Science.gov

Sample records for provide unified ethical

  1. Code of ethics could unify personnel administrators.

    PubMed

    West, W K

    1980-01-01

    A variety of factors, such as federal protective labor legislation and unionism, have pushed personnel administration into the forefront of hospital management. The added responsibility brought on by these factors and the growing number of people entering the field have created a burgeoning profession that will require guidance with regard to ethical principles of practice. The following article presents one example of a code of ethics for hospital personnel administrators. PMID:10246653

  2. Ethical Issues in Providing Library Services to Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Gill; Johnson, Kay

    2007-01-01

    The authors, library practitioners from either side of the Atlantic Ocean, embarked on a dialogue about the ethical challenges encountered in providing library services to distance learners. Unable to find an existing, appropriate ethical framework for their discussion, they agreed to devise their own, informed by relevant professional codes and…

  3. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  4. Whose Choice? Developing a Unifying Ethical Framework for Conscience Laws in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Benjamin P; Hasselbacher, Lee; Chor, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Since abortion became legal nationwide, federal and state "conscience clauses" have been established to define the context in which health professionals may decline to participate in contested services. Patients and health care providers may act according to conscience in making health care decisions and in deciding whether to abstain from or to participate in contested services. Historically, however, conscience clauses largely have equated conscience in health care with provider abstinence from such services. We propose a framework to analyze the ethical implications of conscience laws. There is a rich literature on the exercise of conscience in the clinical encounter. This essay addresses the need to ensure that policy, too, is grounded in an ethical framework. We argue that the ideal law meets three standards: it protects patients' exercise of conscience, it safeguards health care providers' rights of conscience, and it does not contradict standards of ethical conduct established by professional societies. We have chosen Illinois as a test of our framework because it has one of the nation's broadest conscience clauses and because an amendment to ensure that women receive consistent access to contested services has just passed in the state legislature. Without such an amendment, Illinois law fails all three standards of our framework. If signed by the governor, the amended law will provide protections for patients' positive claims of conscience. We recommend further protections for providers' positive claims as well. Enacting such changes would offer a model for how ethics-based analysis could be applied to similar policies nationwide. PMID:27400014

  5. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  6. An Ethical Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Providers' Websites in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Ayesha; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) are intertwined and coevolving. These technologies are increasingly used to fulfill socially and culturally framed requests, for example, "family balancing," or to enable postmenopausal women or homosexual couples to have genetically linked children. The areas of ART and RGT are replete with ethical issues, because different social practices and legal regulations, as well as economic inequalities within and among countries, create vulnerable groups and, therefore, the potential for exploitation. This article provides an overview of the ART and RGT landscape in Pakistan and analyzes the available online content addressing Pakistani citizens and international clients. We explored the topic in view of socioeconomic challenges in Pakistan, particularly deeply rooted poverty, lack of education, gender discrimination, and absence of regulation. As online information given by ART and RGT providers is readily available and could easily raise false hopes, make use of discriminatory statements with regard to women, and promote gender selection to meet sociocultural expectations, it should be subjected to quality control. PMID:27348834

  7. Biomass transformation webs provide a unified approach to consumer-resource modelling.

    PubMed

    Getz, Wayne M

    2011-02-01

    An approach to modelling food web biomass flows among live and dead compartments within and among species is formulated using metaphysiological principles that characterise population growth in terms of basal metabolism, feeding, senescence and exploitation. This leads to a unified approach to modelling interactions among plants, herbivores, carnivores, scavengers, parasites and their resources. Also, dichotomising sessile miners from mobile gatherers of resources, with relevance to feeding and starvation time scales, suggests a new classification scheme involving 10 primary categories of consumer types. These types, in various combinations, rigorously distinguish scavenger from parasite, herbivory from phytophagy and detritivore from decomposer. Application of the approach to particular consumer-resource interactions is demonstrated, culminating in the construction of an anthrax-centred food web model, with parameters applicable to Etosha National Park, Namibia, where deaths of elephants and zebra from the bacterial pathogen, Bacillus anthracis, provide significant subsidies to jackals, vultures and other scavengers. PMID:21199247

  8. Scale-Free Networks Provide a Unifying Framework for the Emergence of Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F. C.; Pacheco, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the framework of evolutionary game theory, adopting the prisoner’s dilemma and snowdrift game as metaphors of cooperation between unrelated individuals. In sharp contrast with previous results we find that, whenever individuals interact following networks of contacts generated via growth and preferential attachment, leading to strong correlations between individuals, cooperation becomes the dominating trait throughout the entire range of parameters of both games, as such providing a unifying framework for the emergence of cooperation. Such emergence is shown to be inhibited whenever the correlations between individuals are decreased or removed. These results are shown to apply from very large population sizes down to small communities with nearly 100 individuals.

  9. Biomass transformation webs provide a unified approach to consumer–resource modelling

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    An approach to modelling food web biomass flows among live and dead compartments within and among species is formulated using metaphysiological principles that characterise population growth in terms of basal metabolism, feeding, senescence and exploitation. This leads to a unified approach to modelling interactions among plants, herbivores, carnivores, scavengers, parasites and their resources. Also, dichotomising sessile miners from mobile gatherers of resources, with relevance to feeding and starvation time scales, suggests a new classification scheme involving 10 primary categories of consumer types. These types, in various combinations, rigorously distinguish scavenger from parasite, herbivory from phytophagy and detritivore from decomposer. Application of the approach to particular consumer–resource interactions is demonstrated, culminating in the construction of an anthrax-centred food web model, with parameters applicable to Etosha National Park, Namibia, where deaths of elephants and zebra from the bacterial pathogen, Bacillus anthracis, provide significant subsidies to jackals, vultures and other scavengers. PMID:21199247

  10. The ethical dilemmas of aesthetic medicine: what every provider should consider.

    PubMed

    Spear, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of aesthetic medicine is embellishment and enhancement. As these procedures are elective in nature, media messages and misleading advertisements do influence those consumers seeking to improve or enhance their appearance. The role of provider demands that prudent guide these treatment options and not only succumb to patient demands. This article discusses the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and presents a framework to guide practice to enhance resolution of ethical dilemmas confronting the provider of aesthetic medicine. PMID:20814270

  11. Ethical and professional considerations providing medical evaluation and care to refugee asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Smith, Clyde L

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of asylum seekers who largely survived torture live in the United States. Asylum seekers have complex social and medical problems with significant barriers to health care access. When evaluating and providing care for survivors, health providers face important challenges regarding medical ethics and professional codes. We review ethical concerns in regard to accountability, the patient-physician relationship, and moral responsibilities to offer health care irrespective of patient legal status; competing professional responsibility toward society and the judiciary system; concerns about the consistency of asylum seekers' claims; ethical concerns surrounding involving trainees and researching within the evaluation setting; and the implication of broader societal views towards rights and social justice. We discuss contributing factors, including inadequate and insufficient provider training, varying and inadequate institutional commitment, asylum seekers' significant medical and social problems, and the broader health and social system issues. We review existing resources to address these concerns and offer suggestions. PMID:23767428

  12. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future. PMID:23469693

  13. The ethics of intercountry adoption: why it matters to healthcare providers and bioethicists.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this paper is both modest and ambitious. The modest goal is to show that intercountry adoption should be considered by ethicists and healthcare providers. The more ambitious goal is to introduce the many ethical issues that intercountry adoption raises. Intercountry adoption is an alternative to medical, assisted reproduction option such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, third party egg and sperm donation and surrogacy. Health care providers working with assisted reproduction are in a unique position to introduce their clients to intercountry adoption; however, providers should only do so if intercountry adoption is ethically equal or superior to the alternatives. This paper first presents a brief history of intercountry adoption. The second section compares intercountry adoption with medical alternatives. The third section examines the unique ethical challenges that are not shared by other medical alternatives. The final section concludes that it is simplistic for a healthcare provider to promote intercountry adoption unconditionally; however, in situation where intercountry adoption is practiced conscientiously it poses no greater ethical concern than several medical alternatives. This conclusion is preliminary and is intended as a start for further discussion. PMID:20690919

  14. The Gray Area: Ethics in Providing Clinical Services to Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthmann, Debra S.

    Information on issues related to professional competence, moral and legal standards, the use of professional codes of ethics and guidelines, a decision-making model, the power differential, and appropriate uses of supervision and peer support are provided for professionals who work with deaf and hard of hearing individuals. Most human services…

  15. Ethical considerations of providers and clients on HIV testing campaigns in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campaigns have been conducted in a number of low HIV prevalence African settings, as a strategy to expand HIV testing, and it is important to assess the extent to which individual rights and quality of care are protected during campaigns. In this article we investigate provider and client perceptions of ethical issues, including whether they think that accessibility of counseling and testing sites during campaigns may hinder confidentiality. Methods To examine how campaigns have functioned in Burkina Faso, we undertook a qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 52 people (providers and clients tested during or outside campaigns and individuals never tested). Thematic analysis was performed on discourse about perceptions and experiences of HIV-testing campaigns, quality of care and individual rights. Results Respondents value testing accessibility and attractiveness during campaigns; clients emphasize convenience, ripple effect, the sense of not being alone, and the anonymity resulting from high attendance. Confronted with numerous clients, providers develop context-specific strategies to ensure consent, counseling, confidentiality and retention in the testing process, and they adapt to workplace arrangements, local resources and social norms. Clients appreciate the quality of care during campaigns. However, new ethical issues arise about confidentiality and accessibility. Confidentiality of HIV-status may be jeopardized due to local social norms that encourage people to share their results with others, when HIV-positive people may not wish to do so. Providers’ ethical concerns are consistent with WHO norms known as the ‘5 Cs,’ though articulated differently. Clients and providers value the accessibility of testing for all during campaigns, and consider it an ethical matter. The study yields insights on the way global norms are adapted or negotiated locally. Conclusions Future global recommendations for HIV

  16. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jennifer E

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis on student competencies such as scientific process, scientific communication, and societal relevance while teaching foundational neurobiological content such as brain anatomy, cellular neurophysiology, and activity modulation. Student feedback indicates that the BRAIN Initiative is an engaging and instructional context for this course. Course module organization, suitable BRAIN Initiative commentary literature, sample primary literature, and important assignments are presented. PMID:27385926

