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Sample records for protruding aorto-ostial vein

  1. Kissing stenting of aorto-ostial lesions in juxtaposed renal arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hasija, Pradeep; Chadha, Davinder; Kalra, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous angioplasty with or without stenting has become an established procedure for treatment of renal artery stenosis for control of hypertension or progressive renal dysfunction. Anatomic variation of renal arteries is common with dual blood supply of unilateral kidney noted in almost 25% of the general population. Renal angioplasty of these anatomic variants of renal arteries is challenging. We present an unusual case of juxtaposed renal arteries with aorto-ostial lesion where direct kissing stenting was done with excellent technical and clinical outcome. PMID:25199194

  2. Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Petra Holdstock, Judith M.; Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A.

    2008-03-15

    Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

  3. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A.; Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S.; Hussain, Fuad F.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Lopez, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  4. Protruding labia minora: abnormal or just uncool?

    PubMed

    Michala, Lina; Koliantzaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-09-01

    There is a wide variety in the appearance of normal female external genitalia. Nevertheless a specific prototype is promoted by the media, leading to a false sense that all other appearances are abnormal. As adolescents become sexually aware at an earlier age, most of them are worried about the appearance of their genitalia, especially when labia minora protrude beyond labia majora. This is a prospective audit of adolescents presenting for assessment of their perceived abnormal genitalia. Sixteen girls aged 10.2 to 17.8 years presented between June 2009 and December 2010 to a specialist adolescent gynecology service. Their mean labial width was 36 mm (range: 20-55 mm). In six girls, the reason for attending the service was inequality of the size of labia ranging between 6 mm and 35 mm (mean of 20 mm). Among the remaining 10 girls, the concern had arisen through comparison with a prepubescent sibling (one case), change of genitalia during puberty (four cases), looking at internet pictures (four cases), and looking at an anatomy book (one case). Risks of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) have not been adequately documented, especially with regards to sexual function and long-term patient satisfaction. External genitalia are likely to change during puberty and therefore, any genital operation in the absence of clear pathology should be deferred until adulthood. Even then, women should have clear expectations of what will be achieved with the operation in terms of appearance and function. PMID:21696338

  5. Different Occlusal Schemes in a Persistent Protruding Complete Denture Wearer.

    PubMed

    Iegami, Carolina Mayumi; Lopes, Danilo de Melo; Nakamae, Atlas Edson Moleros; Uehara, Priscila Nakasone; Tamaki, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Different types of artificial teeth and occlusal designs can be used in complete dentures. Bilateral balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, canine guidance, and monoplane are the main occlusal designs; however there is no agreement on which tooth arrangement is ideal for achieving success in complete dentures. This report presents an alternative for persistent involuntary protruding complete denture wearers through the use of artificial teeth with higher cusps. Due to an old and worn pair of complete dentures, the patient had the habit of protruding. New dentures were made with Biotone artificial teeth and in the trial session, the patient would still protrude. A new set was made with Premium artificial teeth, which present higher cusps. With these dentures, the involuntary protrusion did not occur. From the delivery to the follow-up sessions, the patient stopped protruding. PMID:27069698

  6. Different Occlusal Schemes in a Persistent Protruding Complete Denture Wearer

    PubMed Central

    Iegami, Carolina Mayumi; Lopes, Danilo de Melo; Nakamae, Atlas Edson Moleros; Uehara, Priscila Nakasone; Tamaki, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Different types of artificial teeth and occlusal designs can be used in complete dentures. Bilateral balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, canine guidance, and monoplane are the main occlusal designs; however there is no agreement on which tooth arrangement is ideal for achieving success in complete dentures. This report presents an alternative for persistent involuntary protruding complete denture wearers through the use of artificial teeth with higher cusps. Due to an old and worn pair of complete dentures, the patient had the habit of protruding. New dentures were made with Biotone artificial teeth and in the trial session, the patient would still protrude. A new set was made with Premium artificial teeth, which present higher cusps. With these dentures, the involuntary protrusion did not occur. From the delivery to the follow-up sessions, the patient stopped protruding. PMID:27069698

  7. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in ... of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein. Your veins have one-way valves that help ...

  8. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. LANAI OF UNIT B. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PROTRUDING CONCRETE MASONRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LANAI OF UNIT B. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PROTRUDING CONCRETE MASONRY. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Varicose Veins? Español Varicose (VAR-i-kos) veins are swollen, ... can form in other parts of the body. Varicose veins are a common condition. They usually cause few ...

  11. Beam coupling impedances of obstacles protruding into beam pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1997-08-01

    The beam coupling impedances of small obstacles protruding inside the vacuum chamber of an accelerator are calculated analytically at frequencies for which the wavelength is large compared to a typical size of the obstacle. Simple formulas for a few important particular cases, including both essentially three-dimensional objects like a post or a mask and axisymmetric irises, are presented. The analytical results are compared and agree with three-dimensional computer simulations. These results allow simple practical estimates of the broad-band impedance contributions from such discontinuities.

  12. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other veins often mistaken for varicose veins are spider veins and reticular veins, which are the visible ... greenish-blue veins that appear in our legs. Spider veins or teleangiectesias are tiny veins that you ...

  13. Electromagnetic Detection of Fatigue Cracks under Protruding Head Ferromagnetic Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Namkung, Min

    2004-01-01

    The detection of fatigue cracks under installed fasteners has been a major goal of the aging aircraft NDE community. The Sliding Probe, Magneto-Optic Imager, Rotating Self-Nulling Probe, Low Frequency Eddy Current Array, and Eddyscan systems are among the instruments developed for this inspection. It has been verified that the detection of fatigue cracks under flush head aluminum and titanium fasteners can be accomplished with a high resolution by the above techniques. The detection of fatigue cracks under ferromagnetic and protruding head fasteners, however, has been found to be much more difficult. For the present work, the inspection for fatigue cracks under SAE 4340 Steel Hi-Lok fasteners is explored. Modifications to the Rotating Self-Nulling Eddy Current Probe System are presented which enable the detection of fatigue cracks hidden under the protruding head of the ferromagnetic fastener. Inspection results for samples with varying length EDM notches are shown, as well as a comparison between the signature from an EDM notch and an actual fatigue crack. Finite Element Modeling is used to investigate the effect of the ferromagnetic fastener on the induced eddy current distribution in order to help explain the detection characteristics of the system. This paper will also introduce a modification to the Rotating Probe System designed specifically for the detection of deeply buried flaws in multilayer conductors. The design change incorporates a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor as the pickup device to improve the low frequency performance of the probe. The flaw detection capabilities of the GMR based Self- Nulling Probe are presented along with the status of the GMR based Rotating Probe System for detection of deeply buried flaws under installed fasteners.

  14. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

  15. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor if you think you have them. Spider Veins Spider veins are a smaller version of varicose veins and a less serious type of telangiectasias. Spider veins involve the capillaries, the smallest blood vessels ...

  16. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  17. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must objects protruding from... objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? (a) Each object protruding from the water that is within 100 yards of a platform or single point mooring...

  18. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  19. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose ...

  20. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Deep Vein Thrombosis Overview What is deep vein thrombosis? Deep vein thrombosis (also called DVT) is a blood clot in a vein deep inside your body. These clots usually occur in your leg veins. While DVT is a fairly common condition, it is ...

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the lower leg or ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a ...

  3. Fabrication of a carbon nanotube protruding electrode array for a retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Dai, Hongjie; Fishman, Harvey A.; Harris, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Implantable retinal prosthetic devices consisting of microelectrode arrays are being built in attempts to restore vision. Current retinal prostheses use metal planar electrodes. We are developing a novel electro-neural interface using carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as flexible, protruding microelectrodes. We have synthesized vertically self-assembled, multi-walled CNT bundles by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Using conventional silicon-based micro-fabrication processes, these CNT bundles were integrated onto pre-patterned circuits. CNT protruding electrodes have significant potentials in providing safer stimulation for retinal prostheses. They could also act as recording units to sense electrical and chemical activities in neural systems for fundamental neuroscience research.

  4. Increased distensibility in dependent veins following prolonged bedrest.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2009-07-01

    Displacement of blood to the lower portion of the body that follows a postural transition from recumbent to erect is augmented by a prolonged period of recumbency (bedrest). Information is scarce as to what extent this augmented blood-volume shift to dependent veins is attributable to increased distensibility of the veins. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 5 weeks of horizontal bedrest on the pressure-distension relationship in limb veins. Elevation of venous distending pressure was induced by exposure of the body except the tested limb to supra-atmospheric pressure with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm, or supine with a lower leg, protruding through a hole in the chamber door. Diameter changes in response to an increase of intravenous pressure (distensibility) from 60 to about 140 mmHg were measured in the brachial and posterior tibial veins using ultrasonographic techniques. Prior to bedrest, the distensibility was substantially less in the tibial than in the brachial vein. Bedrest increased (P < 0.01) pressure distension in the tibial vein by 86% from 7 +/- 3% before to 13 +/- 3% after bedrest. In the brachial vein, bedrest increased (P < 0.05) pressure distension by 36% from 14 +/- 5% before to 19 +/- 5% after bedrest. Thus, removal of the gravity-dependent pressure components that act along the blood vessels in erect posture increases the distensibility of dependent veins. PMID:19347352

  5. Giant cardiac hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum protruding to right ventricular epicardium☆

    PubMed Central

    Besir, Yuksel; Gucu, Arif; Surer, Suleyman; Rodoplu, Orhan; Melek, Mehmet; Tetik, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hydatid cyst is a rare condition, and the location of a hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum is exceptional. A 54-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of chest pain, shortness of breath and malaise. Transthoracic echocardiography defined a cystic mass lesion of 50 × 59 mm originating from apex of the heart protruding into and compressing the interventricular septum. The cyst was excised surgically and the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day without symptoms. In our case, localization of the cystic mass was within interventricular septum which is an uncommon site. It limited both ventricular volumes significantly. In addition, this cyst was extensively protruding to the right ventricular epicardium. PMID:23438618

  6. Structural analysis of a flexible structural member protruding into an interior flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, M. A.; Gramoll, K. C.; Roach, R. L.

    1993-04-01

    A quasi-steady approach is introduced for the analysis of flexible structural members protruding into flow fields. Static equilibrium is enforced for the structure while dynamic equilibrium is enforced for the structure interaction solution, subject to the equilibrium assumptions, but only the structural aspects of obtaining such a solution are examined. This approach is applied to the problem of a flexible annular inhibitor protruding into the interior flow field of a segmented solid rocket motor. A finite element structural model, and a finite difference flow model form the basis of the solution method. The structure is iteratively loaded, with load profiles determined by the flow after each iteration. The results show that large deflections can be expected of inhibitors in solid rocket motors, and that the limitations of the analytical structural model are critical.

  7. The orientation of nucleus, nucleus-associated body and protruding nucleolus in aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sameshima, M

    1985-02-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum growing or developing on cellulose dialysis membranes were fixed with acrolein vapour for electron microscopy. In interphase amoebae, nucleoli began to protrude from the nuclei. The percentage of cells with protruding nucleoli increased during aggregation by a value approximately twice as high in aggregation streams as in centers. Cells in pseudoplasmodia showed only a low percentage and protrusions disappeared at early culmination stage. The protrusions did not reappear when cells from dissociated pseudoplasmodia migrated toward cAMP. Thus the formation of the protrusions did not depend solely on chemotaxis; rather, it was specific to the aggregation stage. In aggregation streams, the nucleus was anterior in the cell, with the protrusion at its anterior periphery. In contrast, the nucleus associated body (NAB) was evident at the cell's mid-point. This orientation of nucleus and NAB in the aggregating slime mould amoeba is contrary to that seen in human neutrophils or cultured mouse 3T3 cells. PMID:2981691

  8. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Thierry; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community. PMID:25802795

  9. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  10. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Español Deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Blood clots occur when blood ...

  11. Varicose veins and venous insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, and enlarged veins that you can see under the skin. They are often ... from the blood that collects there, which causes varicose veins. Smaller varicose veins that you can see on ...

  12. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... object protruding from the water that is within 100 yards of a platform or single point mooring (SPM... 100 yards from a platform or SPM must meet the obstruction lighting requirements in this subpart for...

  13. Progressive Scleral Necrosis following I-125 Plaque Radiotherapy for Ciliochoroidal Melanoma with Protruding Extraocular Mass

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jordan R.; Corrêa, Zélia M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the side effects of I-125 brachytherapy in the treatment of uveal melanoma. Methods This study was conducted as a case report. Results We report a case of scleral necrosis and protruding episcleral mass following the treatment of uveal melanoma with I-125 brachytherapy. Conclusions Scleral necrosis after plaque radiotherapy can clinically simulate tumor recurrence with extraocular extension. The management of uveal melanoma requires a careful clinical follow-up, weighing the implications of treatment morbidity and mortality. PMID:27239452

  14. Syndrome of arachnodactyly, disturbance of cranial ossification, protruding eyes, feeding difficulties, and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosztolanyi, G.; Weisenbach, J.; Mehes, K.

    1995-09-11

    We have evaluated an infant with a striking combination of craniofacial anomalies, arachnodactyly, and severe developmental failure. She died at the age of 5 months during a recurrent apneic episode. She also had protruding eyes, downward slant of palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, extreme underdevelopment of the epiglottis, and severe feeding difficulties. The patient closely resembled four other previously reported patients. It is suggested that these five patients represent the same malformation syndrome, a well-recognizable separate entity. Our patient also had a pericentric inversion of chromosome 10; a possible association of this with the phenotype cannot be excluded. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  16. Varicose Veins and Other Vein Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How To's Related Topics Peripheral Artery Disease Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Varicose Veins and Other ...

  17. Valve-Like and Protruding Calcified Intimal Flap Complicating Common Iliac Arteries Kissing Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, George S.; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I.; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Argyriou, Christos C.; Antoniou, George A.; Lazarides, Miltos K.

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular therapy for iliac artery chronic total occlusions is nowadays associated with low rates of procedure-related complications and improved clinical outcomes, and it is predominantly used as first-line therapy prior to aortobifemoral bypass grafting. Herein, we describe the case of a patient presenting with an ischemic left foot digit ulcer and suffering complex aortoiliac lesions, who received common iliac arteries kissing stents, illustrating at final antegrade and retrograde angiograms the early recognition of a blood flow obstructing valve-like calcified intimal flap protruding through the stent struts, which was obstructing antegrade but not retrograde unilateral iliac arterial axis blood flow. The problem was resolved by reconstructing the aortic bifurcation at a more proximal level. Completion angiogram verified normal patency of aorta and iliac vessels. Additionally, a severe left femoral bifurcation stenosis was also corrected by endarterectomy-arterioplasty with a bovine patch. Postintervention ankle brachial pressure indices were significantly improved. At the 6-month and 2-year follow-up, normal peripheral pulses were still reported without intermittent claudication suggesting the durability of the procedure. Through stent-protruding calcified intimal flap, is a very rare, but existing source of antegrade blood flow obstruction after common iliac arteries kissing stents. PMID:26783493

  18. A phyllosilicate-sulfide vein in Kaidun. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has

  19. Protruding knob-like proteins violate local symmetries in an icosahedral marine virus

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Preeti; Baker, Matthew L.; Raytcheva, Desislava; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-01-01

    Marine viruses play crucial roles in shaping the dynamics of oceanic microbial communities and in the carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a 4.7-Å structure of a cyanobacterial virus, Syn5, by electron cryo-microscopy and modelling. A Cα backbone trace of the major capsid protein (gp39) reveals a classic phage protein fold. In addition, two knob-like proteins protruding from the capsid surface are also observed. Using bioinformatics and structure analysis tools, these proteins are identified to correspond to gp55 and gp58 (each with two copies per asymmetric unit). The non 1:1 stoichiometric distribution of gp55/58 to gp39 breaks all expected local symmetries and leads to non-quasi-equivalence of the capsid subunits, suggesting a role in capsid stabilization. Such a structural arrangement has not yet been observed in any known virus structures. PMID:24985522

  20. Field nanoemitters: ultrathin BN nanosheets protruding from Si3N4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingchun; Bando, Yoshio; Yin, Longwei; Golberg, Dmitri

    2006-12-01

    Field emitters in nanoscale are important in micro/nanoelectronic devices. Here, we report a large scale synthesis and effective field emission of field nanoemitters. The integrated nanostructures of ultrathin BN nanosheets aligned on Si3N4 nanowires are prepared through a two-stage process. Si3N4 nanowires were previously synthesized through heating Si powder at 1500 degrees C under a N2 atmosphere. Ultrathin BN nanosheets were then deposited on Si3N4 nanowires by heating a homemade B-N-O precursor under a N2/NH3 atmosphere. The as-prepared nanofilaments act as cold electron emitters displaying excellent field emission performance owing to the untrathin and sharp edges of the protruding BN nanosheets. PMID:17163744

  1. Protruding knob-like proteins violate local symmetries in an icosahedral marine virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, Preeti; Baker, Matthew L.; Raytcheva, Desislava; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-07-01

    Marine viruses play crucial roles in shaping the dynamics of oceanic microbial communities and in the carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a 4.7-Å structure of a cyanobacterial virus, Syn5, by electron cryo-microscopy and modelling. A Cα backbone trace of the major capsid protein (gp39) reveals a classic phage protein fold. In addition, two knob-like proteins protruding from the capsid surface are also observed. Using bioinformatics and structure analysis tools, these proteins are identified to correspond to gp55 and gp58 (each with two copies per asymmetric unit). The non 1:1 stoichiometric distribution of gp55/58 to gp39 breaks all expected local symmetries and leads to non-quasi-equivalence of the capsid subunits, suggesting a role in capsid stabilization. Such a structural arrangement has not yet been observed in any known virus structures.

  2. Varicose veins and venous insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001109.htm Varicose veins and venous insufficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, and enlarged veins that you ...

  3. Protruding Features of Viral Capsids Are Clustered on Icosahedral Great Circles

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical viruses are remarkably well characterized by the Triangulation (T) number developed by Casper and Klug. The T-number specifies how many viral capsid proteins are required to cover the virus, as well as how they are further subdivided into pentamer and hexamer subunits. The T-number however does not constrain the orientations of these proteins within the subunits or dictate where the proteins should place their protruding features. These protrusions often take the form of loops, spires and helices, and are significant because they aid in stability of the capsid as well as recognition by the host organism. Until now there has be no overall understanding of the placement of protrusions for spherical viruses, other than they have icosahedral symmetry. We constructed a set of gauge points based upon the work affine extensions of Keef and Twarock, which have fixed relative angular locations with which to measure the locations of these features. This work adds a new element to our understanding of the geometric arrangement of spherical viral capsid proteins; chiefly that the locations of protruding features are not found stochastically distributed in an icosahedral manner across the viral surface, but instead these features are found only in specific locations along the 15 icosahedral great circles. We have found that this result holds true as the T number and viral capsids size increases, suggesting an underlying geometric constraint on their locations. This is in spite of the fact that the constraints on the pentamers and hexamer orientations change as a function of T-number, as you need to accommodate more hexamers in the same solid angle between pentamers. The existence of this angular constraint of viral capsids suggests that there is a fitness or energetic benefit to the virus placing its protrusions in this manner. This discovery may have profound impacts on identifying and eliminating viral pathogens, understanding evolutionary constraints as well as

  4. Protruding Features of Viral Capsids Are Clustered on Icosahedral Great Circles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David P

    2016-01-01

    Spherical viruses are remarkably well characterized by the Triangulation (T) number developed by Casper and Klug. The T-number specifies how many viral capsid proteins are required to cover the virus, as well as how they are further subdivided into pentamer and hexamer subunits. The T-number however does not constrain the orientations of these proteins within the subunits or dictate where the proteins should place their protruding features. These protrusions often take the form of loops, spires and helices, and are significant because they aid in stability of the capsid as well as recognition by the host organism. Until now there has be no overall understanding of the placement of protrusions for spherical viruses, other than they have icosahedral symmetry. We constructed a set of gauge points based upon the work affine extensions of Keef and Twarock, which have fixed relative angular locations with which to measure the locations of these features. This work adds a new element to our understanding of the geometric arrangement of spherical viral capsid proteins; chiefly that the locations of protruding features are not found stochastically distributed in an icosahedral manner across the viral surface, but instead these features are found only in specific locations along the 15 icosahedral great circles. We have found that this result holds true as the T number and viral capsids size increases, suggesting an underlying geometric constraint on their locations. This is in spite of the fact that the constraints on the pentamers and hexamer orientations change as a function of T-number, as you need to accommodate more hexamers in the same solid angle between pentamers. The existence of this angular constraint of viral capsids suggests that there is a fitness or energetic benefit to the virus placing its protrusions in this manner. This discovery may have profound impacts on identifying and eliminating viral pathogens, understanding evolutionary constraints as well as

  5. An Approach to Automatic Detection and Hazard Risk Assessment of Large Protruding Rocks in Densely Forested Hilly Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Kawamura, K.; Manno, K.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    Rock-fall along highways or railways presents one of the major threats to transportation and human safety. So far, the only feasible way to detect the locations of such protruding rocks located in the densely forested hilly region is by physically visiting the site and assessing the situation. Highways or railways are stretched to hundreds of kilometres; hence, this traditional approach of determining rock-fall risk zones is not practical to assess the safety throughout the highways or railways. In this research, we have utilized a state-of-the-art airborne LiDAR technology and derived a workflow to automatically detect protruding rocks in densely forested hilly regions and analysed the level of hazard risks they pose. Moreover, we also performed a 3D dynamic simulation of rock-fall to envisage the event. We validated that our proposed technique could automatically detect most of the large protruding rocks in the densely forested hilly region. Automatic extraction of protruding rocks and proper risk zoning could be used to identify the most crucial place that needs the proper protection measures. Hence, the proposed technique would provide an invaluable support for the management and planning of highways and railways safety, especially in the forested hilly region.

  6. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,...

  7. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,...

  8. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS... objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? (a)...

  9. Protruding structures on caterpillars are controlled by ectopic Wnt1 expression.

    PubMed

    Edayoshi, Mina; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Spine-like or protruding structures, which may be aposematic for predators, are often observed in multiple segments of lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). For example, the larvae of the Chinese wheel butterfly, Byasa alcinous, display many protrusions on their backs as a warning that they are toxic. Although these protrusions are formed by an integument lined with single-layered epidermal cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation have remained unclear. In this study, we focused on a spontaneous mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, Knobbed, which shows similar protrusions to B. alcinous and demonstrates that Wnt1 plays a crucial role in the formation of protrusion structures. Using both transgene expression and RNAi-based knockdown approaches, we showed that Wnt1 designates the position where epidermal cells excessively proliferate, leading to the generation of knobbed structures. Furthermore, in the B. alcinous larvae, Wnt1 was also specifically expressed in association with the protrusions. Our results suggest that Wnt1 plays a role in the formation of protrusions on the larval body, and is conserved broadly among diverse species in Lepidoptera. PMID:25815728

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

  11. Foot and body control of biped robots to walk on irregularly protruded uneven surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Eung Seo

    2009-02-01

    This correspondence proposes a control method for biped robots walking on a geometrically uneven surface with irregular protrusions. The focus is to maintain robot stability in leg and foot motions in order to adapt the foot to uneven terrains. Under the assumption that contact sensors are evenly installed at the foot soles, the geometric information under the landing foot is represented by a terrain matrix, whose elements represent the height of protruded cones. The control strategy of a landing phase (LP) is to form a large polygon with the contact points between the foot and the ground, based on the current zero-moment point (ZMP) and the locations of contact points during the transition from the LP to the stable double-support phase. The center of the polygon formed by the contact points at the end of the LP is to be used as the ZMP when the trajectory for the next step is generated. The gravity-compensated inverted-pendulum-mode-based trajectory is modified based on the newly located ZMP position and is interpolated to remove any trajectory discontinuity and to ensure a smooth transition. A series of computer simulations of a 28-degree-of-freedom (DOF) biped robot with a six-DOF environment model using SimMechanics shows that a stable compliant locomotion on uneven surfaces is successfully achieved with the proposed method. PMID:19068443

  12. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p < .005) and negative (r = -0.914, p < .05) correlations with the subjective discomfort rating for perineum and ischial tuberosity, respectively. When the participants were seated at PNL = 0 or 3 cm, cycling using dropped handles was less stable compared with using straight handles; however, the handle height did not affect the cycling stability when the PNL was ≥ 6 cm. The results suggest that a 6-cm PNL is the optimal reference for bicycle seat designs. PMID:24612732

  13. Production of Human Norovirus Protruding Domains in E. coli for X-ray Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Mila M; Koromyslova, Anna D; Singh, Bishal K; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    The norovirus capsid is composed of a single major structural protein, termed VP1. VP1 is subdivided into a shell (S) domain and a protruding (P) domain. The S domain forms a contiguous scaffold around the viral RNA, whereas the P domain forms viral spikes on the S domain and contains determinants for antigenicity and host-cell interactions. The P domain binds carbohydrate structures, i.e., histo-blood group antigens, which are thought to be important for norovirus infections. In this protocol, we describe a method for producing high quality norovirus P domains in high yields. These proteins can then be used for X-ray crystallography and ELISA in order to study antigenicity and host-cell interactions. The P domain is firstly cloned into an expression vector and then expressed in bacteria. The protein is purified using three steps that involve immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. In principle, it is possible to clone, express, purify, and crystallize proteins in less than four weeks, which makes this protocol a rapid system for analyzing newly emerging norovirus strains. PMID:27167457

  14. Retinal vein occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Berrocal MH, Rodriguez FJ, et al. Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Comparison of two doses ... retinal vein occlusion: results from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 6 months of follow- ...

  15. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    You were treated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein that is not on ... especially if it gets worse upon taking a deep breath in You cough up blood

  16. Popliteal vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented. PMID:16796307

  17. Hydrodynamic Forces on Macromolecules Protruding from Lipid Bilayers Due to External Liquid Flows.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt

    2015-11-24

    It has previously been observed that an externally applied hydrodynamic shear flow above a fluid lipid bilayer can change the local concentration of macromolecules that are associated with the lipid bilayer. The external liquid flow results in a hydrodynamic force on molecules protruding from the lipid bilayer, causing them to move in the direction of the flow. However, there has been no quantitative study about the magnitude of these forces. We here use finite element simulations to investigate how the magnitude of the external hydrodynamic forces varies with the size and shape of the studied macromolecule. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the effective hydrodynamic area of the studied molecule, Ahydro, multiplied by the mean hydrodynamic shear stress acting on the membrane surface, σhydro. The parameter Ahydro depends on the size and shape of the studied macromolecule above the lipid bilayer and scales with the cross-sectional area of the molecule. We also investigate how hydrodynamic shielding from other surrounding macromolecules decreases Ahydro when the surface coverage of the shielding macromolecules increases. Experiments where the protein streptavidin is anchored to a supported lipid bilayer on the floor of a microfluidic channel were finally performed at three different surface concentrations, Φ = 1%, 6%, and 10%, where the protein is being moved relative to the lipid bilayer by a liquid flow through the channel. From photobleaching measurements of fluorescently labeled streptavidin we found the experimental drift data to be within good accuracy of the simulated results, less than 12% difference, indicating the validity of the results obtained from the simulations. In addition to giving a deeper insight into how a liquid flow can affect membrane-associated molecules in a lipid bilayer, we also see an interesting potential of using hydrodynamic flow experiments together with the obtained results to study the size and

  18. Wind Induced Turbulence in Static Water without and with the Presence of Protruded Flexible Oscillating Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, T.; Muste, M.; Gingerich, C.; Katul, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Wind flow over a static water body is a common natural phenomenon, which can be observed in various ecological and industrial applications, namely still wetlands and ponds, reservoirs, lakes, etc. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of water height and wind shear intensity on the induced turbulent flow in the water body. In case of high and intermediate depths of the water body, wind shear induced waving motion (drift) of the water surface leads to an adverse dynamic pressure gradient acting over the water body resulting in a counter-wind reverse flow in the bottom two thirds (approximately) of the water depth, while the top one third depth flows in the windward direction. For shallow flow subject to the same wind condition, the bottom reverse flow disappears and the whole water body flows in the windward direction. The experiments are extended to the case when protruding flexible vegetation is present in the water body and are subjected to wind loading resulting in a waving response. The influence of the oscillation of the flexible vegetation on the turbulence is also investigated by varying the stiffness and plant density of the artificial canopy. The flow is found to be wind-ward under the same wind condition in presence of the flexible vegetation even for a sparse canopy while the corresponding no-vegetation case exhibits reverse flow in the lower regions. The role of vegetation density is also explored. With increasing density, the canopy drag increases, thereby opposing the counter-current flow and eventually leading to reversal and a forward flow.

  19. Ovarian vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenayah, Amel Achour; Saoudi, Sarra; Boudaya, Fethia; Bouriel, Ines; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare cause of abdominal pain that may mimic a surgical abdomen. It is most often diagnosed during the postpartum period. In this report, we present four cases of postoperative ovarian vein thrombosis. The complications of OVT can be significant, and the diagnosis relies on a careful examination of the radiographic findings. It can occur with lower quadrant abdominal pain, especially in the setting of recent pregnancy, abdominal surgery, pelvic inflammatory disease, or malignancy. Diagnosis can be made with confidence using ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of ovarian vein thrombosis is particularly important in the post-partum patients, with anticoagulation therapy being the current recommendation. PMID:26526119

  20. Acquired Jugular Vein Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hopsu, Erkki; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Vento, Seija I.; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Venous malformations of the jugular veins are rare findings. Aneurysms and phlebectasias are the lesions most often reported. We report on an adult patient with an abruptly appearing large tumorous mass on the left side of the neck identified as a jugular vein aneurysm. Upon clinical examination with ultrasound, a lateral neck cyst was primarily suspected. Surgery revealed a saccular aneurysm in intimate connection with the internal jugular vein. Histology showed an organized hematoma inside the aneurysmal sac, which had a focally thinned muscular layer. The terminology and the treatment guidelines of venous dilatation lesions are discussed. For phlebectasias, conservative treatment is usually recommended, whereas for saccular aneurysms, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. While an exact classification based on etiology and pathophysiology is not possible, a more uniform taxonomy would clarify the guidelines for different therapeutic modalities for venous dilatation lesions. PMID:20107571

  1. Varicose vein surgery.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Micheal; Fellmer, Peter T; Wetzig, Tino

    2012-03-01

    Venous diseases are common in the general population. After a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation, an individual therapeutic approach should be selected on the basis of the findings, with the aim of treating the diseased vein segments and improving quality of life. Numerous therapeutic options are available for the treatment of varicose veins. In addition to conservative methods such as compression therapy, exercise or drugs, surgical procedures such as traditional surgery, thermal ablation techniques or sclerotherapy can be performed. Recent developments include the use of endoluminal water vapor or mechano-chemical endovenous ablation. PMID:22222053

  2. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Yogesh K; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  3. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  4. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  5. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis NHLBI Resources Pulmonary Embolism (Health Topics) Non-NHLBI Resources Deep Vein Thrombosis (MedlinePlus) Pulmonary Embolism (MedlinePlus) Clinical Trials ...

  6. Spontaneous Iliac Vein Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hyung Sub; Lee, Taeseung

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture (SIVR) is a rare entity, which usually occurs without a precipitating factor, but can be a life-threatening emergency often requiring an emergency operation. This is a case report of SIVR in a 62-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with left leg swelling. Workup with contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a left leg deep vein thrombosis with May-Thurner syndrome and a hematoma in the pelvic cavity without definite evidence of arterial bleeding. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention, and also underwent inferior vena cava filter insertion and subsequent anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary thromboembolism. This case shows that SIVR can be successfully managed with close monitoring and conservative management, and anticoagulation may be safely applied despite the patient presenting with venous bleeding. PMID:26217647

  7. Modeling the effect of head drag reduction for a cylinder with a protruding disk at high mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Mikhalev, A. N.; Sudakov, A. G.

    2014-11-01

    Various approaches to modeling super- and hypersonic turbulent airflow past cylindrical bodies with a nontraditional nose in the form of a protruding rod-supported disk have been compared. Aeroballistic experiments on a light-gas propulsion setup were combined with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations using VP2/3 program package based on multiblock computational techniques and a model of shear stress transport with flow-line curvature corrections. The phenomenon of the head and wave drag reduction for the stepped body is analyzed at high Mach numbers (up to 10) and variation of the supporting rod length under conditions of existence of the frontal flow separation zone.

  8. An invariant descriptor for conjugate forced convection-conduction cooling of 3D protruding heaters in channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini Alves, Thiago; Santos, Paulo H. D.; Barbur, Murilo A.

    2015-09-01

    In this research, the temperatures of threedimensional (3D) protruding heaters mounted on a conductive substrate in a horizontal rectangular channel with laminar airflow are related to the independent power dissipation in each heater by using a matrix G + with invariant coefficients, which are dimensionless. These coefficients are defined in this study as the conjugate influence coefficients ( g +) caused by the forced convection- conduction nature of the heaters' cooling process. The temperature increase of each heater in the channel is quantified to clearly identify the contributions attributed to the self-heating and power dissipation in the other heaters (both upstream and downstream). The conjugate coefficients are invariant with the heat generation rate in the array of heaters when assuming a defined geometry, invariable fluid and flow rate, and constant substrate and heater conductivities. The results are numerically obtained by considering three 3D protruding heaters on a twodimensional (2D) array by ANSYS/Fluent™ 15.0 software. The conservation equations are solved by a coupled procedure within a single calculation domain comprising of solid and fluid regions and by considering a steady state laminar airflow with constant properties. Some examples are shown, indicating the effects of substrate thermal conductivity and Reynolds number on conjugate influence coefficients.

  9. [Coronary veins and coronary sinus tributary veins in Africans].

    PubMed

    Yangni-Angate, H; Kokoua, A; Kouassi, R; Kassanyou, S; Gnagne, Y; Guessan, G N; Cowppli-Bony, P; Memel, J B

    1995-01-01

    This anatomical study carried out on 40 African adults hearts studied branches of the coronary sinus. By using of injection of the coronary arteries and corrosion of the myocardium, the study identified certain peculiarities of the small coronary vein and the posterior descending interventricular vein in Africans. PMID:8519704

  10. Fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma protruding in a renal cortical cyst. A rare morphological variant in an outstanding location.

    PubMed

    Khedaoui, Radia; Encabo, Beatriz; Tardío, Juan C

    2016-02-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) is an unusual, benign lesion of the urinary tract, generally presenting in the bladder and with less frequency in the renal pelvis, urethra or ureter. It consists of tubules, microcysts and papillae lined by a single layer of low cuboidal epithelium without atypia. Recently, a fibromyxoid variant mimicking an infiltrating mucinous adenocarcinoma has been described. We report hereby the case of a 70-year-old female with a fibromixoid NA protruding in a renal cortical cyst. Only one case of NA in a renal cortical cyst has been found in the literature and it was of the classical type. The development of a NA in a renal cortical cyst lends support to the theory that the NA results from proliferation of secondarily implanted exfoliated renal epithelial cells. PMID:26706600

  11. Inverse conjugate mixed convection in a vertical substrate with protruding heat sources: a combined experimental and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad, Shaik Imran; Balaji, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a combined numerical and experimental study to estimate the heat inputs of three protruding heat sources of the same size placed on a vertically placed PCB board of height 150 mm, depth 250 mm, and thickness 5 mm. First, limited measurements of temperatures were recorded at eight locations along the height of the back of the PCB board for different (and known) values of heat inputs of the protruding heat sources and different velocities. These were followed by three-dimensional calculations of fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer for various heat transfer coefficients on the backside of the PCB board. The difference between the CFD predicted and experimentally measured temperature distributions on the back of the PCB board was minimized using least squares and the best value of heat transfer coefficient was obtained. Using this `data assimilated' CFD model, detailed CFD simulations were done for various values of heat input values and Reynolds numbers (each of these can be different from one another) of the flow. The temperatures at the same eight locations at the back of the PCB board were noted. An artificial neural network was then developed with ten inputs (eight temperatures together with the input velocity and the ambient temperature) to estimate the three outputs (three heat inputs) after carrying out extensive studies on the architecture of the network. This inverse solution was then tested with experiments for validating the ANN approach to solve the inverse conjugate heat transfer problem. Finally, with the ANN estimated heat inputs, CFD simulations were again run to compare the temperature distribution at the back of the PCB board with measurements.

  12. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  13. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability. PMID:17911565

  14. The Management of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Zhang, Shiyi; Sun, Yan; Ren, Shiyan; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current management modalities for varicose veins. There are a variety of management modalities for varicose veins. The outcomes of the treatment of varicose veins are different. The papers on the management of varicose veins were reviewed and the postoperative complications and efficacy were compared. Foam sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation were associated with less pain and faster recovery than endovenous laser ablation and surgical stripping. Patients undergoing endovenous laser ablation and radiofrequency ablation are most likely to have a faster recovery time and earlier return to work in comparison with those undergoing conventional high ligation and stripping. A randomized controlled study in multiple centers is warranted to verify which approach is better than others for the treatment of varicose veins. PMID:25594661

  15. CIP4 coordinates with phospholipids and actin-associated proteins to localize to the protruding edge and produce actin ribs and veils.

    PubMed

    Saengsawang, Witchuda; Taylor, Kendra L; Lumbard, Derek C; Mitok, Kelly; Price, Amanda; Pietila, Lauren; Gomez, Timothy M; Dent, Erik W

    2013-06-01

    Cdc42-interacting protein 4 (CIP4), a member of the F-BAR family of proteins, plays important roles in a variety of cellular events by regulating both membrane and actin dynamics. In many cell types, CIP4 functions in vesicle formation, endocytosis and membrane tubulation. However, recent data indicate that CIP4 is also involved in protrusion in some cell types, including cancer cells (lamellipodia and invadopodia) and neurons (ribbed lamellipodia and veils). In neurons, CIP4 localizes specifically to extending protrusions and functions to limit neurite outgrowth early in development. The mechanism by which CIP4 localizes to the protruding edge membrane and induces lamellipodial/veil protrusion and actin rib formation is not known. Here, we show that CIP4 localization to the protruding edge of neurons is dependent on both the phospholipid content of the plasma membrane and the underlying organization of actin filaments. Inhibiting phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) production decreases CIP4 at the membrane. CIP4 localization to the protruding edge is also dependent on Rac1/WAVE1, rather than Cdc42/N-WASP. Capping actin filaments with low concentrations of cytochalasin D or by overexpressing capping protein dramatically decreases CIP4 at the protruding edge, whereas inactivating Arp2/3 drives CIP4 to the protruding edge. We also demonstrate that CIP4 dynamically colocalizes with Ena/VASP and DAAM1, two proteins known to induce unbranched actin filament arrays and play important roles in neuronal development. Together, this is the first study to show that the localization of an F-BAR protein depends on both actin filament architecture and phospholipids at the protruding edge of developing neurons. PMID:23572514

  16. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Heydar Pour, Behzad; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter. PMID:25796028

  17. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  18. Massive catheter-related thrombosis of vena cava superior protruding into the right atrium in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Mach, Lukas; Ondruskova, Olga; Nemec, Petr; Orban, Marek

    2015-10-01

    A 36-year-old man with chronic renal insufficiency secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus was on hemodialysis via central venous catheter (CVC), newly placed into the right subclavian vein after his arteriovenous fistula became dysfunctional. Seven days after CVC insertion, the patient developed fever and on day 11 echocardiography showed a large nearly occluding thrombus in the superior vena cava (SVC) extending into the right atrium (RA). Emergency surgical thrombectomy was successfully performed and an 11 cm long thrombus extending from the RA cranially into the SVC occupying majority of the vein's lumen was removed. Cultures from the thrombus and CVC were negative, but polymerase chain reaction was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. This particular case was interesting for a marked discrepancy between large SVC occluding thrombosis and a relatively mild clinical presentation with fever, and it highlights the importance of correct timing of echocardiography exam which might prevent potentially fatal consequences such as pulmonary embolism. PMID:25645521

  19. Hepatoportography via the Umbilical Vein

    PubMed Central

    White, J. J.; Skinner, G. B.; MacLean, L. D.

    1966-01-01

    The umbilical vein in adults is patent but collapsed. There is a membranous valve at its entrance into the left portal vein. Cannulation of the portal vein via the umbilical vein permits direct access to the portal system for portography and hepatography. This procedure was performed under local or general anesthesia in 30 patients and was successful in 22. It is useful in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension, and suspected intrahepatic tumours or abscesses. It gives excellent contrast visualization of the liver and definition of lesions as small as 1.0 cm. This technique is superior to both hepatic scanning and splenoportography. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5924949

  20. How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... shun) therapy uses lasers or radiowaves to create heat to close off a varicose vein. Your doctor ...

