Leishmania spp. PMID:23248631

Abdallah, Delbert S. Abi; Denkers, Eric Y.

2012-01-01

116

Littoral protozoan assemblages from two Mexican hyposaline lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Littoral protozoan assemblages from two hyposaline crater-lakes (Lakes Alchichica and Atexcac) located in the Oriental Valley,\\u000a center of Mexico, were studied using the polyurethane foam units (PFU) colonization method. Fifteen PFU (5 dates, three replicates\\u000a per date, 64 72 50 mm) were located in the littoral area of each lake and collected at 8, 14, 20–21, 28–29 and 38–39 d

Alfonso Lugo; Javier Alcocer; Ma. del Rosario Sanchez; Elva Escobar

1998-01-01

117

?-endorphin modulates a mechanoreceptor channel in the protozoan Stentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of opiate compounds was tested for their ability to depress the probability that the protozoan Stentor coeruleus would contract in response to mechanical stimulation. Of these ß-endorphin proved to be the most effective. The depressive effect of ß-endorphin is concentration-dependent with an approximate E.C.50 of 3.0 µM and time-dependent with the maximum depression occurring 15 min after drug

M. J. Marino; D. C. Wood

1993-01-01

118

Phylogenetic Delineation of the Novel Phylum Armatimonadetes (Former Candidate Division OP10) and Definition of Two Novel Candidate Divisions  

PubMed Central

Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences associated with the phylum Armatimonadetes were analyzed using multiple phylogenetic methods, clarifying both the phylum boundary and the affiliation of previously ambiguous groupings. Here we define the Armatimonadetes as 10 class-level groups and reclassify two previously associated groups as candidate divisions WS1 and FBP. PMID:23377935

Herbold, C. W.; Dunfield, P. F.; Morgan, X. C.; McDonald, I. R.; Stott, M. B.

2013-01-01

119

Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia,

Shaobin Hou; Kira S Makarova; Jimmy HW Saw; Pavel Senin; Benjamin V Ly; Zhemin Zhou; Yan Ren; Jianmei Wang; M. Y. Galperin; Marina V Omelchenko; Yuri I Wolf; Natalya Yutin; Eugene V Koonin; Matthew B Stott; Michelle A Crowe; Angela V Smirnova; Peter F Dunfield; Lu Feng; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

120

Draft Genome Sequence of Kocuria sp. Strain UCD-OTCP (Phylum Actinobacteria)  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of Kocuria sp. strain UCD-OTCP, a member of the phylum Actinobacteria, isolated from a restaurant chair cushion. The assembly contains 3,791,485 bp (G+C content of 73%) and is contained in 68 scaffolds. PMID:23661474

Coil, David A.; Doctor, Jessica I.; Lang, Jenna M.; Darling, Aaron E.

2013-01-01

121

Class-Level Relationships in the Phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from Mitochondrial Genome Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the Recent cnidarian classes remain one of the classic problems in invertebrate zoology. We survey the structure of the mitochondrial genome in representatives of the four extant cnidarian classes and in the phylum Ctenophora. We find that all anthozoan species tested possess mtDNA in the form of circular molecules, whereas all scyphozoan, cubozoan, and hydrozoan species

Diane Bridge; Clifford W. Cunningham; Bernd Schierwater; Rob Desalle; Leo W. Buss

1992-01-01

122

Phylum Arthropods Study Material: Demodex folliculorum. 2 slides: section in situ, whole mount.  

E-print Network

Phylum Arthropods Study Material: Demodex folliculorum. 2 slides: section in situ, whole mount, Demodex, Oribates and the like. Parasitiformes includes mesostigmatid mites, which are pri- marily group. Superorder Acariformes. 1 #12;2 Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. Both species occur on hu

Schluter, Dolph

123

A Molecular Phylogenetic Framework for the Phylum Ctenophora Using 18S rRNA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the phylum Ctenophora, by use of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from most of the major taxa. The ctenophores form a distinct monophyletic group that, based on this gene phylogeny, is most closely related to the cnidarians. Our results suggest that the ancestral ctenophore was tentaculate and cydippid-like and that the presently

Mircea Podar; Steven H. D. Haddock; Mitchell L. Sogin; G. Richard Harbison

2001-01-01

124

Complete Genome of Ignavibacterium album, a Metabolically Versatile, Flagellated, Facultative Anaerobe from the Phylum Chlorobi  

PubMed Central

Prior to the recent discovery of Ignavibacterium album (I. album), anaerobic photoautotrophic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were the only members of the bacterial phylum Chlorobi that had been grown axenically. In contrast to GSB, sequence analysis of the 3.7-Mbp genome of I. album shows that this recently described member of the phylum Chlorobi is a chemoheterotroph with a versatile metabolism. I. album lacks genes for photosynthesis and sulfur oxidation but has a full set of genes for flagella and chemotaxis. The occurrence of genes for multiple electron transfer complexes suggests that I. album is capable of organoheterotrophy under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The occurrence of genes encoding enzymes for CO2 fixation as well as other enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle suggests that mixotrophy may be possible under certain growth conditions. However, known biosynthetic pathways for several amino acids are incomplete; this suggests that I. album is dependent upon on exogenous sources of these metabolites or employs novel biosynthetic pathways. Comparisons of I. album and other members of the phylum Chlorobi suggest that the physiology of the ancestors of this phylum might have been quite different from that of modern GSB. PMID:22661972

Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Vogl, Kajetan; Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Overmann, Jörg; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

125

Draft Genome Sequence of the Endosymbiont "Candidatus Ruthia magnifica" UCD-CM (Phylum Proteobacteria).  

PubMed

Here, we present the draft genome of the endosymbiont "Candidatus Ruthia magnifica" UCD-CM, a member of the phylum Proteobacteria, found from the gills of a deep-sea giant clam, Calyptogena magnifica. The assembly consists of 1,160,249 bp contained in 18 contigs. PMID:25035337

Lee, Ruth D; Jospin, Guillaume; Coil, David A; Eisen, Jonathan A

2014-01-01

126

Draft Genome Sequence of the Endosymbiont “Candidatus Ruthia magnifica” UCD-CM (Phylum Proteobacteria)  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of the endosymbiont “Candidatus Ruthia magnifica” UCD-CM, a member of the phylum Proteobacteria, found from the gills of a deep-sea giant clam, Calyptogena magnifica. The assembly consists of 1,160,249 bp contained in 18 contigs. PMID:25035337

Lee, Ruth D.; Jospin, Guillaume; Coil, David A.

2014-01-01

127

A putative greigite-type magnetosome gene cluster from the candidate phylum Latescibacteria.  

PubMed

The intracellular biomineralization of magnetite and/or greigite magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is strictly controlled by a group of conserved genes, termed magnetosome genes, which are organized as clusters (or islands) in MTB genomes. So far, all reported MTB are affiliated within the Proteobacteria phylum, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3. Here, we report the discovery of a putative magnetosome gene cluster structure from the draft genome of an uncultivated bacterium belonging to the candidate phylum Latescibacteria (formerly candidate division WS3) recently recovered by Rinke and colleagues, which contains 10 genes with homology to magnetosome mam genes of magnetotactic Proteobacteria and Nitrospirae. Moreover, these genes are phylogenetically closely related to greigite-type magnetosome genes that were only found from the Deltaproteobacteria?MTB before, suggesting that the greigite genes may originate earlier than previously imagined. These findings indicate that some members of Latescibacteria may be capable of forming greigite magnetosomes, and thus may play previously unrecognized roles in environmental iron and sulfur cycles. The conserved genomic structure of magnetosome gene cluster in Latescibacteria phylum supports the hypothesis of horizontal transfer of these genes among distantly related bacterial groups in nature. PMID:25382584

Lin, Wei; Pan, Yongxin

2015-04-01

128

Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally called the candidate phylum OP10.  

PubMed

A novel aerobic, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, strain YO-36(T), isolated from the rhizoplane of an aquatic plant (a reed, Phragmites australis) inhabiting a freshwater lake in Japan, was morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically characterized. Strain YO-36(T) was Gram-negative and ovoid to rod-shaped, and formed pinkish hard colonies on agar plates. Strain YO-36(T) grew at 20-40 °C with optimum growth at 30-35 °C, whilst no growth was observed at 15 °C or 45 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-8.5 with an optimum at pH 6.5. Strain YO-36(T) utilized a limited range of substrates, such as sucrose, gentiobiose, pectin, gellan gum and xanthan gum. The strain contained C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1), C(14 : 0) and C(15 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acids and menaquinone-12 as the respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YO-36(T) belonged to the candidate phylum OP10 comprised solely of environmental 16S rRNA gene clone sequences except for two strains, P488 and T49 isolated from geothermal soil in New Zealand; strain YO-36(T) showed less than 80 % sequence similarity to strains P488 and T47. Based on the phylogetic and phenotypic findings, a new genus and species, Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the isolate (type strain YO-36(T) ?=?NBRC 105658(T) ?=?DSM 23562(T)). In addition, a new bacterial phylum named Armatimonadetes phyl. nov. is proposed for the candidate phylum OP10 represented by A. rosea gen. nov., sp. nov. and Armatimonadaceae fam. nov., Armatimonadales ord. nov., and Armatimonadia classis nov. PMID:20622056

Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Meng, Xian-Ying; Hanada, Satoshi; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

2011-06-01

129

Isospora dromaii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae (Casuariiformes, Casuariidae).  

PubMed

A new species of Coccidia (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae, which was observed in Brazil is described and named. Oocysts of Isospora dromaii n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoid in shape, measure 21.6?×?19.8 ?m, and have a double and smooth wall thickness of approximately 1.4 ?m. In this species, micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granules are absent. The sporocysts are slightly ovoid in shape and measure 13.7?×?10.0 ?m. Nipple-like Stieda body and prominent sub-Stieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small dispersed granules of varying sizes. The sporozoites are characterized by an oblong refractile body and one centrally located nucleus. This is the first description of isosporid coccidia infecting birds of the family Dromaiidae. PMID:25195056

dos Santos Teixeira, Carina; Gallo, Samira Salim Mello; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

2014-11-01

130

Attenuated reproduction of Strombus gigas by an Apicomplexa: Emeriidae-like parasite in the digestive gland.  

PubMed

An intense and generalized sporozoan infection was detected in every population of the queen conch, Strombus gigas through the Caribbean. In this contribution we establish the relationship between occurrences of an Apicomplexa: Emeriidae-like organism and reproductive activity at San Andres archipelago, Colombia. Occurrence of the parasites was estimated counting the feeding stage Merozoites and cysts Sporozoites at 40× magnification. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) was made to correlate the parasites stages abundance with frequency of the reproductive stages. Gametogenesis and spawning were always low coinciding with high numbers of Merozoites, a positive correlation was established between parasite abundance with reabsorption and undifferentiated stages, and negative correlation was observed between parasite abundance with maturity and spawning stages. The nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) shows that gametogenesis, maturity and spawning increase as the number of parasites decrease, factor that could be threatening reproduction of S. gigas through the Caribbean. PMID:22484565

Baqueiro Cardenas, Erick; Montero, Jorge; Frenkiel, Liliane; Aldana Aranda, Dalila

2012-07-01

131

Identifying Novel Cell Cycle Proteins in Apicomplexa Parasites through Co-Expression Decision Analysis  

PubMed Central

Hypothetical proteins comprise roughly half of the predicted gene complement of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum and represent the largest class of uniquely functioning proteins in these parasites. Following the idea that functional relationships can be informed by the timing of gene expression, we devised a strategy to identify the core set of apicomplexan cell division cycling genes with important roles in parasite division, which includes many uncharacterized proteins. We assembled an expanded list of orthologs from the T. gondii and P. falciparum genome sequences (2781 putative orthologs), compared their mRNA profiles during synchronous replication, and sorted the resulting set of dual cell cycle regulated orthologs (744 total) into protein pairs conserved across many eukaryotic families versus those unique to the Apicomplexa. The analysis identified more than 100 ortholog gene pairs with unknown function in T. gondii and P. falciparum that displayed co-conserved mRNA abundance, dynamics of cyclical expression and similar peak timing that spanned the complete division cycle in each parasite. The unknown cyclical mRNAs encoded a diverse set of proteins with a wide range of mass and showed a remarkable conservation in the internal organization of ordered versus disordered structural domains. A representative sample of cyclical unknown genes (16 total) was epitope tagged in T. gondii tachyzoites yielding the discovery of new protein constituents of the parasite inner membrane complex, key mitotic structures and invasion organelles. These results demonstrate the utility of using gene expression timing and dynamic profile to identify proteins with unique roles in Apicomplexa biology. PMID:24841368

Butler, Carrie L.; Lucas, Olivier; Wuchty, Stefan; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N.; White, Michael

2014-01-01

132

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds. PMID:521379

Carpenter, J W; Spraker, T R; Gardiner, C H; Novilla, M N

1979-11-01

133

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

1979-01-01

134

Protozoan parasites and type I interferons: a cold case reopened.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, trypanosomes, and Leishmania, are a major cause of disease in both humans and other animals, highlighting the need to understand the full spectrum of strategies used by the host immune system to sense and respond to parasite infection. Although type II interferon (IFN-?) has long been recognized as an essential antiparasite immune effector, much less is known about the role of type I interferons (IFN-? and -?) in host defense, particularly in vivo. Recent studies are reviewed which collectively highlight that type I IFN can be induced in response to parasite infection and influence the outcome of infection. PMID:25153940

Beiting, Daniel P

2014-10-01

135

Vertebrate Cell Cycle Modulates Infection by Protozoan Parasites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronized HeLa cell populations were exposed to Trypanosoma cruzi or Toxoplasma gondii, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that cause Chagas' disease and toxoplasmosis, respectively, in humans. The ability of the two parasites to infect HeLa cells increased as the HeLa cells proceeded from the G1 phase to the S phase of their growth cycle and decreased as the cells entered G2-M. Characterization of the S-phase cell surface components responsible for this phenomenon could be beneficial in the development of vaccines against these parasitic diseases.

Dvorak, James A.; Crane, Mark St. J.

1981-11-01

136

Besnoitia neotomofelis n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain species of the protozoan genus Besnoitia cause clinical disease in livestock and wildlife. In the present paper a new species, Besnoitia neotomofelis is described from the southern planes woodrat (Neotoma micropus). The parasite was detected by bioassay of woodrat tissues in out bred Swiss W...

137

Alteration of Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa: Eucoccidiorida) Oocyst Antigens Following Bleach Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Oocysts of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum are passed in infected feces and subsequently ingested by susceptible hosts, thus perpetuating transmission of the infection in the natural environment. Detection of oocysts is important to the water industry, especially in treatment plants using sanitizing and disinfecting chemicals. Commercial bleach containing sodium hypochlorite is frequently used by researchers to decontaminate the

Sheng-Fa LIAO; Chunwei DU; Shiguang YANG; Mark C. HEALEY

2001-01-01

138

The roles of intramembrane proteases in protozoan parasites?  

PubMed Central

Intramembrane proteolysis is widely conserved throughout different forms of life, with three major types of proteases being known for their ability to cleave peptide bonds directly within the transmembrane domains of their substrates. Although intramembrane proteases have been extensively studied in humans and model organisms, they have only more recently been investigated in protozoan parasites, where they turn out to play important and sometimes unexpected roles. Signal peptide peptidases are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and signal peptide degradation from exported proteins. Recent studies suggest that repurposing inhibitors developed for blocking presenilins may be useful for inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium, and possibly other protozoan parasites, by blocking signal peptide peptidases. Rhomboid proteases, originally described in the fly, are also widespread in parasites, and are especially expanded in apicomplexans. Their study in parasites has revealed novel roles that expand our understanding of how these proteases function. Within this diverse group of parasites, rhomboid proteases contribute to processing of adhesins involved in attachment, invasion, intracellular replication, phagocytosis, and immune evasion, placing them at the vertex of host–parasite interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. PMID:24099008

Sibley, L. David

2013-01-01

139

Protozoan HSP90-heterocomplex: molecular interaction network and biological significance.  

PubMed

The HSP90 chaperone is a highly conserved protein from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, this chaperone participates in different large complexes, such as the HSP90 heterocomplex, which has important biological roles in cell homeostasis and differentiation. The HSP90-heterocomplex is also named the HSP90/HSP70 cycle because different co-chaperones (HIP, HSP40, HOP, p23, AHA1, immunophilins, PP5) participate in this complex by assembling sequentially, from the early to the mature complex. In this review, we analyze the conservation and relevance of HSP90 and the HSP90-heterocomplex in several protozoan parasites, with emphasis in Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma spp., Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma spp. In the last years, there has been an outburst of studies based on yeast two-hybrid methodology, co-immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, which have generated a most comprehensive protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of HSP90 and its co-chaperones. This review analyzes the existing PPI networks of HSP90 and its co-chaperones of some protozoan parasites and discusses the usefulness of these powerful tools to analyze the biological role of the HSP90-heterocomplex in these parasites. The generation of a T. gondii HSP90 heterocomplex PPI network based on experimental data and a recent Plasmodium HSP90 heterocomplex PPI network are also included and discussed. As an example, the putative implication of nuclear transport and chromatin (histones and Sir2) as HSP90-heterocomplex interactors is here discussed. PMID:24694366

Figueras, Maria J; Echeverria, Pablo C; Angel, Sergio O

2014-05-01

140

Chitinase Dependent Control of Protozoan Cyst Burden in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Chronic infections represent a continuous battle between the host's immune system and pathogen replication. Many protozoan parasites have evolved a cyst lifecycle stage that provides it with increased protection from environmental degradation as well as endogenous host mechanisms of attack. In the case of Toxoplasma gondii, these cysts are predominantly found in the immune protected brain making clearance of the parasite more difficult and resulting in a lifelong infection. Currently, little is known about the nature of the immune response stimulated by the presence of these cysts or how they are able to propagate. Here we establish a novel chitinase-dependent mechanism of cyst control in the infected brain. Despite a dominant Th1 immune response during Toxoplasma infection there exists a population of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMØ) in the infected CNS. These cells are capable of cyst lysis via the production of AMCase as revealed by live imaging, and this chitinase is necessary for protective immunity within the CNS. These data demonstrate chitinase activity in the brain in response to a protozoan pathogen and provide a novel mechanism to facilitate cyst clearance during chronic infections. PMID:23209401

Nance, J. Philip; Vannella, Kevin M.; Worth, Danielle; David, Clément; Carter, David; Noor, Shahani; Hubeau, Cedric; Fitz, Lori; Lane, Thomas E.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Wilson, Emma H.

2012-01-01

141

Phylogeny of Arenig to Caradoc crinoids (Phylum Echinodermata) and suprageneric classification of the Crinoidea  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS June 1998 Number 9 PHYLOGENY OF ARENIG TO CARADOC CRINOIDS (PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA) AND SUPRAGENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE CRINOIDEA William I. Ausich Department of Geological Sciences, 155 South...), Kelly (1982, 1986), Donovan (1988a), Sevastopulo and Lane (1988), Simms and Sevastopulo (1993), and others. 2 The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions Developed herein is a comprehensive phylogeny of Arenig to Caradoc crinoids by a...

Ausich, W. I.

1998-06-01

142

Detection and in situ identification of representatives of a widely distributed new bacterial phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning from soil samples taken periodically from a field with genetically modified plants. Sequence analyses of the cloned rDNAs indicated that 140 of them clustered apart from known bacterial phyla. Based on 31 full sequences a new phylum could be defined. It includes Holophaga foetida, `Geothrix fermentans' and

Wolfgang Ludwig; Stephan H. Bauer; Marc Bauer; Iris Held; Gudrun Kirchhof; Renate Schulze; Ingrid Huber; Stefan Spring; Anton Hartmann; Karl Heinz Schleifer

1997-01-01

143

Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain\\u000a poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes\\u000a in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum)\\u000a are important

Adaíses S. Maciel-Silva; Ivany Ferraz Marques Válio; Håkan Rydin

144

Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary: The phylum Actinobacteria harbors many important human pathogens and also provides one of the richest sources of natural products, including numerous antibiotics and other compounds of biotechnological interest. Thus, a reliable phylogeny of this large phylum and the means to accurately identify its different constituent groups are of much interest. Detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses of >150 actinobacterial genomes reported here form the basis for achieving these objectives. In phylogenetic trees based upon 35 conserved proteins, most of the main groups of Actinobacteria as well as a number of their superageneric clades are resolved. We also describe large numbers of molecular markers consisting of conserved signature indels in protein sequences and whole proteins that are specific for either all Actinobacteria or their different clades (viz., orders, families, genera, and subgenera) at various taxonomic levels. These signatures independently support the existence of different phylogenetic clades, and based upon them, it is now possible to delimit the phylum Actinobacteria (excluding Coriobacteriia) and most of its major groups in clear molecular terms. The species distribution patterns of these markers also provide important information regarding the interrelationships among different main orders of Actinobacteria. The identified molecular markers, in addition to enabling the development of a stable and reliable phylogenetic framework for this phylum, also provide novel and powerful means for the identification of different groups of Actinobacteria in diverse environments. Genetic and biochemical studies on these Actinobacteria-specific markers should lead to the discovery of novel biochemical and/or other properties that are unique to different groups of Actinobacteria. PMID:22390973

Gao, Beile

2012-01-01

145

Cytosine methylation is a conserved epigenetic feature found throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes  

PubMed Central

Background The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) contains an important group of bilaterian organisms responsible for many debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations inhabiting the planet today. In addition to their biomedical and veterinary relevance, some platyhelminths are also frequently used models for understanding tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the molecular (genetic and epigenetic) characteristics that underlie trophic specialism, pathogenicity or developmental maturation are likely to be pivotal in our continued studies of this important metazoan group. Indeed, in contrast to earlier studies that failed to detect evidence of cytosine or adenine methylation in parasitic flatworm taxa, our laboratory has recently defined a critical role for cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development. Thus, in order to identify whether this epigenetic modification features in other platyhelminth species or is a novelty of S. mansoni, we conducted a study simultaneously surveying for DNA methylation machinery components and DNA methylation marks throughout the phylum using both parasitic and non-parasitic representatives. Results Firstly, using both S. mansoni DNA methyltransferase 2 (SmDNMT2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (SmMBD) as query sequences, we illustrate that essential DNA methylation machinery components are well conserved throughout the phylum. Secondly, using both molecular (methylation specific amplification polymorphism, MSAP) and immunological (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, ELISA) methodologies, we demonstrate that representative species (Echinococcus multilocularis, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Polycelis nigra) within all four platyhelminth classes (Cestoda, Monogenea, Trematoda and ‘Turbellaria’) contain methylated cytosines within their genome compartments. Conclusions Collectively, these findings provide the first direct evidence for a functionally conserved and enzymatically active DNA methylation system throughout the Platyhelminthes. Defining how this epigenetic feature shapes phenotypic diversity and development within the phylum represents an exciting new area of metazoan biology. PMID:23837670

2013-01-01

146

Antifilarial activity of Zoanthus species (Phylum Coelenterata, Class Anthzoa) against human lymphatic filaria, Brugia malayi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloroform methanol (1:1) extract of an unidentified green zoanthus (Phylum Coelenterata, Class Anthozoa) showed promising in vitro adulticidal activity with a lethal concentration of 125 ?g\\/ml on Brugia malayi. This extract brought about a 52.2% reduction in circulating microfilariae of B. malayi when administered to infected Mastomys coucha at 250 mg\\/kg, orally for 5 consecutive days. Further fractionation of the extract

V. Lakshmi; A. Saxena; K. Pandey; Preeti Bajpai; Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya

2004-01-01

147

Phylogenomic evaluation of members above the species level within the phylum Firmicutes based on conserved proteins.  

PubMed

Currently, numerous taxonomic units above species level of the phylum Firmicutes are ambiguously placed in the phylogeny determined by 16S rRNA gene. Here, we evaluated the use of 16S rRNA gene compared with 81 conserved proteins (CPs) or 41 ribosomal proteins (RPs) as phylogenetic markers and applied this to the analysis of the phylum Firmicutes. Results show that the phylogenetic trees constructed are in good agreement with each other; however, the protein-based trees are able to resolve the relationships between several branches where so far only ambiguous classifications are possible. Thus, the phylogeny deduced based on concatenated proteins provides significant basis for re-classifying members in this phylum. It indicates that the genera Coprothermobacter and Thermodesulfobium represent two new phyla; the families Paenibacillaceae and Alicyclobacillaceae should be elevated to order level; and the families Bacillaceae and Thermodesulfobiaceae should be separated to 2 and 3 families respectively. We also suggest that four novel families should be proposed in the orders Clostridiales and Bacillales, and 11 genera should be moved to other existing families different from the current classification status. Moreover, notably, RPs are a well-suited subset of CPs that could be applied to Firmicutes phylogenetic analysis instead of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:25403554

Zhang, Weiwei; Lu, Zhitang

2015-04-01

148

Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes  

PubMed Central

The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

Zhu, Yongtao

2013-01-01

149

Crystal growth of bullet-shaped magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria of the Nitrospirae phylum.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to produce single-domain magnetite or greigite crystals within intracellular membrane organelles and to navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines. MTB have been suggested as being one of the most ancient biomineralizing metabolisms on the Earth and they represent a fundamental model of intracellular biomineralization. Moreover, the determination of their specific crystallographic signature (e.g. structure and morphology) is essential for palaeoenvironmental and ancient-life studies. Yet, the mechanisms of MTB biomineralization remain poorly understood, although this process has been extensively studied in several cultured MTB strains in the Proteobacteria phylum. Here, we show a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of magnetic and structural properties down to atomic scales on bullet-shaped magnetites produced by the uncultured strain MYR-1 belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum, a deeply branching phylogenetic MTB group. We observed a multiple-step crystal growth of MYR-1 magnetite: initial isotropic growth forming cubo-octahedral particles (less than approx. 40 nm), subsequent anisotropic growth and a systematic final elongation along [001] direction. During the crystal growth, one major {111} face is well developed and preserved at the larger basal end of the crystal. The basal {111} face appears to be terminated by a tetrahedral-octahedral-mixed iron surface, suggesting dimensional advantages for binding protein(s), which may template the crystallization of magnetite. This study offers new insights for understanding magnetite biomineralization within the Nitrospirae phylum. PMID:25566884

Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Gatel, Christophe; Boureau, Victor; Snoeck, Etienne; Patriarche, Gilles; Leroy, Eric; Pan, Yongxin

2015-02-01

150

Molecular Characterization of a Protozoan Parasite Target Antigen Recognized by Nonspecific Cytotoxic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target cell antigen(s) on tumor cells and on protozoan parasites recognized by NK and nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCC) has not yet been specifically identified. NCC may be the teleost equivalent of NK cells and IL-2-activated NK cells. A ligand recognized by NCC has been identified. It is expressed on both protozoan parasites and mammalian tumor target cells. In the

Liliana Jaso-Friedmann; John H. Leary; Jaimie Warren; Royal A. McGraw; Donald L. Evans

1997-01-01

151

Genome analysis of Elusimicrobium minutum, the first cultivated representative of the Elusimicrobia phylum (formerly Termite Group 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The candidate phylum Termite group 1 (TG1), is regularly 1 encountered in termite hindguts but is present also in many other habitats. Here we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of Elusimicrobium minutum strain Pei191{sup T}, the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut

D. P. R. Herlemann; O. Geissinger; W. Ikeda-Ohtsubo; V. Kunin; H. Sun; A. Lapidus; P. Hugenholtz; A. Brune

2009-01-01

152

A comparison of rapid and conventional measures of indicator bacteria as predictors of waterborne protozoan pathogen presence and density  

E-print Network

protozoan pathogen presence and density Samuel Dorevitch,*abc Mary Doi,b Fu-Chih Hsu,ad King-Teh Lin. Introduction A variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens have been identified as causes

Illinois at Chicago, University of

153

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including or transplant therapy or individuals that are positive for HIV. Biology Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan

Wood, Marcelo A.

154

Interferon in resistance to bacterial and protozoan infections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of genetic differences in mouse strains on the modulation of protozoan infections by interferon (IFN) were investigated. In one set of experiments, three different strains of mice were injected with T. cruzi, and their sera were assayed at five time intervals for IFN titer. A greater quantity of IFN was produced by mouse strains that were susceptible to T. cruzi infection than by the more resistant strain. In another set of experiments, spleen cell cultures from inbred strains of mice were challenged with an antigen made from T.b. rhodesiense. The cells from mice resistant to infection, produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from the susceptible mice. In a third set of experiments, it was found that mice injected with T.b. rhodesiense before being infected with a diabetogenic virus (EMC-D) were resistant to the effects of the virus and did not produce virus-specific antibody.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Gould, Cheryl L.; Kierszenbaum, Felipe; Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.

1986-01-01

155

DNA Vaccines against Protozoan Parasites: Advances and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Over the past 15 years, DNA vaccines have gone from a scientific curiosity to one of the most dynamic research field and may offer new alternatives for the control of parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. We review here some of the advances and challenges for the development of DNA vaccines against these diseases. Many studies have validated the concept of using DNA vaccines for both protection and therapy against these protozoan parasites in a variety of mouse models. The challenge now is to translate what has been achieved in these models into veterinary or human vaccines of comparable efficacy. Also, genome-mining and new antigen discovery strategies may provide new tools for a more rational search of novel vaccine candidates. PMID:17710244

Dumonteil, Eric

2007-01-01

156

Mechanical Transmission of Human Protozoan Parasites by Insects  

PubMed Central

The filthy breeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make some groups of synanthropic insects such as nonbiting flies and cockroaches efficient vectors of human enteric protozoan parasites. Twenty-one species of filth flies have been listed by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation and public health as causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases based on synanthropy, endophily, communicative behavior, and strong attraction to filth and human food. Outbreaks and cases of food-borne diarrheal diseases in urban and rural areas are closely related to the seasonal increase in abundance of filth flies, and enforced fly control is closely related to reductions in the occurrence of such diseases. Mechanical transmission of human parasites by nonbiting flies and epidemiological involvement of other synanthropic insects in human food-borne diseases have not received adequate scientific attention. PMID:15653822

Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Knight, Ronald; Tamang, Leena

2005-01-01

157

Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects.  

PubMed

The filthy breeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make some groups of synanthropic insects such as nonbiting flies and cockroaches efficient vectors of human enteric protozoan parasites. Twenty-one species of filth flies have been listed by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation and public health as causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases based on synanthropy, endophily, communicative behavior, and strong attraction to filth and human food. Outbreaks and cases of food-borne diarrheal diseases in urban and rural areas are closely related to the seasonal increase in abundance of filth flies, and enforced fly control is closely related to reductions in the occurrence of such diseases. Mechanical transmission of human parasites by nonbiting flies and epidemiological involvement of other synanthropic insects in human food-borne diseases have not received adequate scientific attention. PMID:15653822

Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Knight, Ronald; Tamang, Leena

2005-01-01

158

Protozoan Parasites of Bivalve Molluscs: Literature Follows Culture  

PubMed Central

Bivalve molluscs are key components of the estuarine environments as contributors to the trophic chain, and as filter –feeders, for maintaining ecosystem integrity. Further, clams, oysters, and scallops are commercially exploited around the world both as traditional local shellfisheries, and as intensive or semi–intensive farming systems. During the past decades, populations of those species deemed of environmental or commercial interest have been subject to close monitoring given the realization that these can suffer significant decline, sometimes irreversible, due to overharvesting, environmental pollution, or disease. Protozoans of the genera Perkinsus, Haplosporidium, Marteilia, and Bonamia are currently recognized as major threats for natural and farmed bivalve populations. Since their identification, however, the variable publication rates of research studies addressing these parasitic diseases do not always appear to reflect their highly significant environmental and economic impact. Here we analyzed the peer– reviewed literature since the initial description of these parasites with the goal of identifying potential milestone discoveries or achievements that may have driven the intensity of the research in subsequent years, and significantly increased publication rates. Our analysis revealed that after initial description of the parasite as the etiological agent of a given disease, there is a time lag before a maximal number of yearly publications are reached. This has already taken place for most of them and has been followed by a decrease in publication rates over the last decade (20– to 30– year lifetime in the literature). Autocorrelation analyses, however, suggested that advances in parasite purification and culture methodologies positively drive publication rates, most likely because they usually lead to novel molecular tools and resources, promoting mechanistic studies. Understanding these trends should help researchers in prioritizing research efforts for these and other protozoan parasites, together with their development as model systems for further basic and translational research in parasitic diseases. PMID:24955977

Fernández Robledo, José A.; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Record, Nicholas R.

2014-01-01

159

Impact of water column acidification on protozoan bacterivory at the lake sediment-water interface  

SciTech Connect

Although the impact of acidification on planktonic grazer food webs has been extensively studied, little is known about microbial food webs either in the water column or in the sediments. Protozoan-bacterium interactions were investigated in a chronically acidified (acid mine drainage) portion of a lake in Virginia. The authors determined the distribution, abundance, apparent specific grazing rate, and growth rate of protozoa over a pH range of 3.6 to 6.5. Protozoan abundance was lower at the most acidified site, while abundance, in general, was high compared with other systems. Specific grazing rates were uncorrelated with pH and ranged between 0.02 and 0.23 h{sup {minus}1}, values similar to those in unacidified systems. The protozoan community from an acidified station was not better adapted to low-pH conditions than a community from an unacidified site (multivariate analysis of variance on growth rates for each community incubated at pHs 4, 5, and 6). Both communities had significantly lower growth rates at pHs 4 and 5 than at pH 6. Reduced protozoan growth rates coupled with high grazing rates and relatively higher bacterial yields (ratio of bacterial-protozoan standing stock) at low pH indicate reduced net protozoan growth efficiency and a metabolic cost of acidification to the protozoan community. However, the presence of an abundant, neutrophilic protozoan community and high bacterial grazing rates indicates that acidification of Lake Anna has not inhibited the bacterium-protozoan link of the sediment microbial food web.

Tremaine, S.C.; Mills, A.L. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1991-03-01

160

Distribution and diversity of members of the bacterial phylum Fibrobacteres in environments where cellulose degradation occurs.  

PubMed

The Fibrobacteres phylum contains two described species, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Fibrobacter intestinalis, both of which are prolific degraders of cellulosic plant biomass in the herbivore gut. However, recent 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have identified novel Fibrobacteres in landfill sites, freshwater lakes and the termite hindgut, suggesting that members of the Fibrobacteres occupy a broader ecological range than previously appreciated. In this study, the ecology and diversity of Fibrobacteres was evaluated in 64 samples from contrasting environments where cellulose degradation occurred. Fibrobacters were detected in 23 of the 64 samples using Fibrobacter genus-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR, which provided their first targeted detection in marine and estuarine sediments, cryoconite from Arctic glaciers, as well as a broader range of environmental samples. To determine the phylogenetic diversity of the Fibrobacteres phylum, Fibrobacter-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from 17 samples were sequenced (384 clones) and compared with all available Fibrobacteres sequences in the Ribosomal Database Project repository. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 63 lineages of Fibrobacteres (95% OTUs), with many representing as yet unclassified species. Of these, 24 OTUs were exclusively comprised of fibrobacters derived from environmental (non-gut) samples, 17 were exclusive to the mammalian gut, 15 to the termite hindgut, and 7 comprised both environmental and mammalian strains, thus establishing Fibrobacter spp. as indigenous members of microbial communities beyond the gut ecosystem. The data highlighted significant taxonomic and ecological diversity within the Fibrobacteres, a phylum circumscribed by potent cellulolytic activity, suggesting considerable functional importance in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass in the biosphere. PMID:25154048

Ransom-Jones, Emma; Jones, David L; Edwards, Arwyn; McDonald, James E

2014-10-01

161

Two new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.  

PubMed

Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Oöcysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated oöcysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modrý, D

2000-05-01

162

Occurrence of Apicomplexa-like structures in the digestive gland of Strombus gigas throughout the Caribbean.  

PubMed

The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a marine resource of ecological and economical importance in the Caribbean region. Given its importance in this region, and the critical status of most populations, the reproductive biology of this species has been studied to support management decisions. It was from these studies that a generalized sporozoan infection was detected. This study describes the geographic distribution of a coccidian (Apicomplexa) parasite infecting the digestive gland of S. gigas throughout the Caribbean. The parasite was present in every location sampled. Based on histological analysis, the parasites from all locations are similar and appear to complete their life cycle within the digestive gland. The highest occurrence of the parasites was registered in samples from Puerto Rico (54 parasites per field) and Martinique (45 parasites per field). The lowest incidence was registered on the Mexican coast of Yucatan peninsula, at Alacranes and Chinchorro with 17 parasites per field. Data showed significant differences among sites (Kruskal Wallis H=106.957; p ? 0.05). The abundance of parasites found in the digestive ducts and in the faeces suggests the liberation of parasites to the environment. A gradual decrease in abundance was found from East to West of the Caribbean sea. PMID:20851703

Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Frenkiel, Liliane; Brulé, Thierry; Montero, Jorge; Cárdenas, Erick Baqueiro

2011-02-01

163

Potential Conservation of Circadian Clock Proteins in the phylum Nematoda as Revealed by Bioinformatic Searches  

PubMed Central

Although several circadian rhythms have been described in C. elegans, its molecular clock remains elusive. In this work we employed a novel bioinformatic approach, applying probabilistic methodologies, to search for circadian clock proteins of several of the best studied circadian model organisms of different taxa (Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechoccocus elongatus) in the proteomes of C. elegans and other members of the phylum Nematoda. With this approach we found that the Nematoda contain proteins most related to the core and accessory proteins of the insect and mammalian clocks, which provide new insights into the nematode clock and the evolution of the circadian system. PMID:25396739

Romanowski, Andrés; Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Goya, María Eugenia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Golombek, Diego Andrés

2014-01-01

164

The red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, a native definitive host of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa) in North America.  