  17. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis on student competencies such as scientific process, scientific communication, and societal relevance while teaching foundational neurobiological content such as brain anatomy, cellular neurophysiology, and activity modulation. Student feedback indicates that the BRAIN Initiative is an engaging and instructional context for this course. Course module organization, suitable BRAIN Initiative commentary literature, sample primary literature, and important assignments are presented. PMID:27385926

  18. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems: An Ethical Leadership Dilemma to Satisfy Patients.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E; Tallman, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the parameters and the dynamics of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) that create an ethical leadership dilemma to satisfy patients in the hospital setting while still ensuring appropriate care for quality clinical outcomes. Under the Affordable Care Act, hospitals and health care systems are in a high-stakes struggle of winners and losers based on HCAHPS scores. This high-stakes struggle creates unintended consequences of an ethical dilemma of doing what is right for the patient versus doing whatever it takes to please the patient in order to achieve high scores of satisfaction that are tied to better reimbursements. This article also reports the results of a national survey of 500 chief executive officers by the authors about the attitudes and frustrations of chief executive officers confronting the wild unrest caused by HCAHPS. PMID:27111687

  19. Ethical and human rights perspectives on providers' obligation to ensure adolescents' rights to privacy.

    PubMed

    Ringheim, Karin

    2007-12-01

    The rights of adolescents to privacy and confidentiality as stipulated in international human rights conventions are poorly protected in reproductive health-care settings. Fear that their private information will become known, particularly to a parent, has been shown to be a major factor in adolescents' failure to seek the services they need. The tension between parental interests in guiding the development of children and public interest in maintaining a healthy population is considered in light of the ethical principles that bear upon these decisions. In practice, health-care workers are the intermediaries who must ensure that the privacy rights of adolescent clients are protected. They are bound through obligations engendered in human rights conventions as well as by ethical principles, especially that of nonmaleficence, to provide the young with information and confidential services, skills that must be acquired through training. Enhancing the survival of adolescents promotes the greater social good. PMID:18284039

  20. Providing free heroin to addicts participating in research – ethical concerns and the question of voluntariness

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Bærøe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Providing heroin to people with heroin addiction taking part in medical trials assessing the effectiveness of the drug as a treatment alternative breaches ethical research standards, some ethicists maintain. Heroin addicts, they say, are unable to consent voluntarily to taking part in these trials. Other ethicists disagree. In our view, both sides of the debate have an inadequate understanding of ‘voluntariness’. In this article we therefore offer a fuller definition of the concept, one which allows for a more flexible, case-to-case approach in which some heroin addicts are considered capable of consenting voluntarily, others not. An advantage of this approach, it is argued, is that it provides a safety net to minimise the risk of inflicting harm on trial participants. PMID:26191421

  1. The unified ICE-CBF pathway provides a transcriptional feedback control of freezing tolerance during cold acclimation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye Seul; Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Hyo-Jun; Park, Chung-Mo

    2015-09-01

    During cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) activate downstream targets, such as cold-regulated genes, leading to the acquisition of freezing tolerance in plants. Inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) plays a key role by activating CBF3 expression in shaping the cold-induced transcriptome. While the ICE1-CBF3 regulon constitutes a major cold acclimation pathway, gene regulatory networks governing the CBF signaling are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that ICE1 and its paralog ICE2 induce CBF1, CBF2, and CBF3 by binding to the gene promoters. ICE2, like ICE1, was ubiquitinated by the high expression of osmotically responsive gene 1 (HOS1) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Whereas ICE2-defective ice2-2 mutant did not exhibit any discernible freezing-sensitive phenotypes, ice1-2 ice2-2/+ plant, which is defective in ICE1 and has a heterozygotic ice2 mutation, exhibited significantly reduced freezing tolerance. Accordingly, all three CBF genes were markedly down-regulated in the ice1-2 ice2-2/+ plant, indicating that ICE1 and ICE2 are functionally redundant with different implementations in inducing CBF genes. Together with the negative regulation of CBF3 by CBF2, we propose that the unified ICE-CBF pathway provides a transcriptional feedback of freezing tolerance to sustain plant development and survival during cold acclimation. PMID:26311645

  2. Ethical Issues in Providing Services in Schools to Children with Swallowing and Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Nancy P.; Owre, DeAnne W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a commentary and discussion of ethical issues in dysphagia services as related to school-based practice in speech-language pathology. Method: A review of the literature on ethical issues in the provision of speech-language pathology services to individuals with dysphagia was conducted, with particular emphasis on students…

  3. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  4. Secondary use of clinical data in healthcare providers - an overview on research, regulatory and ethical requirements.

    PubMed

    Wiesenauer, Matthias; Johner, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Hospital providers, physicians and researchers are interested in a cross-institutional use of their data for clinical research. This interest has led to the question whether the scientific potential of the data stored in so many different systems can be unfolded by the establishment of a cross-institutional medical data warehouse. The aim of this paper is to describe the ethical and regulatory requirements and to develop a solution architecture considering technical and organisational aspects. The present paper uses a structured approach to collect user requirements. The requirements are discussed with legal experts. The work was complemented by extended literature research. An essential requirement is the cross-institutional merging of the data. Here, aspects of data protection as the informed consent, or transparency must be considered. In addition it is essential to protect the researchers through transparency from accusations on publication bias. Technical and organisational solutions in combination of data protection, and data security enable an operation of a central medical data warehouse in compliance with the law. The usage of this infrastructure for research can contribute to an improvement of the treatment quality, and patient safety if there is an appropriate transparency. This contributes to innovation and added value of a hospital group. PMID:22874264

  5. Ethical Disparities: Challenges Encountered by Multidisciplinary Providers in Fulfilling Ethical Standards in the Care of Rural and Minority People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Warner, Teddy D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Health care disparities are well documented for people living in rural areas and for people who are members of ethnic minorities. Purpose: Our goal was to determine whether providers report greater difficulty in providing care for rural than urban residents and for ethnic minorities than patients/clients in general in 4 practice areas of…

  6. Providers, Payers, The Community, And Patients Are All Obliged To Get Patient Activation And Engagement Ethically Right

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Marion; Solomon, Mildred

    2016-01-01

    Active and engaged patients seek the understanding, knowledge, and skills to promote their own health. Efforts to promote such patient activation and engagement are ethically justified because they are consonant with the well-established principle of respect for persons and, as the evidence shows, because they are likely to produce better outcomes for patients. Yet patient activation and engagement can also go ethically awry if, for example, nonadherent patients are abandoned or are unduly disadvantaged by punitive policies and practices, or if the conditions for successful activation and engagement are missing. In this article we discuss the ethical issues and responsibilities that pertain to patients, clinicians, health care organizations, delivery systems, insurers, payers, and communities. For example, physicians or payers could hold patients blameworthy for not following recommendations, but we suggest that a better approach would be for providers and payers to empower patients to effectively share responsibility for defining goals and achieving them. An ethical approach to patient activation and engagement should place obligations not only on patients but also on clinicians, health care organizations and delivery systems, insurers, and communities. PMID:23381534

  7. Ethical dilemmas in providing tobacco to developing countries: the case of China.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1997-09-01

    We should recognize that we have a responsibility to people who live outside our own borders, and view ourselves as part of the global community. Looking at China we are faced with ethical dilemmas which require consideration. First, there is the ethical dilemma of business versus health. The opening and development of the tobacco business in China, which includes vigorous marketing, is considered against the health consequences of tobacco use which is estimated to cost 600,000 lives annually in China, rising to 2 million by 2,025 without effective tobacco control programmes. A second ethical dilemma is employment versus impoverishment, in which the opportunities for work in the tobacco industry are considered against a background of malnutrition caused in part by a proportion of household budgets used to buy tobacco, and the erosion of the land, as trees are used to produce tobacco. Gains have already been made in tobacco control in China, with the way open for much development in the future. PMID:9374011

  8. The language of sedation in end-of-life care: The ethical reasoning of care providers in three countries.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Raus, Kasper; Bruinsma, Sophie; van der Heide, Agnes; Sterckx, Sigrid; Mortier, Freddy; Payne, Sheila; Mathers, Nigel; Rietjens, Judith

    2015-07-01

    The application of ethically controversial medical procedures may differ from one place to another. Drawing on a keyword and text-mining analysis of 156 interviews with doctors and nurses involved in end-of-life care ('care providers'), differences between countries in care providers' ethical rationales for the use of sedation are reported. In the United Kingdom, an emphasis on titrating doses proportionately against symptoms is more likely, maintaining consciousness where possible. The potential harms of sedation are perceived to be the potential hastening of social as well as biological death. In Belgium and the Netherlands, although there is concern to distinguish the practice from euthanasia, rapid inducement of deep unconsciousness is more acceptable to care providers. This is often perceived to be a proportionate response to unbearable suffering in a context where there is also greater pressure to hasten dying from relatives and others. This means that sedation is more likely to be organised like euthanasia, as the end 'moment' is reached, and family farewells are organised before the patient is made unconscious for ever. Medical and nursing practices are partly responses to factors outside the place of care, such as legislation and public sentiment. Dutch guidelines for sedation largely tally with the practices prevalent in the Netherlands and Belgium, in contrast with those produced by the more international European Association for Palliative Care whose authors describe an ethical framework closer to that reportedly used by UK care providers. PMID:25389235

  9. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  10. Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and the Ethical and Legal Obligations of Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy; Duijst, Wilma; Bos, Mike; Chassis, Iris; Codreanu, Igor; Danovitch, Gabriel; Gill, John; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Shin, Milbert

    2016-02-01

    Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role-and legal and ethical obligations-of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered. PMID:27500253

  11. Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and the Ethical and Legal Obligations of Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Duijst, Wilma; Bos, Mike; Chassis, Iris; Codreanu, Igor; Danovitch, Gabriel; Gill, John; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Shin, Milbert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role—and legal and ethical obligations—of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered. PMID:27500253

  12. [Provides a guide to self-treatment as ethically acceptable compensation for having participated in a psychiatry research project].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Michaud, Mélanie; Labonté-Chartrand, Geneviève