  1. Deltoid Branch of Thoracoacromial Vein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Wei; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Hsieh, Hong-Chang; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An entry vessel is crucial for intravenous port implantation. A safe alternative entry vessel that can be easily explored is crucial for patients without feasible cephalic vein or for those who need port reimplantation because of disease relapse. In this study, we tried to analyze the safety and feasibility of catheter implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein. From March 2012 to November 2013, 802 consecutive oncology patients who had received intravenous port implantation via the superior vena cava were enrolled in this study. The functional results and complications of different entry vessels were compared. The majority of patients (93.6%) could be identified as thoracoacromial vessel. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located on the medial aspect of the deltopectoral groove beneath the pectoralis major muscle (85.8%) and in the deep part of the deltopectoral groove (14.2%). Due to the various calibers employed and tortuous routes followed, we utilized 3 different methods for catheter implantation, including vessel cutdown (47.4%), wire assisted (17.9%), and modified puncture method (34.6%). The functional results and complication rate were similar to other entry vessels. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located in the neighborhood of the cephalic vein. The functional results of intravenous port implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein are similar to other entry vessels. It is a safe alternative entry vessel for intravenous port implantation. PMID:25929903

  2. Protruding vulva mutants identify novel loci and Wnt signaling factors that function during Caenorhabditis elegans vulva development.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, D M; Kim, S K

    2000-11-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva develops from the progeny of three vulval precursor cells (VPCs) induced to divide and differentiate by a signal from the somatic gonad. Evolutionarily conserved Ras and Notch extracellular signaling pathways are known to function during this process. To identify novel loci acting in vulval development, we carried out a genetic screen for mutants having a protruding-vulva (Pvl) mutant phenotype. Here we report the initial genetic characterization of several novel loci: bar-1, pvl-4, pvl-5, and pvl-6. In addition, on the basis of their Pvl phenotypes, we show that the previously identified genes lin-26, mom-3/mig-14, egl-18, and sem-4 also function during vulval development. Our characterization indicates that (1) pvl-4 and pvl-5 are required for generation/survival of the VPCs; (2) bar-1, mom-3/mig-14, egl-18, and sem-4 play a role in VPC fate specification; (3) lin-26 is required for proper VPC fate execution; and (4) pvl-6 acts during vulval morphogenesis. In addition, two of these genes, bar-1 and mom-3/mig-14, are known to function in processes regulated by Wnt signaling, suggesting that a Wnt signaling pathway is acting during vulval development. PMID:11063687

  3. Ganglion Cyst of Knee from Hoffa’s Fat Pad Protruding Anterolaterally Through Retinacular Rent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Mukhopadhyay, Anindya S.; Kundu, Srikanta; Mandal, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare occurrences. They are usually encountered as incidental findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or in arthroscopy. They may originate from both the cruciate ligaments and the menisci, from the popliteus tendon and alar folds, infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa, and subchondral bone cysts. Those arising from the Hoffa’s fat pad, usually present as palpable mass at anterior aspect of the knee joint. We report a case of intraarticular ganglion cyst of knee arising from the infrapatellar fat pad and protruding anterolaterally through retinacular rent into the subcutaneous plane. Case Report: A 19-year-old young man, presented with a painless gradually increasing swelling at the anterior aspect of left knee of 9 months duration. MRI scan revealed a multilobulated, cyst with septations within the anterior aspect of the knee joint, just inferolateral to the patella, with deep extension into the infrapatellar fat pad, and superficial extension into the subcutaneous space across the retinaculum. After diagnostic arthroscopy, we performed an open excision of the cystic mass and confirmed the retinacular rent pre-operatively. Conclusion: Arthroscopic resection and debridement is the gold standard treatment in ganglion cyst of the knee. However, a subcutaneous extension may lead to incomplete arthroscopic resection: Leaving behind the residual tissue which may cause recurrence. Therefore, proper pre-operative evaluation of MR images of these cases is very important. PMID:27299075

  4. High-Resolution X-Ray Structure and Functional Analysis of the Murine Norovirus 1 Capsid Protein Protruding Domain▿

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Stefan; Rubin, John R.; Katpally, Umesh; Smith, Thomas J.; Kendall, Ann; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wobus, Christiane E.

    2010-01-01

    Murine noroviruses (MNV) are closely related to the human noroviruses (HuNoV), which cause the majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Unlike HuNoV, MNV grow in culture and in a small-animal model that represents a tractable model to study norovirus biology. To begin a detailed investigation of molecular events that occur during norovirus binding to cells, the crystallographic structure of the murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) capsid protein protruding (P) domain has been determined. Crystallization of the bacterially expressed protein yielded two different crystal forms (Protein Data Bank identifiers [PDB ID], 3LQ6 and 3LQE). Comparison of the structures indicated a large degree of structural mobility in loops on the surface of the P2 subdomain. Specifically, the A′-B′ and E′-F′ loops were found in open and closed conformations. These regions of high mobility include the known escape mutation site for the neutralizing antibody A6.2 and an attenuation mutation site, which arose after serial passaging in culture and led to a loss in lethality in STAT1−/− mice, respectively. Modeling of a Fab fragment and crystal structures of the P dimer into the cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction of the A6.2/MNV-1 complex indicated that the closed conformation is most likely bound to the Fab fragment and that the antibody contact is localized to the A′-B′ and E′-F′ loops. Therefore, we hypothesize that these loop regions and the flexibility of the P domains play important roles during MNV-1 binding to the cell surface. PMID:20335262

  5. Endoscopic injection therapy to prevent rebleeding from peptic ulcers with a protruding vessel: a controlled comparative trial.

    PubMed Central

    Rutgeerts, P; Gevers, A M; Hiele, M; Broeckaert, L; Vantrappen, G

    1993-01-01

    Seventy five patients with severely bleeding peptic ulcer were included in a controlled comparative trial to assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing rebleeding from peptic ulcers that presented at endoscopy with a protruding vessel. Twenty five patients were treated with injection of epinephrine followed by polidocanol, 25 were treated with injection of absolute alcohol, and 25 with sham injection. Rebleeding occurred in 44% of patients in the sham group, 40% of those treated with epinephrine and polidocanol, and in 20% of those treated with absolute ethanol. The difference in the haemostasis rate between the control and ethanol treated subjects nearly reached significance (p = 0.07). A second therapy session resulted in haemostasis rates of 68% in the epinephrine-polidocanol group and of 88% in the absolute ethanol group. These rates after two treatments as well as the emergency surgery rates (32% in the epinephrine-polidocanol group and 8% in the absolute ethanol group; p = 0.07) were not significantly different. In eight of the 11 patients with rebleeding in the sham treatment group, definitive haemostasis was achieved by elective injection therapy. Overall transfusion requirements were mean (SD) 6.0 (0.7) units in the sham group, 6.0 (0.9) in the epinephrine-polidocanol group, and 3.9 (0.5) in the absolute ethanol group. Only the difference between ethanol and sham was significant (p = 0.02). This study shows that injection with absolute ethanol reduces rebleeding in these patients and significantly lowers transfusion requirements. Absolute ethanol was superior to epinephrine-polidocanol, which was not significantly better than sham therapy. PMID:8472981

  6. Portal Vein Thrombosis in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kaiser; Jacob, Mathew; Asthana, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is being increasingly recognized in patients with advanced cirrhosis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Reduced flow in the portal vein is probably responsible for clotting in the spleno-porto-mesenteric venous system. There is also increasing evidence that hypercoagulability occurs in advanced liver disease and contributes to the risk of PVT. Ultrasound based studies have reported a prevalence of PVT in 10–25% of cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial thrombosis of the portal vein is more common and may not have pathophysiological consequences. However, there is high risk of progression of partial PVT to complete PVT that may cause exacerbation of portal hypertension and progression of liver insufficiency. It is thus, essential to accurately diagnose and stage PVT in patients waiting for transplantation and consider anticoagulation therapy. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been shown to achieve complete and partial recanalization in 33–45% and 15–35% of cases respectively. There are however, no guidelines to help determine the dose and therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation therapy related bleeding is the most feared complication but it appears that the risk of variceal bleeding is more likely to be dependent on portal pressure rather than solely related to coagulation status. TIPS has also been reported to restore patency of the portal vein. Patients with complete PVT currently do not form an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Thrombectomy or thromboendovenectomy is possible in more than 75% of patients followed by anatomical end-to-end portal anastomosis. When patency of the portal vein and/or superior mesenteric vein is not achieved, only non-anatomical techniques (reno-portal anastomosis or cavo-portal hemitransposition) can be performed. These techniques, which do not fully reverse portal

  7. Management of superficial vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, B

    2015-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is less well studied than deep vein thrombosis (DVT), because it has been considered to be a minor, self-limiting disease that is easily diagnosed on clinical grounds and that requires only symptomatic relief. The most frequently involved sites of the superficial vein system are the lower limbs, especially the saphenous veins, mostly in relation to varicosities. Lower-limb SVT shares the same risk factors as DVT; it can propagate into the deep veins, and have a complicated course with pulmonary embolism. Clinical diagnosis may not be accurate, and ultrasonography is currently indicated for both confirmation and evaluation of SVT extension. Treatment aims are symptom relief and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to the thrombotic burden. SVT of the long saphenous vein within 3 cm of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) is considered to be equivalent to a DVT, and thus deserving of therapeutic anticoagulation. Less severe forms of lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ have been included in randomized clinical trials of surgery, compression hosiery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparins, with inconclusive results. The largest randomized clinical trial available, on 3004 patients with lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ, showed that fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily for 6 weeks is more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of the composite of death from any cause and symptomatic VTE (0.9% versus 5.9%). Further studies are needed to define the optimal management strategies for SVT of the lower limbs and other sites, such as the upper limbs. PMID:25903684

  8. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  9. The Treatment of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Subramonia, S; Lees, TA

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the past few years, there has been a move to less invasive endoluminal methods in the treatment of lower limb varicose veins combined with a renewed interest in sclerotherapy, with the recent addition of foam sclerotherapy. The development of these new techniques has led many to question some of the more conventional teaching on the treatment of varicose veins. This review examines these new treatments for lower limb varicose veins and the current evidence for their use. MATERIALS AND METHODS An extensive search of available electronic and paper-based databases was performed to identify studies relevant to the treatment of varicose veins with particular emphasis on those published within the last 10 years. These were analysed by both reviewers independently. RESULTS There is no single method of treatment appropriate for all cases. Conventional surgery is safe and effective and is still widely practised. Whilst the new treatments may be popular with both surgeons and patients, it is important that they are carefully evaluated not only for their clinical benefits and complications when compared to existing treatments but also for their cost prior to their wider acceptance into clinical practice. PMID:17346396

  10. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, J. D.; Ginsberg, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common disease, can be difficult to diagnose because its clinical features are nonspecific. Venography is the standard test, but other less expensive, easily performed, noninvasive tests are available. At present, duplex ultrasonography is the noninvasive test of choice. PMID:8616289

  11. Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your health care provider to help you take ... What to ask your doctor about varicose veins; Venous insufficiency - what to ask your doctor; Vein stripping - what to ask your ...

  12. Repair of complete bilateral cleft lip with severely protruding premaxilla performing a premaxillary setback and vomerine ostectomy in one stage surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Marta; Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Belmonte-Caro, Rodolfo; Gonzalez-Perez, Luis-Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The authors present a technique for selected cases of CBCL. The primary repair of the CBCL with a severely protruding premaxilla in one stage surgery is very difficult, essentially because a good muscular apposition is difficult, forcing synchronously to do a premaxillary setback to facilitate subsequent bilateral lip repair and, thus, achieving satisfactory results. We achieve this by a reductive ostectomy on the vomero-premaxillary suture. Material and Methods 4 patients with CBCL and severely protruding premaxilla underwent premaxillary setback by vomerine ostectomy at the same time of lip repair in the past 24 months. The extent of premaxillary setback varied between 9 and 16 mm. The required amount of bone was removed anterior to the vomero-premaxillary suture. The authors did an additional simultaneous gingivoperiosteoplasty in all patients, achieving an enough stability of the premaxilla in its new position, to be able to close the alveolar gap bilaterally. The authors have examined the position of premaxilla and dental arch between 6 and 24 months. We did not do the primary nose correction, because this increased the risk of impairment of the already compromised vascularity of the philtrum and premaxilla. Results The follow-up period ranged between 6 and 24 months. None of the patients had any major complication. During follow-up, the premaxilla was minimally mobile. We achieved a good lip repair in all cases: adequate muscle repair, symmetry of the lip, prolabium and Cupid’s bow, as well as good scars. Conclusions To our knowledge, there are few reports of one stage surgery with vomerine ostectomy to repair CBCL with severely protruding premaxilla. Doing this vomerine ostectomy, we don’t know how it will affect the subsequent growth of the premaxila and restrict the natural maxillary growth. Applying this alternative treatment for children with CBCL and protruded premaxilla without any preoperative orthopedic, we can successfully perform, in

  13. phenoVein-A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software. PMID:26468519

  14. Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, Frank; Esch, Jan Schulte am; Hammerschlag, Sascha; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Fuerst, Guenter

    2008-07-15

    Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

  15. Prediction of long saphenous vein graft adaptation.

    PubMed

    Davies, A H; Magee, T R; Hayward, J K; Baird, R N; Horrocks, M

    1994-07-01

    The ability of vein to dilate may allow smaller veins to be used for bypass if this change could be predicted. Sixty patients undergoing femorodistal popliteal or infrapopliteal bypass have had their long saphenous vein studied. Diameter measurements of the long saphenous vein have been performed using an ATL Duplex scanner at the groin, mid-thigh and knee. Measurements were performed preoperatively both at rest and with a venous occlusion cuff to dilate the vein and subsequently at 7 days and 3, 6, 9, 12 months after implantation. The mean diameter of the vein at the mid thigh was 4.2 mm non dilated, 5.1 mm with occlusion, 5.4 mm 7 days postoperatively and 5.5 mm at 12 months (p < 0.01 ANOVA). The mean diameter of the vein at the knee was 3.8 mm non-dilated, 4.8 mm with occlusion, 4.8 mm at 7 days and 5.0 mm at 12 months after operation (p < 0.01 ANOVA). If the minimum resting internal diameter of vein regarded as being suitable for bypass was 3 mm, this technique would have increased the vein utilisation rate by 22%. These results show that by using a technique of venous occlusion at the time of preoperative vein mapping the adaptive response of the vein can be predicted and this can result in an increased rate of vein utilisation. PMID:8088400

  16. Transcatheter Closure of a Chronic Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Carotid Artery and the Brachiocephalic Vein with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder in Combination with a Carotid Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stasek, Josef; Lojik, Miroslav; Bis, Josef; Horak, David; Dusek, Jaroslav; Brtko, Miroslav; Polansky, Pavel; Babu, Anush; Vojacek, Jan

    2009-05-15

    We report an original method of transcatheter closure of an arteriovenous fistula using the combination of an Amplatzer PDA occluder and a carotid stent. The fistula was between the left carotid artery and the brachiocephalic vein. The patient had significant left-to-right shunt and was highly symptomatic. Due to the large orifice and pseudoaneurysmatic enlargement of the fistula, we had to use a large Amplatzer PDA occluder and the protruding part of the PDA device disk had to be covered with a carotid stent. The fistula was completely closed. The patient stopped having symptoms and, 2 years after the procedure, the effect persists.

  17. Distensibility in human veins as affected by 5 weeks of repeated elevations of local transmural pressure.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of repeated increments in local intravascular pressure (pressure training; PT) on (1) distensibility in two arm veins, and (2) pain in the arm induced by markedly increased intravascular pressure. Elevation of venous distending pressure (DP) in an arm was induced by placing the subject (n = 8) in a pressure chamber with one arm protruding to the outside via a port in the chamber door, and increasing chamber pressure. During 5 weeks, venous DP in one arm was repeatedly (3 × 40 min/week) increased (65-105 mmHg). Pressure-distension relationships were determined in the brachial and cephalic veins by measuring diameter changes by ultrasonography during stepwise increments in DP to 180 mmHg. In the brachial vein, the diameter change in response to an increase in DP from 30 to 180 mmHg (distensibility) was reduced (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm (11%) compared to that in the control arm before (23%) and after (21%) PT. The cephalic vein showed a similar response with a reduced (P < 0.05) distensibility in the pressure-trained arm (20%) compared to that in the control arm before (29%) and after (25%) PT. At any given DP, arm pain was less (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm than in the control arm before and after PT, presumably reflecting the reduced venous distensibility in the pressure-trained arm. The results support the concept that the distensibility of venous walls adapts to meet the demands imposed by the prevailing local transmural pressures. PMID:21461927

  18. Abnormal patterns of the renal veins

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of the retroperitoneal region. Here, morphometric and histological studies of a human cadaveric specimen presented a complex, anomalous pattern of renal veins. The left renal vein had an oblique retro-aortic course and received two lumbar veins. It bifurcated near its drainage point into the inferior vena cava. The right renal vein received the right testicular vein. In addition, the left kidney was located at a low position. The spleen was enlarged. The present case is unique and provides information that may help surgeons or angiologists to apply safer interventions. PMID:22536553

  19. Mechanical buckling of veins under internal pressure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A; Shireman, Paula K; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-04-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that the veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 +/- 5.4 and 26.4 +/- 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy, and vein grafts. PMID:20094913

  20. Mechanical Buckling of Veins under Internal Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A.; Shireman, Paula K.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 ± 5.4 mmHg and 26.4 ± 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy and vein grafts. PMID:20094913

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein.

    PubMed

    Imao, Tetsuya; Amano, Toshiyasu; Takemae, Katsurou

    2011-02-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of a left retroperitoneal mass. She presented to our internal medicine department complaining of back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left retroperitoneal mass 55 mm in size in the hilum of the left kidney. Enhanced CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a poorly staining mass. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy demonstrated no accumulation in the mass; moreover, endocrinologic examination was normal. Laparoscopic resection of the left retroperitoneal tumor was attempted; however, strong adhesion between the tumor and the left renal vein was encountered. Thus, left nephrectomy after open conversion was performed. Histological findings indicated leiomyosarcoma originating from the left renal vein. The postoperative course has been uneventful; neither recurrence nor metastasis is evident 2 years postsurgery. PMID:20694494

  2. [ENDOVENOUS LASER TREATMENT FOR VARICOSE VEINS].

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao

    2015-05-01

    Varicose veins are a common condition attecting approximately 10 million patients in Japan. The main cause of varicose veins is reflux of the saphenous vein, and conventional treatment for several decades was stripping the affected saphenous vein and phlebectomy. Endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) is a less-invasive treatment method in which the saphenous vein is ablated with a laser under local anesthesia. EVLT has been approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare since 2011, and we have performed EVLT on 5,160 legs with saphenous insufficiency with no severe complications including deep vein thrombosis except for one case of arteriovenous fistula. EVLT appears to be a safe, effective treatment option for varicose veins with saphenous insufficiency. PMID:26281654

  3. The Epidermal Cell Structure of the Secondary Pollen Presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) Suggests a Functional Association with Protruding Onci in Pollen Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, Patricia M.; van Wyk, Abraham E.; van der Merwe, Chris F.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms “thickenings of Igersheim” and “bands of Igersheim” are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the

  4. The epidermal cell structure of the secondary pollen presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) suggests a functional association with protruding onci in pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Tilney, Patricia M; van Wyk, Abraham E; van der Merwe, Chris F

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms "thickenings of Igersheim" and "bands of Igersheim" are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the Vanguerieae

  5. Vein harvesting and techniques for infrainguinal bypass.

    PubMed

    Albäck, Anders; Saarinen, Eva; Venermo, Maarit

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve good long term results after bypass surgery, alongside with good inflow and outflow arteries, the bypass graft material also has an important role. The best patency and limb salvage rates are achieved with autologous vein. If great saphenous vein is not available, acceptable long-term results can be achieved with arm veins and lesser saphenous vein. The quality and size of the vein are important. A small-caliber vein, increased wall thickness, postphlebitic changes and varicosities are associated with a risk of early failure. Preoperative vein mapping with ultrasound reduces readmissions and postoperative surgical site infections. During the mapping, the vein to be used and its main tributaries are marked with a permanent marker pen. To reduce wound complication rates we recommend bridged incisions in vein harvesting. Endoscopic vein harvesting seems to have no benefit compared to open techniques in lower limb bypasses, and has been associated with higher risk of primary patency loss at one year. With deep tunneling of the graft the problems caused by wound infection can be avoided. PMID:26837257

  6. Shifts in leaf vein density through accelerated vein formation in C4 Flaveria (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Athena D.; Dengler, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf venation in many C4 species is characterized by high vein density, essential in facilitating rapid intercellular diffusion of C4 photosynthetic metabolites between different tissues (mesophyll, bundle sheath). Greater vein density has been hypothesized to be an early step in C4 photosynthesis evolution. Development of C4 vein patterning is thought to occur from either accelerated or prolonged procambium formation, relative to ground tissue development. Methods Cleared and sectioned tissues of phylogenetically basal C3 Flaveria robusta and more derived C4 Flaveria bidentis were compared for vein pattern in mature leaves and vein pattern formation in developing leaves. Key Results In mature leaves, major vein density did not differ between C3 and C4 Flaveria species, whereas minor veins were denser in C4 species than in C3 species. The developmental study showed that both major and minor vein patterning in leaves of C3 and C4 species were initiated at comparable stages (based on leaf length). An additional vein order in the C4 species was observed during initiation of the higher order minor veins compared with the C3 species. In the two species, expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells occurred after vein pattern was complete and xylem differentiation was continuous in minor veins. In addition, mesophyll cells ceased dividing sooner and enlarged less in C4 species than in C3 species. Conclusions Leaf vein pattern characteristic to C4 Flaveria was achieved primarily through accelerated and earlier offset of higher order vein formation, rather than other modifications in the timing of vein pattern formation, as compared with C3 species. Earlier cessation of mesophyll cell division and reduced expansion also contributed to greater vein density in the C4 species. The relatively late expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells shows that vein patterning precedes ground tissue development in C4 species. PMID:19759038

  7. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John Calvin, Jr.; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  8. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy. PMID:715684

  9. Laser leg vein treatment: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victor; Domankevitz, Yacov

    2003-12-01

    Laser treatment of leg veins has been associated with a number of disadvantages, but the introduction of new devices has increased the role of lasers in the treatment of leg veins. This paper reviews the role of laser devices applied from the surface in the treatment of reticular and spider veins. Success is determined by the proper selection of wavelength, fluence, pulse duration, spot size, and number and frequency of treatments. PMID:14741827

  10. The adrenal and renal veins of man and their connections with azygos and lumbar veins.

    PubMed

    Monkhouse, W S; Khalique, A

    1986-06-01

    There exist many variations in the manner of formation, dimensions and place of termination of the central adrenal veins. In addition, some superficial adrenal veins may be substantial in size and may themselves drain directly into the renal veins and/or into other vessels which communicate with azygos and lumbar veins. This provides a route for venous adrenal blood to the heart via the azygos system and the superior vena cava rather than via the inferior vena cava. Variations in the formation and disposition of the renal veins are also described and the patterns of communication between somatic veins (including veins of the azygos and lumbar systems) and the left renal vein are illustrated and discussed in relation to the findings of others. PMID:3693053

  11. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins? The signs and symptoms of varicose veins include: Large veins ... skin in the area around the varicose vein. Signs of telangiectasias are clusters of red veins that ...

  13. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present

  14. 21 CFR 880.6980 - Vein stabilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vein stabilizer. 880.6980 Section 880.6980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6980 Vein stabilizer. (a)...

  15. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk for varicose veins, including family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Family History Having family members who have varicose veins may ... of them. Older Age Getting older may raise your risk for varicose ...

  16. [Aneurysm of the femoral and popliteal vein].

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; Boris, P

    1986-04-01

    Aneurysms of the popliteal and femoral veins are rare and may be seen as casual findings with no clinical manifestations whatsoever. On the other hand they may be potential source of recurrent pulmonary embolism. A case is reported, where an aneurysm of the femoral vein was found in a clinically symptomless woman aged 48. PMID:3715020

  17. [Pseudotumor aspect of ovarian vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Randoux, B; Goudot, D; Clément, O; Deux, J F; Lecuru, F; Taurelle, R; Frija, G

    1997-11-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is an unusual puerperal illness (1 in 600 deliveries) which usually recovers spontaneously or under treatment. We report a rare follow-up observation of a puerperal ovarian vein thrombophlebitis, first diagnosed by computed tomography, which evolved to a 6 x 10 cm pseudotumoral cavernoma mass after 18 months. PMID:9499957

  18. Pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian C; Kasa, David; Mazer, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    A patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein with a resultant noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent portal vein thrombosis diagnosed by computed tomography and ultrasonography is reported. A review of the existing English literature on this rare complication is also provided. PMID:19561436

  19. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  20. Recombinant Human Elastase Treatment of Cephalic Veins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Marco D; Bingham, Karen; Moss, Emma; Warn, J Donald; Smirnov, Igor; Bland, Kimberly S; Starcher, Barry; Franano, F Nicholas; Burke, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Background Vessel injury at the time of Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) creation may lead to neointimal hyperplasia that impairs AVF maturation. Vonapanitase, a recombinant human chymotrypsin-like elastase family member 1, is an investigational drug under development to improve AVF maturation and patency. The current studies were designed to document vonapanitase effects in human cephalic veins that are used in AVF creation. Methods Human cephalic veins were mounted on a perfusion myograph. Vonapanitase 1.2, 4, 13.2, and 40 μg/ml or saline was applied drop wise on the vein followed by saline rinse. Vein segments were cut into rings for elastin content determination by desmosine radioimmunoassay and histology. Fluorescently-labelled vonapanitase was applied to veins and adventitial imaging was performed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. In vivo time course experiments were performed by treating rabbit jugular veins and harvesting 1 h and 4 h after vonapanitase treatment. Results / Conclusion Vonapanitase reduced desmosine content in a dose-related manner. Histology also confirmed a dose-related reduction in elastic fiber staining. Fluorescently-labelled vonapanitase persistently localized to elastic fibers in the vein adventitia. In vivo experiments showed a reduction in desmosine content in jugular veins from 1 h to 4 h following treatment. These data suggest that vonapanitase targets elastin in elastic fibers in a dose related manner and that elastase remains in the vessel wall and has catalytic activity for at least 1 h.

  1. Vein graft in stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S A

    1996-03-01

    Sealing the opening of the oval window during stapes surgery is essential; it prevents postoperative complications, such as perilymph fistula and sensorineural hearing loss. In this small series of 269 cases with otosclerosis, tympanosclerosis, and congenital ossicular abnormality, vein grafting was used to seal the opening of the footplate. Hearing improvement after surgery was acceptable, and none had total hearing loss or perilymphatic fistula. World literature from the last half of this century on grafting the oval window is reviewed. Absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam) seems to be causing more complications, so its use is highly discouraged. Temporalis fascia, fat, and perivenous loose areolar tissue have been used by different authors at different times in footplate surgery. The opening created in the oval window during stapes surgery must not be left uncovered. PMID:8723953

  2. Phlebectasia of Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Satish K.; Vasisth, Gaurav O. P.; Chibber, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia (IJP) is a rare disease in which there is a fusiform dilatation of internal jugular vein, usually presenting as a neck mass in children. Accurate diagnosis from careful history, physical examination, and radiological study can be made. We report a 12-year-old boy with history of swelling appearing on the right side of the neck only on straining, coughing, or during a Valsalva maneuver. Diagnosis of right IJP was made. Exploration and wrapping the dilated segment in an 8-mm-diameter polytetrafluoroethylene tube graft was done. Because of its rarity, this entity is frequently ignored or misdiagnosed. This case report intends to stress the importance of keeping IJP as differential diagnosis while dealing with such a swelling to avoid invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. PMID:23741586

  3. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. PMID:20938213

  4. Treatment of deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) for whom in-hospital treatment should be considered. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The literature was searched for studies on outpatient treatment of DVT. Seventeen studies were assessed: seven were randomized controlled trials (level I evidence), and 10 were non-randomized trials (level II evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Four criteria can be used to identify patients with DVT for whom outpatient treatment might not be appropriate: presence of massive DVT, presence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism, high risk of bleeding with anticoagulant therapy, and presence of comorbid conditions or other factors that warrant in-hospital care. CONCLUSION Four criteria can be used to identify patients with DVT for whom in-hospital treatment should be considered. PMID:15751565

  5. Enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1999-07-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This technique uses a near infrared light source and one or more infrared sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using an LCD vein projector. The use of an infrared transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in most cases. Preliminary studies on a 9 month old girl indicate promise for pediatric use.

  6. Guide wire migration during femoral vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Rozita; Sadigh, Gelareh

    2010-10-01

    Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion. PMID:20852377

  7. Adventitial cystic disease of common femoral vein

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Bo-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of venous system is an extremely rare condition. Very few reports of ACD in venous system have been described. In this report we discuss two cases of common femoral vein ACD that presented with a swollen leg by the obstruction of the vein. Ultrasound imaging showed the typical hypoechoic fluid filled cyst with a posterior acoustic window. Computed tomography scan and ascending venogram showed a stenosis to flow in the common femoral vein caused by an extrinsic mass. Trans-adventitial evacuation of cyst with removal of vein wall was performed for both cases. During operation we found the gelatinous material in the cysts arising in the wall of the common femoral vein and compressing the lumen. The patients were released after short hospitalization and have remained symptom free with no recurrence. PMID:22066091

  8. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098

  9. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis? The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis ( ... serious, possibly life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  10. [SUBFASCIAL ENDOSCOPIC PERFORATOR VEIN SURGERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SEVERE VARICOSE VEINS].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Atsushi; Masaki, Hisao; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2015-05-01

    Surgical treatment of severe varicose veins (CEAP classification : C4b-C6) should involve not only interruption of incompetent superficial veins to prevent venous regurgitation due to valve incompetence but also interruption of incompetent perforator veins. Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) is performed via a small skin incision and involves interruption of perforator veins by the insertion of an endoscope into the subfascial space. SEPS produces good surgical outcomes: it is accurate in detecting and transecting perforator veins; has a low frequency of surgical wound complications; prevents lipodermatosclerosis and formation of pigmented skin lesions; and is minimally invasive compared with Linton's operation. Thus, SEPS is an excellent procedure for patients with incompetent perforator veins. SEPS has been covered by the Japanese national health insurance system since April 2014, and it is expected that SEPS will be further developed and become more widespread in use. PMID:26281656

  11. Isozyme hybrids within the protruding third loop domain of the barley alpha-amylase (beta/alpha)8-barrel. Implication for BASI sensitivity and substrate affinity.

    PubMed

    Juge, N; Rodenburg, K W; Guo, X J; Chaix, J C; Svensson, B

    1995-04-24

    Barley alpha-amylase isozymes AMY1 and AMY2 contain three structural domains: a catalytic (beta/alpha)8-barrel (domain A) with a protruding loop (domain B; residues 89-152) that binds Ca2+, and a small C-terminal domain. Different parts of domain B secure isozyme specific properties as identified for three AMY1-AMY2 hybrids, obtained by homeologous recombination in yeast, with crossing-over at residues 112, 116, and 144. The AMY1 regions Val90-Thr112 and Ala145-Leu161 thus confer high affinities for the substrates alpha-D-maltoheptaoside and amylose, respectively. Leu117-Phe144, and to a lesser degree Ala145-Leu161, are critical for the stability at low pH characteristic of AMY1 and for the sensitivity to barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor specific to AMY2. PMID:7737421

  12. Roles of the protruding loop of factor B essential for the localization of lipoproteins (LolB) in the anchoring of bacterial triacylated proteins to the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumi; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Tsukahara, Jun; Takeda, Kazuki; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Miki, Kunio; Tokuda, Hajime

    2014-04-11

    The Lol system comprising five Lol proteins, LolA through LolE, sorts Escherichia coli lipoproteins to outer membranes. The LolCDE complex, an ATP binding cassette transporter in inner membranes, releases outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in an ATP-dependent manner, causing formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex in the periplasm. LolA transports lipoproteins through the periplasm to LolB on outer membranes. LolB is itself a lipoprotein anchored to outer membranes, although the membrane anchor is functionally dispensable. LolB then localizes lipoproteins to outer membranes through largely unknown mechanisms. The crystal structure of LolB is similar to that of LolA, and it possesses a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates acyl chains of lipoproteins. To elucidate the molecular function of LolB, a periplasmic version of LolB, mLolB, was mutagenized at various conserved residues. Despite the lack of acyl chains, most defective mutants were insoluble. However, a derivative with glutamate in place of leucine 68 was soluble and unable to localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. This leucine is present in a loop protruding from mLolB into an aqueous environment, and no analogous loop is present in LolA. Thus, leucine 68 was replaced with other residues. Replacement by acidic, but not hydrophobic, residues generated for the first time mLolB derivatives that can accept but cannot localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. Moreover, deletion of the leucine with neighboring residues impaired the lipoprotein receptor activity. Based on these observations, the roles of the protruding loop of LolB in the last step of lipoprotein sorting are discussed. PMID:24569999

  13. Roles of the Protruding Loop of Factor B Essential for the Localization of Lipoproteins (LolB) in the Anchoring of Bacterial Triacylated Proteins to the Outer Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yumi; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Tsukahara, Jun; Takeda, Kazuki; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Miki, Kunio; Tokuda, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    The Lol system comprising five Lol proteins, LolA through LolE, sorts Escherichia coli lipoproteins to outer membranes. The LolCDE complex, an ATP binding cassette transporter in inner membranes, releases outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in an ATP-dependent manner, causing formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex in the periplasm. LolA transports lipoproteins through the periplasm to LolB on outer membranes. LolB is itself a lipoprotein anchored to outer membranes, although the membrane anchor is functionally dispensable. LolB then localizes lipoproteins to outer membranes through largely unknown mechanisms. The crystal structure of LolB is similar to that of LolA, and it possesses a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates acyl chains of lipoproteins. To elucidate the molecular function of LolB, a periplasmic version of LolB, mLolB, was mutagenized at various conserved residues. Despite the lack of acyl chains, most defective mutants were insoluble. However, a derivative with glutamate in place of leucine 68 was soluble and unable to localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. This leucine is present in a loop protruding from mLolB into an aqueous environment, and no analogous loop is present in LolA. Thus, leucine 68 was replaced with other residues. Replacement by acidic, but not hydrophobic, residues generated for the first time mLolB derivatives that can accept but cannot localize lipoproteins to outer membranes. Moreover, deletion of the leucine with neighboring residues impaired the lipoprotein receptor activity. Based on these observations, the roles of the protruding loop of LolB in the last step of lipoprotein sorting are discussed. PMID:24569999

  14. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  15. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-01-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 PMID:7400038

  16. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  17. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary vein varix.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Kimata, Masaki; Kambayashi, Daisuke; Mano, Akiko; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Kobara, Miyuki; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-09-01

    Pulmonary vein varix is a rare abnormality, often resembling a pulmonary or mediastinal mass on chest radiographs, and pulmonary angiography has been the mainstay of diagnosis. An unusual case of pulmonary vein varix was clearly defined by echocardiography performed in a 47-year-old woman with chest discomfort who had been found to have an abnormal structure behind the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. The diagnosis of left lower pulmonary vein varix was noninvasively confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography. PMID:12939558

  19. [Endovenous ablation of saphenous vein varicosis].

    PubMed

    Schuller-Petrovic, Sanja

    2016-06-01

    In the past 15 years, the minimally invasive endovenous treatments of varicose veins have been widely accepted. The efficacy of the different endovenous methods and the minimal post operative side effects are meanwhile well documented in a large number of evidence based publications. The recent NICE Guidelines (2013) considering the varicose vein treatment recommend in case of an insufficiency of saphenous veins first the endovenous thermal ablation with radiofrequency or laser, then the ultrasound guided sclerotherapy and as the third line the classic surgical treatment with stripping and high ligation. PMID:27295103

  20. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms. PMID:20689798

  1. Complications of umbilical vein catherisation. Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bothur-Nowacka, Joanna; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Nowakowska-Rysz, Monika; Kościesza, Andrzej; Polnik, Dariusz; Dobrzańska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: Umbilical vein catheterization is a relatively easy procedure performed routinely on the neonate intensive care units. It provides a fast central vein access, but some complications have been described in the literature. Case Reports: We presented a case report of a premature infant (34 hbd) with extravasation of the parenteral nutrition and drugs to the liver after umbilical vein catheterization. Fever and increasing biochemical markers of infection were observed. USG revealed a heterogenic, well-limited space of 4 cm in diameter, located in the right lobe of the liver. CT excluded liver abscess. Considering neoplastic process or incorrect location of the catheter of the central vein, we performed liver biopsy. Results: Cytological and biochemical analysis of the aspirated fluid revealed extravasation of parenteral nutrition to the liver. Our case confirms the necessity of controlling a proper location of the central catheter right after its insertion and during hospitalization. PMID:22802847

  2. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  3. The role of splenomesenteric vein anastomosis after division of the splenic vein in pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Misuta, Koichiro; Shimada, Hiroshi; Miura, Yasuhiko; Kunihiro, Osamu; Kubota, Toru; Endo, Itaru; Sekido, Hitoshi; Togo, Shinji

    2005-02-01

    Division of the splenic vein was performed in 29 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy to achieve lymph node dissection and neural resection around the superior mesenteric artery. The basic protocol for the splenic vein reconstruction to reduce congestion of the spleen and stomach is as follows. When the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) drained into the splenic vein, the confluence was preserved without reconstruction of the splenic vein. When the IMV drained into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or the splenomesenteric angle, the division of the IMV and spleno-IMV anastomosis were performed. In postoperative venography, nine patients showed downward flow (from the splenic vein to the IMV) and three patients showed upward flow (from the IMV to the splenic vein). Postoperative computed tomography scans showed venous dilatation and splenomegaly in the upward flow group; there were no patients in the downward flow group. In selected patients, splenic vein reconstruction is necessary to reduce congestion of the spleen and stomach. When the flow is downward, spleno-IMV flow should be preserved. When the flow is upward, spleno-SMV anastomosis is necessary instead of spleno-IMV anastomosis. PMID:15694821

  4. Posttraumatic arteriovenous fistula and subclavian vein thrombosis: treatment by percutaneous arterial embolization and vein angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Y P; Soulez, G; Riadh, A; Houdart, E; Herbreteau, D; Merland, J J

    1993-09-01

    A 71-year-old woman had edema and venous dilatation of her upper right limb that caused painful functional disability following a shoulder injury. Arteriograms demonstrated an arteriovenous fistula between the subclavian artery and vein associated with thrombosis of the vein at the same level. The arteriovenous fistula was found to have multiple arteriovenous communications. Because of associated distal venous thrombosis, venous drainage was retrograde through the brachial vein. The inflow arteries of the fistula were embolized and then the subclavian vein thrombosis was recanalized, dilated, and an endoluminal stent inserted. Clinical signs completely resolved. PMID:8268095

  5. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  6. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  7. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  8. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in a Newborn: A Commonly Overlooked Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-valenzuela, Nathalie Jeanne Magioli; Silva, Guilherme Ricardo Nunes; Varella, Marcela Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary pulmonary vein stenosis is often overlooked because its symptoms overlap lung diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis may be difficult because the condition is progressive and associated with other defects. We present a case of pulmonary vein stenosis in a newborn with stenosis of the left-sided common pulmonary vein, diffuse hypoplasia of the superior right pulmonary vein, and atresia of the inferior right pulmonary vein. PMID:26457207

  9. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins. PMID:25448906

  10. The Incidence, Clinical Importance and Management of Incompetent Gastrocnemius Vein

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence, clinical importance and management of the incompetent gastrocnemius vein. Methods: The incompetency was examined by duplex and pulse-Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal fossa in a standing position between July 2006 and August 2014. Results: Among 1805 legs surveyed, 14 legs showed primary incompetent gastrocnemius vein (0.78%). The incompetency was in medial gastrocnemius vein in 13 legs (93%). Clinical manifestation was varicose vein in the small saphenous territory in nine, varicose vein in great saphenous territory in one, congestive dermatitis in two, calf clamp in one and no symptom in one. The nine cases with varicose vein in the small saphenous territory received surgical management. These included three cases with residual varicose veins after saphenopopliteal disconnection and stripping small saphenous vein. The root of the gastrocnemius vein was divided leaving no complication. In cases without varicose vein in small saphenous territory, an elastic compression socks was useful in some degree. Conclusions: Incompetency of gastrocnemius vein was not so rare. When a case is accompanied by small saphenous varicose veins, division of the root of gastrocnemius vein along with small saphenous vein stripping is recommended in order to reduce residual varicose vein. PMID:27087871

  11. Double left renal veins and multiple right renal veins found in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Yahiro, J; Miyoshi, S

    1993-12-01

    A case of circumaortic renal venous collar, the first such collar to be observed in a Japanese female cadaver, is presented, and its anatomical organization is compared with that in another case in which four right renal veins accompanied four right and three left renal arteries in a Japanese male cadaver. Double left renal veins are formed by persistence of a more central retroaortic venous anastomosis, in contrast to multiple right renal veins, which are formed by persistence of some embryonic renal veins arranged in ladder-like patterns. In our case, the dorsal limb of the renal collar communicated with the azygos system veins and lumbar veins. The azygos system veins were considered to have atrophied as a result of some persisting retroaortic venous anastomoses located in the thorax. Therefore, we believe that the renal collar was related to the atrophy of the azygos system veins. To determine whether there are racial differences in incidence of renal collar, further studies in Asians are required. PMID:8202308

  12. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    1998-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution.

  13. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  14. Giacomini vein: thigh extension of the small saphenous vein - report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, K; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, N; Sofidis, G; Piagkou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Varicose vein surgery is very commonly performed. Also, it is very frequently employed for recurrent disease. The recognition of the normal or variant veins, inducing incompetency, is a prerequisite for effective treatment. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein, the so-called Giacomini vein, was extensively described in 1873 by Carlo Giacomini in an incidence of 72%. However, such a vein is usually underestimated in classic surgical textbooks. Description of cases We present two cases of Giacomini vein found in two cadavers, dissected for academic purposes in the Department of Anatomy, where the small saphenous vein displayed a thigh extension without terminating into the popliteal vein. In one case Giacomini vein drained into the large saphenous vein, while in the other case the vein divided into two branches, separately draining into the large saphenous vein and the subcutaneous tissue of the gluteal region. Conclusion Due to the fact that Giacomini vein could be incompetent, associated with or without varicose saphenous vein trunks, the vascular surgeon should keep in mind that anatomical entity, to include it in preoperative ultrasound scanning control. Moreover, this vein could be utilized as an autologous graft, when the large saphenous is not available. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 263-265.

