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Sample records for providing fast trigger

  1. Status of Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavicheva, T. L.; Kurepin, A. B.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the LHC upgrade after the Long Shutdown 2, the expected luminosity and collision rate during the so called Run 3 will considerably exceed the design parameters for several of the key ALICE detectors systems including the forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker significantly reduces the space envelope available for the upgraded Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) detector on the muon spectrometer side. At the same time, FIT is expected to match and even exceed the functionality and performance currently secured by three ALICE sub-detectors: the time zero detector (T0), the VZERO system, and the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD). The harsh conditions of Run 3 would accelerate the ageing and radiation damage (detectable already during Run 1) of the FIT detector if we were to use standard PMTs. The solution came thanks to the latest developments in MCP-PMT technology providing compact photo sensors with excellent characteristics and stability.

  2. Trigger of Fast Reconnection via Collapsing Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, A.; Velli, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Pucci, F.

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, both the questions of how magnetic reconnection is triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas, and how it can then occur on fast, ideal, time-scales remain open. Indeed, it has been argued that fast reconnection rates could be achieved once kinetic scales are reached, or, alternatively, by the onset of the so-called plasmoid instability within Sweet-Parker current sheets. However, it has been shown recently that a tearing mode instability (the "ideal tearing") can grow on an ideal, i.e., S-independent, timescale once the width a of a current sheet becomes thin enough with respect to its macroscopic length L, a/L ~ S-1/3. This suggests that current sheet thinning down to such a threshold aspect ratio —much larger, for S>>1, than the Sweet-Parker one that scales as a/L ~ S-1/2— might provide the trigger for fast reconnection even within the fluid plasma framework. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection by studying with visco-resistive MHD simulations the onset and evolution of the tearing instability within a single collapsing current sheet. We indeed show that the transition to a fast tearing mode instability takes place when an inverse aspect ratio of the order of the threshold a/L ~ S-1/3 is reached, and that the secondary current sheets forming nonlinearly become the source of a succession of recursive tearing instabilities. The latter is reminiscent of the fractal reconnection model of flares, which we modify in the light of the "ideal tearing" scenario.

  3. Design of a hardware track finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, V.; Adelman, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N. V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J. W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H. L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P. T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-02-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger and data acquisition system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100μs, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV . Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  4. eXtremely Fast Tracker trigger upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Cox, C.; Cox, D.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Purdue U.

    2009-01-01

    The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) is a trigger processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the central tracking chamber. The XFT tracks are also extrapolated to the electromagnetic calorimeter and muon chambers to generate trigger electron and muon candidates. The XFT is crucial for the entire CDF II physics program: it detects high P{sub t} lepton from W/Z and heavy flavors decay and, in conjunction with the level 2 processor, it identifies secondary vertices from beauty decay. The XFT has thus been crucial for the recent measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation and {Sigma}{sub b}. The increase of the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity demanded an upgrade of the system to cope with the higher occupancy of the chamber. In the upgraded XFT, three-dimensional tracking reduces the level of fake tracks and measures the longitudinal track parameters, which strongly reinforce the trigger selection. This allows to maintain the trigger perfectly efficient at the record luminosities 2-3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and to maintain intact the CDF II high luminosity physics program, which includes the Higgs search. In this paper we review the architecture, the used technology, the performance and the impact of the upgraded XFT on the entire CDF II trigger strategy.

  5. Fast timing and trigger Cherenkov detector for collider experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Karavicheva, T. L.; Konevskikh, A. S.; Kurepin, A. B.; Loginov, V. A.; Melikyan, Yu A.; Morozov, I. V.; Reshetin, A. I.; Serebryakov, D. V.; Shabanov, A. I.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tykmanov, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of fast timing and trigger Cherenkov detector's design for its use in collider experiments is presented. Several specific requirements are taken into account - necessity of the radiator's placement as close to the beam pipe as possible along with the requirement of gapless (solid) radiator's design. Characteristics of the Cherenkov detector's laboratory prototype obtained using a pion beam at the CERN Proton Synchrotron are also presented, showing the possibility of obtaining sufficiently high geometrical efficiency along with good enough time resolution (50 ps sigma).

  6. Fast pattern recognition trigger for atmospheric cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, A. A.; Chilingarian, S. A.; Eppler, W.; Gemmeke, H.

    2001-08-01

    The ambitions to bridge the energy gap between ground based and satellite borne detectors requires to decrease the threshold of Cherenkov telescopes down to several tens of GeV. The images corresponding to such low energies and registered with high angular resolution will lead to rather complicated disconnected images. The standard second-momentum analysis will not be so effective as for images detected with less angular resolution and/or more compact mirrors and high incident energies above 300 GeV. Since the trigger rate at low thresholds can reach 1 MHz, the main tasks for an "intelligent" trigger are signal pattern recognition and background rejection. We propose to use the hardware neurochip SAND/1 (Simple Applicable Neural Device) as fast "intelligent" Pattern Recognition Trigger (PRT). In addition to decrease the registered event rate down to several kHz, the PRT will reject muon and hadron backgrounds online at present only possible off-line. Using a special board of hardware neural accelerators and evolutionary network training strategies we construct a PRT which meets both timing and pattern recognition requirements.

  7. A 200 kV fast rise time, low jitter, trigger system with magnetic pulse sharpener

    SciTech Connect

    Jaitly, N.C.; Coleman, M.D.; Ramrus, A.; Earley, L.M.; Downing, J.N.; Reisch, H.H.; Caudill, L.D.; Eversol, S.A.

    1992-09-01

    The DARHT Facility is being designed at Los Alamos national Laboratory to produce high resolution flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIA), each in the range of 16 to 20 MeV, will be used to produce intense bremsstrahlung X-ray pulses of short duration (60 ns flat top). Each LIA will produce a 3 kA, high brightness, electron beam using a 4 MeV injector and a series of 250 kV induction cells. Technology demonstration of key accelerator subsystems is under progress at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The eight inductions cells present in the ITS are driven by a Maxwell prototype Induction Cell Pulsed Power supply (ICPPS) which provides 250 kV, 70 ns pulses via four Blumieins. Each Blumiein drives two cells and is triggered using independently controlled trigger units. This turnkey DARHT Trigger System, consisting of four separate trigger units, provides 200 kV trigger pulses with low jitter and fast rise time to each of the four Blumiein coaxial spark gaps. Details of the trigger system design and results obtained during extensive testing at Maxwell are described.

  8. A 200 kV fast rise time, low jitter, trigger system with magnetic pulse sharpener

    SciTech Connect

    Jaitly, N.C.; Ramrus, A.; Coleman, M.D.; Earley, L.M.; Downing, J.N.; Reisch, H.H.; Caudill, L.D.; Eversol, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The DARHT Facility is being designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce high resolution flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIA), each in the range of 16 to 20 MeV, will be used to produce intense bremsstrahlung X-ray pulses of short duration (60 ns flat top). Each LIA will produce a 3 kA, high brightness, electron beam using a 4 MeV injector and a series of 250 kV induction cells. Technology demonstration of key accelerator subsystems is under progress at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The eight inductions cells present in the ITS are driven by a Maxwell prototype Induction Cell Pulsed Power Supply (ICPPS) which provides 250 kV, 70ns pulses via four Blumleins. Each Blumlein drives two cells and is triggered using independently controlled trigger units. This turnkey DARHT Trigger System, consisting of four separate trigger units, provides 200 kV trigger pulses with low jitter and fast rise time to each of the four Blumlein coaxial spark gaps. Details of the trigger system design and results obtained during extensive testing at Maxwell are described.

  9. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT FOR A FAST MUON TRIGGER

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN,E.; BASYE, A.; ISENHOWER, D.; JUMPER, D.; SPARKS, N.; TOWELL, R.; WATTS, C.; WOOD, J.; WRIGHT, R.; HAGGERTY, J.; LYNCH, D.; BARISH, K.; EYSER, K.O.; SETO, R.; HU, S.; LI, X.; ZHOU, S.; GLENN, A.; KINNEY, E.; KIRILUK, K.; NAGLE, J.; CHI, C.Y.; SIPPACH, W.; ZAJC. W.; BUTLER, C.; HE, X.; OAKLEY, C.; YING, J.; BLACKBURN, J.; CHIU, M.; PERDEKAMP, M.G.; KIM, Y.J.; KOSTER, J.; LAYTON, D.; MAKINS, N.; MEREDITH, B.; NORTHACKER, D.; PENG, J.-C.; SEIDL, R.; THORSLAND, E.; WADHAMS, S.; WILLIAMSON, S.; YANG, R.; HILL, J.; KEMPEL, T.; LAJOIE, J.; SLEEGE, G.; VALE, C.; WEI, F.; SAITO, N.; HONG, B.; KIM, B.; LEE, K.; LEE, K.S.; PARK, S.; SIM, K.-S.; AOKI, K.; DAIRAKU, S.; IMAI, K.; KARATSU, K.; MURAKAMI, T.; SATO, A.; SENZAKA, K.; SHOJI, K.; TANIDA, K.; BROOKS, M.; LEITCH, M.; ADAMS, J.; CARINGI, A.; FADEM, B.; IDE, J.; LICHTENWALNER, P.; FIELDS, D.; MAO, Y.; HAN, R.; BUNCE, G.; XIE, W.; FUKAO, Y.; TAKETANI, A.; KURITA, K.; MURATA, J.

    2007-08-01

    This document is a Conceptual Design Report for a fast muon trigger for the PHENIX experiment that will enable the study of flavor separated quark and anti-quark spin polarizations in the proton. A powerful way of measuring these polarizations is via single spin asymmetries for W boson production in polarized proton-proton reactions. The measurement is done by tagging W{sup +} and W{sup -} via their decay into high transverse momentum leptons in the forward directions. The PHENIX experiment is capable of measuring high momentum muons at forward rapidity, but the current online trigger does not have sufficient rejection to sample the rare leptons fromW decay at the highest luminosities at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This Report details the goals, design, R&D, and schedule for building new detectors and trigger electronics to use the full RHIC luminosity to make this critical measurement. The idea for W boson measurements in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC was first suggested by Jacques Soffer and Claude Bourrely in 1995. This prompted the RIKEN institute in Japan to supply funds to build a second muon arm for PHENIX (south muon arm). The existence of both a north and south muon arm makes it possible to utilize a Z{sup 0} sample to study and control systematic uncertainties which arise in the reconstruction of high momentum muons. This document has its origins in recommendations made by a NSAC Subcommittee that reviewed the U.S. Heavy Ion Physics Program in June 2004. Part of their Recommendation 1 was to 'Invest in near-term detector upgrades of the two large experiments, PHENIX and STAR'. In Recommendation 2 the subcommittee stated '- detector improvements proceed at a rate that allows a timely determination of the flavor dependence of the quark-antiquark sea polarization through W-asymmetry measurements' as we are proposing here. On September 13, 2004 DOE requested from BNL a report articulating a research plan for the RHIC spin physics

  10. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  11. Fast, externally triggered, digital phase controller for an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi

    2011-11-01

    We present a method to control the phase of an optical lattice according to an external trigger signal. The method has a latency of less than 30 μs. Two phase locked digital synthesizers provide the driving signal for two acousto-optic modulators which control the frequency and phase of the counter-propagating beams which form a standing wave (optical lattice). A micro-controller with an external interrupt function is connected to the desired external signal, and updates the phase register of one of the synthesizers when the external signal changes. The standing wave (period λ/2 = 390 nm) can be moved by units of 49 nm with a mean jitter of 28 nm. The phase change is well known due to the digital nature of the synthesizer, and does not need calibration. The uses of the scheme include coherent control of atomic matter-wave dynamics.

  12. A fast total energy trigger unit for a CsI calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. A.; Hessey, N. P.; Pinder, C. N.; Batty, C. J.

    1997-02-01

    A fast total energy trigger module for use with the CsI calorimeter of the Crystal Barrel experiment at LEAR is described. The unit intercepts and sums the data during the transfer of the digital output of the LeCroy FERA ADCs to the 1190 memory modules. Comparing the digital sum with two preset levels then generates outputs to the trigger logic in less than 40 μs from the start of the input gate signal to the FERA ADCs. This fast response allows the energy sum signals to be included in the level one trigger logic.

  13. Event Plane Resolution Simulations for The Fast Interaction Trigger Detector of ALICE at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaimon, Isiaka; Harton, Austin; Garcia, Edmundo; Alice-Fit Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) is a global laboratory that studies proton and heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of four large experiments of the LHC. ALICE is dedicated to the study of the transition of matter to Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions. In the present ALICE detector there are two sub-detectors, (the T0 and V0), that provide minimum bias trigger, multiplicity trigger, beam-gas event rejection, collision time for other sub detectors, on line multiplicity and event plane determination. In order to adapt these functionalities to the collision rates expected for the LHC upgrade after 2020, it is planned to replace these systems by a single detector system, called the Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT). In this presentation we describe the performance parameters of the FIT upgrade; show the proposed characteristics of the T0-Plus and the simulations that support the conceptual design of this detector. In particular we describe the performance simulations of the event plane resolution. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants NSF-PHY-0968903 and NSF-PHY-1305280.

  14. Silicon vertex tracker: a fast precise tracking trigger for CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Cerri, A.; Clark, A. G.; Chlanchidze, G.; Condorelli, R.; Culbertson, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Frisch, H. J.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Leger, A.; Meschi, E.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Semenov, A.; Signorelli, G.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Wilson, P.; Wu, Xin; Zanetti, A. M.

    2000-06-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), currently being built for the CDF II experiment, is a hardware device that reconstructs 2-D tracks online using measurements from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXII) and the Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precise measurement of the impact parameter of the SVT tracks will allow, for the first time in a hadron collider environment, to trigger on events containing B hadrons that are very important for many studies, such as CP violation in the b sector and searching for new heavy particles decaying to b b¯ . In this report we describe the overall architecture, algorithms and the hardware implementation of the SVT.