    2009-09-01

    Due to ethical constraints imposed by Research Ethics Board, it may be difficult to offer participants adequate compensations for their involvement in the study, or compensations that do not have a coercive impact on the participant's ability to refuse to participate. The current study aims at providing empirical data supporting an innovative solution: the provision of a self-help treatment manual. The samples consists of 33 adults (24 females, 9 males) aged between 20 and 59 and all suffering from pathological fear of heights. After participating in an experimental study, participants received a self-help manual to treat their acrophobia on their own. The severity of their claustrophobia was measured before and six months after participants were instructed on how to use the self-help book as a compensatory measure for their participation. Data also suggests that the participants were satisfied with the help provided in the self-treatment manual and that this is perceived in a positive way. To sum up, this study is not an outcome study for a new form of therapy; it simply offers researchers data supporting the use of an alternative compensatory measure. Indeed, using a self-help book represents an interesting solution. PMID:20425946

  13. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  14. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Providing Critical Care to Patients With Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Richard T.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Chertow, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease epidemics in the past have given rise to psychologic and emotional responses among health-care workers (HCWs), stemming from fear of infection during patient care. Early experiences in the AIDS epidemic provide an example where fear of contagion resulted in differential treatment of patients infected with HIV. However, with a deeper understanding of AIDS pathogenesis and treatment, fear and discrimination diminished. Parallels exist between early experiences with AIDS and the present outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, particularly regarding discussions of medical futility in seriously ill patients. We provide a historical perspective on HCWs’ risk of infection during the provision of CPR, discuss physicians’ duty to treat in the face of perceived or actual HCW risk, and, finally, present the protocols implemented at the National Institutes of Health to reduce HCW risk while providing lifesaving and life-sustaining care. PMID:25764372

  15. Ethical and practical considerations in providing critical care to patients with Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Davey, Richard T; Suffredini, Anthony F; Chertow, Daniel S

    2015-06-01

    Infectious disease epidemics in the past have given rise to psychologic and emotional responses among health-care workers (HCWs), stemming from fear of infection during patient care. Early experiences in the AIDS epidemic provide an example where fear of contagion resulted in differential treatment of patients infected with HIV. However, with a deeper understanding of AIDS pathogenesis and treatment, fear and discrimination diminished. Parallels exist between early experiences with AIDS and the present outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, particularly regarding discussions of medical futility in seriously ill patients. We provide a historical perspective on HCWs' risk of infection during the provision of CPR, discuss physicians' duty to treat in the face of perceived or actual HCW risk, and, finally, present the protocols implemented at the National Institutes of Health to reduce HCW risk while providing lifesaving and life-sustaining care. PMID:25764372

  16. Unifying Water Data Sources: How the CUAHSI Water Data Center is Enabling and Improving Access to a Growing Catalog of over 100 Data Providers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Berry, K.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific data about water are collected and distributed by numerous sources which can differ tremendously in scale. As competition for water resources increases, increasing access to and understanding of information about water will be critical. The mission of the new CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) is to provide those researchers who collect data a medium to publish their datasets and give those wanting to discover data the proper tools to efficiently find the data that they seek. These tools include standards-based data publication, data discovery tools based upon faceted and telescoping search, and a data analysis tool HydroDesktop that downloads and unifies data in standardized formats. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a community developed and open source system for sharing water data. As a federated, web service oriented system it enables data publication for a diverse user population including scientific investigators (Research Coordination Networks, Critical Zone Observatories), government agencies (USGS, NASA, EPA), and citizen scientists (watershed associations). HydroDesktop is an end user application for data consumption in this system that the WDC supports. This application can be used for finding, downloading, and analyzing data from the HIS. It provides a GIS interface that allows users to incorporate spatial data that are not accessible via HIS, simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization, tools to export data to common file types, and provides an extensible architecture that developers can build upon. HydroDesktop, however, is just one example of a data access client for HIS. The web service oriented architecture enables data access by an unlimited number of clients provided they can consume the web services used in HIS. One such example developed at the WDC is the 'Faceted Search Client', which capitalizes upon exploratory search concepts to improve accuracy and precision during search. We highlight such

  17. Ethical Literacy for Today's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirk, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Really tough ethical dilemmas in a school community come about when core values conflict. So everyone can benefit from paying attention to ethics as both an urgent literacy requirement for students, and as a unifying force in developing positive school culture. Both those reasons lay behind the founding of The Institute for Global Ethics (IGE), an…

  18. Unified cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.M. Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul )

    1990-04-15

    Recently a unified cosmology was proposed as a higher-dimensional generalization of the standard big-bang cosmology. In this paper we discuss its foundation, characteristics, and possible cosmological solutions in detail. In particular we discuss how the missing-mass problem, the horizon problem, and the flatness problem of the standard model can be resolved within the context of this unified cosmology.

  19. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is." PMID:27164779

  20. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  1. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  2. Who pays for providing spiritual care in healthcare settings? The ethical dilemma of taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Carla Jean Pease

    2009-12-01

    All US governmental, public, and private healthcare facilities and their staff fall under some form of regulatory requirement to provide opportunities for spiritual health assessment and care as a component of holistic healthcare. As often the case with regulations, these facilities face the predicament of funding un-reimbursable care. However, chaplains and nurses who provide most patient spiritual care are paid using funds the facility obtains from patients, private, and public sources. Furthermore, Veteran healthcare services, under the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are provided with taxpayer funds from local, state, and federal governments. With the recent legal action by the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. (FFRF) against the Veterans Administration, the ethical dilemma surfaces between taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state. PMID:19890722

  3. Unifying Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2013-04-01

    Century old GR fails to unify quantum physics, nuclear force or distinguish between the mass of living bodies from inert mass. Probabilistic gravity [1] explains strong coupling (nuclear force). The natural log of the age of the universe, 10E60 in Planck times, equaling 137 (1/Alpha) extends physics to deeper science, if we stand on the shoulders of giants like Feynman and Gamow. Implications of [1] are that it is not the earth, but M and S numbers of the particles of the earth are remotely interacting with corresponding numbers of the particles of the moon and the sun respectively, neglecting other heavenly bodies in this short draft. This new physics is likely to enable creative scientific minds to throw light on a theoretical basis for an otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant, uniformity of microwave background, further vindication of Boltzmann, quantum informatics, Einstein’s later publicized views and more, eliminating the need to spend money for implicitly nonexistent quantum gravity and graviton.[4pt] [1] Journal of Physical Science and Applications 2 (7) (2012) 265-268.

  4. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  5. [Toward a practical ethic].

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way. PMID:18506970

  6. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    PubMed

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics. PMID:8433049

  7. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession. PMID:22263371

  8. Rights and Wrongs of Ethics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dan; Dreilinger, Craig

    1990-01-01

    Ethics initiatives should provide employees with the tools they need to identify, clarify, and resolve ethical issues. Training efforts should focus on defining desired outcomes and considering the company's values and guidelines in working toward solutions to ethical problems. (SK)

  9. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided. PMID:26602787

  10. Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process. PMID:26047575

  11. Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Ann E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses professional ethics in librarianship as system of values and rules that govern way in which librarians view and practice their profession. Background, definition of terms (ethics, professional), development of codes of ethics, history of American Library Association Code of Ethics and 1981 statement, and role of education are covered.…

  12. Ethics manual: fifth edition.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lois; Leffler, Cathy

    2005-04-01

    Medicine, law, and social values are not static. Reexamining the ethical tenets of medical practice and their application in new circumstances is a necessary exercise. The fifth edition of the College's Ethics Manual covers emerging issues in medical ethics and revisits old ones. It reflects on many of the ethical tensions faced by internists and their patients and attempts to shed light on how existing principles extend to emerging concerns. In addition, by reiterating ethical principles that have provided guidance in resolving past ethical problems, the Manual may help physicians avert future problems. The Manual is not a substitute for the experience and integrity of individual physicians, but it may serve as a reminder of the shared obligations and duties of the medical profession. PMID:15809467

  13. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…

  14. Ethics and dentistry: I. The meaning of ethics.

    PubMed

    Gelbier, S; Wright, D; Bishop, M

    2001-11-01

    This short series of two papers will examine the relationship between ethics and dentistry. The first paper explores the meaning of ethics; the second will provide a catalogue of primary sources for dental practitioners who wish to read further in order to gain a core of knowledge about dental ethics. PMID:11806191

  15. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context: Comment on "Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?".

    PubMed

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-10-01

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a 'history of the present,' serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. PMID:26673179

  16. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  17. Ethics of Information Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  18. Ethics in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  19. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  20. A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

  1. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Report of the Ethics Committee, 2015, provides information on activities of the Ethics Committee and Ethics Office during that year. In 2015, the Ethics Office and Committee continued their work of adjudication, ethics education, and ethics consultations. The Ethics Committee adopted minor changes to its "Rules and Procedures" to increase the efficiency of the adjudication process. These changes were approved by the APA Board of Directors to become effective on March 1, 2016. The Independent Review Report by David H. Hoffman was released in July. The ethics office director also departed in July, and an interim ethics director was appointed. The process for establishing a Commission on Ethics Processes was also begun. The Commission has the charge of evaluating and recommending changes to the American Psychological Association's current ethics program. Data for adjudication processing in 2015 as well as comparisons to the previous 4 years are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504575

  2. Ethical stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

  3. Ethics Perception: Does Teaching Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…

  4. Vocational Ethics Infusion Project. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris City-Omaha Community Unit District #3, IL.

    The purpose of teaching vocational ethics is to provide students with the opportunity to develop an enabling work ethic. An enabling work ethic is an integrated system of attitudes, values, and beliefs that empower a worker to resolve ethical conflict within self and between and among self and others or situations so as to promote individual job…

  5. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  6. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  7. Can one do good medical ethics without principles?

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The criteria for determining what it is to do good medical ethics are the quality of ethical analysis and ethical justifications for decisions and actions. Justifications for decisions and actions rely on ethical principles, be they the 'famous four' or subsidiary ethical principles relevant to specific contexts. Examples from clinical ethics, research ethics and public health ethics reveal that even when not stated explicitly, principles are involved in ethical justifications. Principles may come into conflict, however, and the resolution of an ethical dilemma requires providing good reasons for preferring one principle over another. PMID:25516941

  8. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  9. (The Ethics of) Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal.