  15. Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2000-05-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

  16. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  17. Spontaneous Resolution of Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Banumukala, Vishnu; Babu, Adarsh

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with symptoms of belching, abdominal pain and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly which was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). CT images also revealed filling defects in the portal vein and intrahepatic branches consistent with thrombosis and hepatosplenic infarcts. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated at 688 units, all other investigations, including full blood count, coagulation screen and tumour markers, were normal. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography did not reveal any mass in the porta hepatis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. Liver biopsy was normal and did not reveal any evidence of lymphoma. The raised alkaline phosphatase settled to reference range over a period of 3 weeks. Thrombophilia screen was negative. Contrast CT of the abdomen performed after 4 weeks displayed revascularisation of the previously thrombosed portal vein and intrahepatic branches. The patient has remained asymptomatic since and we note spontaneous recanalisation of the previously occluded portal vein. PMID:21490872

  18. Spontaneous resolution of portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Banumukala, Vishnu; Babu, Adarsh

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with symptoms of belching, abdominal pain and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly which was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). CT images also revealed filling defects in the portal vein and intrahepatic branches consistent with thrombosis and hepatosplenic infarcts. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated at 688 units, all other investigations, including full blood count, coagulation screen and tumour markers, were normal. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography did not reveal any mass in the porta hepatis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. Liver biopsy was normal and did not reveal any evidence of lymphoma. The raised alkaline phosphatase settled to reference range over a period of 3 weeks. Thrombophilia screen was negative. Contrast CT of the abdomen performed after 4 weeks displayed revascularisation of the previously thrombosed portal vein and intrahepatic branches. The patient has remained asymptomatic since and we note spontaneous recanalisation of the previously occluded portal vein. PMID:21490872

  19. Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, V; Menegatti, E; Mascoli, F; Gianesini, S; Salvi, F; Secchiero, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the ultrastructure of intraluminal defects found in the internal jugular vein by using a scanning electron microscopy. Methods Using a scanning electron microscopy, intraluminal septa and/or defective valves blocking the flow in the distal internal jugular vein of seven patients were studied together with the adjacent wall and compared with control specimen. Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina. Conclusions Although the lack of endothelial cells in the internal jugular vein intraluminal obstacles is a further abnormality found in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, our investigation cannot clarify whether this finding is primary or caused by progressive loss of endothelium in relation to altered haemodynamic forces and/or to a past post-thrombotic/inflammatory remodelling. PMID:24972760

  20. Deringing procedure for congenital pulmonary vein stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Victor, S; Nayak, V M

    1995-01-01

    We operated on a 14-year-old boy who had an echocardiographic diagnosis of ventricular septal defect. At surgery we found, in addition, an anomalous and obstructive intraventricular muscle bundle. Detection of a continuous thrill over the right pulmonary veins, prior to cardiopulmonary bypass, led to exploration of the left atrium. The ostia of the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins were impeded by circumferential membranous rings of endocardium with central stenotic openings. Excision of these annular rings relieved the obstruction. The left lung was drained by a long intrapericardial common venous channel that entered the left atrium through a stenotic ostium; excision of an annular ridge of endocardium restored normal flow. The patient remains asymptomatic after 23 months. The case is reported for the new deringing technique and the rarity of successful correction of congenital pulmonary vein stenosis. Images PMID:7647600

  1. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  2. Can tuffisite veins help dictate eruption styles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Heap, M. J.; Lavallee, Y.; Russell, J. K.; Meredith, P. G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of magmas to degas during ascent may affect eruption style. The permeability of the magma and/or the conduit wall rocks may therefore dictate whether an eruption will be explosive or effusive. Fractures increase permeability. Fractures filled by veins of autoclastic, cataclastic and tuffisitic glass shards and crystal fragments are common in shallow conduit systems. These veins have the potential to dramatically increase permeability and provide pathways for gas loss. Here we present the first study on the porosity, permeability, strength, P-and S-wave and dynamic elastic moduli of andesite containing tuffisite veins at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. Porosity was measured via pycnometry. The strength and mechanisms of deformation were investigated on tuffisite-bearing and tuffisite-free samples in a uniaxial press at 940°C by loading at 2 MPa/min until failure. The permeability, P- and S-wave velocity, and dynamic elastic moduli were measured in a high-pressure permeameter/pore volumometer up to effective confining pressures of 50 MPa (ca. 2km depth). Measurements were made on cylindrical samples prepared as: (1) without tuffisite veins and with tuffisite veins (2) perpendicular and (3) sub-parallel to flow (i.e., the samples’ axial direction). Petrographic analysis reveals that the tuffisites are comprised almost exclusively of micron-size crystal fragments. Dilatometric measurements of tuffisite (10°C/min up to 1000°C), failed to reveal a Tg, indicating the absence of interstitial glass. In contrast, the dome rocks exhibits viscous relaxation between 770 and 885 °C, indicating glass. The high-temperature (940°C) deformation experiments on samples containing tuffisite veins showed an absence of ductile deformation and a uniaxial strength of 116 MPa; i.e, slightly weaker than tuffisite-free rock (~130 MPa) and stronger than erupted dome lavas (~30 MPa). The presence of tuffisite increases the porosity. Permeability measurements show that tuffisite

  3. [Retinal vein occlusion: an interdisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Hatz, Katja; Martinez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion provide a common cause of significant visual reduction but also late ocular complications. The medical care of these patients pursue two goals: On the one hand vision threatening complications need to be identified and treated, and on the other hand treatable risk factors are need to be identified and treated. This paper summarizes the common ophthalmological therapeutic approaches as well as recommended medical evaluations carried out by the general practitioner. This supports the interdisciplinary approach in evaluating and treating retinal vein occlusions by ophthalmologists and the general practitioners/specialist in internal medicine. PMID:26982647

  4. Saphenous vein graft aneurysm: an incidental finding

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Omar; Greaves, Kim; Shepherd, David; Parvin, Simon; Swallow, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVGA) is an uncommon complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An 82-year-old man underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography to investigate aorto-iliac disease. He was coincidentally noted to have an aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft to his right coronary artery. This was visualised on transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography and coronary angiography. In the absence of symptoms and in view of high surgical risk, conservative management with anticoagulation was chosen. The patient was commenced on warfarin and remains asymptomatic. PMID:21686801

  5. Domain B protruding at the third beta strand of the alpha/beta barrel in barley alpha-amylase confers distinct isozyme-specific properties.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, K W; Juge, N; Guo, X J; Søgaard, M; Chaix, J C; Svensson, B

    1994-04-01

    alpha-Amylases belong to the alpha/beta-barrel protein family in which the active site is created by residues located at the C-terminus of the beta strands and in the helix-connecting loops extending from these ends. In the alpha-amylase family, a small separate domain B protrudes at the C-terminus of the third beta strand of the (beta/alpha)8-barrel framework. The 80% identical barley alpha-amylase isozymes 1 and 2 (AMY1 and AMY2, respectively) differ in substrate affinity and turnover rate, CaCl2 stimulation of activity, sensitivity to the endogenous 21-kDa alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, and stability at low pH. To identify regions that confer these isozyme-specific variations, AMY1-AMY2 hybrid cDNAs were generated by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast. The hybrids AMY1-(1-90)-AMY2-(90-403) and AMY1-(1-161)-AMY2-(161-403) characterized in this study contain the 90-residue and 161-residue N-terminal sequences, respectively, of AMY1 and complementary C-terminal regions of AMY2. AMY1-(1-90)-AMY2-(90-403) comprises the 60-amino-acid domain B of AMY2 and resembles this isozyme in sensitivity to alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor and its low affinity for the substrates p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoheptaoside, amylose and the inhibitor acarbose. Only AMY1-(1-161)-AMY2-(161-403) and AMY1, which both share domain B, are stable at low pH. However, AMY2 and both hybrid AMY species, but not AMY1, show maximum enzyme activity on insoluble blue starch at approximately 10 mM CaCl2. Domain B thus determines several functional and stability properties that distinguish the barley alpha-amylase isozymes. PMID:8168517

  6. Vein morphology, host rock deformation and the origin of the fabrics of echelon mineral veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, R.

    A system of sigmoidal echelon veins from a sample of sandstone from the Upper Carboniferous Culm sequence of southwest England is described. Veins are separated from one another by strips of sandstone, and divided internally by thin seams with crack—seal fabrics. The latter extend as thin veins into the sandstone host rock without change of fabric. Seams appear to be merely parts of crack—seal veins formed in a first phase of deposition in only minutely opened fractures. This phase ended as rates of fracture opening greatly increased. To allow for this widespread opening host rock between dilatating fractures (sandstone strips and seams) had to be deformed. This deformation was limited, however, to rotation, bending and fracture. Shear displacement was a function of dilatation, not zone-parallel ductile shear strain. The textures of the quartz and carbonate aggregates filling the sigmoidal veins show that second-phase crystallization took place into cavities opening more rapidly than growth was able to fill them. Growth for the greater part took place from fibres in seams and not off vein walls of the sandstone host rock. Coarsest aggregates fill the arcs of folds in seams, where rates of vein opening might be expected to have been highest and the scope for competitive cavity growth greatest.

  7. Effect of Diameter of Saphenous Vein on Stump Length after Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Vein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jusung; Cho, Sungsin; Joh, Jin Hyun; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Park, Ho-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained popularity for treatment of varicose veins. The diameter of the saphenous vein should be considered before RFA because occlusion of the vein may differ depending on its diameter. Until now, however, there have been few data about the correlation between the diameter of the saphenous vein and the stump length after RFA. The purpose of our study was to investigate its correlation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed from prospectively collected data of RFA patients between March 2009 and December 2011. Preoperatively, the saphenous vein diameter was measured. Ablation was initiated 2 cm distal from the junction. Postoperatively, stump length was measured at 1 week and 6 months. After 2 years, we measured the length from the saphenofemoral junction to the leading point of occlusion for great saphenous vein, and length from the saphenopopliteal junction to the leading point of occlusion for small saphenous vein. The paired t-test, independent t-test, and correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During the study period, RFA was performed in 201 patients. Endovenous heat-induced thrombosis developed in 3 patients (1.5%). After 2 years, the stump length was obtained in 74 limbs. The mean diameter and stump length of the saphenous vein were 6.7±1.8 mm and 12.5±8.5 mm, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient of these factors was −0.017. Conclusion: There was no correlation between the diameter of saphenous vein and stump length. PMID:26719839

  8. Clinical Significance of the Soleal Vein and Related Drainage Veins, in Calf Vein Thrombosis in Autopsy Cases with Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the histopathological characteristics of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resulting in lethal pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Subjects and Methods: We investigated 100 autopsy cases of PE from limb DVT. The distribution and chronology of DVT in each deep venous segment were examined. Venous segments were classified into three groups: iliofemoral vein, popliteal vein and calf vein (CV). The CV was subdivided into two subgroups, drainage veins of the soleal vein (SV) and non drainage veins of SV. Results: Eighty-nine patients had bilateral limb DVTs. CV was involved in all limbs with DVT with isolated calf DVTs were seen in 47% of patients. Fresh and organized thrombi were detected in 84% of patients. SV showed the highest incidence of DVTs in eight venous segments. The incidence of DVT gradually decreased according to the drainage route of the central SV. Proximal tips of fresh thrombi were mainly located in the popliteal vein and tibioperoneal trunk, occurring in these locations in 63% of limbs. Conclusions: SV is considered to be the primary site of DVT; the DVT then propagated to proximal veins through the drainage veins. Lethal thromboemboli would occur at proximal veins as a result of proximal propagation from calf DVTs. PMID:27087868

  9. Splenic Vein Thrombosis with Oesophageal Varices: A Late Complication of Umbilical Vein Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Vos, L. J. M.; Potocky, V.; Bröker, F. H. L.; Vries, J. A. De; Postma, L.; Edens, E.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of observations made on three infants, a description is given of a late complication of umbilical vein catheterization not hitherto reported. The children showed the symptoms of thrombosis of the splenic vein with secondary splenomegaly and marked gastric and/or esophageal varices, while the portal vein showed no abnormality. The diagnosis was preoperatively established by means of selective angiography of the superior mesenteric artery and the splenic artery. Treatment in these three cases consisted of splenectomy, with good clinical and radiological results. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4842977

  10. Pancreatectomy with vein reconstruction: technique matters

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Monica M; Tran, Thuy B; Klausner, Jill; Hwa, Kim J; Poultsides, George A; Norton, Jeffrey A; Visser, Brendan C

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of techniques have been described for portal vein (PV) and/or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy. The ideal strategy remains unclear. Methods Patients who underwent PV/SMV resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2014 were identified. Medical records and imaging were retrospectively reviewed for operative details and outcomes, with particular emphasis on patency. Results Ninety patients underwent vein resection/reconstruction with one of five techniques: (i) longitudinal venorrhaphy (LV, n = 17); (ii) transverse venorrhaphy (TV, n = 9); (iii) primary end-to-end (n = 28); (iv) patch venoplasty (PV, n = 17); and (v) interposition graft (IG, n = 19). With a median follow-up of 316 days, thrombosis was observed in 16/90 (18%). The rate of thrombosis varied according to technique. All patients with primary end-to-end or TV remained patent. LV, PV and IG were all associated with significant rates of thrombosis (P = 0.001 versus no thrombosis). Comparing thrombosed to patent, there were no differences with respect to pancreatectomy type, pre-operative knowledge of vein involvement and neoadjuvant therapy. Prophylactic aspirin was used in 69% of the total cohort (66% of patent, 81% of thrombosed) and showed no protective benefit. Conclusions Primary end-to-end and TV have superior patency than the alternatives after PV/SMV resection and should be the preferred techniques for short (<3 cm) reconstructions. PMID:26223388

  11. Complete guidewire retention after femoral vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Cat, Bahar Gulcay; Guler, Sertac; Soyuduru, Murat; Guven, Ibrahim; Ramadan, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used for various purposes in the emergency departments (ED). The main uses of CVCs in the EDs are emergent hemodialysis, in situations where peripheral vein catheterization cannot be achieved, and continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The complications related to CVC insertion are usually mechanical and observed in the near term after the procedure. Retained CVC guidewire after catheterization is a rare complication in the published reports and usually related with intra- or postoperative settings and jugular or subclavian vein. The present study reported a young female patient who underwent left femoral vein catheterization 6 months earlier in an intensive care unit of another hospital and was diagnosed with complete guidewire retention in the ED. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in published reports with a diagnosis of retained CVC guidewire with retrograde migration into the femoral vein. Surprisingly, the patient developed no thrombotic or embolic complication during this 6-month period. PMID:26657235

  12. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology. PMID:27157637

  13. Crossectomy and great saphenous vein stripping.

    PubMed

    Winterborn, R J; Earnshaw, J J

    2006-02-01

    Crossectomy and stripping have been the standard of care for primary great saphenous varicose veins since the high failure rates of sclerotherapy became apparent in the 1970s. As the specialty of venous surgery has evolved, a number of clinical trials have established the optimal methods of surgical treatment, and the clinical benefit of routine stripping. Long-term trials, however, have uncovered a high recurrence rate after varicose vein surgery that approaches 70% after 10 years. There is much debate about whether this is the result of the dilatation of existing tributaries in the groin or the growth of new veins as a result of angiogenesis that follows surgical treatment and healing (neovascularisation). The addition of barrier technology to current crossectomy has the potential to improve the results of surgery in the future. In the meanwhile, new techniques are evolving to obliterate the great saphenous vein, including endovenous laser, radiofrequency ablation and foam sclerotherapy. Randomised clinical trials are urgently required to compare these new treatments against standard surgery, and they will need to focus on whether the short-term gains in reduced convalescence and morbidity are balanced by durable long-term results. PMID:16434942

  14. Left renal vein compression syndrome ("nutcracker phenomenon").

    PubMed

    Stassen, C M; Weil, E H; Janevski, B K

    1989-06-01

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as "nutcracker phenomenon". The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. PMID:2544950

  15. Hepatic myospherulosis complicating portal vein embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Lui, P C W; Luk, I S C; Lee, C K L; Lui, Y H; Leung, C Y; Choi, C H

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Myospherulosis is a rare condition characterised by sac-like structures containing spheroid bodies in cysts or cystic spaces in the tissue. This condition has not previously been reported in the liver. The association with previous portal vein embolisation using a mixture of butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodised oil and the proposed mechanism of pathogenesis are discussed. Methods: Samples from 8 patients treated by hepatectomy after portal vein embolisation using a mixture of butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodised oil were retrieved from the archives of the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong. The histological specimens were reviewed. A panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains was used. Results: All cases showed hepatic myospherulosis within the veins. The veins were denuded of endothelium, which was replaced by granulation tissue and fibrous tissue with a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Foreign body-type giant cells (six cases) and eosinophilic infiltrates (seven cases) were noted in most cases. Both parent bodies and endobodies were stained red by Papanicolaou and Masson’s trichrome and stained blue by solochrome cyanine. The endobodies showed immunoreactivity towards glycophorin A. They were negative for Alcian blue, periodic acid Schiff, Grocott, and Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Conclusions: The endobodies of myospherulosis may be misdiagnosed as fungi or algae by the unwary. The clinical history, intravascular location, lack of staining with periodic acid Schiff and Grocott stains, and positive glycophorin A staining are generally sufficient for a confident diagnosis of myospherulosis. PMID:14747440

  16. Endoscopic vein harvesting: technique, outcomes, concerns & controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the graft conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has significant implications both in the short- and long-term. The patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course, better long-term patient survival and superior freedom from re-intervention. The internal mammary artery is regarded as the primary conduit for CABG patients, given its association with long-term patency and survival. However, long saphenous vein (LSV) continues to be utilized universally as patients presenting for CABG often have multiple coronary territories requiring revascularization. Traditionally, the LSV has been harvested by creating incisions from the ankle up to the groin termed open vein harvesting (OVH). However, such harvesting methods are associated with incisional pain and leg wound infections. In addition, patients find such large incisions to be cosmetically unappealing. These concerns regarding wound morbidity and patient satisfaction led to the emergence of endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). Published experience comparing OVH with EVH suggests decreased wound related complications, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay, and reduced postoperative pain at the harvest site following EVH. Despite these reported advantages concerns regarding risk of injury at the time of harvest with its potential detrimental effect on vein graft patency and clinical outcomes have prevented universal adoption of EVH. This review article provides a detailed insight into the technical aspects, outcomes, concerns, and controversies associated with EVH. PMID:24251019

  17. Varicose and other vein problems - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... you stand. As a result, you may have: Varicose veins Swelling in your legs Skin changes or even ... at home to: Slow down the development of varicose veins Decrease any discomfort Prevent skin ulcers

  18. Anatomical variation of the inferior mesenteric vein's drainage pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilaie, Mina

    The purpose of this project is to report the variable drainage pattern of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) as reported by medical students' observations recorded on anatomical variation data sheets (n = 192). A meta-analysis on the drainage pattern of the inferior mesenteric vein as described in various anatomy resources was conducted (n = 40). The inferior mesenteric vein was observed to drain into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein, and the junction between the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. Anatomy resources do not commonly report all three drainage sites. It is imperative that all these common drainage sites of the inferior mesenteric vein are stated in anatomy resources, so that students are taught realistic human anatomy including its common variations.

  19. New Portal-Superior Mesenteric Vein Reconstructions Using First Jejunal Vein Flap in Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Nobuyuki; Miki, Kenji; Kosuge, Tomoo

    2016-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the only potential treatment for pancreatic head adenocarcinomas, which are sometimes located close to or invade the portal-superior mesenteric vein (PSMV). Surgeons often attempt to obtain a negative resectional margin after resection of the PSMV. This attempt requires PSMV reconstruction through graft replacements or end-to-end anastomosis; however, possible complications should be concerned including anastomosis stenosis, damage to some of the PSMV branches, prosthetic graft infection, and that associated with autologous graft harvesting. The first jejunal artery and vein are often resected in PD with the intent of lymphadenectomy. In this study, jejunal vein flap was used for PSMV reconstruction without causing damage to any of the PSMV branches in two patients. Here, we describe the new methods of PSMV reconstruction using first jejunal vein flap in PD. PMID:26801505

  20. Reconstruction of portal vein and superior mesenteric vein after extensive resection for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suh Min; Park, Daedo; Min, Sang-Il; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tumor invasion to the portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) can be encountered during the surgery for pancreatic cancer. Venous reconstruction is required, but the optimal surgical methods and conduits remain in controversies. Methods From January 2007 to July 2012, 16 venous reconstructions were performed during surgery for pancreatic cancer in 14 patients. We analyzed the methods, conduits, graft patency, and patient survival. Results The involved veins were 14 SMVs and 2 PVs. The operative methods included resection and end-to-end anastomosis in 7 patients, wedge resection with venoplasty in 2 patients, bovine patch repair in 3 patients, and interposition graft with bovine patch in 1 patient. In one patient with a failed interposition graft with great saphenous vein (GSV), the SMV was reconstructed with a prosthetic interposition graft, which was revised with a spiral graft of GSV. Vascular morbidity occurred in 4 cases; occlusion of an interposition graft with GSV or polytetrafluoroethylene, segmental thrombosis and stenosis of the SMV after end-to-end anastomosis. Patency was maintained in patients with bovine patch angioplasty and spiral vein grafts. With mean follow-up of 9.8 months, the 6- and 12-month death-censored graft survival rates were both 81.3%. Conclusion Many of the involved vein segments were repaired primarily. When tension-free anastomosis is impossible, the spiral grafts with GSV or bovine patch grafts are good options to overcome the size mismatch between autologous vein graft and portomesenteric veins. Further follow-up of these patients is needed to demonstrate long-term patency. PMID:23741692

  1. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23978427

  2. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) include: A history of DVT. ... increase the risk of clotting. Injury to a deep vein from surgery, a broken bone, or other ...

  3. Intra-vascular leiomyoma of the popliteal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, R. J.; Armstrong, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    A large mass in the popliteal fossa was found to be a leiomyoma of the popliteal vein with portions of tumour both inside and outside the vein. This is only the second recorded case of a benign smooth muscle tumour of a peripheral vein. Images Figure 1 PMID:3174546

  4. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  5. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  6. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  7. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  8. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  9. Intermittent axillary vein obstruction in a competitive canoeist.

    PubMed Central

    Livesey, J R

    1990-01-01

    The case is reported of a competitive canoeist with intermittent axillary vein obstruction secondary to shoulder girdle muscle hypertrophy. The anatomy of the axilla, pathology of the axillary vein, and reported cases of sports injuries involving the axillary vein are discussed. This would appear to be the first report of such an occurrence in a canoeist. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2265314

  10. Prevalence of Isolated Asymptomatic Deep Vein Thrombosis in Varicose Vein Patients with Superficial Thrombophlebitis: A Single Center Experience in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Sadaaki; Shirato, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Toshimitsu; Ono, Hisako; Yabuki, Shiho; Jojima, Kumiko; Niimi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prevalence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with primary varicose veins remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Here, we conducted a retrospective study to clarify the incidence of asymptomatic DVT in patients with varicose veins, especially focusing on those with superficial thrombophlebitis (STP). Results: Among 431 patients with primary varicose veins with saphenous vein incompetence, 20 (4.64%) had asymptomatic DVT. The presence of STP was a significant risk factor for asymptomatic DVT as 10 of the 24 (41.7%) patients with STP had asymptomatic DVT, and all cases having calf muscle vein thrombosis. In contrast, of the patients with primary varicose veins without STP only 2.46% had asymptomatic DVT. Conclusions: In patients with primary varicose veins with STP, significant risk factors for DVT were being over C3 on the clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological (CEAP) classification. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 13–19.) PMID:27087866

  11. Retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome documented by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ann V; Moore, Grant H; Tsui, Irena

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome and unilateral glaucoma in his left eye. He was born with a port wine mark involving his upper left eyelid. On ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, he was found to have several vein-to-vein anastomoses in his left retina. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25944745

  12. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  13. Biometric Authentication Using Infrared Imaging of Hand Vein Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Shrotri, A.; Rethrekar, S. C.; Patil, M. H.; Alisherov, Farkhod A.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches for vein authentication, these are hand dorsa and hand ventral. Currently we are working on hand dorsa vein patterns. Here we are putting forward the new approach for low cost hand dorsa vein pattern acquisition using low cost device and proposing a algorithm to extract features from these low quality images.

  14. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  15. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  16. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  17. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  18. Stent fracture in the left brachiocephalic vein.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Shiba, Masanori; Tsuji, Takahiro; Iijima, Raisuke; Nakajima, Rintaro; Yoshitama, Takashi; Hara, Hidehiko; Hara, Hisao; Tsunoda, Taro; Nakamura, Masato

    2007-01-01

    A 68-year-old male hemodialysis patient presented with severe congestion in his left arm. Left arm venography showed a completely occluded left brachiocephalic vein. We chose a self-expandable stent for treating this vein. However, restenosis occurred once at 8 months and again after six additional months. The cause of the restenosis was considered to be a stent fracture. On the first restenosis, we performed redilation with a balloon; on the second restenosis, we chose stent-in-stent with a balloon-expandable stent. At least 9 months after the stent-in-stent procedure, there has been no edema in his left arm. Therefore, stent-in-stent is one of the useful strategies for stent fracture in central venous obstruction. PMID:17574169

  19. Emergency intravenous access through the femoral vein.

    PubMed

    Swanson, R S; Uhlig, P N; Gross, P L; McCabe, C J

    1984-04-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of femoral venous catheterization for resuscitation of critically ill patients in the emergency department setting. From May 1982 to April 1983, 100 attempts were made at percutaneous insertion of a large-bore catheter into the femoral veins of patients presenting to our emergency department in cardiac arrest or requiring rapid fluid resuscitation. Eighty-nine attempts were successful. Insertion was generally considered easy, and flow rates were excellent. The only noted complications were four arterial punctures and one minor groin hematoma. This study suggests that short-term percutaneous catheterization of the femoral vein provides rapid, safe, and effective intravenous access. PMID:6703430

  20. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-26

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  1. [How to do: central vein catheterization].

    PubMed

    Allgäuer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The cannulation of a central vein is a standard acces to the vascular system of critically ill patients. It can be used for administration of medication and parenteral nutrition, haemodynamic monitoring as well as hemodialsis via Shaldon catheter.The technique of implantation of a central venous catheter is described step by step in this article. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques and puncture sites as well as indications and contraindications are critically discussed regarding the most recent literature. PMID:26939103

  2. Percutaneous Transumbilical Portal Vein Embolization in a Patient with a Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by the portal vein that was successfully treated with portal vein embolization via a percutaneous transumbilical approach. A contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed the presence of a large hypervascular tumor on portal venous phase as well as right hepatic vein thrombosis and hemoperitoneum that prevented portal vein embolization by the use of the percutaneous and transjugular transhepatic approach. The use of percutaneous transumbilical portal vein embolization can be an alternative option in this situation.

  3. Comparison between mechanical properties of human saphenous vein and umbilical vein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a main cause of mortality in developed countries, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is known as silent killer with a considerable cost to be dedicated for its treatment. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is a common remedy for CAD for which different blood vessels are used as a detour. There is a lack of knowledge about mechanical properties of human blood vessels used for CABG, and while these properties have a great impact on long-term patency of a CABG. Thus, studying these properties, especially those of human umbilical veins which have not been considered yet, looks utterly necessary. Methods Umbilical vein, as well as human Saphenous vein, are respectively obtained after cesarean and CABG. First, histological tests were performed to investigate different fiber contents of the samples. Having prepared samples carefully, force-displacement results of samples were rendered to real stress–strain measurements and then a fourth-order polynomial was used to prove the non-linear behavior of these two vessels. Results Results were analyzed in two directions, i.e. circumferentially and longitudinally, which then were compared with each other. The comparison between stiffness and elasticity of these veins showed that Saphenous vein’s stiffness is much higher than that of umbilical vein and also, it is less stretchable. Furthermore, for both vessels, longitudinal stiffness was higher than that of circumferential and in stark contrast, stretch ratio in circumferential direction came much higher than longitudinal orientation. Conclusion Blood pressure is very high in the region of aorta, so there should be a stiff blood vessel in this area and previous investigations showed that stiffer vessels would have a better influence on the flow of bypass. To this end, the current study has made an attempt to compare these two blood vessels’ stiffness, finding that Saphenous vein is stiffer than umbilical vein which is somehow as stiff as rat aortic vessels. As

  4. The vertebral venous plexuses: the internal veins are muscular and external veins have valves.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Mark D; Restieaux, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda L; Crosado, Brynley

    2012-07-01

    The internal and external vertebral venous plexuses (VVP) extend the length of the vertebral column. Authoritative sources state that these veins are devoid of valves, permitting bidirectional blood flow and facilitating the hematogenous spread of malignant tumors that have venous connections with these plexuses. The aim of this investigation was to identify morphologic features that might influence blood flow in the VVP. The VVP of 12 adult cadavers (seven female, mean age 79.5 years) were examined by macro- and micro-dissection and representative veins removed for histology and immunohistochemistry (smooth muscle antibody staining). A total of 26, mostly bicuspid, valves were identified in 19 of 56 veins (34%) from the external VVP, all orientated to promote blood flow towards the internal VVP. The internal VVP was characterized by four main longitudinal channels with transverse interconnections; the maximum caliber of the longitudinal anterior internal VVP veins was significantly greater than their posterior counterparts (P < 0.001). The luminal architecture of the internal VVP veins was striking, consisting of numerous bridging trabeculae (cords, thin membranes and thick bridges) predominantly within the longitudinal venous channels. Trabeculae were composed of collagen and smooth muscle and also contained numerous small arteries and nerve fibers. A similar internal venous trabecular meshwork is known to exist within the dural venous sinuses of the skull. It may serve to prevent venous overdistension or collapse, to regulate the direction and velocity of venous blood flow, or is possibly involved in thermoregulation or other homeostatic processes. PMID:21976364

  5. Quantitative modeling of quartz vein sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Frank; Okamoto, Atsushi; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Enzmann, Frieder; Blum, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly effects many aspects of fluid-rock interaction across all length scales, as the dynamical change of permeability, of mechanical interaction and redistribution of dissolved material. The hydrothermal growth of quartz establishes one of the most important mineralization processes in fractures. Tectonically caused fracturing, deformation and fluid transport leaves clear detectable traces in the microstructure of the mineralized veins. As these patterns give hints on the deformation history and the fluid pathways through former fracture networks, accurate spatio-temporal modeling of vein mineralization is of special interest, and the objective of this study. Due to the intricate polycrystalline geometries involved, the underlying physical processes like diffusion, advection and crystal growth have to be captured at the grain scale. To this end, we adapt a thermodynamically consistent phase-field model (PFM), which combines a kinetic growth law and mass transport equations with irreversible thermodynamics of interfaces and bulk phases. Each grain in the simulation domain is captured by a phase field with individual orientation given by three Euler angles. The model evolves in discrete time steps using a finite difference algorithm on a regular grid, optimized for large grain assemblies. The underlying processes are highly nonlinear, and for geological samples, boundary conditions as well as many of the physical parameters are not precisely known. One motivation in this study is to validate the adequately parameterized model vs. hydrothermal experiments under defined (p,T,c) conditions. Different from former approaches in vein growth simulation, the PFM is configured using thermodynamic data from established geochemical models. Previously conducted batch flow experiments of hydrothermal quartz growth were analyzed with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and used to calibrate the unknown kinetic anisotropy parameters. In the

  6. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Ryuhei; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Jun; Deguchi, Juno; Miyata, Tetsuro

    2009-04-14

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm{sup 2}, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10{sup -5}. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  7. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  8. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  9. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist® was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  10. Auxin Is Required for Leaf Vein Pattern in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Sieburth, Leslie E.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate possible roles of polar auxin transport in vein patterning, cotyledon and leaf vein patterns were compared for plants grown in medium containing polar auxin transport inhibitors (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) and in medium containing a less well-characterized inhibitor of auxin-mediated processes, 2-(p-chlorophynoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid. Cotyledon vein pattern was not affected by any inhibitor treatments, although vein morphology was altered. In contrast, leaf vein pattern was affected by inhibitor treatments. Growth in polar auxin transport inhibitors resulted in leaves that lacked vascular continuity through the petiole and had broad, loosely organized midveins, an increased number of secondary veins, and a dense band of misshapen tracheary elements adjacent to the leaf margin. Analysis of leaf vein pattern developmental time courses suggested that the primary vein did not develop in polar auxin transport inhibitor-grown plants, and that the broad midvein observed in these seedlings resulted from the coalescence of proximal regions of secondary veins. Possible models for leaf vein patterning that could account for these observations are discussed. PMID:10594105

  11. Auxin is required for leaf vein pattern in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sieburth, L E

    1999-12-01

    To investigate possible roles of polar auxin transport in vein patterning, cotyledon and leaf vein patterns were compared for plants grown in medium containing polar auxin transport inhibitors (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) and in medium containing a less well-characterized inhibitor of auxin-mediated processes, 2-(p-chlorophynoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid. Cotyledon vein pattern was not affected by any inhibitor treatments, although vein morphology was altered. In contrast, leaf vein pattern was affected by inhibitor treatments. Growth in polar auxin transport inhibitors resulted in leaves that lacked vascular continuity through the petiole and had broad, loosely organized midveins, an increased number of secondary veins, and a dense band of misshapen tracheary elements adjacent to the leaf margin. Analysis of leaf vein pattern developmental time courses suggested that the primary vein did not develop in polar auxin transport inhibitor-grown plants, and that the broad midvein observed in these seedlings resulted from the coalescence of proximal regions of secondary veins. Possible models for leaf vein patterning that could account for these observations are discussed. PMID:10594105

  12. On the phenomenology of the perforating vein of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    The perforating veins, as the name suggests, are the veins that perforate the muscular aponeuroses ensuring communication between the superficial and the deep veins. Located at the bend of the elbow, almost constantly, there is a vein, named perforating vein of the elbow, which is of great interest to the nephrologist who is responsible for the management of vascular access for hemodialysis (HD). It represents, in fact, because of its intrinsic characteristics and topographical reasons, a valuable resource for the creation of a vascular access for HD, especially in obese patients, elderly patients, diabetics, and patients affected by peripheral vasculopathy. Arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) constructed with the perforating vein of the elbow are relatively easy to perform, have an excellent patency rate, a low incidence of early thrombosis, adequate flows, and a low incidence of the steal syndrome. In other types of AVFs, the perforating vein of the elbow subtracts flow to the superficial veins slowing or preventing their full maturation, and can become a problem in measuring the blood flow of the AVF. But still, its presence can maintain patent a fistula in case of poor compliance of the superficial veins, while awaiting for interventional procedures able to accelerate a subsequent maturation. This review intends to explore the role that the perforating vein of the elbow plays in the physiology and pathology of the AVF, in relation to the issues that most frequently occur in clinical practice. PMID:19573011

  13. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as

  14. Endovenectomy of the common femoral vein and intraoperative iliac vein recanalization for chronic iliofemoral venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Comerota, Anthony J; Grewal, Nina K; Thakur, Subhash; Assi, Zacaria

    2010-07-01

    Chronic postthrombotic occlusion of the iliofemoral venous segments produces severe morbidity, which can be alleviated if venous drainage is restored. The common femoral vein (CFV) cannot always be fully recanalized with percutaneous endovenous techniques alone. We report the technique combining operative endovenectomy and patch venoplasty of the CFV with intraoperative iliac vein venoplasty and stenting to restore unobstructed venous drainage from the infrainguinal venous system to the vena cava. This procedure led to reduced pain, edema, and healing of a long-standing venous ulcer, with a marked reduction in postthrombotic morbidity. PMID:20620770

  15. Chemical gradients and progressive veining in a partly serpentinized harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther; Caddick, Mark; Beard, James; Bodnar, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks constitute a major part of the oceanic lithosphere. They form when water interacts with olivine and pyroxene to produce a dense network of veins comprised of secondary minerals: Serpentine + brucite ± magnetite veins occur in olivine, Al-rich serpentine + talc veins occur in orthopyroxene, and Al-rich serpentine ± talc ± brucite veins occur at the boundary between orthopyroxene and olivine. Here, we present a detailed study on a harzburgite from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica that is ~30% serpentinized in order to provide new constraints on the effect of variable water (H2O) and silica (SiO2) activities on vein formation in peridotites. The studied sample records 1) mineralogical and chemical zonations in olivine-hosted veins that show a distinct pattern with increasing width of the veins (consumption of olivine), 2) varying brucite composition depending on whether or not it is associated with magnetite, and 3) chemical gradients in Si, Al, Cr, and Ca at the boundary between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. These observed chemical variations suggest fluid mediated mass transport within and between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. We use thermodynamic models to show that an increase in vein width and progressive evolution of olivine-hosted veins is accompanied by an increase in water-rock ratios. This is associated with the development of chemical gradients (e.g. gradients in water and silica activity) between the fluid-rich center of serpentine veins and the olivine grain boundaries as typically expressed by the abundance of brucite in the vein center and a dominance of serpentine at the boundary with olivine. The increase in water-rock ratios within the vein center also leads to the formation of magnetite from Fe-rich brucite ± Fe-rich serpentine. Mass transfer between vein core and vein rim may exist on the submicron-scale along grain boundaries of the finely intergrown serpentine-brucite mixture. We

  16. Incomplete transposition of the common femoral artery and vein.

    PubMed

    Leite, J O; Carvalho Ventura, I; Botelho, F E; Costa Galvao, W

    2010-02-01

    Anatomical variations of the great saphenous vein, femoral artery and femoral vein at the inguinal level are rare. Modifications in the anatomical relationships among theses vessel can cause technical difficulties. There are two reports in the literature of the complete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Both patients had large varicose veins only in the limb that presented the variation, which suggested an extrinsic compression. In the present paper, we report a case study of a patient with an incomplete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Specifically, the common femoral vein and the saphenofemoral junction were completely overlapped by the common femoral artery. Although this anatomical variation did not present any clinical signs, it required a more complex surgical procedure. PMID:20224538

  17. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Fortuna, Marek; Zaniewski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:23097738

  18. Science Linking Pulmonary Veins and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Saagar; Sacher, Frederic; Derval, Nicolas; Berte, Benjamin; Yamashita, Seigo; Hooks, Darren; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic basis of atrial fibrillation (AF). One of the most important discoveries in this context has been that pulmonary veins (PV) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AF. PV isolation has since become the most widely used technique for treatment of paroxysmal AF. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of PVs create a proarrhythmogenic substrate. The following review discusses the mechanistic links between PVs and AF. PMID:26835098

  19. Science Linking Pulmonary Veins and Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mahida, Saagar; Sacher, Frederic; Derval, Nicolas; Berte, Benjamin; Yamashita, Seigo; Hooks, Darren; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic basis of atrial fibrillation (AF). One of the most important discoveries in this context has been that pulmonary veins (PV) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AF. PV isolation has since become the most widely used technique for treatment of paroxysmal AF. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of PVs create a proarrhythmogenic substrate. The following review discusses the mechanistic links between PVs and AF. PMID:26835098

  20. Saphenous vein graft aneurysm: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Ahmet Seyfeddin; Ozturk, Semi; Acar, Emrah; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kilicgedik, Alev; Kirma, Cevat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Saphenous vein graft aneurysms (SVGAs) are rare seen issues after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation which may lead to major complications including compression of adjacent structure, myocardial ischemia, rupture, and even death. CASE REPORT We report a patient with recurrent SVGA and its treatment by percutaneous intervention with a covered stent, the diagnostic and treatment procedure were based on contrast enhanced computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). CONCLUSION Multimodality imaging is required to demonstrate the true size and complications of the SVGA, the relationship among the adjacent structure, and to assess ischemia and size of myocardial territory supplied by the aneurysmal graft to decide treatment strategy.

  1. Computed tomography findings in pseudothrombosis of the iliofemoral vein.

    PubMed

    Desai, Gaurav; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Webb, Emily M; Coakley, Fergus V

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography findings in 3 patients with apparent thrombosis of an iliofemoral vein due to mixing artifact related to venous collateral formation are presented, 1 with portosystemic collaterals and 2 with collaterals secondary to subclavian vein thrombosis. Mixing artifact or asymmetric enhancement related to collateral formation should be considered for an apparent thrombus in the iliofemoral vein. Examination of axial and reformatted images may facilitate recognition and help avoid an erroneous diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. PMID:20118738

  2. Endovenous saphenous vein ablation in patients with acute isolated superficial-vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The possible benefits of endovenous saphenous ablation (EVSA) as initial treatment in patients presenting with isolated superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT) and saphenous vein reflux include: (1) definitive treatment of the underlying pathology and (2) elimination of the saphenous vein as a path for pulmonary emboli, which (3) may eliminate the need for anticoagulation. Methods: In a ten-year review of 115 limbs presenting with acute isolated SVT, 72 limbs (71 patients) with saphenous reflux were given a choice of two treatments following an explanation of the risks and benefits of each. Group I limbs (n = 41) were treated with office EVSA using radiofrequency or laser with or without thrombophlebectomy if performed within 45 days of diagnosis. Post-treatment anticoagulants were not given. Group II limbs (n = 31) were treated with compression hose and repeat Duplex within one week, with added anticoagulants if SVT extended into the thigh. Results: In group I, mean interval from diagnosis to treatment was 13.7 days. One calf deep vein thrombosis was noted. In group II no complications were noted. In late follow-up of group II patients, 12/29 underwent EVSA more than 45 days after initial presentation. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of EVSA and thrombophlebectomy appear indistinguishable from conservative measures and may be offered as initial treatment to patients presenting with SVT and saphenous reflux. PMID:24307241

  3. The fate of calf perforator veins after saphenous vein laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess hemodynamic changes in calf perforator veins (PVs) after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of saphenous veins. METHODS The series comprised 60 limbs of 41 patients (27 female, 14 male; median age, 43 years [range, 22–78 years]) who underwent EVLA for varicose veins. All patients were prospectively evaluated by means of color Doppler ultrasonography before and after the procedure. RESULTS EVLA did not change the rate of incompetent PVs (preoperatively, 154/483 [32%] vs. postoperatively, 167/501 [33%]; P = 0.173), but significantly increased the total number of all PVs (n=483 vs. n=501, P = 0.036). Following EVLA, 28% of the limbs had thrombosis of PVs, 34% had new US-detectable PVs, 42% showed new competency, and 52% showed new incompetency. New competent PVs were found more commonly in the medial leg (ablation site) than the lateral leg (nonablation site) (28.3% vs. 11.7%, P = 0.016), while new incompetent PVs were found more commonly in nonablation site than ablation site (31.7% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.086). Additionally, new competent PVs in the posterior leg were found more often in patients who had small saphenous vein ablation than patients who did not (30% vs. 0%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION EVLA induces numerous changes in calf PVs. These changes seem to result from flow offloading in ablation site and onloading in nonablation site in the early postablation period. PMID:26268299

  4. [Role of embryogenesis of the left renal vein and spermatic veins in etiopathogenesis of idiopathic varicocele].