PubMed

Oral inoculation of prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, with coccidian sporocysts isolated from the feces of a red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, in Kansas, USA, resulted in formation of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) tissue cysts in the brains of the voles. Five additional isolates of morphologically similar sporocysts collected from red-tailed hawks or other Buteo spp. in Kansas failed to result in detectable infections in rodents. These results are the first to verify that red-tailed hawks are natural definitive host in North America for F. microti. PMID:1548806

Upton, S J; McKown, R D

1992-01-01

165

First Cultivation and Ecological Investigation of a Bacterium Affiliated with the Candidate Phylum OP5 from Hot Springs ?  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic group termed OP5 was originally discovered in the Yellowstone National Park hot spring and proposed as an uncultured phylum; the group was afterwards analyzed by applying culture-independent approaches. Recently, a novel thermophilic chemoheterotrophic filamentous bacterium was obtained from a hot spring in Japan that was enriched through various isolation procedures. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolate have revealed that it is closely related to the OP5 phylum that has mainly been constructed with the environmental clones retrieved from thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic environments. It appears that the lineage is independent at the phylum level in the domain Bacteria. Therefore, we designed a primer set for the 16S rRNA gene to specifically target the OP5 phylum and performed quantitative field analysis by using the real-time PCR method. Thus, the 16S rRNA gene of the OP5 phylum was detected in some hot-spring samples with the relative abundance ranging from 0.2% to 1.4% of the prokaryotic organisms detected. The physiology of the above-mentioned isolate and the related environmental clones indicated that they are scavengers contributing to the sulfur cycle in nature. PMID:18776034

Mori, Koji; Sunamura, Michinari; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Miyoshi, Youko; Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Urabe, Tetsuro

2008-01-01

166

Trichurispora wellgundis n. g., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Hirmocystidae) Parasitizing Adult Water Scavenger Beetles, Tropisternus collaris (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) in the Texas Big Thicket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichurispora wellgundis n. g., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Hirmocystidae) is described from the adults of the water scavenger beetle Tropisternus collaris (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) collected from B A Steinhagen Lake in the Cherokee Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve, Tyler County, Texas, U.S.A. Trichurispora is distinguished from known genera of Hirmocystidae by a distinct ''trichurisiform'' oocyst that is hesperidiform in

R. E. Clopton; T. J. Cook; J. L. Cook

2008-01-01

167

Eimeria Species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Arctic Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus parryii ) and Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%),

Robert S. Seville; Clint E. Oliver; Andrew J. Lynch; Michelle C. Bryant; Donald W. Duszynski

2005-01-01

168

Structure and mechanics of the spasmoneme, a biological spring within the protozoan Vorticella convallaria  

E-print Network

Molecular springs have recently emerged as the basis for the fastest and most powerful movements at the cellular level in biology. The spasmoneme of the protozoan, Vorticella convallaria, is a model molecular spring, relying ...

France, Danielle Cook

2007-01-01

169

Lipophosphoglycan is a virulence factor distinct from related glycoconjugates in the protozoan parasite  

E-print Network

galactofuranose Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a disease, depending on the species, bear additional substitutions); and a neutral capping oligosac- charide (2). Beca

Beverley, Stephen M.

170

From incipient to substantial: evolution of placentotrophy in a phylum of aquatic colonial invertebrates.  

PubMed

Matrotrophy has long been known in invertebrates, but it is still poorly understood and has never been reviewed. A striking example of matrotrophy (namely, placentotrophy) is provided by the Bryozoa, a medium-sized phylum of the aquatic colonial filter feeders. Here I report on an extensive anatomical study of placental analogues in 21 species of the bryozoan order Cheilostomata, offering the first review on matrotrophy among aquatic invertebrates. The first anatomical description of incipient placentotrophy in invertebrates is presented together with the evidence for multiple independent origins of placental analogues in this order. The combinations of contrasting oocytic types (macrolecithal or microlecithal) and various degrees of placental development and embryonic enlargement during incubation, found in different bryozoan species, are suggestive of a transitional series from the incipient to the substantial placentotrophy accompanied by an inverse change in oogenesis, a situation reminiscent of some vertebrates. It seems that matrotrophy could trigger the evolution of sexual zooidal polymorphism in some clades. The results of this study show that this phylum, with its wide variety of reproductive patterns, incubation devices, and types of the simple placenta-like systems, offers a promising model for studying parallel evolution of placentotrophy in particular, and matrotrophy in general. PMID:23617914

Ostrovsky, Andrew N

2013-05-01

171

FROM INCIPIENT TO SUBSTANTIAL: EVOLUTION OF PLACENTOTROPHY IN A PHYLUM OF AQUATIC COLONIAL INVERTEBRATES  

PubMed Central

Matrotrophy has long been known in invertebrates, but it is still poorly understood and has never been reviewed. A striking example of matrotrophy (namely, placentotrophy) is provided by the Bryozoa, a medium-sized phylum of the aquatic colonial filter feeders. Here I report on an extensive anatomical study of placental analogues in 21 species of the bryozoan order Cheilostomata, offering the first review on matrotrophy among aquatic invertebrates. The first anatomical description of incipient placentotrophy in invertebrates is presented together with the evidence for multiple independent origins of placental analogues in this order. The combinations of contrasting oocytic types (macrolecithal or microlecithal) and various degrees of placental development and embryonic enlargement during incubation, found in different bryozoan species, are suggestive of a transitional series from the incipient to the substantial placentotrophy accompanied by an inverse change in oogenesis, a situation reminiscent of some vertebrates. It seems that matrotrophy could trigger the evolution of sexual zooidal polymorphism in some clades. The results of this study show that this phylum, with its wide variety of reproductive patterns, incubation devices, and types of the simple placenta-like systems, offers a promising model for studying parallel evolution of placentotrophy in particular, and matrotrophy in general. PMID:23617914

Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Fairbairn, D

2013-01-01

172

The first complete genome sequence of the class Fimbriimonadia in the phylum Armatimonadetes.  

PubMed

In this study, we present the complete genome of Fimbriimonas ginsengisoli Gsoil 348T belonging to the class Fimbriimonadia of the phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly called as candidate phylum OP10. The complete genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5.23 Mb including a 45.5 kb prophage. Of the 4820 open reading frames (ORFs), 3,000 (62.2%) genes could be classified into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) families. With the split of rRNA genes, strain Gsoil 348T had no typical 16S-23S-5S ribosomal RNA operon. In this genome, the GC skew inversion which was usually observed in archaea was found. The predicted gene functions suggest that the organism lacks the ability to synthesize histidine, and the TCA cycle is incomplete. Phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal proteins indicated that strain Gsoil 348T represents a deeply branching lineage of sufficient divergence with other phyla, but also strongly involved in superphylum Terrabacteria. PMID:24967843

Hu, Zi-Ye; Wang, Yue-Zhu; Im, Wan-Taek; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Quan, Zhe-Xue

2014-01-01

173

Functional type 2 photosynthetic reaction centers found in the rare bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic bacteria emerged on Earth more than 3 Gyr ago. To date, despite a long evolutionary history, species containing (bacterio)chlorophyll-based reaction centers have been reported in only 6 out of more than 30 formally described bacterial phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria. Here we describe a bacteriochlorophyll a-producing isolate AP64 that belongs to the poorly characterized phylum Gemmatimonadetes. This red-pigmented semiaerobic strain was isolated from a freshwater lake in the western Gobi Desert. It contains fully functional type 2 (pheophytin-quinone) photosynthetic reaction centers but does not assimilate inorganic carbon, suggesting that it performs a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Full genome sequencing revealed the presence of a 42.3-kb–long photosynthesis gene cluster (PGC) in its genome. The organization and phylogeny of its photosynthesis genes suggests an ancient acquisition of PGC via horizontal transfer from purple phototrophic bacteria. The data presented here document that Gemmatimonadetes is the seventh bacterial phylum containing (bacterio)chlorophyll-based phototrophic species. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence that (bacterio)chlorophyll-based phototrophy can be transferred between distant bacterial phyla, providing new insights into the evolution of bacterial photosynthesis. PMID:24821787

Zeng, Yonghui; Feng, Fuying; Medová, Hana; Dean, Jason; Koblížek, Michal

2014-01-01

174

Functional type 2 photosynthetic reaction centers found in the rare bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic bacteria emerged on Earth more than 3 Gyr ago. To date, despite a long evolutionary history, species containing (bacterio)chlorophyll-based reaction centers have been reported in only 6 out of more than 30 formally described bacterial phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria. Here we describe a bacteriochlorophyll a-producing isolate AP64 that belongs to the poorly characterized phylum Gemmatimonadetes. This red-pigmented semiaerobic strain was isolated from a freshwater lake in the western Gobi Desert. It contains fully functional type 2 (pheophytin-quinone) photosynthetic reaction centers but does not assimilate inorganic carbon, suggesting that it performs a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Full genome sequencing revealed the presence of a 42.3-kb-long photosynthesis gene cluster (PGC) in its genome. The organization and phylogeny of its photosynthesis genes suggests an ancient acquisition of PGC via horizontal transfer from purple phototrophic bacteria. The data presented here document that Gemmatimonadetes is the seventh bacterial phylum containing (bacterio)chlorophyll-based phototrophic species. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence that (bacterio)chlorophyll-based phototrophy can be transferred between distant bacterial phyla, providing new insights into the evolution of bacterial photosynthesis. PMID:24821787

Zeng, Yonghui; Feng, Fuying; Medová, Hana; Dean, Jason; Koblížek, Michal

2014-05-27

175

The phylogeography of the Placozoa suggests a taxon-rich phylum in tropical and subtropical waters.  

PubMed

Placozoa has been a key phylum for understanding early metazoan evolution. Yet this phylum is officially monotypic and with respect to its general biology and ecology has remained widely unknown. Worldwide sampling and sequencing of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S) reveals a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical and subtropical waters of genetically different clades. We sampled a total of 39 tropical and subtropical locations worldwide and found 23 positive sites for placozoans. The number of genetically characterized sites was thereby increased from 15 to 37. The new sampling identified the first genotypes from two new oceanographic regions, the Eastern Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. We found seven out of 11 previously known haplotypes as well as five new haplotypes. One haplotype resembles a new genetic clade, increasing the number of clades from six to seven. Some of these clades seem to be cosmopolitan whereas others appear to be endemic. The phylogeography also shows that different clades occupy different ecological niches and identifies several euryoecious haplotypes with a cosmopolitic distribution as well as some stenoecious haplotypes with an endemic distribution. Haplotypes of different clades differ substantially in their phylogeographic distribution according to latitude. The genetic data also suggest deep phylogenetic branching patterns between clades. PMID:20604867

Eitel, M; Schierwater, B

2010-06-01

176

The First Complete Genome Sequence of the Class Fimbriimonadia in the Phylum Armatimonadetes  

PubMed Central

In this study, we present the complete genome of Fimbriimonas ginsengisoli Gsoil 348T belonging to the class Fimbriimonadia of the phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly called as candidate phylum OP10. The complete genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5.23 Mb including a 45.5 kb prophage. Of the 4820 open reading frames (ORFs), 3,000 (62.2%) genes could be classified into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) families. With the split of rRNA genes, strain Gsoil 348T had no typical 16S-23S-5S ribosomal RNA operon. In this genome, the GC skew inversion which was usually observed in archaea was found. The predicted gene functions suggest that the organism lacks the ability to synthesize histidine, and the TCA cycle is incomplete. Phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal proteins indicated that strain Gsoil 348T represents a deeply branching lineage of sufficient divergence with other phyla, but also strongly involved in superphylum Terrabacteria. PMID:24967843

Im, Wan-Taek; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Quan, Zhe-Xue

2014-01-01

177

Distribution and Evolution of Nitrogen Fixation Genes in the Phylum Bacteroidetes  

PubMed Central

Diazotrophs had not previously been identified among bacterial species in the phylum Bacteroidetes until the rapid expansion of bacterial genome sequences, which revealed the presence of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in this phylum. We herein determined the draft genome sequences of Bacteroides graminisolvens JCM 15093T and Geofilum rubicundum JCM 15548T. In addition to these and previously reported ‘Candidatus Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae’ and Paludibacter propionicigenes, an extensive survey of the genome sequences of diverse Bacteroidetes members revealed the presence of a set of nif genes (nifHDKENB) in strains of Dysgonomonas gadei, Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides, Saccharicrinis fermentans, and Alkaliflexus imshenetskii. These eight species belonged to and were distributed sporadically within the order Bacteroidales. Acetylene reduction activity was detected in the five species examined, strongly suggesting their diazotrophic nature. Phylogenetic analyses showed monophyletic clustering of the six Nif protein sequences in the eight Bacteroidales species, implying that nitrogen fixation is ancestral to Bacteroidales and has been retained in these species, but lost in many other lineages. The identification of nif genes in Bacteroidales facilitates the prediction of the organismal origins of related sequences directly obtained from various environments. PMID:25736980

Inoue, Jun-ichi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Iino, Takao; Noda, Satoko; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2015-01-01

178

Phylum-Specific Regulation of Resistomycin Production in a Streptomyces sp. via Microbial Coculture.  

PubMed

Actinomycete genomes are encoded with immense potential to produce secondary metabolites, however standard laboratory culture experiments rarely provide the conditions under which associated biosynthetic pathways are expressed. Despite years of research attempting to access these pathways and aside from a few well-studied bacterial quorum sensing systems, little is known about the specificity of secondary metabolite regulation in bacteria, such as the conditions under which a bacterium produces an antibiotic and the extent to which it does so in recognition of a particular species in the immediate environment. In the current study, we observed that the cocultivation of a Streptomyces sp. (strain B033) with four pathogenic strains of the phylum Proteobacteria resulted in the production of the antibiotic resistomycin. After further coculture experiments, we determined that Proteobacteria induced the production of resistomycin in B033 at significantly higher rates (65%) than strains from the phyla Firmicutes (5.9%) and Actinobacteria (9.1%), supporting that the regulation of secondary metabolism in bacteria can be dependent on the species present in the immediate environment. These results suggest a lack of promiscuity of antibiotic biosynthetic pathway regulation and indicate that it is feasible to mine existing microbial strain libraries for antibiotics in a phylum-specific manner. PMID:25537064

Carlson, Skylar; Tanouye, Urszula; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Murphy, Brian T

2015-03-27

179

[Prevalence of protozoans in children with acute diarrheal disease].  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-September 1991 in the oral rehydration unit of a children's hospital in Santo Domingo to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa as a cause of diarrhea. The 100 randomly selected children were aged 3-35 months and had light to moderate dehydration and diarrhea of less than 15 days' duration. The relationship between the presence of protozoans and various risk factors was assessed following the model of a case control study, with children having protozoa infections considered cases and those with diarrhea but not protozoa infections considered controls. 79 of the children were under 1 year old. 36% were malnourished. 60% of the children's families had inadequate garbage disposal facilities, 23% lived in crowded conditions (defined as more than 3 persons per room), 10% drank nonpotable water, 7% lacked piped water, and 2% had no toilet facilities. 66% of the children were found to be positive for protozoa, with 26% positive for Giardia lamblia, 19% for Entamoeba histolytica, 17% for Cryptosporidium, 2% for Dientamoeba fragilis, and 2% for Isospora belli. 6 cases of mixed infection were observed. A significant relationship was found between infection and garbage disposal in the open air and between infection and ingestion of nonpotable water. The high prevalence of protozoa infection is consistent with recent clinical observations. Public health measures should be taken to improve sanitation and personal hygiene. PMID:12290552

Tavarez, L A; Pena, F; Placencia, F; Mendoza, H R; Polanco, D

1991-01-01

180

ProtozoaDB: dynamic visualization and exploration of protozoan genomes  

PubMed Central

ProtozoaDB (http://www.biowebdb.org/protozoadb) is being developed to initially host both genomics and post-genomics data from Plasmodium falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi and Leishmania major, but will hopefully host other protozoan species as more genomes are sequenced. It is based on the Genomics Unified Schema and offers a modern Web-based interface for user-friendly data visualization and exploration. This database is not intended to duplicate other similar efforts such as GeneDB, PlasmoDB, TcruziDB or even TDRtargets, but to be complementary by providing further analyses with emphasis on distant similarities (HMM-based) and phylogeny-based annotations including orthology analysis. ProtozoaDB will be progressively linked to the above-mentioned databases, focusing in performing a multi-source dynamic combination of information through advanced interoperable Web tools such as Web services. Also, to provide Web services will allow third-party software to retrieve and use data from ProtozoaDB in automated pipelines (workflows) or other interoperable Web technologies, promoting better information reuse and integration. We also expect ProtozoaDB to catalyze the development of local and regional bioinformatics capabilities (research and training), and therefore promote/enhance scientific advancement in developing countries. PMID:17981844

Dávila, Alberto M. R.; Mendes, Pablo N.; Wagner, Glauber; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; Liberman, Felipe; Matos, Luciana; Satake, Thiago; Ocaña, Kary A. C. S.; Triana, Omar; Cruz, Sérgio M. S.; Jucá, Henrique C. L.; Cury, Juliano C.; Silva, Fabricio N.; Geronimo, Guilherme A.; Ruiz, Margarita; Ruback, Eduardo; Silva, Floriano P.; Probst, Christian M.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Krieger, Marco A.; Goldenberg, Samuel; Cavalcanti, Maria C. R.; Moraes, Milton O.; Campos, Maria L. M.; Mattoso, Marta

2008-01-01

181

ProtozoaDB: dynamic visualization and exploration of protozoan genomes.  

PubMed

ProtozoaDB (http://www.biowebdb.org/protozoadb) is being developed to initially host both genomics and post-genomics data from Plasmodium falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi and Leishmania major, but will hopefully host other protozoan species as more genomes are sequenced. It is based on the Genomics Unified Schema and offers a modern Web-based interface for user-friendly data visualization and exploration. This database is not intended to duplicate other similar efforts such as GeneDB, PlasmoDB, TcruziDB or even TDRtargets, but to be complementary by providing further analyses with emphasis on distant similarities (HMM-based) and phylogeny-based annotations including orthology analysis. ProtozoaDB will be progressively linked to the above-mentioned databases, focusing in performing a multi-source dynamic combination of information through advanced interoperable Web tools such as Web services. Also, to provide Web services will allow third-party software to retrieve and use data from ProtozoaDB in automated pipelines (workflows) or other interoperable Web technologies, promoting better information reuse and integration. We also expect ProtozoaDB to catalyze the development of local and regional bioinformatics capabilities (research and training), and therefore promote/enhance scientific advancement in developing countries. PMID:17981844

Dávila, Alberto M R; Mendes, Pablo N; Wagner, Glauber; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Liberman, Felipe; Matos, Luciana; Satake, Thiago; Ocaña, Kary A C S; Triana, Omar; Cruz, Sérgio M S; Jucá, Henrique C L; Cury, Juliano C; Silva, Fabricio N; Geronimo, Guilherme A; Ruiz, Margarita; Ruback, Eduardo; Silva, Floriano P; Probst, Christian M; Grisard, Edmundo C; Krieger, Marco A; Goldenberg, Samuel; Cavalcanti, Maria C R; Moraes, Milton O; Campos, Maria L M; Mattoso, Marta

2008-01-01

182

Current Developments in the Therapy of Protozoan Infections  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites cause serious human and zoonotic infections, including life-threatening diseases such as malaria, African and American trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. These diseases are no more common in the developed world, but together they still threaten about 40% of the world population (WHO estimates). Mortality and morbidity are high in developing countries, and the lack of vaccines makes chemotherapy the only suitable option. However, available antiparasitic drugs are hampered by more or less marked toxic side effects and by the emergence of drug resistance. As the main prevalence of parasitic diseases occurs in the poorest areas of the world, the interest of the pharmaceutical companies in the development of new drugs has been traditionally scarce. The establishment of public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases is changing this situation, allowing the exploitation of the technological advances that took place during the past decade related to genomics, proteomics, and in silico drug discovery approaches. These techniques allowed the identification of new molecular targets that in some cases are shared by different parasites. In this review we outline the recent developments in the fields of protease and topoisomerase inhibitors, antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides, and RNA interference. We also report on the rapidly developing field of new vectors (micro and nano particles, mesoporous materials) that in some cases can cross host or parasite natural barriers and, by selectively delivering new or already in use drugs to the target site, minimize dosage and side effects. PMID:21629507

Zucca, Mario; Savoia, Dianella

2011-01-01

183

[The effect of pesticides on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis].  

PubMed

The toxic effect of the following pesticides was examined: metathion (doses from 1.49 micrograms to 100.0 g per litre of medium), phenmedipham (doses from 24.42 micrograms to 400.0 mg per litre of medium), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (doses from 122.07 micrograms to 250.0 mg per litre of medium), and chlormequat (doses from 305.16 micrograms to 20.0 g per litre of medium). The tests were performed on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. The LD50 of metathion was found to be 8.94 micrograms per litre and the LD100 ranged from 23.84 to 47.68 micrograms per litre. In phenmedipham the LD50 ranged from 12.5 to 25.0 mg per litre and its LD100 was above 400.0 mg per litre. The LD50 of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane is 976.56 micrograms per litre and LD100 about 7.91 mg per litre. The LD50 of chlormequat ranged from 312.5 to 625.0 mg per litre and LD100 was about 20.0 g per litre of medium. PMID:6084359

Nistiar, F; Hrusovský, J; Mojzis, J

1984-11-01

184

Protozoan predation and the turnover of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in the presence of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of protozoan grazing on the dynamics and mineralization of 14C- and 15N-labelled soil organic material was investigated in a microcosm experiment. Sterilized soil was planted with wheat and either inoculated with bacteria alone or with bacteria and protozoa or with bacteria and a 1:10 diluted protozoan inoculum. 14C-CO2 formation was continuously monitored. It served as an indicator of

P. J. Kuikman; A. G. Jansen; J. A. van Veen I; A. J. B. Zehnder

1990-01-01

185

Sophisticated Adaptations of Gregarina cuneata (Apicomplexa) Feeding Stages for Epicellular Parasitism  

PubMed Central

Background Gregarines represent a very diverse group of early emerging apicomplexans, parasitising numerous invertebrates and urochordates, and are considered of little practical significance. Recently, they have gained more attention since some analyses showed that cryptosporidia are more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combined microscopic approach, this study points out the spectacular strategy of Gregarina cuneata for attachment to host tissue and nutrient acquisition while parasitising the intestine of yellow mealworm larvae, and reveals the unusual dynamics of cellular interactions between the host epithelium and parasite feeding stages. Trophozoites of G. cuneata develop epicellularly, attached to the luminal side of the host epithelial cell by an epimerite exhibiting a high degree of morphological variability. The presence of contractile elements in the apical region of feeding stages indicates that trophozoite detachment from host tissue is an active process self-regulated by the parasite. A detailed discussion is provided on the possibility of reversible retraction and protraction of the eugregarine apical end, facilitating eventual reattachment to another host cell in better physiological conditions. The gamonts, found in contact with host tissue via a modified protomerite top, indicate further adaptation of parasite for nutrient acquisition via epicellular parasitism while keeping their host healthy. The presence of eugregarines in mealworm larvae even seems to increase the host growth rate and to reduce the death rate despite often heavy parasitisation. Conclusions/Significance Improved knowledge about the formation of host-parasite interactions in deep-branching apicomplexans, including gregarines, would offer significant insights into the fascinating biology and evolutionary strategy of Apicomplexa. Gregarines exhibit an enormous diversity in cell architecture and dimensions, depending on their parasitic strategy and the surrounding environment. They seem to be a perfect example of a coevolution between a group of parasites and their hosts. PMID:22900033

Valigurová, Andrea

2012-01-01

186

Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

PubMed

1. As parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, there should be strong selection for hosts to evolve and maintain defence mechanisms against their parasites. One way in which hosts may protect themselves against parasitism is through altered behaviours, but such defences have been much less studied than other forms of parasite resistance. 2. We studied whether monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) use altered behaviours to protect themselves and their offspring against the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers (1970), Journal of Protozoology, 17, p. 300). In particular, we studied whether (i) monarch larvae can avoid contact with infectious parasite spores; (ii) infected larvae preferentially consume therapeutic food plants when given a choice or increase the intake of such plants in the absence of choice; and (iii) infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal plants that make their offspring less sick. 3. We found that monarch larvae were unable to avoid infectious parasite spores. Larvae were also not able to preferentially feed on therapeutic food plants or increase the ingestion of such plants. However, infected female butterflies preferentially laid their eggs on food plants that reduce parasite growth in their offspring. 4. Our results suggest that animals may use altered behaviours as a protection against parasites and that such behaviours may be limited to a single stage in the host-parasite life cycle. Our results also suggest that animals may use altered behaviours to protect their offspring instead of themselves. Thus, our study indicates that an inclusive fitness approach should be adopted to study behavioural defences against parasites. PMID:21939438

Lefèvre, Thierry; Chiang, Allen; Kelavkar, Mangala; Li, Hui; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Oliver, Lindsay; Potini, Yamini; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

2012-01-01

187

Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

2011-01-01

188

Investigating the origins of triploblasty: `mesodermal' gene expression in a diploblastic animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum, Cnidaria; class, Anthozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoderm played a crucial role in the radiation of the triploblastic Bilateria, permitting the evolution of larger and more complex body plans than in the diploblastic, non- bilaterian animals. The sea anemone Nematostella is a non- bilaterian animal, a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydras and jellyfish) is the likely sister group of the

Mark Q. Martindale; Kevin Pang; John R. Finnerty

2004-01-01

189

A plastid of probable green algal origin in Apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa contain three genetic elements: the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes characteristic of virtually all eukaryotic cells and a 35-kilobase circular extrachromosomal DNA. In situ hybridization techniques were used to localize the 35-kilobase DNA of Toxoplasma gondii to a discrete organelle surrounded by four membranes. Phylogenetic analysis of the tufA gene encoded by the 35-kilobase genomes of coccidians T. gondii and Eimeria tenella and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum grouped this organellar genome with cyanobacteria and plastids, showing consistent clustering with green algal plastids. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Apicomplexa acquired a plastid by secondary endosymbiosis, probably from a green alga. PMID:9045615

Köhler, S; Delwiche, C F; Denny, P W; Tilney, L G; Webster, P; Wilson, R J; Palmer, J D; Roos, D S

1997-03-01

190

Genomic analysis of Chthonomonas calidirosea, the first sequenced isolate of the phylum Armatimonadetes.  

PubMed

Most of the lineages of bacteria have remained unknown beyond environmental surveys using molecular markers. Until the recent characterisation of several strains, the phylum Armatimonadetes (formerly known as 'candidate division OP10') was a dominant and globally-distributed lineage within this 'uncultured majority'. Here we report the first Armatimonadetes genome from the thermophile Chthonomonas calidirosea T49(T) and its role as a saccharide scavenger in a geothermal steam-affected soil environment. Phylogenomic analysis indicates T49(T) to be related closely to the phylum Chloroflexi. The predicted genes encoding for carbohydrate transporters (27 carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette transporter-related genes) and carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes (including at least 55 putative enzymes with glycosyl hydrolase domains) within the 3.43?Mb genome help explain its ability to utilise a wide range of carbohydrates as well as its inability to break down extracellular cellulose. The presence of only a single class of branched amino acid transporter appears to be the causative step for the requirement of isoleucine for growth. The genome lacks many commonly conserved operons (for example, lac and trp). Potential causes for this, such as dispersion of functionally related genes via horizontal gene transfer from distant taxa or recent genome recombination, were rejected. Evidence suggests T49(T) relies on the relatively abundant ?-factors, instead of operonic organisation, as the primary means of transcriptional regulation. Examination of the genome with physiological data and environmental dynamics (including interspecific interactions) reveals ecological factors behind the apparent elusiveness of T49(T) to cultivation and, by extension, the remaining 'uncultured majority' that have so far evaded conventional microbiological techniques. PMID:24477196

Lee, Kevin C-Y; Morgan, Xochitl C; Dunfield, Peter F; Tamas, Ivica; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

2014-07-01

191

Three Genomes from the Phylum Acidobacteria Provide Insight into the Lifestyles of These Microorganisms in Soils? †  

PubMed Central

The complete genomes of three strains from the phylum Acidobacteria were compared. Phylogenetic analysis placed them as a unique phylum. They share genomic traits with members of the Proteobacteria, the Cyanobacteria, and the Fungi. The three strains appear to be versatile heterotrophs. Genomic and culture traits indicate the use of carbon sources that span simple sugars to more complex substrates such as hemicellulose, cellulose, and chitin. The genomes encode low-specificity major facilitator superfamily transporters and high-affinity ABC transporters for sugars, suggesting that they are best suited to low-nutrient conditions. They appear capable of nitrate and nitrite reduction but not N2 fixation or denitrification. The genomes contained numerous genes that encode siderophore receptors, but no evidence of siderophore production was found, suggesting that they may obtain iron via interaction with other microorganisms. The presence of cellulose synthesis genes and a large class of novel high-molecular-weight excreted proteins suggests potential traits for desiccation resistance, biofilm formation, and/or contribution to soil structure. Polyketide synthase and macrolide glycosylation genes suggest the production of novel antimicrobial compounds. Genes that encode a variety of novel proteins were also identified. The abundance of acidobacteria in soils worldwide and the breadth of potential carbon use by the sequenced strains suggest significant and previously unrecognized contributions to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Combining our genomic evidence with available culture traits, we postulate that cells of these isolates are long-lived, divide slowly, exhibit slow metabolic rates under low-nutrient conditions, and are well equipped to tolerate fluctuations in soil hydration. PMID:19201974

Ward, Naomi L.; Challacombe, Jean F.; Janssen, Peter H.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Wu, Martin; Xie, Gary; Haft, Daniel H.; Sait, Michelle; Badger, Jonathan; Barabote, Ravi D.; Bradley, Brent; Brettin, Thomas S.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Bruce, David; Creasy, Todd; Daugherty, Sean C.; Davidsen, Tanja M.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Detter, J. Chris; Dodson, Robert J.; Durkin, A. Scott; Ganapathy, Anuradha; Gwinn-Giglio, Michelle; Han, Cliff S.; Khouri, Hoda; Kiss, Hajnalka; Kothari, Sagar P.; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, Karen E.; Nelson, William C.; Paulsen, Ian; Penn, Kevin; Ren, Qinghu; Rosovitz, M. J.; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Sullivan, Steven A.; Tapia, Roxanne; Thompson, L. Sue; Watkins, Kisha L.; Yang, Qi; Yu, Chunhui; Zafar, Nikhat; Zhou, Liwei; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2009-01-01

192

The lifestyle of Streptomyces, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to the phylum Actinobacteria,  

E-print Network

The lifestyle of Streptomyces, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to the phylum Streptomyces spp. also successfully inhabit a wide range of other niches, both terrestrial and aquatic metabolism of Streptomyces has made these organisms valuable providers of anti- biotics and other bioactive

Buttner, Mark

193

Protozoan grazing on bacteria at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake  

SciTech Connect

Protozoan grazing on bacteria has been hypothesized to link the detrital and grazer food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The current study of protozoan bacterivory, evaluated methods, quantified bacterivory, and evaluated the role of protozoa at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake ecosystem, Lake Anna, Virginia. Three limnetic methods for determining protozoan bacterivory were tested for applicability at the sediment-water interface. The eucaryote inhibitor, cycloheximide, was found unsatisfactory because it did not uniformly inhibit growth of target eucaryotes, and because it inhibited non-target anaerobic procaryotes. The filtration method was found to have limited application in sediment systems due to filtrational loss of particle-associated bacteria. The dilution method was tested for violations of its critical assumptions: bacterial growth is exponential; grazing mortality is proportional to the dilution factor; and bacterial growth rates are unaltered under experimental conditions. These assumptions were found not to be violated, and this method was used in subsequent grazing experiments. Carbon loading to the acidified arm of Lake Anna was 41 {times} 10{sup 6} g C {times} y{sup {minus}1}. This appears to be adequate carbon loading to support bacterial production and, in turn, protozoan bacterivory and production. Though there is no direct evidence that zooplankton graze on protozoa in this system, however, there is sufficient protozoan production to support an additional trophic level.

Tremaine, S.C.

1988-01-01

194

Parasites and malignancies, a review, with emphasis on digestive cancer induced by Cryptosporidium parvum (Alveolata: Apicomplexa)  

PubMed Central

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identifies ten infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites) able to induce cancer disease in humans. Among parasites, a carcinogenic role is currently recognized to the digenetic trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, leading to bladder cancer, and to Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini, which cause cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, several reports suspected the potential association of other parasitic infections (due to Protozoan or Metazoan parasites) with the development of neoplastic changes in the host tissues. The present work shortly reviewed available data on the involvement of parasites in neoplastic processes in humans or animals, and especially focused on the carcinogenic power of Cryptosporidium parvum infection. On the whole, infection seems to play a crucial role in the etiology of cancer. PMID:22348213

Benamrouz, S.; Conseil, V.; Creusy, C.; Calderon, E.; Dei-Cas, E.; Certad, G.

2012-01-01

195

Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.  

PubMed

Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa) is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0)) in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0) mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0) mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG) reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFN?) immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0) mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents. PMID:24498105

Wijayalath, Wathsala; Majji, Sai; Kleschenko, Yuliya; Pow-Sang, Luis; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Villasante, Eileen Franke; Vasta, Gerardo R; Fernández-Robledo, José-Antonio; Casares, Sofia

2014-01-01

196

Humanized HLA-DR4 Mice Fed with the Protozoan Pathogen of Oysters Perkinsus Marinus (Dermo) Do Not Develop Noticeable Pathology but Elicit Systemic Immunity  

PubMed Central

Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa) is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for “Dermo” disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1–2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA0) in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG) reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFN?) immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents. PMID:24498105

Kleschenko, Yuliya; Pow-Sang, Luis; Brumeanu, Teodor D.; Villasante, Eileen Franke; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Fernández-Robledo, José-Antonio; Casares, Sofia

2014-01-01

197

A Review of Recent Patents on the Protozoan Parasite HSP90 as a Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Diseases caused by protozoan parasites are still an important health problem. These parasites can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which are severe and have high morbidity or mortality if untreated. Since they are still uncontrolled, it is important to find novel drug targets and develop new therapies to decrease their remarkable social and economic impact on human societies. In the past years, human HSP90 has become an interesting drug target that has led to a large number of investigations both at state organizations and pharmaceutical companies, followed by clinical trials. The finding that HSP90 has important biological roles in some protozoan parasites like Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii and trypanosomatids has allowed the expansion of the results obtained in human cancer to these infections. This review summarizes the latest important findings showing protozoan HSP90 as a drug target and presents three patents targeting T. gondii, P. falciparum and trypanosomatids HSP90. PMID:23002958

Angel, Sergio O; Matrajt, Mariana; Echeverria, Pablo C

2013-01-01

198

A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae), from Texas.  

PubMed

A new species of coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the feces of a western hognose snake Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae) collected from Texas, and housed in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. Oocysts of Eimeria mchenryi n. sp. are cylindrical, 35.0 ± SD 1.4 (32-37) × 17.0 ± 0.7 (16-18) µm; the shape index (length/width) is 2.05. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are subspherical 9.3 (7-11.5) × 7.7 (6-9) µm, with a shape index of 1.2. There is a sporocyst residuum, but the new species is lacking Stieda bodies. The new species is distinct from those previously named from the Xenodontidae and the allied family, Colubridae. PMID:21506855

Daszak, Peter; Ball, Stanley J; Streicker, Daniel G; Snow, Keith R

2011-06-01

199

A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae), from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae) from South America  

PubMed Central

A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6?×?21.0?µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7?µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9?×?9.6?µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae. PMID:25426418

Gallo, Samira S.M.; Ederli, Nicole B.; Berto, Bruno P.; de Oliveira, Francisco C.R.

2014-01-01

200

Isospora massardi sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the white-necked thrush Turdus albicollis (Passeriformes: Turdidae) from Brazil.  

PubMed

A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are reported from the white-necked thrush Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, a very common species in South America. Isospora massardi sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical, 18.6 × 17.7 ?m, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~0.9 ?m. Micropyle, oocyst residuum are absent, but two polar granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 14.8 × 9.3 ?m. Stieda body is knob-like to rounded and substieda body is rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with posterior and anterior refractile bodies and a nucleus. This is the sixth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World turdid bird. PMID:24827098

Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno P; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Galvão, Gideão da Silva; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

2014-06-01

201

Isospora pitiguari n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous-browed peppershrike (Aves: Passeriformes: Vireonidae) Cyclarhis gujanensis Gmelin, 1789.  