    PubMed

    Kabasenche, William P

    2014-12-01

    I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains-the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of being misrepresented or distorted if presented by someone who lacks appropriate disciplinary training and experience. While there are exceptions, I take philosophy to be the most appropriate disciplinary domain in which to gain training in ethics teaching. Science students, who must be prepared to engage with many science ethics issues, are poorly served if their education includes a misrepresentation of ethics or specific issues. Students are less well prepared to engage specific issues in science ethics if they lack an appreciation of the resources the discipline of ethics provides. My collaborative proposal looks at a variety of ways scientists and ethicists might collaborate in the classroom to foster good science ethics education. PMID:25574263

  10. Course Syllabus: Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitcham, Carl

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course offered at Polytechnic University (New York) which is designed to provide an introduction to professional engineerig ethics as presented through the history of engineering, codes of conduct of professional societies, case studies and hypothetical situations. (TW)

  11. Advance directives in the perioperative setting: Managing ethical and legal issues when patient rights and perceived obligations of the healthcare provider conflict.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen P; Howe, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps individual wishes are not always acknowledged or accepted when it comes to end-of-life care. This possibility, in conjunction with the experiences of healthcare risk managers, should cause concern in the healthcare risk management community. One particularly concerning issue where a persistent failure to honor a patient's wishes exists is with Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders in the perioperative arena. Despite a strong focus on informed consent and advance directives, evidence suggests a number of healthcare organizations either have no policy in place regarding DNR orders during the perioperative period, or, for those organizations that do have a policy, many call for automatic suspension of the DNR order without consultation with the patient. This latter practice poses many ethical, medico-legal, and regulatory concerns, and healthcare organizations with such a policy in place should strongly consider revisiting this practice. PMID:23609975

  12. Introduction: International Research Ethics Education

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph; Sina, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    NIH's fogarty international Center has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for low- and middle-income (LMIC) professionals since 2000. Drawing on 12 years of research ethics training experience, a group of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other ethics experts sought to map the current capacity and need for research ethics in LMICs, analyze the lessons learned about teaching bioethics, and chart a way forward for research ethics training in a rapidly changing health research landscape. This collection of papers is the result. PMID:24782067

  13. Towards Substantive Standardization: Ethical Rules as Ethical Presumptions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that substantive ethical rules serve a critical ethical function, even in those cases where we should deviate from those rules. Assuming that the rules are valid provides decision-makers with the context essential to reaching a well-justified decision. Recognizing this helps to reconcile two attractive but incompatible positions regarding the evaluation of healthcare ethics consultants. The first position is that ethical rules can validly be used to evaluate the quality of consultants' advice, ensuring conformity to standards promoted by a significant portion of medical ethicists. The second position-the message of ethical particularism-is that we should not evaluate consultants according to strict rules, since good ethical advice may deviate from even the most carefully wrought moral rules. Steering a path between these extremes, I argue that we should evaluate the quality of consultations by examining whether consultants have communicated the relevant ethical rules to participants as ethical presumptions. In communicating presumptions, a consultant provides an indispensable ingredient to ethical decision-making, while leaving open the possibility that the ethical course of action involves violating the very ethical rules that one should presume. PMID:26232925

  14. Ethical issues in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Schiff, Elad; Golan, Ofra

    2008-08-01

    Integrative oncology relates to an emerging dialog between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) scholars, oncologists, family practitioners, and other health care providers who envision an extended and holistic patient-centered approach to oncology care. The multiple commitments of integrative oncology to a medical humanistic approach and to a strong evidence-based foundation may impose considerable ethical concerns and dilemmas. The authors use narrative ethics to present a case study that exemplifies the ethical challenges confronting physicians and health care providers who wish to provide an integrative approach for their patients. An ethical analysis of the narrative is provided to help clarify the ethical issues and conflicts within it. Finally, a framework that may transform ethical constraints to a communication tool is proposed. PMID:18638699

  15. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. PMID:20564757

  16. The Ethics of Breast Surgery.

    PubMed

    Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior. PMID:26219240

  17. Ethics: A Course of Study for Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Ralph B.

    This monograph provides readings in ethical thought and professional ethics in educational administration, supplemented by case studies illustrating ethical problems administrators face. Comments on the field of ethics and the importance of administrative ethics introduce the booklet, along with background information about the booklet and…

  18. On Codes of Ethics, The Individual and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that codes of ethics do not necessarily promote ethical behavior and do not always provide appropriate guidance on the "ethical" thing to do when an individual is confronted with an ethical situation. Explores concerns in four particular areas in which codes of ethics lapse: reification, time dependence, individual understanding of the…

  19. Social-Cognitive Development, Ethical and Legal Knowledge, and Ethical Decision Making of Counselor Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.

    2010-01-01

    Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…

  20. Emotions and Ethics: A Foucauldian Framework for becoming an Ethical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesche, Richard; Haase, Malcom

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides examples of how a teacher and a principal construct their "ethical selves". In doing so we demonstrate how Foucault's four-part ethical framework can be a scaffold with which to actively connect emotions to a personal ethical position. We argue that ethical work is and should be an ongoing and dynamic life long process rather…

  1. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life. PMID:6520850

  2. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  3. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  4. Outdoor Unified Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Louise

    Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

  5. An overview of ethics in maternal-child nursing.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues across the childbearing year are multiple and complex. This article addresses ethical challenges facing maternal-child nurses and identifies strategies for making ethical decisions utilizing ethical principles and frameworks. Coping strategies for dealing with moral distress, how nurses demonstrate moral courage, and the attributes of an effective ethical decision maker are described. Ethical issues related to healthcare team relationships are discussed, with implications for nurses provided. PMID:21423060

  6. Small ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, ethics in the professions has focused on big problems that could be found on other peoples' back porches. Small, habitual, frequent, and personal lapses get little attention. In this essay, the literature on opportunism is applied to dentistry with a view toward bringing matters of "near ethics" within reach. Examples of small lapses are discussed under the headings of shirking, free riding, shrinkage, pressing, adverse selection, moral hazard, and risk shifting. The conditions that support opportunism include relationships with small numbers of transactions and uneven access to information. Practical limits on understanding all the consequences of agreements and the costs of supervising others and enforcing corrections of breaches are inescapable aspects of opportunism. Opportunism may not be accepted by all as the subject matter of ethical, but curbing it is a worthy goal and understanding the causes and management of opportunism casts some light on the ethical enterprise. Four suggestions are offered for addressing issue of opportunism. PMID:17691498

  7. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  8. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Christopher; Frey, Katie

    2015-08-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon both the International Astronomical Union Thesaurus and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE, donated to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In this talk, I will describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT, its continued development through the leadership of the AAS, and discuss some of its current and potential applications.

  9. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  10. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  11. Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.

    PubMed

    Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

    2010-09-01

    Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic. PMID:20675735

  12. Servant Leadership as a Teachable Ethical Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahone, Marty

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a different approach for developing ethical organizations. It argues that the practice of servant leadership provides a systematic training approach that should develop a more ethical culture. Servant leadership can serve as a "character ethic" that is teachable to individuals or organizations. The advantages and…

  13. Campus Acquaintance Rape: An Ethical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces idea of including ethics in acquaintance rape prevention programming. Applies education model for ethical analysis of sexual behavior to problem of acquaintance rape among college and university students to provide practitioners with new insights which will motivate inclusion of moral and ethical objectives in future prevention…

  14. Ethical Issues in Professional Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…

  15. Ethical Perspectives on Evaluating Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Dan; King, Stephanie; Blendinger, Jack; Davis, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Because the process of faculty evaluation in the community college gives rise to ethical concerns about what is evaluated, who is involved in the process, and how data are collected and used, the purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful ethical perspective for conducting faculty evaluation. The authors discuss ethical issues that arise in…

  16. Levinas and an Ethics for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite claims that STS(E) science education promotes ethical responsibility, this approach is not supported by a clear philosophy of ethics. This paper argues that the work of Emmanuel Levinas provides an ethics suitable for an STS(E) science education. His concept of the face of the Other redefines education as learning from the other, rather…

  17. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  18. Integrating Ethics into the Marketing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how John Carroll University successfully integrated ethics into existing marketing courses. Provides a summary of the current literature on marketing ethics, discusses the educational goals that are met by integrating ethics into the curriculum, examines available curricular options, and details the design and implementation of a segment…

  19. Ethics Education and Adjudication within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, David H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of the formal ethics system within psychology. Describes the structure of the American Psychological Association (APA) and state ethics systems, functions of APA's Committee on Scientific and Professional Ethics and Conduct, and its procedures for handling complaints. (Author/CMG)

  20. Council Adopts New AERA Code of Ethics: Ethics Committee to Emphasize Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2011-01-01

    At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong…

  1. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  2. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  3. Ethics in Distance Education: Developing Ethical Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Deb

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)

  4. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  5. Clinical ethics support services: an evolving model.

    PubMed

    Schlairet, Maura C; Kiser, Ken; Norris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Ethical issues arising in clinical practice are complex and clinicians must be able to manage the needs of ethically vulnerable patients and families. This paper describes a model for providing Clinical Ethics Support Services as a broad spectrum of care for management of conflict and ethically difficult situations in health care and describes how an ethics consultation process was transformed to a Holistic Care Continuum for managing the needs of ethically vulnerable patients. During a 4-year journey at a regional medical center, a Family Support Team played a central role in identification of ethically vulnerable patients/family, interdisciplinary connectivity, and iterative engagement in the clinical milieu. Concepts of professional advocacy and interdisciplinary perspectives resulted in a model for ethically sound patient care promoting communication among patients/family, staff, and professionals; clarification of interdisciplinary roles and responsibilities; establishment of mutually derived goals and shared solutions; and implementation of interventions maximizing institutional resources. PMID:22357314

  6. Ethical consciousness in bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Satris, S

    1997-01-01

    The role of ordinary language in expressing personal views and attitudes is a familiar one. Ordinary language can express attitudes, social demands or expectations, and moral judgments. In all these cases ordinary language has what I call practical import. Even the use of ordinary language to provide characterizations of people and interpretations of social situations can express attitudes and can imply moral judgments. Practical import is to be contrasted with theoretical import, which is mainly focused on facts and beliefs about facts. In some ways a scientific and professional education threatens to eliminate the connections between language and personal attitudes and between language and moral judgments, especially insofar as science aspires to be "detached" and morally neutral. Scientific ways of thinking and speaking tend to overlook the practical import of language and to concentrate on theoretical import alone. Professional codes of ethics and principles of ethical conduct can be helpful in counteracting this. But the general statements of codes, if they are not to degenerate into empty tautologies and pious truisms, must be understood in terms of particular cases. Finally, a brief look at some recent contributions of linguistics shows again the importance of attention to particulars. Ethical consciousness, having begun to arise even before professional education, is fostered among professionals through the use of professional codes of ethics, especially when these are understood in terms of paradigms and specific cases rather than merely general principles. The code requires professionals to use their powers of ethical judgment, not to surrender them. PMID:9315430