    PubMed

    Gioffrè, L; Bosco, M R; Meloni, V

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this work was to clearly illustrate that the haemodynamic pathogenesis of the varicocele can be a consequence of a retrograde flux along the internal spermatic vein. The reflux is due to the use of a different path of drainage along the internal spermatic vein, which uses some collateral routes of the vessel, and mainly the nephrogenital branch. The diminishing pressure in the final segment of the internal spermatic vein is the focal points of the pathogenesis of the disease. The ontogenetic processes that lead to the formation of the left renal vein help in explaining the almost general one-sidedness of the disorder, its frequency and the fact that it is mostly the young who are affected by it. In fact, the variability of the timing and of the extension of the involution of the primitive venous system and of the processes of evolution which lead to the morphological definition of the tracts of the genital flow down, lead to the various manifestations of the idiopathic varicocele. This theory which also takes into account the physiological mechanisms of the venous drainage to the testicle in an anti-gravitation sense is part of the patterns that, under the diaphragm, rule the entire venous return of the blood toward to the heart. PMID:11816942

  5. Gene therapy for the prevention of vein graft disease

    PubMed Central

    Southerland, Kevin W.; Frazier, Sarah B.; Bowles, Dawn E.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in the medical management of atherosclerosis over the past several decades, many patients require arterial revascularization to reduce mortality and alleviate ischemic symptoms. Technological advancements have led to dramatic increases in the use of percutaneous and endovascular approaches, yet surgical revascularization (bypass surgery) with autologous vein grafts remains a mainstay of therapy for both coronary and peripheral artery disease. Although bypass surgery is highly efficacious in the short-term, long-term outcomes are limited by relatively high failure rates as a result of intimal hyperplasia, which is a common feature of vein graft disease. The supply of native veins is limited, and many individuals require multiple grafts and repeat procedures. The need to prevent vein graft failure has led to great interest in gene therapy approaches to this problem. Bypass grafting presents an ideal opportunity for gene therapy, as surgically harvested vein grafts can be treated with gene delivery vectors ex vivo, thereby maximizing gene delivery while minimizing the potential for systemic toxicity and targeting the pathogenesis of vein graft disease at its onset. Here we will review the pathogenesis of vein graft disease and discuss vector delivery strategies and potential molecular targets for its prevention. We will summarize the preclinical and clinical literature on gene therapy in vein grafting and discuss additional considerations for future therapies to prevent vein graft disease. PMID:23274305

  6. Portal vein involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma: dynamic CT features

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, D.; Grenier, P.; Larde, D.; Vasile, N.

    1984-07-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective examination of 62 hepatocellular carcinomas, taking dynamic CT scans of selected sections after an intravenous contrast bolus. The proximal portal vein was involved in 40% of cases and distal segment in 16%. Angiographic correlation was available in 23 patients. The characteristic appearance of tumor within the portal vein was noted in many cases; in others, distinction between tumor and bland thrombus could not be made. Peripheral portal vein obstruction was suggested when a small, hypervascular tumor became hypodense during the portal phase of CT. The frequency and significance of these CT signs of portal vein involvement are discussed.

  7. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  8. Finger-Vein Verification Based on Multi-Features Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  9. [Postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis--case report].

    PubMed

    Paulowitz, H P; Fenzl, G; Spitzer, D; Sattlegger, P; Lundwall, K

    1994-01-01

    Because of the low incidence and the lack of clinical symptomatology, puerperal ovarian vein thrombophlebitis has constituted a diagnostic problem now as ever, and diagnostic errors are frequent. With the help of US and CT, however, the chances of early detection have improved. On the 26-year old patient P. C. a section had to be performed in the 34th week of pregnancy because of premature rupture of the bag of waters. On the 7th postoperative day, the patient developed pyrexia inspite of antibiotic therapy. Sonographical examinated lead us to suspect a floating thrombus in the vena cava inferior. It was in the CT that the diagnosis of ovarian vein thrombosis was made for the first time. On the 13th day post partum a laparotomy and exstirpation of the v.ovarica dextra with removal of the thrombus plug from the v.cava inferior infrarenally was performed. Primarily, conservative treatment is given preference if the development is uncomplicated; operative sanitation is undertaken in case of difficulties only. PMID:7856209

  10. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  11. Preserved saphenous vein allografts for vascular access.

    PubMed

    Piccone, V A; Sika, J; Ahmed, N; LeVeen, H H; DiScala, V

    1978-09-01

    Preserved venous allografts were used as an alternate access procedure in 70 patients receiving dialysis during a three year period. The clinical experience with allograft fistulas revealed an extremely high initial patency rate; absence of infection postoperatively and during three years of dialysis; suitability for dialysis a week after implantation, thus greatly obviating the need for Silastic shunts; a low long term thrombosis rate and the weakly antigenic allograft veins produced no accelerated rejection of subsequently transplanted kidneys. Surviving patients average 172 dialysis treatments per allograft. Allograft fistulas constituted 45 per cent of the last 100 vascular procedures, an indication of the extent of usage. Microscopic examination of grafts retrieved from patients who died during the late follow-up period demonstrated that structural components of the wall of the vein were still identifiable. Allograft venous fistulas offer dependable, safe vascular access, especially in the infection prone patient with diabetes who is receiving dialysis treatment. The clinical results of allograft fistulas suggests a major role for this technique in vascular access operations. PMID:684591

  12. Complications of cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Canhâo, P

    2008-01-01

    Thrombosis of the dural sinus and encephalic veins (CVT) is an infrequent condition accounting for less than 1% of all strokes. Several recent prospective series, in particular the large International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis cohort, definitely have shown a more benign prognosis compared with that of arterial strokes: CVT has an acute case fatality of less than 5%, and almost 80% of patients recover without sequelae. However, patients surviving the acute phase of CVT are at risk of a number of complications such as recurrence of any thrombotic events in about 7%, recurrence of CVT in about 2-12%, seizures in 5 to 32%, visual loss due to optic atrophy in percentages that range from less than 1 to 5%, presence of dural fistula (there are no data available about exact frequency) and neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric sequelae characterized by aphasia, abulia and depression. However, there is only little information on the long-term neuropsychological outcome. Studies investigating professional status, cognitive performance, depressive symptoms and quality of life evidenced depression and anxiety in 2/3 of CVT patients despite an apparent good recovery in 87% of these patients. Thus, patients should be encouraged to return to previous occupations and hobbies and reassured about the very low risk of recurrence. PMID:18004061

  13. Proteoglycans from human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Griesmacher, A; Hennes, R; Keller, R; Greiling, H

    1987-10-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with [35S]sulphate and investigated for their proteoglycan production. By gel chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and CsCl density-gradient centrifugation we obtained preparative amounts of the endothelial proteoheparan sulphate HSI and of proteochondroitin sulphate from the conditioned medium of mass-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Approximately 90% of the 35S-labeled material in the endothelial cell conditioned medium was proteochondroitin sulphate. This molecule, with a molecular mass of 180-200 kDa, contains four side-chains of 35-40 kDa and a core protein of 35-40 kDa. Two proteoheparan sulphate forms (HSI and HSII) from the conditioned medium were distinguished by molecular mass and transport kinetics from the cell layer to the medium in pulse-chase experiments. One major form (HSI), with an approximate molecular mass of 160-200 kDa a core protein of 55-60 kDa and three to four polysaccharide side-chains of 35 kDa each, was found enriched in the cellular membrane pellet. Another proteoheparan sulphate (HSII), with polysaccharide moieties of 20 kDa, is enriched in the subendothelial matrix (substratum). PMID:2959475

  14. Neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm with thrombosis: prompt treatment should be needed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Yu, Hyeong Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jo, Heui Seung

    2015-12-01

    Vitelline veins are a pair of embryonic structures. The veins develop the portal vein system. Serious problems occur if the vitelline vein does not regress and becomes an aneurysm. Thrombus formation in the vitelline vein aneurysm could lead to portal vein thrombosis and portal hypertension unless promptly and correctly treated. Though vitelline vein aneurysm is an extremely rare anomaly, it rapidly progresses to portal vein thrombosis that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We reported a case of neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm and thrombosis that was cured by prompt operation. PMID:26665130

  15. Arterialization and anomalous vein wall remodeling in varicose veins is associated with upregulated FoxC2-Dll4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sumi; S Ramegowda, Kalpana; Suresh, Aarcha; Binil Raj, S S; Lakkappa, Ravi Kumar B; Kamalapurkar, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, N; C Kartha, Chandrasekharan

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins of lower extremities are a heritable common disorder. Mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still vague. Structural failures such as valve weakness and wall dilatation in saphenous vein result in venous retrograde flow in lower extremities of body. Reflux of blood leads to distal high venous pressure resulting in distended veins. In an earlier study, we observed a positive association between c.-512C>T FoxC2 gene polymorphism and upregulated FoxC2 expression in varicose vein specimens. FoxC2 overexpression in vitro in venous endothelial cells resulted in the elevated mRNA expression of arterial endothelial markers such as Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 2 (Hey2). We hypothesized that an altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling underlies saphenous vein wall remodeling in patients with varicose veins. Saphenous veins specimens were collected from 22 patients with varicose veins and 20 control subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections were immunostained for Dll4, Hey2, EphrinB2, α-SMA, Vimentin, and CD31 antigens and examined under microscope. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. An examination of varicose vein tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry indicated an elevated expression of Notch pathway components, such as Dll4, Hey2, and EphrinB2, and smooth muscle markers, which was further confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses. We conclude that the molecular alterations in Dll4-Hey2 signaling are associated with smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in varicose veins. Our observations substantiate a significant role for altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling in structural alterations of saphenous veins in patients with varicose veins. PMID:26808710

  16. Extrinsic and intrinsic veins of the equine hoof wall.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, P C; Leach, D H

    1983-01-01

    The extrinsic and intrinsic venous drainage of the equine hoof have previously been poorly described. There is also an absence of information about the venous organisation of both primary and secondary dermal lamellae of the hoof wall. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal venous pattern of the horse hoof, especially that associated with the dermal lamellae of the wall. The venous organisation of 46 pairs of hooves from clinically healthy horses was studied using standard plastic vascular corrosion casts and histological sections. A consistent pattern of venous organisation was observed in the toe, quarter and heel regions. Veins in the proximal half of the wall corium form an exteriorly and an interiorly located venous plexus, while in the distal wall corium only an exteriorly located venous plexus is present. The wall corium of the toe and quarters is drained primarily by veins contributing to the coronary venous plexus and to the circumflex vein. In the heel regions this venous drainage network is supplemented by tributaries of the caudal hoof vein, independent superficial vein and anastomotic branches from the circumflex vein to the inner venous plexus. Because of this supplementary venous return the heel region is apparently better drained than other areas of the hoof wall. The wall corium is drained distally by the circumflex vein. The coronary venous plexus is composed of an exteriorly situated short superficial collecting venous plexus and an interiorly situated deep collecting venous plexus. The short superficial collecting veins, which drain the proliferating zone of epidermis of the coronary border, connect directly to the coronary and subcoronary veins. The deep collecting veins drain only the proximal wall corium. Most of the veins that drain the major portions of venous blood from the hoof are situated at the palmar aspect of the digit. These veins drain venous blood from the coronary venous plexus, the inner venous plexus and the

  17. Distribution of saphenous vein valves and its pratical importance

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, Isabella Batista Martins; Ribeiro, Igor de Lima; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando; Monte-Bispo, Rodrigo Freitas; da Rocha, Amauri Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among the veins used as a graft in myocardial revascularizations and ends, great saphenous vein is the most used. Knowing the presence and location of valves has great importance when evaluating the surgical anatomy of the great saphenous vein. Despite major surgical application and many works involving great saphenous vein, the number of valves present in it from the saphenous hiatus to the medial epicondyle of the femur is still described inaccurately. The objective of this study is to quantify the valves of the great saphenous vein from the saphenous hiatus to the medial epicondyle of the femur to determine the best portion of the great saphenous vein to perform revascularization surgeries. Methods This is a crosssectional observational study in which it was analyzed great saphenous vein extracted from 30 cadavers. It was measured the length of the veins; (diameter) at its proximal, middle and distal, quantifying the number of valves in each one and the total number of valves at the great saphenous vein. Results The frequency of valves in the great saphenous vein taken from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the saphenous hiatus was 4.82, ranging between 2 and 9. Moreover, there is a significant difference in the number of valves in the proximal and distal relative to the average. Conclusion the median and distal portions of the saphenous vein in the thigh, are the best options for the realization of bridges due to the fact that these portions have fewer valves which therefore would tend to decrease the risk of complications connected with the valves in these grafts. PMID:25714210

  18. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  19. The Incidence and Ecology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of vein yellowing and bush decline in blackberry were attributed to infection by a novel crinivirus named Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV). The disease is an emerging threat to blackberry production as it can cause substantial yield loss. The objective of this study was to id...

  20. [Hemostasis of the preprostatic veins in total cystoprostatectomy. Anatomical bases].

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Quillard, J; Delmas, V; Gillot, C; Steg, A

    1984-05-26

    An anatomical study has enabled the authors to propose a diagrammatic description of pre-prostatic veins, the haemostasis of which is one of the difficult stages in total cystoprostatectomy for cancer. These veins are surrounded by the pubovesical ligaments but they are separated from the membranous urethra by a cleavage plane which can be used to control venous bleeding. PMID:6233576

  1. Perivascular mast cells regulate vein graft neointimal formation and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Grassia, Gianluca; Cambrook, Helen; Ialenti, Armando; MacRitchie, Neil; Carberry, Jaclyn; Lawrence, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emerging evidence suggests an important role for mast cells in vein graft failure. This study addressed the hypothesis that perivascular mast cells regulate in situ vascular inflammatory and proliferative responses and subsequent vein graft neointimal lesion formation, using an optimized local mast cell reconstitution method. Methods and Results. Neointimal hyperplasia was induced by insertion of a vein graft into the right carotid artery in wild type and mast cell deficient KitW−sh/W−sh mice. In some experiments, mast cells were reconstituted systemically (tail vein injection of bone marrow-derived mast cells) or locally (directly into the right neck area) prior to vein grafting. Vein graft neointimal lesion formation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in KitW−sh/W−sh mice. Mast cell deficiency reduced the number of proliferating cells, and inhibited L-selectin, CCL2, M-CSF and MIP-3α expression in the vein grafts. Local but not systemic mast cell reconstitution restored a perivascular mast cell population that subsequently promoted neointimal formation in mast cell deficient mice. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that perivascular mast cells play a key role in promoting neointima formation by inducing local acute inflammatory and proliferative responses. These results suggest that ex vivo intraoperative targeting of mast cells may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of pathological vein graft remodeling. PMID:26312183

  2. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV) drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications. PMID:26457221

  3. Portal Vein Embolization: What Do We Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, Alban; Prior, John; Bize, Pierre; Duran, Rafael; Baere, Thierry De; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas

    2012-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) has been developed to increase the size of the future remnant liver (FRL) left in place after major hepatectomy, thus reducing the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. PVE consist in embolizing preoperatively portal branches of the segments that will be resected. Indication is based on preoperative measurements of the FRL by computed tomography and its ratio with either the theoretical liver volume or by direct measurement of the functional liver volume. After PVE, the volume and function of the FRL increases in 3 to 6 weeks, permitting extensive resections in patients otherwise contraindicated for liver resection. The PVE technique is variable from one center to another; however n-butyl-cyano-acrylate provides an interesting compromise between hypertrophy rate and procedure risk.

  4. Functional total anomalous pulmonary venous connection via levoatriocardinal vein.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Taiyu; Ozawa, Katsusuke; Sugibayashi, Rika; Wada, Seiji; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report a fetal case of double outlet right ventricle, mitral atresia, and intact atrial septum. Although the pulmonary veins were connected to the left atrium, pulmonary venous blood drained into the right superior vena cava via the stenotic levoatriocardinal vein (LACV), which resulted in a circulation resembling total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) with pulmonary venous obstruction. Since the pulmonary veins were connected to both the stenotic LACV and the "dead-end" left atrium, the pulmonary venous flow had a to-and-fro pattern along with atrial relaxation and contraction. Postnatal echocardiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV. Surgical creation of an atrial septal defect on the day of birth successfully relieved pulmonary venous obstruction. Normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV should be considered for TAPVC differential diagnosis in fetuses with a left-side heart obstruction. PMID:27460400

  5. A novel technique for hepatic vein reconstruction during hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Surjan, Rodrigo C; Basseres, Tiago; Pajecki, Denis; Puzzo, Daniel B; Makdissi, Fabio F; Machado, Marcel A C; Battilana, Alexandre Gustavo Bellorio

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for malignant liver tumours. Nevertheless, surgical approach to tumours located close to the confluence of the hepatic veins is a challenging issue. Trisectionectomies are considered the first curative option for treatment of these tumours. However, those procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates primarily due to post-operative liver failure. Thus, maximal preservation of functional liver parenchyma should always be attempted. We describe the isolated resection of Segment 8 for the treatment of a tumour involving the right hepatic vein and in contact with the middle hepatic vein and retrohepatic vena cava with immediate reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with a vascular graft. This is the first time this type of reconstruction was performed, and it allowed to preserve all but one of the hepatic segments with normal venous outflow. This innovative technique is a fast and safe method to reconstruct hepatic veins. PMID:27076622

  6. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  7. Spontaneous common iliac vein rupture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    DePass, Ian E.

    1998-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman, admitted because of acute lower quadrant abdominal pain but no history of trauma, underwent laparotomy for a suspected ruptured aortic aneurysm. Exploration revealed a 20-mm longitudinal tear in the left iliac vein. The vein was repaired primarily. Her postoperative course was complicated by deep vein thrombosis. Spontaneous rupture of the iliac vein without trauma is rare. but occurs predominantly in healthy white women between the ages of 40 and 80 years. Various causative mechanisms have been described: inflammation of the vessel wall secondary to thrombophlebitis, proximal obstruction of the iliac vein and spontaneous rupture without obstruction or thrombosis. In many cases an increase in intra-abdominal pressure is noted. PMID:9854541

  8. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  9. Clinical Features and Developing Risks of Saphenous Vein Thrombophlebitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical features and the risks of 14 patients with 14 limbs affected by saphenous vein thrombophlebitis from April 2007 to May 2013 and compared the results with patients undergoing operative repair of varicose veins (127 patients, 193 limbs) during the study period. The frequency of patients with a body mass index over 25 (78.6% vs. 35.3%, p = 0.0018), varicose change in the saphenous vein (78.6% vs. 6.2%, p <0.0001), and concurrent thrombosis in another vein (50.0% vs. 7.1%, p <0.0001) were all significantly higher than those of the patients under operative repair for varicose veins. These patients with clinical features above may be at an elevated risk of thrombophlebitis of the saphenous trunk. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2014; 54: 151–157). PMID:27375800

  10. A novel technique for hepatic vein reconstruction during hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Surjan, Rodrigo C.; Basseres, Tiago; Pajecki, Denis; Puzzo, Daniel B.; Makdissi, Fabio F.; Machado, Marcel A.C.; Battilana, Alexandre Gustavo Bellorio

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for malignant liver tumours. Nevertheless, surgical approach to tumours located close to the confluence of the hepatic veins is a challenging issue. Trisectionectomies are considered the first curative option for treatment of these tumours. However, those procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates primarily due to post-operative liver failure. Thus, maximal preservation of functional liver parenchyma should always be attempted. We describe the isolated resection of Segment 8 for the treatment of a tumour involving the right hepatic vein and in contact with the middle hepatic vein and retrohepatic vena cava with immediate reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with a vascular graft. This is the first time this type of reconstruction was performed, and it allowed to preserve all but one of the hepatic segments with normal venous outflow. This innovative technique is a fast and safe method to reconstruct hepatic veins. PMID:27076622

  11. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrocky, Tomas; Kettenbach, Joachim; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben Kara, Levent

    2015-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.

  12. Renal Arcuate Vein Microthrombi-Associated AKI

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, Andrew; Mahmoud, Huda; McCulloch, Tom; Shardlow, Adam; Hall, Matthew; Byrne, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and objectives This report describes six patients with AKI stages 2–3 (median admission creatinine level, 2.75 mg/dl [range, 1.58–5.44 mg/dl]), hematuria (five with hemoproteinuria), and unremarkable imaging with an unusual and unexplained histologic diagnosis on renal biopsy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The patients were young adults who presented to two neighboring United Kingdom nephrology centers over a 40-month period (between July 2010 and November 2013). Four were male, and the median age was 22.5 years (range, 18–27 years). Their principal symptoms were flank pain or lower back pain. All had consumed alcohol in the days leading up to admission. Results Renal biopsy demonstrated microthrombi in the renal arcuate veins with a corresponding stereotypical, localized inflammatory infiltrate at the corticomedullary junction. All patients recovered to baseline renal function with supportive care (median, 17 days; range, 6–60 days), and none required RRT. To date, additional investigations have not revealed an underlying cause for these histopathologic changes. Investigations have included screening for thrombophilic tendencies, renal vein Doppler ultrasonographic studies, and testing for recreational drugs and alcohol (including liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry of urine) to look for so-called designer drugs. Inquiries to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Centre have identified no other cases with similar presentation or histologic findings. Conclusions Increased awareness and additional study of future cases may lead to a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that caused AKI in these patients. PMID:25452224

  13. Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*

    PubMed Central

    LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

  14. Combined portal vein resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tao; Chen, Jie; Xie, Zhi-Bo; Ma, Liang; Liu, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the only curative therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). Combined portal vein resection (PVR) could achieve negative resection margins in HCCA patients with portal vein invasion. This systematic review aimed to analysis the efficiency of combined PVR for HCCA. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and clinical trial registries were searched through April 2015. Risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: The analysis included 21 retrospective studies, altogether involving 2403 patients (patients with PVR, n=637; patients without PVR, n=1766). Patients with PVR were likely to have more advanced HCCA (lymphatic invasion: RR=1.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28; perineural invasion: RR=1.31, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63) and suffered less curative resections (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). Postoperative morbidity was similar between patients with or without PVR (RR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02). Patients with PVR suffered higher mortality rate (RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.18), and worse 5-year survival rate (RR=0.67, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.91). Conclusion: Combined PVR for HCCA patients would not increase postoperative morbidity rate. However, ascribed to PVR group concluded more advanced HCCA patients; patients with PVR had increased postoperative mortality rate and worse survival rate. The results still need further high quality trails for validation. PMID:26885035

  15. What is effective care for varicose veins?

    PubMed

    Meissner, Mark H

    2016-03-01

    Varicose veins affect one-quarter to one-third of Western adult populations and consume an increasing amount of health care resources. Much of this increased utilization has been driven by the advent of minimally invasive technology including endovenous thermal ablation, foam sclerotherapy, and more recently mechanicochemical and cyanoacrylate glue ablation. This has largely been driven by patient and physician preferences in the absence of robust evidence that one therapy is truly superior to another. This partially arises from misunderstandings about appropriate outcomes measures and what truly constitutes effective treatment of varicose veins. Technical outcomes, such as saphenous closure rates, have frequently been used as surrogates for effective treatment but are poorly correlated with symptom improvement, quality of life, and risk of recurrence. Although there does appear to be a trend towards higher recurrence with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, the data are occasionally conflicting and there does not appear to be substantial differences between the various modalities. Similarly, there do not appear to be major differences in late quality of life measures between these treatment options. As long-term differences in recurrence and quality of life are small, overall cost effectiveness is driven primarily by initial treatment costs and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy is the most cost-effective strategy in many models. However, there continues to be substantial uncertainty surrounding cost estimates and other factors of importance to the patient may ultimately drive treatment decisions. The benefits of some adjuncts to the treatment of axial superficial reflux, such as the concurrent versus staged management of tributary varicosities, remain ill-defined while that of others, such as routine post-procedural ultrasound surveillance and compression, need critical re-evaluation. PMID:26916774

  16. Central retinal vein occlusion and pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Kontadakis, Georgios A; Klados, Nektarios E; Tsoumpris, Ioannis; Kandarakis, Artemios S; Parikakis, Efstratios A; Georgalas, Ilias; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) as a risk factor for the development of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods This was a retrospective, comparative study of the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation in three groups of patients: 48 patients with CRVO, 164 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and 70 control patients (70 eyes). All patients were phakic and had no previous diagnosis of glaucoma. Patients were matched in terms of age and systemic hypertension. All patients had normal intraocular pressure (IOP) at presentation (defined as less than or equal to 21 mmHg). Results In the CRVO group, 14 out of 48 patients were diagnosed as having PXF (29.17%). In the BRVO group, 14 out of 164 patients had PXF (8.5%), and in the control group, six out of 70 patients had PXF (8.6%). Differences of percentage between groups were statistically significant (P<0.001, χ2 test). When comparing patient subgroup with ischemic CRVO with subgroup with non-ischemic CRVO, we found that in the ischemic CRVO group, 13 out of 27 patients were diagnosed as having PXF (48.15%), and in the non-ischemic CRVO group, one out of 21 patients was diagnosed as having PXF (4.7%; P<0.001, χ2 test). The relative odds of having CRVO in patients with PXF versus patients without PXF were 4.406 (confidence interval [CI], 2.03–9.54). Conclusion PXF and CRVO, especially ischemic, are strongly associated in our study. Our results indicate that PXF might be an independent factor for CRVO, as it is related with CRVO independently from glaucoma. PMID:26056437

  17. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH ... of Contents Symptoms The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be related to DVT ...

  18. Development of HIFU Treatment for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ≥5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.

  19. U-vein compressor improves early haemodynamic outcomes in radiocephalic arterio-venous fistulae in under 2-mm superficial veins

    PubMed Central

    Seren, Mustafa; Cicek, Omer Faruk; Cicek, Mustafa Cuneyt; Yener, Ali Umit; Ulaş, Mahmut; Tola, Muharrem; Uzun, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim In this study, we sought to determine the early postoperative results of arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) created by U-vein compressors with veins between 1.5 and 2 mm in size. Methods Pre-operative venous mapping was done. The fistula tract was marked at 0-, 4-, 8- and 12-cm points; 0 cm was the estimated point where the anastomosis would be done. With Doppler ultrasonography, transverse diameters in the estimated fistula tract were measured at the 0-, 4-, 8- and 12-cm points. A superficial vein that would be used as the fistula tract was dilated using U-vein compressors. In the first postoperative hour, the flow in the anastomosis, and the transverse diameter of the fistula tract at the 0-, 4-, 8- and 12-cm points were measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Results Forty patients were included in the study. U-vein compressors were used for 20 patients. Postoperative expansion of vein diameters and postoperative flow velocities were found to be statistically significantly different in patients where a U-vein compressor had been used (p < 0.001). Conclusion We present a technique to dilate veins that are between 1.5 and 2 mm in diameter, which are generally accepted as poor vessels to create radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:25784317

  20. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  1. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study

    PubMed Central

    Bush, R. G.; Bush, P.; Flanagan, J.; Fritz, R.; Gueldner, T.; Koziarski, J.; McMullen, K.; Zumbro, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA) was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV). From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently). Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser. PMID:24592172

  2. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via

  3. [RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARICOSE VEINS].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Satoru; Miyade, Yoshio; Inaki, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in the endovenous technique for treating incompetent saphenous veins could change the surgical strategy in patients with varicose veins. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was approved as a new technique for the treatment of varicose veins in Japan in June 2014. In RFA, the ablation temperature is controlled by a sensor at the upper end of the catheter. The vein wall is heated with stable conductive power of 120 degrees C, resulting in endothelial denudation. The RFA method was approved in 1998 in Europe and in 1999 in the USA. The ClosurePLUS catheter was developed in 2003 and ClosureFAST in 2006. High occlusion rates and lower postoperative complication rates were reported with ClosureFAST than with ClosurePLUS. It is expected that this new ablation technique will control saphenous vein reflux with less pain and less ecchymosis after surgery. The treatment of varicose veins is less invasive with RFA devices and will become widely accepted as an alternative to conventional surgery for varicose veins in Japan. PMID:26281655

  4. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

  5. Effect Of Interaction On Apertures Of Multisegmented Natural Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Y.; Germanovich, L. N.; Vermilye, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Echelons of multisegmented fluid-driven natural fractures (such as dikes, veins, and sometimes joints) with consecutive overlapping are one of the most common types of structures in the Earth­_s crust. The mechanical behavior of these fractures is quite different from that of single fractures, because of the interaction between the segments. In this work we compute the apertures of a highly segmented calcite vein, with 71 segments, in siltstone (Culpeper Quarry, Virginia) described by Vermilye and Scholz [1995]. The effect of elastic interaction between the segments is considered at three different special scales and accurately evaluated by solving the corresponding system of singular integral equations. For comparison, the case of ignored interaction is also considered. Our results unambiguously suggest that the effect of interaction highly affects the vein apertures. By using two net pressures in the vein as fitting parameters, it is possible to obtain an excellent match of the computed and measured apertures (based on 3,000 data points). This indicates two episodes in the history of vein evolution. Based on the performed simulation, a concept of effective fracture (vein) has been suggested. This is a single fracture of the same overall size (length) as the real vein. It is also pressurized by two net pressures that are determined by fitting the field data. As a result, practically the same net pressures are obtained as by accounting for the full interaction between the vein segments. The concept of effective fracture allows the sufficiently accurate computation of the vein (fracture) apertures, but without considering the interaction between the multiple segments.

  6. Transjugular Portal Venous Stenting in Inflammatory Extrahepatic Portal Vein Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, Rolf; Textor, Jochen; Decker, Pan; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans

    2002-12-15

    We report the case of a 37-year-old man with necrotizing pancreatitis associated with inflammatory extrahepatic portal vein stenosis and progressive ascites. Four months after the acute onset, when no signs of infection were present, portal decompression was performed to treat refractory ascites. Transjugulartranshepatic venoplasty failed to dilate the stenosis in the extrahepatic portion of the portal vein sufficiently. Therefore a Wallstent was implanted, resulting in almost normal diameter of the vessel. In follow-up imaging studies the stent and the portal vein were still patent 12 months after the intervention and total resolution of the ascites was observed.

  7. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Pope, Marc; Vucemilo, Ivica; Werneck, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Varicose veins are a common condition that can be treated surgically. Available operative modalities include saphenous venous ligation and stripping, phlebectomy, endovenous laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is the newest of these technologies, and to our knowledge our group was the first to use it in Canada. Our experience suggests that it is a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins, with high levels of patient satisfaction reported at short-term follow-up. More studies are needed to assess long-term effectiveness and compare the various available treatment options for varicose veins. PMID:25799244

  8. Cavernous Sinus Dural Fistula Treated by Transvenous Facial Vein Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, V.; Cizek, V.; Kacirova, R.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report on the endovascular treatment of the spontaneous indirect dural carotid cavernous sinus type D fistula in a 60-year-old woman, in whom ipsilateral facial, angular and superior ophthalmic veins catheterization was performed to get access to the fistula site for embolization treatment. Approach via the facial vein is helpful after inferior petrosal sinus treatment failure. Although this technique requires caution in the angular vein region it allows a safe and effective treatment of these lesions. 3D rotational digital angiography can obtain more information of the angioarchitecture of the cavernous plexus and venous outflow for the catheter navigation. PMID:20587267

  9. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis as a Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anu; Gupta, Natasha; Blankstein, Josef; Trester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of the postpartum period. It has never been reported as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of right ovarian vein thrombosis that occurred in the postoperative period after patient underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy for a right side ectopic pregnancy. She presented with 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. A complete workup for fever was performed and was found negative. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis. The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy and responded well. PMID:26788386

  10. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  11. A rare anomaly of left renal vein drainage into the left common iliac vein: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Kazushige; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Herein, we describe a case of sigmoid colon cancer with a rare anomaly of the left renal vein located between the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and the left common iliac artery. Case presentation A 57-year-old woman with sigmoid colon cancer underwent three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for a preoperative assessment; the results revealed a rare variant of the left renal vein. There were two left renal veins: one retroaortically drained into the inferior vena cava, and the other was located between the IMA and the left common iliac artery and drained into the left common iliac vein. Laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy was performed safely while carefully avoiding any injury to the left renal vein located posterior to the IMA. Discussion Several variations of the left renal vein have been reported, such as retroaortic or circumaortic left renal veins. The variants of renal vessels, which are frequently overlooked in the preoperative assessment, is rarely affected in colorectal surgery. However, if the surgeon is unaware of such renal vessel anomalies, an injury can occur, resulting in severe bleeding. Conclusion It is important that surgeons identify retroperitoneal vessel variants before performing colorectal surgery. PMID:26773205

  12. Retrograde venous invasion in renal cell carcinoma: a complication of sinus vein and main renal vein invasion.

    PubMed

    Bonsib, Stephen M; Bhalodia, Ami

    2011-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma, especially clear cell, gains access to the venous system as the initial route of extrarenal spread. Intravenous growth can involve extrarenal veins or renal veins in other portions of the kidney, referred to herein as retrograde venous invasion. This study investigates the incidence and defines the pathological features of retrograde venous invasion. Retrograde venous invasion is defined as rounded nodules of tumor separated from the primary tumor and in a location that conforms to the venous outflow. Nine cases of retrograde venous invasion were identified in a series of 115 renal cell carcinomas (8%). Two blocks from each case were stained with elastic van Gieson, Masson trichrome, CD31 and desmin to evaluate intravenous involvement. All cases were staged using the 2010 TNM staging schema. The tumors ranged in size from 4.2 to 17 cm. All cases showed sinus vein and main renal vein invasion (pT3a); three cases involved the vena cava (pT3b). Direct continuity between the primary tumor and tumor in the main renal vein was grossly evident in every case. Involved sinus veins could be followed retrograde to the cortex between renal pyramids with tumor nodules arrayed along the pyramid-cortex interface. Histologically, the involved parenchymal veins lacked a smooth muscle media and elastica. CD31 demonstrated an endothelial cell lining around many nodules. As intravenous nodules enlarged endothelium was lost, extra-venous invasion occurred and nodules coalesced and merged with the primary tumor. In conclusion, retrograde venous invasion occurred only with main renal vein involvement. Gross evaluation allowed detection in every case. Histological confirmation of intravenous nature is challenging due to the absence of smooth muscle in parenchymal veins. As retrograde growth becomes extensive nodules coalesce and merge with the primary tumor and may be included in measurement of primary tumor size if this process is unrecognized. PMID:21822202

  13. Splanchnic vein thrombosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Mallika; McVinnie, Kathryn; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2013-09-01

    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is one of the most important complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Although MPN are common causes of SVT, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this predisposition, their epidemiology and natural history are not fully understood. Studies have concentrated on the generalized prothrombotic environment generated by MPN and their relationship with abnormal blood counts, thereby furthering our knowledge of arterial and venous thrombosis in this population. In contrast, there are few studies that have specifically addressed SVT in the context of MPN. Recent research has demonstrated in patients with MPN the existence of factors increasing the risk of SVT such as the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation and its 46/1 haplotype. Features unique to the circulating blood cells, splanchnic vasculature and surrounding micro-environment in patients with MPN have been described. There are also abnormalities in local haemodynamics, haemostatic molecules, the spleen, and splanchnic endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells. This review considers these important advances and discusses the contribution of individual anomalies that lead to the development of SVT in both the pre-neoplastic and overt stage of MPN. Clinical issues relating to epidemiology, recurrence and survival in these patients have also been reviewed and their results discussed. PMID:23855810

  14. Two Scimitar Veins in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Schwill, Simon; Prete, Jennifer Del; Cooley, Denton A.; Morales, David L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Scimitar syndrome is a rare but serious congenital condition that consists of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava. The appearance on chest radiography resembles a curved Turkish sword, or scimitar. Scimitar syndrome is associated with other anomalies, including hypoplasia of the right lung, dextroposition of the heart, anomalous systemic arterial supply to the right lung, and atrial septal defect. Clinical manifestations in infants include severe tachypnea and cyanosis. Adult patients may present with dyspnea and increased fatigue. Few adult cases have been reported in the medical literature. Classical surgical repair involves diversion of the scimitar venous flow into the left atrium with a baffle, requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Herein, we report the case of a 42-year-old woman with 2 scimitar veins who underwent corrective surgery at our center without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. We also comment on the importance of a patient's lung hypoplasia in the decision to repair the defect through a right thoracotomy. PMID:20548823

  15. Mars Opportunity rover finds gypsum veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    Bright linear features about the width of a human thumb that were found on Mars by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity appear to be gypsum veins deposited by groundwater, a team of scientists announced at a 7 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. “To me, this is the single most powerful piece of evidence for liquid water on Mars that has been discovered by the Opportunity rover,” said Steve Squyres, a geoscientist at Cornell University in Ithaca, N. Y., and principal investigator for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit. “We have found sulfates before. Those sulfates were formed somewhere; we don't know where. They have been moved around by the wind, they've been mixed with other materials. It's a big, jumbled, fascinating mess. This stuff was formed right here. There was a fracture in the rock, water flowed through it, gypsum was precipitated from the water. End of story. Okay, there is no ambiguity about this. This is what makes it so cool.”

  16. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  17. Personal authentication using hand vein triangulation and knuckle shape.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K Venkata

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using triangulation of hand vein images and simultaneous extraction of knuckle shape information. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for the image normalization and extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages: (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of triangulation in the binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless palm dorsal-hand vein images are promising (equal error rate of 1.14%) and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification. PMID:19447728

  18. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Symptoms ... without the monitoring required for warfarin. Latest NIH Research The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  19. Left renal vein transposition is effective for posterior nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuedong; Xing, Jinchun; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl was enrolled in hospital with intermittent gross hematuria in a period of 3 years. Bloody efflux from the left ureteral orifice was diagnosed in this patient with urethrocystoscopy. A retroaortic left renal vein appeared to be compressed by the aorta as detected by computerized tomography. The left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the spine. A groove in the anterior surface of the left renal vein was detected. A transposition surgery of the left renal vein to a site in front of the aorta was performed for the patient. The patient was discharged after recovery and the hematuria symptom was not found during the 15-month follow-up investigation. PMID:25664135

  20. Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Solvig, Jan; Schroder, Henrik

    2000-07-15

    An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years.

  1. Axillary vein thrombosis in adolescent onset systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leak, A; Patel, K J; Tuddenham, E G; Pearson, J D; Woo, P

    1990-01-01

    A 16 year old girl with a two year history of systemic sclerosis developed left axillary vein thrombosis. Prolonged euglobulin clot lysis time, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, and raised von Willebrand factor antigen were shown. Images PMID:2383084

  2. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the legs, genital area, and rectum ( hemorrhoids are just a type of varicose veins). Varicose ... Recovering From Delivery How Do You Treat Pregnancy Hemorrhoids and Constipation? Medical Care During Pregnancy 10 Things ...

  3. Portal vein aneurysm demonstrated by blood pool SPECT.

    PubMed

    Fukui, H; Kashiwagi, T; Kimura, K; Goto, M; Takei, Y; Kasahara, A; Kawano, S; Fusamoto, H; Kozuka, T; Kamada, T

    1992-11-01

    Portal vein aneurysms are rare and are occasionally suggested by ultrasound and usually confirmed by invasive angiography. Such a case was diagnosed by scintigraphic studies, most importantly blood pool SPECT, which clearly separates it from hepatic cysts. PMID:1424375

  4. Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  5. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  6. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Local Directional Code

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  7. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panagar, Anupama Doddappaiah; Subhash, R. Lakshmi Prabha; Suresh, B.S.; Nagaraj, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    During routine dissection which was carried out for the medical students, a circumaortic left renal vein draining into inferior vena cava was observed. There were 2 renal veins through which the left kidney drained into the inferior vena cava, of which the larger one ran ventral to aorta and the other smaller one ran posterior to aorta and received lumbar veins before opening into inferior vena cava. This is a relatively rare condition which can result in left renal hypertension (LRVH) syndrome which is otherwise called as anterior and posterior nutcracker syndromes. This venous anomaly results from the errors of embryological development. It is of clinical significance, mainly during retroperitoneal surgeries and intra caval interventions. It is also important in conditions which warrant extensive venous dissections, venous reconstructions as in transplantations and invasion of veins by cancerous tissue, resulting in life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:24783096

  8. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  9. Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matrix phyllosilicates and an aqueous fluid, with the result that few, if any, primitive mineral phases still exist in the C1s.

  10. Circumflex femoral vein thrombosis misinterpreted as acute hamstring strain.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Natsis, Constantinos; Parisis, Constantinos A

    2007-07-01

    The case of a 24-year-old female professional, long-distance runner who presented with acute proximal posterior thigh pain is reported. History and clinical findings were consistent with acute hamstring strain but MRI demonstrated circumflex femoral vein thrombosis. This is the first case of proximal posterior thigh pain caused by circumflex femoral vein thrombosis reported in the literature. Doctors dealing with sports injuries should be aware of this clinical entity that mimics hamstring strain. PMID:17224439

  11. Circumflex femoral vein thrombosis misinterpreted as acute hamstring strain

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Natsis, Constantinos; Parisis, Constantinos A

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 24‐year‐old female professional, long‐distance runner who presented with acute proximal posterior thigh pain is reported. History and clinical findings were consistent with acute hamstring strain but MRI demonstrated circumflex femoral vein thrombosis. This is the first case of proximal posterior thigh pain caused by circumflex femoral vein thrombosis reported in the literature. Doctors dealing with sports injuries should be aware of this clinical entity that mimics hamstring strain. PMID:17224439

  12. SUBCLAVIAN VEIN THROMBOSIS FOLLOWING FRACTURE OF THE CLAVICLE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Cocco, Luiz Fernando; Ejnisman, Benno; Fernandes, Hélio Jorge Alvachian; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis in the upper limbs is uncommon in the orthopedic literature. We report on a case of subclavian vein thrombosis that occurred during conservative treatment of a fracture in the middle third of the clavicle. This is difficult to diagnose and requires a high degree of suspicion. Treating it may prevent fatal thromboembolism. In some rare cases, it has been described in association with fractures of the clavicle. PMID:27027014

  13. Retino-choroidal ischemia in central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old gentleman with insulin dependent diabetes had decreased vision in the right eye due to non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. One month following intravitreal ranibizumab, he developed retino-choroidal ischemia with further loss of vision. Authors show the fluorescein angiographic transition from non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion to retino-choroidal ischemia. PMID:25473353

  14. An unusual intraventricular interthalamic vein: two anatomical case reports.

    PubMed

    Capel, Cyrille; Peltier, Johann; Foulon, Pascal; Page, Cyril; Havet, Eric; Le Gars, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Neurosurgeons use ventricular veins during an endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy as landmark to progress in ventricles. In the current literature, there is lack of detailed intraventricular venous anatomy. Majority of those papers treats Monro's foramen venous variations. There are no data of third ventricle venous anatomy and variations in the literature. We reported two cases of unusual interthalamic vein that we need to spare during endoscopy. PMID:22543760

  15. DEM modeling of fracture propagation in veined rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, S.; Abe, S.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    One fundamental aspect of crack seal veins is that an existing vein can act as a heterogeneity in the rock which controls the localization of successive fracturing at unchanged mean stress orientations. Observations from crack-seal vein systems suggest that existing veins fundamentally influence the fracture behavior of a rock even in cases where the orientation of the stress field is highly incompatible with the orientation of the vein. We used a series of 3D Discrete Element Simulations to systematically investigate the influence of existing veins with varying orientation and mechanical properties on an approaching fracture. The models consist of a tabular heterogeneity within a bonded particle volume fractured under uniaxial tension. The parameters varied in the study are the orientation of the heterogeneity relative to the direction of uniaxial extension and therefore relative to the orientation of the favorable fracture plane as well as the fracture strength ratio between the matrix material, the vein material and the interface between vein and matrix material. The elastic parameters (e.g. Young's modulus) are kept homogeneous throughout the model. Thereby it is ensured that the results are not altered by stress field perturbation induced by stiffness contrasts. The model materials used were carefully tested and calibrated to ensure comparability with natural examples in terms of their fracture-mechanical properties. The simulations were repeated for several random particle packings to eliminate the effect of heterogeneities in the packing on the results. The results show a strong influence of the tabular heterogeneity on the fracture propagation for all orientations and at cohesion ratios within the range of natural systems. Besides curving and deflection of the fracture path associated with changes in fracture mode, bifurcation of fractures as well as arrest of propagation and nucleation of new fractures can be observed.