  15. Comparison of fast electric field changes from subsequent return strokes of natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Willett, J.

    1988-01-01

    Fast electric field changes from subsequent return strokes of natural and triggered lightning with propagation paths almost entirely over water are compared. Data were collected at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Comparisons have been made of the average shape, the rise time and the spectrum of the electric field changes. The electric field changes from the triggered flashes tend to rise to peak faster and decay faster than do their counterparts in natural cloud-to-ground flashes.

  16. Development of Fast, Segmented Trigger Detector for Decay Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshudifat, Mohammad; Grzywacz, Robert; Paulauskas, Stan

    2013-10-01

    Segmented scintillation detector was developed for decay studies. The detector is build with use of position sensitive photo-multiplier (PSPMT) Hamamatsu H8500 coupled with fast (16 × 16) pixelated plastic scintillator (Eljen EJ-204). The PSPMT anodes form a (8 × 8) two dimensional matrix which is used for position reconstruction, position resolution with average FWHM of ~ 1 . 1 mm was achieved with 137Cs gamma-source. Signals derived from non-segmented dynode are used for timing. Digital pulse shape analysis algorithm was used for this analysis and the 500 ps timing resolution was achieved. This detector is intended to use in fragmentation type experiments which require segmented detectors in order to enable recoil-decay correlations for applications requiring good timing resolution, e.g. for the neutron time-of-flight experiments using VANDLE array.

  17. Price transparency for MRIs increased use of less costly providers and triggered provider competition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sze-jung; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Shah, Christiane; DeVries, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    To encourage patients to select high-value providers, an insurer-initiated price transparency program that focused on elective advanced imaging procedures was implemented. Patients having at least one outpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in 2010 or 2012 were divided according to their membership in commercial health plans participating in the program (the intervention group) or in nonparticipating commercial health plans (the reference group) in similar US geographic regions. Patients in the intervention group were informed of price differences among available MRI facilities and given the option of selecting different providers. For those patients, the program resulted in a $220 cost reduction (18.7 percent) per test and a decrease in use of hospital-based facilities from 53 percent in 2010 to 45 percent in 2012. Price variation between hospital and nonhospital facilities for the intervention group was reduced by 30 percent after implementation. Nonparticipating members residing in intervention areas also observed price reductions, which indicates increased price competition among providers. The program significantly reduced imaging costs. This suggests that patients select lower-price facilities when informed about available alternatives. PMID:25092841

  18. SiC/Si diode trigger circuit provides automatic range switching for log amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    SiC/Si diode pair provides automatic range change to extend the operating range of a logarithmic amplifier-conversion circuit and assures stability at or near the range switch-over point. the diode provides hysteresis for a trigger circuit that actuates a relay at the desired range extension point.

  19. Comparison of fast electric field changes from subsequent return strokes of natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Willett, J. C.; Bailey, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Fast electric field changes from subsequent return strokes of natural and triggered lightning with propagation paths almost entirely over water are compared. Data were collected at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the summer of 1987. Comparisons have been made of the average shape, the risetime, and the spectrum of the electric field changes. To a first approximation, the waveforms are very similar; however, the electric field changes from the triggered flashes tend to rise to peak faster and decay faster than do their counterparts in natural cloud-to-ground flashes.

  20. A Fast Topological Trigger for Real Time Analysis of Nanosecond Phenomena; Opening the Gamma Ray Window to Our Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krennrich, Frank

    2013-09-24

    This work was to enable the development of a proof-of-principle nanosecond trigger system that is designed to perform a real time analysis of fast Cherenkov light flashes from air showers. The basic building blocks of the trigger system have been designed and constructed, and a real world system is now operating in the VERITAS experiment.

  1. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  2. Triggers, bundles, protocols, and checklists--what every maternal care provider needs to know.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Shields, Larry E; Grobman, William A; D'Alton, Mary E; Lappen, Justin R; Mercer, Brian M

    2016-04-01

    The rise in maternal morbidity and mortality has resulted in national and international attention at optimally organizing systems and teams for pregnancy care. Given that maternal morbidity and mortality can occur unpredictably in any obstetric setting, specialists in general obstetrics and gynecology along with other primary maternal care providers should be integrally involved in efforts to improve the safety of obstetric care delivery. Quality improvement initiatives remain vital to meeting this goal. The evidence-based utilization of triggers, bundles, protocols, and checklists can aid in timely diagnosis and treatment to prevent or limit the severity of morbidity as well as facilitate interdisciplinary, patient-centered care. The purpose of this document is to summarize the pertinent elements from this forum to assist primary maternal care providers in their utilization and implementation of these safety tools. PMID:26478105

  3. Studies of the possibility to use Gas Pixel Detector as a fast trigger tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, N.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Korotkova, N.; Romaniouk, A.; Tikhomirov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) technology offers new possibilities, which make them very attractive for application in existing and future accelerator experiments and beyond. GPDs combine advantages of silicon and gaseous detectors. They can be produced radiation hard and with low power consumption using relatively cheap technology. Low capacitance of the individual pixel channel allows us to obtain a large signal to noise ratio. Using a time projection method for GPD readout one obtains 3D track image with precise coordinate (31 µm) and angular information (0.40°). This feature would allow us to achieve performance of one GPD layer equal to a few layers of silicon detectors. Implementation of a fast readout and data processing at the front-end level allows one to reconstruct a track segment in less than 1 μs, and to use this information for the first level trigger generation. The relevant algorithms of data acquisition and analysis are described and the results of simulations are presented in this paper.

  4. Fast Breakdown of Hydrous Minerals may Trigger Intermediate-depth Earthquakes in subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chollet, M.; Daniel, I.; Koga, K. T.; Petitgirard, S.; Morard, G.

    2008-12-01

    suggest that dehydration of all hydrous minerals may be fast enough to trigger earthquakes, and that the deepest among intermediate-depth earthquakes may actually locate the dehydration limit in the downgoing lithosphere.

  5. Fast Plasma Investigation for MMS: Simulation of the Burst Triggering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrie, A. C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Winkert, G. E.; Lobell, J. V.; Holland, M. P.; Adrian, M. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eight (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6 degree x 180 degree fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90 degrees apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45 degree x 180 degree fan about the its nominal viewing (0 deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb (raised dot) per second of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb (raised dot) per second of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 6.6-Mb (raised dot) per second. The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. This requires a data ranking process known as the burst trigger system. The burst trigger system uses pseudo physical quantities to approximate the local plasma environments. As each pseudo quantity will have a different value, a set of two scaling factors is employed for each pseudo term. These pseudo

  6. Fast Plasma Investigation for MMS: Simulation of the Burst Triggering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, A.; Dorelli, J.; Adrian, M. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Pollock, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission will enable the study of small-scale magnetic reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors, eight (8) identical half top-hat ion sensors, and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU) on each of the four (4) MMS spacecraft. The sensors are packaged into pairs (DES & DIS) whose 90° x 180° (with electostatic deflection) fields-of-view (FOV) are placed at 90° intervals around the spacecraft periphery. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45° x 180° fan about the its nominal viewing (0° deflection) direction. The combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30ms (electrons) and 150ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection events, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of each spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb s-1 of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb s-1 of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 7.6-Mb s-1 for each of the 4 MMS spacecraft. The FPI electron and ion data is collected by the IDPU and transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Owing to limitations in downlink band width, only data sequences that contain the greatest potential for reconnection science may be down-linked by the spacecraft. This requires a data ranking process implemented as part of a burst trigger system. The FPI burst trigger system uses count rate sums representing pseudo physical quantities to approximate the local plasma environments. As each pseudo quantity will have a different value, a set of two scaling factors is employed for each pseudo term

  7. Fasting during Ramadan: a religious factor as a possible trigger or exacerbator for eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray Ö

    2014-12-01

    Culture-based contributors play a role in eating disorders (EDs). Here, we present one such factor that may play a role in triggering ED's in adolescents: Fasting during the holy period of Ramadan. Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking, which starts from dawn lasting until sunset. For the past 2 years, we have noticed an increase in patients with disordered eating patterns that have applied to Hacettepe University, Division of Adolescent Medicine during or shortly after Ramadan. We document six of these patients, three of which were diagnosed with an ED and three that did not meet full criteria. We argue that the possible effects of a drastic change in ones diet such as that which occurs during Ramadan, play an important role in triggering ED's in adolescents with a predisposition or may exacerbate an eating pathology. PMID:24474707

  8. Cytochrome c' folding triggered by electron transfer: fast and slow formation of four-helix bundles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J C; Gray, H B; Winkler, J R

    2001-07-01

    Reduced (Fe(II)) Rhodopseudomonas palustris cytochrome c' (Cyt c') is more stable toward unfolding ([GuHCl](1/2) = 2.9(1) M) than the oxidized (Fe(III)) protein ([GuHCl](1/2) = 1.9(1) M). The difference in folding free energies (Delta Delta G(f) degrees = 70 meV) is less than half of the difference in reduction potentials of the folded protein (100 mV vs. NHE) and a free heme in aqueous solution ( approximately -150 mV). The spectroscopic features of unfolded Fe(II)-Cyt c' indicate a low-spin heme that is axially coordinated to methionine sulfur (Met-15 or Met-25). Time-resolved absorption measurements after CO photodissociation from unfolded Fe(II)(CO)-Cyt c' confirm that methionine can bind to the ferroheme on the microsecond time scale [k(obs) = 5(2) x 10(4) s(-1)]. Protein folding was initiated by photoreduction (two-photon laser excitation of NADH) of unfolded Fe(III)-Cyt c' ([GuHCl] = 2.02--2.54 M). Folding kinetics monitored by heme absorption span a wide time range and are highly heterogeneous; there are fast-folding ( approximately 10(3) s(-1)), intermediate-folding (10(2)-10(1) s(-1)), and slow-folding (10(-1) s(-1)) populations, with the last two likely containing methionine-ligated (Met-15 or Met-25) ferrohemes. Kinetics after photoreduction of unfolded Fe(III)-Cyt c' in the presence of CO are attributable to CO binding [1.4(6) x 10(3) s(-1)] and Fe(II)(CO)-Cyt c' folding [2.8(9) s(-1)] processes; stopped-flow triggered folding of Fe(III)-Cyt c' (which does not contain a protein-derived sixth ligand) is adequately described by a single kinetics phase with an estimated folding time constant of approximately 4 ms [Delta G(f) degrees = -33(3) kJ mol(-1)] at zero denaturant. PMID:11438728

  9. Cytochrome c′ folding triggered by electron transfer: Fast and slow formation of four-helix bundles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer C.; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2001-01-01

    Reduced (FeII) Rhodopseudomonas palustris cytochrome c′ (Cyt c′) is more stable toward unfolding ([GuHCl]1/2 = 2.9(1) M) than the oxidized (FeIII) protein ([GuHCl]1/2 = 1.9(1) M). The difference in folding free energies (ΔΔGf° = 70 meV) is less than half of the difference in reduction potentials of the folded protein (100 mV vs. NHE) and a free heme in aqueous solution (≈−150 mV). The spectroscopic features of unfolded FeII–Cyt c′ indicate a low-spin heme that is axially coordinated to methionine sulfur (Met-15 or Met-25). Time-resolved absorption measurements after CO photodissociation from unfolded FeII(CO)–Cyt c′ confirm that methionine can bind to the ferroheme on the microsecond time scale [kobs = 5(2) × 104 s−1]. Protein folding was initiated by photoreduction (two-photon laser excitation of NADH) of unfolded FeIII–Cyt c′ ([GuHCl] = 2.02–2.54 M). Folding kinetics monitored by heme absorption span a wide time range and are highly heterogeneous; there are fast-folding (≈103 s−1), intermediate-folding (102–101 s−1), and slow-folding (10−1 s−1) populations, with the last two likely containing methionine-ligated (Met-15 or Met-25) ferrohemes. Kinetics after photoreduction of unfolded FeIII–Cyt c′ in the presence of CO are attributable to CO binding [1.4(6) × 103 s−1] and FeII(CO)–Cyt c′ folding [2.8(9) s−1] processes; stopped-flow triggered folding of FeIII–Cyt c′ (which does not contain a protein-derived sixth ligand) is adequately described by a single kinetics phase with an estimated folding time constant of ≈4 ms [ΔGf° = −33(3) kJ mol−1] at zero denaturant. PMID:11438728

  10. The Orexin Component of Fasting Triggers Memory Processes Underlying Conditioned Food Selection in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion…

  11. Prochelators Triggered by Hydrogen Peroxide Provide Hexadentate Iron Coordination to Impede Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Leed, Marina G. D.; Wolkow, Natalie; Pham, David M.; Daniel, Catherine L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Franz, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Prochelators are agents that have little affinity for metal ions until they undergo a chemical conversion. Three new aryl boronate prochelators are presented that are responsive to hydrogen peroxide to provide hexadentate ligands for chelating metal ions. TRENBSIM (tris[(2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzylidene)-2-aminoethyl]amine), TRENBSAM (tris[(2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzoyl)-2-aminoethyl]amine), and TB (tris[(2-boronic acid-benzyl)2-aminoethyl]amine) convert to TRENSIM (tris[(salicylideneamino)ethyl]amine), TRENSAM (tris[(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-2-aminoethyl]amine), and TS (tris[2-hydroxybenzyl)2-aminoethyl]amine), respectively. The prochelators were characterized by 11B NMR, and the structures of TRENBSAM, TRENBSIM, and the Fe(III) complex of TS were determined by X-ray crystallography. Of the three prochelator/chelator pairs, TB/TS was identified as the most promising for biological applications, as they prevent iron and copper-induced hydroxyl radical generation in an in vitro assay. TB has negligible interactions with metal ions, whereas TS has apparent binding constants (log K′) at pH 7.4 of 15.87 for Cu(II), 9.67 Zn(II) and 14.42 for Fe(III). Up to 1 mM TB was nontoxic to retinal pigment epithelial cells, whereas 10 μM TS induced cell death. TS protected cells against H2O2-induced death, but only within a 1–10 μM range. TB, on the other hand, had a much broader window of protection, suggesting that it may be a useful agent for preventing metal-promoted oxidative damage. PMID:21708101