PubMed

In the current study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), collected from the rufous-browed peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis Gmelin, 1789, is reported from Brazil. Isospora pitiguari n. sp. has oocysts, which are spherical to sub-spherical, 26.8 × 25.7 ?m, with smooth, bilayered wall ~1.5 ?m thick. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are rounded to slightly ovoidal, 14.4 × 11.6 µm. Stieda body flattened and substieda body prominent and rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World vireo. PMID:24870075

Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Galvão, Gideão da Silva; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-01-01

202

Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.  

PubMed

A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 ?m, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 ?m thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler. PMID:25301514

Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

2014-11-01

203

Activity-Based Metagenomic Screening and Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Ruminal Protozoan Glycoside Hydrolases?†  

PubMed Central

The rumen, the foregut of herbivorous ruminant animals such as cattle, functions as a bioreactor to process complex plant material. Among the numerous and diverse microbes involved in ruminal digestion are the ruminal protozoans, which are single-celled, ciliated eukaryotic organisms. An activity-based screen was executed to identify genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes present in the metatranscriptome of a bovine ruminal protozoan-enriched cDNA expression library. Of the four novel genes identified, two were characterized in biochemical assays. Our results provide evidence for the effective use of functional metagenomics to retrieve novel enzymes from microbial populations that cannot be maintained in axenic cultures. PMID:21948825

Findley, Seth D.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Sommer-Hurley, Andrea; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Tipton, Peter; Arnett, Krista; Porter, James H.; Kerley, Monty; Stacey, Gary

2011-01-01

204

DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

205

Effects of temporally persistent ant nests of soil protozoan communities and the abundance of morphological types of amoeba  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared soil protozoan communities near ant nests with soil protozoans in reference soils 5m from the edge of any mounds. We sampled three species of Chihuahuan Desert ants that construct nests that persist for more than a decade: a seed harvester, Pogonomymex rugosus, a liquid feeding honey-po...

206

Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites  

E-print Network

Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites Stuart A. West* , Todd allocation theory across parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This cosmopolitan phylum consists attention, the population structure of parasitic protozoa species, and in particular estimates of sel

West, Stuart

207

Bull. U. S.F. C.1893. On a Parasitic Protozoan. (To face page 173.) PLATE11, REPORT ON A PARASITIC PROTOZOANOBSERVED ON FISH IN THEAQUARIUM.  

E-print Network

Bull. U. S.F. C.1893. On a Parasitic Protozoan. (To face page 173.) PLATE11, a .t: k #12;REPORT discovered to be seriously infested with a protozoan parasite. The geueral pressure of aquarium operations

208

First genomic insights into members of a candidate bacterial phylum responsible for wastewater bulking.  

PubMed

Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking) in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using differential coverage binning of metagenomic data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted probes specific for the two populations confirmed that both are filamentous organisms. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and microscopic observation of the KSB3 filaments in the presence of sugar gradients indicate that both filament types are Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic fermenters capable of non-flagellar based gliding motility, and have a strikingly large number of sensory and response regulator genes. We propose that the KSB3 filaments are highly sensitive to their surroundings and that cellular processes, including those causing bulking, are controlled by external stimuli. The obtained genomes lay the foundation for a more detailed understanding of environmental cues used by KSB3 filaments, which may lead to more robust treatment options to prevent bulking. PMID:25650158

Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ohashi, Akiko; Parks, Donovan H; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

2015-01-01

209

Characterization of taxonomically restricted genes in a phylum-restricted cell type  

PubMed Central

Background Despite decades of research, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the evolution of morphological diversity remain poorly understood. While current models assume that species-specific morphologies are governed by differential use of conserved genetic regulatory circuits, it is debated whether non-conserved taxonomically restricted genes are also involved in making taxonomically relevant structures. The genomic resources available in Hydra, a member of the early branching animal phylum Cnidaria, provide a unique opportunity to study the molecular evolution of morphological novelties such as the nematocyte, a cell type characteristic of, and unique to, Cnidaria. Results We have identified nematocyte-specific genes by suppression subtractive hybridization and find that a considerable portion has no homologues to any sequences in animals outside Hydra. By analyzing the transcripts of these taxonomically restricted genes and mining of the Hydra magnipapillata genome, we find unexpected complexity in gene structure and transcript processing. Transgenic Hydra expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter under control of one of the taxonomically restricted gene promoters recapitulate faithfully the described expression pattern, indicating that promoters of taxonomically restricted genes contain all elements essential for spatial and temporal control mechanisms. Surprisingly, phylogenetic footprinting of this promoter did not reveal any conserved cis-regulatory elements. Conclusions Our findings suggest that taxonomically restricted genes are involved in the evolution of morphological novelties such as the cnidarian nematocyte. The transcriptional regulatory network controlling taxonomically restricted gene expression may contain not yet characterized transcription factors or cis-regulatory elements. PMID:19161630

Milde, Sabine; Hemmrich, Georg; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Khalturin, Konstantin; Wittlieb, Jörg; Bosch, Thomas CG

2009-01-01

210

‘Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum:' an aerobic chlorophotoheterotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi defined by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics  

PubMed Central

An uncultured member of the phylum Chlorobi, provisionally named ‘Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum', occurs in the microbial mats of alkaline siliceous hot springs at the Yellowstone National Park. ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' was investigated through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' is a member of a novel, family-level lineage of Chlorobi, a chlorophototroph that synthesizes type-1 reaction centers and chlorosomes similar to cultivated relatives among the green sulfur bacteria, but is otherwise very different physiologically. ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' is proposed to be an aerobic photoheterotroph that cannot oxidize sulfur compounds, cannot fix N2, and does not fix CO2 autotrophically. Metagenomic analyses suggest that ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' depends on other mat organisms for fixed carbon and nitrogen, several amino acids, and other important nutrients. The failure to detect bchU suggests that ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' synthesizes bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) d, and thus it occupies a different ecological niche than other chlorosome-containing chlorophototrophs in the mat. Transcription profiling throughout a diel cycle revealed distinctive gene expression patterns. Although ‘Ca. T. aerophilum' probably photoassimilates organic carbon sources and synthesizes most of its cell materials during the day, it mainly transcribes genes for BChl synthesis during late afternoon and early morning, and it synthesizes and assembles its photosynthetic apparatus during the night. PMID:22456447

Liu, Zhenfeng; Klatt, Christian G; Ludwig, Marcus; Rusch, Douglas B; Jensen, Sheila I; Kühl, Michael; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

2012-01-01

211

A phylogenetic test of the Red Queen Hypothesis: Outcrossing and parasitism in the Nematode phylum.  

PubMed

Sexual outcrossing is costly relative to selfing and asexuality, yet it is ubiquitous in nature, a paradox that has long puzzled evolutionary biologists. The Red Queen Hypothesis argues that outcrossing is maintained by antagonistic interactions between host and parasites. Most tests of this hypothesis focus on the maintenance of outcrossing in hosts. The Red Queen makes an additional prediction that parasitic taxa are more likely to be outcrossing than their free-living relatives. We test this prediction in the diverse Nematode phylum using phylogenetic comparative methods to evaluate trait correlations. In support of the Red Queen, we demonstrate a significant correlation between parasitism and outcrossing in this clade. We find that this correlation is driven by animal parasites, for which outcrossing is significantly enriched relative to both free-living and plant parasitic taxa. Finally, we test hypotheses for the evolutionary history underlying the correlation of outcrossing and animal parasitism. Our results demonstrate that selfing and asexuality are significantly less likely to arise on parasitic lineages than on free-living ones. The findings of this study are consistent with the Red Queen Hypothesis. Moreover, they suggest that the maintenance of genetic variation is an important factor in the persistence of parasitic lineages. PMID:25403727

Gibson, Amanda Kyle; Fuentes, Jesualdo Arturo

2015-02-01

212

Bacteria of the Candidate Phylum TM7 are Prevalent in Acidophilic Nitrifying Sequencing-Batch Reactors  

PubMed Central

Laboratory-scale acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) were constructed by seeding with sewage-activated sludge and cultivating with ammonium-containing acidic mineral medium (pH 4.0) with or without a trace amount of yeast extract. In every batch cycle, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate. Attempts to detect nitrifying functional genes in the fully acclimated ANSBRs by PCR with previously designed primers mostly gave negative results. 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR and a subsequent denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that a marked change occurred in the bacterial community during the overall period of operation, in which members of the candidate phylum TM7 and the class Gammaproteobacteria became predominant at the fully acclimated stage. This result was fully supported by a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, as the major phylogenetic groups of clones detected (>5% of the total) were TM7 (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (37%), Actinobacteria (10%), and Alphaproteobacteria (8%). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with specific probes also demonstrated the prevalence of TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. These results suggest that previously unknown nitrifying microorganisms may play a major role in ANSBRs; however, the ecophysiological significance of the TM7 bacteria predominating in this process remains unclear. PMID:25241805

Hanada, Akiko; Kurogi, Takashi; Giang, Nguyen Minh; Yamada, Takeshi; Kamimoto, Yuki; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Hiraishi, Akira

2014-01-01

213

First genomic insights into members of a candidate bacterial phylum responsible for wastewater bulking  

PubMed Central

Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking) in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using differential coverage binning of metagenomic data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted probes specific for the two populations confirmed that both are filamentous organisms. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and microscopic observation of the KSB3 filaments in the presence of sugar gradients indicate that both filament types are Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic fermenters capable of non-flagellar based gliding motility, and have a strikingly large number of sensory and response regulator genes. We propose that the KSB3 filaments are highly sensitive to their surroundings and that cellular processes, including those causing bulking, are controlled by external stimuli. The obtained genomes lay the foundation for a more detailed understanding of environmental cues used by KSB3 filaments, which may lead to more robust treatment options to prevent bulking. PMID:25650158

Ohashi, Akiko; Parks, Donovan H.; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Tyson, Gene W.

2015-01-01

214

Global Patterns of Abundance, Diversity and Community Structure of the Aminicenantes (Candidate Phylum OP8)  

PubMed Central

We investigated the global patterns of abundance, diversity, and community structure of members of the Aminicenantes (candidate phylum OP8). Our aim was to identify the putative ecological role(s) played by members of this poorly characterized bacterial lineages in various ecosystems. Analysis of near full-length 16S rRNA genes identified four classes and eight orders within the Aminicenantes. Within 3,134 datasets comprising ?1.8 billion high throughput-generated partial 16S rRNA genes, 47,351 Aminicenantes-affiliated sequences were identified in 913 datasets. The Aminicenantes exhibited the highest relative abundance in hydrocarbon-impacted environments, followed by marine habitats (especially hydrothermal vents and coral-associated microbiome samples), and aquatic, non-marine habitats (especially in terrestrial springs and groundwater samples). While the overall abundance of the Aminicenantes was higher in low oxygen tension as well as non-saline and low salinity habitats, it was encountered in a wide range of oxygen tension, salinities, and temperatures. Analysis of the community structure of the Aminicenantes showed distinct patterns across various datasets that appear to be, mostly, driven by habitat variations rather than prevalent environmental parameters. We argue that the detection of the Aminicenantes across environmental extremes and the observed distinct community structure patterns reflect a high level of intraphylum metabolic diversity and adaptive capabilities that enable its survival and growth in a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions. PMID:24637619

Farag, Ibrahim F.; Davis, James P.; Youssef, Noha H.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

2014-01-01

215

Global patterns of abundance, diversity and community structure of the Aminicenantes (candidate phylum OP8).  

PubMed

We investigated the global patterns of abundance, diversity, and community structure of members of the Aminicenantes (candidate phylum OP8). Our aim was to identify the putative ecological role(s) played by members of this poorly characterized bacterial lineages in various ecosystems. Analysis of near full-length 16S rRNA genes identified four classes and eight orders within the Aminicenantes. Within 3,134 datasets comprising ?1.8 billion high throughput-generated partial 16S rRNA genes, 47,351 Aminicenantes-affiliated sequences were identified in 913 datasets. The Aminicenantes exhibited the highest relative abundance in hydrocarbon-impacted environments, followed by marine habitats (especially hydrothermal vents and coral-associated microbiome samples), and aquatic, non-marine habitats (especially in terrestrial springs and groundwater samples). While the overall abundance of the Aminicenantes was higher in low oxygen tension as well as non-saline and low salinity habitats, it was encountered in a wide range of oxygen tension, salinities, and temperatures. Analysis of the community structure of the Aminicenantes showed distinct patterns across various datasets that appear to be, mostly, driven by habitat variations rather than prevalent environmental parameters. We argue that the detection of the Aminicenantes across environmental extremes and the observed distinct community structure patterns reflect a high level of intraphylum metabolic diversity and adaptive capabilities that enable its survival and growth in a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions. PMID:24637619

Farag, Ibrahim F; Davis, James P; Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

2014-01-01

216

Genomic insights into the uncultured genus 'Candidatus Magnetobacterium' in the phylum Nitrospirae.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) of the genus 'Candidatus Magnetobacterium' in phylum Nitrospirae are of great interest because of the formation of hundreds of bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes in multiple bundles of chains per cell. These bacteria are worldwide distributed in aquatic environments and have important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. However, except for a few short genomic fragments, no genome data are available for this ecologically important genus, and little is known about their metabolic capacity owing to the lack of pure cultures. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of 3.42?Mb from an uncultivated strain tentatively named 'Ca. Magnetobacterium casensis' isolated from Lake Miyun, China. The genome sequence indicates an autotrophic lifestyle using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO2 fixation, which has not been described in any previously known MTB or Nitrospirae organisms. Pathways involved in the denitrification, sulfur oxidation and sulfate reduction have been predicted, indicating its considerable capacity for adaptation to variable geochemical conditions and roles in local biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, we have identified a complete magnetosome gene island containing mam, mad and a set of novel genes (named as man genes) putatively responsible for the formation of bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes and the arrangement of multiple magnetosome chains. This first comprehensive genomic analysis sheds light on the physiology, ecology and biomineralization of the poorly understood 'Ca. Magnetobacterium' genus. PMID:24914800

Lin, Wei; Deng, Aihua; Wang, Zhang; Li, Ying; Wen, Tingyi; Wu, Long-Fei; Wu, Martin; Pan, Yongxin

2014-12-01

217

Phylogenetic Relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) Based on Nuclear 18S rDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic relationships within the corals and anemones (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Anthozoa) are based upon few morphological characters. The significance of any given character is debatable, and there is little fossil record available for deriving evolutionary relationships. We analyzed complete 18S ribosomal sequences to examine subclass-level and ordinal-level organization within the Anthozoa. We suggest that the Subclass Ceriantipatharia is not an

Ewann A. Berntson; Scott C. France; Lauren S. Mullineaux

1999-01-01

218

ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

219

A bioassay using the measurement of the growth inhibition of a ciliate protozoan: Colpidium campylum Stokes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioassay method using the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum is presented in a standardized form. The influence of the initial cell concentration on the potassium dichromate EC50 values was determined. Two intercalibration experiments between two laboratories were performed on ten toxicants in two different conditions. The potassium dichromate EC50 determinations performed by eight different people are also presented. All results

D. Dive; S. Robert; E. Angrand; C. Bel; H. Bonnemain; L. Brun; Y. Demarque; A. Du; R. Bouhouti; M. N. Fourmaux; L. Guery; O. Hanssens; M. Murat

1989-01-01

220

Effects of the Protozoan Parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the Fitness of Monarch Butterflies ( Danaus plexippus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the survival and reproduction of monarch butterflies. Because larvae in natural populations are likely to experience a wide range of natural parasite population densities, we examined the effects of increasing spore density (0, 10, 100, or 1000 spores per larva) on host fitness. Parasites had little effect on monarch

Sonia M. Altizer; Karen S. Oberhauser

1999-01-01

221

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite  

E-print Network

studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its theoretical models. Keywords: host­parasite interactions; resistance; tolerance; monarch butterflyGenetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch

de Roode, Jaap

222

Effects of Shock Loads of Salt on Protozoan Communities of Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effects of wastewater salinity variations on communities of microorganisms taken from activated sludge were studied. Batch cultures were grown for 96 h at final salt concentrations of 3, 5, 10, 20 and 40 NaCl g\\/l. Protozoa and small metazoa was counted and ciliated protozoan species in these cultures were identified. An increase in salt concentration from 3 to

Humbert SALVAD; Meritxell MAS; Ma Pilar GRACIA

223

Feasibility of using GFP-expressing Escherichia coli, coupled with fluorimetry, to determine protozoan ingestion rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a live Escherichia coli population, which had been engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP), coupled with fluorimetry, was tested as a means for determining protozoan ingestion rates. Its potential use was based on evidence that once cells are acidified, e.g. in a food vacuole, the fluorescence is lost. Of the 29 protozoa tested, over

Jacqueline D Parry; Karen Heaton; Janice Drinkall; Harriet L. J Jones

2001-01-01

224

Role of natural killer cells in innate resistance to protozoan infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer cells are now recognized as major effectors of innate resistance to protozoan parasites. The principal mechanism by which they control the growth of these pathogens is indirect, involving cytokine production rather than cytolytic activity. Recent studies have identified a series of positive and negative signals provided by cytokines and cellular interactions which regulate protozoa-induced natural killer cell function.

Tanya M Scharton-Kersten; Alan Sher

1997-01-01

225

Improvements in transfection efficiency and tests of RNA interference (RNAi) approaches in the protozoan parasite Leishmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches which eliminate mRNA expression directly are ideally suited for reverse genetics applications in eukaryotic microbes which are asexual diploids, such as the protozoan parasite Leishmania. RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been successful in many species, including the related parasite Trypanosoma brucei. For RNAi tests in Leishmania, we developed improved protocols for transient and stable DNA transfection, attaining efficiencies of

Kelly A. Robinson; Stephen M. Beverley

2003-01-01

226

Movement of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum through three contrasting soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for transfer of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum through soil to land drains and, subsequently, water courses following the application of livestock waste to land was monitored in the laboratory using simulated rainfall and intact soil cores. Following irrigation over a 21-day period, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts applied to the surface of soil cores (initial inoculum concentration 1×108 oocysts

Jane L. Mawdsley; Alison E. Brooks; Roger J. Merry

1996-01-01

227

Toxic effect of heavy metals on the activated sludge protozoan community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to the protozoan community inhabiting the activated sludge of a waste treatment plant, was determined on the basis of reduction in both cell density and species richness. The activated sludge mixed-liquor was treated with different concentrations of cadmium, copper, chromium (VI), lead, and zinc for a period of 24-h. The experimental results enabled

Paolo Madoni; Donatella Davoli; Gessica Gorbi; Luciano Vescovi

1996-01-01

228

TLR11 Activation of Dendritic Cells by a Protozoan Profilin-Like Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate recognition of pathogens by dendritic cells (DCs). Although TLRs are clearly involved in the detection of bacteria and viruses, relatively little is known about their function in the innate response to eukaryotic microorganisms. Here we identify a profilin-like molecule from the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii that generates a potent

Felix Yarovinsky; Dekai Zhang; John F. Andersen; Gerard L. Bannenberg; Charles N. Serhan; Matthew S. Hayden; Sara Hieny; Fayyaz S. Sutterwala; Richard A. Flavell; Sankar Ghosh; Alan Sher

2005-01-01

229

Interconnection between organellar functions, development and drug resistance in the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe disease in animals and humans. In AIDS patients, for example, the encephalitis it produces is a major cause of death. Part of the very successful strategy adopted by the parasite centers on its ability to differentiate from the actively growing tachyzoite form to a chronic, almost latent state called the bradyzoite. The molecular

Stanislas Tomavo; John C. Boothroyd

1995-01-01

230

Survival of Escherichia coli 0157 in a soil protozoan: implications for disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-protozoal growth of bacterial pathogens has been associated with increased environmental survival, virulence and resistance to biocides and antibiotics. Using laboratory microcosms we have shown that Escherichia coli 0157 survives and replicates in a common environmental protozoan, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. As protozoa are widely distributed in soils and effluents, they may constitute an important environmental reservoir for transmission of E. coli

John Barker; Tom J Humphrey; Michael W. R Brown

1999-01-01

231

Parasitism and chromosome dynamics in protozoan parasites: is there a connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic plasticity is a hallmark of many protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium spp, Trypanosoma spp, Leishmania ssp and Giardia lamblia. Strikingly, there is a common theme regarding the structural basis of this karyotype variability. Chromosomes are compartmentalized into conserved central domains and polymorphic chromosome ends. Since antigen-encoding genes frequently reside in telomere-proximal domains, it is tempting to speculate that the genetic

Michael Lanzer; Katja Fischer; Sylvie M. Le Blancq

1995-01-01

232

Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In aquaculture production mortality resulting from a single pathogen is rare. More likely, multiple disease agents are present and responsible for disease losses. The ciliated protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a common parasite of freshwater fish and frequently causes mass kills of culture...

233

A new low cost microbiotest with the freshwater ciliate protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on preliminary experiments on the controlled culturing of the freshwater ciliated protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum, as a first step in the development of a new low cost microbiotest, to complement the limited battery of standardized cost-effective toxicity tests presently available, with a representative of unicellular biota.

A. Dû-Delepierrel; G. Persoone; C. A. Grolière

1996-01-01

234

The toxicity of tri-substituted benzenes to the protozoan ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spirotox test utilises a large ciliate protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum as a test organism. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of tri-substituted benzenes in the Spirotox test. Twenty-six organic compounds were tested in this study and included: dimethylphenols (DMPs), dichlorophenols (DCMs), trichlorobenzenes (TCBs), dichloroanilines (DCAs), dinitrophenols (DNPs), dinitroaniline (DNA), dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). The

Grzegorz Na??cz-Jawecki; Józef Sawicki

2002-01-01

235

THE EFFECT OF PTERIDINES ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CYCLE OF THE PROTOZOAN  

E-print Network

) Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Unemocnice 1, Praha 2 (Czechoslovakia) SUMMARY Drones, kept infection the drones were killed and the amount of the spores of the protozoan Nosema apis Z to the diseased drones. The authors discuss the possibilities of the production of pterins by the intestinal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

A comparison of vascular vegetation and protozoan communities in some freshwater wetlands of Northern Lower Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular vegetation and protozoan communities were sampled in seven wetland sites — two bogs, two fens, two marshes, and one ‘swamp’ — in summer 1977. Two similarity indices were used to compare vascular vegetation and Protozoa from each site with all the other sites. Bog sites were the most distinct from other wetland types with respect to chemical and physical

M. S. Henebry; J. Cairns; C. R. Schwintzer; W. H. Yongue

1981-01-01

237

Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and...

238

Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ?  

PubMed Central

The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles. PMID:21239551

Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

2011-01-01

239

Genome analysis of Elusimicrobium minutum, the first cultivated representative of the Elusimicrobia phylum (formerly Termite Group 1)  

SciTech Connect

The candidate phylum Termite group 1 (TG1), is regularly 1 encountered in termite hindguts but is present also in many other habitats. Here we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of Elusimicrobium minutum strain Pei191{sup T}, the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut and discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a Gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of Elusimicrobia (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

Herlemann, D. P. R.; Geissinger, O.; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W.; Kunin, V.; Sun, H.; Lapidus, A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Brune, A.

2009-02-01

240

Genomic analysis of "Elusimicrobium minutum," the first cultivated representative of the phylum "Elusimicrobia" (formerly termite group 1).  

PubMed

Organisms of the candidate phylum termite group 1 (TG1) are regularly encountered in termite hindguts but are present also in many other habitats. Here, we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of "Elusimicrobium minutum" strain Pei191(T), the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut, and we discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, nonribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of "Elusimicrobia" (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PMID:19270133

Herlemann, D P R; Geissinger, O; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W; Kunin, V; Sun, H; Lapidus, A; Hugenholtz, P; Brune, A

2009-05-01

241

Effects of Brassica napus seed meal amendment on soil populations of resident bacteria and Naegleria americana, and the unsuitability of arachidonic acid as a protozoan-  

E-print Network

and Naegleria americana, and the unsuitability of arachidonic acid as a protozoan- specific marker Michael F-707-664-3012 Running title: Microflora of seed meal-amended orchard soil Keywords: orchard soil, protozoan feeding, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, fatty acid markers #12;Abstract Bacterial and protozoan populations were monitored

Cohen, Michael F.

242

Use of a deviant mitochondrial genetic code in yellow-green algae as a landmark for segregating members within the phylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several algae that were previously classified in the phylum Xanthophyta (yellow-green algae) were assigned in 1971 to a new\\u000a phylum, Eustigmatophyta. It was anticipated that the number of algae reclassified to Eustigmatophyta would increase. However,\\u000a due to the fact that the morphological characteristics that segregate eustigmatophytes from other closely related algae can\\u000a be only obtained through laborious electron microscopic techniques,

Megumi Ehara; Yasuko Hayashi-Ishimaru; Yuji Inagaki; Takeshi Ohama

1997-01-01

243

Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Gene Family within the Phylum Nematoda  

PubMed Central

Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics. PMID:25397810

He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M.

2014-01-01

244

Isolation and Characterization of Soil Bacteria That Define Terriglobus gen. nov., in the Phylum Acidobacteria?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria in the phylum Acidobacteria are widely distributed and abundant in soils, but their ecological roles are poorly understood, owing in part to a paucity of cultured representatives. In a molecular survey of acidobacterial diversity at the Michigan State University Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site, 27% of acidobacterial 16S rRNA gene clones in a never-tilled, successional plant community belonged to subdivision 1, whose relative abundance varied inversely with soil pH. Strains of subdivision 1 were isolated from these never-tilled soils using low-nutrient medium incubated for 3 to 4 weeks under elevated levels of carbon dioxide, which resulted in a slightly acidified medium that matched the pH optima of the strains (between 5 and 6). Colonies were approximately 1 mm in diameter and either white or pink, the latter due to a carotenoid(s) that was synthesized preferentially under 20% instead of 2% oxygen. Strains were gram-negative, aerobic, chemo-organotrophic, nonmotile rods that produced an extracellular matrix. All strains contained either one or two copies of the 16S rRNA encoding gene, which along with a relatively slow doubling time (10 to 15 h at ca. 23°C) is suggestive of an oligotrophic lifestyle. Six of the strains are sufficiently similar to one another, but distinct from previously named Acidobacteria, to warrant creation of a new genus, Terriglobus, with Terriglobus roseus defined as the type species. The physiological and nutritional characteristics of Terriglobus are consistent with its potential widespread distribution in soil. PMID:17293520

Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Breznak, John A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

245

Nitrification expanded: discovery, physiology and genomics of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium from the phylum Chloroflexi.  

PubMed

Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) catalyze the second step of nitrification, a major process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, but the recognized diversity of this guild is surprisingly low and only two bacterial phyla contain known NOB. Here, we report on the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic nitrite oxidizer that belongs to the widespread phylum Chloroflexi not previously known to contain any nitrifying organism. This organism, named Nitrolancetus hollandicus, was isolated from a nitrifying reactor. Its tolerance to a broad temperature range (25-63?°C) and low affinity for nitrite (K(s)=1?mM), a complex layered cell envelope that stains Gram positive, and uncommon membrane lipids composed of 1,2-diols distinguish N. hollandicus from all other known nitrite oxidizers. N. hollandicus grows on nitrite and CO(2), and is able to use formate as a source of energy and carbon. Genome sequencing and analysis of N. hollandicus revealed the presence of all genes required for CO(2) fixation by the Calvin cycle and a nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR) similar to the NXR forms of the proteobacterial nitrite oxidizers, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus. Comparative genomic analysis of the nxr loci unexpectedly indicated functionally important lateral gene transfer events between Nitrolancetus and other NOB carrying a cytoplasmic NXR, suggesting that horizontal transfer of the NXR module was a major driver for the spread of the capability to gain energy from nitrite oxidation during bacterial evolution. The surprising discovery of N. hollandicus significantly extends the known diversity of nitrifying organisms and likely will have implications for future research on nitrification in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:22763649

Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Lücker, Sebastian; Vejmelkova, Dana; Kostrikina, Nadezhda A; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Le Paslier, Denis; Muyzer, Gerard; Wagner, Michael; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daims, Holger

2012-12-01

246

Influence of Plant Polymers on the Distribution and Cultivation of Bacteria in the Phylum Acidobacteria ? †  

PubMed Central

Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant bacteria in soil. Although they have been characterized as versatile heterotrophs, it is unclear if the types and availability of organic resources influence their distribution in soil. The potential for organic resources to select for different acidobacteria was assessed using molecular and cultivation-based approaches with agricultural and managed grassland soils in Michigan. The distribution of acidobacteria varied with the carbon content of soil: the proportion of subdivision 4 sequences was highest in agricultural soils (ca. 41%) that contained less carbon than grassland soils, where the proportions of subdivision 1, 3, 4, and 6 sequences were similar. Either readily oxidizable carbon or plant polymers were used as the sole carbon and energy source to isolate heterotrophic bacteria from these soils. Plant polymers increased the diversity of acidobacteria cultivated but decreased the total number of heterotrophs recovered compared to readily oxidizable carbon. Two phylogenetically novel Acidobacteria strains isolated on the plant polymer medium were characterized. Strains KBS 83 (subdivision 1) and KBS 96 (subdivision 3) are moderate acidophiles with pH optima of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Both strains grew slowly (? = 0.01 h?1) and harbored either 1 (strain KBS 83) or 2 (strain KBS 96) copies of the 16S rRNA encoding gene—a genomic characteristic typical of oligotrophs. Strain KBS 83 is a microaerophile, growing optimally at 8% oxygen. These metabolic characteristics help delineate the niches that acidobacteria occupy in soil and are consistent with their widespread distribution and abundance. PMID:21097594

Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

247

Nitrification expanded: discovery, physiology and genomics of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium from the phylum Chloroflexi  

PubMed Central

Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) catalyze the second step of nitrification, a major process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, but the recognized diversity of this guild is surprisingly low and only two bacterial phyla contain known NOB. Here, we report on the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic nitrite oxidizer that belongs to the widespread phylum Chloroflexi not previously known to contain any nitrifying organism. This organism, named Nitrolancetus hollandicus, was isolated from a nitrifying reactor. Its tolerance to a broad temperature range (25–63?°C) and low affinity for nitrite (Ks=1?m?), a complex layered cell envelope that stains Gram positive, and uncommon membrane lipids composed of 1,2-diols distinguish N. hollandicus from all other known nitrite oxidizers. N. hollandicus grows on nitrite and CO2, and is able to use formate as a source of energy and carbon. Genome sequencing and analysis of N. hollandicus revealed the presence of all genes required for CO2 fixation by the Calvin cycle and a nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR) similar to the NXR forms of the proteobacterial nitrite oxidizers, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus. Comparative genomic analysis of the nxr loci unexpectedly indicated functionally important lateral gene transfer events between Nitrolancetus and other NOB carrying a cytoplasmic NXR, suggesting that horizontal transfer of the NXR module was a major driver for the spread of the capability to gain energy from nitrite oxidation during bacterial evolution. The surprising discovery of N. hollandicus significantly extends the known diversity of nitrifying organisms and likely will have implications for future research on nitrification in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:22763649

Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Lücker, Sebastian; Vejmelkova, Dana; Kostrikina, Nadezhda A; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Le Paslier, Denis; Muyzer, Gerard; Wagner, Michael; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daims, Holger

2012-01-01

248

Cnuella takakiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from Takakia lepidozioides.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain RG1-1(T), was isolated from Takakia lepidozioides collected from Gawalong glacier in Tibet, China, and characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The predominant fatty acids of strain RG1-1(T) were iso-C(15 : 0) (19.8%), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c, 17.0%), C(16 : 0 (9.9)%) and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (9.4%); its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminoglycolipid, one unidentified glycolipid, and three unidentified lipids. Strain RG1-1(T) contained MK-7 as the dominant menaquinone, and the G+C content of its genomic DNA was 49.1 mol%. Strain RG1-1(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (91.8%) with Flavisolibacter ginsengiterrae Gsoil 492(T) and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 643(T). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain RG1-1(T) was a member of the family Chitinophagaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain RG1-1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Cnuella takakiae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RG1-1(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12492(T)?=?DSM 26897(T)). PMID:24198053

Zhao, Ran; Chen, Xin Yao; Li, Xue Dong; Tian, Yang; Kong, Bi He; Chen, Zhi Ling; Li, Yan Hong

2014-02-01

249

Inter-phylum HGT has shaped the metabolism of many mesophilic and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing has revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major evolutionary process in bacteria. Although it is generally assumed that closely related organisms engage in genetic exchange more frequently than distantly related ones, the frequency of HGT among distantly related organisms and the effect of ecological relatedness on the frequency has not been rigorously assessed. Here, we devised a novel bioinformatic pipeline, which minimized the effect of over-representation of specific taxa in the available databases and other limitations of homology-based approaches by analyzing genomes in standardized triplets, to quantify gene exchange between bacterial genomes representing different phyla. Our analysis revealed the existence of networks of genetic exchange between organisms with overlapping ecological niches, with mesophilic anaerobic organisms showing the highest frequency of exchange and engaging in HGT twice as frequently as their aerobic counterparts. Examination of individual cases suggested that inter-phylum HGT is more pronounced than previously thought, affecting up to ?16% of the total genes and ?35% of the metabolic genes in some genomes (conservative estimation). In contrast, ribosomal and other universal protein-coding genes were subjected to HGT at least 150 times less frequently than genes encoding the most promiscuous metabolic functions (for example, various dehydrogenases and ABC transport systems), suggesting that the species tree based on the former genes may be reliable. These results indicated that the metabolic diversity of microbial communities within most habitats has been largely assembled from preexisting genetic diversity through HGT and that HGT accounts for the functional redundancy among phyla. PMID:25314320

Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

2014-10-14

250

Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria  

PubMed Central

Background Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using 18S rDNA sequence data have challenged this interpretation, and have shown that Polypodium is a close relative to myxozoans and together they share a closer affinity to bilaterians than cnidarians. Due to the variable rates of 18S rDNA sequences, these results have been suggested to be an artifact of long-branch attraction (LBA). A recent study, using multiple protein coding markers, shows that the myxozoan Buddenbrockia, is nested within cnidarians. Polypodium was not included in this study. To further investigate the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium, we have performed phylogenetic analyses of metazoans with 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Results Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal of the long-branched myxozoans from the 18S dataset also results in Polypodium being nested within Cnidaria. These results suggest that previous reports showing that Polypodium and Myxozoa form a sister group to Bilateria were an artifact of long-branch attraction. Conclusion By including 28S rDNA sequences and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa, we demonstrate that previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium can be reconciled. Specifically, the data presented provide evidence that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata. The former hypothesis is consistent with the traditional view that Polypodium should be placed in its own cnidarian class, Polypodiozoa. PMID:18471296

2008-01-01

251

Besnoitia neotomofelis n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the southern plains woodrat ( Neotoma micropus).  

PubMed

Certain species of the protozoan genus Besnoitia cause clinical disease in livestock and wildlife. In the present paper a new species, Besnoitia neotomofelis is described from the southern planes woodrat (Neotoma micropus). The parasite was detected by bioassay of woodrat tissues in outbred Swiss Webster mice in an attempt to isolate Toxoplasma gondii. Initially, the organism was misdiagnosed as T. gondii because it was highly pathogenic for mice and its tachyzoites resembled T. gondii tachyzoites. Further studies revealed that it differed structurally and biologically from T. gondii. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and maintained in vitro in bovine monocytes and African green monkey kidney cells, and in vivo in mice. Non-dividing, uninucleate tachyzoites were approximately 1 x 5 ?m in size. Longitudinally-cut bradyzoites in tissue sections measured 1.5-1.6 x 7.7-9.3 ?m. Tissue cysts were microscopic, up to 210 ?m long, and were infective orally to mice. Cats fed tissue cysts shed unsporulated 13 x 14 ?m sized oocysts. All mice inoculated with B. neotomofelis died of acute besnoitiosis, irrespective of the dose, and Norwegian rats became infected but remained asymptomatic. Entero-epithelial stages (schizonts, gamonts) were found in cats fed tissue cysts. Large (up to 40 x 50 ?m) first-generation schizonts developed in the lamina propria of the small intestine of cats. A second generation of small sized (8 ?m) schizonts containing 4-8 merozoites was detected in enterocytes of the small intestine. Gamonts and oocysts were seen in goblet cells of the small intestinal epithelium. Tachyzoites were present in mesenteric lymph nodes of cats. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. neotomofelis was related to other Besnoitia species from rodents, rabbits, and opossums. Besnoitia neotomofelis is distinct from the 3 other species of Besnoitia, B. wallacei, B. darlingi and B. oryctofelisi that utilize cats as a definitive host. PMID:20561393

Dubey, J P; Yabsley, M J

2010-10-01

252

Do you see what I see: Recognition of protozoan parasites by Toll-like receptors  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important for recognizing a variety of pathogens, including protozoan parasites, and initiating innate immune responses against them. TLRs are localized on the cell surface as well as in the endosome, and are implicated in innate sensing of these parasites. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on the identification of parasite-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns and the TLRs that bind them. The role of these TLRs in initiating the immune response against protozoan parasitic infections in vivo will be presented in the context of murine models of infection utilizing TLR-deficient mice. Additionally, we will explore evidence that TLRs and genetic variants of TLRs may impact the outcome of these parasitic infections in humans. PMID:25383072

Ghosh, Debopam; Stumhofer, Jason S.