  16. Endovascular Treatment of a Portal Vein Tear During TIPSS

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Richard J.T.; Rose, John D.G.

    2000-03-15

    During a transjugular portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) procedure a portal vein laceration occurred with subsequent intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A PTFE-covered nitinol stent was successfully placed eliminating the leak and creating a functioning portosystemic shunt. This case demonstrates both the importance of portal vein puncture more than 1 cm from the bifurcation and the necessity of maintaining a stock of available stent-grafts.

  17. phenoVein—A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software. PMID:26468519

  18. The mechanics of intersecting echelon veins and pressure solution seams in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyum, Solomon; Pollard, David D.

    2016-08-01

    Many studies that describe the formation of echelon vein arrays relate the causative stresses implicitly to the deformation, reliant on simple shear kinematics, such that the vein-to-array angle and the array width are the primary physical quantities. In contrast, we identify twelve physical quantities to describe echelon veins in two dimensions, including coeval, vein-intersecting, pressure solution seams. A finite element method is used to reproduce vein shapes in linear elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic model limestone. Model vein geometries are designed using values within the range of geometries measured from echelon veins at Raplee Anticline and Comb Monocline, Utah. Four physical quantities are significant for describing echelon vein shapes: vein spacing, vein-array angle, limestone elastic stiffness, and closing of orthogonal pressure solution seams. Pressure solution seam closing influences the mechanical interaction between adjacent veins, and for a range of conditions, causes a nearly linear vein opening distribution (triangular shapes) and encourages straight vein propagation, both of which approximate field measurements. Model results show that small spacing of veins with seams and large vein-array angles promote straight vein traces in limestone with stiffness typical of laboratory measurements, given the physical geologic conditions inferred from the burial history of the limestone strata.

  19. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system. PMID:24284769

  20. The comparative anatomy of the forelimb veins of primates.

    PubMed Central

    Thiranagama, R; Chamberlain, A T; Wood, B A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen forelimbs taken from 62 individuals belonging to 17 primate genera were dissected to reveal the entire course of the superficial venous system. The course of the deep venous system was also documented in at least one forelimb of each primate genus, and the number and location of perforating veins was recorded in 18 human and 45 non-human primate limbs. In Pan, Gorilla and in about 25% of human specimens the lateral superficial vein was confined to the forearm, while in all other primates, and in the majority of humans, this vein extended from the carpus to the clavicular region. Only Pongo and humans exhibited a second main superficial vein on the medial side of the forearm. In all primates the deep veins of the forelimb usually accompanied the arteries. Thus variation in the deep venous system reflected the different arterial patterns exhibited by these primates. The number of perforating veins in the forelimb was related to the length of the limb. Primate genera with longer forelimbs had more perforators, though not as many as would be expected if the number of perforators scaled linearly with limb length. PMID:2514175

  1. Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins.

    PubMed Central

    Satyapal, K S

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the drainage patterns of the renal veins are well described, but existing classifications of the renal veins have deficiencies. This study aimed to formulate a practical classification of their drainage patterns, taking into consideration the number of primary tributaries, additional renal veins and variations. The venous system of 306 kidneys (from 131 males and 22 females) obtained from 100 pairs of resin casts and 53 pairs of plastinated kidneys were analysed. Based on a proposed definition of the renal vein, 3 major types (I, II, III) were identified using the drainage pattern of the primary renal vein tributaries and the renal vein as a basis on both the left and right sides. Type IA occurred most frequently (38.6%) and was commoner on the left. Type IB was the second most frequent (25.2%), with the other types showing lower and similar frequencies (10.1-14.4%). Statistically significant differences were noted between the left and right kidneys with regard to the classification into the different types (P < 0.0001). The proposed classification system is practical and has surgical and uroradiological relevance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7649831

  2. Pain evoked by polymodal stimulation of hand veins in humans.

    PubMed

    Arndt, J O; Klement, W

    1991-01-01

    1. To explore the function of the sensory innervation of veins in humans we used a psychophysical approach to study painful and non-painful sensations by applying polymodal stimuli (electrical, stretch, cold/heat and osmotic) inside vascularly isolated hand vein segments before and after blockade of either venous or cutaneous afferents. 2. All modes of stimulation elicited pain, which showed only slight adaptation during 10 min of maintained stimulation. Pain increased monotonically with stimulus intensity between threshold and the maximally tolerable pain. 3. The exponents of the power functions of the pain magnitude-stimulus strength relations for five stimulus modes ranged between 2.5 and 3.3 but did not significantly differ from one another (P = 0.3). 4. Pain evoked by all stimuli was reported to be of similar quality, i.e. sharp, aching and unpleasant; it was accompanied by non-painful sensations (skin movements on stretching, warm and cold sensation with intravenous thermal stimulation) unless the skin above the stimulated vein segment was numbed with benzocaine ointment. 5. Pain could no longer be evoked in the presence of 0.4-0.8% procaine within the stimulated vein segment. 6. These observations are consistent with the view that veins are invested with polymodal nociceptors only, which in all likelihood are connected with thinly myelinated afferents of the A delta group. 7. The vascularly isolated vein segment may open a new avenue for pain research in humans. PMID:1804973

  3. Transsplenic portal vein reconstruction-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a patient with portal and splenic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason T; Gortes, Francisco J; Shnayder, Michelle; Doshi, Mehul H; Fan, Ji; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-09-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a potential complication of cirrhosis and can worsen outcomes after liver transplant (LT). Portal vein reconstruction-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PVR-TIPS) can restore flow through the portal vein (PV) and facilitate LT by avoiding complex vascular conduits. We present a case of transsplenic PVR-TIPS in the setting of complete PVT and splenic vein (SV) thrombosis. The patient had a 3-year history of PVT complicated by abdominal pain, ascites, and paraesophageal varices. A SV tributary provided access to the main SV and was punctured percutaneously under ultrasound scan guidance. PV access, PV and SV venoplasty, and TIPS placement were successfully performed without complex techniques. The patient underwent LT with successful end-to-end anastomosis of the PVs. Our case suggests transsplenic PVR-TIPS to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional PVR-TIPS in patients with PVT and SV thrombosis. PMID:27594947

  4. [A case of portal vein stenting for portal vein stenosis due to pancreatic cancer recurrence after pancreatoduodenectomy].

    PubMed

    Sawatsubashi, Takahiro; Morioka, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Takao; Nakatsuka, Hideki

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of portal vein stenosis due to pancreatic cancer recurrence that was successfully treated with intravenous stent implantation. The patient was a 70-year-old man who had undergone a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with the modified Child method for pancreatic cancer. He was readmitted due to melena, dorsal pain, and severe ascites 8 months after the operation. Computed tomography (CT) findings revealed that pancreatic cancer recurrence had narrowed the portal vein. Neither gastrointestinal nor colon endoscopy could locate the source of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding from the varices increased, and a hepatopetal collateral was considered to be the cause. We therefore placed an intravenous stent at the site of portal vein stenosis, by the transileocolic portal vein. After the stent placement, no further gastrointestinal hemorrhagic episodes occurred. PMID:25731472

  5. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients. PMID:26339941

  6. Metamorphopsia Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Koichiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Osaka, Rie; Nakano, Yuki; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Uji, Akihito; Muraoka, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To apply M-CHARTS for quantitative measurements of metamorphopsia in eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and to elucidate the pathomorphology that causes metamorphopsia. Methods This prospective study consisted of 42 consecutive patients (42 eyes) with acute BRVO. Both at baseline and one month after treatment with ranibizumab, metamorphopsia was measured with M-CHARTS, and the retinal morphological changes were examined with optical coherence tomography. Results At baseline, metamorphopsia was detected in the vertical and/or horizontal directions in 29 (69.0%) eyes; the mean vertical and horizontal scores were 0.59 ± 0.57 and 0.52 ± 0.67, respectively. The maximum inner retinal thickness showed no association with the M-CHARTS score, but the M-CHARTS score was correlated with the total foveal thickness (r = 0.43, p = 0.004), the height of serous retinal detachment (r = 0.31, p = 0.047), and the maximum outer retinal thickness (r = 0.36, p = 0.020). One month after treatment, both the inner and outer retinal thickness substantially decreased. However, metamorphopsia persisted in 26 (89.7%) of 29 eyes. The posttreatment M-CHARTS score was not correlated with any posttreatment morphological parameters. However, the posttreatment M-CHARTS score was weakly correlated with the baseline total foveal thickness (r = 0.35. p = 0.024) and closely correlated with the baseline M-CHARTS score (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Conclusions Metamorphopsia associated with acute BRVO was quantified using M-CHARTS. Initial microstructural changes in the outer retina from acute BRVO may primarily account for the metamorphopsia. PMID:27123642

  7. [Medicamentous protection of lower limb veins in a subacute period of varicophlebitis of the great saphenous vein].

    PubMed

    Tsukanov, Iu T; Tsukanov, A Iu; Nikolaĭchuk, A I

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at determining the dynamics of saphenous veins in patients with varicophlebitis of the great saphenous vein (GSV) in a subacute period (during compression therapy) and at assessing efficacy of 4-month medicamentous protection thereof. We examined a total of 32 patients presenting with the first episode of non-embolic varicophlebitis of the great saphenous vein. The comparison group comprised 16 patients undergoing 4-month compression (degree 2) therapy alone, and the study group patients (n = 16) were subjected to compression therapy combined with a 4-month course of micronized diosmin (1 tablet twice a day). The patients were included into the groups alternately as they attended our medical facility. Duplex scanning before and after the treatment course was used to measure the following parameters: 1) the evening diameter of veins and 2) an increase in the vein's diameter measured overnight as compared to the morning measures - the orthostatic gradient. The obtained results showed that the subacute period of varicophlebitis of the GSV is accompanied and followed by an increase in the diameter of the GSV and SSV and that of their orthostatic gradient, caused by imparted tonicity and viscoelastic properties. Compression therapy alone in the subacute period of varicophlebitis does not provide complete safety of saphenous veins from secondary lesions. Compression therapy combined with a 4-month-long course of taking micronized diosmin increases the efficacy of treatment. PMID:23324634

  8. Portal vein occlusion after biliary metal stent placement in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jin Bae; Chang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Baek, Il Hyun; Ko, Jin Seok; Woo, Ji Young; Kim, Hong Dae; Lee, Myung Seok

    2008-06-01

    Acute symptomatic portal vein obstruction related to biliary stenting is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication. This usually occurs in patients with either tumor invasion into the portal vein or pre-existing portal vein thrombus. Therefore, the portal vein should be carefully evaluated before placing a biliary metallic stent in such patients. We describe a case of acute portal vein obstruction after placing metallic biliary stents in a patient with a periductal-infiltrating type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20485610

  9. Dual Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Draining into the Left Adrenal Vein and Left Inferior Phrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Norifumi Ninoi, Teruhisa; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Akira; Sakai, Yukimasa; Sato, Kimihiko; Hamuro, Masao; Nakamura, Kenji; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2004-09-15

    A 66-year-old woman with a gastric varix, draining into a dilated left adrenal vein and a left inferior phrenic vein, was treated with dual balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Under balloon occlusion of the left adrenal vein and the left inferior phrenic vein, retrograde injection of a sclerosant (5% ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix was performed. Two weeks later, disappearance of flow in the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic ultrasound examination.

  10. A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Spider Veins

    PubMed Central

    Mujadzic, Mirsad; Ritter, Edmond F.; Given, Kenna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Spider veins on the lower limbs are very common and have been reported to be present in 41% of women over 50. Sclerotherapy as a traditional treatment for spider veins has a low cost, though it may have adverse sequelae. Lasers have shown fewer but still substantial complications as well. Its lower efficacy relative to sclerotherapy has limited laser application for the treatment of spider veins. Objectives To present a new alternative in management of spider veins which involves a low voltage current delivered via an insulated micro needle with beveled tip. Methods Thirty female patients were treated with the “Given Needle.” The technique utilizes a micro needle with an insulated shaft with an exposed beveled tip, which is inserted into a hand piece connected to a mono-polar electrical generator. The needle is introduced through the skin into or on the spider vein. The current is then applied with obliteration of the vein. Results Twenty patients (66%) had more than a 70% resolution. The most common complication was skin erythema, which developed in 15 patients, followed by bruising in 13 patients. Both of these complications resolved in 2-3 weeks. Conclusions A novel approach for the treatment of spider veins has been described. The development of an insulated micro needle with an exposed beveled tip utilizing low current has minimized adjacent tissue damage and improved efficacy. The low cost, low level of complications, and comparable results offer a valuable alternative to sclerotherapy and laser treatment. Level of Evidence 4 Therapeutic PMID:26246022

  11. Huebnerite veins near Round Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shawe, D.R.; Foord, E.E.; Conklin, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Small huebnerite-bearing quartz veins occur in and near Cretaceous (about 95 m.y. old) granite east and south of Round Mountain. The veins are short, lenticular, and strike mostly northeast and northwest in several narrow east-trending belts. The quartz veins were formed about 80 m.y. ago near the end of an episode of doming and metamorphism of the granite and emplacement of aplite and pegmatite dikes in and near the granite. An initial hydrothermal stage involved deposition of muscovite, quartz, huebnerite, fluorite, and barite in the veins. Veins were then sheared, broken, and recrystallized. A second hydrothermal stage, possibly associated with emplacement of a rhyolite dike swarm and granodiorite stock about 35 m.y. ago, saw deposition of more muscovite, quartz, fluorite, and barite, and addition of scheelite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, several sulfide minerals, and chalcedony. Finally, as a result of near-surface weathering, secondary sulfide and numerous oxide, tungstate, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, and silicate minerals formed in the veins. Depth of burial at the time of formation of the veins, based on geologic reconstruction, was about 3-3.5 km. The initial hydrothermal stage ended with deposition of quartz at a temperature of about 210/sup 0/C and pressures of about 240 to 280 bars from fluids with salinity of about 5 wt % sodium chloride. Fluorite then was deposited at about 250/sup 0/ to 280/sup 0/C from solutions of similar salinity and containing a small amount of carbon dioxide. During shearing that followed initial mineralization, quartz was recrystallized at a temperature of 270/sup 0/ to 290/sup 0/C and in association with fluids of about 5 wt % sodium chloride equivalent and containing carbon dioxide. Late-stage fluorite was deposited from fluids with similar salinity but devoid of carbon dioxide at a temperature of about 210/sup 0/C. 76 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Fluid overpressure estimates from the aspect ratios of mineral veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Sonja L.

    2012-12-01

    Several hundred calcite veins and (mostly) normal faults were studied in limestone and shale layers of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin next to the village of Kilve at the Bristol Channel (SW-England). The veins strike mostly E-W (239 measurements), that is, parallel with the associated normal faults. The mean vein dip is 73°N (44 measurements). Field observations indicate that these faults transported the fluids up into the limestone layers. The vein outcrop (trace) length (0.025-10.3 m) and thickness (0.1-28 mm) size distributions are log-normal. Taking the thickness as the dependent variable and the outcrop length as the independent variable, linear regression gives a coefficient of determination (goodness of fit) of R2 = 0.74 (significant with 99% confidence), but natural logarithmic transformation of the thickness-length data increases the coefficient of determination to R2 = 0.98, indicating that nearly all the variation in thickness can be explained in terms of variation in trace length. The geometric mean of the aspect (length/thickness) ratio, 451, gives the best representation of the data set. With 95% confidence, the true geometric mean of the aspect ratios of the veins lies in the interval 409-497. Using elastic crack theory, appropriate elastic properties of the host rock, and the mean aspect ratio, the fluid overpressure (that is, the total fluid pressure minus the normal stress on the fracture plane) at the time of vein formation is estimated at around 18 MPa. From these results, and using the average host rock and water densities, the depth to the sources of the fluids (below the present exposures) forming the veins is estimated at between around 300 m and 1200 m. These results are in agreement to those obtained by independent isotopic studies and indicate that the fluids were of rather local origin, probably injected from sill-like sources (water sills) inside the sedimentary basin.

  13. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of steam vein sclerosis as compared to classic surgery in lower extremity varicose vein management

    PubMed Central

    Mlosek, Robert K.; Ciostek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For the last 10 years, endovenous thermal ablation methods have gradually predominated over the classic Babcock procedure in varicose vein treatment. Steam vein sclerosis is the newest thermal ablation technique. Aim To assess the efficacy and safety of steam vein sclerosis as compared to the Babcock procedure in lower extremity varicose vein treatment. Material and methods One hundred and two adult subjects with varicose veins of clinical grade C2 to C6 according to the CEAP classification, treated with varicose vein surgery between 2010 and 2012, were enrolled in the study. These were subdivided into two groups: the study group of 52 patients treated with endovenous steam vein sclerosis and the control group of 50 patients treated with the Babcock procedure. A single lower extremity with isolated great or small saphenous vein insufficiency was operated on in each subject. The groups were compared for demography, disease severity, involved veins, potential perioperative and postoperative complications, as well as treatment efficacy based on the VCSS score reduction. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demography, disease severity, involved veins, or perioperative and postoperative complications. The treatment efficacy of both methods, assessed based on the recurrence rate and the quantitative VCSS score reduction, was similar. Clinically significant recanalisation was observed in 1 (1.9%) patient in the study group. Conclusions The efficacy and safety analysis shows that steam vein sclerosis is a safe, simple method which can be recommended as effective varicose vein treatment. PMID:25960788

  14. A rabbit pulmonary vein myocyte isolation method based on simultaneous heart and pulmonary vein perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Liang-Pin; Yang, Shu-Lin; Yao, Ke-Jun; Song, Yuan-Long

    2016-02-25

    Myocytes in the pulmonary veins (PV) play a pivotal role in the development of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). It is therefore important to understand physiological characteristics of these cells. Studies on these cells are, however, markedly impeded by the fact that single PV myocytes are very difficult to obtain due to lack of effective isolation methods. In this study, we described a novel PV myocyte isolation method. The key aspect of this method is to establish a combination of retrograde heart perfusion (via the aorta) and anterograde PV perfusion (via the pulmonary artery). With this simultaneous perfusion method, a better perfusion of the PV myocytes can be obtained. As results, the output and viability of single myocytes isolated by simultaneous heart and PV perfusion method were increased compared with those in conventional retrograde heart perfusion method. PMID:26915322

  15. Stent Compression in Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome Associated with Acute Ilio-Femoral Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hun; Kim, Jin Woo; Hong, You Sun; Lim, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate stent compression in iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) and to identify its association with stent patency. Materials and Methods Between May 2005 and June 2014, after stent placement for the treatment of IVCS with acute ilio-femoral deep vein thrombosis, follow-up CT venography was performed in 48 patients (35 women, 13 men; age range 23-87 years; median age 56 years). Using follow-up CT venography, the degree of the stent compression was calculated and used to divide patients into two groups. Possible factors associated with stent compression and patency were evaluated. The cumulative degree of stent compression and patency rate were analyzed. Results All of the stents used were laser-cut nitinol stents. The proportion of limbs showing significant stent compression was 33%. Fifty-six percent of limbs in the significant stent compression group developed stent occlusion. On the other hand, only 9% of limbs in the insignificant stent compression group developed stent occlusion. Significant stent compression was inversely correlated with stent patency (p < 0.001). The median patency period evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis was 20.0 months for patients with significant stent compression. Other factors including gender, age, and type of stent were not correlated with stent patency. Significant stent compression occurred most frequently (87.5%) at the upper end of the stent (ilio-caval junction). Conclusion Significant compression of nitinol stents placed in IVCS highly affects stent patency. Therefore, in order to prevent stent compression in IVCS, nitinol stents with higher radial resistive force may be required. PMID:26175570

  16. What are the symptoms of varicose veins? Edinburgh vein study cross sectional population survey

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Andrew; Evans, Christine; Allan, Paul; Lee, Amanda; Ruckley, C Vaughan; Fowkes, F G R

    1999-01-01

    Objective To define the relations between age, sex, lower limb symptoms, and the presence of trunk varicose veins on clinical examination. Design Cross sectional population study. Setting 12 general practices with catchment areas geographically and socioeconomically distributed throughout Edinburgh. Participants An age stratified random sample of 1566 people (699 men and 867 women) aged 18-64 selected from the computerised age-sex registers of participating practices. Main outcome measures Self administered questionnaire on the presence of lower limb symptoms and physical examination to determine the presence and severity of varicose veins. Results Women were significantly more likely than men to report lower limb symptoms such as heaviness or tension, swelling, aching, restless legs, cramps, and itching. The prevalence of symptoms tended to increase with age in both sexes. In men, only itching was significantly related to the presence and severity of trunk varices (linear test for trend, P=0.011). In women there was a significant relation between trunk varices and the symptoms of heaviness or tension (P⩽0.001), aching (P⩽0.001), and itching (P⩽0.005). However, the level of agreement between the presence of symptoms and trunk varices was too low to be of clinical value, especially in men. Conclusions Even in the presence of trunk varices, most lower limb symptoms probably have a non-venous cause. Surgical extirpation of trunk varices is unlikely to ameliorate such symptoms in most patients. Key messagesIn this population survey women were more likely than men to report a wide range of lower limb symptomsIn men, only itching was significantly related to the presence of trunk varicesIn women there was a significant relation between trunk varices and heaviness or tension, aching, and itchingThe level of agreement between the presence of symptoms and trunk varices is probably too low to be clinically usefulA thorough clinical history and examination should be

  17. Disc edge veins of Kraupa associated with optic disc drusen

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Andrea; Almela, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Disc edge veins of Kraupa are a rare anomaly of the retinal venous system in which the main trunk of the retinal vein disappeared into the margin of the optic disc instead of its centre. Methods: A 40-year-old woman was detected to have an anomaly in her left optic disc in a routine eye examination. The eyes had an anomaly of the retinal venous system in which all branches of the retinal vein joined in a common trunk that entered the disc margin inferonasally. The central retinal artery issued from the centre of the disc separately of the venous system. B-scan ultrasonografhy revealed the presence of hyperechoic imaging at the optic nerve head in both eyes. Results: We describe the association of disc edge veins of Kraupa with optic disc drusen. Conclusion: Vascular complications of optic disc drusen hav been described. We don’t know the implication of disc edge veins in the pathogenesis of these complications.

  18. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia promotes vascular remodeling in vein graph in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongmei; Shi, Chengwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Lavelle, Muriel; Yu, Caijia; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role and mechanism of Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) on vascular remodeling in mice. We assessed the effect of HHcy on vascular remodeling using a carotid arterial vein patch model in mice with the gene deletion of cystathionine-beta-synthase (Cbs). Vein grafts were harvested 4 weeks after surgery. Cross sections were analyzed using Verhoeff-van Gieson staining, Masson`s Trichrome staining, and immunostaining for morphological analysis and protein level assessment. The effect of Hcy on collagen secretion was examined in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). We found that Cbs-/- mice with severe HHcy exhibited thicker neointima and a higher percentage of luminal narrowing in vein grafts. In addition, severe HHcy increased elastin and collagen deposition in the neointima. Further, severe HHcy increases CD45 positive cells and proliferative cells in vein grafts. Finally, Hcy increases collagen secretion in RASMC. These results demonstrate that HHcy increases neointima formation, elastin and collagen deposition following a carotid arterial vein patch. The capacity of Hcy to promote vascular fibrosis and inflammation may contribute to the development of vascular remodeling. PMID:24896329

  20. [Treatment of venous trophic ulcers, using echoscleroobliteration of perforant veins].

    PubMed

    Rusyn, V I; Korsak, V V; Boldizhar, P O; Borsenko, M I; Mytrovka, B A

    2014-02-01

    In 36 patients, suffering trophic ulcers on a chronic venous insufficiency background in a decompensated stage (C6 in accordance to CEAP), echoscleroobliteration of perforant veins, using a "foam-form" method in accordance to Tessari, was performed. In 29 patients postrombophlebitic syndrome in incomplete recanalization stage was diagnosed, in 7 recurrence of varicose disease of the lower extremities. In all the patients during echoscleroobliteration there was possible to obliterate the insufficient perforant veins, in 3 patients two perforant veins were obliterated in each of them. In a one week a pathological blood flow along perforant veins, in accordance to data of ultrasound duplex scanning, was absent. This effect lasted during 6 mo in 29 (80.6%) patients. In 25 (69.4%) patients a trophic ulcers healing was achieved in 1 - 3 mo. In a one year in 30 (83.3%) patients a stable obliteration was noted, in 3 (8.3%) - partial recanalization, in 3 (8.3%) - complete recanalization of perforant veins. PMID:24923110

  1. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Personalized Weight Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xiao, Rongyang; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs). The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:24025556

  2. NONICHEMIC CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION ASSOCIATED WITH HEREDITARY THROMBOPHYLIA.

    PubMed

    Fişuş, Andreea Dana; Pop, Doina Suzana; Rusu, Monica Blanka; Vultur, Florina; Horvath, Karin Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vein disease with significant visual loss via thrombus or compression of vein wall. Thrombophilia is the predisposition to vascular thrombosis with the existence of genetic defect that leads to blood hypercoagulability. This report describes the case of a 55 year old male patient, with an active life who presented himself at the emergency room with acute visual lose, insidious and progressive visual field constriction, without any known history of neurological or vascular diseases. The examinations revealed unilateral optic nerve head edema, the fluorescein angiography was specific for nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion CRVO complicated with macular edema. Blood examinations has emphasized the presence of the heterozygous mutation A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), the only one presented from the thrombophilia screen panel and a slightly elevated cholesterol level. During the follow-up period, the patient received anti-VEGF treatment (Bevacizumab, 3x 0.1 ml intravitreal injections) with improved visual acuity and amendment of macular edema. The complex etiology calls for interdisciplinary approach to determine better the cause of this ophthalmological disease. Although studies have found a correlation between some thrombophilia mutations and retinal vein occlusion, more studies that contain a larger number of patients are necessary in order to determine the final role of these gene variants. PMID:26978887

  3. The physcial properties of human pulmonary arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Banks, J; Booth, F V; MacKay, E H; Rajagopalan, B; Lee, G D

    1978-11-01

    1. We have studied the extensibility of circumferential strips of main pulmonary artery and large pulmonary veins obtained at post mortem from patients of all ages, dying from conditions other than heart and lung disease. 2. The vessel strips were submitted to increasing loads in a tension balance. The pulmonary arteries were found to be readily extensible. This extensibility became less with increasing age. The pulmonary veins were virtually inextensible at all ages. 3. It is postulated that the large extraparenchymal pulmonary veins have a capacitative role in supplying blood from the lungs to the left atrium. This may be accomplished by their collapsible nature, as they have little capability of distension. PMID:720001

  4. Fibular nerve injury after small saphenous vein surgery.

    PubMed

    de Alvarenga Yoshida, Ricardo; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; Sardenberg, Trajano; Sobreira, Marcone Lima; Rollo, Hamilton Almeida; Moura, Regina

    2012-07-01

    Superficial nerve injuries are very common during varicose vein surgery. In contrast, deep nerve injuries are rare and reported especially when surgery involves the small saphenous vein (SSV). The deep motor nerves most commonly injured are the tibial nerve and the peroneal nerve, which are directly or indirectly affected by extrinsic compression, stretching, or healing process involvement. In this report, two cases of common fibular nerve injury after SSV stripping are described, including treatment used and patient outcomes. Nerve damage mechanisms, anatomy, and prevention strategies are also discussed. In conclusion, fibular nerve damage may occur during SSV stripping. Preventive measures include careful preoperative ultrasonographic investigation of the anatomy of the vein, determining location of the saphenopopliteal joint, and careful dissection far from fibular nerve and restricted to the popliteal fossa. PMID:22664286

  5. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  6. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  7. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  8. A serotonergic system in veins: serotonin transporter-independent uptake.

    PubMed

    Linder, A Elizabeth; Ni, Wei; Szasz, Theodora; Burnett, Robert; Diaz, Jessica; Geddes, Timothy J; Kuhn, Donald M; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-06-01

    We hypothesized that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is present and functional in veins. In vena cava (VC), the presence of the 5-HT synthesis rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1 mRNA and accumulation of the 5-HT synthesis intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan after incubation with tryptophan supported the ability of veins to synthesize 5-HT. The presence of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in VC and jugular vein (JV), and it was compared with similarly sized arteries aorta (RA) and carotid (CA), respectively. In rats treated with the monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitor pargyline to prevent 5-HT metabolism, basal 5-HT levels were higher in veins than in arteries. 5-HT uptake was observed after exposure to exogenous 5-HT in all vessels. The presence of MAO-A and the 5-HT transporter (SERT) in VC was observed by immunohistochemistry and Western analysis. However, 5-HT uptake was not inhibited by the SERT inhibitors fluoxetine and/or fluvoxamine in VC and JV, as opposed to the inhibition in RA and CA. Moreover, studies performed in VC from mutant rats lacking SERT showed no differences in 5-HT uptake compared with VC from wild type. These data suggest the SERT is not functional under physiological conditions in veins. The differences in 5-HT handling between veins and arteries may represent alternative avenues for targeting the 5-HT system in the peripheral circulation for controlling vascular tone. PMID:18322152

  9. Palm-Vein Classification Based on Principal Orientation Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujia; Liu, Yaqin; Feng, Qianjin; Yang, Feng; Huang, Jing; Nie, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Personal recognition using palm–vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm–vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm–vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm–vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm–vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm–vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database. PMID:25383715

  10. Retrograde mechanochemical ablation of the small saphenous vein for the treatment of a venous ulcer.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hayley M; Lane, Tristan R A; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H

    2014-10-01

    We present the first case of retrograde ablation of the small saphenous vein to treat active venous ulceration. A 73-year-old gentleman with complicated varicose veins of the left leg and a non-healing venous ulcer despite previous successful endovenous treatment to his left great saphenous vein underwent mechanochemical ablation of his small saphenous vein with the ClariVein® system, under local anaesthetic, using a retrograde cannulation technique. Post-operatively the patient had improved symptomatically and the ulcer size had reduced. This report highlights that patients with small saphenous vein incompetence and active ulceration can be treated successfully with retrograde mechanochemical ablation. PMID:24347131

  11. Current management of isolated soleal and gastrocnemius vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Elfandi, Ali; Anghel, Sharen; Sales, Clifford

    2015-07-01

    Thrombi of the soleal and gastrocnemius veins of the leg remain incompletely characterized in terms of the appropriate treatment algorithm to follow. Although they are anatomically located below the level of the fascia, making them "deep" vein thrombi, their natural history is unclear with respect to propagation and embolization. Varying treatment suggestions have been proposed, from full-dose anticoagulation to "watchful waiting" with repeated duplex examination, with none rising to the level of accepted scientific evidence. Herein, we present the current literature citing the differing opinions and data that have confused the subject. PMID:26992317

  12. Isolated Facial Vein Thrombophlebitis: A Variant of Lemierre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karnov, Kirstine K.S.; Lilja-Fischer, Jacob; Randrup, Thomas Skov

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre syndrome is a rare complication of acute tonsillitis. It is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum and is characterized by bacteremia and septic thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Dissemination of septic emboli may occur. The diagnosis can be difficult since different organs can be involved. We discuss a case of Lemierre syndrome in a 35-year-old woman with isolated thrombophlebitis of the facial vein and fusobacteria growth in blood culture. This case emphasizes the need for awareness of the condition. PMID:25734123

  13. Central retinal vein occlusion in a migraine patient.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Felix; Saban, Tal; Steiner, Israel

    2015-11-01

    We describe a 31-year-old woman with a history of migraines without aura, who presented to our emergency department due to a monocular visual disturbance. This was misdiagnosed as being related to her migraine, however, it was subsequently found to be caused by a central retinal vein occlusion. Patients suffering from migraine can experience visual disturbances in the form of auras. The neuropathological basis for this phenomenon is thought to be a spreading depression in the visual cortex, causing a hemifield active visual phenomenon. Missing the diagnosis of central retinal vein occlusion is common, especially in the setting of an initially normal fundoscopy examination. PMID:26115899

  14. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  15. Dermatomyositis-Related Nonischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yvonne; Morgan, Michael L; Espino Barros Palau, Angelina; Lee, Andrew G; Foroozan, Rod

    2015-09-01

    A 25-year-old woman with dermatomyositis suffered a right central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with visual acuity of 20/40. Examination of the right eye showed vitreous cells, suggesting inflammation of the central retinal vein leading to a CRVO as the presumed mechanism. She was admitted to hospital, and extensive evaluation was negative. She was maintained on corticosteroids to manage her dermatomyositis. One month later, she had macular edema and elevated intraocular pressure. Both resolved with dorzolamide, timolol, and intravitreal bevacizumab, and vision returned to 20/20 in the right eye. PMID:25815857

  16. Subclavian Vein Stent Fracture and Venous Motion.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Taubman, Kevin; Claiborne, Paul; Blebea, John

    2015-10-01

    Primary subclavian vein stents are not recommended for venous thoracic outlet syndrome before surgical decompression by first rib resection due to a high risk of fracture because they are compressed between the clavicle and first rib. After rib removal, however, stent insertion has been advocated for venous restenosis, and it is felt that stent fracture is unlikely to occur. We present a case suggesting that repetitive differential vein movement during respiration may be one of the causative factors for stent fractures occurring in this anatomic region. PMID:26122410

  17. Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Sabetian, Golnar; Khalili, Hosseinali; Fallahi, Javad; Tahami, Mohammad; Ziaian, Bizhan; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PTE) are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). DVT occurs when a thrombus (a blood clot) forms in deep veins of the body, usually in the lower extremities. It can cause swelling or leg pain, but sometimes may occur with no symptoms. Awareness of DVT is the best way to prevent the VTE. Patients with trauma are at increased risk of DVT and subsequent PE because of coagulopathy in patients with multiple trauma, DVT prophylaxis is essential but the VTE prophylaxis strategy is controversial for the trauma patients. The risk factors for VTE includes pelvic and lower extremity fractures, and head injury. PMID:27162921

  18. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  19. Gonadal vein leiomyosarcoma: A case report with radiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzono, Tomoko; Chan, Cyrus Yin-Ho; Chan, May Yuk-May

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 56 year old postmenopausal lady presented with a rapidly enlarging pelvis mass. Clinical and ultrasonographic features were compatible with a rapidly enlarging fibroid with possible sarcomatous changes, and hence, computated tomography (CT) scan was performed to further delineate the nature and extent of the disease. However, CT scan revealed a huge tumour arising from the retroperitoneal space along the course of the left gonadal vein with typical radiological features of a gonadal vein leiomyosarcoma which were described in previous literatures. With joint collaboration with the surgeons, radical surgery with optimal debulking was subsequently performed for the patient and the diagnosis was confirmed intra-operatively and histologically. PMID:26361567

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Main Portal Vein: Treatment with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Portal Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuebin Wang Jianhua Yan Zhiping Qian Sheng Liu Rong

    2009-01-15

    To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting (PTPVS) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment in 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the main portal vein (MPV). A total of 58 procedures of PTPVS were performed, immediately after which TACE was undertaken to control HCC. The clinical effects, complications, digital subtraction angiographic appearance, stent patency rates, cumulative survival rates, and predictive factors for survival were evaluated. The Kaplan-Meyer method and the log rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariable analysis was also conducted by the Cox proportional hazard model. No patient died during stent placement or within the first 24 h. No severe procedure-related complications were observed. After stent placement, the mean {+-} standard deviation portal venous pressure levels decreased from 41.43 {+-} 8.56 cmH{sub 2}O to 37.19 {+-} 7.89 cmH{sub 2}O (p < 0.01). At the time of analysis, 9 of the 58 patients survived. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative patency rates were 98.1%, 71.0%, 52.6%, and 42.1%, respectively, with a mean patency time of 552.9 {+-} 88.2 days and a median patency time of 639.00 {+-} 310.00 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.40-1246.60) days. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative survival rates for the total study population were 74.1%, 27.1%, 17.2%, and 13.8%, respectively, with a median survival time of 113 {+-} 27.29 (95% CI, 59.51-166.49) days. In the univariate analysis, the following six variables were significantly associated with the prognosis: (1) HCC type; (2) Child-Pugh grade; (3) MPV stenosis/occlusion; (4) arteriovenous shunt; (5) iodized oil deposition; and (6) number of TACE procedure. In addition, having diffuse-type HCC and Child-Pugh grade B disease were each independent factors associated with decreased survival time in the multivariate analysis. PTPVS-TACE is feasible and may be

  1. The Distant Morphological and Petrological Features of Shock Melt Veins in the Suizhou L6 Condrite

    SciTech Connect

    X Xie; Z Sun; M Chen

    2011-12-31

    The morphology and petrology of distinct melt veins in the Suizhou L6 chondrite have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the melt veins in the Suizhou meteorite morphologically are the simplest, straightest, and thinnest among all shock veins known from meteorites. At first glance, these veins look like fine fractures, but petrologically they are solid melt veins of chondritic composition and consist of fully crystalline materials of two distinct lithological assemblages, with no glassy material remaining. The Suizhou melt veins contain the most abundant high-pressure mineral species when compared with all other veins known in chondrites. Thus, these veins in Suizhou are classified as shock veins. All rock-forming and almost all accessory minerals in the Suizhou shock veins have been transformed to their high-pressure polymorphs, and no fragments of the precursor minerals remain in the veins. Among the 11 high-pressure mineral phases identified in the Suizhou veins, three are new high-pressure minerals, namely, tuite after whitlockite, xieite, and the CF phase after chromite. On the basis of transformation of plagioclase into maskelynite, it is estimated that the Suizhou meteorite experienced shock pressures and shock temperatures up to 22 GPa and 1000 C, respectively. Shearing and friction along shock veins raised the temperature up to 1900-2000 C and the pressure up to 24 GPa within the veins. Hence, phase transition and crystallization of high-pressure minerals took place only in the Suizhou shock veins. Fast cooling of the extremely thin shock veins is regarded as the main reason that up to 11 shock-induced high-pressure mineral phases could be preserved in these veins.

  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali ( ...

  3. Pulmonary vein and cavotricuspid isthmus ablation in situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Mina M; Kipp, Ryan; Wright, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation is feasible in patients with situs inversus totalis. Orientation challenges are improved with the use of electroanatomical mapping prior to transseptal puncture. Care must be taken to note the opposing anatomic locations of important structures such as the left atrial appendage, descending aorta, and phrenic nerve. PMID:26862406

  4. Chronic common femoral vein occlusion secondary to endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Mila H.; Keldahl, Mark L.; Rodriguez, Heron E.

    2016-01-01

    Venous occlusion is sometimes caused by external compression due to adjacent masses. Endometriosis, the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is a rare cause of venous occlusion. We report a case of chronic common femoral vein occlusion due to endomctrioma causing severe leg edema and groin pain that was treated with resection and venous bypass. PMID:26993188

  5. Sharp Recanalization for Chronic Left Iliac Vein Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Nobutake Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Mahnken, Andreas

    2012-08-15

    Endovascular treatment has emerged as a first-line treatment for venous occlusions, but is sometimes challenging with conventional approaches. This article describes a helpful technique using a Roesch-Uchida needle to cross a chronic occlusion of the iliac vein when conventional techniques have failed.