  7. Ethics in publication.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Michael B; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-09-01

    Publication of scientific manuscripts remains our core method of sharing knowledge and advanced scientific inquiry. Pressures to publish for reasons other than pure discovery have the potential to corrupt this process. The core principles of scientific ethics outlined above provide guidance on how to maintain the integrity of our scientific process.We, as journal editors, are committed to the advancement of scientific knowledge and the ethical process of publication. We do the best we can to make sure that the articles we publish fulfill all the criteria of a well-conducted study. PMID:26112677

  8. Ethics in publication.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Michael B; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-07-01

    Publication of scientific manuscripts remains our core method of sharing knowledge and advanced scientific inquiry. Pressures to publish for reasons other than pure discovery have the potential to corrupt this process. The core principles of scientific ethics outlined above provide guidance on how to maintain the integrity of our scientific process. We, as journal editors, are committed to the advancement of scientific knowledge and the ethical process of publication. We do the best we can to make sure that the articles we publish fulfill all the criteria of a well-conducted study. PMID:26099116

  9. Unifying Theories of Confidentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael J.; Jacob, Jeremy L.

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about the security of confidential data within software systems. A novelty is that we use Hoare and He's Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP) to do so and derive advantage from this choice. We identify how information flow between users can be modelled in the UTP and devise conditions for verifying that system designs may not leak secret information to untrusted users. We also investigate how these conditions can be combined with existing notions of refinement to produce refinement relations suitable for deriving secure implementations of systems.

  10. The Role of Communication in Organizations: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)

  11. Technology and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joan Marie

    1997-01-01

    Describes four open-ended activities for students in grades 4-12 designed to encourage thought, discussion, and decision making in classes dealing with issues in ethics and technology. Provides teacher directions, describes activities, and outlines debriefing sessions for lessons in copyright infringement, network security, artificial…

  12. Ethical Practice Under Accountable Care.

    PubMed

    Graber, Abraham D; Bhandary, Asha; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are a key mechanism of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). ACOs will influence incentives for providers, who must understand these changes to make well-considered treatment decisions. Our paper defines an ethical framework for physician decisions and action within ACOs. Emerging ethical pressures providers will face as members of an ACO were classified under major headings representing three of the four principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, and justice (no novel conflicts with non-maleficence were identified). Conflicts include a bias against transient populations, a motive to undertreat conditions lacking performance measures, and the mandate to improve population health incentivizing life intrusions. After introducing and explaining each conflict, recommendations are offered for how providers ought to precede in the face of novel ethical choices. Our description of novel ethical choices will help providers know what to expect and our recommendations can guide providers in choosing well. PMID:26002491

  13. Ethics of environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.R.; Engel, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    How can we make ethical decisions about our environment in the face of increasingly conflicting needs and opinions This collection of essays offers a wide range of viewpoints representing many of the world's cultural and religious traditions to help readers better make such determinations for themselves. In this paper, the authors seek to clarify the ethical principles surrounding the concept of sustainable development. They provide a synoptic overview of the contemporary moral challenge of sustainable development and the similarities and differences in its interpretation throughout the world. In bringing together contributions by authorities in environmental ethics and developmental ethics, and by those who are addressing these questions from the perspectives of religion and humanistic philosophy, the book develops the concept of sustainability as the ethical approach to reconciling the needs of environmental conservation with economic development.

  14. Islamic medical ethics: a primer.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2007-03-01

    Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

  15. A Selected Review of the Underpinnings of Ethics for Human Performance Technology Professionals--Part One: Key Ethical Theories and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…

  16. Unified Bohm criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  17. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  18. Health and wellness policy ethics.

    PubMed

    Cavico, Frank J; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G

    2013-08-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of "wellness" policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a "healthy" lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect "non-healthy" employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  19. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  20. Unified scaling law for earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kim; Danon, Leon; Scanlon, Tim; Bak, Per

    2002-01-01

    We propose and verify a unified scaling law that provides a framework for viewing the probability of the occurrence of earthquakes in a given region and for a given cutoff magnitude. The law shows that earthquakes occur in hierarchical correlated clusters, which overlap with other spatially separated correlated clusters for large enough time periods and areas. For a small enough region and time-scale, only a single correlated group can be sampled. The law links together the Gutenberg–Richter Law, the Omori Law of aftershocks, and the fractal dimensions of the faults. The Omori Law is shown to be the short time limit of general hierarchical phenomenon containing the statistics of both “main shocks” and “aftershocks,” indicating that they are created by the same mechanism. PMID:11875203

  1. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  2. Ethics of responsibility in a multicultural context.

    PubMed

    Turoldo, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Caring for patients from different cultural or religious backgrounds may create difficult ethical dilemmas for physicians. The article reviews four case histories, involving patients from the Navajo culture or the Christian Science Church, that highlight some of these ethical problems. It then discusses an "ethics of responsibility," which is based on and encompasses a variety of meanings of responsibility, including responsibility as recognition, as taking charge, as the ability to assess the consequences of one's actions, and as making a commitment. An ethics of responsibility provides a novel perspective for resolving ethical problems in medicine. PMID:20495256

  3. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  4. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  5. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research study as an example for working through the suggested code of ethics.

  6. Unified Parallel Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use ofmore » EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.« less

  7. Unified Parallel Software

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, Mike

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use of EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.

  8. The context of ethics in the health care industry.

    PubMed

    Wells, B; Spinks, N

    1996-01-01

    Examines ethics in the health care industry from the perspectives of investors, employees, patients, competitors and the environment. Ethical behaviour in the health care industry is essential and desirable; however, determining which behavioural actions are ethical and which are unethical is difficult. Although never will everyone agree on specific ethical standards, everyone should agree that setting ethical standards is vital. Therefore, administrators of health care institutions and health care providers should work together to establish codes of ethics which define boundaries for ethical behaviours in the health care industry. PMID:10157835

  9. A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India. PMID:21836698

  10. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  11. [The biologization of ethics].

    PubMed

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics. PMID:20405971

  12. Hidden in plain view: feminists doing engineering ethics, engineers doing feminist ethics.

    PubMed

    Riley, Donna

    2013-03-01

    How has engineering ethics addressed gender concerns to date? How have the ideas of feminist philosophers and feminist ethicists made their way into engineering ethics? What might an explicitly feminist engineering ethics look like? This paper reviews some major themes in feminist ethics and then considers three areas in which these themes have been taken up in engineering ethics to date. First, Caroline Whitbeck's work in engineering ethics integrates considerations from her own earlier writings and those of other feminist philosophers, but does not use the feminist label. Second, efforts to incorporate the Ethic of Care and principles of Social Justice into engineering have drawn on feminist scholarship and principles, but these commitments can be lost in translation to the broader engineering community. Third, the film Henry's Daughters brings gender considerations into the mainstream of engineering ethics, but does not draw on feminist ethics per se; despite the best intentions in broaching a difficult subject, the film unfortunately does more harm than good when it comes to sexual harassment education. I seek not only to make the case that engineers should pay attention to feminist ethics and engineering ethicists make more use of feminist ethics traditions in the field, but also to provide some avenues for how to approach integrating feminist ethics in engineering. The literature review and analysis of the three examples point to future work for further developing what might be called feminist engineering ethics. PMID:22033855

  13. Designing games to teach ethics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Peter; van de Poel, Ibo

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a teaching methodology whereby students can gain practical experience of ethical decision-making in the engineering design process. We first argue for the necessity to teach a 'practical' understanding of ethical issues in engineering education along with the usual theoretical or hypothetical approaches. We then show how this practical understanding can be achieved by using a collaborative design game, describing how, for example, the concept of responsibility can be explored from this practical basis. We conclude that the use of games in design education can provide an excellent basis for discussing practical and ethical reasoning during the process of design. PMID:18553156

  14. Some Basics about Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  15. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  16. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  17. Ethical conduct recommendations for quality improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Layer, Toni

    2003-01-01

    The distinction between QI, research, and clinical care projects has never been clear. However, QI projects may raise ethical concerns, and organizations need to ensure that patients involved in QI projects are adequately protected. The recommendations within the VHA report are intended as a starting point for dialogue to provide guidance for the responsible ethical conduct of QI projects. Discussion and oversight will need to occur at several levels within organizations to ensure ethical care is being provided. PMID:14606212

  18. Embodiment as a unifying perspective for psychology.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M

    2010-07-01

    A basic claim of the embodiment framework is that all psychological processes are influenced by body morphology, sensory systems, motor systems, and emotions. As such, the framework holds the promise of providing a unifying perspective for psychological research. This article begins with a sketch of several arguments, from evolution to philosophy, as to why the embodiment framework is a good bet. These arguments are followed by a review of approaches to embodiment, including those from cognitive linguistics, perceptual symbol theory, and action-based theories. Finally, examples are provided for how a unifying perspective might work for cognition (including language and memory), cognitive and social development, social psychology, neuroscience, clinical psychology, and psychology applied to education. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271505

  19. Ethics of primate use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

  20. Towards a unification of unified theories of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    McGill, Brian J

    2010-05-01

    A unified theory in science is a theory that shows a common underlying set of rules that regulate processes previously thought to be distinct. Unified theories have been important in physics including the unification of electricity and magnetism and the unification of the electromagnetic with the weak nuclear force. Surprisingly, ecology, specifically the subfields of biodiversity and macroecology, also possess not one but at least six unified theories. This is problematic as only one unified theory is desirable. Superficially, the six unified theories seem very different. However, I show that all six theories use the same three rules or assertions to describe a stochastic geometry of biodiversity. The three rules are: (1) intraspecifically individuals are clumped together; (2) interspecifically global or regional abundance varies according to a hollow curve distribution; and (3) interspecifically individuals are placed without regard to individuals of other species. These three rules appear sufficient to explain local species abundance distributions, species-area relationships, decay of similarity of distance and possibly other patterns of biodiversity. This provides a unification of the unified theories. I explore implications of this unified theory for future research. PMID:20337695

  1. Australian Undergraduate Biotechnology Student Attitudes towards the Teaching of Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Rosenberger, Philip J., III; Kerridge, Ian

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, ethics has become part of most tertiary biotechnology curricula. There is, however, considerable variation in the extent and manner of ethics education provided to students in different institutions. In addition, the perceived need that students and employers have regarding ethics education, and the aims and expected outcomes of ethics education, are rarely made clear. This research reports the findings of a questionnaire administered to 375 undergraduate biotechnology students from 19 Australian universities to determine their attitudes towards the teaching of ethics. The results suggest that undergraduate biotechnology students generally regard ethics education to be important and that ethics should be included in undergraduate biotechnology curricula. Students tended, however, to emphasize the professional and industrial side of ethics and not to recognize the personal effects of morals and behaviour. We provide suggestions for rethinking how ethics should be taught.