2014-01-01

253

Cellulase and other polymer-hydrolyzing activities of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a symbiotic protozoan from termites  

SciTech Connect

Crude extracts of the anaerobic, cellulolytic protozoan Trichomitopsis termopsidis possessed endo-..beta..-1,4-glucanase and cellobiase activities, as evidenced by hydrolytic action on carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, respectively. Cell extracts also hydrolyzed microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose displayed optima at pH 5 and at 30 degrees C, and glucose was the sole product liberated. Cellulolytic activities of T. termopsidis appeared to be entirely cell associated. Hydrolytic activity was also detected against Douglas fir wood powder, xylan, starch, and protein, but not chitin. The importance of these enyzmes in the nutrition of T. termopsidis is discussed in terms of the natural habitat of this protozoan (the hindgut of wood-eating termites). 31 references.

Odelson, D.A.; Breznak, J.A.

1985-03-01

254

Effect of Nutrient/Carbon Supplements on Biological Phosphate and Nitrate Uptake by Protozoan Isolates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of nine different nutrient/carbon supplements in mixed liquor on nutrient uptake ability of three wastewater protozoan isolates, which have previously been screened for phosphate and nitrate uptake efficiency. The results revealed that over 50% of phosphate was removed in the presence of sodium acetate, glucose or sucrose. Similarly, nitrate uptake of over 60% was observed in the presence of sodium acetate, sodium succinate, glucose or sucrose. These trends were common in all the isolates. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal in the mixed liquor was only found to be significantly removed in mixed liquors that were supplemented with glucose, sucrose or sodium succinate. In the presence of sodium acetate, COD was observed to increase. The findings of this investigation have revealed that nutrient uptake and COD removal by the test protozoan isolates may be dependent primarily on the initial nutrient supplement in mixed liquor.

Akpor, O. B.; Momba, M. N. B.; Okonkwo, J.

255

Cellulase and Other Polymer-Hydrolyzing Activities of Trichomitopsis termopsidis, a Symbiotic Protozoan from Termites †  

PubMed Central

Crude extracts of the anaerobic, cellulolytic protozoan Trichomitopsis termopsidis possessed endo-?-1,4-glucanase and cellobiase activities, as evidenced by hydrolytic action on carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, respectively. Cell extracts also hydrolyzed microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose displayed optima at pH 5 and at 30°C, and glucose was the sole product liberated. Cellulolytic activities of T. termopsidis appeared to be entirely cell associated. Hydrolytic activity was also detected against Douglas fir wood powder, xylan, starch, and protein, but not chitin. The importance of these enzymes in the nutrition of T. termopsidis is discussed in terms of the natural habitat of this protozoan (the hindgut of wood-eating termites). PMID:16346755

Odelson, David A.; Breznak, John A.

1985-01-01

256

Fatty Acids of Chthonomonas calidirosea, of a novel class Chthonomonadetes from a recently described phylum Armatimonadetes.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, aerobic, pink-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium Chthonomonas calidirosea (strain T49(T)) with an optimal temperature for growth of 68 °C, isolated from soil samples from Hell's Gate in the Tikitere geothermal system (New Zealand), was the first cultivated bacterium of the novel phylum Armatimonadetes (formerly candidate division OP10). The lipid composition of C. calidirosea presents a number of unusual features both in the fatty acids and polar lipids. This contribution reports on the fatty acid profile of C. calidirosea. Transmethylation of bacterial biomass yielded fatty acid methyl esters and hydrocarbons, including squalene, partially hydrogenated squalenes, and diploptene. The only type of unsaturation found in C. calidirosea fatty acids was cis-?5, as revealed by GCMS of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adducts, and the lack of trans-unsaturation absorbance at 960-980 cm(-1) in the IR spectrum of fatty acids methyl esters. An unidentified component X with ECL 16.86 (BP1) and ECL 17.27 (BP20) was also observed, with molecular ion at m/z 282 ("17:1"). X did not form DMDS adducts, nor was affected by mild hydrogenation conditions, indicating the likely presence of a ring rather than unsaturation. The presence of a cyclopropane ring with cis-stereochemistry was confirmed by the (1)H-NMR spectrum. Hydrogenation of X in acetic acid resulted in formation of straight chain 17:0, 5-methyl- and 6-methyl-16:0 fatty acid methyl esters, thus confirming the structure of a novel 5,6-methylene hexadecanoic acid. The major fatty acids of a solid media-grown C. calidirosea were as follows (in weight % of total fatty acids): 16:0 (25.8), i17:0 (19.3), ai17:0 (13.5), 16:1?5 (8.8), i17:1?5 (6.8), 5,6-methylene 16:0 (5.2), i16:0 (4.4), 18:0 (3.6), 18:1?5 (3.2). PMID:21805326

Vyssotski, M; Lee, K C-Y; Lagutin, K; Ryan, J; Morgan, X C; Stott, M B

2011-12-01

257

The Role of Prey Nutritional Status in Governing Protozoan Nitrogen Regeneration Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to study nitrogen (N) regeneration by the heterotrophic marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina when ingesting phytoplankton prey of two different species and of two alternative carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Experiments were conducted in the presence of l-methionine sulfoximine (MSX) which acts as a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. Utilisation by phytoplankton of N regenerated by protozoans and other organisms drives

Keith Davidson; Emily C. Roberts; Averil M. Wilson; Elaine Mitchell

2005-01-01

258

Transfection and Continuous Expression of Heterologous Genes in the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide tools for functional molecular genetics of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, we investigated the use of the prokaryotic neomycin phospho-transferase (NEO) gene as a selectable marker for the transfection of the parasite. An Escherichia coli-derived plasmid vector was constructed (pA5'A3'NEO) containing the NEO coding region flanked by untranslated 5' and 3' sequences of an Ent. histolytica actin gene.

Lutz Hamann; Rose Nickel; Egbert Tannich

1995-01-01

259

Correlation between the autotrophic index and protozoan colonization rates as indicators of pollution stress  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using microbial communities or multispecies in pollution assessment are discussed. Laboratory and field research assessing the effects of pollution on microbial community structure and function (that is, a ratio of autotrophy to total biomass, protozoan colonization rates, and species richness) indicates that the results are sensitive measures of pollution. The results of one test confirm the results of other tests. All the tests are quick, inexpensive, and reproducible.

Cairns, J.; Buikema, A.L.; Yongue, W.H.

1981-10-01

260

Effect of protozoan predation on relative abundance of fast- and slow-growing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Survival of six bacterial species with different growth rates was tested in raw sewage and sewage rendered free of protozoa. When the six species were inoculated at the same densities into sewage containing protozoa, the three slow-growing species were rapidly eliminated, and two of the three fast-growing species survived in detectable numbers. It is suggested that in environments with intense protozoan predation, protozoa may alter composition of bacterial communities by eliminating slow-growing bacteria.

Sinclair, J.L.; Alexander, M.

1989-01-01

261

Transcriptome Analysis of the Model Protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, Using Deep RNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a well-studied single-celled eukaryote model organism for cellular and molecular biology. However, the lack of extensive T. thermophila cDNA libraries or a large expressed sequence tag (EST) database limited the quality of the original genome annotation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis RNA-seq study describes the first deep sequencing analysis of the T. thermophila transcriptome during the three major

Jie Xiong; Xingyi Lu; Zhemin Zhou; Yue Chang; Dongxia Yuan; Miao Tian; Zhigang Zhou; Lei Wang; Chengjie Fu; Eduardo Orias; Wei Miao

2012-01-01

262

Phytoplankton, bacterial production and protozoan bacterivory in stratified, brackish-water Lake Shira (Khakasia, Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacterial production and protozoan bacterivory were measured in the pelagic zone of the stratified brackish-water lake with the purpose to determine the vertical distribution of these processes and to estimate their significance in the functioning of planktonic community of the lake. In midsummer, total daily primary productivity was about 1.3 g C m-2, of

Alexander I. Kopylov; Dmitriy B. Kosolapov; Nadezhda N. Degermendzhy; Tatiana A. Zotina; Anna V. Romanenko

2002-01-01

263

Colonization dynamics of trophic-functional patterns of PFU protozoan communities in Dongchang Lake, northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonization dynamics of trophic-functional patterns of protozoan communities were studied based on a dataset collected using the polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method in a man-made lake in northern China from April to May 2006. The protozoa represented different trophic-functional groups during the colonization process. Only some trophic-functional groups, e.g., photoautotrophs (flagellates) and bacterivores (mainly ciliates), occurred within the PFU

Yulian Li; Henglong Xu

2012-01-01

264

Morphological and Compositional Changes in a Planktonic Bacterial Community in Response to Enhanced Protozoan Grazing  

PubMed Central

We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 ?m in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure. PMID:10049890

Jürgens, Klaus; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schalla, Sven; Amann, Rudolf

1999-01-01

265

The Distribution of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, along the Texas Gulf Coast  

E-print Network

THE OISTRISUTION OF ~PERKIN S MARINIAE, A PROTOZOAN PARASITE OF THE AMERICAN OYSTER, ~RA ~TA ~VIR INI A, ALONG THE TEXAS GULF COAST A Thesis by DARRELL EUGENE ANDERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SclENCE December 1993 Major Subject: Biology THE DISTRIBUTION OF PERKINSUS MARINUS, A PROTOZOAN PARASITE OF THE AMERICAN OYSTER, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA, ALONG THE TEXAS GULF COAST A...

Anderson, Darrell Eugene

1993-01-01

266

Comparison of guinea pig and protozoan models for determining virulence of Legionella species.  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila organisms are able to infect and multiply within the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. This ability may be associated with virulence, because an attenuated strain of L. pneumophila fails to multiply within this protozoan, whereas a virulent strain increases 10,000-fold in number when coincubated with T. pyriformis. Seventeen strains (11 species) of legionellae were evaluated for virulence by intraperitoneal injection of guinea pigs and inoculation of protozoan cultures. Analysis of the data indicates that there are four categories of legionellae with respect to virulence as follows: organisms that infect and kill guinea pigs and multiply in T. pyriformis; organisms that infect but do not kill guinea pigs and multiply in T. pyriformis; organisms that do not infect guinea pigs but are lethal at high concentrations and multiply in T. pyriformis; and organisms that neither infect nor kill guinea pigs and fail to multiply in T. pyriformis. Evidence suggests that these distinctions are based on two virulence factors: intracellular multiplication in a host and toxic activity. Images PMID:3744550

Fields, B S; Barbaree, J M; Shotts, E B; Feeley, J C; Morrill, W E; Sanden, G N; Dykstra, M J

1986-01-01

267

Diarrhea, respiratory infections, protozoan gastrointestinal parasites, and child growth in Kathmandu, Nepal.  

PubMed

The differential impact of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and protozoan parasitism on growth is investigated among children under five years of age living in periurban Kathmandu, Nepal. The children's parents are all carpet-making workers who live in an environment with crowded living conditions, poor sanitation, and contaminated water. Anthropometric data, both cross-sectional and longitudinal, were collected over a 9-month period. Morbidity data were gathered from maternal reports, and a subsample of children's stools were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. In a comparison of current growth status and growth velocity for children with and without diarrhea and respiratory infections, it is found that body weight is most affected by infections, particularly for children under 24 months of age. For a subsample of children whose stools were tested for parasites, there is a statistically significant association between stunting (low height-for-age) and the presence of a protozoan gastrointestinal parasite. It is concluded that although growth faltering is associated with diarrhea and respiratory infections, the impact of these infections is of less importance for long-term linear growth retardation than is infection by protozoan gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:12923907

Moffat, Tina

2003-09-01

268

The importance of protozoan bacterivory in a subtropical environment (Lobo-Broa Reservoir, SP, Brazil).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the importance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and ciliates bacterivory in a mesotrophic subtropical environment (Lobo-Broa Reservoir, Brazil) by the quantification of their ingestion rates. The in situ experiments using fluorescently labelled bacteria (FLB) were carried out bimonthly over one year (three surveys in the dry season and three in the rainy one) at the sub-surface of two sampling points that have different trophic degrees. The ingestion rates for both ciliates and HNF were higher in the meso-eutrophic region (point 2) due to the higher water temperatures, which accelerate the metabolism of protozoans and the higher bacteria densities. Concerning total protozoan bacterivory, the HNF had the greatest grazing impact on bacterial community, especially the HNF <5 µm. The data showed that HNF grazing, in addition to regulating the bacteria abundance, also induced changes to the bacterial community structure, such as increasing size and numbers of bacterial filaments. The ciliates were also important to the system bacterivory, especially in point 2, where there were high densities and ingestion rates. The protozoan bottom-up control was more important in the dry season and the top-down control was more important in the rainy season, so, these two forces are equally important to the bacterial abundance regulation in this reservoir in an annual basis. PMID:25296204

Mansano, A S; Hisatugo, K F; Hayashi, L H; Regali-Seleghim, M H

2014-08-01

269

Revision of Geneiorhynchus Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Actinocephalidae: Acanthosporinae) with Recognition of Four New Species of Geneiorhynchus and Description of Geneiorhynchus manifestus n. sp. Parasitizing Naiads of the Green Darner, Anax junius (Odonata: Aeshnidae) in the Texas Big Thicket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geneiorhynchus manifestus n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) is described from the naiads of Anax junius (Odonata: Aeshnidae) collected from the Big Sandy Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve, Polk County, Texas, U.S.A. The genus Geneiorhynchus is revised and its constituent species reviewed. Descriptions are provided for 2 previously named species, Geneiorhynchus monnieri from naiads of Libellula depressa (Odonata: Libellulidae)

Richard E. Clopton; Tamara J. Cook; Jerry L. Cook

2007-01-01

270

The ultramicrobacterium "Elusimicrobium minutum" gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the termite group 1 phylum.  

PubMed

Insect intestinal tracts harbor several novel, deep-rooting clades of as-yet-uncultivated bacteria whose biology is typically completely unknown. Here, we report the isolation of the first representative of the termite group 1 (TG1) phylum from sterile-filtered gut homogenates of a humivorous scarab beetle larva. Strain Pei191(T) is a mesophilic, obligately anaerobic ultramicrobacterium with a gram-negative cell envelope. Cells are typically rod shaped, but cultures are pleomorphic in all growth phases (0.3 to 2.5 microm long and 0.17 to 0.3 microm wide). The isolate grows heterotrophically on sugars and ferments D-galactose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucosamine, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and alanine as major products but only if amino acids are present in the medium. PCR-based screening and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Pei191(T) belongs to the "intestinal cluster," a lineage of hitherto uncultivated bacteria present in arthropod and mammalian gut systems. It is only distantly related to the previously described so-called "endomicrobia" lineage, which comprises mainly uncultivated endosymbionts of termite gut flagellates. We propose the name "Elusimicrobium minutum" gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain, Pei191(T) = ATCC BAA-1559(T) = JCM 14958(T)) for the first isolate of this deep-branching lineage and the name "Elusimicrobia" phyl. nov. for the former TG1 phylum. PMID:19270135

Geissinger, Oliver; Herlemann, Daniel P R; Mörschel, Erhard; Maier, Uwe G; Brune, Andreas

2009-05-01

271

Morphological features of elongated-anisotropic magnetosome crystals in magnetotactic bacteria of the Nitrospirae phylum and the Deltaproteobacteria class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to study the crystallographic habits of the elongated magnetite crystals, variously described as bullet-, tooth- or arrowhead-shaped, in two recently described, uncultured, magnetotactic bacteria belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum designated Candidatus Magnetoovum mohavensis strain LO-1, and Candidatus Thermomagnetovibrio paiutensis strain HSMV-1; and a cultured sulfate-reducing magnetotactic bacterium of the Deltaproteobacteria class of the Proteobacteria phylum designated strain AV-1. The elongation axes of the magnetosomes do not coincide with the easy magnetization axis (which is [111]) but they are parallel to [100] in LO-1 and AV-1 and parallel to [110] in HSMV-1. In all three strains, magnetosome magnetite crystals appear to elongate at constant width, resulting in asymmetric shapes. Idealized crystal morphologies are proposed. Neither the control mechanism over crystal growth, nor the adaptiveness, if any, of such unusual crystal habits are known at the moment. Since similar elongated and asymmetric morphologies are unknown in inorganically-formed magnetite crystals, these forms of magnetosome magnetite appear to be excellent biomarkers.

Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Pósfai, Mihály; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Frankel, Richard B.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

2011-12-01

272

The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation 'Melainabacteria'. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01102.001. PMID:24137540

Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E

2013-01-01

273

Measurement of the effects of cadmium stress on protozoan grazing of bacteria (bacterivory) in activated sludge by fluorescence microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cadmium stress on protozoan bacterivory in sewage sludge was measured by experimentally exposing sludge communities to 0 to 150 mg of Cd per liter for up to 6 h and then determining the rates of protozoan grazing on bacteria, using a double-staining technique and epifluorescence microscopy. Bacterivory was measured by incubating the sludge with fluorescently labeled bacterium-sized latex beads and directly observing ingestion of the beads and bacterial cells in the sludge by epifluorescence microscopy of preserved samples. Staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and acridine orange permitted the simultaneous determination of protozoan numbers and bacterivory activity as estimated by the number of bacterial cells and bacterium-sized latex beads ingested by the representative ciliate Aspidisca costata. Enumeration with latex beads proved to be an effective way of estimating bacterivory in sludges subjected to heavy-metal stress. This technique should prove useful for determining the effects of other chemical stresses on protozoan numbers and bacterivory in organic-rich environments. Although the number of protozoa declined significantly only after exposure to 100 mg of Cd per liter for 4 h, grazing, as indicated by bead ingestion, was significantly inhibited by Cd concentrations of > 25 mg/liter in < 1 h, and exposure to 100 mg of Cd per liter effectively stopped protozoan grazing within 1 h of exposure. Protozoan ingestion of latex beads and bacteria was inversely correlated to Cd concentration and exposure time. The reduction of protozoan bacterivory by Cd provides a possible explanation for the increase in suspended bacteria in the effluents of metal-stressed treatment facilities.

Hoffman, R.L.; Atlas, R.M.

1987-10-01

274

Measurement of the effects of cadmium stress on protozoan grazing of bacteria (bacterivory) in activated sludge by fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

The effect of cadmium stress on protozoan bacterivory in sewage sludge was measured by experimentally exposing sludge communities to 0 to 150 mg of Cd per liter for up to 6 h and then determining the rates of protozoan grazing on bacteria, using a double-staining technique and epifluorescence microscopy. Bacterivory was measured by incubating the sludge with fluorescently labeled bacterium-sized latex beads and directly observing ingestion of the beads and bacterial cells in the sludge by epifluorescence microscopy of preserved samples. Staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and acridine orange permitted the simultaneous determination of protozoan numbers and bacterivory activity as estimated by the number of bacterial cells and bacterium-sized latex beads ingested by the representative ciliate Aspidisca costata. Enumeration with latex beads proved to be an effective way of estimating bacterivory in sludges subjected to heavy-metal stress. This technique should prove useful for determining the effects of other chemical stresses on protozoan numbers and bacterivory in organic-rich environments. Although the number of protozoa declined significantly only after exposure to 100 mg of Cd per liter for 4 h, grazing, as indicated by bead ingestion, was significantly inhibited by Cd concentrations of greater than 25 mg/liter in less than 1 h, and exposure to 100 mg of Cd per liter effectively stopped protozoan grazing within 1 h of exposure. Protozoan ingestion of latex beads and bacteria was inversely correlated to Cd concentration and exposure time. The reduction of protozoan bacterivory by Cd provides a possible explanation for the increase in suspended bacteria in the effluents of metal-stressed treatment facilities. PMID:3426216

Hoffman, R L; Atlas, R M

1987-10-01

275

Isospora streperae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea) (Passeriformes: Artamidae) in Western Australia.  

PubMed

A new species, Isospora streperae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a single grey currawong bird (Strepera versicolour) (subspecies S. v. plumbea) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n?=?32) are spherical to subspherical, with smooth colourless bilayered oocyst wall, 1.0?µm thick (outer layer 0?8?µm, inner 0.2?µm thick). Oocyst with a polar granule, an oocyst residuum and two spheroidal to subspheroidal sporocysts. Oocyst length, 23.8 (20.4-25.0) µm; oocyst width, 22.5 (20.0-24.6) µm; a shape index of 1.06, with Stieda, substieda bodies. Micropyle is absent. Sporocysts with compressed sporocyst residuum and four sporozoites. Sporocyst length, 14.4 (12.5-15.2) µm; sporocyst width, 11.2 (10.6-14.0) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.29. Necropsy of the bird identified haemorrhaging along the ileum and jejunum, which is where Isospora oocysts were also mostly detected. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S, 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 99.5% and 99.4% similarity respectively to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow (Passer melanurus melanurus) and Isospora dovati from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 96.9% similarity to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a grosbeak starling (Scissirostrum dubium) and 95.8% similarity with the Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow. At the COI locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 95.0% similarity to Isospora sp. from a yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) from the Czech Republic. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora streperae n. sp. after its host, the grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea). PMID:25620542

Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Habsi, Khalid Al; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

2015-01-01

276

Composition of benthic protozoan communities along a depth transect in the eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benthic protozoans were investigated along a transect in the eastern Mediterranean Sea from the Ionian to the Levantine Sea. Sediment samples were taken during Meteor cruise 25/1 in May and June 1993 at water depths of between 156 and 4617 m with a box corer and a multiple corer. A semi-quantitative cultivation technique was applied by placing sediment in petri dishes and diluting with sterile biotope water. Microscopic analyses of the protozoan taxa were conducted immediately after sampling, and then daily after enrichment with organic substrate. A total of 134 protozoan morphospecies were recorded, including 87 flagellates, 12 naked amoebae and 35 ciliates. 58% of the species could be attributed to genera known from shallow waters, demonstrating the wide distribution of these taxa. The number of recorded species per location ranged from 0 to 35 and decreased with increasing water depth. At stations deeper 1300 m very low species numbers as well as low potential abundances were recorded. Qualitative changes in the taxonomic composition with increasing depth were recorded as a decrease in the proportion of amoebae and euglenid flagellates and as an increase in the proportion of dinoflagellates. Ciliates were found down to a depth of 4260 m. The number of species was also dependent on the chloroplastic pigment equivalent (CPE), indicating a dependency on sedimented phytodetritus. The observed species included picophagous species, which feed mostly on bacteria, as well as nano- and microphagous species, which generally feed on protists, suggesting the existence of several trophic levels within the deep sea microbial food web.

Hausmann, K.; Hülsmann, N.; Polianski, I.; Schade, S.; Weitere, M.

2002-11-01

277

Effect of nickel on nutrient removal by selected indigenous protozoan species in wastewater systems.  

PubMed

Nutrient and heavy metal pollutions are major concern worldwide. This study aimed at comparing the effect of Ni(2+) on nutrient removal efficiency of four indigenous wastewater protozoan species (Aspidisca sp., Paramecium sp., Peranema sp., Trachelophyllum sp.). Specific physicochemical parameters and microbial growth/die-off were measured using standard methods. The results revealed that protozoan species were able to simultaneously remove phosphate, nitrate and Ni(2+) at concentrations ranging between 66.4-99.36%, 56.19-99.88% and 45.98-85.69%, respectively. Peranema sp. appeared to be the isolates with the highest removal of nutrients (Phosphate-99.36% and Nitrate-99.88%) while Paramecium sp. showed higher removal of Ni(2+) at 85.69% and low removal of nutrients. Aspidisca sp. was the most sensitive isolate to Ni(2+) but with significant nutrient removal (Phosphate-66.4% and Nitrate-56.19%) at 10 mg-N(2+)/L followed by an inhibition of nutrient removal at Ni(2+) concentration greater than 10 mg/L. Significant correlation between the growth rate and nutrient removal (r = 0.806/0.799, p < 0.05 for phosphate and nitrate, respectively) was noted. Except for Peranema sp. which revealed better nutrient removal ability at 10 mg-Ni(2+)/L, an increase in Ni(2+) concentration had a significant effect on nutrient removal efficiency of these indigenous protozoan species. This study suggests that although Ni(2+) appeared to be toxic to microbial isolates, its effect at a low concentration (10 mg-Ni(2+)/L) towards these isolates can be used to enhance the wastewater treatment process for the removal of nutrients. Peranema sp., which was able to remove both Ni(2+) and nutrients from wastewater mixed-liquor, can also be used for bioremediation of wastewater systems. PMID:25737645

Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

2015-03-01

278

Protozoan Grazing, Bacterial Activity, and Mineralization in Two-Stage Continuous Cultures  

PubMed Central

In two-stage continuous cultures, at bacterial concentrations, biovolumes, and growth rates similar to values found in Lake Vechten, ingestion rates of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) increased from 2.3 bacteria HNAN?1 · h?1 at a growth rate of 0.15 day?1 to 9.2 bacteria · HNAN?1 · h?1 at a growth rate of 0.65 day?1. On a yeast extract medium with a C/N/P ratio of 100:15:1.2 (Redfield ratio), a mixed bacterial population showed a yield of 18% (C/C) and a specific carbon content of 211 fg of C · ?m?3. The HNAN carbon content and yield were estimated at 127 fg of C · ?m?3 and 47% (C/C). Although P was not growth limiting, HNAN accelerated the mineralization of PO4-P from dissolved organic matter by 600%. The major mechanism of P remineralization appeared to be direct consumption of bacteria by HNAN. N mineralization was performed mainly (70%) by bacteria but was increased 30% by HNAN. HNAN did not enhance the decomposition of the relatively mineral-rich dissolved organic matter. An accelerated decomposition of organic carbon by protozoa may be restricted to mineral-poor substrates and may be explained mainly by protozoan nutrient regeneration. Growth and grazing in the cultures were compared with methods for in situ estimates. Thymidine incorporation by actively growing bacteria yielded an empirical conversion factor of 1.1 × 1018 bacteria per mol of thymidine incorporated into DNA. However, nongrowing bacteria also showed considerable incorporation. Protozoan grazing was found to be accurately measured by uptake of fluorescently labeled bacteria, whereas artificial fluorescent microspheres were not ingested, and selective prokaryotic inhibitors blocked not only bacterial growth but also protozoan grazing. PMID:16347801

Bloem, Jaap; Starink, Mathieu; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

1988-01-01

279

Developing vaccines to control protozoan parasites in ruminants: dead or alive?  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites are among some of the most successful organisms worldwide, being able to live and multiply within a very wide range of hosts. The diseases caused by these parasites cause significant production losses in the livestock sector involving reproductive failure, impaired weight gain, contaminated meat, reduced milk yields and in severe cases, loss of the animal. In addition, some protozoan parasites affecting livestock such as Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum may also be transmitted to humans where they can cause serious disease. Data derived from experimental models of infection in ruminant species enables the study of the interactions between parasite and host. How the parasite initiates infection, becomes established and multiplies within the host and the critical pathways that may lead to a disease outcome are all important to enable the rational design of appropriate intervention strategies. Once the parasites invade the hosts they induce both innate and adaptive immune responses and the induction and function of these immune responses are critical in determining the outcome of the infection. Vaccines offer green solutions to control disease as they are sustainable, reducing reliance on pharmacological drugs and pesticides. The use of vaccines has multiple benefits such as improving animal health and welfare by controlling animal infections and infestations; improving public health by controlling zoonoses and food borne pathogens in animals; solving problems associated with resistance to acaricides, antibiotics and anthelmintics; keeping animals and the environment free of chemical residues and maintaining biodiversity. All of these attributes should lead to improved sustainability of animal production and economic benefit. Using different protozoan parasitic diseases as examples this paper will discuss various approaches used to develop vaccines to protect against disease in livestock and discuss the relative merits of using live versus killed vaccine preparations. A range of different vaccination targets and strategies will be discussed to help protect against: acute disease, congenital infection and abortion, persistence of zoonotic pathogens in tissues of food animals and passive transfer of immunity to neonates. PMID:21680094

Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Rocchi, Mara; Benavidas-Silvan, Julio; Burrells, Alison; Hotchkiss, Emily; Chianini, Francesca; Canton, German; Katzer, Frank

2011-08-01

280

Bioinformatic analysis of beta carbonic anhydrase sequences from protozoans and metazoans  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of parasitic infections, and their impact on global health and economy, the number of drugs available to treat them is extremely limited. As a result, the potential consequences of large-scale resistance to any existing drugs are a major concern. A number of recent investigations have focused on the effects of potential chemical inhibitors on bacterial and fungal carbonic anhydrases. Among the five classes of carbonic anhydrases (alpha, beta, gamma, delta and zeta), beta carbonic anhydrases have been reported in most species of bacteria, yeasts, algae, plants, and particular invertebrates (nematodes and insects). To date, there has been a lack of knowledge on the expression and molecular structure of beta carbonic anhydrases in metazoan (nematodes and arthropods) and protozoan species. Methods Here, the identification of novel beta carbonic anhydrases was based on the presence of the highly-conserved amino acid sequence patterns of the active site. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on codon-aligned DNA sequences. Subcellular localization prediction for each identified invertebrate beta carbonic anhydrase was performed using the TargetP webserver. Results We verified a total of 75 beta carbonic anhydrase sequences in metazoan and protozoan species by proteome-wide searches and multiple sequence alignment. Of these, 52 were novel, and contained highly conserved amino acid residues, which are inferred to form the active site in beta carbonic anhydrases. Mitochondrial targeting peptide analysis revealed that 31 enzymes are predicted with mitochondrial localization; one was predicted to be a secretory enzyme, and the other 43 were predicted to have other undefined cellular localizations. Conclusions These investigations identified 75 beta carbonic anhydrases in metazoan and protozoan species, and among them there were 52 novel sequences that were not previously annotated as beta carbonic anhydrases. Our results will not only change the current information in proteomics and genomics databases, but will also suggest novel targets for drugs against parasites. PMID:24447594

2014-01-01

281

Effect of nickel on nutrient removal by selected indigenous protozoan species in wastewater systems  

PubMed Central

Nutrient and heavy metal pollutions are major concern worldwide. This study aimed at comparing the effect of Ni2+ on nutrient removal efficiency of four indigenous wastewater protozoan species (Aspidisca sp., Paramecium sp., Peranema sp., Trachelophyllum sp.). Specific physicochemical parameters and microbial growth/die-off were measured using standard methods. The results revealed that protozoan species were able to simultaneously remove phosphate, nitrate and Ni2+ at concentrations ranging between 66.4–99.36%, 56.19–99.88% and 45.98–85.69%, respectively. Peranema sp. appeared to be the isolates with the highest removal of nutrients (Phosphate-99.36% and Nitrate-99.88%) while Paramecium sp. showed higher removal of Ni2+ at 85.69% and low removal of nutrients. Aspidisca sp. was the most sensitive isolate to Ni2+ but with significant nutrient removal (Phosphate-66.4% and Nitrate-56.19%) at 10 mg-N2+/L followed by an inhibition of nutrient removal at Ni2+ concentration greater than 10 mg/L. Significant correlation between the growth rate and nutrient removal (r = 0.806/0.799, p < 0.05 for phosphate and nitrate, respectively) was noted. Except for Peranema sp. which revealed better nutrient removal ability at 10 mg-Ni2+/L, an increase in Ni2+ concentration had a significant effect on nutrient removal efficiency of these indigenous protozoan species. This study suggests that although Ni2+ appeared to be toxic to microbial isolates, its effect at a low concentration (10 mg-Ni2+/L) towards these isolates can be used to enhance the wastewater treatment process for the removal of nutrients. Peranema sp., which was able to remove both Ni2+ and nutrients from wastewater mixed-liquor, can also be used for bioremediation of wastewater systems. PMID:25737645

Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N.B.

2014-01-01

282

Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.  

PubMed

This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described. PMID:23871855

Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

2013-10-01

283

Solar and photocatalytic disinfection of protozoan, fungal and bacterial microbes in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of solar disinfection (SODIS) and solar photocatalytic (TiO2) disinfection (SPC-DIS) batch-process reactors to inactivate waterborne protozoan, fungal and bacterial microbes was evaluated. After 8h simulated solar exposure (870W\\/m2 in the 300nm–10?m range, 200W\\/m2 in the 300–400nm UV range), both SPC-DIS and SODIS achieved at least a 4 log unit reduction in viability against protozoa (the trophozoite stage of

J. Lonnen; S. Kilvington; S. C. Kehoe; F. Al-Touati; K. G. McGuigan

2005-01-01

284

Trichodina xenopodus, a Ciliated Protozoan, in a Laboratory-Maintained Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

A postmortem evaluation of a domestically bred, adult, female Xenopus laevis revealed the presence of a urinary bladder protozoan consistent with Trichodina xenopodus. T. xenopodus is considered an incidental finding, as its presence in the urinary bladder in frogs has not been correlated with disease or with urinary bladder epithelial lesions. Trichodina spp. are ciliated protozoa known to colonize many species of amphibians and fish. These protozoa frequently inhabit the skin and gills, but may also be present in the urinary bladder of infected animals. Their presence on the skin and gills in low numbers is not related to disease; however, large numbers may indicate poor water quality and overcrowding. PMID:24209965

Collymore, Chereen; White, Julie R; Lieggi, Christine

2013-01-01

285

Foodborne Protozoans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification of the human pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be grouped into general morphology by microscopy, chemical and immunofluorescent staining methods aiding microscopy, and biochemical and molecular tests. Microscopic observations can be made using brightfield with or without spec...

286

The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred.

Weisburg, W. G.; Giovannoni, S. J.; Woese, C. R.

1989-01-01

287

Evidence of Carbon Fixation Pathway in a Bacterium from Candidate Phylum SBR1093 Revealed with Genomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB) cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30?50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30?80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere. PMID:25310003

Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Tong

2014-01-01

288

Nanoarchaea: representatives of a novel archaeal phylum or a fast-evolving euryarchaeal lineage related to Thermococcales?  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivable archaeal species are assigned to two phyla - the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota - by a number of important genetic differences, and this ancient split is strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis. The recently described hyperthermophile Nanoarchaeum equitans, harboring the smallest cellular genome ever sequenced (480 kb), has been suggested as the representative of a new phylum - the Nanoarchaeota - that would have diverged before the Crenarchaeota/Euryarchaeota split. Confirming the phylogenetic position of N. equitans is thus crucial for deciphering the history of the archaeal domain. Results We tested the placement of N. equitans in the archaeal phylogeny using a large dataset of concatenated ribosomal proteins from 25 archaeal genomes. We indicate that the placement of N. equitans in archaeal phylogenies on the basis of ribosomal protein concatenation may be strongly biased by the coupled effect of its above-average evolutionary rate and lateral gene transfers. Indeed, we show that different subsets of ribosomal proteins harbor a conflicting phylogenetic signal for the placement of N. equitans. A BLASTP-based survey of the phylogenetic pattern of all open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome of N. equitans revealed a surprisingly high fraction of close hits with Euryarchaeota, notably Thermococcales. Strikingly, a specific affinity of N. equitans and Thermococcales was strongly supported by phylogenies based on a subset of ribosomal proteins, and on a number of unrelated molecular markers. Conclusion We suggest that N. equitans may more probably be the representative of a fast-evolving euryarchaeal lineage (possibly related to Thermococcales) than the representative of a novel and early diverging archaeal phylum. PMID:15892870

Brochier, Celine; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Zivanovic, Yvan; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Forterre, Patrick

2005-01-01

289

Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and iron sequestration contribute to macrophage-mediated control of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infection in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infects a wide range of mammals, and replicates within resting macrophages. Activated macrophages, conversely, inhibit replication and destroy intracellular organisms. These studies were performed to assess mechanisms of innate immune responses expressed by macrophages to control E. cuniculi infection. Addition of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibitors to activated murine peritoneal macrophages statistically significantly, rescued E.