  12. Fast Triggering of Shape Memory Polymers using an Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sponge Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoxiang; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Shuping; Gui, Xuchun; Wei, Hongqiu; Leng, Jinsong; Koratkar, Nikhil; Zhong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a 3-D porous carbon nanotube sponge (CNTS) was embedded within a shape memory polymer (SMPs) matrix. We demonstrate complete infiltration and filling of the SMPs into the CNTS by capillary force without any damage to the CNTS structure. With only ~0.2 wt% carbon nanotube loading, the glass transition temperature is increased by ~20 °C, indicating strong interaction between CNTS and the SMPs matrix. Further, we find that the uniform distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the nanocomposite results in high electrical conductivity, and thus highly effective electricity triggering capability. The carbon nanotube sponge shape memory polymer (CNTS/SMPs) nanocomposite could be triggered within ~10 seconds by the application of ~10 volts. Results from finite element simulations showed good agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that for our system the interface thermal energy loss does not have a significant effect on the heating rate of the polymer matrix. PMID:27052451

  13. Fast Triggering of Shape Memory Polymers using an Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sponge Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoxiang; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Shuping; Gui, Xuchun; Wei, Hongqiu; Leng, Jinsong; Koratkar, Nikhil; Zhong, Jing

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a 3-D porous carbon nanotube sponge (CNTS) was embedded within a shape memory polymer (SMPs) matrix. We demonstrate complete infiltration and filling of the SMPs into the CNTS by capillary force without any damage to the CNTS structure. With only ~0.2 wt% carbon nanotube loading, the glass transition temperature is increased by ~20 °C, indicating strong interaction between CNTS and the SMPs matrix. Further, we find that the uniform distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the nanocomposite results in high electrical conductivity, and thus highly effective electricity triggering capability. The carbon nanotube sponge shape memory polymer (CNTS/SMPs) nanocomposite could be triggered within ~10 seconds by the application of ~10 volts. Results from finite element simulations showed good agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that for our system the interface thermal energy loss does not have a significant effect on the heating rate of the polymer matrix.

  14. Fast Triggering of Shape Memory Polymers using an Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sponge Network.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxiang; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Shuping; Gui, Xuchun; Wei, Hongqiu; Leng, Jinsong; Koratkar, Nikhil; Zhong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a 3-D porous carbon nanotube sponge (CNTS) was embedded within a shape memory polymer (SMPs) matrix. We demonstrate complete infiltration and filling of the SMPs into the CNTS by capillary force without any damage to the CNTS structure. With only ~0.2 wt% carbon nanotube loading, the glass transition temperature is increased by ~20 °C, indicating strong interaction between CNTS and the SMPs matrix. Further, we find that the uniform distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the nanocomposite results in high electrical conductivity, and thus highly effective electricity triggering capability. The carbon nanotube sponge shape memory polymer (CNTS/SMPs) nanocomposite could be triggered within ~10 seconds by the application of ~10 volts. Results from finite element simulations showed good agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that for our system the interface thermal energy loss does not have a significant effect on the heating rate of the polymer matrix. PMID:27052451

  15. Comparative Dynamics of Retrograde Actin Flow and Focal Adhesions: Formation of Nascent Adhesions Triggers Transition from Fast to Slow Flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Antonina Y.; Arnold, Katya; Schaub, Sébastien; Vasiliev, Jury M.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Bershadsky, Alexander D.; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic actin network at the leading edge of the cell is linked to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs), and at the same time it undergoes retrograde flow with different dynamics in two distinct zones: the lamellipodium (peripheral zone of fast flow), and the lamellum (zone of slow flow located between the lamellipodium and the cell body). Cell migration involves expansion of both the lamellipodium and the lamellum, as well as formation of new FAs, but it is largely unknown how the position of the boundary between the two flow zones is defined, and how FAs and actin flow mutually influence each other. We investigated dynamic relationship between focal adhesions and the boundary between the two flow zones in spreading cells. Nascent FAs first appeared in the lamellipodium. Within seconds after the formation of new FAs, the rate of actin flow decreased locally, and the lamellipodium/lamellum boundary advanced towards the new FAs. Blocking fast actin flow with cytochalasin D resulted in rapid dissolution of nascent FAs. In the absence of FAs (spreading on poly-L-lysine-coated surfaces) retrograde flow was uniform and the velocity transition was not observed. We conclude that formation of FAs depends on actin dynamics, and in its turn, affects the dynamics of actin flow by triggering transition from fast to slow flow. Extension of the cell edge thus proceeds through a cycle of lamellipodium protrusion, formation of new FAs, advance of the lamellum, and protrusion of the lamellipodium from the new base. PMID:18800171

  16. Comparative dynamics of retrograde actin flow and focal adhesions: formation of nascent adhesions triggers transition from fast to slow flow.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Arnold, Katya; Schaub, Sébastien; Vasiliev, Jury M; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Bershadsky, Alexander D; Verkhovsky, Alexander B

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic actin network at the leading edge of the cell is linked to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs), and at the same time it undergoes retrograde flow with different dynamics in two distinct zones: the lamellipodium (peripheral zone of fast flow), and the lamellum (zone of slow flow located between the lamellipodium and the cell body). Cell migration involves expansion of both the lamellipodium and the lamellum, as well as formation of new FAs, but it is largely unknown how the position of the boundary between the two flow zones is defined, and how FAs and actin flow mutually influence each other. We investigated dynamic relationship between focal adhesions and the boundary between the two flow zones in spreading cells. Nascent FAs first appeared in the lamellipodium. Within seconds after the formation of new FAs, the rate of actin flow decreased locally, and the lamellipodium/lamellum boundary advanced towards the new FAs. Blocking fast actin flow with cytochalasin D resulted in rapid dissolution of nascent FAs. In the absence of FAs (spreading on poly-L-lysine-coated surfaces) retrograde flow was uniform and the velocity transition was not observed. We conclude that formation of FAs depends on actin dynamics, and in its turn, affects the dynamics of actin flow by triggering transition from fast to slow flow. Extension of the cell edge thus proceeds through a cycle of lamellipodium protrusion, formation of new FAs, advance of the lamellum, and protrusion of the lamellipodium from the new base. PMID:18800171

  17. Subsurface deformation measurements during a fast shallow landslide triggered by rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarinejad, Amin; Springman, Sarah M.; Akca, Devrim; Bleiker, Ernst; Gruen, Armin

    2010-05-01

    A forested area in Ruedlingen, northern Switzerland, was selected to investigate the geotechnical and hydrological response of a steep slope prior to a rainfall induced failure. Artificial rainfall was applied according to a pre-planned schedule and parameters such as pore water pressure, volumetric water content, horizontal soil pressure, temperature, piezometric water level and subsurface deformations were monitored. The latter were determined from four deformation probes that were developed in the Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETHZ. Strain gauges have been attached at a regular spacing along a long, slender, flexible plate to enable measurements of bending strain to be made at different points along it. The strain gauges were connected as 'half bridges' to minimize the temperature effects. A biaxial inclinometer was also installed on the top of the plate, 20 cm above the soil surface, to measure the tilt above ground level, providing more boundary conditions to determine the deformed shape of the probe. The probe is installed vertically inside the soil, while the lowest part is grouted into the stiffer layer under the topsoil, and is assumed to be stable and without any rotation. Bending strains and the inclination at the top of the probe are sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. These are input into an algorithm to determine a polynomial relationship of deformations and rotations with depth, so that the initiation of slow movements and propagation of failure during fast soil mass movements can be examined. A 4-camera arrangement was used for the image acquisition to monitor surface movements using photogrammetric analyses. Approximately 250 white ping-pong balls were attached to the ground and used as target points. Using a network simulation tool that was developed in-house, an a priori point positioning accuracy of the ping-pong balls was estimated to be ± 10.3 mm along the horizontal direction and ± 3.5 mm in the vertical direction. The cameras

  18. Cortical Contractility Triggers a Stochastic Switch to Fast Amoeboid Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Summary 3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761

  19. Astrocyte glycogenolysis is triggered by store-operated calcium entry and provides metabolic energy for cellular calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Margit S; Fox, Rebecca; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Bak, Lasse K

    2014-04-01

    Astrocytic glycogen, the only storage form of glucose in the brain, has been shown to play a fundamental role in supporting learning and memory, an effect achieved by providing metabolic support for neurons. We have examined the interplay between glycogenolysis and the bioenergetics of astrocytic Ca(2+) homeostasis, by analyzing interdependency of glycogen and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), a mechanism in cellular signaling that maintains high endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) concentration and thus provides the basis for store-dependent Ca(2+) signaling. We stimulated SOCE in primary cultures of murine cerebellar and cortical astrocytes, and determined glycogen content to investigate the effects of SOCE on glycogen metabolism. By blocking glycogenolysis, we tested energetic dependency of SOCE-related Ca(2+) dynamics on glycogenolytic ATP. Our results show that SOCE triggers astrocytic glycogenolysis. Upon inhibition of adenylate cyclase with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, glycogen content was no longer significantly different from that in unstimulated control cells, indicating that SOCE triggers astrocytic glycogenolysis in a cAMP-dependent manner. When glycogenolysis was inhibited in cortical astrocytes by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol, the amount of Ca(2+) loaded into ER via sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2)-ATPase (SERCA) was reduced, which suggests that SERCA pumps preferentially metabolize glycogenolytic ATP. Our study demonstrates SOCE as a novel pathway in stimulating astrocytic glycogenolysis. We also provide first evidence for a new functional role of brain glycogen, in providing local ATP to SERCA, thus establishing the bioenergetic basis for astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling. This mechanism could offer a novel explanation for the impact of glycogen on learning and memory. PMID:24464850

  20. SNARE and regulatory proteins induce local membrane protrusions to prime docked vesicles for fast calcium-triggered fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Malsam, Jörg; Hagen, Wim J H; Scheutzow, Andrea; Söllner, Thomas H; Briggs, John A G

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane in response to Ca2+ influx, thereby releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The protein machinery that mediates this process, consisting of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and regulatory proteins, is well known, but the mechanisms by which these proteins prime synaptic membranes for fusion are debated. In this study, we applied large-scale, automated cryo-electron tomography to image an in vitro system that reconstitutes synaptic fusion. Our findings suggest that upon docking and priming of vesicles for fast Ca2+-triggered fusion, SNARE proteins act in concert with regulatory proteins to induce a local protrusion in the plasma membrane, directed towards the primed vesicle. The SNAREs and regulatory proteins thereby stabilize the membrane in a high-energy state from which the activation energy for fusion is profoundly reduced, allowing synchronous and instantaneous fusion upon release of the complexin clamp. PMID:24493260

  1. Fast response electromagnetic follow-ups from low latency GW triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. J.; Chu, Q.; Rowlinson, A.; Gao, H.; Zhang, B.; Tingay, S. J.; Boër, M.; Wen, L.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). Assuming that BNS mergers are associated with short duration gamma ray bursts (SGRBs), we evaluate if rapid EM follow-ups can capture the prompt emission, early engine activity or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To examine the expected performance of extreme low-latency search pipelines, we simulate a population of coalescing BNSs and use these to estimate the detectability and localisation efficiency at different times before merger. Using observational SGRB flux data corrected to the range of the advanced GW interferometric detectors, we determine what EM observations could be achieved from low-frequency radio up to high energy γ-ray. We show that while challenging, breakthrough multi-messenger science is possible through low latency pipelines.

  2. A method to fast position the trigger time scale of non-cable seismographs based on controllable vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, F.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, L.; Huaizhu, Z.; Yang, H.

    2011-12-01

    , controls the wireless data communication module, transmits to the host the aggregated trigger time scale information, scanning duration and the reference signals. Field experiments have shown that, the proposed method can effectively obtain trigger time scale and reference signals of seismic data, allowing for fast and accurate positioning of effective seismic data during data transmission. It saves a substantial amount of transmission time and storage space, and spares a lot of manpower and other resources by its automated processing method.

  3. Fast-moving dislocations trigger flash weakening in carbonate-bearing faults during earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Elena; Plümper, Oliver; Violay, Marie; Cavallo, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Rupture fronts can cause fault displacement, reaching speeds up to several ms(-1) within a few milliseconds, at any distance away from the earthquake nucleation area. In the case of silicate-bearing rocks the abrupt slip acceleration results in melting at asperity contacts causing a large reduction in fault frictional strength (i.e., flash weakening). Flash weakening is also observed in experiments performed in carbonate-bearing rocks but evidence for melting is lacking. To unravel the micro-physical mechanisms associated with flash weakening in carbonates, experiments were conducted on pre-cut Carrara marble cylinders using a rotary shear apparatus at conditions relevant to earthquakes propagation. In the first 5 mm of slip the shear stress was reduced up to 30% and CO2 was released. Focused ion beam, scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations of the slipping zones reveal the presence of calcite nanograins and amorphous carbon. We interpret the CO2 release, the formation of nanograins and amorphous carbon to be the result of a shock-like stress release associated with the migration of fast-moving dislocations. Amorphous carbon, given its low friction coefficient, is responsible for flash weakening and promotes the propagation of the seismic rupture in carbonate-bearing fault patches. PMID:26552964

  4. Fast-moving dislocations trigger flash weakening in carbonate-bearing faults during earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Spagnuolo, Elena; Plümper, Oliver; Violay, Marie; Cavallo, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Rupture fronts can cause fault displacement, reaching speeds up to several ms−1 within a few milliseconds, at any distance away from the earthquake nucleation area. In the case of silicate-bearing rocks the abrupt slip acceleration results in melting at asperity contacts causing a large reduction in fault frictional strength (i.e., flash weakening). Flash weakening is also observed in experiments performed in carbonate-bearing rocks but evidence for melting is lacking. To unravel the micro-physical mechanisms associated with flash weakening in carbonates, experiments were conducted on pre-cut Carrara marble cylinders using a rotary shear apparatus at conditions relevant to earthquakes propagation. In the first 5 mm of slip the shear stress was reduced up to 30% and CO2 was released. Focused ion beam, scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations of the slipping zones reveal the presence of calcite nanograins and amorphous carbon. We interpret the CO2 release, the formation of nanograins and amorphous carbon to be the result of a shock-like stress release associated with the migration of fast-moving dislocations. Amorphous carbon, given its low friction coefficient, is responsible for flash weakening and promotes the propagation of the seismic rupture in carbonate-bearing fault patches. PMID:26552964

  5. Vehicle-triggered video compression/decompression for fast and efficient searching in large video databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan; Bernal, Edgar A.; Loce, Robert P.; Wu, Wencheng

    2013-03-01

    Video cameras are widely deployed along city streets, interstate highways, traffic lights, stop signs and toll booths by entities that perform traffic monitoring and law enforcement. The videos captured by these cameras are typically compressed and stored in large databases. Performing a rapid search for a specific vehicle within a large database of compressed videos is often required and can be a time-critical life or death situation. In this paper, we propose video compression and decompression algorithms that enable fast and efficient vehicle or, more generally, event searches in large video databases. The proposed algorithm selects reference frames (i.e., I-frames) based on a vehicle having been detected at a specified position within the scene being monitored while compressing a video sequence. A search for a specific vehicle in the compressed video stream is performed across the reference frames only, which does not require decompression of the full video sequence as in traditional search algorithms. Our experimental results on videos captured in a local road show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the search space (thus reducing time and computational resources) in vehicle search tasks within compressed video streams, particularly those captured in light traffic volume conditions.