  2. The hyperreality of clinical ethics: a unitary theory and hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Ten Have, H

    1994-06-01

    Medical ethics nowadays is dominated by a conception of ethics as the application of moral theories and principles. This conception is criticized for its depreciation of the internal morality of medical practice and its narrow view of external morality. This view reflects both a lack of interest in the empirical realities of medicine and a neglect of the socio-cultural value-contexts of medical ethical issues, including the creative development of a broader philosophical framework for a practicable medical ethics. Several alternative approaches and conceptions have been proposed. The unified clinical ethics theory, developed by Graber and Thomasma, is an interesting attempt to synthesize these alternative approaches. It correctly identifies as the crucial problem the present disconnectedness of medical ethics from theoretical philosophy as well as the practice of medicine. In this paper, however, it is argued that the unitary theory should take more serious attention to the hermeneutic character of medicine as well as ethics. This implies that the unitary theory must in fact transform itself into an interpretive clinical ethics theory. The theoretical characteristics and practical consequences of an interpretive theory of medical ethics are discussed in the present paper. PMID:7997968

  3. Clinical Ethics Consultants are not "Ethics" Experts-But They do Have Expertise.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The attempt to critique the profession of clinical ethics consultation by establishing the impossibility of ethics expertise has been a red herring. Decisions made in clinical ethics cases are almost never based purely on moral judgments. Instead, they are all-things-considered judgments that involve determining how to balance other values as well. A standard of justified decision-making in this context would enable us to identify experts who could achieve these standards more often than others, and thus provide a basis for expertise in clinical ethics consultation. This expertise relies in part on what Richard Zaner calls the "expert knowledge of ethical phenomena" (1988, 8). PMID:27302970

  4. Ethical Virtues in Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane’s defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity. PMID:23074991

  5. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF. PMID:22670493

  6. Pooling of continuous features provides a unifying account of crowding.

    PubMed

    Keshvari, Shaiyan; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding refers to phenomena in which the perception of a peripheral target is strongly affected by nearby flankers. Observers often report seeing the stimuli as "jumbled up," or otherwise confuse the target with the flankers. Theories of visual crowding contend over which aspect of the stimulus gets confused in peripheral vision. Attempts to test these theories have led to seemingly conflicting results, with some experiments suggesting that the mechanism underlying crowding operates on unbound features like color or orientation (Parkes, Lund, Angelucci, Solomon, & Morgan, 2001), while others suggest it "jumbles up" more complex features, or even objects like letters (Korte, 1923). Many of these theories operate on discrete features of the display items, such as the orientation of each line or the identity of each item. By contrast, here we examine the predictions of the Texture Tiling Model, which operates on continuous feature measurements (Balas, Nakano, & Rosenholtz, 2009). We show that the main effects of three studies from the crowding literature are consistent with the predictions of Texture Tiling Model. This suggests that many of the stimulus-specific curiosities surrounding crowding are the inherent result of the informativeness of a rich set of image statistics for the particular tasks. PMID:26928055

  7. Pooling of continuous features provides a unifying account of crowding

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Shaiyan; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding refers to phenomena in which the perception of a peripheral target is strongly affected by nearby flankers. Observers often report seeing the stimuli as “jumbled up,” or otherwise confuse the target with the flankers. Theories of visual crowding contend over which aspect of the stimulus gets confused in peripheral vision. Attempts to test these theories have led to seemingly conflicting results, with some experiments suggesting that the mechanism underlying crowding operates on unbound features like color or orientation (Parkes, Lund, Angelucci, Solomon, & Morgan, 2001), while others suggest it “jumbles up” more complex features, or even objects like letters (Korte, 1923). Many of these theories operate on discrete features of the display items, such as the orientation of each line or the identity of each item. By contrast, here we examine the predictions of the Texture Tiling Model, which operates on continuous feature measurements (Balas, Nakano, & Rosenholtz, 2009). We show that the main effects of three studies from the crowding literature are consistent with the predictions of Texture Tiling Model. This suggests that many of the stimulus-specific curiosities surrounding crowding are the inherent result of the informativeness of a rich set of image statistics for the particular tasks. PMID:26928055

  8. Pilot Study: The Role of Predeployment Ethics Training, Professional Ethics, and Religious Values on Naval Physicians' Ethical Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Gaidry, Alicia D; Hoehner, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Military physicians serving overseas in cross-cultural settings face the challenge of meeting patients' needs and adhering to their personal and professional ethics while abiding by military obligations and duties. Predeployment ethics training for Naval physicians continues to be received in many forms, if received at all, and has largely not addressed their specific roles as medical providers in the military. This study explores the perceived effectiveness of predeployment ethics training received by Naval physicians. Additionally, it considers the contribution of different types of ethics training, religious values, and the professional ethics on Naval physicians' perceived ability to effectively manage ethically challenging scenarios while on deployment. A total of 49 Naval physicians participated in an online survey. 16.3% reported not receiving any form of ethics training before deployment. Of those that reported receiving ethics training before deployment, 92.7% found the ethics training received was helpful in some way while on deployment. While a medical school course was most contributory overall to their ability to handle ethically difficult situations while on deployment (70.7%), what most Naval physicians felt would help them better handle these types of situations would be a mandatory military training/military course (63.2%) or personal mentorship (57.9%). PMID:27483515

  9. Birthing Ethics: What Mothers, Families, Childbirth Educators, Nurses, and Physicians Should Know About the Ethics of Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jennifer M; De Vries, Raymond G

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current ethical issues associated with childbirth in the United States. It provides a review of moral problems and ethical choices made by parents and health-care professionals during the prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Ethical issues are identified and framed through a “naturalized bioethics” approach, as recommended by Margaret Walker and her colleagues, Hilde Lindemann and Marian Verkerk. This approach critiques traditional bioethics and gives attention to everyday ethics and the social, economic, and political context within which ethical problems exist. This approach provides the reader with the tools needed to critically assess the way ethical problems are defined and resolved. PMID:19360141

  10. Ethical Issues in Accounting: A Teaching Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt said, "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." With this quote in mind, this paper describes three ethical issues in the discipline area of accounting. The format of the paper is to first provide background information on the ethical question or scenario then to provide a…

  11. Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.

    PubMed

    Jakubowitz, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business. PMID:22144085

  12. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  13. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  14. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  15. Contract and Tort Based Ethics in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Will

    1996-01-01

    Argues that contract law and tort law are appropriate means for providing enforceable professional ethics in student affairs and that incorporating student affairs ethical codes into contracts with students creates enforceable ethical codes. Believes that providing such codes strengthens risk management programs, as well as encouraging…

  16. Ethical breakdowns.

    PubMed

    Bazerman, Max H; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them. Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising your targets. Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant would benefit us. Root out conflicts of interest. Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work. The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately. Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics. PMID:21510519

  17. Research Ethics Consultation: Ethical and Professional Practice Challenges and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  18. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  19. New developments in international nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Davis, A J

    1989-06-01

    This article has described numerous activities in nursing ethics at international levels. It acknowledges the larger context within which nurses practice by focusing on selected issues involved in resource allocation and death and dying, cross-culturally. The questions raised about universally shared moral principles reflects the larger questions of cultural and ethical relativism. The discussions of new developments in international nursing ethics focuses on international conferences, the teaching of nursing ethics, national nursing associations, and other professional groups that are actively involved in health care or nursing ethics. Finally, the development of international nursing ethics research studies is providing new knowledge about the scope of ethics within nursing and the nature of nursing care worldwide. Nurses are involved in some aspects of these new developments in nursing ethics in all countries. As they examine and reflect on ethical principles, virtues, and on an ethics of caring, they bring a new dimension to their work as nurses. This new dimension stands as one of the oldest and most central foundations in professional nursing. PMID:2726578

  20. Ethics and biomedical information.

    PubMed

    France, F H

    1998-03-01

    Ethical rules are similar for physicians in most countries that follow the Hippocratic oath. They have no formal legal force, but can be used as a reference to provide answers to solve individual cases. It appears erroneous to believe that privacy is about information. It is about relationship. In medicine, there is a contract between a patient and a physician, where health care personnel has to respect secrecy, while integrity and availability of information should be obtained for continuity of care. These somewhat contradictory objectives have to be applied very carefully to computerised biomedical information. Ethical principles have to be made clear to everyone, and society should take the necessary steps to organise their enforcement. Several examples are given in the delivery of health care, telediagnosis, patient follow-up. clinical research as well as possible breakthroughs that could jeopardise privacy, using biomedical information. PMID:9723809

  1. A review of ethics for the radiologic technologist.

    PubMed

    Reed, Joan R

    2011-01-01

    Radiologic technology students learn ethical theory, ethical principles and the Code of Ethics. However, over time, the concepts may fade from the radiologic technologist's memory. Periodic review of the ethical concepts and the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists Standards of Ethics are important to maintain a clear understanding of ethical expectations of the radiologic technologist. This article provides examples of potential ethical violations to illustrate each principle in the Code of Ethics and each tenet in the Rules of Ethics. The examples are intended to help readers think about and relate to situations they may encounter. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. PMID:21771936

  2. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744

  3. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  4. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  5. Character-Based Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jasper

    1996-01-01

    In the ethical arena, our society offers the choice of an ethics of emotion versus an ethics of rules, inadequate choices when compared to ethics based in strong moral character. Moral education and character development are basic elements of adventure and experiential education, and practitioners achieve excellence in practice only when they…

  6. Setting Ethical Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Judith; Perry, David

    1992-01-01

    School systems are advised to take a lesson from corporations who have created a code of ethical conduct for their employees and have implemented ethics training programs. Outlines steps to create a code of ethical conduct and cites five examples of corporations' ethical codes on the topic of nepotism. (MLF)

  7. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way. PMID:19338521

  8. Ethical dilemmas faced by hospice social workers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L

    2014-10-01

    Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348

  9. Methods and Tools for Ethical Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael

    The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.