  6. CT mapping of the vertebral level of right adrenal vein

    PubMed Central

    Degenhart, Christoph; Strube, Hanna; Betz, Matthias J.; Pallauf, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Fischer, Evelyn; Reincke, Martin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Wirth, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) venous mapping for the localization of the right adrenal veins (RAV) in patients suffering from primary aldosteronism. METHODS MDCT scans of 75 patients with primary aldosteronism between March 2008 and November 2011 were evaluated by two readers (a junior [R1] and a senior [R2] radiologist) according to the following criteria: quality of RAV depiction (scale, 1–5), localization of the RAV confluence with regard to the inferior vena cava, and depiction of anatomical variants. Results were compared with RAV venograms obtained during adrenal vein sampling and corroborated by laboratory testing of cortisol in selective RAV blood samples. Kappa statistics were calculated for interobserver agreement and for concordance of MDCT mapping with the gold standard. RESULTS Successful RAV sampling was achieved in 69 of 75 patients (92%). Using MDCT mapping, adrenal veins could be visualized in 78% (R1, 54/69) and 77% (R2, 53/69) of patients. MDCT mapping led to correct identification of RAV in 70% (R1, 48/69) and 88% (R2, 61/69) of patients. Venograms revealed five cases of anatomical variants, which were correctly identified in 60% (R1, R2). MDCT-based localizations were false or misleading in 16% (R1, 11/69) and 7% (R2, 5/69) of cases. CONCLUSION Preinterventional MDCT mapping may facilitate successful catheterization in adrenal vein sampling. PMID:25430527

  7. The Cystic Vein: The Significance of a Forgotten Anatomic Landmark

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The cystic vein, a portion of biliary anatomy whose insignificance in open gallbladder surgery led to its being relegated to mythology, has been rediscovered by the magnified view of laparoscopic surgery. Its presence is an important anatomic feature that helps distinguish between cystic duct and common hepatic duct, thus diminishing the risk of inadvertent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9876684

  8. The cystic vein: the significance of a forgotten anatomic landmark.

    PubMed

    Fine, A

    1997-01-01

    The cystic vein, a portion of biliary anatomy whose insignificance in open gallbladder surgery led to its being relegated to mythology, has been rediscovered by the magnified view of laparoscopic surgery. Its presence is an important anatomic feature that helps distinguish between cystic duct and common hepatic duct, thus diminishing the risk of inadvertent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9876684

  9. Anomalous azygos vein: a potential danger during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Sieunarine, K; May, J; White, G H; Harris, J P

    1997-08-01

    A report of a patient with an azygos lobe and an associated anomalous azygos vein covering the upper thoracic sympathetic chain. This anomaly poses a significant risk during the procedure of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. A chest X-ray is useful in detecting this anomaly and alerting the surgeon to potential problems. PMID:9287933

  10. Recognizing misplacement of a dialysis catheter in the azygos vein.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Jesús; Bravo, Juan; Martínez, Lucía; Millán, Beatriz; Pulpeiro, José R

    2013-07-01

    Uneventful central venous catheterization for hemodialysis patients may not always result in a correct tip position. A case of inadvertent cannulation of the azygos vein is described. Radiographic features for its early recognition are emphasized and mechanisms related with azygos unintended catheterization are discussed. PMID:23113923

  11. Deep vein thrombosis as a rare complication of brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Ali Reza; Tayebi, Atefe; Najafi, Narges; Kasiri, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis can involve almost any organ system and may present with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. In this study, we present a case of deep vein thrombosis due to human brucellosis. Case Presentation: A 15- year old boy presented with acute pain and swelling in his left thigh in June 2011, when he complained of fever, chills and lower extremity pain in which he could barely walk. In family history, his older brother had brucellosis 3 weeks ago and appropriate medication was given. The tubal standard agglutination test (wright test) and 2ME test were positive (in a titer of 1/1280 and 1/640, respectively). Peripheral venous doppler ultrasound of left lower extremity showed that common iliac, femoral, external iliac, superficial and deep femoral vein and popliteal vein were enlarged and contained with echogenous clot. He was treated with rifampicin 600 mg once a day, doxycycline 100 mg twice a day (both for three months) and amikacin 500 mg twice a day (for 2 weeks) accompanied with anti-coagulant. Ten days after the onset of this treatment, thrombophlebitis was cured. The follow up of the patient showed no abnormality after approximately one year later. Conclusion: In brucellosis endemic areas, the clinicians who encounter patients with deep vein thrombosis and current history of a febrile illness, should consider the likelihood of brucellosis. PMID:24778791

  12. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Kwak, Byung Kook

    2014-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the study of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with blood flow for varicose vein. The model designed to analyze temperature distribution heated by radiofrequency energy and cooled by blood flow includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel with a homogeneous vein wall. The simulated blood velocity conditions are U = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm/s. The lower the blood velocity, the higher the temperature in the vein wall and the greater the tissue damage. The region that is influenced by temperature in the case of the stagnant flow occupies approximately 28.5% of the whole geometry, while the region that is influenced by temperature in the case of continuously moving electrode against the flow direction is about 50%. The generated RF energy induces a temperature rise of the blood in the lumen and leads to an occlusion of the blood vessel. The result of the study demonstrated that higher blood velocity led to smaller thermal region and lower ablation efficiency. Since the peak temperature along the venous wall depends on the blood velocity and pullback velocity, the temperature distribution in the model influences ablation efficiency. The vein wall absorbs more energy in the low pullback velocity than in the high one. PMID:25587351

  14. Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

  15. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, watermelon plants of different ages were inoculated with SqVYV to characterize the physiological response to infection and provide new insights into watermelon vine decline. Physiological responses to...

  16. Perioperative complications of in-situ vein bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, M. X.; Goldman, M. D.; Simms, M. H.; Ruddock, S.; Ashton, F.; Slaney, G.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with 146 in-situ vein bypass procedures for obliterative arterial disease are reviewed to determine the specific complication of the technique. Vein wall injury with the Hall valvulotome occurred in 6 patients (4%) and vein patching of a stenosed femoral vein was required in 2 patients. Residual arteriovenous fistulae occurred in 24 patients (16.5%) of whom 9 had an associated graft thrombosis distal to the fistula of which 6 were corrected by thrombectomy and fistula ligation. Perioperative thrombosis occurred in 29 grafts (20%) and was more common in the femoropopliteal group (23/80) than in the femorocrural group (6/66) (P less than 0.01, X2 = 7.55). Fourteen of the femoropopliteal and two of the femorocrural thromboses were corrected resulting in an immediate patency of 89% and 94% respectively with the cumulative patency at one year being 77.5% and 79%. Complications of the in-situ bypass technique remain despite having largely overcome the problems of valve disruption. However, until a standard method emerges careful note must be made of technique and complications when considering reports of in-situ bypass patency. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3729260

  17. Recurrence of cystic adventitial disease in an interposed vein graft.

    PubMed

    Ohta, T; Kato, R; Sugimoto, I; Kondo, M; Tsuchioka, H

    1994-09-01

    A case of cystic adventitial disease (CAD) of the popliteal artery with intermittent claudication in the left calf is reported. This patient was first treated by total excision of the cyst and the involved artery followed by graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein. Recurrence of CAD in the interposed vein graft was noted after 6 months, and excision of the cyst with the involved graft and graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein was again required. We consider that the definitive evidence from early recurrence in the interposed vein graft shown in this case will close the discussion of the cause of CAD. The cystic lesion is thought by some to originate from the adventitia; traumatic, embryologic, or systemic abnormality theories were proposed. We assume that the mucin-secreting synovial cells originating from the neighboring joint capsule, tendon sheath, or, in some cases, from the ganglion itself, directly invade the adventitia through any rough or injured crack caused by trauma to the adventitia or simply attach to and encircle the adventitia. Total resection of the lesion with grafting is the recommended treatment for CAD because of the excellent results. However, as shown in our case, complete removal of the synovial cells even by resection technique may be difficult; therefore intensive follow-up is fundamentally necessary in this disease. PMID:8079189

  18. Ruptured saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with covered stents.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Keisuke; Funayama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ako, Junya; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) pseudoaneurysms are rare complications following coronary bypass graft surgery. A 46-year-old man presented with streptococcal infectious endocarditis and needed sequential operations for aortic root reconstruction. Shortly after the surgeries, a composite SVG on the right coronary artery developed a ruptured pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully treated using covered stents. PMID:25917780

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

  20. Demonstration of normal and dilated testicular veins by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2011-04-01

    Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology enabled better visualization of testicular (gonadal) vein using submillimeter slice thickness and three-dimensional images. Normally, the testicular vein measures 1-3 mm and drains into the inferior vena cava and left renal vein on the right and left sides, respectively. They can be seen in most patients during MDCT studies. Curved planar and volume-rendered images can be used to display testicular veins. We aim to demonstrate MDCT findings of normal testicular vein and its pathologies including varicocele, varices, the testicular vascular pedicle sign, and phlebolith. The testicular vein can be dilated owing to varicocele or portal hypertension and in patients with intraabdominal seminomas arising from undescended testis. The testicular vein can also cause ureteral compression at the crossing point. Understanding MDCT findings of the normal testicular vein and its various pathologies can allow a correct diagnosis, thereby avoiding further diagnostic tests. PMID:21519988

  1. Percutaneous bail-out treatment of vein graft rupture with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Antonios N; Karamasis, Grigorios V; Clapp, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    Vessel perforation is an undesirable and life-threatening complication during vein graft angioplasty. We report on a case of vein graft rupture during angioplasty, which was successfully managed with deployment of a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent. PMID:24160712

  2. Mechanoelectrical feedback regulates the arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary veins

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S‐L; Chen, Y‐C; Chen, Y‐J; Wangcharoen, W; Lee, S‐H; Lin, C‐I; Chen, S‐A

    2007-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is commonly associated with dilated pulmonary veins. Stretch has been shown to have mechano‐electrical effects. Objective To investigate whether stretch can increase the arrhythmogenic activity of the pulmonary veins. Methods The transmembrane action potentials were recorded from rabbit pulmonary veins before and after stretch (100 and 300 mg). Gadolinium and streptomycin (stretch‐activated ion channel blockers) were each perfused into the pulmonary veins under a 300‐mg stretch. Results Stretch (0, 100 and 300 mg) force dependently increased the incidence of spontaneous activity (22%, 48% and 83%; p<0.05), mean (standard deviation (SD)) firing rates of spontaneous activity (1.7 (0.2), 2.1 (0.3) and 3 (0.2) Hz; p<0.05) and incidence of early post‐depolarisations (9%, 26% and 61%; p<0.05) and delayed post‐depolarisations (0%, 4% and 30%; p<0.05) in 23 pulmonary veins. In the seven preparations with spontaneous activity after the 300‐mg stretch, gadolinium (1, 3 and 10 μmol/l) decreased the incidence of spontaneous activity by 43%, 29% and 14%, respectively (p<0.05), and decreased the firing rate from 2.9 (0.1) Hz to 0.8 (0.4), 0.3 (0.1) and 0.1 (0.1) Hz, respectively (p<0.05). Streptomycin (10 and 40 μmol/l) decreased the incidence of spontaneous activity by 71% and 29%, respectively (p<0.05), and decreased the firing rate from 2.9 (0.1) Hz to 1.6 (0.4) and 0.5 (0.3) Hz, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion Stretch is an important factor in the electrical activity of the pulmonary vein. Stretch‐induced arrhythmogenic activity of the pulmonary vein may contribute to the genesis of atrial fibrillation. PMID:16905626

  3. Responsiveness of human varicose saphenous veins to vasoactive agents

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Friedrich; Hoffmann, Christine; Schuller-Petrovic, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    Aims To test in vitro the constrictor and relaxation responsiveness of variously diseased segments of human saphenous vein from patients with varicose vein disease. Methods The vein segments were derived (i) from the inguinal saphenous vein (valvularly incompetent and slightly dilated; tissue A); (ii) from the distal end of the lower leg just above the medial ankle (competent; tissue B); (iii) from a tributary to the long saphenous vein just below the knee (dilated, incompetent and overtly varicose; tissue C). The contractile responses were tested with phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic receptor agonist) and aescin, a clinically used phlebotonic drug derived from horse chestnut extract. Relaxant responses were tested with acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Results Both contractile agents contracted vein segments from the inguinal and ankle area with similar potency and efficacy, but were virtually without effect in the overtly varicose segments from the calf. EC50 values (molar concentration of the agonist that produces 50% of the maximum effect) in tissues A and B were 2.9 ± 0.3 and 2.5 ± 0.5 µmol l−1 (phenylephrine) and 9.4 ± 1.0 and 15.9 ± 2.5 µmol l−1 (aescin); the corresponding maximum effects (maximum effect, percent of KCl-induced contraction) were 76 ± 3 and 70 ± 4% (phenylephrine) and 70 ± 2 and 71 ± 3% (aescin) (P = NS in both cases for A vs B). In tissue C, the maximum effects were 5 ± 5% (phenylephrine) and 10 ± 7% (aescin) of KCl-induced contraction (not significantly different from zero). Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was similar for vein segments from locations A and B, whereas sodium nitroprusside was more effective in tissue B than A. Conclusions These findings support the notion that abnormalities within the venous wall affect venous smooth muscle contractility. Since competent and incompetent clinically normal vessels show normal contractile responses, whereas varicose vessels are not responsive to vasoactive drugs, it is

  4. Automatic determination of the artery vein ratio in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    A lower ratio between the width of the arteries and veins (Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter Ratio, AVR) on the retina, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents an automatic method that detects the location of the optic disc, determines the appropriate region of interest (ROI), classifies the vessels in the ROI into arteries and veins, measures their widths and calculates the AVR. After vessel segmentation and vessel width determination the optic disc is located and the system eliminates all vessels outside the AVR measurement ROI. The remaining vessels are thinned, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. Features are extracted from each centerline pixel that are used to assign them a soft label indicating the likelihood the pixel is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type, the median soft label is assigned to each centerline pixel in the segment. Next artery vein pairs are matched using an iterative algorithm and the widths of the vessels is used to calculate the AVR. We train and test the algorithm using a set of 25 high resolution digital color fundus photographs a reference standard that indicates for the major vessels in the images whether they are an artery or a vein. We compared the AVR values produced by our system with those determined using a computer assisted method in 15 high resolution digital color fundus photographs and obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.881.

  5. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Anthony James

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  6. Percutaneous transhepatic sclerotherapy with embolization of the drainage vein for a gastric varix

    PubMed Central

    Yamagami, Takuji; Miura, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kotaro

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a case with a gastric varix that did not have a catheterizable main drainage vein and had multiple afferent veins. For this case we successfully performed percutaneous transhepatic sclerotherapy using the following procedure. After the drainage vein was embolized by metallic coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate from a microcatheter that was advanced through the gastric varix, 5% ethanolamine oleate-iopamidol was infused into the gastric varix from one main afferent vein under balloon occlusion. PMID:25298873

  7. Vein-cutting behavior: insect counterploy to the latex defense of plants.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, D E; Eisner, T

    1987-08-21

    Many mandibulate insects that feed on milkweeds, or other latex-producing plants, cut leaf veins before feeding distal to the cuts. Vein cutting blocks latex flow to intended feeding sites and can be viewed as an insect counteradaptation to the plant's defensive secretion. Experimental vein severance renders milkweed leaves edible to generalist herbivores that do not show vein-cutting behaviors and ordinarily ignore milkweeds in nature. PMID:3616620

  8. Strategies to reduce intraluminal clot formation in endoscopically harvested saphenous veins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emile N.; Kon, Zachary N.; Tran, Richard; Burris, Nicholas S.; Gu, Junyen; Laird, Patrick; Brazio, Philip S.; Kallam, Seeta; Schwartz, Kimberly; Bechtel, Lisa; Joshi, Ashish; Zhang, Shaosong; Poston, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Residual clot strands within the excised saphenous vein are an increasingly recognized sequela of endoscopic vein harvest. We hypothesized that endoscopic visualization facilitated by sealed carbon dioxide insufflation causes stagnation of blood within the saphenous vein. In the absence of prior heparin administration, this stasis provokes clot formation. Methods Forty consecutive patients having coronary artery bypass grafting underwent endoscopic vein harvest using sealed (Guidant VasoView, n = 30; Guidant Corp, Minneapolis, Minn) or open (Datascope ClearGlide, n = 10; Datascope Corp, Montvale, NJ) carbon dioxide insufflation followed by ex vivo assessment of intraluminal saphenous vein clot via optical coherence tomography. In the sealed carbon dioxide insufflation groups, clot formation was compared with (preheparinized, n = 20) and without (control, n = 10) heparin administration before endoscopic vein harvest, either at a fixed dose or titrated to an activated clotting time greater than 300 seconds. Risk factors for clot formation were assessed. Results Residual saphenous vein clot was a universal finding in control veins (sealed carbon dioxide insufflation endoscopic vein harvest without preheparinization). At either dose used, heparin given before endoscopic vein harvest significantly decreased saphenous vein clot burden. A similar reduction in clot was observed when using open carbon dioxide insufflation endoscopic vein harvest without preheparinization. Intraoperative blood loss and blood product requirements were similar in all groups. Patient age and preoperative maximum amplitude of the thrombelastography tracing showed a linear correlation with saphenous vein clot volume. Conclusion By enabling the quantification of this issue as never before possible, optical coherence tomography screening revealed that intraluminal saphenous vein clot is frequently found after endoscopic vein harvest. Systemic heparinization before harvest or an open

  9. Iron content (PIXE) in competent and incompetent veins is related to the vein wall morphology and tissue antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Krzyściak, Wirginia; Kowalska, Joanna; Kózka, Mariusz; Papież, Monika A; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

    2012-10-01

    Impaired venous drainage of the lower extremities determines a cascade of pathologic events leading to chronic venous disease (CVD). It is believed that the one cause of CVD is red blood cell extravasation and local iron overload that could generate free radicals and iron-dependent inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between: the intracellular iron deposits in varicose veins and tissue oxidative state measured by: the Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (Fe(PIXE)), (tSOD), (tGPx), (tTBARs) and (boxDNA). Patients with diagnosed CVD were qualified for surgical procedure. Entire trunk of the great saphenous vein (GSV) was extracted. Part located near medial ankle was considered competent (C) in duplex ultrasonography (USG) examination. The incompetent (I) part was extracted from GSV where USG showed incompetent valves and massive venous reflux. The difference between local tFe(PIXE), tTBARS, boxDNA, tGPx, tSOD in incompetent and competent part of vein tissue was statistically significant. Intima/media ratio directly correlated with Fe(PIXE) C/I concentration. Iron deposition in competent vs incompetent part of vein was also related to the oxidative stress parameters (boxDNA). The findings from this pilot study suggest that Fe(PIXE) measurement may be useful for explaining the progression of chronic venous disease. PMID:22321300

  10. First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

  11. [Portal vein thrombosis and rupture of the esophagus secondary to a barotrauma].

    PubMed

    Prignet, J M; Duval, J L; Raynard, B; Louvety, S; Flandrin, P; Thouard, H; Künkel, D

    1996-02-01

    Portal vein thrombosis complicating a trauma is rare. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis associated with esophageal rupture after a blast injury due to the explosion of a pressurized nitrogen bottle. Portal vein thrombosis was discovered during oesophageal reconstruction, 70 days after the initial injury. A favorable outcome was observed. PMID:8734315

  12. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Hira; Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M; Ho, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  13. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  14. Non satellite veins in the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Graziotti, G H; Ríos, C M; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C L

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the venous system of the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama) and that of other mammals, including humans. Eight adult llamas, preserved by means of 6% formalin solution at 0 degrees C, were dissected. The venous system was perfused with a solution of 17% coloured industrial gelatin. Two venous systems are recognised, superficial and deep. The veins of the deep system follow the same course as the arteries, except for two important veins located in the femoral, popliteal and crural regions. A more voluminous vein than the femoral originates in a venous tripod in the proximal part of the femoral canal and forms an anastomosis with the femoral vein distally. The popliteal vein gives off an expansion located along the popliteal region. In the leg, it continues with a vein that accompanies the tibial nerve and forms an anastomosis distally with the medial saphenous vein. The described venous distribution represents an interesting complement to the medial saphenous, popliteal and femoral veins, being more important than the last one for its volume. In the thigh it would correspond to the deep femoral vein as in humans and dogs; the homology in the popliteal and leg regions is too difficult because it probably corresponds to the caudal tibial vein of the human, the caudal branch of the medial saphenous vein, and the satellite vein of the tibial nerve in the horse. PMID:10456991

  15. Acute stent recoil in the left main coronary artery treated with additional stenting.

    PubMed

    Battikh, Kais; Rihani, Riadh; Lemahieu, Jean Michel

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of acute stent recoil occurring after the stenting of an ostial left main coronary artery lesion. The marked recoil after high-pressure balloon inflation confirmed that the radial force of the first stent was unable to ensure vessel patency. The addition of a second stent provided the necessary support to achieve a good final result. This case illustrates a possible complication of aorto-ostial angioplasty that could be treated with double stenting. PMID:12499528

  16. Palliative Portal Vein Stent Placement in Malignant and Symptomatic Extrinsic Portal Vein Stenosis or Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Novellas, Sebastien; Denys, Alban Bize, Pierre; Brunner, Philippe; Motamedi, Jean Paul; Gugenheim, Jean; Caroli, Francois-Xavier; Chevallier, Patrick

    2009-05-15

    This article evaluates the results of portal vein (PV) stent placement in patients with malignant extrinsic lesions stenosing or obstructing the PV and causing symptomatic PV hypertension (PVHT). Fourteen patients with bile duct cancer (n = 7), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 4), or another cancer (n = 3) underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement because of gastroesophageal or jejunal varices (n = 9), ascites (n = 7), and/or thrombocytopenia (n = 2). Concurrent tumoral obstruction of the main bile duct was treated via the transhepatic route in the same session in four patients. Changes in portal venous pressure, complications, stent patency, and survival were evaluated. Mean {+-} standard deviation (SD) gradient of portal venous pressure decreased significantly immediately after stent placement from 11.2 mmHg {+-} 4.6 to 1.1 mmHg {+-} 1.0 (P < 0.00001). Three patients had minor complications, and one developed a liver abscess. During a mean {+-} SD follow-up of 134.4 {+-} 123.3 days, portal stents remained patent in 11 patients (78.6%); stent occlusion occurred in 3 patients, 2 of whom had undergone previous major hepatectomy. After stent placement, PVHT symptoms were relieved in four (57.1%) of seven patients who died (mean survival, 97 {+-} 71.2 days), and relieved in six (85.7%) of seven patients still alive at the end of follow-up (mean follow-up, 171.7 {+-} 153.5 days). Stent placement in the PV is feasible and relatively safe. It helped to relieve PVHT symptoms in a single session.

  17. Protective constriction of coronary vein grafts with knitted nitinol

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Loven; Franz, Thomas; Human, Paul; Wolf, Michael F.; Bezuidenhout, Deon; Scherman, Jacques; Zilla, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Different flow patterns and shear forces were shown to cause significantly more luminal narrowing and neointimal tissue proliferation in coronary than in infrainguinal vein grafts. As constrictive external mesh support of vein grafts led to the complete suppression of intimal hyperplasia (IH) in infrainguinal grafts, we investigated whether mesh constriction is equally effective in the coronary position. METHODS Eighteen senescent Chacma baboons (28.8 ± 3.6 kg) received aorto-coronary bypass grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Three groups of saphenous vein grafts were compared: untreated controls (CO); fibrin sealant-sprayed controls (CO + FS) and nitinol mesh-constricted grafts (ME + FS). Meshes consisted of pulse-compliant, knitted nitinol (eight needles; 50 μm wire thickness; 3.4 mm resting inner diameter, ID) spray attached to the vein grafts with FS. After 180 days of implantation, luminal dimensions and IH were analysed using post-explant angiography and macroscopic and histological image analysis. RESULTS At implantation, the calibre mismatch between control grafts and the LAD expressed as cross-sectional quotient (Qc) was pronounced [Qc = 0.21 ± 0.07 (CO) and 0.18 ± 0.05 (CO + FS)]. Mesh constriction resulted in a 29 ± 7% reduction of the outer diameter of the vein grafts from 5.23 ± 0.51 to 3.68 ± 0 mm, significantly reducing the calibre discrepancy to a Qc of 0.41 ± 0.17 (P < 0.02). After 6 months of implantation, explant angiography showed distinct luminal irregularities in control grafts (ID difference between widest and narrowest segment 74 ± 45%), while diameter variations were mild in mesh-constricted grafts. In all control grafts, thick neointimal tissue was present [600 ± 63 μm (CO); 627 ± 204 μm (CO + FS)] as opposed to thin, eccentric layers of 249 ± 83 μm in mesh-constricted grafts (ME + FS; P < 0.002). The total wall thickness had increased by 363 ± 39% (P < 0.00001) in CO and 312 ± 61% (P < 0

  18. Can the seismic slip direction be retrieved from pseudotachylyte veins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Gebelin, A.; Geissman, J. W.; Wilson, K. M.

    2007-05-01

    Pseudotachylytes can form by frictional melting as a result of seismic slip along a fault plane. During a brief seismic event, the fault plane material initially deforms by cataclastic flow until melting occurs and stress drops. The partially molten material then flows as a solid-melt suspension. Immediately after the seismic event, the pseudotachylyte vein consists of a mix of irregularly shaped, sub-equant, randomly oriented clasts, glass and a few newly formed microlites. This study aims to investigates the origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in pseudotachylyte veins and to assess whether the AMS records syn-seismic or post-seismic flow. The pseudotachylytes of the Val Gilba (Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps) are chosen as an example of syn- exhumation veins. They formed at about 20 Ma during the unroofing of mylonitic gneisses that had recorded a pressure peak of metamorphism at ca. 35 Ma. These veins, up to 25 mm in width, are occur parallel to the mylonitic foliation and are continuous over several tens of meters. The magnetic fabric of both host and vein are very consistent, yet distinct. The AMS of the host gneiss is controlled by magnetite and phyllosilicates (P = 1.32) and lies parallel to the pervasive stretching lineation. In contrast, the AMS of the pseudotachylyte, controlled almost entirely by elongated magnetite grains (P = 1.08), is oblique (30°) to the stretching lineation. The AMS fabric in the gneiss is strongly planar (T = 0.886), whereas in the pseudotachylite, the fabric is more plano-linear (T = 0.373). The pseudotachylite oblique fabric might be interpreted as a result of imbrication. Microstructures of the pseudotachylyte indicate that deformation was plastic and occurred at high temperature. The AMS in the pseudotachylite is interpreted to result from syn-seismic melt flow, as suggested by the laminated internal structure of the veins and by small drag folds affecting the laminae. These new results open unprecedented

  19. Outcome of Endovenous Laser Ablation of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Rustempasic, Nedzad; Cvorak, Alemko; Agincic, Alija

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In Bosnia and Herzegovina according to available data, treatment of incompetent superficial lower extremity varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has been introduced two years ago and so far no paper has been published regarding results of EVLA treatment of patients from our country. We wanted to present our results with EVLA treatment. Aim of study: to evaluate and compare primary posttreatment outcomes of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) with classical surgical method of varicose vein treatment. Patients and methods: The study was clinical and prospective. It was carried out at Clinic for vascular surgery in Sarajevo where fifty-eight (58) patients received surgical treatment for varicose veins and in Aesthetic Surgery Center “Nasa mala klinika” in Sarajevo were sixty-one (61) patients with varicose veins were treated by endovenous laser ablation. Total 119 patients (limbs) with pathologic reflux only in great saphenous vein were evaluated between 1st of January 2013 and 31st of April 2014. Following primary outcome endpoints were evaluated smean day of return to normal everyday activities, patient subjective quantification of pain during first seven days after intervention, incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), incidence of wound bleeding requiring surgical intervention, incidence of peri-saphenous vein hematoma and infection rate. Results: Mean of return to normal activities (expressed in days after intervention); EVLA vs. stripping (surgery) =1.21vs12.24, T test 13,619; p=0, 000, p<0,05. T test was used for comparing Mean value of visual pain analog scale for the first 7 days between groups, for all seven days pain was significantly higher in surgical group of patients as compared to EVLA group; p<0,05. Incidence of hematoma greater than 1% of total body surface area was significantly higher in patients receiving surgical treatment; Pearson Chi Square=23,830, p<0,05; odds ratio:10,453. Incidences of infection, deep

  20. Effect of Elastic Compression Stocking (ECS) on Leg Veins During 2G Centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Kaspransky, R.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: evaluate the calf vein response to hypergravity, and check the efficiency of elastic compression stocking (ECS) in preventing their distension. Method: Tibial (Tib csa) and Gastrocnemius (Gast csa) vein cross section area were investigated by echography. The subject was submitted to (a) 10 min stand test (ST), (b) 2G centrifugation for 2 min, (c) 10 min ST, with and without ECS. Results: Centrifugation at 2G induced a higher vein distension for both Gast and Tib vein compare to ST. At 2G centrifugation, ECS reduced the amplitude of the csa increase and limited the max vein csa to the ST value without ECS.

  1. Relationship between Specific Distributions of Isolated Soleal Vein Thrombosis and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ohgi, Nagako

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between specific distributions of isolated soleal vein thrombosis (SVT) and risk factors was investigated. Subjects and Methods: The subjects included 93 patients with SVT diagnosed with ultrasonography. Results: In the acute thrombus distribution, the thrombi of central veins were significantly more frequent than the thrombi of medial veins in the unilateral SVT. The thrombi of central veins were not more significantly frequent than the thrombi of medial veins in the bilateral SVT. Conclusion: The risk factors of bilateral SVT are considered to be different from that of the unilateral SVT. (*English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 159-166) PMID:25298825

  2. Endovenous Laser Ablation of Incompetent Perforator Veins: A New Technique in Treatment of Chronic Venous Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of endovenous laser ablation of incompetent perforator veins in a patient with incompetency of the small saphenous vein and multiple perforator veins. Two different methods were used to ablate seven perforator veins with a laser giving 50-60 J/cm energy. Total occlusion was observed in six perforators, and partial ablation in one perforator, at 1-month follow-up. To our knowledge, endovenous laser ablation of incompetent perforator veins is easy and a good therapeutic method.

  3. Embolization therapy for bleeding from jejunal loop varices due to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kajiwara, Kenji; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Hiyama, Eiso; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Four patients underwent embolization therapy for hemorrhage from varices in the jejunal loop after choledochojejunostomy existing in hepatopetal collateral veins due to chronic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction through the afferent veins using microcoils and/or n-butyl cyanoacrylate. In all four patients, all afferent veins were successfully embolized and successful hemostasis was achieved without liver dysfunction. However, recurrence of the varices and rebleeding occurred within a year in two patients. Embolization for hemorrhage from varices in the jejunal loop after choledochojejunostomy through afferent veins is acceptable in terms of safety and is useful to achieve hemostasis in emergency circumstances. PMID:26330264

  4. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  5. An investigation of several NACA 1-series nose inlets with and without protruding central bodies at high-subsonic Mach numbers and at a Mach number of 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, Robert E; Robinson, Harold L

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of three NACA 1-series nose inlets, two of which were fitted with protruded central bodies, was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. An elliptical-nose body, which had a critical Mach number approximately equal to that of one of the nose inlets, was also tested. Tests were made near zero angle of attack for a Mach number range from 0.4 to 0.925 and for the supersonic Mach number of 1.2. The inlet-velocity-ratio range extended from zero to a maximum value of 1.34. Measurements included pressure distribution, external drag, and total-pressure loss of the internal flow near the inlet. Drag was not measured for the tests at the supersonic Mach number. Over the range of inlet-velocity ratio investigated, the calculated external pressure-drag coefficient at a Mach number of 1.2 was consecutively lower for the nose inlets of higher critical Mach number, and the pressure-drag coefficient of the longest nose inlet was in the range of pressure-drag coefficient for two solid noses of fineness ratio 2.4 and 6.0. For Mach numbers below the Mach number of the supercritical drag rise, extrapolation of the test data indicated that the external drag of the nose inlets was little affected by the addition of central bodies at or slightly below the minimum inlet-velocity ratio for unseparated central-body flow. The addition of central bodies to the nose inlets also led to no appreciable effects on either the Mach number of the supercritical drag rise, or, for inlet-velocity ratios high enough to avoid a pressure peak at the inlet lip, on the critical Mach number. The total-pressure recovery of the inlets tested, which were of a subsonic type, was sensibly unimpaired at the supersonic Mach number of 1.2 Low-speed measurements of the minimum inlet-velocity ratio for unseparated central-body flow appear to be applicable for Mach numbers extending to 1.2.

  6. 3D and multispectral imaging for subcutaneous veins detection.

    PubMed

    Paquit, Vincent C; Tobin, Kenneth W; Price, Jeffery R; Mèriaudeau, Fabrice

    2009-07-01

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. Experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface are presented. For illumination our system is composed of a mercury arc lamp coupled to a 10nm band-pass spectrometer. A structured lighting system is also coupled to our multispectral system in order to provide 3D information of the patient arm orientation. Images of each patient arm are captured under every possible combinations of illuminants and the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis is determined. PMID:19582050

  7. Relation between retinal vein occlusions and axial length.

    PubMed Central

    Aritürk, N.; Oge, Y.; Erkan, D.; Süllü, Y.; Mohajerý, F.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the ocular axial length as a risk factor for development of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: Ocular axial lengths were measured, by A-scan ultrasonography, in 17 patients with CRVO and 41 patients with BRVO and compared with those of contralateral unaffected eyes and 66 age matched controls. RESULTS: In 17 patients with CRVO the mean axial length of affected eyes was 22.25 (SD 0.19) mm and of unaffected eyes was 22.61 (0.13) mm. In 41 patients with BRVO the mean axial length of affected eyes was 22.89 (0.11) mm and of unaffected eyes was 22.99 (0.12) mm. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that the axial lengths in CRVO and BRVO were significantly shorter than in the controls. This significant difference may be a risk factor in the development of CRVO and BRVO. PMID:8795376

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis Provoked by Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Raad A; Saadaldin, Mazin; Kumar, Binay; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    Inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) is a rare congenital anomaly that can be asymptomatic or present with vague, nonspecific symptoms, such as abdominal or lower back pain, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we present a 55-year-old male who came with painless swelling and redness of his left lower limb. On examination, swelling and redness were noted extending from the left foot to the upper thigh; it was also warm compared to his right lower limb. Venous Doppler ultrasound was done which showed DVT extending up to the common femoral vein. Subsequently, computed-tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen was done to exclude malignancy or venous flow obstruction; it revealed congenital absence (agenesis) of the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC). PMID:26788400

  9. [Management of deep-vein thrombosis: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Messas, E; Wahl, D; Pernod, G

    2016-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent and multifactor disease, with two major complications, post thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Both transient (surgery, plaster immobilization, bed rest/hospitalization) and chronic/persistent (age, cancer, clinical or biological thrombophilia…) risk factors modulate treatment duration. Diagnostic management relies on clinical evaluations, probability followed by laboratory tests or imaging. So far, compression ultrasound is the diagnostic test of choice to make a positive diagnosis of DVT. Anticoagulants at therapeutic dose for at least 3 months constitute the cornerstones of proximal (i.e. involving popliteal or more proximal veins) DVT therapeutic management. The arrival of new oral anticoagulants should optimize ambulatory management of DVT. PMID:26357937

  10. Spontaneous rupture of uterine vein in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  11. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  12. Endothelial progenitor cells accelerate the resolution of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Dong; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) causes high morbidity and mortality. Successful resolution of DVT-related thrombi is the key point in the treatment of DVT. Recently, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) which are multipotent progenitor cells mainly residing in human bone marrow have emerged as a promising therapeutic choice for DVT-related thrombus resolution. In this review, we discussed the mobilization and homing property of EPCs into the sites of thrombosis, mechanisms of EPCs in DVT-related thrombus resolution from the aspects of promoting endothelial regeneration, revascularization, vasoactive and angiogenic factor secretion, proteinase generation, thrombus propagation and recurrence prevention, and vein wall remodeling. In addition, we also provide suggestions on EPCs as a therapeutic choice for thrombus resolution. PMID:26187355

  13. Positioning and differentiation of veins in the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    De Celis, J F

    1998-01-01

    Morphogenesis is the process by which structures with characteristic sizes, proportions and patterns of cell differentiation are generated during the development of multicellular organisms. How the elaboration of pattern is related to cell proliferation and growth control is a critical aspect of morphogenesis. The imaginal discs of Drosophila are a suitable model in which this can be investigated at cellular and molecular level, and recent genetic and developmental analysis has identified some of the key genes and mechanisms that participate in the regulation of their growth and patterning. This review will focus on the formation of the venation pattern in the adult wing, particularly on: 1) the subdivision of the wing blade into domains of gene expression that position the veins, and 2) the cell-cell signaling pathways that participate in the final differentiation of veins. PMID:9654017

  14. Successful arterial substitution with modified human umbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Dardik, H; Dardik, I I

    1976-03-01

    Human umbilical veins were prepared as vascular grafts by tanning with dialdehyde starch or gluteraldehyde and by structural re-inforcement with an outer polyester fiber mesh. These grafts were implanted in baboons in the aortoiliac position for periods of 3 days to 9 months. There was no aneurysm formation and there was an excellent maintenance of patency as well as function. Histologic evaluation of the graft materials showed a dense collagen layer within the encircling polyester fiber mesh. A multicellular subintimal layer formed a discrete inner capsule. The inflammatory response with the umbilical component was insignificant. There was no evidence of rejection. This study suggests that the modified umbilical vein can serve as a satisfactory blood conduit. Experience with three short-term clinical implants supports the applicability and potential for this new vascular graft. PMID:816263

  15. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  16. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Thrombosis of Cerebral Veins and Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Sergey Borisovich; Bocharov, Aleksei Vasilievich; Mikeladze, Ketevan; Gasparian, Sergey Surenovich; Serova, Natalia Konstantinovna; Shakhnovich, Alexander Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acute thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses (ATCVS) is a multifactorial disease with grave consequences. Because of its rare occurrence there are no proven treatment guidelines. Sixteen patients with ATCVS were treated. The final diagnosis was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. Sinus catheterization was performed via transfemoral venous access. Treatment included mechanical manipulation of thrombi and thrombolytic therapy. A regression of clinical symptoms with a concomitant decrease of intracranial hypertension was achieved in all patients. Long-term results were studied in eight patients: none presented clinical signs of intracranial hypertension. Endovascular transvenous recanalization is an effective treatment for acute thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses. Along with the local thrombolysis, significant potential in the treatment of this complex pathology lies in the transvenous endovascular techniques of mechanical thrombus extraction, especially in patients with intracranial hemorrhage for whom the use of thrombolytic agents is restricted. PMID:25196622

  18. [Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealing Behcet's disease].

    PubMed

    Beddouche, Ali; Ouaziz, Hicham; Zougaghi, Sinane; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Dergamoun, Hamza; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis (DDPVT)is a rare and little known urologic emergency. It requires an early etiological and symptomatic approach to preserve erectile function and prevent recurrences. This study reports a case of dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealed by spontaneous priapism that didn't resolve adequately and confirmed by penile Doppler ultrasound. After management of priapism and DDPVT, the etiological investigation revealed Behcet's disease whose diagnosis was based on the association of a major criteria, such as oral aphthous ulcers with 3 minor criteria such as: genital aphthous ulcers, ocular involvement, and a positive skin pathergy test within 24h. The patient underwent etiological treatment with good clinical evolution and preservation of erectile function. PMID:27583081

  19. Asymptomatic anomalous pulmonary veins in a Siberian Husky.

    PubMed

    Abraham, L A; Slocombe, R F

    2003-07-01

    A 2-year-old, neutered male Siberian Husky presented with depression, weight loss and an inability to prehend food and water. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected under general anaesthesia prior to euthanasia. The elevated white cell count comprised mostly mononuclear cells. Histological changes within the brain were variable and multifocal. Non-suppurative meningitis secondary to lymphoma was diagnosed. At necropsy, abnormal venous drainage of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was found. A dilated major pulmonary vein from these lobes passed across the lateral aspect of the right caudal lung lobe prior to entering the heart, and subpleural veins from the affected lobes were enlarged and tortuous. These vascular abnormalities were considered incidental. There were no apparent congenital abnormalities of the heart and the animal's clinical signs were related to lymphoma of the brain. PMID:15084052

  20. Neonatal Cardio-pulmonary Arrest: Emergency Catheterization of Umbilical Vein

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Bosco A.; Blatz, Susan; Kraftcheck, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    In an emergency, the physician responsible for neonatal care must be skilled in umbilical catheterization. Several drugs can be given through an endotracheal tube, but some require intravenous administration. The umbilical vein is a better route of administration than peripheral veins because it is easily located and can be entered readily. It allows immediate access to the central circulation, enhancing drug distribution. The authors outline the procedure in a step-by-step description. This pictorial article can be used as a handy reference by physicians needing to administer fluids and drugs during cardio-pulmonary arrest in neonates. Imagesp1136-ap1136-bp1136-cp1136-dp1137-ap1137-bp1137-cp1137-dp1137-ep1138-ap1138-bp1138-cp1138-dp1139-ap1139-bp1139-cp1139-dp1140-ap1140-bp1140-cp1140-d PMID:21233982

  1. Osteochondroma mimicking deep vein thrombosis in a young cricketer.

    PubMed

    Watura, Christopher; Patel, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondromas are bony outgrowths covered by thin cartilaginous caps, accounting for 35% of all benign bone tumours. The majorities are solitary and usually arise at the metaphysis of long bones. They may be associated with bursa formation, while vascular complications are rare. We report a 34-year-old man who presented with a 2-week history of pain, stiffness and swelling of the left lower leg following a cricket match. Clinically, a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was suspected but D-dimer test was negative. Initial Doppler ultrasound scan (USS) was reported as showing a haematoma and possible DVT. A repeat Doppler USS did not detect a DVT, however the popliteal vein appeared collapsed and a pedunculated osteochondroma of the proximal tibia was found. An MRI confirmed this and also showed an extensive oedema around the calf muscles tracking distally in all compartments, most likely the result of a ruptured bursa. PMID:23188850

  2. Novel Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus: Safety and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz; Ao, Guokun; Zhang Yaojun; Feng Xi; Shen Qiang; Chen Minshan; Lau, Wan Yee; Nicholls, Joanna; Jiao Long; Habib, Nagy

    2013-02-15

    We report our experience of the safety of partial recanalization of the portal vein using a novel endovascular radiofrequency (RF) catheter for portal vein tumor thrombosis. Six patients with liver cancer and tumor thrombus in the portal vein underwent percutaneous intravascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using an endovascular bipolar RF device. A 0.035-inch guidewire was introduced into a tributary of the portal vein and through which a 5G guide catheter was introduced into the main portal vein. After manipulation of the guide catheter over the thrombus under digital subtraction angiography, the endovascular RF device was inserted and activated around the thrombus. There were no observed technique specific complications, such as hemorrhage, vessel perforation, or infection. Post-RFA portography showed partial recanalization of portal vein. RFA of portal vein tumor thrombus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is technically feasible and warrants further investigation to assess efficacy compared with current recanalization techniques.

  3. An improved vein image segmentation algorithm based on SLIC and Niblack threshold method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Muqing; Wu, Zhaoguo; Chen, Difan; Zhou, Ya

    2013-12-01

    Subcutaneous vein images are often obtained by using the absorbency difference of near-infrared (NIR) light between vein and its surrounding tissue under NIR light illumination. Vein images with high quality are critical to biometric identification, which requires segmenting the vein skeleton from the original images accurately. To address this issue, we proposed a vein image segmentation method which based on simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method and Niblack threshold method. The SLIC method was used to pre-segment the original images into superpixels and all the information in superpixels were transferred into a matrix (Block Matrix). Subsequently, Niblack thresholding method is adopted to binarize Block Matrix. Finally, we obtained segmented vein images from binarized Block Matrix. According to several experiments, most part of vein skeleton is revealed compared to traditional Niblack segmentation algorithm.