  6. DUAL TRIGGER OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A PROMINENCE BY EUV FAST AND SLOW CORONAL WAVES: SDO/AIA AND STEREO/EUVI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gosain, S.; Foullon, C.

    2012-12-20

    We analyze flare-associated transverse oscillations in a quiescent solar prominence on 2010 September 8-9. Both the flaring active region and the prominence were located near the west limb, with a favorable configuration and viewing angle. The full-disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Sun obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory show flare-associated lateral oscillations of the prominence sheet. The STEREO-A spacecraft, 81.{sup 0}5 ahead of the Sun-Earth line, provides an on-disk view of the flare-associated coronal disturbances. We derive the temporal profile of the lateral displacement of the prominence sheet by using the image cross-correlation technique. The displacement curve was de-trended and the residual oscillatory pattern was derived. We fit these oscillations with a damped cosine function with a variable period and find that the period is increasing. The initial oscillation period (P{sub 0}) is {approx}28.2 minutes and the damping time ({tau}{sub D}) {approx} 44 minutes. We confirm the presence of fast and slow EUV wave components. Using STEREO-A observations, we derive a propagation speed of {approx}250 km s{sup -1} for the slow EUV wave by applying the time-slice technique to the running difference images. We propose that the prominence oscillations are excited by the fast EUV wave while the increase in oscillation period of the prominence is an apparent effect, related to a phase change due to the slow EUV wave acting as a secondary trigger. We discuss implications of the dual trigger effect for coronal prominence seismology and scaling law studies of damping mechanisms.

  7. Activated Alk triggers prolonged neurogenesis and Ret upregulation providing a therapeutic target in ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Cazes, Alex; Lopez-Delisle, Lucille; Tsarovina, Konstantina; Pierre-Eugène, Cécile; De Preter, Katleen; Peuchmaur, Michel; Nicolas, André; Provost, Claire; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Daveau, Romain; Kumps, Candy; Cascone, Ilaria; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Prignon, Aurélie; Speleman, Frank; Rohrer, Hermann; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations of the ALK (Anaplastic lymphoma Kinase) gene have been identified in sporadic and familial cases of neuroblastoma, a cancer of early childhood arising from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To decipher ALK function in neuroblastoma predisposition and oncogenesis, we have characterized knock-in (KI) mice bearing the two most frequent mutations observed in neuroblastoma patients. A dramatic enlargement of sympathetic ganglia is observed in AlkF1178L mice from embryonic to adult stages associated with an increased proliferation of sympathetic neuroblasts from E14.5 to birth. In a MYCN transgenic context, the F1178L mutation displays a higher oncogenic potential than the R1279Q mutation as evident from a shorter latency of tumor onset. We show that tumors expressing the R1279Q mutation are sensitive to ALK inhibition upon crizotinib treatment. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that activated ALK triggers RET upregulation in mouse sympathetic ganglia at birth as well as in murine and human neuroblastoma. Using vandetanib, we show that RET inhibition strongly impairs tumor growth in vivo in both MYCN/KI AlkR1279Q and MYCN/KI AlkF1178L mice. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the critical role of activated ALK in SNS development and pathogenesis and identify RET as a therapeutic target in ALK mutated neuroblastoma. PMID:24811913

  8. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, I. M. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Zhou, R. J. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  9. Self-Immolative Thiocarbamates Provide Access to Triggered H2S Donors and Analyte Replacement Fluorescent Probes.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Andrea K; Pardue, Sibile; Kevil, Christopher G; Pluth, Michael D

    2016-06-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological signaling molecule, and chemical tools for H2S delivery and detection have emerged as important investigative methods. Key challenges in these fields include developing donors that are triggered to release H2S in response to stimuli and developing probes that do not irreversibly consume H2S. Here we report a new strategy for H2S donation based on self-immolation of benzyl thiocarbamates to release carbonyl sulfide, which is rapidly converted to H2S by carbonic anhydrase. We leverage this chemistry to develop easily modifiable donors that can be triggered to release H2S. We also demonstrate that this approach can be coupled with common H2S-sensing motifs to generate scaffolds which, upon reaction with H2S, generate a fluorescence response and also release caged H2S, thus addressing challenges of analyte homeostasis in reaction-based probes. PMID:27218691

  10. Self-Immolative Thiocarbamates Provide Access to Triggered H2S Donors and Analyte Replacement Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological signaling molecule, and chemical tools for H2S delivery and detection have emerged as important investigative methods. Key challenges in these fields include developing donors that are triggered to release H2S in response to stimuli and developing probes that do not irreversibly consume H2S. Here we report a new strategy for H2S donation based on self-immolation of benzyl thiocarbamates to release carbonyl sulfide, which is rapidly converted to H2S by carbonic anhydrase. We leverage this chemistry to develop easily modifiable donors that can be triggered to release H2S. We also demonstrate that this approach can be coupled with common H2S-sensing motifs to generate scaffolds which, upon reaction with H2S, generate a fluorescence response and also release caged H2S, thus addressing challenges of analyte homeostasis in reaction-based probes. PMID:27218691

  11. Fast fMRI provides high statistical power in the analysis of epileptic networks.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Julia; Stich, Julia; Zahneisen, Benjamin; Assländer, Jakob; Ramantani, Georgia; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Korinthenberg, Rudolph; Hennig, Jürgen; LeVan, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    EEG-fMRI is a unique method to combine the high temporal resolution of EEG with the high spatial resolution of MRI to study generators of intrinsic brain signals such as sleep grapho-elements or epileptic spikes. While the standard EPI sequence in fMRI experiments has a temporal resolution of around 2.5-3s a newly established fast fMRI sequence called MREG (Magnetic-Resonance-Encephalography) provides a temporal resolution of around 100ms. This technical novelty promises to improve statistics, facilitate correction of physiological artifacts and improve the understanding of epileptic networks in fMRI. The present study compares simultaneous EEG-EPI and EEG-MREG analyzing epileptic spikes to determine the yield of fast MRI in the analysis of intrinsic brain signals. Patients with frequent interictal spikes (>3/20min) underwent EEG-MREG and EEG-EPI (3T, 20min each, voxel size 3×3×3mm, EPI TR=2.61s, MREG TR=0.1s). Timings of the spikes were used in an event-related analysis to generate activation maps of t-statistics. (FMRISTAT, |t|>3.5, cluster size: 7 voxels, p<0.05 corrected). For both sequences, the amplitude and location of significant BOLD activations were compared with the spike topography. 13 patients were recorded and 33 different spike types could be analyzed. Peak T-values were significantly higher in MREG than in EPI (p<0.0001). Positive BOLD effects correlating with the spike topography were found in 8/29 spike types using the EPI and in 22/33 spikes types using the MREG sequence. Negative BOLD responses in the default mode network could be observed in 3/29 spike types with the EPI and in 19/33 with the MREG sequence. With the latter method, BOLD changes were observed even when few spikes occurred during the investigation. Simultaneous EEG-MREG thus is possible with good EEG quality and shows higher sensitivity in regard to the localization of spike-related BOLD responses than EEG-EPI. The development of new methods of analysis for this sequence such as

  12. Rainfall characteristics associated to the triggering of fast- and slow-moving landslides - a comparison between the South French Alps and Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remaitre, Alexandre; Wallner, Stefan; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    exploit for the two test sites a landslide catalogue and rainfall data series to define a typology of rainfall induced-landslides for the relevant landslide types. Results from an analysis of the rainfall conditions associated to these events at different time scale (yearly, monthly, daily and hourly) show a clear distinction between these landslides. Slow-moving landslides are often associated to persistent rainstorms with low intensities during long periods causing the saturation of the soils while fast-moving landslides are usually triggered by short rainfall events with high intensities that occur in summer.

  13. Fast particles identification in programmable form at level-0 trigger by means of the 3D-Flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1998-10-30

    The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on either an FPGA or an ASIC implementation, it can address, in a fully programmable manner, applications where commercially available processors would fail because of throughput requirements. Possible applications include filtering-algorithms (pattern recognition) from the input of multiple sensors, as well as moving any input validated by these filtering-algorithms to a single output channel. Both operations can easily be implemented on a 3D-Flow system to achieve a real-time processing system with a very short lag time. This system can be built either with off-the-shelf FPGAs or, for higher data rates, with CMOS chips containing 4 to 16 processors each. The basic building block of the system, a 3D-Flow processor, has been successfully designed in VHDL code written in ''Generic HDL'' (mostly made of reusable blocks that are synthesizable in different technologies, or FPGAs), to produce a netlist for a four-processor ASIC featuring 0.35 micron CBA (Ceil Base Array) technology at 3.3 Volts, 884 mW power dissipation at 60 MHz and 63.75 mm sq. die size. The same VHDL code has been targeted to three FPGA manufacturers (Altera EPF10K250A, ORCA-Lucent Technologies 0R3T165 and Xilinx XCV1000). A complete set of software tools, the 3D-Flow System Manager, equally applicable to ASIC or FPGA implementations, has been produced to provide full system simulation, application development, real-time monitoring, and run-time fault recovery. Today's technology can accommodate 16 processors per chip in a medium size die, at a cost per processor of less than $5 based on the current silicon die/size technology cost.

  14. Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Libert, Frédéric; Cardot, J Michel; Coissard, Séverine; Perovitch, Philippe; Maury, Marc; Dubray, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) by oral or intravenous (iv) routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient’s condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology A new transmucosal/buccal (b) pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985) included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s) APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve) between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05). Results bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01) and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1) and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2) than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be confirmed in patients suffering from acute pain of mild and moderate intensity. PMID:25302017

  15. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P < 0.001) and considered the nutritional value of menus when selecting restaurants for their children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P < 0.001), but the high-calorie group had greater difficulty using the nutritional information provided (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that improving the empowerment of parents using nutritional information could be a strategy for promoting healthier parental food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants. PMID:26634057

  16. Observation of Abrupt- and Fast-rising SOL Current during Trigger Phase of ELMs in DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; N.H. Brooks; T.E. Evans; G.L. Jackson; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2005-06-27

    Extensive studies to date of edge localized modes (ELMs) have sought their origin inside the separatrix, i.e., MHD instability from steep gradients in the plasma edge, and examined their consequences outside the separatrix, i.e., transport of heat and particles in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertors. Recent measurement by a high-speed scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) diagnostic may indicate that the ELM trigger process lies, in part, in the SOL. Thermoelectrically driven SOLC precedes, or co-evolves with, other parameters of the ELM process, and thus can potentially play a causal role: error field generated by non-axisymmetric SOLC, flowing in the immediate vicinity (approximately 1 cm) of the plasma edge, may contribute toward destabilizing MHD modes. The SOLC, observed concurrently with MHD activity, including ELMs, has been reported elsewhere.

  17. The Extracellular Matrix Component Psl Provides Fast-Acting Antibiotic Defense in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Nicole; Ramirez Millan, Maria; Caldara, Marina; Rusconi, Roberto; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Stocker, Roman; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria within biofilms secrete and surround themselves with an extracellular matrix, which serves as a first line of defense against antibiotic attack. Polysaccharides constitute major elements of the biofilm matrix and are implied in surface adhesion and biofilm organization, but their contributions to the resistance properties of biofilms remain largely elusive. Using a combination of static and continuous-flow biofilm experiments we show that Psl, one major polysaccharide in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix, provides a generic first line of defense toward antibiotics with diverse biochemical properties during the initial stages of biofilm development. Furthermore, we show with mixed-strain experiments that antibiotic-sensitive “non-producing” cells lacking Psl can gain tolerance by integrating into Psl-containing biofilms. However, non-producers dilute the protective capacity of the matrix and hence, excessive incorporation can result in the collapse of resistance of the entire community. Our data also reveal that Psl mediated protection is extendible to E. coli and S. aureus in co-culture biofilms. Together, our study shows that Psl represents a critical first bottleneck to the antibiotic attack of a biofilm community early in biofilm development. PMID:23950711

  18. Acid-Labile Thermoresponsive Copolymers That Combine Fast pH-Triggered Hydrolysis and High Stability under Neutral Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qilu; Hou, Zhanyao; Louage, Benoit; Zhou, Dingying; Vanparijs, Nane; De Geest, Bruno G; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Biodegradable polymeric materials are intensively used in biomedical applications. Of particular interest for drug-delivery applications are polymers that are stable at pH 7.4, that is, in the blood stream, but rapidly hydrolyze under acidic conditions, such as those encountered in the endo/lysosome or the tumor microenvironment. However, an increase in the acidic-degradation rate of acid-labile groups goes hand in hand with higher instability of the polymer at pH 7.4 or during storage, thus posing an intrinsic limitation on fast degradation under acidic conditions. Herein, we report that a combination of acid-labile dimethyldioxolane side chains and hydroxyethyl side chains leads to acid-degradable thermoresponsive polymers that are quickly hydrolyzed under slightly acidic conditions but stable at pH 7.4 or during storage. We ascribe these properties to high hydration of the hydroxy-containing collapsed polymer globules in conjunction with autocatalytic acceleration of the hydrolysis reactions by the hydroxy groups. PMID:26212481

  19. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  20. Cryogenic Subsystem to Provide for Nominal Operation and Fast Regeneration of the ITER Primary Cryo-sorption Vacuum Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinine, V.; Haange, R.; Shatil, N.; Millet, F.; Guillemet, L.; Wykes, M.; Day, C.; Mack, A.