  10. Ethical Perspectives on Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Banja, John D.; Eisen, Arri

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302

  11. The ethics of drug development and promotion: the need for a wider view.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2012-11-01

    Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778

  12. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allon N

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  13. Imperfection, practice and humility in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Garchar, Kim

    2012-10-01

    In this essay, I provide a description of the discipline of ethics using the philosophies of Aristotle and the American pragmatist John Dewey. Specifically, I argue that ethics is an active undertaking that is ambiguous and pluralistic. I then normatively prescribe the way in which clinical ethicists ought to approach their work in medicine. Rather than endeavouring to become, or behaving as if they are, experts, clinical ethicists must be humble. They must practise ethics. That is, they must admit ethics is the study and pursuit of the good life but that this study and pursuit occurs imperfectly in the face of problematic situations. PMID:22995007

  14. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Allon N.

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  15. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  16. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  17. Is sex selection ethical?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1983-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that sex selection, except to avoid sex-linked disorders, is unethical. Two reasons are given: 1) Prima facie examination of any argument for sex selection cannot overcome the unfair and sexist basis of a choice to select the sex of a child. The desire to control the sex of a child is not rational, since any claim that is made for the parents' preference for one sex can be demonstrated to be provided also by the other sex. 2) On an examination of the consequences of sex selection, if it were practiced by parents in significant numbers, the harmful consequences would far outweigh the few fleeting beneficial consequences. The hypothesis that sex selection might reduce population in less developed or overpopulated nations cannot be demonstrated without violation of ethical principles of fairness and beneficence. The paper clarifies and, to an extent, revises a position taken earlier by the author on sex selection by amniocentesis. In an effort to argue that the motives of parents who desire to choose the sex of their child should not be singled out for harsh judgment in societies that allow abortion, the author's position about the ethics of sex selection itself was not directly stated. This paper attempts to strengthen the ethical content of the author's views and recommends a policy for physicians who receive requests from parents to assist them in sex selection. PMID:6579560

  18. Closing the gap between ethics knowledge and practice through active engagement: an applied model of physical therapy ethics.

    PubMed

    Delany, Clare M; Edwards, Ian; Jensen, Gail M; Skinner, Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    Physical therapist practice has a distinct focus that is holistic (ie, patient centered) and at the same time connected to a range of other providers within health care systems. Although there is a growing body of literature in physical therapy ethics knowledge, including clinical obligations and underlying philosophical principles, less is known about the unique ethical issues that physical therapists encounter, and how and why they make ethical decisions. As moral agents, physical therapists are required to make autonomous clinical and ethical decisions based on connections and relationships with their patients, other health care team members, and health institutions and policies. This article identifies specific ethical dimensions of physical therapist practice and highlights the development and focus of ethics knowledge in physical therapy over the last several decades. An applied ethics model, called the "active engagement model," is proposed to integrate clinical and ethical dimensions of practice with the theoretical knowledge and literature about ethics. The active engagement model has 3 practical steps: to listen actively, to think reflexively, and to reason critically. The model focuses on the underlying skills, attitudes, and actions that are required to build a sense of moral agency and purpose within physical therapist practice and to decrease gaps between the ethical dimensions of physical therapist practice and physical therapy ethics knowledge and scholarship. A clinical case study is provided to illustrate how the ethics engagement model might be used to analyze and provide insight into the ethical dimensions of physical therapist practice. PMID:20448105

  19. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits. PMID:26364775

  20. Ethics in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Frank G.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions in providing prenatal services, including testing and genetic engineering, and medical interventions with neonates and other very young children who have severe disabilities. It explores ways to enhance ethical decision making, including recruitment for multidisciplinary teams or other committees of adults…

  1. Ethical Realism: A Guide to Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Gary Miller's essay entitled "Ethical Realism and Continuing Education." In his essay, Dr. Miller has provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on the practice of continuing education (CE) leadership. Dr. Miller reviews six principles that are encapsulated in the concept of ethical realism, but are…

  2. An Ethically Ambitious Higher Education Data Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    The new data sciences of education bring substantial legal, political, and ethical questions about the management of information about learners. This piece provides a synoptic view of recent scholarly discussion in this domain and calls for a proactive approach to the ethics of learning research.

  3. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  4. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  5. Ethics Scenarios: A Critical Theory Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane; And Others

    This symposium chaired by John C. Belland addressed the ethical position of educational communications and technology in society. Presenters created ethics scenarios and applied critical theory to provide insight. Intended to stimulate questions, the approach was philosophical, literary, and sociopolitical, and reflected Derrida, Foucault, and…

  6. Ethics, Standards, and Professionalism in Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Addresses matters of ethics, standards, and professionalism in language testing. Terminology is defined, and current standards and codes relevant to language testing are reviewed. Personal experiences illustrating the ethical choices faced by professional language testers are provided. (11 references) (Author/CK)

  7. Context-Sensitive Ethics in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…

  8. Integrating Ethics in Community Colleges' Accounting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Clifton

    1990-01-01

    Argues that two-year college business programs need to provide moral guidance and leadership to students to help stem the proliferation of fraudulent and questionable financial reporting practices. Reviews amoral and moral unity theories of business ethics. Discusses barriers to ethical instruction in business curricula, and ways to overcome them.…

  9. Protecting the Profession's Interest in Ethical Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Committee on Professional Ethics.

    This publication seeks to provide reasonable and practical answers to basic questions of professional ethics and is intended to help the reader to understand the sometimes overlapping organizational relationships and to plan an orderly course of action. The four chapters cover the following topics: 1) ethical problems in teaching, defining…

  10. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  11. Keeping it Ethically Real.

    PubMed

    Ho, Dien

    2016-08-01

    Many clinical ethicists have argued that ethics expertise is impossible. Their skeptical argument usually rests on the assumptions that to be an ethics expert is to know the correct moral conclusions, which can only be arrived at by having the correct ethical theories. In this paper, I argue that this skeptical argument is unsound. To wit, ordinary ethical deliberations do not require the appeal to ethical or meta-ethical theories. Instead, by agreeing to resolve moral differences by appealing to reasons, the participants agree to the Default Principle-a substantive rule that tells us how to adjudicate an ethical disagreement. The Default Principle also entails a commitment to arguments by parity, and together these two methodological approaches allow us to make genuine moral progress without assuming any deep ethical principles. Ethical expertise, in one sense, is thus the ability and knowledge to deploy the Default Principle and arguments by parity. PMID:27256847

  12. Australian Undergraduate Biotechnology Student Attitudes towards the Teaching of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Tamra; Rosenberger, Philip J., III; Kerridge, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, ethics has become part of most tertiary biotechnology curricula. There is, however, considerable variation in the extent and manner of ethics education provided to students in different institutions. In addition, the perceived need that students and employers have regarding ethics education, and the aims and expected outcomes of…

  13. The Curricular Integration of Ethics: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, C. David

    This book offers philosophical and pedagogical background to help faculty and academic administrators integrate ethics into curricula. The volume suggests the most appropriate way is through instructor-guided discussion of ethical issues relevant to course objectives. The book demonstrates how providing ethical discussions of relevant ethical…

  14. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  15. Counseling Suicidal Adolescents within Family Systems: Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…

  16. "Tough Choices": A Student Workshop on the Ethics of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Donna Chapa; Lindsay, Nathan; Phillips, Chip

    2013-01-01

    In this society where ethical misconduct is prevalent, faculty and staff can do a better job of providing training and encouragement to help students make ethical decisions. At the University of North Carolina Wilmington, a task force was created to develop a workshop for student leaders to enhance their awareness of ethical issues and the…

  17. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  18. Unified approach for incompressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tyne-Hsien

    1995-01-01

    A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

  19. Unified approach for incompressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tyne-Hsien

    1993-01-01

    An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.

  20. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835

  1. Toward a Unified Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Saundra

    After discussing the nature of theory itself, the author explains her concept of the Unified Communication Theory, which rests on the assumption that there exists in all living structures a potential communication factor which is delimited by species and ontogeny. An organism develops "symbol fixation" at the level where its perceptual abilities…

  2. UNIFYING SCALER FOR BIOASSAY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive set of interlaboratory root bioassay data was unified using centroids of individual tests as scalers. It is shown that the dose response obeys a first order differential equation with the constant of the equation related to the sensitivity of the dose response relati...

  3. Lived religion: implications for nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2009-07-01

    This article explores how ethics and religion interface in everyday life by drawing on a study examining the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality in health care. Employing methods of critical ethnography, namely, interviews and participant observation, data were collected from patients, health care providers, administrators and spiritual care providers. The findings revealed the degree to which 'lived religion' was intertwined with 'lived ethics' for many participants; particularly for people from the Sikh faith. For these participants, religion was woven into everyday life, making distinctions between public and private, secular and sacred spaces improbable. Individual interactions, institutional resource allocation, and social discourses are all embedded in social relationships of power that prevent religion from being a solely personal or private matter. Strategies for the reintegration of religion into nursing ethics are: adjusting professional codes and theories of ethics to reflect the influence of religion; and the contribution of critical perspectives, such as postcolonial feminism, to the understanding of lived ethics. PMID:19528098

  4. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  5. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-09-15

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  6. Weyl's Abandonment of Unified Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieroka, Norman

    2015-01-01

    In 1918, Hermann Weyl proposed a generalisation of Riemannian geometry, in order to unify general relativity and electrodynamics. This paper investigates the physical, mathematical and philosophical reasons for his subsequent abandonment of any such attempt towards a unified field theory.