Elizabeth S. Didier; Lisa C. Bowers; Aaron D. Martin; Marcelo J. Kuroda; Imtiaz A. Khan; Peter J. Didier

2010-01-01

290

Unique posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic translation factors and their roles in protozoan parasite viability and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites are one of the major causes of diseases worldwide. The vector transmitted parasites exhibit complex life cycles involving interactions between humans, protozoa, and arthropods. In order to adapt themselves to the changing microenvironments, they have to undergo complex morphological and metabolic changes. These changes can be brought about by expressing a new pool of proteins in the cell or by modifying the existing repertoire of proteins via posttranslational modifications (PTMs). PTMs involve covalent modification and processing of proteins thereby modulating their functions. Some of these changes may involve PTMs of parasite proteins to help the parasite survive within the host and the vector. Out of many PTMs known, three are unique since they occur only on single proteins: ethanolamine phosphoglycerol (EPG) glutamate, hypusine and diphthamide. These modifications occur on eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), respectively. Interestingly, the proteins carrying these unique modifications are all involved in the elongation steps of translation. Here we review these unique PTMs, which are well conserved in protozoan parasites, and discuss their roles in viability and pathogenesis of parasites. Characterization of these modifications and studying their roles in physiology as well as pathogenesis will provide new insights in parasite biology, which may also help in developing new therapeutic interventions. PMID:23201129

Mittal, Nimisha; Subramanian, Gowri; Bütikofer, Peter; Madhubala, Rentala

2013-01-01

291

Breast-feeding protects infantile diarrhea caused by intestinal protozoan infections.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of breast-feeding in protection against protozoan infection in infants with persistent diarrhea. Infants were classified into 2 groups; 161 breast-fed infants and the same number of non-breast-fed infants. Microscopic examinations of stool were done for detection of parasites and measuring the intensity of infection. Moreover, serum levels of IgE and TNF-? were measured by ELISA. Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. were demonstrated in infants with persistent diarrhea. The percentage of protozoan infections was significantly lower in breast-fed infants than that in the non-breast-fed infants. The levels of IgE and TNF-? were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in the non-breast-fed group. There were significant positive associations between the serum levels of IgE and TNF-? and the intensity of parasite infection in the breast-fed group. It is suggested that breast-feeding has an attenuating effect on the rate and intensity of parasite infection. PMID:24327776

Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Belal, Usama Salah; Abdellatif, Manal Zaki Mohamed; Naoi, Koji; Norose, Kazumi

2013-10-01

292

The Bacillus subtilis spore coat provides "eat resistance" during phagocytic predation by the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed

Bacillus spores are highly resistant to many environmental stresses, owing in part to the presence of multiple "extracellular" layers. Although the role of some of these extracellular layers in resistance to particular stresses is known, the function of one of the outermost layers, the spore coat, is not completely understood. This study sought to determine whether the spore coat plays a role in resistance to predation by the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, which uses phagocytosis to ingest and degrade other microorganisms. Wild-type dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis were efficiently ingested by the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila but were neither digested nor killed. However, spores with various coat defects were killed and digested, leaving only an outer shell termed a rind, and supporting the growth of Tetrahymena. A similar rind was generated when coat-defective spores were treated with lysozyme alone. The sensitivity of spores with different coat defects to predation by T. thermophila paralleled the spores' sensitivities to lysozyme. Spore killing by T. thermophila was by means of lytic enzymes within the protozoal phagosome, not by initial spore germination followed by killing. These findings suggest that a major function of the coat of spores of Bacillus species is to protect spores against predation. We also found that indigestible rinds were generated even from spores in which cross-linking of coat proteins was greatly reduced, implying the existence of a coat structure that is highly resistant to degradative enzymes. PMID:16371471

Klobutcher, Lawrence A; Ragkousi, Katerina; Setlow, Peter

2006-01-01

293

Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. Methods From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 – 13.6, p?=?0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 – 21.2, p?=?0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 – 30.5). Conclusions High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth infections were not significantly associated with either atopic eczema or recurrent wheezing. PMID:24885094

2014-01-01

294

Phylum Arthropoda -Lec. 4 Phylum Arthropoda  

E-print Network

­ Nervous System · Subphylum Mandibulata ­ phylogeny · Class Crustacea ­ Species richness ­ subclasses Class Pycnogonida Class Arachnida Subphylum Mandibulata Class Crustacea Class Myriapoda Class Insecta, millipedes, ~13,000 spp ·Insecta (Hexapoda) ­ insects, 1,000,000+ spp. Subphylum Mandibulata Mandibulata

Wagner, Diane

295

Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis muris (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) sporocysts from a naturally infected cat (Felis catus) to immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice.  

PubMed

Cats serve as definitive hosts for zoonotic Toxoplasma gondii , a protozoan that threatens human reproductive health, but they also excrete sporocysts of related protozoan that pose no known human health risk. Here we provide the first definitive evidence for natural infection with the enzootic parasite Sarcocystis muris, one such enzootic parasite. Sporulated Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts were found in rectal contents of an adult feral cat ( Felis catus ) in Giza, Egypt. After these sporocysts were orally inoculated into 2 Swiss Webster mice, sarcocysts were found to have developed in skeletal muscles 114 days later. As observed through transmission electron microscopy, the cyst wall corresponded to Type 1, and the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had tiny outpocketing of blebs (<200 nm thick) that were not invaginated into the interior of the cyst; these structures were identical to the sarcocyst wall described for a Costa Rican isolate of S. muris that has served as an experimental model for nearly 4 decades. Two parasite-free cats fed sarcocyst-infected muscles developed patent infections; fully sporulated sporocysts (10-11 × 7.0 ?m) were found in the lamina propria of small intestines of cats killed 6 and 7 days postinoculation (PI). Interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice were orally inoculated with sporocysts from experimentally infected cats, and their tissues were examined histologically; sarcocysts were found in 5 KO mice killed 87, 115, 196, 196, 196 days PI, but no stages were seen in 5 KO mice 10, 14, 14, 18, and 39 days PI. Bradyzoites were released from intramuscular sarcocysts of a KO mouse killed 115 days PI and orally inoculated into 5 KO mice. No stage of Sarcocystis was found in any organ (including intestinal lamina propria) of KO mice killed 4, 8, 81, 190, and 190 days PI, confirming that the definitive host is required to complete the life cycle even in the case of immunodeficient mice. This is the first confirmation of S. muris infection in a naturally infected cat anywhere. PMID:23758571

Al-Kappany, Y M; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Rosenthal, B M; Dunams, D B; Dubey, J P

2013-12-01

296

Prevalence and pathology of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum, the trematode Paratanaisia bragai, and the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis in the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infection and associated pathology induced by two helminth and one protozoan species infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds, without gross lesions when not associated to the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. Histological findings in the ceca were represented by the presence of H. gallinarum worms,

Beatriz Brener; Rogério Tortelly; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes; Luís C Muniz-Pereira; Roberto Magalhães Pinto

2006-01-01

297

Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%), and Eimeria morainensis (77%). A single species, Eimeria tamiasciuri (91%), was recovered from red squirrels. Eimerians recovered from arctic ground squirrels represent new host records, and the single species from red squirrels is a new geographic record. Alaskan arctic ground squirrel prevalence was higher for E. callospermophili (Alaska = 22% vs. Russia = 9%), E. cynomysis (34% vs. 2%), and E. lateralis (27% vs. 4%), but not E. morainensis (78% vs. 76%). PMID:17089755

Seville, Robert S; Oliver, Clint E; Lynch, Andrew J; Bryant, Michelle C; Duszynski, Donald W

2005-08-01

298

Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-06-01

299

Aggregata (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) infection in the common octopus Octopus vulgaris from the West Mediterranean Sea: The infection rates and possible effect of faunistic, environmental and ecological factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalence and distribution of the coccidian parasite Aggregata octopiana (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the Mediterranean Spanish coasts were studied. A total of 114 octopuses were sampled from 30 geographic sectors by trawl fleet, and whitish macroscopic oocysts typical of A. octopiana infection were recorded in 96% of octopuses in the digestive tract and mainly in intestine and spiral caecum. The univariate analysis showed that lesion extension varied according to specific octopus, environmental and faunistic variables. A subsequent multivariable analysis indicated that the risk of macroscopic lesions in the caecum was greater in males compared to females, in octopuses living in deeper compared to shallower waters and in hauls where the crustacean Pagurus excavatus was present. The study provides further evidence of the abundance of A. octopiana in octopus ecosystems urging for further studies to evaluate its health impact. The combined abundance of infected octopuses and P. excavatus merits attention.

Mayo-Hernández, E.; Barcala, E.; Berriatua, E.; García-Ayala, A.; Muñoz, P.

2013-10-01

300

Apoptosis in the malaria protozoan, Plasmodium berghei: a possible mechanism for limiting intensity of infection in the mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death by apoptosis regulates cell numbers in metazoan tissues and it is mediated by activation of caspases and results in characteristic morphological and biochemical changes. We report here that the malaria protozoan, Plasmodium berghei, exhibits features typical of metazoan apoptotic cells including condensation of chromatin, fragmentation of the nuclear DNA and movement of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer

Ebtesam M Al-Olayan; Gwyn T Williams; Hilary Hurd

2002-01-01

301

Molecular characteristics of an immobilization antigen gene of the fish-parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite of fish, expresses surface antigens (i-antigens), which react with host antibodies that render them immobile. The nucleotide sequence of an i-antigen gene of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6 was deduced. The predicted protein of 47...

302

Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collected from 21 engineered freshwater systems, with added polyethylene cylinders to promote biofilm formation, were inoculated

R. M. Valster; B. A. Wullings; Kooij van der D

2010-01-01

303

Development of a Fluorescent Multiwell Assay for Evaluating the Capacity of the Ciliated Protozoan Tetrahymena for Bacterivory in Water Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterivory by ciliates in various water ecosystems, both natural and artificial, plays a significant role on the microbial popu- lation composition and consequently affects water quality. A convenient, rapid and inexpensive methodology to evaluate the capacity of the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila for bacterivory was developed utilizing fluorescent protein expressing bacteria (FPEB) in a microtitre plate fluorimeter. Bacterivory was correlated

Mary E. Power; Dana Sotornik; Marcel D. O. Pinheiro; Vivian R. Dayeh; Barbara J. Butler; Robin Slawson; Lucy E. J. Lee; Denis H. Lynn; Niels C. Bols

304

Genes of the protozoan parasite Babesia bovis that rearrange to produce RNA species with different sequences.  

PubMed

We describe a highly polymorphic gene family from the protozoan parasite Babesia bovis that encodes a complex pattern of transcripts. Gene rearrangements at this locus (designated BabR ) have generated RNA species that differ in sequence. The naturally occurring virulent field isolate Kv expresses two different sized transcripts that are identical in sequence at their 5' ends but different at the 3' ends. An avirulent derivative of this isolate, Ka, expresses not only these two transcripts but a third, of intermediate size. Analysis of cloned genomic fragments from Ka identified genes encoding all three transcripts. Two fragments contained tandemly repeated copies of the BabR genes. The gene encoding the intermediate sized transcript has undergone a rearrangement, substituting a 5' region different to that shared by the other transcripts. These results suggest that sequence diversity may play an important role in the biological function of the BabR locus. PMID:6327081

Cowman, A F; Bernard, O; Stewart, N; Kemp, D J

1984-06-01

305

Changes in trophic structure of a freshwater protozoan community subjected to cadmium.  

PubMed

The development of protozoan communities in laboratory microecosystems has been studied in order to observe the effect of cadmium on the trophic structure and dynamics of these communities. The effect of cadmium was evident on the species richness, density, and biomass. The most sensitive parameters seem to be biomass and species richness. In the controls, the trophic structure of the community was defined for bacterivore-detritivore, photautotroph, algivore, and in low proportion for nonselective species. In the fractions with cadmium there was a decrease in diversity in each trophic group; the bacterivore-detritivore and photosynthetic species were the most affected. Also, there was an appearance of saprotroph species. Species belonging to the control and others exclusively pertaining to microecosystems with cadmium were observed. PMID:7691521

Fernández-Leborans, G; Novillo-Villajos, A

1993-06-01

306

Ultrastructural modification of the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda following chronic exposure to partially degraded crude oil  

SciTech Connect

Protozoa are important consumers of the microflora that biodegrade oil spills. In the study presented, the ultrastructural effects induced by chronic oil stress in the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda are discussed. Colpidia were grown in control cultures containing a dilute organic medium and a dense suspension of prey bacteria. After 20 days' oil exposure, C. colpoda contained more stained cytoplasmic inclusions than ciliates grown in the control media. Although the extent of Sudan Black staining in the oil-stressed cells indicates the presence of lipids, these droplets are better termed lipid-hydrocarbon (LH) inclusions until their definitive composition is known. C. colpoda accumulated significant quantities of lipid-hydrocarbons accounting for up to 20% of their cellular volume. Studies are currently being conducted to characterized these inclusions and to evaluate the effects of feeding these ''oil-labeled'' prey to predators, an important issue with the increasing concern about the biomagnification of environmental pollutants. (JMT)

Rogerson, A.; Berger, J.

1982-06-01

307

Adaptation-induced collective dynamics of a single-cell protozoan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the behavior of a single-cell protozoan in a narrow tubular ring. This environment forces them to swim under a one-dimensional periodic boundary condition. Above a critical density, single-cell protozoa aggregate spontaneously without external stimulation. The high-density zone of swimming cells exhibits a characteristic collective dynamics including translation and boundary fluctuation. We analyzed the velocity distribution and turn rate of swimming cells and found that the regulation of the turing rate leads to a stable aggregation and that acceleration of velocity triggers instability of aggregation. These two opposing effects may help to explain the spontaneous dynamics of collective behavior. We also propose a stochastic model for the mechanism underlying the collective behavior of swimming cells.

Ogata, Maiko; Hondou, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Sugawara, Ken

2008-01-01

308

Trans-kingdom transposition of the Drosophila element mariner within the protozoan Leishmania.  

PubMed

Transposable elements of the mariner/Tc1 family are postulated to have spread by horizontal transfer and be relatively independent of host-specific factors. This was tested by introducing the Drosophila mauritiana element mariner into the human parasite Leishmania major, a trypanosomatid protozoan belonging to one of the most ancient eukaryotic lineages. Transposition in Leishmania was efficient, occurring in more than 20 percent of random transfectants, and proceeded by the same mechanism as in Drosophila. Insertional inactivation of a specific gene was obtained, and a modified mariner element was used to select for gene fusions, establishing mariner as a powerful genetic tool for Leishmania and other organisms. These experiments demonstrate the evolutionary range of mariner transposition in vivo and underscore the ability of this ubiquitous DNA to parasitize the eukaryotic genome. PMID:9180085

Gueiros-Filho, F J; Beverley, S M

1997-06-13

309

Comparative use of bacterial, algal and protozoan tests to study toxicity of azo- and anthraquinone dyes.  

PubMed

Toxicity of two azo dyes (Reactive Orange 16 (RO16); Congo Red (CR)) and two anthraquinone dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR); Disperse Blue 3 (DB3)) were compared using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, microalga Selenastrum capricornutum and ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The following respective endpoints were involved: acute toxicity measured as bacterial luminescence inhibition, algal growth inhibition, and the effects on the protozoa including viability, growth inhibition, grazing effect and morphometric effects. In addition, mutagenicity of the dyes was determined using Ames test with bacterium Salmonella typhimurium His(-). DB3 dye was the most toxic of all dyes in the bacterial, algal and protozoan tests. In contrast to other dyes, DB3 exhibited mutagenic effects after metabolic activation in vitro in all S. typhimurium strains used. Of the methods applied, the algal test was the most sensitive to evaluate toxicity of the dyes tested. PMID:16297428

Novotný, Cenek; Dias, Nicolina; Kapanen, Anu; Malachová, Katerina; Vándrovcová, Marta; Itävaara, Merja; Lima, Nelson

2006-06-01

310

The toxicity of tri-substituted benzenes to the protozoan ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum.  

PubMed

The Spirotox test utilises a large ciliate protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum as a test organism. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of tri-substituted benzenes in the Spirotox test. Twenty-six organic compounds were tested in this study and included: dimethylphenols (DMPs), dichlorophenols (DCMs), trichlorobenzenes (TCBs), dichloroanilines (DCAs), dinitrophenols (DNPs), dinitroaniline (DNA), dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). The toxicity of the compounds tested varied almost four orders of a magnitude. DMPs and DCAs were the least toxic, whereas dinitro derivatives were the most toxic to S. ambiguum. When chlorine or fluorine atoms were replaced by amino or hydroxy substituents, the toxicity increased dramatically. The results of the Spirotox test were compared with three other bioassays that are widely used around the world: Microtox, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Daphnia magna. The Spirotox was less sensitive than these other bioassays for the majority of these compounds, with an exception found for the dinitro derivatives. PMID:11827293

Na?gcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Sawicki, Józef

2002-01-01

311

Electron microbeam analysis of calcium distribution in the ciliated protozoan, Spirostomum ambiguum.  

PubMed

Electron microprobe analyses of calcium distribution in the ciliated protozoan, Spirostomum ambiguum, indicated several calcium rich sites. One site was an endoplasmic distribution of calcium coincident with phosphorus which corroborates previous findings of hydroxyapatite deposits within Spirostomum. These apatite deposits were distributed throughout the endoplasm, but not within the nuclei or the contractile vacuole. Calcium was also detected within the cortical region. Cortical calcium was in greater concentration in the anterior portion of the organism and decreased towards the posterior end (region containing the contractile vacuole). Phosphorus and potassium were also detected as gradients from the anterior end, whereas magnesium was detected in the same density throughout the cortical region. Line scans of cortical regions suggested (1) distributions of calcium within mitochondria and/or vesicles, and (2) calcium associated with bundles of microfilaments. PMID:405401

Osborn, D; Hamilton, T C

1977-06-01

312

[A checklist of protozoan and metazoan parasites of the burbot (Lota lota)].  

PubMed

The parasite fauna of the burbot (Lota lota) within its natural range is reviewed. The sent paper summarizes the data on parasites of the burbot from water bodies of Eurasia and North America, based on published monographs, reviewed journals, scientific reports, conference contributions, and PhD theses. The checklist includes all protozoan and metazoan parasites of the burbot. A total of 242 parasite species/taxa were recorded in the burbot (Ki-netoplastomonada--4, Parasitomonada--3, Coccidiomorpha--1. Microsporidea--3, Myxosporidia--35, Pleurostomata--1. Cyrtostomata--3, Peritricha--20. Protozoa incertae sedis--1. Monogenea--8, Cestoda--23, Digenea--50. Nematoda--36, Acanthocephala--28, Hirudinea--11. Bivalvia--5, Crustacea--10). Most parasites belong to digenean trematodes. Most of these species (183 species/taxa) were recorded on Eurasian and only 92--in North America fishes. Several parasite species recorded from the burbot are discussed in relation to host specificity and their geographical distribution. PMID:22586925

Zhokhov, A E; Pugacheva, M N

2012-01-01

313

A bioinformatics approach to reanalyze the genome annotation of kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

Leishmania donovani is a kinetoplastid protozoan parasite which causes the fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Genome sequencing of L. donovani revealed information about the arrangement of genes and genome architecture. After curation of the genome sequence, many genes in L. donovani were assigned as truncated or "partial" genes by the genome sequencing group. In the present study, we have carried out an extensive analysis and attempted to improve the gene models of these partial genes. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 308 partial genes in L. donovani, which were further categorized as C-terminal extensions, joining of genes, tandemly repeated paralogs and wrong chromosomal assignments. We have analyzed each of these genes from these categories and have improved the annotation of existing gene models in L. donovani. Some of these corrections have been confirmed by mass spectrometry derived peptide data from our previous comparative proteogenomics study in L. donovani. PMID:25265881

Pawar, Harsh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Dixit, Tanwi; Chaphekar, Deepa; Patole, Milind S

2014-12-01

314

Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia  

PubMed Central

Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia. Results We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum) is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely acidic conditions including a major upward shift in the isoelectric points of proteins. Conclusion The results of genome analysis of M. infernorum support the monophyly of the PVC superphylum. M. infernorum possesses a streamlined genome but seems to have acquired numerous genes including those for enzymes of methylotrophic pathways via horizontal gene transfer, in particular, from Proteobacteria. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John A. Fuerst, Ludmila Chistoserdova, and Radhey S. Gupta. PMID:18593465

Hou, Shaobin; Makarova, Kira S; Saw, Jimmy HW; Senin, Pavel; Ly, Benjamin V; Zhou, Zhemin; Ren, Yan; Wang, Jianmei; Galperin, Michael Y; Omelchenko, Marina V; Wolf, Yuri I; Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V; Stott, Matthew B; Mountain, Bruce W; Crowe, Michelle A; Smirnova, Angela V; Dunfield, Peter F; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-01-01

315

Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR?=?1.748, 95% CI?=?1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR?=?1.820, 95% CI?=?1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened provision of educational health programs, health services in all governorates including rural areas. Furthermore, it is also essential to find radical solutions to the recent water crises in Yemen. PMID:21789210

Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2011-01-01

316

Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species, followed by the growth of sulfate reducers, as observed previously. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater before the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the ameboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey-predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies. PMID:23446832

Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Williams, Kenneth H; Wrighton, Kelly C; Wilkins, Michael J; Thompson, Courtney A; Roper, Thomas J; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

2013-07-01

317

Structure of a Protozoan Virus from the Human Genitourinary Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is an obligate human genitourinary parasite and the most frequent cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Most clinical isolates of T. vaginalis are persistently infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from the genus Trichomonasvirus, family Totiviridae, which appear to influence not only protozoan biology but also human disease. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1 (TVV1) virions, as determined by electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral image reconstruction. The structure reveals a T = 1 capsid comprising 120 subunits, 60 in each of two nonequivalent positions, designated A and B, as previously observed for fungal Totiviridae family members. The putative protomer is identified as an asymmetric AB dimer consistent with either decamer or tetramer assembly intermediates. The capsid surface is notable for raised plateaus around the icosahedral 5-fold axes, with canyons connecting the 2- and 3-fold axes. Capsid-spanning channels at the 5-fold axes are unusually wide and may facilitate release of the viral genome, promoting dsRNA-dependent immunoinflammatory responses, as recently shown upon the exposure of human cervicovaginal epithelial cells to either TVV-infected T. vaginalis or purified TVV1 virions. Despite extensive sequence divergence, conservative features of the capsid reveal a helix-rich fold probably derived from an ancestor shared with fungal Totiviridae family members. Also notable are mass spectrometry results assessing the virion proteins as a complement to structure determination, which suggest that translation of the TVV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in fusion with its capsid protein involves ?2, and not +1, ribosomal frameshifting, an uncommonly found mechanism to date. PMID:23549915

Parent, Kristin N.; Takagi, Yuko; Cardone, Giovanni; Olson, Norman H.; Ericsson, Maria; Yang, May; Lee, Yujin; Asara, John M.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Baker, Timothy S.; Nibert, Max L.

2013-01-01

318

Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater  

PubMed Central

The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species, followed by the growth of sulfate reducers, as observed previously. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater before the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the ameboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey–predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies. PMID:23446832

Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Williams, Kenneth H; Wrighton, Kelly C; Wilkins, Michael J; Thompson, Courtney A; Roper, Thomas J; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

2013-01-01

319

Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well-recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species followed by the growth of sulfate-reducers, as previously observed. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater prior to the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the amoeboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey-predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity, and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies.

Holmes, Dawn; Giloteaux, L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Thompson, Courtney A.; Roper, Thomas J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek

2013-07-28

320

Geoarchaeota: a new candidate phylum in the Archaea from high-temperature acidic iron mats in Yellowstone National Park  

PubMed Central

Geothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an outstanding opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of metabolic processes necessary for life in extreme environments including low pH, high temperature, low oxygen and elevated concentrations of reduced iron. Previous phylogenetic studies of acidic ferric iron mats from YNP have revealed considerable diversity of uncultivated and undescribed archaea. The goal of this study was to obtain replicate de novo genome assemblies for a dominant archaeal population inhabiting acidic iron-oxide mats in YNP. Detailed analysis of conserved ribosomal and informational processing genes indicates that the replicate assemblies represent a new candidate phylum within the domain Archaea referred to here as ‘Geoarchaeota' or ‘novel archaeal group 1 (NAG1)'. The NAG1 organisms contain pathways necessary for the catabolism of peptides and complex carbohydrates as well as a bacterial-like Form I carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex likely used for energy conservation. Moreover, this novel population contains genes involved in the metabolism of oxygen including a Type A heme copper oxidase, a bd-type terminal oxidase and a putative oxygen-sensing protoglobin. NAG1 has a variety of unique bacterial-like cofactor biosynthesis and transport genes and a Type3-like CRISPR system. Discovery of NAG1 is critical to our understanding of microbial community structure and function in extant thermophilic iron-oxide mats of YNP, and will provide insight regarding the evolution of Archaea in early Earth environments that may have important analogs active in YNP today. PMID:23151644

Kozubal, Mark A; Romine, Margaret; Jennings, Ryan deM; Jay, Zack J; Tringe, Susannah G; Rusch, Doug B; Beam, Jacob P; McCue, Lee Ann; Inskeep, William P

2013-01-01

321

Genomic distribution of B-vitamin auxotrophy and uptake transporters in environmental bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum.  

PubMed

Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum are dominant members of phototrophic microbial mat communities in terrestrial thermal environments. Vitamins of B group are key intermediates (precursors) in the biosynthesis of indispensable enzyme cofactors driving numerous metabolic processes in all forms of life. A genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of respective biosynthetic and salvage pathways and riboswitch regulons in over 20 representative Chloroflexi genomes revealed a widespread auxotrophy for some of the vitamins. The most prominent predicted phenotypic signature, auxotrophy for vitamins B1 and B7 was experimentally confirmed for the best studied model organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These observations along with identified candidate genes for the respective uptake transporters pointed to B vitamin cross-feeding as an important aspect of syntrophic metabolism in microbial communities. Inferred specificities of homologous substrate-binding components of ABC transporters for vitamins B1 (ThiY) and B2 (RibY) were verified by thermofluorescent shift approach. A functional activity of the thiamine-specific transporter ThiXYZ from C.?aurantiacus was experimentally verified by genetic complementation in E.?coli. Expanding the integrative approach, which was applied here for a comprehensive analysis of B-vitamin metabolism in Chloroflexi would allow reconstruction of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities. PMID:25345570

Rodionova, Irina A; Li, Xiaoqing; Plymale, Andrew E; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Konopka, Allan E; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K; Osterman, Andrei L; Rodionov, Dmitry A

2015-04-01

322

Geoarchaeota: a new candidate phylum in the Archaea from high-temperature acidic iron mats in Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an outstanding opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of metabolic processes necessary for life in extreme environments including low pH, high temperature, low oxygen and elevated concentrations of reduced iron. Previous phylogenetic studies of acidic ferric iron mats from YNP have revealed considerable diversity of uncultivated and undescribed archaea. The goal of this study was to obtain replicate de novo genome assemblies for a dominant archaeal population inhabiting acidic iron oxide mats in YNP. Detailed analysis of conserved ribosomal and informational processing genes indicate that the replicate assemblies represent a new phylum-level lineage referred to here as 'novel archaeal group 1 (NAG1)'. The NAG1 organisms contain pathways necessary for the catabolism of peptides and complex carbohydrates as well as a bacterial-like Form I CO dehydrogenase complex likely used for energy conservation. Moreover, this novel population contains genes involved in metabolism of oxygen including a Type A heme copper oxidase, a bd-type terminal oxidase and a putative oxygen sensing protoglobin. NAG1 has a variety of unique bacterial-like cofactor biosynthesis and transport genes and a Type3-like CRISPR system. Discovery of NAG1 is critical to our understanding of microbial community structure and function in extant thermophilic iron mats of YNP, and will provide insight regarding the evolution of Archaea in early Earth environments that may have important analogues active in YNP today.

Kozubal, Mark; Romine, Margaret F.; Jennings, Ryan; Jay, Z.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Beam, Jake; McCue, Lee Ann; Inskeep, William P.

2013-03-01

323

Characterization of a new marine nitrite oxidizing bacterium, Nitrospina watsonii sp. nov., a member of the newly proposed phylum "Nitrospinae".  

PubMed

Nitrite oxidizing bacteria are an integral part of the nitrogen cycle in marine waters, but the knowledge about their diversity is limited. Recently, a high abundance of Nitrospina-like 16S rRNA gene sequences has been detected in oceanic habitats with low oxygen content by molecular methods. Here, we describe a new strain of Nitrospina, which was sampled in 100m depth from the Black Sea. It coexisted with a not-yet cultivated chemoorganotrophic gammaproteobacterium and could be purified by classical isolation methods including Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The new Nitrospina-like bacterium grew lithoautotrophically at 28°C in diluted seawater supplemented with inorganic salts and nitrite. Gram-negative rods were characterized morphologically, physiologically and partly biochemically. The 16S rRNA gene of the new strain of Nitrospina is 97.9% similar to the described species N. gracilis and DNA/DNA hybridization experiments revealed a relatedness of 30.0%. The data from both Nitrospina species and environmental clones were used for an extensive 16S rRNA based phylogenetic study applying high quality filtering. Treeing analyses confirm the newly defined phylum status for "Nitrospinae" [18]. The results of phylogenetic and genotypic analyses support the proposal of a novel species Nitrospina watsonii sp. nov. (type strain 347(T), LMG 27401(T), NCIMB 14887(T)). PMID:24581679

Spieck, Eva; Keuter, Sabine; Wenzel, Thilo; Bock, Eberhard; Ludwig, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

324

Novel PCR Primers for the Archaeal Phylum Thaumarchaeota Designed Based on the Comparative Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences deposited in an RDP database, we constructed a local database of thaumarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene sequences and developed a novel PCR primer specific for the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. Among 9,727 quality-filtered (chimeral-checked, size >1.2 kb) archaeal sequences downloaded from the RDP database, 1,549 thaumarchaeotal sequences were identified and included in our local database. In our study, Thaumarchaeota included archaeal groups MG-I, SAGMCG-I, SCG, FSCG, RC, and HWCG-III, forming a monophyletic group in the phylogenetic tree. Cluster analysis revealed 114 phylotypes for Thaumarchaeota. The majority of the phylotypes (66.7%) belonged to the MG-I and SCG, which together contained most (93.9%) of the thaumarchaeotal sequences in our local database. A phylum-directed primer was designed from a consensus sequence of the phylotype sequences, and the primer’s specificity was evaluated for coverage and tolerance both in silico and empirically. The phylum-directed primer, designated THAUM-494, showed >90% coverage for Thaumarchaeota and <1% tolerance to non-target taxa, indicating high specificity. To validate this result experimentally, PCRs were performed with THAUM-494 in combination with a universal archaeal primer (ARC917R or 1017FAR) and DNAs from five environmental samples to construct clone libraries. THAUM-494 showed a satisfactory specificity in empirical studies, as expected from the in silico results. Phylogenetic analysis of 859 cloned sequences obtained from 10 clone libraries revealed that >95% of the amplified sequences belonged to Thaumarchaeota. The most frequently sampled thaumarchaeotal subgroups in our samples were SCG, MG-I, and SAGMCG-I. To our knowledge, THAUM-494 is the first phylum-level primer for Thaumarchaeota. Furthermore, the high coverage and low tolerance of THAUM-494 will make it a potentially valuable tool in understanding the phylogenetic diversity and ecological niche of Thaumarchaeota. PMID:24805255

Hong, Jin-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Jae-Chang

2014-01-01

325

Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes targeting members of the phylum Candidatus?Saccharibacteria falsely target Eikelboom type 1851 filaments and other Chloroflexi members.  

PubMed

The FISH probe TM7-305 is thought to target the filamentous Eikelboom morphotype 0041 as a member of the Candidatus ‘Saccharibacteria’ (formerly TM7) phylum. However, with activated sludge samples in both Japan and Australia, this probe hybridized consistently with filamentous bacteria fitting the description of the morphotype 1851, which also responded positively to the CHL1851 FISH probe designed to target Chloroflexi members of this morphotype. 16S rRNA clone libraries from samples containing type 1851 TM7-305-positive filaments yielded Chloroflexi clones with high sequence similarity to Kouleothrix aurantiaca. These contained a variant TM7-305 probe target site possessing weakly destabilizing mismatches insufficient to prevent probe hybridization. Furthermore, the TM7-905 FISH probe, designed to target members of the entire Candidatus ‘Saccharibacteria’ phylum, also hybridized with the filament morphotypes 0041/0675, which responded also to the phylum level Chloroflexi probes. Many Chloroflexi sequences have only a single base mismatch to the TM7-905 probe target sequence. When competitor probes for both the TM7-305 and TM7-905 Chloroflexi non-target sites were applied, no fluorescent signal was seen in any of the filamentous organisms also hybridizing with the aforementioned Chloroflexi probes. These data indicate that these competitor probes must be included in hybridizations when both the TM7-905 and TM7-305 FISH probes are applied, to minimize potential false positive FISH results. PMID:25756114

Nittami, Tadashi; Speirs, Lachlan B M; Fukuda, Junji; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Seviour, Robert J

2014-12-01

326

Cytoskeleton assembly in Toxoplasma gondii cell division  

PubMed Central

Cell division across members of the protozoan parasite phylum Apicomplexa displays a surprising diversity between different species as well as between different life stages of the same parasite. In most cases, infection of a host cell by a single parasite results in the formation of a polyploid cell from which individual daughters bud in a process dependent on a final round of mitosis. Unlike other apicomplexans, Toxoplasma gondii divides by a binary process consisting of internal budding that results in only two daughter cells per round of division. Since T. gondii is experimentally accessible and displays the simplest division mode, it has manifested itself as a model for apicomplexan daughter formation. Here we review newly emerging insights in the prominent role that assembly of the cortical cytoskeletal scaffold plays in the process of daughter parasite formation. PMID:22878103

Anderson-White, Brooke; Beck, Josh R.; Chen, Chun-Ti; Meissner, Markus; Bradley, Peter J.; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

2014-01-01

327

Characterization of extreme apical antigens from Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

We have isolated 26 monoclonal antibodies which specifically recognize the extreme apex of Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite which attaches to and invades host cells via its specialized apical end. The unique apical organelles which define the phylum Apicomplexa are thought to be involved in mechanical and enzymatic aspects of invasion. Immunoblots, immunofluorescence morphology, and immunogold labeling define six classes of apically localized antigens recognized by these antibodies. Three of the classes are detergent-insoluble and localize to the conoid and the cytoplasmic face of the apical membrane, suggesting that they may be part of the parasite's membrane cytoskeleton. The remaining three classes extract with detergent and are associated with internal membrane bounded vesicles (micronemes and the upper necks of rhoptries). One class of micronemal antigens appears to be cell cycle regulated. This antigen localizes to the cytoplasm, especially the perinuclear region, in thin (recently replicated) parasites, but is apical in larger parasites. PMID:7525339

Morrissette, N S; Bedian, V; Webster, P; Roos, D S

1994-11-01

328

Molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in native cattle of central Iran: a case report.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis spp. are two-host protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Among different known species of Sarcocystis in cattle, only Sarcocystis hominis is important from the public health viewpoint, because of its zoonotic characteristics. This study presents the first molecular identification of S. hominis in native cattle in central Iran. A sample of diaphragm muscle from a 6-year-old native cow slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Yazd, central Iran, was collected in May 2013. DNA extraction was performed, using the salting-out method. DNA purification and precipitation were performed consecutively. The amplicon and digestion results were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. A PCR product with 926 bp in length was obtained after amplification, and 376 bp and 550 bp in length after digestion that identified S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be reported from Iran. PMID:24862059

Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Zohourtabar, A; Pourmirzaei Tafti, H; Moghaddam Ahmadi, M

2014-03-01

329

Protozoan Bacterivory and Escherichia coli Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

PubMed Central

The development of bacterial communities in drinking water distribution systems leads to a food chain which supports the growth of macroorganisms incompatible with water quality requirements and esthetics. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems and their trophic relationships. This study was done to quantify the microbial communities (especially bacteria and protozoa) and obtain direct and indirect proof of protozoan feeding on bacteria in two distribution networks, one of GAC water (i.e., water filtered on granular activated carbon) and the other of nanofiltered water. The nanofiltered water-supplied network contained no organisms larger than bacteria, either in the water phase (on average, 5 × 107 bacterial cells liter?1) or in the biofilm (on average, 7 × 106 bacterial cells cm?2). No protozoa were detected in the whole nanofiltered water-supplied network (water plus biofilm). In contrast, the GAC water-supplied network contained bacteria (on average, 3 × 108 cells liter?1 in water and 4 × 107 cells cm?2 in biofilm) and protozoa (on average, 105 cells liter?1 in water and 103 cells cm?2 in biofilm). The water contained mostly flagellates (93%), ciliates (1.8%), thecamoebae (1.6%), and naked amoebae (1.1%). The biofilm had only ciliates (52%) and thecamoebae (48%). Only the ciliates at the solid-liquid interface of the GAC water-supplied network had a measurable grazing activity in laboratory test (estimated at 2 bacteria per ciliate per h). Protozoan ingestion of bacteria was indirectly shown by adding Escherichia coli to the experimental distribution systems. Unexpectedly, E. coli was lost from the GAC water-supplied network more rapidly than from the nanofiltered water-supplied network, perhaps because of the grazing activity of protozoa in GAC water but not in nanofiltered water. Thus, the GAC water-supplied network contained a functional ecosystem with well-established and structured microbial communities, while the nanofiltered water-supplied system did not. The presence of protozoa in drinking water distribution systems must not be neglected because these populations may regulate the autochthonous and allochthonous bacterial populations. PMID:9435076

Sibille, I.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Mathieu, L.; Block, J. C.

1998-01-01

330

Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India. Methods Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups. Results In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursa crumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization. Conclusions The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:25183067

Gupta, Pankaj; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Saxena, Rohit; Ghose, Supriyo; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

2014-01-01

331

Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.  