    2004-06-23

    The ITER cryogenic system includes provision for cooling the eight cryo-sorption pumps that maintain vacuum conditions within the tokamak plasma vacuum vessel. The eight pumps are operated such that at any given instant four pumps pump the plasma vessel and four pumps are undergoing four sequential stages of regeneration, each having a duration of 150 s. The regeneration includes a cold helium exhaust stage, warm-up from 4.5 K to 80-100 K, desorption and pump-out of released gases and cool-down from 80-100 K to 4.5 K. Thus after every 150 s of operation one of the four pumps is taken off-line for regeneration and another just-regenerated pump is restored to the set of four pumps that provide the nominal pumping.This paper presents the current design status of the cryogenic subsystems for cooling and heating the cryopumps during pumping and fast regeneration and details of the fluid-dynamic numerical analysis of the cryopumps (Vincenta code) used to study the transient behaviour of helium flow in the cryo-sorption panels during regeneration.

  1. Cryogenic Subsystem to Provide for Nominal Operation and Fast Regeneration of the ITER Primary Cryo-sorption Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinine, V.; Haange, R.; Shatil, N.; Millet, F.; Guillemet, L.; Wykes, M.; Day, C.; Mack, A.

    2004-06-01

    The ITER cryogenic system includes provision for cooling the eight cryo-sorption pumps that maintain vacuum conditions within the tokamak plasma vacuum vessel. The eight pumps are operated such that at any given instant four pumps pump the plasma vessel and four pumps are undergoing four sequential stages of regeneration, each having a duration of 150 s. The regeneration includes a cold helium exhaust stage, warm-up from 4.5 K to 80-100 K, desorption and pump-out of released gases and cool-down from 80-100 K to 4.5 K. Thus after every 150 s of operation one of the four pumps is taken off-line for regeneration and another just-regenerated pump is restored to the set of four pumps that provide the nominal pumping. This paper presents the current design status of the cryogenic subsystems for cooling and heating the cryopumps during pumping and fast regeneration and details of the fluid-dynamic numerical analysis of the cryopumps (Vincenta code) used to study the transient behaviour of helium flow in the cryo-sorption panels during regeneration.

  2. The CDF L2 XFT Trigger Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Alison; /UC, Davis

    2008-10-01

    We briefly present the eXtremely Fast Tracker stereo track upgrade for the CDF Level 2 trigger system. This upgrade enabled full 3D track reconstruction at Level 2 of the 3-Level CDF online triggering system. Using information provided by the stereo layers of the Central Outer Tracker, we can decrease the trigger rate due to fake tracks by requiring the tracks to be consistent with a single vertex in all three dimensions but also by using the track information to 'point' to the various detector components. We will also discuss the effectiveness of the Level 2 stereo track algorithm at achieving reduced trigger rates with high efficiencies during high luminosity running.

  3. Computer architecture providing high-performance and low-cost solutions for fast fMRI reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Hui; Goddard, J. Iain

    1998-07-01

    Due to the dynamic nature of brain studies in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), fast pulse sequences such as echo planar imaging (EPI) and spiral are often used for higher temporal resolution. Hundreds of frames of two- dimensional (2-D) images or multiple three-dimensional (3-D) images are often acquired to cover a larger space and time range. Therefore, fMRI often requires a much larger data storage, faster data transfer rate and higher processing power than conventional MRI. In Mercury Computer Systems' PCI-based embedded computer system, the computer architecture allows the concurrent use of a DMA engine for data transfer and CPU for data processing. This architecture allows a multicomputer to distribute processing and data with minimal time spent transferring data. Different types and numbers of processors are available to optimize system performance for the application. The fMRI reconstruction was first implemented in Mercury's PCI-based embedded computer system by using one digital signal processing (DSP) chip, with the host computer running under the Windows NTR platform. Double buffers in SRAM or cache were created for concurrent I/O and processing. The fMRI reconstruction was then implemented in parallel using multiple DSP chips. Data transfer and interprocessor synchronization were carefully managed to optimize algorithm efficiency. The image reconstruction times were measured with different numbers of processors ranging from one to 10. With one DSP chip, the timing for reconstructing 100 fMRI images measuring 128 X 64 pixels was 1.24 seconds, which is already faster than most existing commercial MRI systems. This PCI-based embedded multicomputer architecture, which has a nearly linear improvement in performance, provides high performance for fMRI processing. In summary, this embedded multicomputer system allows the choice of computer topologies to fit the specific application to achieve maximum system performance.

  4. A fast, first level, R{sub {phi}}, hardware trigger for the DO central fiber tracker using field programmable gate arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; Angstadt, B.; Borcherding, F.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed an R{phi} trigger using the eight doublet layers of axial fibers in the new Central Fiber Tracker for the DO Upgrade Detector at Fermilab. This trigger must be formed in less than 500 nsec and distributed to other parts of the detector for a level 1 trigger decision. The high speed is achieved by using massively parallel AND/OR logic instanced in state-or-the-art field programmable gate arrays, FPGAs. The programmability of the FPGAs allows corrections to the track roads for the as-built detector and for dynamically changing the transverse momentum threshold. To reduce the number of fake tracks at high luminosity the narrowest possible roads must be used which pushes the total number of roads into the thousands. Monte Carlo simulations of the track trigger have been run to develop the trigger algorithms and a vendor supplied simulator has been used to develop and test the FPGA programming.

  5. Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Ye, Yanqi; DiSanto, Rocco; Sun, Wujin; Ranson, Davis; Ligler, Frances S.; Buse, John B.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    A glucose-responsive “closed-loop” insulin delivery system mimicking the function of pancreatic cells has tremendous potential to improve quality of life and health in diabetics. Here, we report a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch (“smart insulin patch”) containing glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs; with an average diameter of 118 nm), which are loaded with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. The GRVs are self-assembled from hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA) conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazoles through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions. The local hypoxic microenvironment caused by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in the hyperglycemic state promotes the reduction of HS-HA, which rapidly triggers the dissociation of vesicles and subsequent release of insulin. The smart insulin patch effectively regulated the blood glucose in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes. The described work is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a synthetic glucose-responsive device using a hypoxia trigger for regulation of insulin release. The faster responsiveness of this approach holds promise in avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia if translated for human therapy. PMID:26100900

  6. Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Ye, Yanqi; DiSanto, Rocco; Sun, Wujin; Ranson, Davis; Ligler, Frances S; Buse, John B; Gu, Zhen

    2015-07-01

    A glucose-responsive "closed-loop" insulin delivery system mimicking the function of pancreatic cells has tremendous potential to improve quality of life and health in diabetics. Here, we report a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch ("smart insulin patch") containing glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs; with an average diameter of 118 nm), which are loaded with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. The GRVs are self-assembled from hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA) conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazoles through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions. The local hypoxic microenvironment caused by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in the hyperglycemic state promotes the reduction of HS-HA, which rapidly triggers the dissociation of vesicles and subsequent release of insulin. The smart insulin patch effectively regulated the blood glucose in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes. The described work is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a synthetic glucose-responsive device using a hypoxia trigger for regulation of insulin release. The faster responsiveness of this approach holds promise in avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia if translated for human therapy. PMID:26100900

  7. Sewage sludge toxicity assessment using earthworm Eisenia fetida: can biochemical and histopathological analysis provide fast and accurate insight?

    PubMed

    Babić, S; Barišić, J; Malev, O; Klobučar, G; Popović, N Topić; Strunjak-Perović, I; Krasnići, N; Čož-Rakovac, R; Klobučar, R Sauerborn

    2016-06-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) is a complex organic by-product of wastewater treatment plants. Deposition of large amounts of SS can increase the risk of soil contamination. Therefore, there is an increasing need for fast and accurate assessment of SS toxic potential. Toxic effects of SS were tested on earthworm Eisenia fetida tissue, at the subcellular and biochemical level. Earthworms were exposed to depot sludge (DS) concentration ratio of 30 or 70 %, to undiluted and to 100 and 10 times diluted active sludge (AS). The exposure to DS lasted for 24/48 h (acute exposure), 96 h (semi-acute exposure) and 7/14/28 days (sub-chronic exposure) and 48 h for AS. Toxic effects were tested by the measurements of multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) activity and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the observation of morphological alterations and behavioural changes. Biochemical markers confirmed the presence of MXR inhibitors in the tested AS and DS and highlighted the presence of SS-induced oxidative stress. The MXR inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration in the whole earthworm's body were higher after the exposition to lower concentration of the DS. Furthermore, histopathological changes revealed damage to earthworm body wall tissue layers as well as to the epithelial and chloragogen cells in the typhlosole region. These changes were proportional to SS concentration in tested soils and to exposure duration. Obtained results may contribute to the understanding of SS-induced toxic effects on terrestrial invertebrates exposed through soil contact and to identify defence mechanisms of earthworms. PMID:26971513

  8. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  9. Triggering the LBL time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M.; Millaud, J.; McGathen, T.

    1981-10-01

    A fast digital trigger was built for the LBL Time Projection Chamber (TPC) installed in the PEP-4 detector at SLAC. The TPC is an innovative High Energy Physics detector which will provide particle identification from dE/dx information within the tracking volume. The TPC trigger uses discriminator signals from 2220 dE/dx wire channels to require a track of ionization in the TPC which originates from the colliding beam intersection region. The trigger processing is performed as the ionization drifts onto the proportional wires and is completed 17 ..mu..s after beam crossing. This report describes the basic operation of the TPC detector and its trigger; a pretrigger which uses prompt TPC information from the endcap region; and the electronic implementation. The trigger can be tested with realistic simulated patterns of ionization deposits in the TPC which are stored in local memories. Test results from electronic simulations and first results of a test with cosmic rays are shown.

  10. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  11. A fast one-step reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification procedure providing highly specific complementary DNA from plant virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sambade, A; Martín, S; Olmos, A; García, M L; Cambra, M; Grau, O; Guerri, J; Moreno, P

    2000-06-01

    Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are being used increasingly for detection and typing RNA viruses. For this purpose, metal block thermal cyclers (MBTC) are considered to provide higher DNA yield, whereas air thermal cyclers (ATC) allow PCR amplification in a much shorter time. A fast ATC protocol (0 s denaturation, 0 s annealing, and 4-8 s elongation) was developed to amplify genomic segments from two RNA viruses, which allowed increasing the number of cycles without a parallel increase of non-specific DNA fragments. Under these conditions, 80-90 cycles with the ATC provided a DNA yield close to that of a standard 40-cycles MBTC protocol in about half the time. The DNA synthesised by the new procedure was highly specific and could be cloned readily. PMID:10856749

  12. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  13. L0 Trigger for the EMCal Detector of the ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, Jiri; Awes, Terry C; Muller, Hans; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator was designed to study ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) was built to provide measurement of photons, electrons, and jets, and trigger selection of hard-QCD events containing them. The EMCal single-shower L0 trigger, which triggers on large energy deposit within a 4 x 4 tower sliding window, became operational in 2010. The implementation of the real-time FPGA based algorithm optimized to provide a fast L0 decision is presented.

  14. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest.

  15. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  16. Triggering with the LHCb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Regis; LHCb Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC has been conceived to pursue high precision studies of CP violation and rare phenomena in b hadron decays. The online selection is crucial in LHCb and relies on the calorimeters to trigger on high transverse energy electrons, photons, π0 and hadrons. In this purpose a dedicated electronic has been realized. The calorimeter trigger system has been commissioned and is used to trigger on cosmic muons before beams start circulating in the LHC. When the LHC will start, it will also provide a very useful interaction trigger.

  17. Detector array control and triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Bartolucci, M. |

    1998-08-01

    A commercial DSP-based board installed in a host-PC was employed for the fast, on-line and real-time computation of special algorithms, in order to perform event selection and operate as a 2nd level trigger. Moreover an ad hoc build interface, realized using PLDs with a view to connecting the DSP-board to the ADCs and to the data acquisition system, has been tested in order to evaluate the performances of these programmable devices used as a look-up-table and as a decisional part of a 1st level trigger.

  18. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  19. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R M; de Roos, B; Duthie, S J; Bouwman, F G; Rubio-Aliaga, I; Crosley, L K; Mayer, C; Polley, A C; Heim, C; Coort, S L; Evelo, C T; Mulholland, F; Daniel, H; Mariman, E C; Johnson, I T

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans. PMID:25260660

  20. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    response) have used only one of the two analysis methods for the nuclear material assay. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic comparison of the precision of the measured S, D, T rates and {sup 240}Pu effective mass obtained using the above mentioned pulse train sampling techniques. In order to perform this task, a LANL developed list mode based data acquisition system is used, where the entire pulse train is recorded and subsequently analyzed. The list mode acquisition brings an essential advantage for this type of comparison, since the very same pulse train can be analyzed using signal-triggered as well as randomly triggered counting gates. The aim of this study is not only to compare the precision of signal-triggered versus random triggered sampling techniques, but also to investigate the influence of fast accidental sampling on the precision of signal-triggered results. In addition the different random sampling techniques used in safeguards are investigated. For this purpose we implement two types of random sampling - non-overlapping gates (Feynrnan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). In the following sections the equations utilized in the pulse train analysis are described, experimental setup and measurement techniques are discussed and finally the results are summarized and discussed.