  7. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict. PMID:25475170

  8. Ethical practice in end-of-life care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Shigeko

    2010-07-01

    Nurses are obliged to provide quality nursing care that meets the ethical standards of their profession. However, clear descriptions of ethical practice are largely missing in the literature. Qualitative research using a phenomenological approach was conducted to explicate ethical nursing practice in Japanese end-of-life care settings and to discover how ethical practices unfold in clinical situations. Two paradigm cases and contrasting narratives of memorable end-of-life care from 32 Japanese nurses were used to reveal four levels of ethical practice: ethical, distressed, uncertain, and unethical. Having the ability to actualize, justify, and recognize what is the good and/or right differentiated between these levels of ethical practice, empirical descriptions of which are given, followed by discussion of how nurses gain the skilled knowledge necessary for ethical practice. PMID:20610579

  9. Biomedical Ethics Policy in Korea: Characteristics and Historical Development

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Ki-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Ethical consideration is an inseparable part of policy-making in modern society. Biomedical ethics is an interdisciplinary study of ethical issues that result from advances in medical practices and research. Because these issues often arise at the bedside, society must provide solutions or judgments that are effective and applicable. Thus, the development and progress of biomedical ethics has been made possible via the cooperation of experts from diverse backgrounds. The biomedical ethics discourse should not be seen as a conflict between values but as a collective activity for problem-solving. To support this perspective on ethics discourse, a historical perspective on biomedical ethics in Korea was given emphasis on the participants and their perspectives. Major cases and the changes resulting therefrom were discussed with the agenda proposed. The Korean situation with respect to ethics development shows the interactions between groups participating in policy development and its collaborative nature. PMID:22661876

  10. Medical internet ethics: a field in evolution.

    PubMed

    Dyer, K A; Thompson, C D

    2001-01-01

    As in any new field, the merger of medicine, e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions pertaining to ethical conduct. Key issues include defining the essence of the patient-provider relationship, establishing guidelines and training for practicing online medicine and therapy, setting standards for ethical online research, determining guidelines for providing quality healthcare information and requiring ethical conduct for medical and health websites. Physicians who follow their professional code of ethics are obligated not to exploit the relationship they have with patients, nor allow anyone else working with them to do so. Physicians and therapists are obligated to serve those who place trust in them for treatment, whether in face-to-face or online Internet encounters with patients or clients. This ethical responsibility to patients and clients is often in direct conflict with the business model of generating profits. Healthcare professionals involved in Medical Internet Ethics need to define the scope of competent medical and healthcare on the Internet. The emerging ethical issues facing medicine on the Internet, the current state of medical ethics on the Internet and questions for future directions of study in this evolving field are reviewed in this paper. PMID:11604935

  11. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  12. [Professional practice and ethics in the context of health policies].

    PubMed

    Mendes, H W; Caldas Júnior, A L

    2001-05-01

    This work addressed the professional practice in healthcare in the context of social policies in a municipality of São Paulo State, Brazil. It aimed at determining the influences of such policies on professional practices and on the observance of ethical principles and legal precepts established by the Unified Health System. Healthcare professionals responsible for the elaboration of health policies in the municipal district and for coordination of health institutions were interviewed. A fatalistic perception of the health system and a mechanicist vision of facts influenced by the liberal conception was verified. Thus, alternatives for solution of problems are looked at individually, not always in terms of law or ethics. PMID:12040787

  13. Narrative ethics for narrative care.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Clive

    2015-08-01

    Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. PMID:26162740

  14. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  15. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  16. Technical Note: Ethical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, J.

    Ethical economics is inspirational, expanding our vision beyond the narrow self-interest of the theoretical economic man. Ethical economics sees more value in space settlement than conventional economic calculations that can inappropriately discount the value of the future.

  17. Institutionalizing Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumback, Gary B.

    1992-01-01

    Ways to institutionalize ethics in government agencies include demonstrating moral leadership, making it a job qualification, training, establishing and enforcing a code, and including ethics in personnel management and performance appraisal. (SK)

  18. Ethics outside of inpatient care: the need for alliances between clinical and organizational ethics.

    PubMed

    Barina, Rachelle

    2014-12-01

    The norms and practices of clinical ethics took form relative to the environment and relationships of hospital care. These practices do not easily translate into the outpatient context because the environment and relational dynamics differ. Yet, as outpatient care becomes the center of health care delivery, the experiences of ethical tension for outpatient clinicians warrant greater responses. Although a substantial body of literature on the nature of the doctor-physician relationship has been developed and could provide theoretical groundwork for an outpatient ethics, this literature is not sufficient to support outpatient caregivers in practical dilemmas. For physicians who are employed by or affiliated with a larger organization, a stronger alliance between clinical ethics and organizational ethics, identity, and mission will promote expansion of ethics resources in outpatient settings and address structural constraints in outpatient clinical care. PMID:24609755

  19. Giftedness and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

  20. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  1. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Artz, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  2. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  3. Research Ethics III: Publication Practices and Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, and Research Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. Method: In "Research Ethics III", they review the RCR domains of publication…

  4. Research Ethics II: Mentoring, Collaboration, Peer Review, and Data Management and Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics II", the authors review the RCR domains of mentoring,…

  5. A New Ethic for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses worldwide economic and sociological dimensions of children's policy. Economic instability, budgetary policy changes, and social shifts have impoverished many children and severely constrained their life prospects. Proposes a New Ethic providing a "first call for children" in national and international policy, modeled after the UN…

  6. Designers' unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  7. Designer's unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, William T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Swanson, G. D.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model has been initiated. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state of the art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a data base and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. The approach, goals, plans, and progress is presented for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  8. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  9. Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

  10. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  11. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  12. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  13. Ethics across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchett, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

  14. Ethics and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…

  15. Ethics in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, H. O.

    The definition and role of ethics in higher education in agriculture are discussed. The ethical dimensions of recent events in agricultural education and agricultural science are discussed, including the ethics implicit in federal regulations and court decisions, changes in the backgrounds, experiences and values of students choosing agriculture,…

  16. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  17. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  18. Professional Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    Major problems and issues of ethics in elementary, secondary, and higher education are examined. The function and present status of professional ethics are considered, along with specific codes of ethics, including those of the National Education Association, American Association of University Professors, and the American Association of School…

  19. The Evolution of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues and dilemmas span from conception to the grave. The interconnectedness of advocacy, ethics, and end of life/death with dignity are woven into this issue of the Professional Case Management journal. Case management is a critical member of the team when these discussions arise. And knowledge of the issues, along with legal, ethical, and professional codes, is highlighted. PMID:27231955

  20. Ethics-R-Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines this issue of "Social Work," which addresses ethical issues relevant to the profession, including how to prepare students for the complex task of ethical decision-making; attitudes about sexual contact with clients; legal concerns regarding sexual harassment and confidentiality; the nature of ethics violations; approaches to new and…

  1. Ethical Issues in Gerocounseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Marion L.; Ramsey, Marylou

    1988-01-01

    Combines areas of counseling older adults and maintaining sound ethical practices in professional counseling by enumerating some ethical dilemmas encountered in gerocounseling, examining the American Association for Counseling and Development Ethical Standards (1981), and suggesting options for handling conflicts that may arise. (Author/NB)

  2. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  3. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  4. Alternative Medicine and the Ethics Of Commerce.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Chris; Gavura, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Is it ethical to market complementary and alternative medicines? Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are medical products and services outside the mainstream of medical practice. But they are not just medicines (or supposed medicines) offered and provided for the prevention and treatment of illness. They are also products and services - things offered for sale in the marketplace. Most discussion of the ethics of CAM has focused on bioethical issues - issues having to do with therapeutic value, and the relationship between patients and those purveyors of CAM. This article aims instead to consider CAM from the perspective of commercial ethics. That is, we consider the ethics not of prescribing or administering CAM (activities most closely associated with health professionals) but the ethics of selling CAM. PMID:26806450

  5. Nanomedicine: Techniques, Potentials, and Ethical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel physical, chemical, and biological properties due to their nanoscale size. This paper focuses on what is known as nanomedicine, referring to the application of nanotechnology to medicine. We consider the use and potentials of emerging nanoscience techniques in medicine such as nanosurgery, tissue engineering, and targeted drug delivery, and we discuss the ethical questions that these techniques raise. The ethical considerations involved in nanomedicine are related to risk assessment in general, somatic-cell versus germline-cell therapy, the enhancement of human capabilities, research into human embryonic stem cells and the toxicity, uncontrolled function and self-assembly of nanoparticles. The ethical considerations associated with the application of nanotechnology to medicine have not been greatly discussed. This paper aims to balance clear ethical discussion and sound science and so provide nanotechnologists and biotechnologists with tools to assess ethical problems in nanomedicine. PMID:17489016

  6. The Ethical Significance of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the ethical challenges that arise in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which includes an introduction to the contributions to the symposium in this issue. We begin by discussing why AMR is a distinct ethical issue, and should not be viewed purely as a technical or medical problem. In the second section, we expand on some of these arguments and argue that AMR presents us with a broad range of ethical problems that must be addressed as part of a successful policy response to emerging drug resistance. In the third section, we discuss how some of these ethical challenges should be addressed, and we argue that this requires contributions from citizens, ethicists, policy makers, practitioners and industry. We conclude with an overview of steps that should be taken in moving forward and addressing the ethical problems of AMR. PMID:26566395

  7. Strategies for promoting ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Mysak, S

    1997-01-01

    The structured controversy as a strategy for helping the non-licensed caregiver make ethical decisions as well as develop critical thinking skills was an innovative teaching technique. Students in the Homecare/Special care aide program are essential providers of care to residents or clients in a special care facility or in a homecare setting. Theory and practice of ethical decision-making is not usually dealt with in the curriculum of the non-licensed caregiver. Implementation of this approach helped students learn theory and skills necessary when dealing with controversial issues in making ethical decisions. Thompson and Thompson's (1985) ten steps of bioethical decision-making were implemented to assist in the process. Structured controversy was defined and the process of implementing structured controversy outlined. A variety of ethical issues were presented based on the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, autonomy, truthfulness, confidentiality, and integrity (Yeo, 1991). Several definitions of critical thinking are presented. PMID:9136367

  8. Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsid, Scott; Serna, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools. Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.

  9. A unifying description of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We review and extend a novel approach that we recently introduced, to describe general dark energy or scalar-tensor models. Our approach relies on an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formulation based on the hypersurfaces where the underlying scalar field is uniform. The advantage of this approach is that it can describe in the same language and in a minimal way a vast number of existing models, such as quintessence, F(R) theories, scalar tensor theories, their Horndeski extensions and beyond. It also naturally includes Horava-Lifshitz theories. As summarized in this review, our approach provides a unified treatment of the linear cosmological perturbations about a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe, obtained by a systematic expansion of our general action up to quadratic order. This shows that the behavior of these linear perturbations is generically characterized by five time-dependent functions. We derive the full equations of motion in the Newtonian gauge. In the Horndeski case, we obtain the equation of state for dark energy perturbations in terms of these functions. Our unifying description thus provides the simplest and most systematic way to confront theoretical models with current and future cosmological observations.

  10. Unified theory of effective interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.