PubMed

Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of taxonomic sampling. PMID:25440713

Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

2015-04-01

332

Community genomic analyses constrain the distribution of metabolic traits across the Chloroflexi phylum and indicate roles in sediment carbon cycling  

PubMed Central

Background Sediments are massive reservoirs of carbon compounds and host a large fraction of microbial life. Microorganisms within terrestrial aquifer sediments control buried organic carbon turnover, degrade organic contaminants, and impact drinking water quality. Recent 16S rRNA gene profiling indicates that members of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi are common in sediment. Only the role of the class Dehalococcoidia, which degrade halogenated solvents, is well understood. Genomic sampling is available for only six of the approximate 30 Chloroflexi classes, so little is known about the phylogenetic distribution of reductive dehalogenation or about the broader metabolic characteristics of Chloroflexi in sediment. Results We used metagenomics to directly evaluate the metabolic potential and diversity of Chloroflexi in aquifer sediments. We sampled genomic sequence from 86 Chloroflexi representing 15 distinct lineages, including members of eight classes previously characterized only by 16S rRNA sequences. Unlike in the Dehalococcoidia, genes for organohalide respiration are rare within the Chloroflexi genomes sampled here. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for three Chloroflexi. One, a member of an unsequenced lineage in the Anaerolinea, is an aerobe with the potential for respiring diverse carbon compounds. The others represent two genomically unsampled classes sibling to the Dehalococcoidia, and are anaerobes likely involved in sugar and plant-derived-compound degradation to acetate. Both fix CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, a pathway not previously documented in Chloroflexi. The genomes each encode unique traits apparently acquired from Archaea, including mechanisms of motility and ATP synthesis. Conclusions Chloroflexi in the aquifer sediments are abundant and highly diverse. Genomic analyses provide new evolutionary boundaries for obligate organohalide respiration. We expand the potential roles of Chloroflexi in sediment carbon cycling beyond organohalide respiration to include respiration of sugars, fermentation, CO2 fixation, and acetogenesis with ATP formation by substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID:24450983

2013-01-01

333

Lipid class composition of the protozoan Perkinsus marinus , an oyster parasite, and its metabolism of a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perkinsus marinus is one of two important protozoan parasites of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The other is Haplosporidium nelsoni. Lipids extracted from 7-d-old in vitro cultured P. marinus meronts, incubated with fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylcholine (FL PC) and nonincubated P. marinus meronts, were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a diol phase column, in combination\\u000a with thin-layer

P. Soudant; F.-L. E. Chu; Y. Marty

2000-01-01

334

Nitazoxanide in the treatment of patients with intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections: a report on 546 patients in egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide, a new broad-spectrum antiprotozoal\\/anthelmintic drug, was tested in 546 patients with single or multiple intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. After inclusion in the study, patients at least 12 years of age were instructed to take one nitazoxanide 500-mg table every 12 hours for 3 consecutive days. The guardians of the children aged 4 to 11 years were instructed to

Himly Abaza; Abdul Rahman El-Zayadi; Samir M. Kabil; Hassan Rizk

1998-01-01

335

Phylogenetic Place of Mitochondrion-Lacking Protozoan, Giardia Zamblia, Inferred from Amino Acid Sequences of Elongation Factor 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial regions of the mRNA encoding a major part of translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) from a mitochondrion- lacking protozoan, Giardia lamblia, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and their primary structures were analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence was aligned with other eukaryotic and archaebacterial EF-2's, and the phylogenetic relationships among eukaryotes were inferred by the maximum likelihood (ML)

Tetsuo Hashimoto; Yoshihiro Nakamura; Takashi Kamaishi; Fuminori Nakamura; Jun Adachi; Ken-ichi Okamoto

336

Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for\\u000a parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when\\u000a females scatter

Jacobus C. de Roode; Jean Chi; Rachel M. Rarick; Sonia Altizer

2009-01-01

337

[Occurrence of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis Leidy, 1846 (Kinetoplasta: Bodonea: Cryptobiidae) in the garden snail, Helix aspersa].  

PubMed

In this survey, the prevalence and cytological features of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis living in the bursa copulatrix of the garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller 1774 found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated. The prevalence of Cryptobia helicis in garden snails collected in the spring of 2005 was found to be 68.65%. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Cryptobia helicis in the garden snail Helix aspersa found in Turkey. PMID:18351561

Göçmen, Bayram; Gürelli, Gözde

2008-01-01

338

Scyphidia Tholiformis, a Peritrichous Protozoan Found on the Gills and External Surfaces of Micropterus Dolomieu and Micropterus Salmoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scyphidia tholiformis is an urn-shaped peritrichous protozoan measuring about 59 microns in length and 35 microns in width. It possesses a double row of cilia about one-third of the distance from the anterior end of the body and has a large scopula which is variable in shape and provides a large surface for attachment. The macronucleus is long and band-like,

Eugene W. Surber

1943-01-01

339

The Meaning of Death: Evolution and Ecology of Apoptosis in Protozoan Parasites  

PubMed Central

The discovery that an apoptosis-like, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious infectious diseases of humans, companion animals, wildlife, and livestock. Whilst apoptosis is an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defence in multicellular organisms, its occurrence in unicellular parasites appears counter-intuitive and has proved highly controversial: according to the Darwinian notion of “survival of the fittest”, parasites are expected to evolve strategies to maximise their proliferation, not death. The prevailing, and untested, opinion in the literature is that parasites employ apoptosis to “altruistically” self-regulate the intensity of infection in the host/vector. However, evolutionary theory tells us that at most, this can only be part of the explanation, and other non-mutually exclusive hypotheses must also be tested. Here, we explain the evolutionary concepts that can explain apoptosis in unicellular parasites, highlight the key questions, and outline the approaches required to resolve the controversy over whether parasites “commit suicide”. We highlight the need for integration of proximate and functional approaches into an evolutionary framework to understand apoptosis in unicellular parasites. Understanding how, when, and why parasites employ apoptosis is central to targeting this process with interventions that are sustainable in the face of parasite evolution. PMID:22174671

Reece, Sarah E.; Pollitt, Laura C.; Colegrave, Nick; Gardner, Andy

2011-01-01

340

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly.  

PubMed

Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models. PMID:20843849

Lefèvre, Thierry; Williams, Amanda Jo; de Roode, Jacobus C

2011-03-01

341

Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster, has a requirement for dietary sterols.  

PubMed

Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, causes high mortality in its host along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. P. marinus meronts cultured in vitro in medium containing complete lipid supplement (cod liver oil, cholesterol and alpha tocopherol acetate in detergent) are able to synthesize a wide variety of lipids, yet cultures cannot be maintained in lipid-free medium. To determine P. marinus lipid requirements meronts were inoculated into media containing different combinations of lipid components in detergent. Treatments included complete lipid supplement (positive control), detergent only (negative control), cholesterol in detergent, alpha tocopherol acetate in detergent and cholesterol+alpha tocopherol acetate in detergent. Meronts proliferated in the positive control medium and media containing cholesterol or cholesterol+alpha tocopherol acetate, but failed to proliferate in the negative control medium and the medium containing just alpha tocopherol acetate. Gas chromatography analysis of P. marinus meronts grown in medium with added (13)C sodium acetate (0.5 mg mL(-1)) revealed the presence of fatty acids containing (13)C, but the only sterol present was cholesterol containing no (13)C. These results suggest that P. marinus cannot synthesize sterols and must sequester them from its host. PMID:17112755

Lund, Eric D; Chu, Fu-Lin E; Soudant, Philippe; Harvey, Ellen

2007-01-01

342

A transposon toolkit for gene transfer and mutagenesis in protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Treatment and control of these diseases are complicated partly due to the intricate biology of these organisms. The interactions of species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and trypanosomes with their hosts are mediated by an unusual control of gene expression that is not fully understood. The availability of the genome sequence of these protozoa sets the stage for using more comprehensive, genome-wide strategies to study gene function. Transposons are effective tools for the systematic introduction of genetic alterations and different transposition systems have been adapted to study gene function in these human pathogens. A mariner transposon toolkit for use in vivo or in vitro in Leishmania parasites has been developed and can be used in a variety of applications. These modified mariner elements not only permit the inactivation of genes, but also mediate the rescue of translational gene fusions, bringing a major contribution to the investigation of Leishmania gene function. The piggyBac and Tn5 transposons have also been shown to mobilize across Plasmodium spp. genomes circumventing the current limitations in the genetic manipulation of these organisms. PMID:19763844

Damasceno, Jeziel D; Beverley, Stephen M; Tosi, Luiz R O

2010-03-01

343

A transposon toolkit for gene transfer and mutagenesis in protozoan parasites  

PubMed Central

Protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Treatment and control of these diseases are complicated partly due to the intricate biology of these organisms. The interactions of species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and trypanosomes with their hosts are mediated by an unusual control of gene expression that is not fully understood. The availability of the genome sequence of these protozoa sets the stage for using more comprehensive, genome-wide strategies to study gene function. Transposons are effective tools for the systematic introduction of genetic alterations and different transposition systems have been adapted to study gene function in these human pathogens. A mariner transposon toolkit for use in vivo or in vitro in Leishmania parasites has been developed and can be used in a variety of applications. These modified mariner elements not only permit the inactivation of genes, but also mediate the rescue of translational gene fusions, bringing a major contribution to the investigation of Leishmania gene function. The piggyBac and Tn5 transposons have also been shown to mobilize across Plasmodium spp. genomes circumventing the current limitations in the genetic manipulation of these organisms. PMID:19763844

Damasceno, Jeziel D.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Tosi, Luiz R. O.

2009-01-01

344

Transfection of live, tick derived sporozoites of the protozoan Apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva.  

PubMed

Theileria parva is an important veterinary protozoan causing the tick-borne disease East Coast fever. Transfection of Theileria parasites will facilitate the investigation of many aspects of this apicomplexan infection and its unique host-parasite interaction. The pathogen has the extraordinary capacity of transforming B and T cells into clonally dividing cancerous cell lines in a reversible way. Sequence data of the entire T. parva genome are available and in vitro infected cell lines can easily be generated, thereby eliminating the use of animals in the evaluation of the evolution of the transfected sporozoites. Here we report, for the first time, on experiments towards successful transient transfection of T. parva sporozoites, making use of a new generation transfection device. Plasmid DNA containing the strong EF-1? promoter and an Azami Green reporter gene were integrated by nucleofection into freshly purified T. parva sporozoites. Expression of Azami Green was detected with a fluorescence microscope and confirmed by counter staining with a monoclonal directed against a sporozoite protein. Despite the fact that transfection efficiencies are still low, this is the first step towards a stable infection method of T. parva parasites. In the long run, transfected parasites might become an alternative way to induce immunity without clinical signs. PMID:25660425

De Goeyse, Ine; Jansen, Famke; Madder, Maxime; Hayashida, Kyoko; Berkvens, Dirk; Dobbelaere, Dirk; Geysen, Dirk

2015-03-15

345

Parameters controlling the rate of gene targeting frequency in the protozoan parasite Leishmania.  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the role of several parameters governing the efficiency of gene targeting mediated by homologous recombination in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. We evaluated the relative targeting frequencies of different replacement vectors designed to target several sequences within the parasite genome. We found that a decrease in the length of homologous sequences <1 kb on one arm of the vector linearly influences the targeting frequency. No homologous recombination was detected, however, when the flanking homologous regions were <180 bp. A requirement for a very high degree of homology between donor and target sequences was found necessary for efficient gene targeting in Leishmania , as targeted recombination was strongly affected by base pair mismatches. Targeting frequency increased proportionally with copy number of the target only when the target was part of a linear amplicon, but remained unchanged when it was present on circles. Different chromosomal locations were found to be targeted with significantly variable levels of efficiency. Finally, different strains of the same species showed differences in gene targeting frequency. Overall, gene targeting mediated by homologous recombination in Leishmania shares similarities to both the yeast and the mammalian recombination systems. PMID:9336458

Papadopoulou, B; Dumas, C

1997-01-01

346

Methane production from protozoan endosymbionts following stimulation of microbial metabolism within subsurface sediments  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that protozoa prey on Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria that are enriched when acetate is added to uranium contaminated subsurface sediments to stimulate U(VI) reduction. In order to determine whether protozoa continue to impact subsurface biogeochemistry after these acetate amendments have stopped, 18S rRNA and ß-tubulin sequences from this phase of an in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment were analyzed. Sequences most similar to Metopus species predominated, with the majority of sequences most closely related to M. palaeformis, a cilitated protozoan known to harbor methanogenic symbionts. Quantification of mcrA mRNA transcripts in the groundwater suggested that methanogens closely related to Metopus endosymbionts were metabolically active at this time. There was a strong correlation between the number of mcrA transcripts from the putative endosymbiotic methanogen and Metopus ß-tubulin mRNA transcripts during the course of the field experiment, suggesting that the activity of the methanogens was dependent upon the activity of the Metopus species. Addition of the eukaryotic inhibitors cyclohexamide and colchicine to laboratory incubations of acetate-amended subsurface sediments significantly inhibited methane production and there was a direct correlation between methane concentration and Metopus ß-tubulin and putative symbiont mcrA gene copies. These results suggest that, following the stimulation of subsurface microbial growth with acetate, protozoa harboring methanogenic endosymbionts become important members of the microbial community, feeding on moribund biomass and producing methane. PMID:25147543

Holmes, Dawn E.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Orellana, Roberto; Williams, Kenneth H.; Robbins, Mark J.; Lovley, Derek R.

2014-01-01

347

Seasonal and Successional Influences on Bacterial Community Composition Exceed That of Protozoan Grazing in River Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The effects of protozoa (heterotrophic flagellates and ciliates) on the morphology and community composition of bacterial biofilms were tested under natural background conditions by applying size fractionation in a river bypass system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to monitor the morphological structure of the biofilm, and fingerprinting methods (single-stranded conformation polymorphism [SSCP] and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) were utilized to assess changes in bacterial community composition. Season and internal population dynamics had a greater influence on the bacterial biofilm than the presence of protozoa. Within this general framework, bacterial area coverage and microcolony abundance were nevertheless enhanced by the presence of ciliates (but not by the presence of flagellates). We also found that the richness of bacterial operational taxonomic units was much higher in planktonic founder communities than in the ones establishing the biofilm. Within the first 2 h of colonization of an empty substrate by bacteria, the presence of flagellates additionally altered their biofilm community composition. As the biofilms matured, the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units increased when flagellates were present in high abundances. The additional presence of ciliates tended to at first reduce (days 2 to 7) and later increase (days 14 to 29) bacterial operational taxonomic unit richness. Altogether, the response of the bacterial community to protozoan grazing pressure was small compared to that reported in planktonic studies, but our findings contradict the assumption of a general grazing resistance of bacterial biofilms toward protozoa. PMID:22247162

Jürgens, Klaus; Weitere, Markus

2012-01-01

348

Genetic variation in resistance, but not tolerance, to a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly  

PubMed Central

Natural selection should strongly favour hosts that can protect themselves against parasites. Most studies on animals so far have focused on resistance, a series of mechanisms through which hosts prevent infection, reduce parasite growth or clear infection. However, animals may instead evolve tolerance, a defence mechanism by which hosts do not reduce parasite infection or growth, but instead alleviate the negative fitness consequences of such infection and growth. Here, we studied genetic variation in resistance and tolerance in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to its naturally occurring protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. We exposed 560 monarch larvae of 19 different family lines to one of five different parasite inoculation doses (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100 infective spores) to create a range of parasite loads in infected butterflies. We then used two proxies of host fitness (adult lifespan and body mass) to quantify: (i) qualitative resistance (the ability to prevent infection; also known as avoidance or anti-infection resistance); (ii) quantitative resistance (the ability to limit parasite growth upon infection; also known as control or anti-growth resistance); and (iii) tolerance (the ability to maintain fitness with increasing parasite infection intensity). We found significant differences among host families in qualitative and quantitative resistance, indicating genetic variation in resistance. However, we found no genetic variation in tolerance. This may indicate that all butterflies in our studied population have evolved maximum tolerance, as predicted by some theoretical models. PMID:20843849

Lefèvre, Thierry; Williams, Amanda Jo; de Roode, Jacobus C.

2011-01-01

349

A C2 domain protein kinase initiates phagocytosis in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Phagocytosis is a process whereby particles are taken in by cells through mechanisms superficially similar to those for endocytosis. It serves a wide range of functions, from providing nutrition in unicellular organisms to initiation of both innate and adaptive immunity in vertebrates. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, it has an essential role in survival and pathogenesis. In this study, we show that EhC2PK, a C2-domain-containing protein kinase, and the Ca²(+) and actin-binding protein, EhCaBP1, are involved in the initiation of phagocytosis in E. histolytica. Conditional suppression of EhC2PK expression and overexpression of a mutant form reveals its role in the initiation of phagocytic cups. EhC2PK binds phosphatidylserine in the presence of Ca²(+) and thereby recruits EhCaBP1 and actin to the membrane. Identification of these proteins in phagocytosis is an important step in amoebic biology and these molecules could be the important targets for developing novel therapies against amoebiasis. PMID:21407196

Somlata; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

2011-01-01

350

Global Distribution, Public Health and Clinical Impact of the Protozoan Pathogen Cryptosporidium  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. The global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, only partially unveiled, and on a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or only partially applied for worldwide surveillance. In children, cryptosporidiosis encumber is even less recorded and often misidentified due to physiological reasons such as early-age unpaired immunological response. Furthermore, malnutrition in underdeveloped countries or clinical underestimation of protozoan etiology in developed countries contribute to the underestimation of the worldwide burden. Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours). The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems. The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:20706669

Putignani, Lorenza; Menichella, Donato

2010-01-01

351

Development of an Aeromonas hydrophila? infection model using the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed

Aeromonas hydrophila is a motile bacterium present in numerous freshwater habitats worldwide and is frequently the cause of infections in fish and numerous terrestrial vertebrates including humans. Because A. hydrophila is also a component of the normal intestinal flora of healthy fish, virulence mechanisms are not well understood. Considering that fish models used for the examination of A. hydrophila genes associated with virulence have not been well defined, we established an infection model using the free-living, ciliate protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila. The expression of A. hydrophila virulence genes following infection of T. thermophila was assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and demonstrated that the aerolysin (aerA) and Ahe2 serine protease (ahe2) genes (not present in the avirulent A. hydrophila NJ-4 strain) in the virulent J-1 strain were upregulated 4-h postinfection. Furthermore, the presence of intact A. hydrophila J-1 within T. thermophila suggested that these bacteria could interfere with phagocytosis, resulting in the death of the infected protozoan 48-h postinfection. Conversely, A. hydrophila NJ-4-infected T. thermophila survived the infection. This study established a novel T. thermophila infection model that will provide a novel means of examining virulence mechanisms of A. hydrophila. PMID:21204941

Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Jie; Lu, Cheng-Ping

2011-03-01

352

The meaning of death: evolution and ecology of apoptosis in protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

The discovery that an apoptosis-like, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious infectious diseases of humans, companion animals, wildlife, and livestock. Whilst apoptosis is an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defence in multicellular organisms, its occurrence in unicellular parasites appears counter-intuitive and has proved highly controversial: according to the Darwinian notion of "survival of the fittest", parasites are expected to evolve strategies to maximise their proliferation, not death. The prevailing, and untested, opinion in the literature is that parasites employ apoptosis to "altruistically" self-regulate the intensity of infection in the host/vector. However, evolutionary theory tells us that at most, this can only be part of the explanation, and other non-mutually exclusive hypotheses must also be tested. Here, we explain the evolutionary concepts that can explain apoptosis in unicellular parasites, highlight the key questions, and outline the approaches required to resolve the controversy over whether parasites "commit suicide". We highlight the need for integration of proximate and functional approaches into an evolutionary framework to understand apoptosis in unicellular parasites. Understanding how, when, and why parasites employ apoptosis is central to targeting this process with interventions that are sustainable in the face of parasite evolution. PMID:22174671

Reece, Sarah E; Pollitt, Laura C; Colegrave, Nick; Gardner, Andy

2011-12-01

353

Phylum Cnidaria Introduction  

E-print Network

live. #12;7 Cnidocyte before discharge. Cnidocil and operculum with the coiled tube still contained found in the tube- building anemones, · used to "spin" the fiberglass-like tube in which these animals with discharged nematocyst Discharged cnidocyte showing the everted stinging tube cnidocyte Mechanism of Firing

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

354

Polymorphic family of injected pseudokinases is paramount in Toxoplasma virulence  

E-print Network

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, has the unusual ability to infect virtually any warm-blooded animal. It is an extraordinarily successful parasite, infecting an estimated 30% ...

Reese, Michael L.

355

Spatiotemporal characteristics and mechanisms of intracellular Ca(2+) increases at fertilization in eggs of jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa).  

PubMed

We have clarified, for the first time, the spatiotemporal patterns of intracellular Ca(2+) increases at fertilization and the Ca(2+)-mobilizing mechanisms in eggs of hydrozoan jellyfish, which belong to the evolutionarily old diploblastic phylum, Cnidaria. An initial Ca(2+) increase just after fertilization took the form of a Ca(2+) wave starting from one cortical region of the egg and propagating to its antipode in all of four hydrozoan species tested: Cytaeis uchidae, Cladonema pacificum, Clytia sp., and Gonionema vertens. The initiation site of the Ca(2+) wave was restricted to the animal pole, which is known to be the only area of sperm-egg fusion in hydrozoan eggs, and the wave propagating velocity was estimated to be 4.2-5.9 mum/s. After a Ca(2+) peak had been attained by the initial Ca(2+) wave, the elevated Ca(2+) gradually declined and returned nearly to the resting value at 7-10 min following fertilization. Injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), an agonist of IP(3) receptors (IP(3)R), was highly effective in inducing a Ca(2+) increase in unfertilized eggs; IP(3) at a final intracellular concentration of 12-60 nM produced a fully propagating Ca(2+) wave equivalent to that observed at fertilization. In contrast, a higher concentration of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), an agonist of ryanodine receptors (RyR), only generated a localized Ca(2+) increase that did not propagate in the egg. In addition, caffeine, another stimulator of RyR, was completely without effect. Sperm-induced Ca(2+) increases in Gonionema eggs were severely affected by preinjection of heparin, an inhibitor of Ca(2+) release from IP(3)R. These results strongly suggest that there is a well-developed IP(3)R-, but not RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release mechanism in hydrozoan eggs and that the former system primarily functions at fertilization. Our present data also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics and mechanisms of Ca(2+) increases at fertilization in hydrozoan eggs resemble those reported in higher triploblastic animals. PMID:15733659

Deguchi, Ryusaku; Kondoh, Eri; Itoh, Junko

2005-03-15

356

Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel group 4 thermophilic member of the phylum Acidobacteria from geothermal soils.  

PubMed

An aerobic, thermophilic, moderately acidophilic non-spore-forming bacterium, strain K22(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Mount Ngauruhoe, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, K22(T) was shown to belong to subdivision 4 of the phylum Acidobacteria and to be most closely related to 'Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum' (86?%) and Blastocatella fastidiosa (86?%). Cells stained Gram-negative and were catalase and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids detected were iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0, iso-C19?:?0 and iso-C21?:?0 when standard lipid extraction protocols were employed. Analysis of the total cell lipid acid hydrolysate also detected membrane-spanning and ether lipids, which made up approximately 40?% of the total membrane composition. These lipids included dicarboxylic (iso-diabolic) acid and the glyceryl ether of alkyl analogues of iso-C15?:?0 and iso-diabolic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 59.6 mol% and the primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Strain K22(T) grew at 50-69 °C with an optimum temperature of 65 °C and at pH 4.1-7.8 with an optimum growth pH of 6.5. NaCl tolerance was up to 1?% (w/v). Cells displayed a chemoheterotrophic and obligately aerobic metabolism. Cells grew on nutrient broth, alginate, arabinose, Casamino acids, glucose, lactate, formate, mannose, sodium alginate, peptone, sucrose, tryptone, xanthan, xylan, xylose and yeast extract. Nitrogen sources included nitrate, ammonium, urea, yeast extract and Casamino acids, but not dinitrogen gas. The distinct phylogenetic position and the phenotypic characteristics separate strain K22(T) from all other members of the class Acidobacteria and indicate that it represents a novel species and genus, for which the name Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is K22(T) (?=?DSM 25857(T)?=?ICMP 18710(T)). PMID:24048862

Crowe, M A; Power, J F; Morgan, X C; Dunfield, P F; Lagutin, K; Rijpstra, W I C; Rijpstra, I C; Vyssotski, G N S; Sinninghe Damste, J S; Houghton, K M; Ryan, J L J; Stott, M B

2014-01-01

357

Molecular Characterization of Ciliate Diversity in Stream Biofilms? †  

PubMed Central

Free-living protozoa are thought to be of fundamental importance in aquatic ecosystems, but there is limited understanding of their diversity and ecological role, particularly in surface-associated communities such as biofilms. Existing eukaryote-specific PCR primers were used to survey 18S rRNA gene sequence diversity in stream biofilms but poorly revealed protozoan diversity, demonstrating a need for protozoan-targeted primers. Group-specific PCR primers targeting 18S rRNA genes of the protozoan phylum Ciliophora were therefore designed and tested using DNA extracted from cultured protozoan isolates. The two most reliable primer combinations were applied to stream biofilm DNA, followed by cloning and sequencing analysis. Of 44 clones derived from primer set 384F/1147R, 86% were of probable ciliate origin, as were 25% of 44 clones detected by primer set 121F/1147R. A further 29% of 121F/1147R-detected clones matched sequences from the closely related phylum Apicomplexa. The highly ciliate-specific primer set 384F/1147R was subsequently used in PCRs on biofilm DNA from four streams exhibiting different levels of human impact, revealing differences in ciliate sequence diversity in samples from each site. Of a total of 240 clones, 73% were of probable ciliate origin; 54 different putative ciliate sequences were detected from throughout seven taxonomic ciliate classes. Sequences from Oligohymenophorea were most commonly detected in all samples, followed by either Spirotrichea or Phyllopharyngea. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profile-based analysis of clones suggested a potentially higher level of diversity than did sequencing. Nevertheless, newly designed PCR primers 384F/1147R were considered to provide an effective molecular basis for characterization of ciliate diversity in stream biofilms. PMID:18223112

Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

2008-01-01

358

DNA extraction from protozoan oocysts/cysts in feces for diagnostic PCR.  

PubMed

PCR detection of intestinal protozoa is often restrained by a poor DNA recovery or by inhibitors present in feces. The need for an extraction protocol that can overcome these obstacles is therefore clear. QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) was evaluated for its ability to recover DNA from oocysts/cysts directly from feces. Twenty-five Giardia-positive, 15 Cryptosporidium-positive, 15 Entamoeba histolytica-positive, and 45 protozoa-free samples were processed as control by microscopy and immunoassay tests. DNA extracts were amplified using 3 sets of published primers. Following the manufacturer's protocol, the kit showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% towards Giardia and Entamoeba. However, for Cryptosporidium, the sensitivity and specificity were 60% (9/15) and 100%, respectively. A series of optimization experiments involving various steps of the kit's protocol were conducted using Cryptosporidium-positive samples. The best DNA recoveries were gained by raising the lysis temperature to the boiling point for 10 min and the incubation time of the InhibitEX tablet to 5 min. Also, using a pre-cooled ethanol for nucleic acid precipitation and small elution volume (50-100 µl) were valuable. The sensitivity of the amended protocol to Cryptosporidium was raised to 100%. Cryptosporidium DNA was successfully amplified by either the first or the second primer set. When applied on parasite-free feces spiked with variable oocysts/cysts counts, ? 2 oocysts/cysts were theoretically enough for detection by PCR. To conclude, the Qiagen kit with the amended protocol was proved to be suitable for protozoan DNA extraction directly from feces and support PCR diagnosis. PMID:25031466

Hawash, Yousry

2014-06-01

359

The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein from the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus mediates iron uptake.  

PubMed

Microbial pathogens succeed in acquiring essential metals such as iron and manganese despite their limited availability because of the host's immune response. The eukaryotic natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins mediate uptake of divalent metals and, during infection, may compete directly for metal acquisition with the pathogens' transporters. In this study, we characterize the Nramp gene family of Perkinsus marinus, an intracellular parasite of the eastern oyster, and through yeast complementation, we demonstrate for the first time for a protozoan parasite that Nramp imports environmental Fe. Three PmNramp isogenes differ in their exon-intron structures and encode transcripts that display a trans splicing leader at the 5' end. The protein sequences share conserved properties predicted for the Nramp/Solute carrier 11 (Slc11) family, such as 12-transmembrane segment (TMS) topology (N- and C-termini cytoplasmic) and preferential conservation of four TMS predicted to form a pseudosymmetric proton/metal symport pathway. Yeast fet3fet4 mutant complementation assays showed iron transport activity for PmNramp1 and a fusion chimera of the PmNramp3 hydrophobic core and PmNramp1 N- and C-termini. PmNramp1 site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Slc11 invariant and predicted pseudosymmetric motifs (TMS1 Asp-Pro-Gly and TMS6 Met-Pro-His) are key for transport function. PmNramp1 TMS1 mutants D76E, G78A, and D76E/G78A prevented membrane protein expression, while TMS6 M250A, H252Y, and M250A/H252Y specifically abrogated Fe uptake; the TMS6 H252Y mutation also correlates with divergence from Nramp specificity for divalent metals. PMID:21661746

Lin, Zhuoer; Fernández-Robledo, José-Antonio; Cellier, Mathieu F M; Vasta, Gerardo R

2011-07-26

360

Experimental studies of protozoan response to intense magnetic fields and forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense static magnetic fields of up to 31 Tesla were used as a novel tool to manipulate the swimming mechanics of unicellular organisms. It is shown that homogenous magnetic fields alter the swimming trajectories of the single cell protozoan Paramecium caudatum, by aligning them parallel to the applied field. Immobile neutrally buoyant paramecia also oriented in magnetic fields with similar rates as the motile ones. It was established that the magneto-orientation is mostly due to the magnetic torques acting on rigid structures in the cell body and therefore the response is a non-biological, passive response. From the orientation rate of paramecia in various magnetic field strengths, the average anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the cell was estimated. It has also been demonstrated that magnetic forces can be used to create increased, decreased and even inverted simulated gravity environments for the investigation of the gravi-responses of single cells. Since the mechanisms by which Earth's gravity affects cell functioning are still not fully understood, a number of methods to simulate different strength gravity environments, such as centrifugation, have been employed. Exploiting the ability to exert magnetic forces on weakly diamagnetic constituents of the cells, we were able to vary the gravity from -8 g to 10 g, where g is Earth's gravity. Investigations of the swimming response of paramecia in these simulated gravities revealed that they actively regulate their swimming speed to oppose the external force. This result is in agreement with centrifugation experiments, confirming the credibility of the technique. Moreover, the Paramecium's swimming ceased in simulated gravity of 10 g, indicating a maximum possible propulsion force of 0.7 nN. The magnetic force technique to simulate gravity is the only earthbound technique that can create increased and decreased simulated gravities in the same experimental setup. These findings establish a general technique for applying continuously variable forces to cells or cell populations suitable for exploring their force transduction mechanisms.

Guevorkian, Karine

361

Effects of the protozoan parasite ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the fitness of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on the survival and reproduction of monarch butterflies. Because larvae in natural populations are likely to experience a wide range of natural parasite population densities, we examined the effects of increasing spore density (0, 10, 100, or 1000 spores per larva) on host fitness. Parasites had little effect on monarch survival or reproduction, except at the highest dose. Monarchs inoculated with 1000 spores per larva had decreased survival to eclosion, and this effect was more severe when larvae were inoculated at an earlier stage (first versus third instar). Monarchs inoculated with higher spore densities also emerged with smaller wingspans and lower body mass than noninoculated adults. Infection with the highest dose of O. elektroscirrha led to decreased male lifespan and reproductive success, but females infected with O. elektroscirrha did not experience a significant decline in lifetime fecundity. However, heavily infected females in outdoor enclosures were less active than uninfected females and gained weight during their adult lifespan. Among samples of adult monarchs captured in natural populations, parasite loads were associated with butterfly condition and activity. Heavily infected adults captured breeding in western North America and southern Florida were smaller than uninfected monarchs. Among overwintering adults in Mexico and California, mating activity was positively associated with higher parasite loads. In addition, the proportion of adults with low and intermediate spore loads (as opposed to no spores) was higher among adults with greater wing tatter and scale loss. Our findings of minor effects of O. elektroscirrha on the survival and reproduction of monarch butterflies are consistent with the expectation that maternally transmitted parasites should have little or no effect on host fitness compared with horizontally transmitted parasites. However, because our laboratory studies demonstrated that monarchs exposed to the highest parasite density experienced decreased larval survival, smaller adult size, and shorter adult lifespans, additional transmission routes are likely to be important for parasite maintenance in natural populations. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10388550

Altizer; Oberhauser

1999-07-01

362

Dramatic Increase in Glycerol Biosynthesis upon Oxidative Stress in the Anaerobic Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. Trophozoites of E. histolytica are exposed to a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during infection. Since E. histolytica lacks key components of canonical eukaryotic anti-oxidative defense systems, such as catalase and glutathione system, alternative not-yet-identified anti-oxidative defense strategies have been postulated to be operating in E. histolytica. In the present study, we investigated global metabolic responses in E. histolytica in response to H2O2- and paraquat-mediated oxidative stress by measuring charged metabolites on capillary electrophoresis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We found that oxidative stress caused drastic modulation of metabolites involved in glycolysis, chitin biosynthesis, and nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Oxidative stress resulted in the inhibition of glycolysis as a result of inactivation of several key enzymes, leading to the redirection of metabolic flux towards glycerol production, chitin biosynthesis, and the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. As a result of the repression of glycolysis as evidenced by the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates upstream of pyruvate, and reduced ethanol production, the levels of nucleoside triphosphates were decreased. We also showed for the first time the presence of functional glycerol biosynthetic pathway in E. histolytica as demonstrated by the increased production of glycerol 3-phosphate and glycerol upon oxidative stress. We proposed the significance of the glycerol biosynthetic pathway as a metabolic anti-oxidative defense system in E. histolytica. PMID:23029590

Husain, Afzal; Sato, Dan; Jeelani, Ghulam; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2012-01-01

363

Transcriptome Analysis of the Model Protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, Using Deep RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a well-studied single-celled eukaryote model organism for cellular and molecular biology. However, the lack of extensive T. thermophila cDNA libraries or a large expressed sequence tag (EST) database limited the quality of the original genome annotation. Methodology/Principal Findings This RNA-seq study describes the first deep sequencing analysis of the T. thermophila transcriptome during the three major stages of the life cycle: growth, starvation and conjugation. Uniquely mapped reads covered more than 96% of the 24,725 predicted gene models in the somatic genome. More than 1,000 new transcribed regions were identified. The great dynamic range of RNA-seq allowed detection of a nearly six order-of-magnitude range of measurable gene expression orchestrated by this cell. RNA-seq also allowed the first prediction of transcript untranslated regions (UTRs) and an updated (larger) size estimate of the T. thermophila transcriptome: 57 Mb, or about 55% of the somatic genome. Our study identified nearly 1,500 alternative splicing (AS) events distributed over 5.2% of T. thermophila genes. This percentage represents a two order-of-magnitude increase over previous EST-based estimates in Tetrahymena. Evidence of stage-specific regulation of alternative splicing was also obtained. Finally, our study allowed us to completely confirm about 26.8% of the genes originally predicted by the gene finder, to correct coding sequence boundaries and intron-exon junctions for about a third, and to reassign microarray probes and correct earlier microarray data. Conclusions/Significance RNA-seq data significantly improve the genome annotation and provide a fully comprehensive view of the global transcriptome of T. thermophila. To our knowledge, 5.2% of T. thermophila genes with AS is the highest percentage of genes showing AS reported in a unicellular eukaryote. Tetrahymena thus becomes an excellent unicellular model eukaryote in which to investigate mechanisms of alternative splicing. PMID:22347391

Xiong, Jie; Lu, Xingyi; Zhou, Zhemin; Chang, Yue; Yuan, Dongxia; Tian, Miao; Zhou, Zhigang; Wang, Lei; Fu, Chengjie; Orias, Eduardo; Miao, Wei

2012-01-01

364

Lipophosphoglycan is a virulence factor distinct from related glycoconjugates in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo a complex life cycle involving transmission by biting sand flies and replication within mammalian macrophage phagolysosomes. A major component of the Leishmania surface coat is the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored polysaccharide called lipophosphoglycan (LPG). LPG has been proposed to play many roles in the infectious cycle, including protection against complement and oxidants, serving as the major ligand for macrophage adhesion, and as a key factor mitigating host responses by deactivation of macrophage signaling pathways. However, all structural domains of LPG are shared by other major surface or secretory products, providing a biochemical redundancy that compromises the ability of in vitro tests to establish whether LPG itself is a virulence factor. To study truly lpg(-) parasites, we generated Leishmania major lacking the gene LPG1 [encoding a putative galactofuranosyl (Gal(f)) transferase] by targeted gene disruption. The lpg1(-) parasites lacked LPG but contained normal levels of related glycoconjugates and GPI-anchored proteins. Infections of susceptible mice and macrophages in vitro showed that these lpg(-) Leishmania were highly attenuated. Significantly and in contrast to previous LPG mutants, reintroduction of LPG1 into the lpg(-) parasites restored virulence. Thus, genetic approaches allow dissection of the roles of this complex family of interrelated parasite virulence factors, and definitively establish the role of LPG itself as a parasite virulence factor. Because the lpg1(-) mutant continue to synthesize bulk GPI-anchored Gal(f)-containing glycolipids other than LPG, a second pathway distinct from the Golgi-associated LPG synthetic compartment must exist. PMID:10908670

Späth, G F; Epstein, L; Leader, B; Singer, S M; Avila, H A; Turco, S J; Beverley, S M

2000-08-01

365

How Might Mixing Bias Protozoan-experiments that Use the Common Micro-alga Isochrysis galbana?  