  1. Prompt trigger primitives for a self-seeded track trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressanandt, N.; Halgeri, A.; Kamat, M.; Koppal, V.; Newcomer, M.

    2012-10-01

    A viable self-seeded track trigger for a high rate collider detector environment must have excellent angular precision, response times commensurate with beam crossing rate and low mass. We have designed a fast clustering block servicing 128 contiguous strips to be included in an LHC upgrade silicon strip front end ASIC (ABC130) with these objectives in mind. The block is based on the presence of an analog front end with binary (threshold determined) strip readout latched at each beam crossing. Combinatorial logic tests for the presence of one or two adjacent strips over threshold, a qualifying cluster, at each beam crossing and transmits up to two, eight bits clusters descriptors, specifying address and cluster width via a high speed LVDS output. It is envisioned that a correlator chip, presently in conception, receives this data and via look-up tables checks for coincident hits between silicon strip layers. Since the clustering output will report the presence of one or two hit strips, a half strip pitch ( ~ 40 um for the ATLAS detector) resolution may be possible for each cluster. Our timing results show that the combinatorial clustering logic will settle within 6 ns. Assuming a beam crossing rate of 40 MHz, 16 bits of serialized data can be shifted out at 640MHz each crossing. This will allow a beam synchronous update rate providing data for up to two clusters for each bank of 128 strips. The data latency into the correlator chip will be only two crossings. Present power estimates suggest that the fast cluster block with LVDS driver will consume less than 12 mW.

  2. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  3. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Band, D.; Kippen, M.

    2004-09-28

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  4. Pulsed thyristor trigger control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A trigger control circuit is provided for producing firing pulses for the thyristor of a thyristor control system such as a power factor controller. The control circuit overcomes thyristor triggering problems involved with the current lag associated with controlling inductive loads and utilizes a phase difference signal, already present in the power factor controller, in deriving a signal for inhibiting generation of a firing pulse until no load current is flowing from the preceding half cycle and thereby ensuring that the thyristor is triggered on during each half cycle.

  5. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Gianelli, Michele; Martyniuk, Alex; Stelzer, Joerg; Stockton, Mark; Vazquez, Will

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger configuration system uses a centrally provided relational database to store the configurations for all levels of the ATLAS trigger system. The configuration used at any point during data taking is maintained in this database. A interface to this database is provided by the TriggerTool, a Java-based graphical user interface. The TriggerTool has been designed to work as both a convenient browser and editor of configurations in the database for both general users and experts. The updates to the trigger system necessitated by the upgrades and changes in both hardware and software during the first long shut down of the LHC will be explored.

  6. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  7. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  8. Determining Evapotranspiration with the Eddy Covariance Method: Fast-Response Dry- and Wet-Bulb Thermocouples for Humidity Measurements Can Provide a Cheap Alternative to Infrared Hygrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Field data on evapotranspiration are of crucial importance for ecohydrological and hydrometeorological studies in the tropics. Probably the most direct way to measure evapotranspiration is with the eddy covariance method, in which the latent heat flux (λE) is calculated from turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind velocity and humidity. The humidity fluctuations are typically measured with some type of fast-response infrared hygrometer. However, these sensors are expensive, which can be problematic if research budgets are limited. Turbulent fluctuations of humidity can also be measured with fast-response dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples, which can be constructed easily and at a fraction of the price of infrared sensors. The idea of using dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples for measuring λE with the eddy covariance method is not new, but hasn't been tested recently, possibly because experiments in the late seventies showed that this approach is not without problems due to the slow response of the wet-bulb thermocouple. In the present study, values of λE derived from dry- and wet-bulb thermocouple measurements were compared with those obtained using a fast-response KH20 hygrometer. Measurements were made above a shaded coffee plantation and a sugarcane crop in central Veracruz, Mexico. The agreement between λE obtained with the thermocouples (y) and the hygrometer (x) was very good for both vegetation covers: y = 0.98x + 5.0 (W m-2), r2 = 0.93 (coffee plantation); y = 0.99x - 13.3 (W m-2), r2 = 0.88 (sugarcane). However, the correction factor (CF) for high frequency loss in the wet-bulb temperature signal was considerably higher for the low-statured sugarcane crop (CF = 1.33) as compared to the taller shaded coffee plantation (CF = 1.09). Nevertheless, as long as care is taken in the derivation of this correction factor, reliable λE data can be obtained using the dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples, offering a cheap alternative to infrared hygrometers.

  9. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy. PMID:24864393

  10. The L3 energy trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Cesaroni, F.; Gentile, S.; Lunadei, G.; Fukushima, M.; Herten, G.; Hebbeker, T.

    1989-11-01

    The L3 first-level energy trigger is based on energy measurements in electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and in luminosity monitors. The information from these detectors is evaluated and a decision is taken in about 20 μs (the time between two bunch crossings in LEP is 22 μs). This trigger makes use of 300 CAMAC modules: an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a BUS multiplexer (BS), a memory lookup table (MLU), a data stack (DS) and a fast encoding and readout ADC (FERA), each of them performing dedicated functions. The data are transmitted via front-panel ECL buses. The CAMAC data-way is used only for initialization and checking purposes. The system operates synchronously with a period of 60 ns.

  11. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  12. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  13. Rapid 3D Track Reconstruction with the BaBar Trigger Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, S

    2004-05-24

    A new hardware trigger system based on tracks detected by a stereo drift chamber has been developed for the BABAR experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The z{sub 0} p{sub T} Discriminator (ZPD) is capable of fast, 3-dimensional reconstruction of charged particle tracks and provides rejection of background events due to beam particles interacting with the beam pipe at the first-level trigger. Over 1 gigabyte of data is processed per second by each ZPD module. Rapid track reconstruction has been realized using Xilinx Virtex-II FPGAs.

  14. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  15. A Duck Enteritis Virus-Vectored Bivalent Live Vaccine Provides Fast and Complete Protection against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Ducks ▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-01-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 106 PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks. PMID:21865383

  16. Project FAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.

    Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…

  17. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  18. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  19. Stay away from asthma triggers

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  20. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  1. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  2. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Travis J; Kauffman, Kyle T; Amrine, Katherine C H; Carper, Dana L; Lee, Raymond S; Becich, Peter J; Canales, Claudia J; Ardell, David H

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145

  3. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Travis J.; Kauffman, Kyle T.; Amrine, Katherine C. H.; Carper, Dana L.; Lee, Raymond S.; Becich, Peter J.; Canales, Claudia J.; Ardell, David H.

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145

  4. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  6. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  7. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  8. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  9. Common Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bedding on the hottest water setting. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can ... your newspaper to plan your activities for when air pollution levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  10. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  11. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  12. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  13. Dynamic Triggering Stress Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    It has been well established that static (permanent) stress changes can trigger nearby earthquakes, within a few fault lengths from the causative event, whereas triggering by dynamic (transient) stresses carried by seismic waves both nearby and at remote distances has not been as well documented nor understood. An analysis of the change in the local stress caused by the passing of surfaces waves is important for the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, we modeled the change in the stress that the passing of Rayleigh and Loves waves causes on a fault plane of arbitrary orientation, and applied a Coulomb failure criteria to calculate the potential of these stress changes to trigger reverse, normal or strike-slip failure. We preliminarily test these model results with data from dynamically triggering earthquakes in the Australian Bowen Basin. In the Bowen region, the modeling predicts a maximum triggering potential for Rayleigh waves arriving perpendicularly to the strike of the reverse faults present in the region. The modeled potentials agree with our observations, and give us an understanding of the dynamic stress orientation needed to trigger different type of earthquakes.

  14. The central trigger control system of the CMS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitler, M.; Taurok, A.; Bergauer, H.; Kastner, K.; Mikulec, I.; Neuherz, B.; Padrta, M.; Sakulin, H.; Strauss, J.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2010-05-01

    The Level-1 (L1) Trigger of the CMS experiment uses custom-made, fast electronics, while the experiment's high-level trigger is implemented in computer farms. The Central Trigger Control System described in this poster receives physics triggers from the Global Trigger Logic unit, collects information from the various subdetector systems to check if they are ready to accept triggers, reduces excessive trigger rates according to preset rules and finally distributes the trigger ("Level-1 Accept") together with timing signals to the subdetectors over the so-called "Trigger, and Timing and Control" (TTC) network of the experiment. The complete functionality of the Central Trigger Control System is implemented in one 9U-VME module and several ancillary boards for input and output functions. The system has been used successfully during CMS test runs with cosmics and beam.

  15. Unusual fast secondary relaxation in metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, S.T.; Yang, Y.; Dong, Y.D.; Liu, C.T.; Lu, J.

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation spectrum of glassy solids has long been used to probe their dynamic structural features and the fundamental deformation mechanisms. Structurally complicated glasses, such as molecular glasses, often exhibit multiple relaxation processes. By comparison, metallic glasses have a simple atomic structure with dense atomic packing, and their relaxation spectra were commonly found to be simpler than those of molecular glasses. Here we show the compelling evidence obtained across a wide range of temperatures and frequencies from a La-based metallic glass, which clearly shows two peaks of secondary relaxations (fast versus slow) in addition to the primary relaxation peak. The discovery of the unusual fast secondary relaxation unveils the complicated relaxation dynamics in metallic glasses and, more importantly, provides us the clues which help decode the structural features serving as the ‘trigger' of inelasticity on mechanical agitations. PMID:26204999

  16. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  17. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  18. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Selldén, B.; Bohm, C.

    1993-04-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of ADC data, has been designed. This module has been realised using complex programmable gate arrays (LCAs from XILINX). The gate arrays have been connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter, however, is primarily used for setup and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADCs can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules, processing ADC data with pipe-line arithmetics producing the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision will be transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was originally developed for the proposed neutral particle search experiment at CERN, NUMASS. There it was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass-cut would then deliver the trigger decision. More complex triggers were also considered.

  19. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  20. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  1. TOTEM Trigger System Firmware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopal, Josef

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the TOTEM Trigger System Firmware that is operational at LHC since 2009. The TOTEM experiment is devoted to the forward hadronic physics at collision energy from 2.7 to 14TeV. It is composed of three different subdetectors that are placed at 9, 13.5, and 220m from the Interaction Point 5. A time-critical-logic firmware is implemented inside FPGA circuits to review collisions and to select the relevant ones to be stored by the Data Acquisition (DAQ). The Trigger system has been modified in the 2012-2013 LHC runs allowing the experiment to take data in cooperation with CMS.

  2. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  3. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  4. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  5. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  6. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  7. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, G.; Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Graverini, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  8. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  9. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  10. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  11. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  12. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  13. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  14. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. δ15N Value Does Not Reflect Fasting in Mysticetes

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Alex; Giménez, Joan; Gómez–Campos, Encarna; Cardona, Luís; Borrell, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    The finding that tissue δ15N values increase with protein catabolism has led researchers to apply this value to gauge nutritive condition in vertebrates. However, its application to marine mammals has in most occasions failed. We investigated the relationship between δ15N values and the fattening/fasting cycle in a model species, the fin whale, a migratory capital breeder that experiences severe seasonal variation in body condition. We analyzed two tissues providing complementary insights: one with isotopic turnover (muscle) and one that keeps a permanent record of variations in isotopic values (baleen plates). In both tissues δ15N values increased with intensive feeding but decreased with fasting, thus contradicting the pattern previously anticipated. The apparent inconsistency during fasting is explained by the fact that a) individuals migrate between different isotopic isoscapes, b) starvation may not trigger significant negative nitrogen balance, and c) excretion drops and elimination of 15N-depleted urine is minimized. Conversely, when intensive feeding is resumed in the northern grounds, protein anabolism and excretion start again, triggering 15N enrichment. It can be concluded that in whales and other mammals that accrue massive depots of lipids as energetic reserves and which have limited access to drinking water, the δ15N value is not affected by fasting and therefore cannot be used as an indicatior of nutritive condition. PMID:24651388

  16. fast-matmul

    SciTech Connect

    Grey Ballard, Austin Benson

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.

  17. The performance and development for the Inner Detector Trigger algorithms at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penc, Ondrej

    2015-05-01

    A redesign of the tracking algorithms for the ATLAS trigger for LHC's Run 2 starting in 2015 is in progress. The ATLAS HLT software has been restructured to run as a more flexible single stage HLT, instead of two separate stages (Level 2 and Event Filter) as in Run 1. The new tracking strategy employed for Run 2 will use a Fast Track Finder (FTF) algorithm to seed subsequent Precision Tracking, and will result in improved track parameter resolution and faster execution times than achieved during Run 1. The performance of the new algorithms has been evaluated to identify those aspects where code optimisation would be most beneficial. The performance and timing of the algorithms for electron and muon reconstruction in the trigger are presented. The profiling infrastructure, constructed to provide prompt feedback from the optimisation, is described, including the methods used to monitor the relative performance improvements as the code evolves.