  4. Cephalic vein: Saviour in the microsurgical reconstruction of breast and head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shankhdhar, Vinay K.; Yadav, Prabha S.; Dushyant, Jaiswal; SeethaRaman, Sakthipalan Selva; Chinmay, Wingkar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is considered the reconstructive option of choice in cancer of the head and neck regions and breast. Rarely, there is paucity of vessels, especially the veins, at the recipient site. The cephalic vein with its good caliber and constant anatomy is a reliable recipient vein available in such situations. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2012 and includes 26 patients in whom cephalic vein was used for free-flap reconstruction in head and neck (3 cases) and breast cancers (23 cases). Results: All flaps in which cephalic vein was used survived completely. Conclusion: Cephalic vein can be considered as a reliable source of venous drainage when there is a non-availability/unusable of veins during free-flap reconstruction in the head and neck region and breast and also when additional source of venous drainage is required in these cases. PMID:23450746

  5. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  6. The Histological Changes of the Great Saphenous Vein at 2 Years after Cryosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Istvan Bence; Bali, Ottilia; Vargovics, Eszter; Simon, Eva; Vizsy, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Cryosclerosis was developed at the end of the last decade. It is the endovenous cryoablation of the great saphenous vein and has been forgotten before the era of the endovenous ablation techniques began. The caused histomorphological changes of the vein weren’t described before, especially, years after the procedure. A 31-year-old female patient underwent cryosclerosis 2 years ago. Because of the recanalization of the great saphenous vein and recurrent varicosity, high ligation, cryostripping and phlebectomy of varices were performed. During surgery, a saphenous vein piece was harvested to investigate the histomorphological effect of cryosclerosis. Histological findings verified that recanalization had occurred, the vein wall had undergone remodeling, and the picro-sirius red stain showed collagen deposition in the whole vein wall. Cryosclerosis seems to result in the remodeling of the vein wall. PMID:26217627

  7. Clinicopathological comparisons of open vein harvesting and endoscopic vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass grafting patients in Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Amouzeshi, Ahmad; Teshnisi, Mohamad Abbassi; Zirak, Nahid; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Hoseinikhah, Hamid; Alizadeh, Behzad; Moeinipour, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Harvesting of the greater saphenous vein is almost an inevitable part of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations, and it is done by two main techniques, i.e., conventional or open vein harvesting (OVH) and the minimally-invasive endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). This study aimed to compare these two techniques in off-pump CABG procedures with respect to clinical and pathological outcomes. Methods This cohort study was conducted on CABG candidates during a one-year period from October 2013 through September 2014 in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Eighty-seven patients voluntarily underwent EVH, and another 86 patients matched for age, gender, and other cardiovascular risk factors were selected for OVH. They were followed up for six weeks, and the main outcome measures were infections of the wound, pain, duration of hospital stay, and the costs of hospitalization. Paired sample t-test, independent t-test, or their non-parametric equivalents and the chi-squared test were used by SPSS version 17.0 for data analysis. Results The mean duration of time for vein harvesting was shorter in the EVH group (p < 0.001), and the pain score was lower (p = 0.04). No infections occurred at the site of the wound. The length of hospital stay was not significantly different for the two groups (OVH versus EVH: 8.5 ± 3.3 versus 8.4 ± 3.2 days; p-value: 0.08). Hospitalization costs were significantly higher in the EVH group (OVH versus EVH: 5.8 ± 4.7 versus 7.3 ± 2.0 million Tomman; p-value: 0.008), yet no difference was diagnosed with respect to endothelial damage in the vein grafts harvested by the EVH and OVH techniques. Conclusion EVH is considered as a minimally invasive and safe vein harvesting technique in our Center, and it can reduce the harvesting time and post-operative pain. In addition, its efficiency was similar to that of OVH. PMID:26955438

  8. Collagen-induced thrombosis in murine arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is a powerful thrombotic stimulus that functions by direct and indirect binding to various platelet receptors. A variety of collagen types are known and several (e.g., collagen Types I, III, IV) are found in vascular tissues and are exposed upon disruption of the endothelium or more extensive vessel wall rupture. Some murine models of thrombosis purport to expose collagen to initiate thrombosis, however, the nature and extent of this exposure is not clear. This study was undertaken to place a known collagen-dominated surface into the in vivo arterial or venous circulation as a method for direct study of collagen-induced thrombosis in mice. The epigastric artery was removed from donor mice and a microsuture with attached needle was knotted into one cut end. Anesthetized mice had this needle/suture/small-artery inserted into and out of a 0.5-mm length of the larger carotid artery or femoral vein, leaving the collagen-rich adventitial surface of the epigastric artery intralumenally in the larger vessel. Extensive platelet and fibrin deposition on this surface were in evidence and were quantitated with fluorescence imaging; administration of clopidogrel reduced thrombus development in both arteries and veins. A method was developed to evert the epigastric artery and disrupt the exteriorized endothelium; with the same needle/suture vessel-insertion technique, this surface stimulated significantly less thrombotic response in both arteries and veins, suggesting differential thrombogenesis based on the molecular composition of the induction factor. This new model of thrombosis offers a method for directly assessing the role of collagen-mediated thrombosis in murine arteries and veins. PMID:23063056

  9. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Deep Vein Thrombosis and Cutaneous Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Renu; Goyal, Laxmikant; Agrawal, Abhishek; Wadhwani, Dileep; Mital, Pradeep; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    We are reporting a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with left upper limb and lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to protein S deficiency which was aggravated by anticoagulants. Oral anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis also developed in this patient. This patient was negative for anti-phospholipid antibodies (APLA). Such a case is rarity where SLE patient without APLA has protein S deficiency. PMID:27608879

  10. Deep vein thrombosis following prolonged kneeling: a case report.

    PubMed

    van Beeck, J Looringh; Versfeld, K; Ehrlich, R

    2014-06-01

    This report describes a fibreglass mould maker in the yacht building industry who developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after 6 weeks of working in a kneeling position. We propose that his prolonged kneeling combined with constrictive knee pad straps caused vascular compression, precipitating his DVT. A hypercoagulability diathesis was suspected but not confirmed. Operator and employer education, modified work practices and strapless knee pads are suggested as possible preventive measures. PMID:24727563

  11. Consensus for the Treatment of Varicose Vein with Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Jin Hyun; Kim, Woo-Shik; Jung, In Mok; Park, Ki-Hyuk; Lee, Taeseung; Kang, Jin Mo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the schematic protocol of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of varicose veins. Indication: anatomic or pathophysiologic indication includes venous diameter within 2–20 mm, reflux time ≥0.5 seconds and distance from the skin ≥5 mm or subfascial location. Access: it is recommended to access at or above the knee joint for great saphenous vein and above the mid-calf for small saphenous vein. Catheter placement: the catheter tip should be placed 2.0 cm inferior to the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction. Endovenous heat-induced thrombosis ≥class III should be treated with low-molecular weight heparin. Tumescent solution: the composition of solution can be variable (e.g., 2% lidocaine 20 mL+500 mL normal saline+bicarbonate 2.5 mL with/without epinephrine). Infiltration can be done from each direction. Ablation: two cycles’ ablation for the first proximal segment of saphenous vein and the segment with the incompetent perforators is recommended. The other segments should be ablated one time. During RF energy delivery, it is recommended to apply external compression. Concomitant procedure: It is recommended to do simultaneously ambulatory phlebectomy. For sclerotherapy, it is recommended to defer at least 2 weeks. Post-procedural management: post-procedural ambulation is encouraged to reduce the thrombotic complications. Compression stocking should be applied for at least 7 days. Minor daily activity is not limited, but strenuous activities should be avoided for 2 weeks. It is suggested to take showers after 24 hours and tub baths, swimming, or soaking in water after 2 weeks. PMID:26217628

  12. Musculoskeletal Sepsis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis in a Child.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue

    2016-06-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a rare disease in pediatric patients. We report a pediatric patient who developed DVT in association with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia complicated with septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and myositis extensively. It is crucial to consider musculoskeletal infection associated with DVT in any child who presents with severe swollen limbs and limitations of motion. Prompt antibiotic and anticoagulant treatments should be initiated to reduce the risk of fatal complications. PMID:24279976

  13. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  14. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively. PMID:25700831

  15. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  16. Cardiac veins: collateral venous drainage pathways in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Evrim; Algin, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Venous anomalies are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Subclavian or superior vena cava stenosis can be developed and venous return can be achieved via cardiac veins and coronary sinus in patients with central venous catheter for long-term hemodialysis. These types of abnormalities are not extremely rare especially in patients with a history of central venous catheter placement. Detection of these anomalies and subclavian vein stenosis before the surgical creation of hemodialysis fistulae or tunneled central venous catheter placement may prevent unnecessary interventions in those patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technique can give further information when compared with fluoroscopy or digital subtraction angiography in the management of these patients. This case report describes interesting aspects of central vein complications in hemodialysis patients. As a conclusion, there are limited data about thoracic venous return, and further prospective studies with large patient number are required. MDCT with 3D reconstruction is particularly useful for the accurate evaluation of venous patency, variations, and collateral circulation. Also it is an excellent tool for choosing and planning treatment. PMID:27056032

  17. Natural fracking and the genesis of five-element veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Gregor; Burisch, Mathias; Neumann, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrothermal Ag-Co-Ni-Bi-As (five-element vein type) ore deposits show very conspicuous textures of the native elements silver, bismuth, and arsenic indicating formation from a rapid, far-from-equilibrium process. Such textures include up to dm-large tree- and wire-like aggregates overgrown by Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and mostly carbonates. Despite the historical and contemporary importance of five-element vein type deposits as sources of silver, bismuth, and cobalt, and despite of spectacular museum specimens, their process of formation is not yet understood and has been a matter of debate since centuries. We propose, based on observations from a number of classical European five-element vein deposits and carbon isotope analyses, that "natural fracking," i.e., liberation of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-bearing fluids during break up of rocks in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal system and mixing between these hydrocarbons (e.g., methane and/or methane-bearing fluids) and a metal-rich hydrothermal fluid is responsible for ore precipitation and the formation of the unusual ore textures and assemblages. Thermodynamic and isotope mixing calculations show that the textural, chemical, and isotopic features of the investigated deposits can entirely be explained by this mechanism.

  18. Finger vein recognition based on the hyperinformation feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The finger vein is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification due to its advantages over other existing biometrics. In finger vein recognition, feature extraction is a critical step, and many feature extraction methods have been proposed to extract the gray, texture, or shape of the finger vein. We treat them as low-level features and present a high-level feature extraction framework. Under this framework, base attribute is first defined to represent the characteristics of a certain subcategory of a subject. Then, for an image, the correlation coefficient is used for constructing the high-level feature, which reflects the correlation between this image and all base attributes. Since the high-level feature can reveal characteristics of more subcategories and contain more discriminative information, we call it hyperinformation feature (HIF). Compared with low-level features, which only represent the characteristics of one subcategory, HIF is more powerful and robust. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework, we provide a case study to extract HIF. We conduct comprehensive experiments to show the generality of the proposed framework and the efficiency of HIF on our databases, respectively. Experimental results show that HIF significantly outperforms the low-level features.

  19. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  20. Natural fracking and the genesis of five-element veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Gregor; Burisch, Mathias; Neumann, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Hydrothermal Ag-Co-Ni-Bi-As (five-element vein type) ore deposits show very conspicuous textures of the native elements silver, bismuth, and arsenic indicating formation from a rapid, far-from-equilibrium process. Such textures include up to dm-large tree- and wire-like aggregates overgrown by Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and mostly carbonates. Despite the historical and contemporary importance of five-element vein type deposits as sources of silver, bismuth, and cobalt, and despite of spectacular museum specimens, their process of formation is not yet understood and has been a matter of debate since centuries. We propose, based on observations from a number of classical European five-element vein deposits and carbon isotope analyses, that "natural fracking," i.e., liberation of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-bearing fluids during break up of rocks in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal system and mixing between these hydrocarbons (e.g., methane and/or methane-bearing fluids) and a metal-rich hydrothermal fluid is responsible for ore precipitation and the formation of the unusual ore textures and assemblages. Thermodynamic and isotope mixing calculations show that the textural, chemical, and isotopic features of the investigated deposits can entirely be explained by this mechanism.

  1. Impact of Jugular Vein Valve Function on Cerebral Venous Haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Toro, Eleuterio F; Muller, Lucas O; Cristini, Mariapaola; Menegatti, Erica; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the effect of internal-jugular vein function on intracranial venous haemodynamics, with particular attention paid to venous reflux and intracranial venous hypertension. Haemodynamics in the head and neck is quantified by computing the velocity, flow and pressure fields, and vessel cross-sectional area in all major arteries and veins. For the computations we use a global, closed-loop multi-scale mathematical model for the entire human circulation, recently developed by the first two authors. Validation of the model against in vitro and in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements have been reported elsewhere. Here, the circulation model is equipped with a sub-model for venous valves. For the study, in addition to a healthy control, we identify two venous-valve related conditions, namely valve incompetence and valve obstruction. A parametric study for subjects in the supine position is carried out for nine cases. It is found that valve function has a visible effect on intracranial venous haemodynamics, including dural sinuses and deep cerebral veins. In particular, valve obstruction causes venous reflux, redirection of flow and intracranial venous hypertension. The clinical implications of the findings are unknown, though they may relate to recent hypotheses linking some neurological conditions to extra-cranial venous anomalies. PMID:26256005

  2. Analysis of the hand vein pattern for people recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Cristóbal, G.; Marcos, J. Victor; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Hurtado Pérez, R.

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the hand vascular pattern contains useful and unique features that can be used for identifying and authenticating people, with applications in access control, medicine and financial services. In this work, an optical system for the image acquisition of the hand vascular pattern is implemented. It consists of a CCD camera with sensitivity in the IR and a light source with emission in the 880 nm. The IR radiation interacts with the desoxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin and water present in the blood of the veins, making possible to see the vein pattern underneath skin. The segmentation of the Region Of Interest (ROI) is achieved using geometrical moments locating the centroid of an image. For enhancement of the vein pattern we use the technique of Histogram Equalization and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE). In order to remove unnecessary information such as body hair and skinfolds, a low pass filter is implemented. A method based on geometric moments is used to obtain the invariant descriptors of the input images. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and K-Nearest Neighbors (K-nn) algorithms. Experimental results using our database show a percentage of correct classification, higher of 86.36% with ANN for 912 images of 38 people with 12 versions each one.

  3. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  4. Sequential vein growth with fault displacement: An example from the Austin Chalk Formation, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Joon; Wiltschko, David V.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Morse, John W.; Lamb, William M.

    1997-10-01

    To determine the opening and precipitation history and characteristics of vein-forming fluids, analyses of oxygen and carbon isotopes and trace elements were carried out on multilayered crack-seal calcite veins in the Austin Chalk Formation near San Antonio, Texas. The veins developed within the normal fault zones possessing unique chemical and textural characteristics which indicate sequential vein development. They are composed of alternating millimeter- to submillimeter-thick calcite veinlets and host lithons, occasionally crosscut by coarse, equant-grained secondary calcite veins. Regular changes in δ18O (e.g., -2.6 to -5.6‰, Pee Dee belemnite (PDB)) of the calcite veinlets along the length of veins suggest that the individual calcite veinlets were sequentially developed. A systematic δ18O decrease in the vein opening direction primarily resulted from a continuous increase in temperature of the ascending fluids delivered to the Austin Chalk. Relatively constant δ13C (approximately +1.4±0.4‰, PDB) for the multilayered veins and most secondary veins indicates that the composition of fluids from which the calcite veins precipitated was initially buffered by the bulk chalk. There is no spatial variation in trace element composition of the calcite veinlets along the length of veins. Low Sr concentrations in both calcite veinlets and secondary veins relative to those of the host chalk reflect a low partition coefficient of Sr in calcite during vein formation. Normal faults in the Cretaceous Austin Chalk were conduits to upwardly mobile vein-forming fluids.

  5. A patient with branch retinal vein occlusion accompanied by superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis due to severe superior ophthalmic vein enlargement in a patient with graves ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Seok; Gye, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Joon Mo; Lee, Young Ji

    2014-07-01

    We report a patient with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) accompanied by superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) thrombosis resulting from severe SOV enlargement in a patient with Graves ophthalmopathy (GO). A 78-year-old woman diagnosed with BRVO presented with reduced vision. She had a more than 20-year history of unilateral GO. Fluorescein angiography and spectralis optical coherence tomography revealed BRVO with cystoid macular edema. Approximately 5 months later, she complained of advanced left proptosis. A computed tomography scan at that time revealed dilated SOV with high internal attenuation due to SOV thrombosis of the left orbit. Because of the uncertain onset of SOV thrombosis and minimal signs of acute orbital congestion, we prescribed prophylactic daily aspirin to improve blood flow rather than a heparin-based treatment. In addition, she was treated with lubricants for exposure keratopathy and a dorzolamide/timolol eyedrops to prevent increases in intraocular pressure. This is the first clinical report of BRVO accompanied by SOV thrombosis due to SOV enlargement in chronic severe GO. It should be recognized that SOV thrombosis can lead to an increase in proptosis even in chronic GO. PMID:24978681

  6. Bioaccumulation of ergovaline in bovine lateral saphenous veins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J L; Kirch, B H; Aiken, G E; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2009-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids have been associated with vasoconstriction in grazing livestock affected by the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Previous in vitro investigations studying how ergot alkaloids caused vasoconstriction have shown that ergovaline has a distinct receptor affinity and sustained contractile response. A similar contractile response has not been noted for lysergic acid. The objectives of this study were to determine if repetitive in vitro exposure of bovine lateral saphenous vein to lysergic acid or ergovaline would result in an increasing contractile response and if a measurable bioaccumulation of the alkaloids in the vascular tissue occurs over time. Segments of vein were surgically biopsied from healthy, Angus x Brangus cross-bred, fescue-naïve yearling heifers (n = 16) or collected from healthy mixed breed and sex cattle immediately after slaughter (n = 12) at a local abattoir. Veins were trimmed of excess fat and connective tissue, sliced into cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O(2)/5% CO(2); pH = 7.4; 37 degrees C). Contractile responses to repetitive additions of ergovaline (1 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-7) M) and lysergic acid (1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M) were evaluated using the biopsied veins. For the bioaccumulation experiments, veins collected at the abattoir underwent repetitive additions of 1 x 10(-7) M ergovaline and 1 x 10(-5) M lysergic acid and the segments were removed after every 2 additions and media rinses for alkaloid quantification via HPLC/mass spectrometry. Contractile data were normalized as a percentage of contractile response induced by a reference dose of norepinephrine (1 x 10(-4) M). Repetitive additions of 1 x 10(-9) M ergovaline and 1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M lysergic acid resulted in contractile response with a negative slope (P < 0.02). In contrast, repetitive addition of 1 x 10(-7) M ergovaline resulted in a contractile response that increased with each

  7. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Meneses, Luis Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo; Uribe, Sergio

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  8. Complex left profunda femoris vein to renal vein bypass for the management of progressive chronic iliofemoral occlusion.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Adams, Matthew K; Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Dresser, Kelly L; Ismail, Nyla; Peden, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Chronic occlusions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliofemoral veins are long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that can lead to postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Patients may present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, ranging from mild discomfort and swelling to severe venous hypertension and ulcerations. We report a 68-year-old man who had a history of left lower extremity DVT after a laminectomy and who developed PTS with nonhealing ulcers. The patient underwent a cross-pubic femorofemoral venous bypass that failed to improve his clinical status. After unsuccessful endovascular attempts for recanalization of the iliofemoral segment, a profunda femoris to IVC bypass was performed. The symptoms recurred 2 years later. Venography revealed restenosis at the caval anastomosis that did not resolve by endovascular means. A surgical revision was performed, and given the quality of the IVC, a jump bypass was created to the left renal vein. The swelling improved and the ulcers healed completely. Twenty-eight months after the complex reconstructions, he remains ulcer-free with mild edema controlled with stockings. Venous reconstructions remain a viable option for patients with symptomatic and recalcitrant nonmalignant obstruction of the large veins. PMID:23122979

  9. The Evolution of Fracture Systems in Rocks with Veins: Insights from 3D Discrete Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, S.; Urai, J. L.; Abe, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from natural vein systems suggest that preexisting veins can strongly influence orientation, continuity and connectivity of fractures in a rock even in cases where the orientation of the veins is incompatible with the orientation of the stress field. We present a numerical method to model cycles of fracturing and sealing in a rotating stress field to simulate such systems, for different strength ratios of host rock and vein. We study a layered model under vertical stress and uniaxial horizontal extension. This represents common conditions in sedimentary basins with layers of varying composition. The model with fractures that form during the first deformation phase is sealed and deformed again in a different direction to model the effect of a changing horizontal stress field. We find different types of fracture interaction with veins, depending on the strength contrast between veins and host rock and amount of rotation. The crack-seal and crack-jump mechanisms ensue naturally from the models as a result of the strength of the vein material relative to the host rock. Weak veins localize fracturing and reactivate, even in high misorientation to the extension direction. Connecting fractures between reactivated veins form at a higher angle to the veins than expected. In these systems, the connectivity of the fracture network is dramatically increased. Veins stronger than the host rock have less influence on the new fractures. Most fractures crosscut the veins by the step-over mechanism. Deflection occurs for favorable vein orientations but the deflection length is very short. The results are in good agreement with natural crack seal vein networks found in carbonate rocks of the Oman Mountains. We find that preexisting veins can change the fracture behavior of a rock in a way that new fractures do not necessarily align with the principle extension direction and form a highly connected network with reactivated veins that dramatically enhances lateral

  10. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference

  11. Computer-assisted diagnostic tool to quantify the pulmonary veins in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Alam, Shoaib; Mehari, Alem; Kato, Gregory J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. This study investigates the use of pulmonary vein analysis to assist the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension non-invasively with CT-Angiography images. The characterization of the pulmonary veins from CT presents two main challenges. Firstly, the number of pulmonary veins is unknown a priori and secondly, the contrast material is degraded when reaching the pulmonary veins, making the edges of these vessels to appear faint. Each image is first denoised and a fast marching approach is used to segment the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Afterward, a geodesic active contour is employed to isolate the left atrium. A thinning technique is then used to extract the skeleton of the atrium and the veins. The locations of the pulmonary veins ostia are determined by the intersection of the skeleton and the contour of the atrium. The diameters of the pulmonary veins are measured in each vein at fixed distances from the corresponding ostium, and for each distance, the sum of the diameters of all the veins is computed. These indicators are shown to be significantly larger in sickle-cell patients with pulmonary hypertension as compared to controls (p-values < 0.01).

  12. Effects of cobalt chloride on phenotypes of normal human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    To explore the cellular adaptations and responses to hypoxia in normal human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and presume what roles phenotypic modulation of normal human saphenous vein SMCs would play in varicose vein of lower extremity, we used cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia mimetic, to treat normal human saphenous vein SMCs in vitro. The proliferating ability of cells exposed to serial dilutions of CoCl2 (0, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μM) at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively was detected by MTT assay. Wound healing assay was used to observe the migrating ability of cells under CoCl2 (200 μM) treatment for 8 days continuously. Hoechst 33258 stain was used to determine whether hypoxia induced by CoCl2 could cause apoptosis of normal human saphenous vein SMCs. We found that CoCl2 enhanced the proliferation and inhibited the migration of normal human saphenous vein SMCs. The apparent morphous of normal human saphenous vein SMCs under chronic CoCl2 treatment was significantly changed compared to no CoCl2 treated control, but this process did not relate to cell apoptosis. To conclude, our results support the concept that the phenotypes of normal human saphenous vein SMCs could be influenced by hypoxia stimulus. Cellular structural and functional changes under chronic hypoxia in normal human saphenous vein SMCs might play important roles in the development of varicose veins of lower extremity. PMID:25663990

  13. Effects of cobalt chloride on phenotypes of normal human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    To explore the cellular adaptations and responses to hypoxia in normal human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and presume what roles phenotypic modulation of normal human saphenous vein SMCs would play in varicose vein of lower extremity, we used cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia mimetic, to treat normal human saphenous vein SMCs in vitro. The proliferating ability of cells exposed to serial dilutions of CoCl2 (0, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μM) at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively was detected by MTT assay. Wound healing assay was used to observe the migrating ability of cells under CoCl2 (200 μM) treatment for 8 days continuously. Hoechst 33258 stain was used to determine whether hypoxia induced by CoCl2 could cause apoptosis of normal human saphenous vein SMCs. We found that CoCl2 enhanced the proliferation and inhibited the migration of normal human saphenous vein SMCs. The apparent morphous of normal human saphenous vein SMCs under chronic CoCl2 treatment was significantly changed compared to no CoCl2 treated control, but this process did not relate to cell apoptosis. To conclude, our results support the concept that the phenotypes of normal human saphenous vein SMCs could be influenced by hypoxia stimulus. Cellular structural and functional changes under chronic hypoxia in normal human saphenous vein SMCs might play important roles in the development of varicose veins of lower extremity. PMID:25663990

  14. Targeted endovenous treatment of Giacomini vein insufficiency-associated varicose disease: considering the reflux patterns

    PubMed Central

    Atasoy, Mehmet Mahir; Gümüş, Burçak; Caymaz, İsmail; Oğuzkurt, Levent

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the technical feasibility of targeted endovenous treatment of Giacomini vein insufficiency (GVI)-associated varicose disease and report our early results. METHODS We retrospectively screened 335 patients with varicose disease who underwent endovenous laser ablation from September 2011 to January 2013, and determined 17 patients who underwent Giacomini vein ablation. Using a targeted endovenous treatment approach considering the reflux pattern, all healthy great saphenous veins (GSV) or vein segments were preserved while all insufficient veins (Giacomini vein, perforator veins, small saphenous vein, anterior accessory GSV, major tributary veins, or incompetent segments of the GSV) were ablated. Treatment success was analysed using Doppler findings and clinical assessment scores before and after treatment. RESULTS Targeted endovenous treatment was technically successful in all cases. Seven GSVs were preserved totally and three GSVs were preserved partially (10/17, 58%), with no major complications. Clinical assessment scores and Doppler findings were improved in all cases. CONCLUSION Targeted endovenous treatment of GVI-associated varicose disease is safe and effective. In majority of GVI cases saphenous vein can be preserved using this approach. PMID:25205026

  15. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVERNOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THE OBSTRUCTED PORTAL VEIN IN SMALL ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Specchi, Swan; Pey, Pascaline; Ledda, Gianluca; Lustgarten, Meghann; Thrall, Donald; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the process of development of collateral vessels with hepatopetal flow around the portal vein in order to bypass an obstruction is called "cavernous transformation of the portal vein." The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentric study was to describe presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in small animals with portal vein obstruction using ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Databases from three different institutions were searched for patients with an imaging diagnosis of cavernous transformation of the portal vein secondary to portal vein obstruction of any cause. Images were retrieved and reanalyzed. With MDCT-angiography, two main portoportal collateral pathways were identified: short tortuous portoportal veins around/inside the thrombus and long portoportal collaterals bypassing the site of portal obstruction. Three subtypes of the long collaterals, often coexisting, were identified. Branches of the hepatic artery where involved in collateral circulation in nine cases. Concomitant acquired portosystemic shunts were identified in six patients. With ultrasound, cavernous transformation of the portal vein was suspected in three dogs and one cat based on visualization of multiple and tortuous vascular structures corresponding to periportal collaterals. In conclusion, the current study provided descriptive MDCT and ultrasonographic characteristics of presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in a sample of small animals. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein could occur as a single condition or could be concurrent with acquired portosystemic shunts. PMID:25877678

  16. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    PubMed

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  17. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn’t available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. Methods 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Results A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262–605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363–3.588; p = 0.001). Conclusions Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable. PMID:26751380

  18. Portal Vein Thrombosis After Laparoscopic Splenectomy: An Ongoing Clinical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Douglas N.; Padidar, Arash M.; Kee, Stephen T.; Krummel, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) following open splenectomy is a potentially lethal complication with an incidence of up to 6%. The objective of this report is to describe our management of a recent laparoscopic case, discuss current therapies, and consider antiplatelet therapy for prophylaxis. Methods: Medical records, laboratory studies, and imaging studies pertaining to a recent case of a laparoscopic splenectomy were examined. Current literature related to this topic was reviewed. Results: A 16-year-old girl underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Her preoperative platelet count was 96K. She was discharged on postoperative day 1 after an uneventful operation including division of the splenic hilum with an endoscopic linear stapler. On postoperative day 20, she presented with a 5-day history of epigastric pain, nausea, and low-grade fevers without peritoneal signs. Her white blood cell count was 17.3; her platelets were 476K. Computed tomography demonstrated thrombosis of the splenic, superior mesenteric, and portal veins propagating into the liver. Heparinization was begun followed by an unsuccessful attempt at pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis by interventional radiology. Over the next 5 days, her pain resolved, she tolerated a full diet, was converted to oral anticoagulation and sent home. Follow-up radiographic studies demonstrated the development of venous collaterals and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Discussion: No standard therapy for PVT exists; several approaches have been described. These include systemic anticoagulation, systemic or regional medical thrombolysis, mechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Unanswered questions exist about the most effective acute therapy, duration of anticoagulation, and the potential efficacy of routine prophylaxis with perioperative antiplatelet agents. PVT following splenectomy occurs with both the open and laparoscopic approach. PMID

  19. Transcatheter closure of patent vertical vein after repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sudeep; Subramanian, Anand; Saileela, Rajan; Koneti, Nageswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertical vein is left patent in some cases of supra-cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) when there is hemodynamic instability due to noncompliant left atrium and ventricle. After the peri-operative period, this results in features of pre-tricuspid shunt. Materials and Methods: Three cases with patent vertical vein following repair of supra-cardiac TAPVC presented with features of pre-tricuspid shunt on follow-up. Trans-catheter closure of patent vertical vein was performed using vascular plug in all three subjects. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all the patients. There was a complication related to catheter tip breakage in one of them, which was successfully managed. There was no impingement on pulmonary vein in any of the patients. Conclusion: Patent vertical vein following TAPVC repair results in features of pre-tricuspid shunt. Transcatheter closure of the patent vein is feasible. PMID:26556968

  20. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Lim, W K; Leong, M C; Samion, H

    2016-01-01

    A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ). The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage. PMID:27212859

  1. Force-Based Puncture Detection and Active Position Holding for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed Central

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Riviere, Cameron N.; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure proposed to treat retinal vein occlusion by direct therapeutic agent delivery methods. Challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining cannulation during drug delivery currently limit the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we respond to these problems with an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, Micron, with a force-sensing microneedle. The integrated system senses the instant of vein puncture based on measured forces and the position of the needle tip. The system actively holds the cannulation device securely in the vein following cannulation and during drug delivery. Preliminary testing of the system in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes, demonstrates a significant improvement in the total time the needle could be maintained stably inside of the vein. This was especially evident in smaller veins and is attributed to decreased movement of the positioned cannula following venous cannulation. PMID:27127804

  2. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  3. An Unusual Course and Termination of Small Saphenous Vein: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; D'Souza, Melanie Rose; Nayak, Satheesha B

    2016-03-01

    The superficial veins of the lower limb can vary in their course and termination. We report a relatively rare type of variation in the course and termination of small saphenous vein. The small saphenous vein had normal origin and course in the leg. However, instead of terminating into the popliteal vein, it continued up in the posterior compartment of the thigh and terminated into the femoral vein after piercing the fleshy part of the adductor magnus muscle. This course might lead to varicosity of the small saphenous vein due to the compression by the fleshy fibres of adductor magus near its termination. The case may be of interest to general and plastic surgeons and even cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27134850

  4. An Unusual Course and Termination of Small Saphenous Vein: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; D’Souza, Melanie Rose

    2016-01-01

    The superficial veins of the lower limb can vary in their course and termination. We report a relatively rare type of variation in the course and termination of small saphenous vein. The small saphenous vein had normal origin and course in the leg. However, instead of terminating into the popliteal vein, it continued up in the posterior compartment of the thigh and terminated into the femoral vein after piercing the fleshy part of the adductor magnus muscle. This course might lead to varicosity of the small saphenous vein due to the compression by the fleshy fibres of adductor magus near its termination. The case may be of interest to general and plastic surgeons and even cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27134850

  5. Use of Left Gastric Vein as an Alternative for Portal Flow Reconstruction in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Marcos Bertozzi; Kruse, Cristine; Diedrich, João Alfredo; Giacomazzi, Caroline Becker; Negri, Estéfano Aurélio; Koop, Matheus; Sampaio, José Artur; Fontes, Paulo Roberto Ott; Waechter, Fábio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is observed in up to 10% of liver transplant candidates, hindering execution of the procedure. A dilated gastric vein is an alternative to portal vein reconstruction and decompression of splanchnic bed. We present two cases of patients with portal cavernoma and dilated left gastric vein draining splanchnic bed who underwent liver transplantation. The vein was dissected and sectioned near the cardia; the proximal segment was ligated with suture and the distal segment was anastomosed to the donor portal vein. Gastroportal anastomosis is an excellent option for portal reconstruction in the presence of thrombosis or hypoplasia. It allows an adequate splanchnic drainage and direction of hepatotrophic factors to the graft. PMID:27595034

  6. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shan Juan; Lu, Yu; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc.) vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs). In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV) normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR) is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy. PMID:26184226

  7. Palm vein for efficient person recognition based on 2D Gabor filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jixing; He, Yuqing; Zhu, Jiadan; Gao, Xinru; Cui, Yongsheng

    2013-05-01

    Palm vein recognition is a relatively new method in biometrics. This paper presents an effective palm vein feature extraction approach for improving the efficiency of palm vein identification. In this paper, relevant preprocessing steps as rotation and extraction of the Region of Interest are presented. In feature extraction, multiple 2D Gabor filters with 4 orientations are employed to extract the phase information on a palm vein image, which is then merged into unique feature according to an encoding rule. Hamming distance is used for vein recognition. Experiments are carried on a selfmade palm vein database. Experimental results show that the method in this paper achieved a higher correct recognition rate and a faster speed.

  8. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, WK; Leong, MC; Samion, H

    2016-01-01

    A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ). The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage. PMID:27212859

  9. Superior vena cava reconstruction using bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei Dong; Yu, Feng Lei; Wu, Zhong Shi

    2007-11-01

    The glutaraldehyde-treated bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC) is a xenograft conduit initially used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and has never been used for reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC). In September 2003, a patient with SVC obstruction underwent SVC reconstruction using BJVC. He has been alive for 42 months and free from signs and symptoms of SVC obstruction except that metastasis was found in the vertebrae. The radionuclide venography showed the graft tube was patent and only slight stenosis was found in the proximal anastomosis. The initial result supports BJVC as an acceptable alternative for SVC reconstruction. PMID:17768061

  10. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1983-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, in the Front Range west of Denver, Colorado, is the largest vein-type uranium deposit in the United States. The deposit is situated in a steeply dipping fault system that cuts Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The host rocks represent a submarine volcanic system with associated chert and iron- and sulfide-rich pelitic rocks. Where faulted, the more competent garnetiferous and quartzitic units behaved brittlely and created a deep, narrow conduit. The ores formed 70-72 m.y. ago beneath 3 km of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Mineralization included two episodes of alteration and three stages of vein-mineralization. Early carbonate-sericite alteration pseudomorphically replaced mafic minerals, whereas the ensuing hematite-adularia episode replaced only the earlier alteration assemblage. Early vein mineralization produced a minor sulfide-adularia-carbonate assemblage. Later vein mineralization generated the uranium ores in two successive stages. Carbonates, sulfides, and adularia filled the remaining voids. Clastic dikes composed of fault gouge and, locally, ore were injected into new and existing fractures. Geologic and chemical evidence suggest that virtually all components of the deposit were derived from major hornblende gneiss units and related rocks. The initial fluids were evolved connate/metamorphic water that infiltrated and resided along the extensive fault zones. Complex fault movements in the frontal zone of the eastern Front Range caused the fluids to migrate to the most permeable segments of the fault zones. Heat was supplied by increased crustal heat flow related to igneous activity in the nearby Colorado mineral belt. Temperatures decreased from 225?C to 125?C during later mineralization, and the pressure episodically dropped from 1000 bars. The CO2 fugacity was initially near 100 bars, and uranium was carried as a dicarbonate complex. Sudden decreases in confining pressure during fault movement caused evolution of CO2

  11. Melt inclusions in veins: linking magmas and porphyry Cu deposits.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony C; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; White, Noel C; van Achterbergh, Esmé; Ryan, Chris G

    2003-12-19

    At a porphyry copper-gold deposit in Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina, silicate-melt inclusions coexist with hypersaline liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions in the earliest magmatic-hydrothermal quartz veins. Copper concentrations of the hypersaline liquid and vapor inclusions reached maxima of 10.0 weight % (wt %) and 4.5 wt %, respectively. These unusually copper-rich inclusions are considered to be the most primitive ore fluid found thus far. Their preservation with coexisting melt allows for the direct quantification of important oreforming processes, including determination of bulk partition coefficients of metals from magma into ore-forming magmatic volatile phases. PMID:14684818

  12. [Echographic Examination for Leg Vein Thromboembolism in Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Mawatari, Tohru; Narayama, Kouhei; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Saga, Toshifumi; Baba, Toshio; Morishita, Kiyofumi; Niwa, Jun; Watanabe, Yuusuke; Yamashita, Tatsushi; Hirakata, Natsuko; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Echographic examination for leg vein thromboembolism was carried out in 123 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery. Preventive measures for thromboembolism were conducted after the risk assessment. Echography was done after surgery in 72 cases, most of which were cases of lung malignant tumors, and thromboembolism was detected in 4 cases. Thus, the incidence rate of venous thromboembolism was 5.6%( 4/72). There was no patients who developed pulmonary thromboembolism during the examination period, suggesting reasonable risk assessment and preventive measures in our procedure. PMID:27365057

  13. Divided Saphenectomy for Varicose Vein in Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We performed divided saphenectomy (DS) for varicose vein in ambulatory surgery with minimal incisions. Under tumescent local anesthesia, this procedure ligates all perforators in the thigh, preserving a route of venous drainage, and reduces bruising by ligating all tributaries. Also, DS does not need any special surgical instrument. Subcutaneous inguinal hemorrhage was observed in 4.9% (3/61), mild bruises were observed in 19.7% (12/61), and saphenous nerve neuralgia was 1.6% (1/61). Wound infection, deep venous thrombosis, and edema were not observed. DS is a minimally invasive, simple, and cost-effective procedure. PMID:24995071

  14. Brachiocephalic vein stent fracture: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Baljendra; Lockhart, Mark; Sharma, Deepak; Maya, Ivan D

    2010-01-01

    Stent fractures are commonly seen in the arterial circulation and there is paucity of literature describing venous stent fractures particularly in the central venous circulation. In this case series, we describe three patients on hemodialysis who underwent right brachiocephalic vein (BCV) stent placement for severe stenosis in two patients and occlusion in one patient. Over the course of time, these patients clinically presented with arm swelling, pain, and difficulty in dialysis because of stenosis related to stent fracture and intimal hyperplasia. Two of these patients were successfully treated by restenting. PMID:20331828

  15. Deep vein thrombosis and tuberculosis: a causative link?

    PubMed Central

    Kechaou, Ines; Cherif, Eya; Ben Hassine, Lamia; Khalfallah, Narjess

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is very devastating in developing countries and its thrombogenic potential is a disturbing new entity. We report an 18-year-old woman who presented with a first episode of deep vein thrombosis. Pulmonary, hepatic and splenic tuberculosis was diagnosed while looking for secondary causes. The patient was treated with rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol along with low-molecular-weight heparin and antivitamin K. Tuberculosis has several mechanisms that induce a hypercoagulable state and can lead to thromboembolic complications. PMID:24859543

  16. OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.

  17. Inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in Crohn`s disease: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Coralnick, J.R.; Budin, J.A.; Sedarat, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis has been described in association with such risk factors as coagulation disorders, postoperative dehydration, sepsis, and trauma. CT and ultrasound have greatly facilitated early diagnosis, and the features of superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis are well recognized. We present a case of inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient with Crohn`s disease. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported in the radiologic literature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Meandering right pulmonary vein associated with severe and progressive "idiopathic-like" pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Sofia; Bret, Montserrat; Del Cerro, Maria Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary veins are rare. Meandering right pulmonary vein, considered a part of the Scimitar syndrome spectrum, is often an incidental finding during chest imaging. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with meandering pulmonary vein, who developed pulmonary hypertensive disease with an aggressive course, in spite of absence of hypoxia or elevated pulmonary wedge pressure. PMID:26374461

  19. Extraluminal lipoma with common femoral vein obstruction: a cause of chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gasparis, Antonios P; Tsintzilonis, Stylianos; Labropoulos, Nicos

    2009-02-01

    A 49-year-old man, with a misdiagnosis of common femoral vein deep vein thrombosis presented with advanced chronic venous insufficiency. Further imaging revealed a patent common femoral vein with augmentation that was compressed by an extrinsic mass. Exploration identified a lipoma that was extravascular and was resulting in venous outflow obstruction. Excision of the lipoma resulted in clinical improvement and ulcer healing. PMID:19216966

  20. Umbilical intra-abdominal vein varix: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Virdis, G; Gulotta, A; Cherchi, C; Spanedda, G; Olzai, M G; Ambrosini, G; Dessole, S; Capobianco, G

    2016-01-01

    Fetal umbilical intra-abdominal vein varix (FIUV) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by focal dilatation of the umbilical vein. The authors report a case of pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with a fetus affected by dilatation of an intra-abdominal portion of the umbilical vein. They performed continuous ultrasound and cardiotocographic monitoring, from admission to the delivery. They describe the case and perform a review of the literature. PMID:27132426

  1. AIR VENT OF VEIN GRAFT IN EXTRACRANIAL-INTRACRANIAL BYPASS SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    OYAMA, HIROFUMI; KITO, AKIRA; MAKI, HIDEKI; HATTORI, KENICHI; NODA, TOMOYUKI; WADA, KENTARO

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Revascularization with a vein graft is a mandatory method for treatment of dissecting or pseudoaneurysms of the internal carotid artery. We report the necessity for an air vent from the vein graft and explain its use in our two cases. In Case 1, we searched for a great saphenous vein around its junction with a femoral vein during the harvest of vein graft. An accessory branch of that great saphenous vein was also found around the junctional region with a femoral vein, and was temporarily ligated. At first, anastomosis was completed on both the distal and proximal sides. After the proximal side of a vein graft was opened and the ligation of the branch was loosened, an air vent could be made through the branch of the vein graft. Multiple air bubbles and a large quantity of white microemboli were discharged through this branch. The postoperative course was uneventful. In Case 2, the air vent was omitted to shorten ischemia. During the opening of the vein graft, the migrated air was observed to move to the middle cerebral artery. A computed tomography scan demonstrated that brain infarction and dysarthria occurred postoperatively. The air vent of the vein graft is essential in extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery, because the air bubbles or microthrombi are easily trapped around the valve and cause cerebral infarction. An air vent can be easily made if the branch of a vein graft exists in the outflow pathway, because intraluminal air or thrombus can be washed out through the branch at the final stage of surgery. PMID:23092106

  2. Efficient Gene Transfer and Durable Transgene Expression in Grafted Rabbit Veins

    PubMed Central

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; Clowes, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Venous bypass grafts are useful treatments for obstructive coronary artery disease. However, their usefulness is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Genetic engineering of venous bypass grafts that prevented atherosclerosis could improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes. We used a rabbit model of jugular vein-to-carotid interposition grafting to develop gene therapy for vein-graft atherosclerosis. Rabbit veins were easily transduced in situ with a first-generation adenoviral vector; however, most transgene expression (∼80%) was lost within 3 days after arterial grafting. This rapid loss of transgene expression was not prevented by transducing veins after grafting or by prolonged ex vivo transduction. However, delaying vein-graft transduction for 28 days (after the vein had adapted to the arterial circulation) prevented this early loss of transgene expression. We used the delayed transduction approach to test the durability of expression of a therapeutic transgene (apolipoprotein A-I) expressed from a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector. HDAd DNA and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA were easily detectable in transduced vein grafts. Vector DNA and mRNA declined by 4 weeks, and then persisted stably for at least 6 months. Delaying transduction for 28 days after grafting permitted initiation of vein-graft neointimal growth and medial thickening before gene transfer. However, vein-graft lumen diameter was not compromised, because of gradual outward remodeling of grafted veins. Our data highlight the promise of HDAd-mediated gene therapy, delivered to arterialized vein grafts, for preventing vein-graft atherosclerosis. PMID:25383597

  3. Efficient gene transfer and durable transgene expression in grafted rabbit veins.

    PubMed

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; Clowes, Alexander W; Dichek, David A

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts are useful treatments for obstructive coronary artery disease. However, their usefulness is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Genetic engineering of venous bypass grafts that prevented atherosclerosis could improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes. We used a rabbit model of jugular vein-to-carotid interposition grafting to develop gene therapy for vein-graft atherosclerosis. Rabbit veins were easily transduced in situ with a first-generation adenoviral vector; however, most transgene expression (∼80%) was lost within 3 days after arterial grafting. This rapid loss of transgene expression was not prevented by transducing veins after grafting or by prolonged ex vivo transduction. However, delaying vein-graft transduction for 28 days (after the vein had adapted to the arterial circulation) prevented this early loss of transgene expression. We used the delayed transduction approach to test the durability of expression of a therapeutic transgene (apolipoprotein A-I) expressed from a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector. HDAd DNA and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA were easily detectable in transduced vein grafts. Vector DNA and mRNA declined by 4 weeks, and then persisted stably for at least 6 months. Delaying transduction for 28 days after grafting permitted initiation of vein-graft neointimal growth and medial thickening before gene transfer. However, vein-graft lumen diameter was not compromised, because of gradual outward remodeling of grafted veins. Our data highlight the promise of HDAd-mediated gene therapy, delivered to arterialized vein grafts, for preventing vein-graft atherosclerosis. PMID:25383597

  4. The use of internal jugular vein as interposition graft for femoral vein reconstruction following traumatic venous injury: a useful approach in selected cases.