E-print Network

Summary. Although there are strong recommendations to mix micoalgal cultures, to improve productivity, there is only anecdotal evidence to encourage protozoologists to mix cultures, to maintain constant quality of microalgae. Isochrysis galbana is extensively used in laboratory experiments associated with applied and pure protozoan studies; thus, there is a need to assess how routine mixing may bias experiments. Although, mixing of cultures harms some microalgae, there is no indication of how mixing affects I. galbana. We address this problem by assessing mixing effects on key experimental variables: specific growth rate, cell volume, nutritional quality (as carbon and nitrogen content and ratio), and production (the product of growth rate and carbon or nitrogen content). Treatments, quantified as dissipation (?) m 3 s-1 were: mixed once per day (? = 0), rotated on a plankton wheel (? = 5.3 × 10-5), and shaken on agitating tables (? = 8.2 × 10-3, 2.32 × 10-2). Mixing levels regularly used in experimental work (no-mixing, plankton wheel, and low agitation) did not alter I. galbana specific growth rate and thus need not be carefully controlled for, but exceptionally high-mixing did significantly reduce growth rate. Cell volume decreased at exceptionally high-mixing, but otherwise there was no size-bias caused by mixing. Carbon and nitrogen levels were highest at low-mixing but were otherwise generally unaffected by mixing. The nutritional quality of I. galbana (i.e. carbon:nitrogen) remained unaltered by mixing. Production was doubled at low-mixing, compared to all other treatments (which did not differ). Overall, I. galbana is a relatively robust species that withstands mixing levels well within those experienced in the laboratory and still grows at exceptionally high-mixing levels. Thus, within reason, protozoologists using I. galbana do not need to be rigorous in their monitor of mixing. Furthermore, meta-analyses that examine this species need not be too concerned with variation

Naomi Downes-tettmar; David J. S. Montagnes

366

A Type III Protein Arginine Methyltransferase from the Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma brucei*  

PubMed Central

Arginine methylation is a widespread post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). The ancient protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, possesses five putative PRMTs, a relatively large number for a single-celled eukaryote. Trypanosomatids lack gene regulation at the level of transcription, instead relying on post-transcriptional control mechanisms that act at the levels of RNA turnover, translation, and editing, all processes that likely involve multiple RNA-binding proteins, which are common targets of arginine methylation. Here, we report the characterization of a trypanosome PRMT, TbPRMT7, which is homologous to human PRMT7. Interestingly, trypanosomatids are the only single-celled eukaryotes known to harbor a PRMT7 homologue. TbPRMT7 differs dramatically from all known metazoan PRMT7 homologues in lacking the second AdoMet binding-like domain that is required for activity of the human enzyme. Nevertheless, bacterially expressed TbPRMT7 exhibits robust methyltransferase activity toward multiple targets in vitro. High resolution ion exchange chromatography analysis of methylated substrates reveals that TbPRMT7 is a type III PRMT, catalyzing the formation of only monomethylarginine, thereby representing the only exclusively type III PRMT identified to date. TbPRMT7 is expressed in both mammalian and insect stage T. brucei and is apparently dispensable for growth in both life cycle stages. The enzyme is cytoplasmically localized and is a component of several higher order complexes in vivo. Together, our studies indicate that TbPRMT7 is a Type III PRMT, and its robust activity and presence in numerous complexes suggest it plays multiple roles during the complex T. brucei life cycle. PMID:19254949

Fisk, John C.; Sayegh, Joyce; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia; Menon, Sarita; Presnyak, Vladimir; Clarke, Steven G.; Read, Laurie K.

2009-01-01

367

Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. PMID:23428204

Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

2013-09-01

368

Circadian variation in shedding of the oocysts of Isospora turdi (Apicomplexa) in blackbirds (Turdusmerula): an adaptative trait against desiccation and ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

Many parasite species spend part of their life cycle in the external environment waiting for a new host. Emergence of parasites often occurs once a day, which may help to minimise mortality in an inhospitable environment and increase transition rates. Many intestinal parasites in birds are released in faeces only in the late afternoon. However, the adaptative significance of this pattern is unclear. One hypothesis is that a particular time of emergence may prevent parasite desiccation and therefore increase the parasite's life expectancy in the external environment. We tested this hypothesis experimentally using the blackbird (Turdus merula) infected with Isospora turdi (Protozoa: Apicomplexa). We found that short exposure of faeces to natural sunlight has a dramatic effect on oocyst survival. This appears to be due to the effect of warmth and ultraviolet (UV) radiation with UVB waves being more damaging than UVA. Oocysts contained in faeces shed in water are protected from the effect of sunlight. Together, these results suggest that the release of oocysts in the late afternoon is an adaptative trait to avoid desiccation and UV radiation, thus reducing mortality of the oocysts in the external environment. PMID:19100268

Martinaud, G; Billaudelle, M; Moreau, J

2009-05-01

369

The Candidate Phylum Poribacteria by Single-Cell Genomics: New Insights into Phylogeny, Cell-Compartmentation, Eukaryote-Like Repeat Proteins, and Other Genomic Features  

PubMed Central

The candidate phylum Poribacteria is one of the most dominant and widespread members of the microbial communities residing within marine sponges. Cell compartmentalization had been postulated along with their discovery about a decade ago and their phylogenetic association to the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae superphylum was proposed soon thereafter. In the present study we revised these features based on genomic data obtained from six poribacterial single cells. We propose that Poribacteria form a distinct monophyletic phylum contiguous to the PVC superphylum together with other candidate phyla. Our genomic analyses supported the possibility of cell compartmentalization in form of bacterial microcompartments. Further analyses of eukaryote-like protein domains stressed the importance of such proteins with features including tetratricopeptide repeats, leucin rich repeats as well as low density lipoproteins receptor repeats, the latter of which are reported here for the first time from a sponge symbiont. Finally, examining the most abundant protein domain family on poribacterial genomes revealed diverse phyH family proteins, some of which may be related to dissolved organic posphorus uptake. PMID:24498082

Kamke, Janine; Rinke, Christian; Schwientek, Patrick; Mavromatis, Kostas; Ivanova, Natalia; Sczyrba, Alexander; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

2014-01-01

370

Strain Differences in Fitness of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to Resist Protozoan Predation and Survival in Soil  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) associated with the 2006 spinach outbreak appears to have persisted as the organism was isolated, three months after the outbreak, from environmental samples in the produce production areas of the central coast of California. Survival in harsh environments may be linked to the inherent fitness characteristics of EcO157. This study evaluated the comparative fitness of outbreak-related clinical and environmental strains to resist protozoan predation and survive in soil from a spinach field in the general vicinity of isolation of strains genetically indistinguishable from the 2006 outbreak strains. Environmental strains from soil and feral pig feces survived longer (11 to 35 days for 90% decreases, D-value) with Vorticella microstoma and Colpoda aspera, isolated previously from dairy wastewater; these D-values correlated (P<0.05) negatively with protozoan growth. Similarly, strains from cow feces, feral pig feces, and bagged spinach survived significantly longer in soil compared to clinical isolates indistinguishable by 11-loci multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. The curli-positive (C+) phenotype, a fitness trait linked with attachment in ruminant and human gut, decreased after exposure to protozoa, and in soils only C? cells remained after 7 days. The C+ phenotype correlated negatively with D-values of EcO157 exposed to soil (rs?=??0.683; P?=?0.036), Vorticella (rs?=??0.465; P?=?0.05) or Colpoda (rs?=??0.750; P?=?0.0001). In contrast, protozoan growth correlated positively with C+ phenotype (Vorticella, rs?=?0.730, P?=?0.0004; Colpoda, rs?=?0.625, P?=?0.006) suggesting a preference for consumption of C+ cells, although they grew on C? strains also. We speculate that the C? phenotype is a selective trait for survival and possibly transport of the pathogen in soil and water environments. PMID:25019377

Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

2014-01-01

371

Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted interventions for their prevention and control in high risk populations. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in this metropolitan setting underscores that microorganisms do not respect borders and that a collaborative approach is needed to contain the global spread of infectious diseases. Incorporating spatial analysis is valuable in providing a compelling picture of the geographical distribution of these often neglected diseases. Local and State Public Health departments can use this information to support further inves- PMID:25343139

Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

2014-01-01

372

Protozoan Fauna and Abundance in Aeration Tanks of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the assessment of the protozoan fauna and abundance in the mixed liquors of aeration tanks of the three municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Fort Beaufort, Dimbaza and East London in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and their implication to the production of effluents of good quality. The samples were collected between September and December 2005 and protozoa species were identified by direct microscopic observations at x400 magnification by comparison with existing protozoa gallery collections. A total of 68 protozoan genera made up of 44 ciliates, 16 flagellates and 8 others were identified in wastewater treatment plants. Although in all aerobic zones the average density of ciliates was 104 cells mL-1, which indicated that these plants were able to produce clear effluent of good quality, a better performance was found in Dimbaza and East London, which had total protozoan genera of 27 and 26, respectively.

Sibewu, M.; Momba, M. N. B.; Okoh, A. L.

373

Spironucleus meleagridis, an enteric diplomonad protozoan of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus): Preliminary molecular characterization and association with clinical disease.  

PubMed

A flagellated enteric diplomonad protozoan consistent with Spironucleus meleagridis (formerly Hexamita meleagridis) associated with gastrointestinal disease and mortality in psittacine birds including cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) has been sporadically described in the literature. However, molecular characterization of psittacine protozoal isolates had not yet been performed. The 16S rRNA gene from a protozoan persistently shed in the feces in a small group of cockatiels demonstrated a 98% molecular identity with S. meleagridis isolated from turkeys. Based on these sequence data, a diagnostic PCR assay was developed to detect the presence of S. meleagridis. Nineteen privately owned pet cockatiels from unrelated households were clinically evaluated. All birds microscopically positive for this organism were PCR positive, with several additional birds microscopically negative but PCR positive. Many of the birds identified as positive for S. meleagridis by fecal PCR had signs of gastrointestinal disease such as diarrhea, soft feces, and melena, whereas none of the birds that tested negative had gastrointestinal signs. Examination of feces from two unrelated cockatiel breeding facilities revealed 70% and 86% PCR positive rates. Prevalence of infection and incidence of clinical disease, including factors that lead to clinical manifestation such as viral, bacterial, or mycotic coinfections, are not yet known and warrant further study, but spironucleosis is likely an under-recognized disease in cockatiels. PMID:25595477

Levy, M G; Powers, L V; Gore, K C; Marr, H S

2015-03-15

374

Clathrin-dependent pathways and the cytoskeleton network are involved in ceramide endocytosis by a parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia  

PubMed Central

Although identified as an early-diverged protozoan, Giardia lamblia shares many similarities with higher eukaryotic cells, including an internal membrane system and cytoskeleton, as well as secretory pathways. However, unlike many other eukaryotes, Giardia does not synthesize lipids de novo, but rather depends on exogenous sources for both energy production and organelle or membrane biogenesis. It is not known how lipid molecules are taken up by this parasite and if endocytic pathways are involved in this process. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that highly regulated and selective lipid transport machinery is present in Giardia and necessary for the efficient internalization and intracellular targeting of ceramide molecules, the major sphingolipid precursor. Using metabolic and pathway inhibitors, we demonstrate that ceramide is internalized through endocytic pathways and is primarily targeted into perinuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Further investigations suggested that Giardia uses both clathrin-dependent pathways and the actin cytoskeleton for ceramide uptake, as well as microtubule filaments for intracellular localization and targeting. We speculate that this parasitic protozoan has evolved cytoskeletal and clathrin-dependent endocytic mechanisms for importing ceramide molecules from the cell exterior for the synthesis of membranes and vesicles during growth and differentiation. PMID:17087963

Hernandez, Yunuen; Castillo, Cynthia; Roychowdhury, Sukla; Hehl, Adrian; Aley, Stephen B.; Das, Siddhartha

2007-01-01

375

Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon. PMID:22654317

Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

2011-06-01

376

Evidence Suggesting Protozoan Predation on Rhizobium Associated with Germinating Seeds and in the Rhizosphere of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

PubMed Central

Changes in populations of microorganisms around germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds, in the rhizosphere of bean, and in a model rhizosphere were studied. Strains of Rhizobium phaseoli that were resistant to streptomycin and thiram were used, and as few as 300 R. phaseoli cells per g of soil could be enumerated with a selective medium that was devised. A direct role was not evident for bacterial competitors, lytic bacteria, antibiotic-producing microorganisms, bacteriophages, and Bdellovibrio in the suppression of R. phaseoli around germinating seeds and in the rhizosphere. Protozoa increased in numbers in the soil upon planting of the seeds. The extent of colonization of soil by R. phaseoli was inversely related to the presence of large numbers of bacteria and protozoa. Colonization of R. phaseoli was improved upon suppression of protozoa with thiram and also when the soil was amended with other protozoan inhibitors and mannitol to simulate seed and root exudation. The data support the view that the decrease in numbers of R. phaseoli is caused by an increase in protozoan predation, the protozoa increasing in number because they prey on bacteria that proliferate by using seed and root exudates as nutrients. PMID:16345628

Ramirez, Carlos; Alexander, Martin

1980-01-01

377

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

378

The Intestinal Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica Contains 20 Cysteine Protease Genes, of Which Only a Small Subset Is Expressed during In Vitro Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysteine proteases are known to be important pathogenicity factors of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. So far, a total of eight genes coding for cysteine proteases have been identified in E. histolytica, two of which are absent in the closely related nonpathogenic species E. dispar. However, present knowledge is restricted to enzymes expressed during in vitro cultivation of the parasite,

Iris Bruchhaus; Brendan J. Loftus; N. Hall; E. Tannich

2003-01-01

379

doi:10.1155/2011/971968 Review Article Parasite Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases as Drug Discovery Targets to Treat Human Protozoan Pathogens  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lacking. We will review targeting protozoan mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as a novel drug discovery approach towards developing better therapies, focusing on Plasmodia, Leishmania,andToxoplasma, about which the most is known. 1. General Properties of MAPKs Virtually all eukaryotic organisms possess MAPKs, signal transduction molecules that regulate cell functions such as tissue morphogenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangements, proliferation, differentiation, survival, immune responses, and adaptation/stress-response [1–3]. Encephalitozoon cuniculi is the only example to date of a eukaryote apparently lacking

380

Characterization of a Defensin from the Sand Fly Phlebotomus duboscqi Induced by Challenge with Bacteria or the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania major  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides are major components of the innate immune response of epithelial cells. In insect vectors, these peptides may play a role in the control of gut pathogens. We have analyzed antimicrobial peptides produced by the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi, after challenge by injected bacteria or feeding with bacteria or the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. A new hemolymph peptide with

Nathalie Boulanger; Carl Lowenberger; Petr Volf; Raul Ursic; Lucie Sigutova; Laurence Sabatier; Milena Svobodova; Stephen M. Beverley; Gerald Spath; Reto Brun; Bernard Pesson; Philippe Bulet

2004-01-01

381

Application of magnetically induced hyperthermia on the model protozoan Crithidia fasciculata as a potential therapy against parasitic infections  

E-print Network

Magnetic hyperthermia is currently an EU-approved clinical therapy against tumor cells that uses magnetic nanoparticles under a time varying magnetic field (TVMF). The same basic principle seems promising against trypanosomatids causing Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, since therapeutic drugs available display severe side effects and drug-resistant strains. However, no applications of this strategy against protozoan-induced diseases have been reported so far. In the present study, Crithidia fasciculata, a widely used model for therapeutic strategies against pathogenic trypanosomatids, was targeted with Fe_{3}O_{4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in order to remotely provoke cell death using TVMFs. The MNPs with average sizes of d approx. 30 nm were synthesized using a precipitation of FeSO_{4}4 in basic medium. The MNPs were added to Crithidia fasciculata choanomastigotes in exponential phase and incubated overnight. The amount of uploaded MNPs per cell was determined by magnetic measurements. Cell viabili...

Grazú, V; Moros, M; Asín, L; Torres, T E; Marquina, C; Ibarra, M R; Goya, G F; 10.2147/IJN.S35510

2012-01-01

382

Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne protozoan diseases represent a serious public health challenge, especially in the tropics where poverty together with vector-favorable climates are the aggravating factors. Each of the various strategies currently employed to face these scourges is seriously inadequate. Despite enormous efforts, vaccines—which represent the ideal weapon against these parasitic diseases—are yet to be sufficiently developed and implemented. Chemotherapy and vector control are therefore the sole effective attempts to minimize the disease burden. Nowadays, both strategies are also highly challenged by the phenomenon of drug and insecticide resistance, which affects virtually all interventions currently used. The recently growing support from international organizations and governments of some endemic countries is warmly welcome, and should be optimally exploited in the various approaches to drug and insecticide research and development to overcome the burden of these prevalent diseases, especially malaria, leishmaniasis, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), and Chagas disease. PMID:24401663

2014-01-01

383

Diarrhoea and malabsorption in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a study of four cases with special emphasis on opportunistic protozoan infestations.  

PubMed Central

Chronic diarrhoea is frequent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) but has been poorly investigated so far. We report four patients with AIDS in whom diarrhoea and malabsorption were outstanding features, and who underwent extensive digestive investigations. Diarrhoea was a presenting symptom in all subjects and was of secretory type in three of them. D-xylose and vitamin B12 were malabsorbed in all cases; steatorrhea was found in the two patients who could ingest significant amounts of fat. Faecal alpha 1-antitrypsin clearance was increased in all subjects. Search for digestive pathogens showed unusual protozoans in all patients: in case 1, optical and electron microscopy revealed the presence in the cytoplasm of villous enterocytes of Microsporidia protozoans still unreported in AIDS. Stool and jejunal fluid examination showed Isospora belli in case 2 and Cryptosporidium in cases 3 and 4. On histological and ultrastructural study the former was localised in the cytoplasm of a few enterocytes and the latter was scattered throughout the villus and crypt brush border. Otherwise small intestinal histology only showed minor non-specific changes and the enterocytes were ultrastructurally normal. In patient 3 the slow marker intestinal perfusion technique showed a profuse fluid secretion in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. All patients needed prolonged total parenteral nutrition. Cryptosporidium and Microsporidia could not be eradicated despite multiple drug trials. Isospora belli was transiently cured by pyrimethamine-sulphadiazine. Only patient 2 is presently at home, and patients 1, 3, and 4 died after two, six, and nine months of total parenteral nutrition, respectively. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:4038492

Modigliani, R; Bories, C; Le Charpentier, Y; Salmeron, M; Messing, B; Galian, A; Rambaud, J C; Lavergne, A; Cochand-Priollet, B; Desportes, I

1985-01-01

384

Application of magnetically induced hyperthermia on the model protozoan Crithidia fasciculata as a potential therapy against parasitic infections  

E-print Network

Magnetic hyperthermia is currently an EU-approved clinical therapy against tumor cells that uses magnetic nanoparticles under a time varying magnetic field (TVMF). The same basic principle seems promising against trypanosomatids causing Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, since therapeutic drugs available display severe side effects and drug-resistant strains. However, no applications of this strategy against protozoan-induced diseases have been reported so far. In the present study, Crithidia fasciculata, a widely used model for therapeutic strategies against pathogenic trypanosomatids, was targeted with Fe_{3}O_{4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in order to remotely provoke cell death using TVMFs. The MNPs with average sizes of d approx. 30 nm were synthesized using a precipitation of FeSO_{4}4 in basic medium. The MNPs were added to Crithidia fasciculata choanomastigotes in exponential phase and incubated overnight. The amount of uploaded MNPs per cell was determined by magnetic measurements. Cell viability using the MTT colorimetric assay and flow cytometry showed that the MNPs were incorporated by the cells with no noticeable cell-toxicity effects. When a TVMF (f = 249 kHz, H = 13 kA/m) was applied to MNP-bearing cells, massive cell death was induced via a non-apoptotic mechanism. No effects were observed by applying a TVMF on control (without loaded MNPs) cells. No macroscopic rise in temperature was observed in the extracellular medium during the experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed morphological changes after TVMF experiments. These data indicate (as a proof of principle) that intracellular hyperthermia is a suitable technology to induce the specific death of protozoan parasites bearing MNPs. These findings expand the possibilities for new therapeutic strategies that combat parasitic infections.

V. Grazú; A. M. Silber; M. Moros; L. Asín; T. E. Torres; C. Marquina; M. R. Ibarra; G. F. Goya

2012-11-01

385

Detection of Protozoan Hosts for Legionella pneumophila in Engineered Water Systems by Using a Biofilm Batch Test? †  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collected from 21 engineered freshwater systems, with added polyethylene cylinders to promote biofilm formation, were inoculated with L. pneumophila and subsequently incubated at 37°C for 20 days. Growth of L. pneumophila was observed in 16 of 18 water types when the host protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis was added. Twelve of the tested water types supported growth of L. pneumophila or indigenous Legionella anisa without added H. vermiformis. In 12 of 19 BBT flasks H. vermiformis was indicated as a host, based on the ratio between maximum concentrations of L. pneumophila and H. vermiformis, determined with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the composition of clone libraries of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments. Analyses of 609 eukaryotic clones from the BBTs revealed that 68 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed the highest similarity to free-living protozoa. Forty percent of the sequences clustering with protozoa showed ?99.5% similarity to H. vermiformis. None of the other protozoa serving as hosts in in vitro studies were detected in the BBTs. In several tests with growth of L. pneumophila, the protozoa Diphylleia rotans, Echinamoeba thermarum, and Neoparamoeba sp. were identified as candidate hosts. In vitro studies are needed to confirm their role as hosts for L. pneumophila. Unidentified protozoa were implicated as hosts for uncultured Legionella spp. grown in BBT flasks at 15°C. PMID:20851993

Valster, Rinske M.; Wullings, Bart A.; van der Kooij, Dick

2010-01-01

386

The search for the missing link: a relic plastid in Perkinsus?  

PubMed

Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa) is a protozoan parasite that has devastated natural and farmed oyster populations in the USA, significantly affecting the shellfish industry and the estuarine environment. The other two genera in the phylum, Parvilucifera and Rastrimonas, are parasites of microeukaryotes. The Perkinsozoa occupies a key position at the base of the dinoflagellate branch, close to its divergence from the Apicomplexa, a clade that includes parasitic protista, many harbouring a relic plastid. Thus, as a taxon that has also evolved toward parasitism, the Perkinsozoa has attracted the attention of biologists interested in the evolution of this organelle, both in its ultrastructure and the conservation, loss or transfer of its genes. A review of the recent literature reveals mounting evidence in support of the presence of a relic plastid in P. marinus, including the presence of multimembrane structures, characteristic metabolic pathways and proteins with a bipartite N-terminal extension. Further, these findings raise intriguing questions regarding the potential functions and unique adaptation of the putative plastid and/or plastid genes in the Perkinsozoa. In this review we analyse the above-mentioned evidence and evaluate the potential future directions and expected benefits of addressing such questions. Given the rapidly expanding molecular/genetic resources and methodological toolbox for Perkinsus spp., these organisms should complement the currently established models for investigating plastid evolution within the Chromalveolata. PMID:21889509

Fernández Robledo, José A; Caler, Elisabet; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Keeling, Patrick J; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Roos, David S; Vasta, Gerardo R

2011-10-01

387

Effect of pH on Isolation and Distribution of Members of Subdivision 1 of the Phylum Acidobacteria Occurring in Soil  

PubMed Central

The pH strongly influenced the development of colonies by members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria on solid laboratory media. Significantly more colonies of this group formed at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.0. At pH 5.5, 7 to 8% of colonies that formed on plates that were incubated for 4 months were formed by subdivision 1 acidobacteria. These colonies were formed by bacteria that spanned almost the entire phylogenetic breadth of the subdivision, and there was considerable congruence between the diversity of this group as determined by the cultivation-based method and by surveying 16S rRNA genes in the same soil. Members of subdivision 1 acidobacteria therefore appear to be readily culturable. An analysis of published libraries of 16S rRNAs or 16S rRNA genes showed a very strong correlation between the abundance of subdivision 1 acidobacteria in soil bacterial communities and the soil pH. Subdivision 1 acidobacteria were most abundant in libraries from soils with pHs of <6, but rare or absent in libraries from soils with pHs of >6.5. This, together with the selective cultivation of members of the group on lower-pH media, indicates that growth of many members of subdivision 1 acidobacteria is favored by slightly to moderately acidic growth conditions. PMID:16517631

Sait, Michelle; Davis, Kathryn E. R.; Janssen, Peter H.

2006-01-01

388

Temporal population dynamics of dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and its relationship to environmental factors and protozoan grazers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological processes and interrelationships between protists, either autotrophic or heterotrophic, and environmental factors in mariculture ponds are largely unknown. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of potentially harmful dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller, and its relationship to physico-chemical factors and protozoan grazers over a complete cycle in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, Northern China. P. minimum occurred frequently in low numbers from June to August, followed by a sharp increase from the middle of August, reaching a single maximum peak value of 2.2×105 cells L-1 in October. Temporal variation in abundance was positively correlated with dissolved nitrogen, but showed a significant inverse relationship to abundance of the dominant ciliates, Tintinnopsis lohmanni and Askenasia stellaris. The results provide statistical evidence that the number of P. minimum increased with increasing nitrogen, and the suppression or shortening of algal bloom may be associated with protozoan grazers, such as Tintinnopsis lohmanni, in mariculture ponds.

Xu, Henglong; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Joong-Ki; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

2010-01-01

389

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are commonly infected by the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroschirra. This study examined the effect of infection on monarch mating contests and mating success. Monarch mating behavior involves males chasing  

E-print Network

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are commonly infected by the protozoan parasite that because infected monarchs are often in poorer condition than healthy butterflies, and mating Methods Questions ·Do infected monarchs mate less often than healthy butterflies? ·Do infected males

Gittleman, John

390

Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii Dopamine, a missing link between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic protozoan, infects about 30–60% of people worldwide. The latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. life-long presence of cysts in the brain and muscular tissues, has no effect on human health. However, infected subjects score worse in psychomotor performance tests and have different personality profiles than Toxoplasma-negative subjects. The mechanism of this effect is unknown; however, it is supposed that

Jaroslav Flegr; Marek Preiss; Ji??? Klose; Jan Havl???ek; Martina Vitáková; Petr Kodym

2003-01-01

391

Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).  

PubMed

Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when females scatter spores onto eggs and host plant leaves during oviposition; spores can also be transmitted between mating adults. Monarch larvae were experimentally infected and emerging adult females were mated and monitored in individual outdoor field cages. We provided females with fresh host plant material daily and quantified their lifespan and lifetime fecundity. Parasite transmission was measured by counting the numbers of parasite spores transferred to eggs and host plant leaves. We also quantified spores transferred from infected females to their mating partners. Infected monarchs had shorter lifespans and lower lifetime fecundity than uninfected monarchs. Among infected females, those with higher parasite loads transmitted more parasite spores to their eggs and to host plant leaves. There was also a trend for females with greater parasite loads to transmit more spores to their mating partners. These results demonstrate that high parasite loads on infected butterflies confer a strong fitness advantage to the parasite by increasing between-host transmission. PMID:19418070

de Roode, Jacobus C; Chi, Jean; Rarick, Rachel M; Altizer, Sonia

2009-08-01

392

Role of nitric oxide in the defenses of Crassostrea virginica to experimental infection with the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the responses of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, causative agent of Dermo disease. P. marinus induced a slight but significant increase in NO production by oyster hemocytes in vitro, comparable to the increase induced by the immune stimulants phorbol myristrate acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). P. marinus also activated the NO response in oysters in vivo, as shown by induction of a protein reacting with a universal NO synthase (NOS) antibody in hemocytes and the presence of high levels of nitrite in plasma. Treatment of experimentally infected oysters with the NOS inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) resulted in a transient decrease in NO levels in oyster plasma and a significant increase in the number of parasites at early time points after infection. The NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) caused a significant inhibition in the proliferation of P. marinus cultured cells after 24 h of incubation. These results indicate that NO has a role in decreasing parasite loads at early time points after infection. PMID:17368535

Villamil, Luisa; Gómez-León, Javier; Gómez-Chiarri, Marta

2007-01-01

393

Comparison of protein expression profiles between three Perkinsus spp., protozoan parasites of molluscs, through 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of a wide range of marine molluscs worldwide, some of which have been responsible for heavy mollusc mortalities and dramatic economic losses. This study was performed with the aim of increasing the knowledge of Perkinsus spp. proteome. Proteins extracted from in vitro cultured cells of three species of this genus, P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki, were analysed using 2D electrophoresis. Four gels from each species were produced. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons among gels were performed with Proteamweaver software. Cluster analysis grouped the four gels of each Perkinsus sp.; furthermore, P. marinus and P. olseni gels were grouped in a cluster different from P. chesapeaki. Around 2000 spots of each species were considered, from which 213 spots were common to the 3 species; P. chesapeaki and P. marinus shared 310 spots, P. chesapeaki and P. olseni shared 315 spots and P. marinus and P. olseni shared 242 spots. A number of spots were exclusive of each Perkinsus species: 1161 spots were exclusive of P. chesapeaki, 1124 of P. olseni and 895 of P. marinus. A total of 84 spots, including common and species-specific ones, were excised from the gels and analysed using MALDI-TOF and nESI-IT (MS/MS) techniques. Forty-two spots were successfully sequenced, from which 28 were annotated, most of them clustered into electron transport, oxidative stress and detoxification, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, metabolic process and proteolysis. PMID:24607654

Fernández-Boo, S; Chicano-Gálvez, E; Alhama, J; Barea, J L; Villalba, A; Cao, A

2014-05-01

394

The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5? and 3? non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

2010-08-01

395

Glycoproteins, antigens, and regulation of complement activation on the surface of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma lewisi: implications for immune evasion  

SciTech Connect

The surface antigens and glycoproteins of the rat parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma lewisi were characterized. Radioiodination with /sup 125/I identified 10 out of more 40 polypeptides separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All of these components were identified as glycoproteins by peroxidase-conjugated Conconavalin A (HR-Con A) lectin affinoblotting. This analysis detected that quantitative but not qualitative changes occurred during infection. Localization of most of the reactive determinants was indicated by immunoblotting extracts of radioiodinated T. lewisi. Changes in the antigenicity as related to survival in the host are discussed. The presence of IgG and IgM on the surface of T. lewisi isolated from intact and ..gamma..-irradiated rats (irr.) and that determinants bind Ig from uninfected rat sera (NRS) was indicated by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoblotting identified the major NRS IgG binding component as the 74 kd surface glycoprotein. Complement component C3 deposition during infection was indicated by flow cytometric analysis and immunoblotting. Incubation of intact T. lewisi with normal human sera indicated that C3, C5, and factor B deposition was Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent, Ca/sup 2 +/ independent and deposited C3 was rapidly processed to hemolytically inactive fragments. Radioiodination of intact and protease T. lewisi after cultivation identified three components which correlate with resistance to lysis. This suggests that surface moieties on intact T. lewisi modulate host complement activity by restricting C3/C5 convertase activity.

Sturtevant, J.E.

1985-01-01

396

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii targets proteins to dense granules and the vacuolar space using both conserved and unusual mechanisms.  

PubMed

All known proteins that accumulate in the vacuolar space surrounding the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are derived from parasite dense granules. To determine if constitutive secretory vesicles could also mediate delivery to the vacuolar space, T. gondii was stably transfected with soluble Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and E. coli beta-lactamase. Surprisingly, both foreign secretory reporters were delivered quantitatively into parasite dense granules and efficiently secreted into the vacuolar space. Addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor rerouted alkaline phosphatase to the parasite surface. Alkaline phosphatase fused to the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail from the endogenous dense granule protein GRA4 localized to dense granules. The protein was secreted into a tuboreticular network in the vacuolar space, in a fashion dependent upon the cytoplasmic tail, but not upon a tyrosine-based motif within the tail. Alkaline phosphatase fused to the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail localized primarily to the Golgi, although staining of dense granules and the intravacuolar network was also detected; truncating the cytoplasmic tail decreased Golgi staining and increased delivery to dense granules but blocked delivery to the intravacuolar network. Targeting of secreted proteins to T. gondii dense granules and the plasma membrane uses general mechanisms identified in higher eukaryotic cells but is simplified and exaggerated in scope, while targeting of secreted proteins beyond the boundaries of the parasite involves unusual sorting events. PMID:9628889

Karsten, V; Qi, H; Beckers, C J; Reddy, A; Dubremetz, J F; Webster, P; Joiner, K A

1998-06-15

397

Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

2012-01-01

398

Multiplex screening for blood-borne viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites using an OpenArray platform.  

PubMed

The use of nucleic acid tests for detection of pathogens has improved the safety of blood products. However, ongoing pathogen emergence demonstrates a need for development of devices testing for multiple pathogens simultaneously. One approach combines two proven technologies: Taqman chemistry for target identification and quantification and the OpenArray nanofluidic real-time PCR platform for spatial multiplexing of assays. A panel of Taqman assays was developed to detect nine blood-borne pathogens (BBPs): four viral, two bacterial, and three protozoan parasites. The custom BBP OpenArray plate with 18 assays was tested for specificity and analytical sensitivity for nucleic acid from each purified pathogen and with pathogen-spiked human blood and plasma samples. For most targets, the limits of detection (10 to 10,000 copies/mL) were comparable with existing real-time platforms. The testing of the BBP OpenArray with pathogen-spiked coded human plasma or blood samples and negative control specimens demonstrated no false-positive results among the samples tested and correctly identified pathogens with the lowest concentration detected ranging from 10 cells/mL (Trypanosoma cruzi) to 10,000 cells/mL (Escherichia coli). These results represent a proof of concept that indicated the BBP OpenArray platform in combination with Taqman chemistry may provide a multiplex real-time PCR pathogen detection method that points the way for a next-generation platform for infectious disease testing in blood. PMID:24184228

Grigorenko, Elena; Fisher, Carolyn; Patel, Sunali; Chancey, Caren; Rios, Maria; Nakhasi, Hira L; Duncan, Robert C

2014-01-01

399

Protozoans bacterivory in a subtropical environment during a dry/cold and a rainy/warm season  

PubMed Central

In aquatic ecosystems, bacteria are controlled by several organisms in the food chain, such as protozoa, that use them as food source. This study aimed to quantify the ingestion and clearance rates of bacteria by ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) in a subtropical freshwater reservoir (Monjolinho reservoir - São Carlos - Brazil) during one year period, in order to verify their importance as consumers and controllers of bacteria in two seasons, a dry/cold and a rainy/warm one. For this purpose, in situ bacterivory experiments were carried out bimonthly using fluorescently labeled bacteria with 5-(4,6 diclorotriazin-2yl) aminofluorescein (DTAF). Although ciliates have shown the highest individual ingestion and clearance rates, bacterivory was dominated by HNF, who showed higher population ingestion rates (mean of 9,140 bacteria h?1 mL?1) when compared to ciliates (mean of 492 bacteria h?1 mL?1). The greater predation impact on bacterial communities was caused mainly by the small HNF (< 5 ?m) population, especially in the rainy season, probably due to the abundances of these organisms, the precipitation, trophic index state and water temperature that were higher in this period. Thus, the protozoan densities together with environmental variables were extremely relevant in determining the seasonal pattern of bacterivory in Monjolinho reservoir. PMID:24948925

Hisatugo, Karina F.; Mansano, Adrislaine S.; Seleghim, Mirna H.R.