  18. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. PMID:22882155

  19. India-Eurasia collision triggers formation of an oceanic microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara; Müller, Dietmar; Sandwell, David

    2016-04-01

    Detailed mapping of seafloor tectonic fabric in the Indian Ocean, using high-resolution satellite-derived vertical gravity gradient data, reveals an extinct Pacific-style oceanic microplate - the Mammerickx Microplate - west of the Ninetyeast Ridge. It is one of the first Pacific-style microplates to be mapped outside the Pacific basin, suggesting that geophysical conditions during formation probably resembled those that have dominated at eastern Pacific ridges. The microplate formed at the Indian-Antarctic ridge and is bordered by an extinct ridge in the north and pseudofault in the south, whose conjugate is located north of the Kerguelen Plateau. Independent microplate rotation is indicated by asymmetric pseudofaults and rotated abyssal hill fabric, also identified in multibeam data. Magnetic anomaly picks and age estimates calculated from published spreading rates suggest formation during chron 21o (~47.3 Ma). Plate reorganizations can trigger ridge propagation and microplate development, and we propose that formation of the Mammerickx Microplate is linked with the initial 'soft' stage of the India-Eurasia collision. The collision altered the stress regime at the Indian-Antarctic ridge, leading to a change in segmentation and ridge propagation from an establishing transform fault. Fast Indian-Antarctic spreading that preceded microplate formation, and Kerguelen Plume activity may have facilitated ridge propagation via the production of thin and weak lithosphere. However, both factors had been present for tens of millions of years and are therefore unlikely to have triggered the event. Prior to the collision, this combination of fast spreading and plume activity was responsible for the production of a wide region of undulate seafloor to the north of the extinct ridge and 'W' shaped lineations that record back and forth ridge propagation. Microplate formation provides a means of dating the onset of the India-Eurasia collision, and is completely independent of and

  20. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  1. Triggered Codeswitching between Cognate Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2009-01-01

    This study shows further evidence for triggered codeswitching. In natural speech from a Dutch-English bilingual, codeswitches occurred more often directly next to a cognate (or "trigger word") than elsewhere. This evidence from typologically related, cognate languages extends previous evidence for triggering between typologically unrelated…

  2. Use of parallel counters for triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikityuk, N. M.

    1992-10-01

    The results of an investigation into using parallel counters, majority coincidence schemes and parallel compressors for triggering in multichannel high energy spectrometers are described. Concrete examples of methods of constructing fast and economical new devices used to determine multiplicity hits t > 900 registered in a hodoscopic plane and a pixel detector are given. For this purpose the author uses the syndrome coding method and cellular arrays. In addition, the author has created an effective coding matrix which can be used for light signal coding. For example, such signals are supplied from scintillators to photomultipliers. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR.

  3. Membrane-triggered plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hong Gil; Seo, Pil Joon

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms to resist pathogen invasion. Upon the pathogen recognition, the host plants activate a variety of signal transduction pathways, and one of representative defense responses is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) that provides strong immunity against secondary infections in systemic tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that modulation of membrane composition contributes to establishing SAR and disease resistance in Arabidopsis, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a membrane-bound transcription factor (MTF) is associated with plant responses to pathogen attack. The MTF is responsive to microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered membrane rigidification at the levels of transcription and proteolytic processing. The processed nuclear transcription factor possibly regulates pathogen resistance by directly regulating PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes. Taken together, our results suggest that pathogenic microorganisms trigger changes in physico-chemical properties of cellular membrane in plants, and the MTF conveys the membrane information to the nucleus to ensure prompt establishment of plant immunity. PMID:25763708

  4. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. PMID:27463140

  5. Fast protein folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  6. Low-cost trigger circuit for sampling oscilloscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Aleksander; Opalska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a low-cost trigger circuit for use in sampling oscilloscope with bandwidth in order of hundreds of MHz. The presented dual-step trigger circuit provides relatively high bandwidth because of significant reduction of possibility of incorrect turning on in trigger circuit flip-flop (caused by circuit instability called tremor or - describing the same phenomenon by other means - its metastability. The paper presents a circuit structure, principle of operation and its physical realization.

  7. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Henrik U; Mitrousia, Georgia K; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2014-08-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed 'effector-triggered defence' (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

  8. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  9. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  10. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  11. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  12. Video event trigger and tracking system using fuzzy comparators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A video observation method and apparatus, the apparatus having a frame storage mechanism, a dividing mechanism, a plurality of fuzzy comparators and a trigger signal mechanism. The frame storage mechanism stores at least one non-current video frame of a viewing field. The dividing mechanism divides a current video frame of the viewing field and the at least one non-current video frame into a plurality of corresponding trigger sections. The plurality of fuzzy comparators each compare and detect a fuzzy logic difference between one trigger section of the current video frame and the corresponding trigger sections of the at least one non-current video frame, the number of fuzzy comparators being selected so that every trigger section of the current video frame is compared. The trigger signal mechanism provides a trigger signal when a fuzzy logic difference is detected between any of the corresponding current and non-current trigger sections. A video observation mechanism and data reducing mechanism may be included with the above apparatus or alone with only a frame storage mechanism, a single generic comparator and a trigger signal mechanism. The video observation mechanism provides a video data stream, wherein each pixel of each frame of a viewing field is provided as multiple bits of data. The data reducing mechanism reduces each set of multiple bits of data which correspond to each pixel to one bit of binary data based on whether the pixel has a level of grey which is above or below a threshold level of grey.

  13. Effector triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria produce virulence factors called effectors, which are important components of the infection process. Effectors aid in pathogenesis by facilitating bacterial attachment, pathogen entry into or exit from the host cell, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression. Effectors also have the ability to subvert host cellular processes, such as hijacking cytoskeletal machinery or blocking protein translation. However, host cells possess an evolutionarily conserved innate immune response that can sense the pathogen through the activity of its effectors and mount a robust immune response. This “effector triggered immunity” (ETI) was first discovered in plants but recent evidence suggest that the process is also well conserved in metazoans. We will discuss salient points of the mechanism of ETI in metazoans from recent studies done in mammalian cells and invertebrate model hosts. PMID:25513770

  14. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  15. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1984-01-01

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  16. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2001-11-05

    BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas.

  17. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  18. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  19. The digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. P.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The system for forming a trigger for the liquid xenon detector RED-100 is developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events that the detector needs for calibration and data acquisition, including the events with a single electron of ionization. In the system, a mechanism of event detection is implemented according to which the timestamp and event type are assigned to each event. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to select and keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The specifications and implementation of the trigger unit which provides a high efficiency of response even to low-energy events are considered.

  20. The digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, P. P. Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.

    2015-12-15

    The system for forming a trigger for the liquid xenon detector RED-100 is developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events that the detector needs for calibration and data acquisition, including the events with a single electron of ionization. In the system, a mechanism of event detection is implemented according to which the timestamp and event type are assigned to each event. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to select and keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The specifications and implementation of the trigger unit which provides a high efficiency of response even to low-energy events are considered.

  1. The Time-of-Flight trigger at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; Mulhearn, M.J.; Paus, Ch.; Schieferdecker, P.; Tether, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Shaw, T.; Acosta, D.; Konigsberg, J.; Madorsky, A.; /Florida U.

    2006-05-01

    The Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector measures the arrival time and deposited energy of charged particles reaching scintillator bars surrounding the central tracking region of the CDF detector. Requiring high ionization in the TOF system provides a unique trigger capability, which has been used for a magnetic monopole search. Other uses, with smaller pulse height thresholds, include a high-multiplicity charged-particle trigger useful for QCD studies and a much improved cosmic ray trigger for calibrating other detector components. Although not designed as input to CDF's global Level 1 trigger, the TOF system has been easily adapted to this role by the addition of 24 cables, new firmware, and four custom TOF trigger boards (TOTRIBs). This article describes the TOF trigger.

  2. Dynamic Triggering of Deep Earthquakes—a Global Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Z.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic triggering has been robustly observed for shallow earthquakes and tremor. Understanding this phenomenon provides important constraints on earthquake dynamics, such as earthquake nucleation, fault frictional properties, slow slip, and stress distributions. Tibi et al. (2003) reported examples of dynamic triggering in deep earthquakes and pointed out their potential to constrain the still-enigmatic faulting mechanisms of deep earthquakes. Here we analyze global earthquake catalogs to systematically search for statistically significant dynamic triggering at depths greater than 300 km. We find that dynamic triggering of deep earthquakes is most pronounced within 3 hours after the master events, and is limited in depth (i.e., triggering of and by shallow earthquakes is not observed). We also observed a significant downward triggering bias. We suggest that these characteristics may be related to deep earthquake rupture directivity and meta-stable olivine wedge structures inside subducted slabs.

  3. Intraplate Triggered Earthquakes: Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three principal 1811-1812 New Madrid, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake were associated with remotely triggered earthquakes. In addition to previously published results showing that the New Madrid sequence triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and possibly near Charleston, South Carolina region as well. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky in the immediate wake of the strong ground motions associated with the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Thus at least three out of the four known M>=7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes outside their aftershock zones. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low strain-rate environment, permanent, non-elastic deformation might play a relatively more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating both elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust might remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than faults in high strain-rate regions. Our results furthermore reveal that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults tend to be at a critical stress state in only some areas. It is not surprising that triggered earthquakes would serve as beacons that identify regions that are approaching a critical stress state. Their

  4. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  5. fast-matmul

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fastmore » matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.« less

  6. 76 FR 31295 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Secretary of Agriculture in Presidential Proclamation No. 6763, dated December 23, 1994, 60 FR 1005 (Jan. 4... Trigger Levels, published in the Federal Register at 60 FR 427 (Jan. 4, 1995). Notice: As provided in... Round Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels published in the Federal Register, at 60 FR 427 (Jan....

  7. The central trigger control system of the CMS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurok, A.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Eichberger, M.; Erö, J.; Hartl, Ch; Jeitler, M.; Kastner, K.; Mikulec, I.; Neuherz, B.; Padrta, M.; Sakulin, H.; Strauss, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Varela, J.; Smith, W. H.

    2011-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will deliver up to 32 million physics collisions per second. This rate is far too high to be processed by present-day computer farms, let alone stored on disk by the experiments for offline analysis. A fast selection of interesting events must therefore be made. In the CMS experiment, this is implemented in two stages: the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment uses custom-made, fast electronics, while the experiment's high-level trigger is implemented in computer farms. The Level-1 Global Trigger electronics has to receive signals from the subdetector systems that enter the trigger (mostly from muon detectors and calorimeters), synchronize them, determine if a pre-set trigger condition is fulfilled, check if the various subsystems are ready to accept triggers based on information from the Trigger Throttling System and on calculations of possible dead-times, and finally distribute the trigger decision (``Level-1 Accept'') together with timing signals to the subdetectors over the so-called ``Trigger, Timing and Control'' distribution tree of the experiment. These functions are fulfilled by several specialized, custom-made VME modules, most of which are housed in one crate. The overall control is exerted by the central ``Trigger Control System'', which is described in this paper. It consists of one main module and several ancillary boards for input and output functions.

  8. Discovery with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  9. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  10. Triggering of repeated earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Zakrzhevskaya, N. A.; Sobolev, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the world's earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.5 for 1960-2013, it is shown that they cause global-scale coherent seismic oscillations which most distinctly manifest themselves in the period interval of 4-6 min during 1-3 days after the event. After these earthquakes, a repeated shock has an increased probability to occur in different seismically active regions located as far away as a few thousand km from the previous event, i.e., a remote interaction of seismic events takes place. The number of the repeated shocks N( t) decreases with time, which characterizes the memory of the lithosphere about the impact that has occurred. The time decay N( t) can be approximated by the linear, exponential, and powerlaw dependences. No distinct correlation between the spatial locations of the initial and repeated earthquakes is revealed. The probable triggering mechanisms of the remote interaction between the earthquakes are discussed. Surface seismic waves traveling several times around the Earth's, coherent oscillations, and global source are the most preferable candidates. This may lead to the accumulation and coalescence of ruptures in the highly stressed or weakened domains of a seismically active region, which increases the probability of a repeated earthquake.

  11. Providers issue brief: alternative providers.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-06-29

    Access by managed care plan enrollees, scope of practice issues and fee reimbursement by Medicaid and third parties such as insurance carriers is the engine that drives legislation recognizing alternative health care providers--chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, naturopaths, massage therapists, homeopaths, and dietitians and nutritionists. PMID:11073386

  12. Fermi GBM Early Trigger Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Paciesas, Bill; Meegan, Charles

    2009-05-25

    Since the launch of the Fermi observatory on June 11 2008, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has seen approximately 250 triggers of which about 150 were cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GBM operates dozens of trigger algorithms covering various energy bands and timescales and is therefore sensitive to a wide variety of phenomena, both astrophysical and not.

  13. Trigger and electronics issues for scintillating fiber tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Scintillating Fiber technology has made great advances and has demonstrated great promise for high speed charged particle tracking and triggering. The small detector sizes and fast scintillation floors available, make them very promising for use at high luminosity experiments at today`s and tomorrow`s colliding and fixed target experiments where high rate capability is essential. This paper will discuss some of the system aspects which should be considered by anyone attempting to design a scintillating fiber tracking system and high speed tracking trigger. As the reader will see, seemingly simple decisions can have far reaching effects on overall system performance.

  14. Triggered energy releases in solid hydrogen hosts containing unpaired atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.W.; Fearon, E.M.; Maienschein, J.L.; Mapoles, E.R.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Souers, P.C. ); Gaines, J.R. )

    1990-07-23

    We have observed both triggered and spontaneous energy releases in tritiated solid hydrogens at temperatures above 1.2 K in several different experiments. These energy releases, which can be triggered by a temperature increase, were observed by monitoring the temperature excursion ( heat spike'') versus time, the atom spin density, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance signal heights. The heat spikes correlate with a disappearance of free-atom spin density so that fast atomic recombination is the probable cause. The spontaneous heat spikes may be suppressed by improved heat extraction.

  15. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  16. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  17. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  18. Superconducting matrix fault current limiter with current-driven trigger mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Yuan; Xing

    2008-04-15

    A modular and scalable Matrix-type Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. An inductor is connected in series with the trigger superconductor in the trigger matrix and physically surrounds the superconductor. The current surge during a fault will generate a trigger magnetic field in the series inductor to cause fast and uniform quenching of the trigger superconductor to significantly reduce burnout risk due to superconductor material non-uniformity.