    PubMed

    Woodson, J; Rodriguez, A A; Menzoian, J O

    1990-09-01

    Complex venous injuries remain a controversial and interesting challenge to the vascular and trauma surgeon. Data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry, combined with experience from recent civilian series, seem to indicate that the best results are obtained when venous repair is undertaken. This is especially true of combined arterial and venous injury where compromised venous outflow may lead to limb loss in spite of patent arterial reconstruction. The larger size of veins, however, has required the construction of complex and time-consuming panel and spiral-vein grafts. This makes them far from ideal in the trauma treatment setting, where minimization of blood loss and operating room time are high priorities. We present a case of combined injury to both femoral artery and vein, where the femoral vein injury was repaired using autologous internal jugular vein as interposition graft while the arterial injury was repaired with autologous saphenous vein from the opposite limb. The avoidance of prosthetics, ease of harvest, size match, and little associated morbidity all make a strong case for use of the internal jugular vein where speedy reconstruction of large venous conduits is indicated. PMID:2223549

  5. Isolated gastric variceal bleeding caused by splenic lymphoma-associated splenic vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Chung; Wang, Hong-Hau; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan

    2013-10-28

    Isolated gastric varices (IGV) can occur in patients with left-sided portal hypertension resulting from splenic vein occlusion caused by thrombosis or stenosis. In left-sided portal hypertension, blood flows retrogradely through the short and posterior gastric veins and the gastroepiploic veins, leading to the formation of an IGV. The most common causes of splenic vein occlusion are pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, or a pseudocyst. However, various other cancers, such as colon, gastric, or renal cancers, have also been known to cause splenic vein occlusion. Our patient presented with a rare case of IGV bleeding induced by splenic lymphoma-associated splenic vein occlusion. Splenectomy, splenic artery embolization, and stenting of the splenic vein are the current treatment choices. Chemotherapy, however, is an alternative effective treatment for splenic vein occlusion caused by chemotherapy-sensitive tumors. Our patient responded well to chemotherapy with a cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisolone regimen, and the splenic vein occlusion resolved after the lymphoma regressed. PMID:24187474

  6. [Stented dilated or varicose veins as arterial bypass transplants: experimental and initial clinical results].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Magometschnigg, H; Staudacher, M; Ptakovsky, H; Raderer, F; Ullrich, R; Grabenwöger, F; Wolner, E

    1991-01-01

    Dilated and varicose veins are usually not used as arterial bypass-grafts despite they are lined with functional endothelium. External support by a constrictive mesh tube could conform these veins into evenly calibrated bypass-grafts. Ovine jugular veins could be constricted from 15 to 6 mm diameter without forming folds on the inner flow surface. 6 months after implantation of 5 cm long jugular vein segments into the carotid arteries of 7 sheep the inner diameter was 19.5 +/- 3.3 mm for native veins (n = 4) and 7.6 +/- 0.8 mm for constricted veins (n = 10). Intimal hyperplasia was reduced from 0.4 +/- 0.2 mm in native to 0.23 +/- 0.07 mm in reinforced veins (p = 0.03). Mesh tube constricted varicose veins were used as bypass material in 11 infrainguinal reconstructions. All grafts were well calibrated at control angiography. External constriction by mesh tubes is a means to convert varicose veins into suitable bypass grafts. PMID:1950138

  7. Improving coronary artery bypass graft durability: use of the external saphenous vein graft support.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; von Segesser, Ludwig; Berdajs, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Coronary bypass grafting remains the best option for patients suffering from multivessel coronary artery disease, and the saphenous vein is used as an additional conduit for multiple complete revascularizations. However, the long-term vein graft durability is poor, with almost 75% of occluded grafts after 10 years. To improve the durability, the concept of an external supportive structure was successfully developed during the last years: the eSVS Mesh device (Kips Bay Medical) is an external support for vein graft made of weft-knitted nitinol wire into a tubular form with an approximate length of 24 cm and available in three diameters (3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 mm). The device is placed over the outer wall of the vein and carefully deployed to cover the full length of the graft. The mesh is flexible for full adaptability to the heart anatomy and is intended to prevent kinking and dilatation of the vein in addition to suppressing the intima hyperplasia induced by the systemic blood pressure. The device is designed to reduce the vein diameter of about 15-20% at most to prevent the vein radial expansion induced by the arterial blood pressure, and the intima hyperplasia leading to the graft failure. We describe the surgical technique for preparing the vein graft with the external saphenous vein graft support (eSVS Mesh) and we share our preliminary clinical results. PMID:25976117

  8. Systolodiastolic variations of blood flow during central retinal vein occlusion: exploration by dynamic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Paques, M; Baillart, O; Genevois, O; Gaudric, A; Lévy, B I; Sahel, J

    2005-01-01

    Background/aim: In patients with acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), dynamic angiography may reveal the presence of pulsatile flow (termed here pulsatile venular outflow, PVO) within first order veins (that is, the large veins). The main goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying PVO. Methods: 10 patients with CRVO and PVO were included. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of venous flow on dynamic angiograms allowed the correlation, temporally, of second and first order vein flow on the one hand, and venous flow and systolic cycle on the other. Results: Analysis of the time-velocity curve showed that (1) the onset of arterial systole preceded the onset of PVO by less than 0.08 seconds (n = 5); (2) PVO onset was simultaneous to the time of onset of minimal flow (Vmin) in first order veins (n = 10); (3) the time of onset of maximal flow (Vmax) in first order veins occurred 0.20–0.44 seconds after the onset of PVO (n = 6). Conclusions: During CRVO with severe reduction in blood flow, the presence of PVO is the result of the existence of a distinct haemodynamic regimen in first and second order veins. These data support the hypothesis that second order veins flow is synchronous with the arterial flow, while the delayed peak flow in first order veins may reflect the consequences of the delayed IOP curve and/or of intermittent venous compression. PMID:16024861

  9. The Role of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator and Plasmin Activator Inhibitor-1 on Vein Wall Remodeling in Experimental Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Joe F.; Sood, Vikram; Elfline, Megan A.; Luke, Cathy E.; Dewyer, Nicholas A.; Diaz, Jose A.; Myers, Dan D.; Wakefield, Thomas; Henke, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution instigates an inflammatory response, resulting in vessel wall damage and scarring. Urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are integral components of the fibrinolytic system, essential for VT resolution. This study determined the vein wall response when exposed to increased and decreased plasmin activity. Methods A mouse inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation model in uPA −/− or PAI-1 −/− and their genetic wild types (B6/SvEv and C57/BL6, respectively) was used to create stasis thrombi, with tissue harvest at either 8 or 21d. Tissue analysis included gene expression of vascular smooth muscle cells (alpha SMA [αSMA], SM22) and endothelial marker (CD31), by real time PCR, ELISA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and 9 activity by zymography and vein wall collagen by picrosirius red histological analysis. A P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS Thrombi were significantly larger in both 8d and 21d uPA −/− as compared to WT, and were significantly smaller in both 8 and 21d PAI-1 −/− as compared to WT. Correspondingly, 8d plasmin levels were reduced in half in uPA −/− and increased 3 fold in PAI-1 −/− when compared to respective WT thrombi (P < .05, N = 5 – 6). The endothelial marker CD31 was elevated 2 fold in PAI-1 −/− mice at 8d, but reduced 2.5 fold at 21d in uPA −/− as compared with WT (P = .02, N = 5 – 6), suggesting less endothelial preservation. Vein wall VSMC gene expression showed that 8d and 21d PAI-1 −/− mice had 2.3 and 3.8 fold more SM22 and 1.8 and 2.3 fold more αSMA expression than respective WT (P < .05, N = 5 – 7), as well as 1.8 fold increased αSMA (+) cells (N = 3 – 5, P ≤ .05). No significant difference in MMP2 or 9 activity was found in the PAI-1 −/− mice compared with WT, while 5.4 fold more MMP9 was present in 21d WT than 21d uPA −/− (P = .03, N = 5). Lastly, collagen was ~2 fold

  10. Probability of developing proximal deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism after distal deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Brateanu, Andrei; Patel, Krishna; Chagin, Kevin; Tunsupon, Pichapong; Yampikulsakul, Pojchawan; Shah, Gautam V; Wangsiricharoen, Sintawat; Amah, Linda; Allen, Joshua; Shapiro, Aryeh; Gupta, Neha; Morgan, Lillie; Kumar, Rahul; Nielsen, Craig; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    Isolated distal deep-vein thrombosis (DDVT) of the lower extremities can be associated with subsequent proximal deep-vein thrombosis (PDVT) and/or acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to develop a model predicting the probability of developing PDVT and/or PE within three months after an isolated episode of DDVT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptomatic DDVT confirmed by lower extremity vein ultrasounds between 2001-2012 in the Cleveland Clinic Health System. We reviewed all the ultrasounds, chest ventilation/perfusion and computed tomography scans ordered within three months after the initial DDVT to determine the incidence of PDVT and/or PE. A multiple logistic regression model was built to predict the rate of developing these complications. The final model included 450 patients with isolated DDVT. Within three months, 30 (7 %) patients developed an episode of PDVT and/or PE. Only two factors predicted subsequent thromboembolic complications: inpatient status (OR, 6.38; 95 % CI, 2.17 to 18.78) and age (OR, 1.02 per year; 95 % CI, 0.99 to 1.05). The final model had a bootstrap bias-corrected c-statistic of 0.72 with a 95 % CI (0.64 to 0.79). Outpatients were at low risk (< 4 %) of developing PDVT/PE. Inpatients aged ≥ 60 years were at high risk (> 10 %). Inpatients aged < 60 were at intermediate risk. We created a simple model that can be used to risk stratify patients with isolated DDVT based on inpatient status and age. The model might be used to choose between anticoagulation and monitoring with serial ultrasounds. PMID:26660731

  11. Retinal vein occlusions: a review for the internist.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Rossella; Sofi, Francesco; Grifoni, Elisa; Sodi, Andrea; Prisco, Domenico

    2011-08-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a disease that is often associated with a variety of systemic disorders including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and systemic vasculitis. There are various types of RVO, categorized on the basis of the site of occlusion and on the type of consequent vascular damage. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is the most clinically relevant type of RVO. In addition to well-known classical risk factors, new thrombophilic factors have been investigated in patients with RVO. Data concerning a number of the parameters remain contradictory; yet, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamins involved in methionine metabolism appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alterations in the fibrinolysis pathway (elevated levels of PAI-1 and Lipoprotein (a)), together with haemorheologic modifications have been recently consistently associated with the disease. Medical treatment includes identification and correction of vascular risk factors. In addition, LMWHs appear to be the best therapeutic approach even if based on a limited number of trials, conducted on a limited number of patients. No data are available on the possible role of antithrombotic strategies in the long-term prevention of recurrent RVO or vascular events. PMID:21547483

  12. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  13. Management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Gary J.; Ameli, F. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Objective To study, by literature review, the management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis (SAVT) and to make recommendations. Data sources The MEDLINE database and cross-referenced articles. Study selection Key words subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis, venous thrombosis, Paget–Schroetter syndrome, anticoagulation, and thrombolysis were used to extract articles related to SAVT. Data extraction Independent extraction of articles by 2 observers. Data synthesis Although numerous studies are available in the literature, they vary widely in their patient selection, treatment methods, follow-up and conclusions. As such, the management of patients with SAVT remains controversial. Conclusions Anticoagulation remains the initial treatment of choice for acute SAVT although there is definitely a role for thrombolysis and surgery in selected cases. Surgical intervention should be reserved for patients in whom there is a specific indication. Since chronic symptoms depend largely on the etiology of the disease, treatment should be tailored to address the causative factors. A multicentre, prospective study is necessary to evaluate the optimum management strategies for patients with SAVT. PMID:9492744

  14. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a TV cameraman.

    PubMed

    Beasley, R; Braithwaite, I; Evans, R

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old right-handed man who developed a right subclavian vein thrombosis due to work as a TV cameraman. He presented with a sudden onset of marked swelling and blue discolouration of his right arm 3 weeks after the most strenuous and prolonged episode of TV camera work that he had ever undertaken. This involved carrying a 9kg camera on his shoulder, with his right arm flexed and abducted, for a 60min period with provocation of severe pain and marked discomfort persisting during the subsequent 3 weeks before presentation. A clinical diagnosis of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) was made, with the diagnosis confirmed by ultrasound. He was treated with catheter-induced thrombolysis and a 3 month course of anticoagulation. He was advised that his UEDVT was caused by his occupation and that he should no longer work as a cameraman. This case shows the importance of identifying any occupational cause of UEDVT. PMID:25733529

  15. Hydrothermal fluids and argon isotopes in quartz veins and cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Grenville

    1988-06-01

    Argon isotopes from a number of sources are present in quartz veins and chert; in situ decay of potassium, parentless 40Ar leached or outgassed from surrounding rocks, atmospheric argon dissolved in ancient hydrothermal fluids, and, modern atmospheric argon. The manner in which the 40Ar- 39Ar techniques can be used to unscramble these components, by way of correlations with Cl and K, is described in relation to two parallel studies of vein quartz and the Gunflint chert. Information concerning several processes can be inferred, including: contributions of surface waters to trapped fluids (from the concentration of atmospheric argon in the fluids), degree of water-rock interaction (from the concentration of parentless 40Ar and/or the ratio of parentless to atmospheric argon), effects of dilution of primary hydrothermal brines by meteoric water (which results in a decrease in the ratio of both Cl and parentless 40Ar to atmospheric argon), effects of boiling (from low concentrations of atmospheric argon and an increase in Cl/40Ar ). The K-Ar chronology of deposition can also be inferred in suitable circumstances. In principle, the ( 40Ar /36Ar ) ratio of the ancient atmosphere can be determined from fluids free of parentless 40Ar. However, a ( 40Ar /36Ar ) ratio determined for a low salinity end member in Gunflint chert probably reflects the presence of modern meteoric water.

  16. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    SciTech Connect

    Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Shepherd, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2..cap alpha../. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle.

  17. Technique of pulmonary vein isolation by catheter ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkampf, F.H.M.; Derksen, R.; Wever, E.F.D.; Simmers, T.A.; Boersma, L.V.A.; Vonken, E.P.A.; Velthuis, B.K.; Sreeram, N.; Rensing, B.J.; Cramer, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In selected patients with atrial fibrillation, the fibrillation episodes may be initiated by single or short bursts of ectopy often originating from one or more pulmonary veins (PVs). Therefore, electrical isolation of these veins by catheter ablation is currently being explored as a treatment modality for patients with paroxysmal and even more permanent types of atrial fibrillation. At present, two different techniques are used: 1) selective ablation of electrical connections between left atrium and myocardial sleeves inside the PVs; and 2) contiguous encircling lesions around and outside the PV ostia. With both techniques, moderate to high success rates have been reported with a limited follow-up duration. Both types of procedure are very complex and require a highly skilful team. With the variable anatomy of the PVs, non-invasively acquired angiographic images may serve as a roadmap for catheter manipulation. Modern three-dimensional catheter navigation techniques can be applied to facilitate accurate catheter positioning with limited fluoroscopic exposure. Experimental and clinical research is needed to define patient selection criteria. ImagesFigure 2Figures 3 and 4Figure 5 PMID:25696100

  18. [Deep vein thrombosis in Noto Peninsula earthquake victims].

    PubMed

    Terakami, Takako; Ohba, Noriko; Morishita, Eriko; Yoshida, Tomotaka; Asakura, Hidesaku; Kimura, Keiichi; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Gou; Fujita, Shinichi; Wada, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    The earthquake occurred in the Noto Peninsula in the northern part of Ishikawa prefecture, Japan, at 9:25 a.m. on March 25th 2007. Medical activities for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), early detection of DVT, and early treatment of DVT were performed immediately after the earthquake on the basis of a previous report regarding earthquake disasters. This report described the conditions involved in the development of DVT. General inhabitants in shelters were examined by questionnaires, venous ultrasonography of lower limb, and blood tests. The DVT-positive rate was 10.6% (21 cases/198 cases), and the soleal vein was the most common location of DVT accounting for 71.4% of cases(20 lower limbs/28 lower limbs). Plasma levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer in the DVT-positive group (20 cases) were significantly higher than those in the DVT-negative group(162 cases) (P<0.03). No deaths or cases of serious illness caused by DVT were reported in the earthquake. The medical activities described here were effective due to the past experience and the cooperation of many people. PMID:19522245

  19. A method for quickly and exactly extracting hepatic vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yuan, Rong; Wang, Luyao; Wang, Yanchun; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu; Xie, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    It is of vital importance that providing detailed and accurate information about hepatic vein (HV) for liver surgery planning, such as pre-operative planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Due to the different blood flow rate of intra-hepatic vascular systems and the restrictions of CT scan, it is common that HV and hepatic portal vein (HPV) are both filled with contrast medium during the scan and in high intensity in the hepatic venous phase images. As a result, the HV segmentation result obtained from the hepatic venous phase images is always contaminated by HPV which makes accurate HV modeling difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method for quick and accurate HV extraction. Based on the topological structure of intra-hepatic vessels, we analyzed the anatomical features of HV and HPV. According to the analysis, three conditions were presented to identify the nodes that connect HV with HPV in the topological structure, and thus to distinguish HV from HPV. The method costs less than one minute to extract HV and provides a correct and detailed HV model even with variations in vessels. Evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the accuracy of the HV model obtained from our method is over 97%. In the following work, we will extend our work to a comprehensive clinical evaluation and apply this method to actual LDLT surgical planning.

  20. Preoperative portal vein embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Consensus and controversy

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Taku; Kubota, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since the first report of portal vein embolization (PVE), and this procedure is widely adopted as a preoperative treatment procedure for patients with a small future liver remnant (FLR). PVE has been shown to be useful in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. However, special caution is needed when PVE is applied prior to subsequent major hepatic resection in cases with cirrhotic livers, and volumetric analysis of the liver segments in addition to evaluation of the liver functional reserve before PVE is mandatory in such cases. Advances in the embolic material and selection of the treatment approach, and combined use of PVE and transcatheter arterial embolization/chemoembolization have yielded improved outcomes after PVE and major hepatic resections. A novel procedure termed the associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy has been gaining attention because of the rapid hypertrophy of the FLR observed in patients undergoing this procedure, however, application of this technique in HCC patients requires special caution, as it has been shown to be associated with a high morbidity and mortality even in cases with essentially healthy livers. PMID:27028706

  1. The endovenous laser treatment for patients with varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Fan, Long-Hua; Xu, De-Chun; Li, Xu; Dong, Zhi-Hui; Fu, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) for patients with varicose veins. Methods: Our series included 117 patients who underwent EVLT combined with high ligation and stripping since the introduction of the technique in our institution. All EVLT procedures were performed with local skin cooling to prevent skin burns, as well as stripping after exsanguinations to prevent thrombotic phlebitis. Results: A total of 146 limbs in 117 patients were ablated by EVLT. Bilateral EVLT was performed in 29 patients, with the remaining 88 patients undergoing unilateral EVLT. The mean age of the patients was 57 years ± 12 years (range: 21 years to 80 years), and 56 were male and 61 were female. Follow-up for all patients lasted three to six months. The most common complication was induration and swelling, which was observed in 64 patients, followed by paraesthesia in 27, and skin burns in 12. Conclusion: The treatment with endovenous laser treatment for patients with varicose veins is safe and effective. PMID:27022345

  2. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    PubMed Central

    Sabongi, Rodrigo Guerra; Fernandes, Marcela; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit. PMID:26170802

  3. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA), lysozyme, vimentin, desmin, platelet factor 4, and thrombospondin. Antigens were visualised by a chromogen providing an orange-red immunoprecipitate at the site of epitope localisation. The intraluminal, amorphous exudate present in most grafts was not composed simply of fibrin or fibrinogen, as previously thought, but was a multiprotein complex including wWFAg, fibronectin, thrombospondin and platelet factor 4. Along with macrophages, these components probably enter the graft after haemodynamic, physical, and chemical injury to, and disruption of, the endothelial cell. Progressive myointimal proliferation and fibrosis of these grafts may be local repetitive responses to macrophages and platelets, cells previously known to participate in vascular disease. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2659629

  4. Numerical modelling of the formation of fibrous bedding-parallel veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Bedding-parallel veins with a fibrous infill oriented orthogonal to the vein wall, are often observed in fine-grained metasedimentary sequences. Several mechanisms have been proposed for their formation, mostly with respect to effects of fluid overpressures and anisotropy of the host-rock fabric in order to explain the inferred extensional failure with sub-vertical opening. Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in Zambia. The goal of this study is to better understand the formation mechanisms of these veins and to explain their particular spatial and thickness distribution, with respect to failure of transversely isotropic rocks. The spatial distribution and thickness variation of these veins was quantified during a field campaign in thirteen line transects perpendicular to undeformed veins in underground crosscuts. The fibrous dolomite veins studied are not related to lithological contrasts, but to a strong bedding-parallel shaly fabric, typical for the black shale facies of the Copperbelt Orebody Member. The host rock can hence be considered as transversely isotropic. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. A microstructural fabric study reveals that the undeformed dolomite veins show low-tortuosity vein walls and quantifiable growth competition. Here, we use a Discrete Element Method numerical modelling approach with ESyS-Particle (http://launchpad.net/esys-particle) to simulate the observed properties of the veins. Calibrated numerical specimens with a transversely isotropic matrix are repeatedly brought to failure under constant strain rates by changing the effective strain rates at model boundaries. After each fracture event, fractures in the numerical model are filled with cohesive vein material and the experiment is repeated. By systematically varying

  5. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin F. Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access devices

  6. Uranium-series age determination of calcite veins, VC-1 drill core, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Binz, Carl M.

    1988-06-01

    Uranium-series analysis (238U-234U-230Th) of 13 calcite veins from the hydrothermally altered Madera Limestone in the VC-1 drill core was performed to determine the ages of the veins and their relation to the Valles hydrothermal system. Thermal water from VC-1 and two hot springs in San Diego Canyon was analyzed for U and (234U/238U) to help evaluate the constancy of initial (234U/238U). The (230Th/234U) age of one of the veins is ˜95 kyr, and those of two other veins are ˜230 and ˜250 kyr. Five of the veins have near equilibrium (230Th/234U) and are probably older than ˜0.3 m.y. Uranium concentrations in the remaining veins are too low for analysis by the α-spectrometry techniques employed in this study. Of the five veins near (230Th/234U) equilibrium, four are also near (234U/238U) equilibrium, suggesting ages greater than ˜1.0 m.y., but one has (234U/238U) = 1.15, suggesting an age between ˜0.3 and ˜1.0 m.y. Calculated initial (234U/238U) of the veins yielding relatively young ages are neither equal to each other nor to (234U/238U) in thermal water from VC-1, indicating inconstancy of initial (234U/238U) that may be related to variations in groundwater mixing proportions. Three of the four veins that yield relatively young ages consist of coarse, sparry, vuggy calcite, suggesting that this may be the type of calcite vein which forms under conditions resembling those encountered presently in VC-1. The analytical data are consistent with closed-system behavior of U and Th in the VC-1 calcite veins.

  7. Norepinephrine responses in rat renal and femoral veins are reinforced by vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rossignoli, Patrícia; Yamamoto, Fernanda Zocatelli; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) responses are larger in renal and femoral veins compared to phenylephrine (PE). These differences may be due to the subtypes of adrenoceptor involved in these responses or to the involvement of local modulatory mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated in organ bath the adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the NE and PE responses in both renal and femoral veins as well as the influence of local mechanisms related to NO and to prostanoids upon these responses. The obtained data showed that the NE responses in these veins were not significantly modified by the selective inhibition of β1 or β2-adrenoceptors as well as AT1 or AT2 receptors. However, yohimbine reduced the NE Rmax in renal veins and, in parallel, right shifted the NE concentration-response curves in femoral veins. In both veins, prazosin reduced the NE Rmax and the clonidine induced a measurable contraction. The endothelium removal attenuated the NE responses in femoral veins, thereby abolishing the differences of NE and PE responses. Furthermore, the NE responses in renal and femoral veins were attenuated by indomethacin, which suppressed the statistical difference in relation to the PE response. In conclusion, a synergism between α1- and α2-adrenoceptors is essential to assure full NE contractile responses in both renal and femoral veins. Thus, by acting simultaneously in these adrenoceptors, NE induces more pronounced contractile responses, in comparison to PE, not only in renal but also in femoral veins. Moreover, this pronounced NE response in both renal and femoral veins appears to involve endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. PMID:26141930

  8. Renal veins and venous extension in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bonsib, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    The 2002 TNM formulation defines a pT3b tumor as one that 'extends into the renal vein or its segmental (muscle containing) branches.' This definition elicits uncertainty when veins with little muscle are involved or the relationship to the main renal vein is unknown. The diameter and medial thickness of 10 normal renal venous systems were studied and compared to sinus veins involved in 54 pT3b clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CC). All tumors were grossly examined and sampled for histology by the author. An immunoperoxidase cocktail containing CD 31 and actin, Masson trichrome and elastic stains were employed to aid identification of intravenous tumor. The venous dissections showed variable numbers of primary and secondary divisions with substantial overlap in diameter and medial thickness. The medial thickness decreased with each proximal division and ranged from being nonexistent to being thick. Study of the 54 pT3b CC revealed that the initial phase of extrarenal extension involved large caliber veins draining the primary tumor. With extensive venous involvement, tumor invaded through the vein wall into sinus fat or demonstrated retrograde venous extension into adjacent cortex. Correlation between gross and histology revealed that most nodules of tumor within the sinus fat contained evidence of pre-existing veins. The following observations were made: (1) the diameter of a sinus vein or the quantity of muscle is a poor indicator of vein segment or relationship to the main renal vein; therefore, the wording used to define pT3b should be clarified; (2) extrarenal spread in CC begins with intravenous extension whereas sinus fat invasion is usually secondary; (3) retrograde venous extension occurs in cases with massive renal vein involvement; and (4) nodules within the sinus fat usually represent venous involvement. PMID:17170742

  9. Right Cardiac Catheterization Using the Antecubital Fossa Vein in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Dae Sung; Lee, Soo Yong; Hwang, Jongmin; Chon, Min Ku; Hwang, Ki Won; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Huyn; Kim, June Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Right heart catheterization is traditionally performed using a femoral vein approach that involves admission, bed rest, and risks of bleeding and hematoma. Recent studies have confirmed safety of the use of forearm vein for right cardiac catheterization. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of right cardiac catheterization via the antecubital fossa vein in Korean patients. Subjects and Methods The medical records of all patients who underwent right heart catheterization at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Right cardiac catheterizations via the antecubital fossa vein and the femoral vein were compared in terms of demographic data (age, sex, weight, height, and body mass index), indications for right cardiac catheterization, and procedural and outcome data (initial success rate, procedure time, compression to ambulation time, and complications). Results We reviewed 132 cases (antecubital fossa vein approach, n=37; femoral vein approach, n=95). The demographic data, initial success rate (100% vs. 100%) and procedure time (21.6±16.8 min vs. 25.6±12.6 min, p=0.14) were similar in both groups. The antecubital fossa vein group had a shorter mean compression to ambulation time than the femoral vein group (0.0 min vs. 201.2±48.1 min, p<0.01). No complications were observed in either group. Conclusion Our study indicated the ease of performance of right cardiac catheterization via the antecubital fossa vein. Thus, the antecubital fossa vein can be an alternative access site for right cardiac catheterization in Korean patients. PMID:27014351

  10. Shock veins in the central uplift of the Manicouagan impact structure: Context and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biren, Marc B.; Spray, John G.

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of shock veins that penetrate the anorthositic central uplift of the Manicouagan impact structure. They occur as thin (< 2.5 mm wide), linear micro-fault systems that can be traced for several meters in length, and which predominantly trend radially from the point of impact. The shock veins are distinguished by the development of maskelynite along vein margins and stishovite in vein matrices, which are otherwise absent in non-veined regions. These phases define a shock excursion of up to 30 GPa, in contrast to bulk shock effects of ≤ 12 GPa defined by development of shatter cones, planar fractures and planar deformation features in various minerals. The shock veins at Manicouagan share many similarities with vein systems developed in meteorites. They also provide an in situ context with which to better understand meteoroid source and lofting conditions. In addition to containing high pressure phases, the shock veins exhibit evidence for high temperature partial melting of host silicate clasts, with the generation of flow-textured fragments and glasses. The formation of microcrystallites and dendrites from some melts indicates rapid cooling. We propose a two-stage generation mechanism comprising an initial high-pressure shock excursion (estimated to last < 0.5 s based on projectile size considerations) followed by a longer high-temperature pulse of a few seconds duration. We suggest that the shock excursion is initiated by target heterogeneities that cause distortions in the hemispherically propagating shock front. This results in radially oriented tearing and vein formation with shock amplification occurring via intra-vein shock reverberation. High-speed displacement along the veins is driven by stress release on rarefaction, which results in frictional melting via adiabatic heating.

  11. Treatment of major vein injury with the hemostatic fleece TachoSil by interposing a peritoneal patch to avoid vein thrombosis: A feasibility study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dregelid, Einar B; Pedersen, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vein lacerations in awkward locations are difficult to repair and carry high mortality. The hemostatic fleece, TachoSil, is effective in preventing intraoperative bleeding in different settings, but has not been recommended for use in large vein injury. TachoSil with a peritoneal patch interposed to avoid vein thrombosis has been reported as a method to obtain hemostasis in vein laceration, but further studies of this method are needed. Materials and Methods: A 1.5 × 1 cm defect was created in the vena cava in five pigs. A 26 × 32 mm peritoneal patch was applied on the coagulant side of a 48 × 48 mm TachoSil sheet, and used to cover the defect. Light compression with a wet sponge was applied for 3 min. No vascular suturing was performed. Results: Successful hemostasis was obtained in four out of the five pigs although the minimum TachoSil gluing zone surrounding the peritoneal patch was only 0–2 mm. The fifth pig died of hemorrhage 30 min after surgery due to a 4-mm stretch with no TachoSil gluing zone outside the peritoneal patch. At six days postoperatively the peritoneal patch was well integrated into the vein wall. After 28 days, the peritoneal patch was almost indiscernible from surrounding vein endothelium. Conclusions: Vein wall defects can be repaired using TachoSil with a peritoneal patch interposed to prevent contact between the thrombogenic TachoSil sheet and the vein lumen. An adequate TachoSil gluing zone all around the patch is essential. PMID:21633573

  12. Cortical actin regulation modulates vascular contractility and compliance in veins

    PubMed Central

    Saphirstein, Robert J; Gao, Yuan Z; Lin, Qian Qian; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The literature on arterial mechanics is extensive, but far less is known about mechanisms controlling mechanical properties of veins. We use here a multi-scale approach to identify subcellular sources of venous stiffness. Portal vein tissue displays a severalfold decrease in passive stiffness compared to aortic tissues. The α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) increased tissue stress and stiffness, both attenuated by cytochalasin D (CytoD) and PP2, inhibitors of actin polymerization and Src activity, respectively. We quantify, for the first time, cortical cellular stiffness in freshly isolated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells using magnetic microneedle technology. Cortical stiffness is significantly increased by PE and CytoD inhibits this increase but, surprisingly, PP2 does not. No detectable change in focal adhesion size, measured by immunofluorescence of FAK and zyxin, accompanies the PE-induced changes in cortical stiffness. Probing with phospho-specific antibodies confirmed activation of FAK/Src and ERK pathways and caldesmon phosphorylation. Thus, venous tissue stiffness is regulated both at the level of the smooth muscle cell cortex, via cortical actin polymerization, and by downstream smooth muscle effectors of Src/ERK signalling pathways. These findings identify novel potential molecular targets for the modulation of venous capacitance and venous return in health and disease. Key points Most cardiovascular research focuses on arterial mechanisms of disease, largely ignoring venous mechanisms. Here we examine ex vivo venous stiffness, spanning tissue to molecular levels, using biomechanics and magnetic microneedle technology, and show for the first time that venous stiffness is regulated by a molecular actin switch within the vascular smooth muscle cell in the wall of the vein. This switch connects the contractile apparatus within the cell to adhesion structures and facilitates stiffening of the vessel wall, regulating blood flow return

  13. Fluids and Sulfate Vein Formation in Gale Crater, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Bridges, J.; Leveille, R. J.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; McAdam, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Curiosity detected sulfate veins crosscutting mudstones in the Sheepbed member of Gale Crater (Grotzinger et al., DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777; Manchon et al., DOI:10.1002/2013JE004588). We have used this information to evaluate the clay formation conditions in detail through thermochemical modeling (Bridges et al. submitted to JGR; this conference, session 2128) and compare the calculated fluid to those modeled for the nakhlite alteration mineralogy (Hicks et al. DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.010, Bridges and Schwenzer, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.044) and other Martian fluids. Concentrating the modeled Gale fluid though evaporation (or freezing) leads to a complex set of precipitates, which include silica, sulfate and halite. For example, 1 kg of brine produced by the alteration of a mixture of 70 % amorphous component, 20 % olivine and 10 % host rock (W/R 1000, T= 10 °C) evaporated to dryness (less that 1 % water left) will precipitate 70 mg of anhydrite, 46 mg of silica, 6.5 mg of halite and traces of pyrite, sulfur, calcite, and apatite. A fluid from this host rock with more mature alteration (W/R 100, T = 10 °C) precipitates the same minerals, but in very different abundances: the most abundant phase at dryness is halite (330 mg), followed by silica (88 mg) and anhydrite (30 mg). The calculated pH varies between 8 and 7.3 in both cases. If the evaporating brine is allowed to interact with the precipitate, a 'dirty' sulfate layer or vein filling would result, which could subsequently be refined through dissolution and re-precipitation, a mechanism that, for example, is proposed for the gypsum veins at the UK Triassic coast near Watchet (Philipp doi:10.1017/S0016756808005451). Factors that influence the nature of the precipitate include alteration stage of the host rock during clay formation, and pH and degree of fractionation of the early formed minerals from the evaporating fluid. Using REMS data we also consider desiccation of sulfates in the near surface.

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Human Saphenous Vein Wall Changes

    PubMed Central

    Asbeutah, Akram M; Asfar, Sami K; Safar, Hussain; Oriowo, Mabayoje A; ElHagrassi, Ihab; Abu-Assi, Mona A; Cameron, James D; McGrath, Barry P

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxyptamine (5-HT) drugs induce responses of isolated control and varicose veins are altered by removal of the endothelium. Subjects & Methods: Specimens of the great saphenous vein (GSV) were obtained from 12 subjects with primary varicose veins and 12 subjects from donor vessels at cardiac surgery. A total of 10 normal healthy volunteers were selected for comparison. The diameter changes of GSV during the resting phase, at the end of 5 minutes occlusion, and then every 30 seconds post deflation for five minutes were measured using B-mode ultrasound. Post-surgery the vein sample was collected in a tube of Krebs-Henseleit solution. Results: The repeated measure ANOVA test for the diameter, percent, and difference changes of GSV diameter from maximum diameter at different time intervals showed significance difference within and between all groups. NA and 5-HT produced concentration-dependent contractions of control and varicose saphenous vein segments. There was no significant difference in the potency of NA and for 5-HT, but the maximum response, normalized for tissue weight, was less in varicose vein segments. Removal of the endothelium had no effect on the potency of NA or 5-HT but significantly (p<0.05) reduced the maximum response to NA and 5-HT in varicose vein segments but not to 5-HT in control veins. Conclusion: The venous endothelial damage may cause vascular smooth muscle contractions dysfunction that favours dilatation and secondary valvular insufficiency. PMID:18949086

  15. Fetal and childhood development of the intrapulmonary veins in man—branching pattern and structure

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Alison; Reid, Lynne

    1973-01-01

    The drainage pattern and the structure of the pulmonary veins have been described quantitatively in a series of fetal and child lungs after injection of the veins with a radio-opaque medium. The drainage pattern of the pre-acinar region is complete by half-way through gestation and corresponds with the growth of the pulmonary arteries. There is new growth of veins within the acinus during childhood. Four types of veins arising from five peripheral sites have been described. The change in dimensions with age have also been measured. A measurable muscle layer could not be found in the walls of the veins before birth though some muscle cells were present from 28 weeks of gestation. The thickness of the muscle coat in any vein was similar at birth and in a 3- and 10-year-old child and in all cases was less than in a pulmonary artery of the same size. The muscle cells were of smaller diameter in the veins than in the arteries. Along any venous pathway between a non-muscular and muscular structure was a region where part of the wall was muscular: these veins were termed partially muscular. Their distribution by size was similar at all ages. Images PMID:4724499

  16. Dedolomitization in tectonic veins and stylolites: evidence for rapid fluid migration during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Jurassic through Tertiary thrust-belt deformation of the Mississippian Madison Group has introduced complex fracturing, stylolitization, and carbonate vein mineralization. Host rocks are dominantly dolostone and dolomitic limestone. Tectonic veins are mineralized first by dolomite and then by multiple calcite phases. Dolomite and some generations of calcite which line veins are highly luminescent, while host-rock dolomite have been corroded and replaced by subsequent generations of calcite mineralization. These textural relationships suggest that fluids associated with thrust-belt deformation were in part extraformational and had not equilibrated with host-rock dolomite. Because thrust-belt deformation moved from west to east with time, the isotopic composition (/sup 18/O, /sup 13/O) of vein and stylolite mineralization can be used to evaluate fluid migration during deformation. In three sections located along an east-west transect in the southern overthrust belt, calcite vein mineralization displays a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinctly depleted relative to the host-rock composition. These vein-lining exhibit systematic compositional changes with both time of deformation and with geographic position relative to major thrust faults. These isotopic changes in vein mineralization and pressure-solution products, together with the textural evidence for calcitization of host-rock and vein dolomite, suggest that these rocks were open to allochthonous fluid migration during deformation.

  17. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins

    PubMed Central

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  18. Molecular analysis of complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were det...

  19. Abnormal veins around the heart with the closure of the coronary sinus ostium.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Ryoji; Zhou, Ming; Abe, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    In a cadaveric dissection course at Akita University Graduate School of Medicine in 2014, we observed abnormal veins in a 72-year-old male who died of prostate cancer. The abnormality consisted of the following: closure of the opening of the coronary sinus (closure of the coronary sinus ostium), a persistent left superior vena cava (Lsvc), and a postaortic left brachiocephalic vein (Palbv). The shunt between the coronary sinus and left atrium was not observed. The blood of the coronary sinus flowed into an oblique vein of the left atrium, which was wide and reverse-funnel shaped, penetrated the pericardial sac then continued to the Lsvc. The anastomotic veins between the Lsvc and the (right) superior vena cava were seen to consist of two veins as follows: one was a left brachiocephalic vein, the other a dorsal postaortic left brachiocephalic vein (dorsal Palbv). The dorsal Palbv passed dorsally on the ligamentum arteriosum, and then passed between the ascending aorta and the trachea. The dorsal Palbv was thicker than the left brachiocephalic vein. We discuss the process of formation of these variations. PMID:26329835

  20. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321