2014-01-01

400

Picomonas judraskeda Gen. Et Sp. Nov.: The First Identified Member of the Picozoa Phylum Nov., a Widespread Group of Picoeukaryotes, Formerly Known as ‘Picobiliphytes’  

PubMed Central

In 2007, a novel, putatively photosynthetic picoeukaryotic lineage, the ‘picobiliphytes’, with no known close eukaryotic relatives, was reported from 18S environmental clone library sequences and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although single cell genomics later showed these organisms to be heterotrophic rather than photosynthetic, until now this apparently widespread group of pico-(or nano-)eukaryotes has remained uncultured and the organisms could not be formally recognized. Here, we describe Picomonas judraskeda gen. et sp. nov., from marine coastal surface waters, which has a ‘picobiliphyte’ 18S rDNA signature. Using vital mitochondrial staining and cell sorting by flow cytometry, a single cell-derived culture was established. The cells are biflagellate, 2.5–3.8×2–2.5 µm in size, lack plastids and display a novel stereotypic cycle of cell motility (described as the “jump, drag, and skedaddle”-cycle). They consist of two hemispherical parts separated by a deep cleft, an anterior part that contains all major cell organelles including the flagellar apparatus, and a posterior part housing vacuoles/vesicles and the feeding apparatus, both parts separated by a large vacuolar cisterna. From serial section analyses of cells, fixed at putative stages of the feeding cycle, it is concluded that cells are not bacterivorous, but feed on small marine colloids of less than 150 nm diameter by fluid-phase, bulk flow endocytosis. Based on the novel features of cell motility, ultrastructure and feeding, and their isolated phylogenetic position, we establish a new phylum, Picozoa, for Picomonas judraskeda, representing an apparently widespread and ecologically important group of heterotrophic picoeukaryotes, formerly known as ‘picobiliphytes’. PMID:23555709

Seenivasan, Ramkumar; Sausen, Nicole; Medlin, Linda K.; Melkonian, Michael

2013-01-01

401

Nitrososphaera viennensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic and mesophilic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from soil and a member of the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, neutrophilic and aerobic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, strain EN76(T), was isolated from garden soil in Vienna (Austria). Cells were irregular cocci with a diameter of 0.6-0.9 µm and possessed archaella and archaeal pili as cell appendages. Electron microscopy also indicated clearly discernible areas of high and low electron density, as well as tubule-like structures. Strain EN76(T) had an S-layer with p3 symmetry, so far only reported for members of the Sulfolobales. Crenarchaeol was the major core lipid. The organism gained energy by oxidizing ammonia to nitrite aerobically, thereby fixing CO2, but growth depended on the addition of small amounts of organic acids. The optimal growth temperature was 42 °C and the optimal pH was 7.5, with ammonium and pyruvate concentrations of 2.6 and 1 mM, respectively. The genome of strain EN76(T) had a DNA G+C content of 52.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes showed that strain EN76(T) is affiliated with the recently proposed phylum Thaumarchaeota, sharing 85% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with the closest cultivated relative 'Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus' SCM1, a marine ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, and a maximum of 81% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with members of the phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota and any of the other recently proposed phyla (e.g. 'Korarchaeota' and 'Aigarchaeota'). We propose the name Nitrososphaera viennensis gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain EN76(T). The type strain of Nitrososphaera viennensis is strain EN76(T) (?=?DSM 26422(T)?=?JMC 19564(T)). Additionally, we propose the family Nitrososphaeraceae fam. nov., the order Nitrososphaerales ord. nov. and the class Nitrososphaeria classis nov. PMID:24907263

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Klingl, Andreas; Alves, Ricardo J E; Rittmann, Simon K-M R; Melcher, Michael; Leisch, Nikolaus; Schleper, Christa

2014-08-01

402

Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov., a mesophilic, amino acid-degrading bacterium isolated from an anaerobic sludge digester, pertaining to the phylum Synergistetes.  

PubMed

A new Gram-staining-positive, non-sporulating, mesophilic, amino acid-degrading anaerobic bacterium, designated strain OTA 102(T), was isolated from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating wastewater from cooking tuna. The cells were curved rods (0.6-2.5×0.5 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. The strain was motile by means of one lateral flagellum. Strain OTA 102(T) grew at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), between pH 6.0 and 8.4 (optimum pH 7.2) and NaCl concentrations between 1 and 5 % (optimum 2 %, w/v). Strain OTA 102(T) required yeast extract for growth. Serine, threonine, glycine, cysteine, citrate, fumarate, ?-ketoglutarate and pyruvate were fermented. When co-cultured with Methanobacterium formicicum as the hydrogen scavenger, strain OTA 102(T) oxidized alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate, tyrosine, methionine, histidine and asparagine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain OTA 102(T) was 41.7 mol%. The main fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain OTA 102(T) was related to Aminobacterium colombiense and Aminobacterium mobile (95.5 and 95.2 % similarity, respectively), of the phylum Synergistetes. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic and physiological characteristics, strain OTA 102(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Aminobacterium, Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov. The type strain is OTA 102(T) (?= DSM 27500(T)?= JCM 19320(T)). PMID:25406236

Hamdi, Olfa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Bouallagui, Hassib; Hamdi, Moktar; Bonin, Patricia; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2015-02-01

403

Synthesis, Solution Structure, and Phylum Selectivity of a Spider ?-Toxin That Slows Inactivation of Specific Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Subtypes*  

PubMed Central

Magi 4, now renamed ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a, is a 43-residue neurotoxic peptide from the venom of the hexathelid Japanese funnel-web spider (Macrothele gigas) with homology to ?-hexatoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders. It binds with high affinity to receptor site 3 on insect voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels but, unlike ?-hexatoxins, does not compete for the related site 3 in rat brain despite being previously shown to be lethal by intracranial injection. To elucidate differences in NaV channel selectivity, we have undertaken the first characterization of a peptide toxin on a broad range of mammalian and insect NaV channel subtypes showing that ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a selectively slows channel inactivation of mammalian NaV1.1, NaV1.3, and NaV1.6 but more importantly shows higher affinity for insect NaV1 (para) channels. Consequently, ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a induces tonic repetitive firing of nerve impulses in insect neurons accompanied by plateau potentials. In addition, we have chemically synthesized and folded ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a, ascertained the bonding pattern of the four disulfides, and determined its three-dimensional solution structure using NMR spectroscopy. Despite modest sequence homology, we show that key residues important for the activity of scorpion ?-toxins and ?-hexatoxins are distributed in a topologically similar manner in ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a. However, subtle differences in the toxin surfaces are important for the novel selectivity of ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a for certain mammalian and insect NaV channel subtypes. As such, ?-hexatoxin-Mg1a provides us with a specific tool with which to study channel structure and function and determinants for phylum- and tissue-specific activity. PMID:19592486

Yamaji, Nahoko; Little, Michelle J.; Nishio, Hideki; Billen, Bert; Villegas, Elba; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Tytgat, Jan; Nicholson, Graham M.; Corzo, Gerardo

2009-01-01

404

Nitrososphaera viennensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic and mesophilic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from soil and a member of the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota  

PubMed Central

A mesophilic, neutrophilic and aerobic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, strain EN76T, was isolated from garden soil in Vienna (Austria). Cells were irregular cocci with a diameter of 0.6–0.9 µm and possessed archaella and archaeal pili as cell appendages. Electron microscopy also indicated clearly discernible areas of high and low electron density, as well as tubule-like structures. Strain EN76T had an S-layer with p3 symmetry, so far only reported for members of the Sulfolobales. Crenarchaeol was the major core lipid. The organism gained energy by oxidizing ammonia to nitrite aerobically, thereby fixing CO2, but growth depended on the addition of small amounts of organic acids. The optimal growth temperature was 42 °C and the optimal pH was 7.5, with ammonium and pyruvate concentrations of 2.6 and 1 mM, respectively. The genome of strain EN76T had a DNA G+C content of 52.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes showed that strain EN76T is affiliated with the recently proposed phylum Thaumarchaeota, sharing 85?% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with the closest cultivated relative ‘Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus’ SCM1, a marine ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, and a maximum of 81?% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with members of the phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota and any of the other recently proposed phyla (e.g. ‘Korarchaeota’ and ‘Aigarchaeota’). We propose the name Nitrososphaera viennensis gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain EN76T. The type strain of Nitrososphaera viennensis is strain EN76T (?=?DSM 26422T?=?JMC 19564T). Additionally, we propose the family Nitrososphaeraceae fam. nov., the order Nitrososphaerales ord. nov. and the class Nitrososphaeria classis nov. PMID:24907263

Stieglmeier, Michaela; Klingl, Andreas; Alves, Ricardo J. E.; Rittmann, Simon K.-M. R.; Melcher, Michael; Leisch, Nikolaus

2014-01-01

405

Effects of triclosan on growth, viability and fatty acid synthesis of the oyster protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus.  

PubMed

Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, has severely impacted oyster populations from the Mid-Atlantic region to the Gulf of Mexico coast of North America for more than 30 yr. Although a chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce or eliminate P. marinus from infected oysters would be useful for research and hatchery operations, an effective and practical drug treatment does not currently exist. In this study, the antimicrobial drug triclosan 5-chloro-2-(2,4 dichlorophenoxy) phenol, a specific inhibitor of Fab1 (enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein reductase), an enzyme in the Type II class of fatty acid synthetases, was tested for its effects on viability, proliferation and fatty acid synthesis of in vitro-cultured P. marinus meronts. Treatment of P. marinus meront cell cultures with concentrations of > or = 2 microM triclosan at 28 degrees C (a temperature favorable for parasite proliferation) for up to 6 d stopped proliferation of the parasite. Treatment at > or = 5 microM at 28 degrees C greatly reduced the viability and fatty acid synthesis of meront cells. Oyster hemocytes treated with > or = 20 microM triclosan exhibited no significant (p < 0.05) reduction in viability relative to controls for up to 24 h at 13 degrees C. P. marinus meronts exposed to > or = 2 microM triclosan for 24 h at 13 degrees C exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower viability relative to controls. Exposure of P. marinus meronts to triclosan concentrations of > or = 20 microM resulted in > 50% mortality of P. marinus cells after 24 h. These results suggest that triclosan may be effective in treating P. marinus-infected oysters. PMID:16408837

Lund, Eric D; Soudant, Philippe; Chu, Fu-Lin E; Harvey, Ellen; Bolton, Stephanie; Flowers, Adolph

2005-11-28

406

Quantitative assessment of the proliferation of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus using a bioluminescence assay for ATP content.  

PubMed

Perkinsus marinus is a protozoan parasite that causes "Dermo" disease in the eastern oyster Crasssostrea virginica in coastal areas of the USA. Until now, intervention strategies against the parasite have found limited success, and Dermo still remains one of the main hurdles for the restoration of oyster populations. We adapted a commercial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content-based assay to assess the in vitro proliferation of P. marinus in a 96-well plate format, and validated the method by measuring the effects of potential anti-proliferative compounds. The sensitivity (1.5-3.1 × 10(4) cells/well), linearity (R (2) = 0.983), and signal stability (60 min) support the reliability of the assay for assessing cell proliferation. Validation of the assay by culturing P. marinus in the presence of increasing concentrations of triclosan showed a dose-response profile. The IC50 value obtained was higher than that reported earlier, possibly due to the use of different viability assay methods and a different P. marinus strain. The antibiotics G418 and tetracycline and the herbicide fluridone were active against P. marinus proliferation; the IC50 of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and atrazine was relatively high suggesting either off-target effects or inability to reach the targets. The validation of the ATP-based assay, together with significant advantages of the Perkinsus culture methodology (homogeneity, reproducibility, and high cell densities), underscores the value of this assay for developing high-throughput screens for the identification of novel leader compounds against Perkinsus species, and most importantly, for the closely-related apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24533297

Shridhar, Surekha; Hassan, Kolaleh; Sullivan, David J; Vasta, Gerardo R; Fernández Robledo, José A

2013-12-01

407

Novel transmembrane receptor involved in phagosome transport of lysozymes and ?-hexosaminidase in the enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Lysozymes and hexosaminidases are ubiquitous hydrolases in bacteria and eukaryotes. In phagocytic lower eukaryotes and professional phagocytes from higher eukaryotes, they are involved in the degradation of ingested bacteria in phagosomes. In Entamoeba histolytica, which is the intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, phagocytosis plays a pivotal role in the nutrient acquisition and the evasion from the host defense systems. While the content of phagosomes and biochemical and physiological roles of the major phagosomal proteins have been established in E. histolytica, the mechanisms of trafficking of these phagosomal proteins, in general, remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized for the first time the putative receptor/carrier involved in the transport of the above-mentioned hydrolases to phagosomes. We have shown that the receptor, designated as cysteine protease binding protein family 8 (CPBF8), is localized in lysosomes and mediates transport of lysozymes and ?-hexosaminidase ?-subunit to phagosomes when the amoeba ingests mammalian cells or Gram-positive bacillus Clostridium perfringens. We have also shown that the binding of CPBF8 to the cargos is mediated by the serine-rich domain, more specifically three serine residues of the domain, which likely contains trifluoroacetic acid-sensitive O-phosphodiester-linked glycan modifications, of CPBF8. We further showed that the repression of CPBF8 by gene silencing reduced the lysozyme and ?-hexosaminidase activity in phagosomes and delayed the degradation of C. perfringens. Repression of CPBF8 also resulted in decrease in the cytopathy against the mammalian cells, suggesting that CPBF8 may also be involved in, besides the degradation of ingested bacteria, the pathogenesis against the mammalian hosts. This work represents the first case of the identification of a transport receptor of hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the degradation of microorganisms in phagosomes. PMID:22383874

Furukawa, Atsushi; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2012-02-01

408

Phylum: Tardigrada (water bears, tardigrades)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes water bears, minute animals that can remain dormant in a dry state for over 100 years. The page addresses what they are, where they are found, their general biology, cryptobiosis, their ability to resist environmental extremes, implications and further research regarding their cryptobiosis, where they fit in with other animals, and their existence in South Africa. It also describes how someone could collect and see them. The page is part of Biodiversity Explorer, a web site hosted by Iziko Museums of Cape Town that features the diversity of life in South Africa.

Roger Middleton

409

Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mesophilic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid-degrading bacterium in the phylum Synergistetes.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid- degrading bacterium, designated strain 7WAY-8-7(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from isomerized sugar production processes. Cells of strain 7WAY-8-7(T) were motile, curved rods (0.7-1.0×5.0-8.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth was 25-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 6.0-7.5), and could grow fermentatively on yeast extract, glucose, ribose, xylose, malate, tryptone, pyruvate, fumarate, Casamino acids, serine and cysteine. The main end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate and hydrogen. In co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864(T), strain 7WAY-8-7(T) could utilize lactate, glycerol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, L-glutamate, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, lysine, threonine, 2-oxoglutarate, aspartate and methionine. A Stickland reaction was not observed with some pairs of amino acids. Yeast extract was required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe (III) were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the uncultured environmental clone clade (called 'PD-UASB-13' in the Greengenes database) in the bacterial phylum Synergistetes, showing less than 90% sequence similarity with closely related described species such as Aminivibrio pyruvatiphilus and Aminobacterium colombiense (89.7% and 88.7%, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(13?:?0), iso-C(15?:?0), anteiso-C(15?:?0), C(18?:?1), C(19?:?1), C(20?:?1) and C(21?:?1). A novel genus and species, Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strain 7WAY-8-7(T) (?=?JCM 17151(T)?=?DSM 24196(T)?=?CGMCC 1.5159(T)). PMID:24676730

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Guo, Rong-Bo; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2014-06-01

410

Anaerocella delicata gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from a methanogenic reactor of cattle farms.  

PubMed

A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (WN081(T)) was isolated from rice-straw residue in a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms in Japan. Cells were Gram-staining negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming straight rods. The strain grew rather well on PY agar slants supplemented with a B-vitamin mixture as well as sugars (PYV4S medium) and made translucent and glossy colonies. Growth in liquid medium with the same composition, however, was scanty, and growth was not improved in spite of various additives to the medium. Strain WN081(T) produced small amounts of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, butyrate, isovalerate and H(2) from PYV liquid medium. The strain did not use carbohydrates or organic acids. The pH range for growth was narrow (pH 6.8-8.2), having a pH optimum at 6.8-7.5. The temperature range for growth was 10-37°C, the optimum being 25-30°C. The strain was sensitive to bile, and did not have catalase or oxidase activities. Hydrogen sulfide was produced from L-cysteine and L-methionine as well as peptone. Indole was produced from L-tryptophan and peptone. The strain had iso-C(15:0) as the exclusively predominant cellular fatty acid (70%) together with some branched chain components (such as iso-C(15:0) DMA, iso-C(17:0) 3-OH and iso-C(15:0) aldehyde) as minor components. The genomic DNA G+C content was 32.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain WN081(T) in the phylum Bacteroidetes with rather low sequence similarities with the related species such as Rikenella microfusus (85.7% sequence similarity), Alistipes putredinis (85.5%) and Alistipes finegoldii (85.5%) in the family Rikenellaceae. Based on the phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, the novel genus and species Anaerocella delicata gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the strain. The type strain is WN081(T) (= JCM 17049(T) = DSM 23595(T)). PMID:23337575

Abe, Kunihiro; Ueki, Atsuko; Ohtaki, Yoshimi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya; Ueki, Katsuji

2012-01-01

411

Altered Protozoan and Bacterial Communities and Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Monensin-Treated Wastewater from a Dairy Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Surviving predation is a fitness trait of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that provides ample time for the pathogen to be transported from reservoirs (e.g. dairies and feedlots) to farm produce grown in proximity. Ionophore dietary supplements that inhibit rumen protozoa may provide such a selective advantage for EcO157 to proliferate in lagoons as the pathogen is released along with the undigested supplement as manure washings. This study evaluated the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157, protozoan and bacterial communities in wastewater treated with monensin. Although total protozoa and native bacteria were unaffected by monensin, the time for 90% decrease in EcO157 increased from 0.8 to 5.1 days. 18S and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of wastewater samples revealed that monensin eliminated almost all colpodean and oligohymenophorean ciliates, probably facilitating the extended survival of EcO157. Total protozoan numbers remained high in treated wastewater as monensin enriched 94% of protozoan sequences undetected with untreated wastewater. Monensin stimulated 30-fold increases in Cyrtohymena citrina, a spirotrichean ciliate, and also biflagellate bicosoecids and cercozoans. Sequences of gram-negative Proteobacteria increased from 1% to 46% with monensin, but gram-positive Firmicutes decreased from 93% to 46%. It is noteworthy that EcO157 numbers increased significantly (P<0.01) in Sonneborn medium containing monensin, probably due to monensin-inhibited growth of Vorticella microstoma (P<0.05), a ciliate isolated from wastewater. We conclude that dietary monensin inhibits ciliate protozoa that feed on EcO157. Feed supplements or other methods that enrich these protozoa in cattle manure could be a novel strategy to control the environmental dissemination of EcO157 from dairies to produce production environments. PMID:23349969

Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

2013-01-01

412

Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p?protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p?

2013-01-01

413

A Novel Soluble Immune-Type Receptor (SITR) in Teleost Fish: Carp SITR Is Involved in the Nitric Oxide-Mediated Response to a Protozoan Parasite  

PubMed Central

Background The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I-) type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. Conclusion/Significance We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR) in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite. PMID:21305002

Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Bird, Steve; Raes, Geert; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H.; Schijns, Virgil E. J. C.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

2011-01-01

414

Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) Parasitizing the Little Yellow Cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with Recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. Parasitizing Ectobiid Cockroaches in India.  

PubMed

Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans. PMID:25153145

Clopton, Richard E

2015-02-01

415

Comparison between Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and Giemsa-stained Thin Film (GTF) technique for blood protozoan infections in wild rats.  

PubMed

The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique and conventional Giemsa thin blood smear was compared to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in detecting blood parasitic infection of the rodent populations from four urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 432 blood samples from four rat species (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus diardii, Rattus exulans and Rattus argentiventer) were screened using both techniques and successfully detected two blood protozoan species (Trypanosoma lewisi and Plasmodium sp.) with Trypanosoma lewisi predominantly infecting the population. Results showed that Giemsa-stained thin film (GTF) was the better detection method on blood parasitemia (46.7%) compared to Quantitative Buffy Coat method (38.9%) with overall detection technique sensitivity and specificity at 83.2% and 74.8% respectively. The sensitivity in detection of Trypanosoma lewisi was 84.4% with value slightly lower for Plasmodium sp. infections at 76.6%. Statistical analysis proved that GTF technique was significantly more sensitive in the detection of blood protozoan infections in the rodent population compared to QBC (p<0.05). PMID:25382468

Sahimin, N; Alias, S N; Woh, P Y; Edah, M A; Mohd Zain, S N

2014-09-01

416

Prevalence of a protozoan parasite Cristigera sp. (Ciliophora:Ciliatea) from edible oysters (Mollusca:Bivalvia) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The coastal region of West Bengal is bestowed with a wide range of natural forest and aquatic resources. The estuarine complex is a culmination of the interaction of land, sea and freshwater. It offers diverse specialised habitats such as mangroves, non vegetated mudflats, inter tidal zones and reclaimed areas. Such areas are home to a number of terrestrial, freshwater and marine communities. Edible oyster resources in these regions are Crassostrea gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata, which are the keystone species found in the intertidal zone and can tolerate huge variation of salinity. These are used as food by local people and marketed to earn cash. The population of this species has been declined due to parasitic infection and pollution. There are many protozoan parasites which infect these oysters causing diseases. During survey period, a protozoan parasite of the genus Cristigera have been observed only from the edible oyster Crassostrea gryphoides collected from Kaikhali and Frasergunj among three selected sites namely Kaikhali, Frasergunj and Digha of West Bengal mainly during monsoon and post-monsoon season. Considering such rare and specific prevalence of Cristigera sp, it may be considered as potential bio-indicator. PMID:25035589

Biswas, Tanima; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

2014-09-01

417

What factors drive seasonal variation of phytoplankton, protozoans and metazoans on leaves of Posidonia oceanica and in the water column along the coast of the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia?  

PubMed

A hierarchical sampling design was used during two seasons (spring (May) and summer (August) 2006). Using this design, three regions of the Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia) were analyzed for the distribution of microalgal, protozoan and metazoan assemblages in two different habitats: (1) the water column; and (2) on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (P. oceanica) leaves in shallow meadows. A total of 85 species were obtained. In particular, the diatom family Naviculacea consistently dominated (both numerically and in their diversity) the micro-algae in all regions for the two seasons of the study and in both habitats. In the Chergui region, which is the closest area to a source of impact, fast growing centric diatoms (such as Thalassionema, Rhizosolenia, Striatella, and Skeletonema) were identified as indicators of high organic matter and nutrient enrichment in water bodies. Protozoan and metazoan species abundance in the different regions indicate a non-random spatial and temporal distribution of the epiphytic organisms on leaves of P. oceanica that correlated with phytoplankton. The results also indicate that (1) the abundance of micro- and macroorganisms in the three regions were higher on P. oceanica leaves than in the water column for the two seasons; (2) environmental factors such as currents and tide influenced assemblages; and (3) the highest abundance was due to direct exposure to the polluted coast of Sfax and the effect of tidal asymmetries generating nutrient-rich inputs from the city. PMID:23498657

Mounir, Ben Brahim; Asma, Hamza; Sana, Ben Ismail; Lotfi, Mabrouk; Abderrahmen, Bouain; Lotfi, Aleya

2013-06-15

418

Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

2013-01-01

419

Lipid kinases are essential for apicoplast homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositides regulate numerous cellular processes, by recruiting cytosolic effector proteins and acting as membrane signaling entities. The cellular metabolism and localization of phosphoinositides are tightly regulated by distinct lipid kinases and phosphatases. Here, we identify and characterize a unique phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) in Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Conditional depletion of this enzyme and subsequently of its product, PI(3)P, drastically alters the morphology and inheritance of the apicoplast, an endosymbiontic organelle of algal origin that is a unique feature of many Apicomplexa. We searched the T. gondii genome for PI(3)P binding proteins and identified in total six PX and FYVE-domain containing proteins including a PIKfyve lipid kinase, which phosphorylates PI(3)P into PI(3,5)P2. While depletion of putative PI(3)P binding proteins shows that they are not essential for parasite growth and apicoplast biology, conditional disruption of PIKfyve induces enlarged apicoplasts, as observed upon the loss of PI(3)P. A similar defect of apicoplast homeostasis was also observed by knocking-down the PIKfyve regulatory protein ArPIKfyve, suggesting that in T. gondii, PI(3)P-related function for the apicoplast might mainly be to serve as a precursor for the synthesis of PI(3,5)P2. Accordingly, PI3K is conserved in all apicomplexan parasites whereas PIKfyve and ArPIKfyve are absent in Cryptosporidium species which lack an apicoplast, supporting a direct role of PI(3,5)P2 in apicoplast homeostasis. This study enriches the already diverse functions attributed to PI(3,5)P2 in eukaryotic cells and highlights these parasite lipid kinases as potential drug targets. PMID:25329540

Daher, Wassim; Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Sheiner, Lilach; Lentini, Gaëlle; Berry, Laurence; Tawk, Lina; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Wengelnik, Kai; Striepen, Boris; Lebrun, Maryse

2014-01-01

420

Lipid kinases are essential for apicoplast homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositides regulate numerous cellular processes by recruiting cytosolic effector proteins and acting as membrane signalling entities. The cellular metabolism and localization of phosphoinositides are tightly regulated by distinct lipid kinases and phosphatases. Here, we identify and characterize a unique phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) in Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Conditional depletion of this enzyme and subsequently of its product, PI(3)P, drastically alters the morphology and inheritance of the apicoplast, an endosymbiotic organelle of algal origin that is a unique feature of many Apicomplexa. We searched the T.?gondii genome for PI(3)P-binding proteins and identified in total six PX and FYVE domain-containing proteins including a PIKfyve lipid kinase, which phosphorylates PI(3)P into PI(3,5)P2 . Although depletion of putative PI(3)P-binding proteins shows that they are not essential for parasite growth and apicoplast biology, conditional disruption of PIKfyve induces enlarged apicoplasts, as observed upon loss of PI(3)P. A similar defect of apicoplast homeostasis was also observed by knocking down the PIKfyve regulatory protein ArPIKfyve, suggesting that in T.?gondii, PI(3)P-related function for the apicoplast might mainly be to serve as a precursor for the synthesis of PI(3,5)P2 . Accordingly, PI3K is conserved in all apicomplexan parasites whereas PIKfyve and ArPIKfyve are absent in Cryptosporidium species that lack an apicoplast, supporting a direct role of PI(3,5)P2 in apicoplast homeostasis. This study enriches the already diverse functions attributed to PI(3,5)P2 in eukaryotic cells and highlights these parasite lipid kinases as potential drug targets. PMID:25329540

Daher, Wassim; Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Sheiner, Lilach; Lentini, Gaëlle; Berry, Laurence; Tawk, Lina; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Wengelnik, Kai; Striepen, Boris; Lebrun, Maryse

2015-04-01

421

Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Listeriolysin O favors bacterial growth in co-culture with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, causes protozoan encystment and promotes bacterial survival inside cysts  

PubMed Central

Background The gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is widely spread in the nature. L. monocytogenes was reported to be isolated from soil, water, sewage and sludge. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a L. monocytogenes major virulence factor. In the course of infection in mammals, LLO is required for intracellular survival and apoptosis induction in lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the potential of LLO to promote interactions between L. monocytogenes and the ubiquitous inhabitant of natural ecosystems bacteriovorous free-living ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Results Wild type L. monocytogenes reduced T. pyriformis trophozoite counts and stimulated encystment. The effects were observed starting from 48 h of co-incubation. On the day 14, trophozoites were eliminated from the co-culture while about 5 × 104 cells/ml remained in the axenic T. pyriformis culture. The deficient in the LLO-encoding hly gene L. monocytogenes strain failed to cause mortality among protozoa and to trigger protozoan encystment. Replenishment of the hly gene in the mutant strain restored toxicity towards protozoa and induction of protozoan encystment. The saprophytic non-haemolytic species L. innocua transformed with the LLO-expressing plasmid caused extensive mortality and encystment in ciliates. During the first week of co-incubation, LLO-producing L. monocytogenes demonstrated higher growth rates in association with T. pyriformis than the LLO-deficient isogenic strain. At latter stages of co-incubation bacterial counts were similar for both strains. T. pyriformis cysts infected with wild type L. monocytogenes caused listerial infection in guinea pigs upon ocular and oral inoculation. The infection was proved by bacterial plating from the internal organs. Conclusions The L. monocytogenes virulence factor LLO promotes bacterial survival and growth in the presence of bacteriovorous ciliate T. pyriformis. LLO is responsible for L. monocytogenes toxicity for protozoa and induction of protozoan encystment. L. monocytogenes entrapped in cysts remained viable and virulent. In whole, LLO activity seems to support bacterial survival in the natural habitat outside of a host. PMID:20109168

2010-01-01

422

Serine protease inhibitor cvSI-1 potential role in the eastern oyster host defense against the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus.  

PubMed

The serine protease inhibitor cvSI-1, purified from plasma of eastern oysters, inhibited the proliferation of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus in vitro. In situ hybridization located cvSI-1 gene expression in basophil cells of the digestive tubules and cvSI-1 expression measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was several hundred folds greater in digestive glands than in other organs examined or circulating hemocytes. cvSI-1 gene expression was also significantly greater in winter than in summer. Finally, cvSI-1 gene expression and plasma protease inhibitory activity in oysters selected for increased resistance to P. marinus were significantly greater than in unselected oysters. These findings support the hypothesis that cvSI-1 plays a role in eastern oyster host defense against P. marinus possibly through inhibition of parasite proliferation. PMID:19720077

La Peyre, Jerome F; Xue, Qing-Gang; Itoh, Naoki; Li, Yanli; Cooper, Richard K

2010-01-01

423

An inside job: hacking into Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascades by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is well known for its skill at invading and living within host cells. New discoveries are now also revealing the astounding ability of the parasite to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm to seize control of the host cell. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of one such secretory protein called ROP16. This molecule is released from rhoptries into the host cell during invasion. The ROP16 molecule acts as a kinase, directly activating both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT6 signaling pathways. In macrophages, an important and preferential target cell of parasite infection, the injection of ROP16 has multiple consequences, including downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine signaling and macrophage deviation to an alternatively activated phenotype. PMID:22104110

Denkers, Eric Y; Bzik, David J; Fox, Barbara A; Butcher, Barbara A

2012-02-01

424

Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.  

PubMed

An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16?:?0, i17?:?0 and ai17?:?0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2?% (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) (?=?DSM 23976(T)?=?ICMP 18418(T)). PMID:21097641

Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

2011-10-01

425

[Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal. PMID:25307881

Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Sambou, M; Roqueplo, C; Demoncheaux, J -P; Perret, C; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

2014-10-11

426

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Hammondia spp. microcysts in esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle, emphasized on their morphological differences.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis and Hammondia are two obligatory protozoan parasites. These genera belong to cyst-forming coccidia group of the phylum Apicomplexa. They both need two different hosts to complete their life cycles. Felids and canids can act as definitive hosts, while herbivores, such as sheep and cattle, are the most important intermediate hosts. Reports verify that no important disease has been caused by Hammondia spp.; on the other hand, Sarcocystis spp. can cause some severe infectious disease in livestock industry such as abortion. Economic losses are another concern due to carcass condemnation during meat inspection in abattoirs and decrease in the quality and quantity of milk and wool production. Due to the Sarcocystis and Hammondia tissue cysts being similar, the distinction between these different genera is so important. In this study, the prevalence of Sarcocystis and Hammondia in the esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle slaughtered in one of the industrial abattoir in Iran was reported and an easy and rapid method for accurate diagnosing of Sarcocystis and Hammondia bradyzoites was explained. PMID:25082016

Rassouli, Maryam; Ahmadpanahi, Javad; Alvandi, Ayda

2014-10-01

427

Structural Evidence for Actin-like Filaments in Toxoplasma gondii Using High-Resolution Low-Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is representative of a large group of parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa, which share a highly unusual motility system that is crucial for locomotion and active host cell invasion. Despite the importance of motility in the pathology of these unicellular organisms, the motor mechanisms for locomotion remain uncertain, largely because only limited data exist about composition and organization of the cytoskeleton. By using cytoskeleton stabilizing protocols on membrane-extracted parasites and novel imaging with high-resolution low-voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM), we were able to visualize for the first time a network of actin-sized filaments just below the cell membrane. A complex cytoskeletal network remained after removing the actin-sized fibers with cytochalasin D, revealing longitudinally arranged, subpellicular microtubules and intermediate-sized fibers of 10 nm, which, in stereo images, are seen both above and below the microtubules. These approaches open new possibilities to characterize more fully the largely unexplored and unconventional cytoskeletal motility complex in apicomplexan parasites.

Schatten, Heide; Sibley, L. David; Ris, Hans

2003-08-01

428

Population structure of natural and propagated isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum, C.?hominis and C.?meleagridis.  

PubMed

The three protozoan species Cryptosporidium parvum, C.?meleagridis and C.?hominis (phylum Apicomplexa) are enteric pathogens of humans. The former two species are zoonotic and the latter is thought to infect only humans. To better characterize the structure and transmission of natural and laboratory-propagated isolates, we analyzed a collection of archived human and animal isolates of these three species by deep-sequencing polymerase chain reaction products amplified from a polymorphic sequence on chromosome 1. Thousands of screened 200-nucleotide sequences were analyzed to compare the diversity among samples, to assess the impact of laboratory propagation on population complexity and to identify taxonomically mixed isolates. Contrary to our expectation, repeated propagation in animals did not reduce intra-isolate diversity nor was diversity associated with host species. Significantly, in most samples, sequences characteristic of a different species were identified. The presence of C.?hominis alleles in C.?parvum and C.?meleagridis isolates confirms earlier reports of mixed isolates and raises the possibility that the host range of C.?hominis is broader than typically assumed. In a genetically divergent isolate of C.?parvum, a majority of sequences was found to be recombinant, suggesting that this genotype originated from a C.?parvum?×?C.?hominis recombination event. PMID:24593863

Widmer, Giovanni; Ras, Refaat; Chalmers, Rachel M; Elwin, Kristin; Desoky, Enas; Badawy, Ahmed

2015-04-01

429

Unique apicomplexan IMC sub-compartment proteins are early markers for apical polarity in the malaria parasite  

PubMed Central

Summary The phylum Apicomplexa comprises over 5000 intracellular protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, that are clinically important pathogens affecting humans and livestock. Malaria parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium possess a pellicle comprised of a plasmalemma and inner membrane complex (IMC), which is implicated in parasite motility and invasion. Using live cell imaging and reverse genetics in the rodent malaria model P. berghei, we localise two unique IMC sub-compartment proteins (ISPs) and examine their role in defining apical polarity during zygote (ookinete) development. We show that these proteins localise to the anterior apical end of the parasite where IMC organisation is initiated, and are expressed at all developmental stages, especially those that are invasive. Both ISP proteins are N-myristoylated, phosphorylated and membrane-bound. Gene disruption studies suggest that ISP1 is likely essential for parasite development, whereas ISP3 is not. However, an absence of ISP3 alters the apical localisation of ISP1 in all invasive stages including ookinetes and sporozoites, suggesting a coordinated function for these proteins in the organisation of apical polarity in the parasite. PMID:24244852

Poulin, Benoit; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Brady, Declan; Silvie, Olivier; Wright, Megan H.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Wall, Richard J.; Whipple, Sarah; Guttery, David S.; Tate, Edward W.; Wickstead, Bill; Holder, Anthony A.; Tewari, Rita

2013-01-01

430

Effects of interruption of apicoplast function on malaria infection, development, and transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chloroplast-like organelle is present in many species of the Apicomplexa phylum. We have previously demonstrated that the plastid organelle of Plasmodium falciparum is essential to the survival of the blood-stage malaria parasite in culture. One known function of the plastid organelle in another Apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, involves the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole. The effects of interruption of plastid

Margery Sullivan; Jun Li; Sanjai Kumar; M. John Rogers; Thomas F McCutchan

2000-01-01

431

Characterization and transcriptional analysis of the promoter region of the Duffy blood group, chemokine receptor ( DARC) gene in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Duffy antigen is the only receptor for Plasmodium vivax, a hemoparasite of the phylum Apicomplexa and the cause of vivax malaria in humans. Resistance to this parasite in the majority of black African individuals and their descendents is due to a mutation in the gene promoter region, which blocks its transcription on erythrocytes. Regarding bovine babesiosis, it is known

T. L. Carvalho; P. E. M. Ribolla; R. A. Curi; L. S. L. S. Mota

2009-01-01

432

Ultrastructural differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii schizonts (types B to E) and gamonts in the intestines of cats fed bradyzoites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural characterisitics of four types of Toxoplasma gondii schizonts (types B, C, D and E) and their merozoites, microgamonts and macrogamonts were compared in cats killed at days 1, 2, 4 and 6 after feeding tissues cysts from the brains of mice. Schizonts, merozoites and gamonts contained most of the ultrastructural features characteristic of the phylum Apicomplexa. All four

C. A. Speer; J. P. Dubey

2005-01-01

433

pour obtenir le grade de l'Institut des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l'Environnement  

E-print Network

juin 2007 Le rôle d'une sérine-thréonine phosphatase de type 2C parasitaire (TgPP2C) dans l'interaction Toxoplasma gondii ­ cellule hôte : Identification des modules interactifs au sein du tricomplexe actine ......................................................................................................... 13 II- LE PARASITE RESPONSABLE : TOXOPLASMA GONDII, MEMBRE DU PHYLUM DES APICOMPLEXA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Epigenomic Modifications Predict Active Promoters and Gene Structure in Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model organism Toxoplasma gondii, we characterized the epigenetic organization and transcription patterns of a

Mathieu Gissot; Krystyna A Kelly; James W Ajioka; John M Greally; Kami Kim