  19. Performance and development plans for the Inner Detector trigger algorithms at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Haugh, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    A description of the design and performance of the newly re-implemented tracking algorithms for the ATLAS trigger for LHC Run 2, to commence in spring 2015, is presented. The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) has been restructured to run as a more flexible single stage process, rather than the two separate Level 2 and Event Filter stages used during Run 1. To make optimal use of this new scenario, a new tracking strategy has been implemented for Run 2. This new strategy will use a FastTrackFinder algorithm to directly seed the subsequent Precision Tracking, and will result in improved track parameter resolution and significantly faster execution times than achieved during Run 1 and with better efficiency. The timings of the algorithms for electron and tau track triggers are presented. The profiling infrastructure, constructed to provide prompt feedback from the optimisation, is described, including the methods used to monitor the relative performance improvements as the code evolves. The online deployment and commissioning are also discussed.

  20. Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platformsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. M.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; de Arcas, G.; Vega, J.

    2008-10-01

    Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing for fusion experiments. It is based on COMPATPCI technology and its extension to instrumentation (PXI). Hardware and software elements have been developed to include LXI trigger and synchronization mechanisms in this platform in order to obtain a class A LXI instrument. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, involving the following components: commercial hardware running a Linux operating system; a real-time extension to an operating system and network (RTAI and RTNET), which implements a software precision time protocol (PTP) using IEEE1588; an ad hoc PXI module to support hardware implementation of PTP-IEEE 1588; and the multipoint, low-voltage differential signaling hardware LXI trigger bus.

  1. Performance study of GPUs in real-time trigger applications for HEP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, W.; Amerio, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauce, M.; Catastini, P.; Gelain, S.; Hahn, K.; Kim, Y.K.; Liu, T.; Lucchesi, D.; Urso, G.

    2011-06-01

    Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) have evolved into highly parallel, multi-threaded, multicore powerful processors with high memory bandwidth. GPUs are used in a variety of intensive computing applications. The combination of highly parallel architecture and high memory bandwidth makes GPUs a potentially promising technology for effective real-time processing for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. However, not much is known of their performance in real-time applications that require low latency, such as the trigger for HEP experiments. We describe an R and D project with the goal to study the performance of GPU technology for possible low latency applications, performing basic operations as well as some more advanced HEP lower-level trigger algorithms (such as fast tracking or jet finding). We present some preliminary results on timing measurements, comparing the performance of a CPU versus a GPU with NVIDIA's CUDA general-purpose parallel computing architecture, carried out at CDF's Level-2 trigger test stand. These studies will provide performance benchmarks for future studies to investigate the potential and limitations of GPUs for real-time applications in HEP experiments.

  2. Performance Study of GPUs in Real-Time Trigger Applications for HEP Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, W.; Amerio, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauce, M.; Catastini, P.; Gelain, S.; Hahn, K.; Kim, Y. K.; Liu, T.; Lucchesi, D.; Urso, G.

    Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) have evolved into highly parallel, multi-threaded, multicore powerful processors with high memory bandwidth. GPUs are used in a variety of intensive computing applications. The combination of highly parallel architecture and high memory bandwidth makes GPUs a potentially promising technology for e_ective real-time processing for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. However, not much is known of their performance in real-time applications that require low latency, such as the trigger for HEP experiments. We describe an R&D project with the goal to study the performance of GPU technology for possible low latency applications, performing basic operations as well as some more advanced HEP lower-level trigger algorithms (such as fast tracking or jet finding). We present some preliminary results on timing measurements, comparing the performance of a CPU versus a GPU with NVIDIA's CUDA general-purpose parallel computing architecture, carried out at CDF's Level-2 trigger test stand. These studies will provide performance benchmarks for future studies to investigate the potential and limitations of GPUs for real-time applications in HEP experiments.

  3. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  4. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar. PMID:16208360

  5. Scintillation fiber hodoscope for topological triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gorin, A.; Korolev, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Manuilov, I.; Riazantsev, A.; Sidorov, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Maki, T.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Penzo, A.; Takeutchi, F.; Okada, K.

    1998-11-09

    A fast and precise scintillating fiber (SciFi) hodoscope based on KURARAY SciFi and HAMAMATSU multianode H6568 tubes was constructed to be used in DIRAC experiment (PS-212) at CERN for tracking and topological triggering information. The front-end electronics was custom developed to allow on-line discrimination after built-in dynamic cross-talk rejection. Preliminary tests of the detector using more than 300 read-out channels have shown an excellent stability and optimum performance for this system: a uniform detection efficiency of 98%, a 125 {mu}m single hit and {approx}0.5 mm two-hit space resolution, 0.6 ns time resolution.

  6. Scintillation fiber hodoscope for topological triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gorin, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Korolev, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Penzo, A.; Riazantsev, A.; Sidorov, A.; Takeutchi, F.; Okada, K.; Yoshimura, Y.

    1998-11-01

    A fast and precise scintillating fiber (SciFi) hodoscope based on KURARAY SciFi and HAMAMATSU multianode H6568 tubes was constructed to be used in DIRAC experiment (PS-212) at CERN for tracking and topological triggering information. The front-end electronics was custom developed to allow on-line discrimination after built-in dynamic cross-talk rejection. Preliminary tests of the detector using more than 300 read-out channels have shown an excellent stability and optimum performance for this system: a uniform detection efficiency of 98%, a 125 μm single hit and ˜0.5 mm two-hit space resolution, 0.6 ns time resolution.

  7. Triggering Edge Localized Modes through Lithium Dust Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Brendan; Roquemore, Lane; Mansfield, Dennis; Friesen, Forrest

    2010-11-01

    Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) of low amplitude should have the beneficial effect of transporting impurities away from the core plasma, without reducing the plasma stored energy, thus improving the performance of a Tokamak fusion device. In past experiments deuterium pellets have been injected into the DIII-D Tokamak, successfully triggering ELMs, and ITER is considering using deuterium pellets injected by a gas gun to trigger ELMs. Here, a new apparatus for injecting packets of lithium powder into a Tokamak at a frequency of greater than 100Hz, with the hope of triggering ELMs, was designed, built, and tested in a small vacuum chamber. The apparatus drops a thin sheet of lithium powder of diameter 40 micrometers to 500 micrometers onto a rotating paddle wheel, which propels packets of the lithium forward at greater than 20m/s. A fast framing camera was used to measure the velocity and spatial distributions of the particles leaving the paddle wheel.

  8. The BTeV trigger and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The BTeV trigger inspects every beam crossing of the Fermilab Tevatron, running at a luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}-s, and selects events that have ''detached vertices'' from B decays occurring downstream of the main interaction. The system uses a massively parallel system of FPGAs and microprocessors to produce a trigger decision on average every 396 ns. The trigger calculations are facilitated by the 23 Million channel pixel detector that provides the input to the trigger. Front end electronics sparsifies the remainder of event data and sends it to large, Tbyte, memory buffers that store it until the trigger decision can be made. This complex system presents special challenges in fault monitoring and power and cooling.

  9. The D0 upgrade trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Eno, S.

    1994-09-01

    The current trigger system for the D0 detector at Fermilab`s Tevatron will need to be upgraded when the Min Injector is installed and the Tevatron can operate at luminosities exceeding 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and with a crossing time of 132 ns. We report on preliminary designs for upgrades to the trigger system for the Main Injector era.

  10. Triggered optical biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Song, Xuedong; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-10-02

    An optical biosensor is provided for the detection of a multivalent target biomolecule, the biosensor including a substrate having a bilayer membrane thereon, a recognition molecule situated at the surface, the recognition molecule capable of binding with the multivalent target biomolecule, the recognition molecule further characterized as including a fluorescence label thereon and as being movable at the surface and a device for measuring a fluorescence change in response to binding between the recognition molecule and the multivalent target biomolecule.

  11. Observations of bi-directional leader development in a triggered lightning flash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laroche, P.; Idone, V.; Eybert-Berard, A.; Barret, L.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of a modified form of rocket triggered lightning are described. A flash triggered during the summer of 1989 is studied as part of an effort to model bidirectional discharge. It is suggested that the altitude triggering technique provides a realistic means of studying the attachment process.

  12. A parallel pipelined dataflow trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Miller, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Sa, J. ); Hsiung, Y.B. ); Carey, T.; Jeppesen, R. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper describes a parallel pipelined data flow trigger processor which is used in Fermilab E789. E789 is an experiment to study low-multiplicity decays of particles containing b or c quarks. The processor consists of an upstream vertex processor and a downstream track processor. The algorithms which reconstruct the postulated particle paths and calculate particle origin are implemented via interconnected function-specific hardware modules. The algorithm is directly dependent upon the organization of the modules, the specific arrangement of the inter-module cabling, on-board memory data. The processor provides an indication of the presence of at least one interesting particle pair in the current event by asserting Read on its Read/Skip output. The Read assertion is then used as a trigger to capture all of the event's data for subsequent extensive off-line analysis.

  13. J/{psi} measurements in 7 TeV p-p collisions with ALICE using EMCal-triggered events

    SciTech Connect

    Figueredo, M. A.; Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2013-03-25

    J/{psi} measurements can be performed with the ALICE experiment through the dilepton decay into e{sup -}e{sup +} (for rapidity Double-Vertical-Line y Double-Vertical-Line <0.9) and {mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} (for rapidity -4.0provide baseline results to be compared with Pb-Pb, where one expects the production of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Moreover, these measurements are interesting per se because the mechanism of charmonium production in hadron interactions is not yet fully understood. The ALICE Eletromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) p{sub T} extends the range of J/{psi} measurements, since it provides electron/hadron discrimination for higher p{sub T} values in comparison to other electron PID techniques in ALICE. The EMCal can also provide fast triggers for events containing high energy electrons. In 2011, during proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV, the ALICE EMCal trigger was intensively used for event selection of showers above 4.8 GeV. In this work, some results from 2011 proton-proton collisions are presented, showing a J/{psi} measurement for transversal momentum above 6 GeV/c, due to a combination of the ALICE EMCal PID and trigger system.

  14. Testing a model for triggering sawtooth oscillations in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Glenn; Nguyen, Canh N.; Kritz, Arnold H.; Porcelli, Franco

    2006-07-15

    Simulations of JET and TFTR discharges with the BALDUR integrated modeling code are used to test a sawtooth model that consists of sawtooth triggering mechanisms [Porcelli et al., Plasma Phys. Contolled Fusion 38, 2163 (1996)] together with a modified version of the Kadomtsev sawtooth reconnection model [Kadomtsev, Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 1, 389 (1975)]. In simulations of 12 TFTR low confinement (L-mode) and 5 JET high confinement (H-mode) discharges, sawtooth triggering conditions are examined in order to determine which physical mechanisms are responsible for the crashes. It is found that most sawtooth crashes in the simulations are triggered by the m=1 resistive internal kink instability in plasmas that are in the semicollisional regime. However, in some discharges, some of the sawtooth crashes are triggered as a consequence of the driving force for the internal kink instability overcoming the fast ion stabilization. In rare instances, a sawtooth crash is triggered when the driving force for the internal kink instability overcomes the stabilization produced by the diamagnetic rotation of thermal ions. Generally, the median sawtooth period is found to increase as the magnetic reconnection fraction is increased. Optimal agreement with experimental data for the discharges considered is obtained with a magnetic reconnection fraction of approximately 37% although there is considerable scatter in the sawtooth periods observed in each discharge, both in the experimental data and in the simulations.

  15. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26504306

  16. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26504306

  17. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  18. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  19. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  20. Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

    2009-06-11

    The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

  1. Ryanodine receptor dysfunction and triggered activity in the heart.

    PubMed

    Katra, Rodolphe P; Oya, Toshiyuki; Hoeker, Gregory S; Laurita, Kenneth R

    2007-05-01

    Arrhythmogenesis has been increasingly linked to cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction. However, the mechanistic relationship between abnormal RyR function and arrhythmogenesis in the heart is not clear. We hypothesize that, under abnormal RyR conditions, triggered activity will be caused by spontaneous calcium release (SCR) events that depend on transmural heterogeneities of calcium handling. We performed high-resolution optical mapping of intracellular calcium and transmembrane potential in the canine left ventricular wedge preparation (n = 28). Rapid pacing was used to initiate triggered activity under normal and abnormal RyR conditions induced by FKBP12.6 dissociation and beta-adrenergic stimulation (20-150 microM rapamycin, 0.2 microM isoproterenol). Under abnormal RyR conditions, almost all preparations experienced SCRs and triggered activity, in contrast to control, rapamycin, or isoproterenol conditions alone. Furthermore, under abnormal RyR conditions, complex arrhythmias (monomorphic and polymorphic tachycardia) were commonly observed. After washout of rapamycin and isoproterenol, no triggered activity was observed. Surprisingly, triggered activity and SCRs occurred preferentially near the epicardium but not the endocardium (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the occurrence of triggered activity and SCR events could not be explained by cytoplasmic calcium levels, but rather by fast calcium reuptake kinetics. These data suggest that, under abnormal RyR conditions, triggered activity is caused by multiple SCR events that depend on the faster calcium reuptake kinetics near the epicardium. Furthermore, multiple regions of SCR may be a mechanism for multifocal arrhythmias associated with RyR dysfunction. PMID:17189349

  2. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzer, Julian

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of two with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the factor of two increase in the number of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to three different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis on the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition system. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow for efficient display of the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. The design of the framework aims at reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the system and takes into account the operational experience gained during Run 1. The Level-1 Central Trigger was successfully operated with high efficiency during the cosmic-ray, beam-splash and first Run 2 data taking with the full ATLAS detector.

  3. Optically Triggered Immune Response through Photocaged Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Govan, Jeane M.; Young, Douglas D.; Lively, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and viral CpG oligonculeotides are unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine dinucleotide sequences and trigger an innate immune response through activation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have developed synthetic photocaged CpGs via site-specific incorporation of nitropiperonyloxymethyl (NPOM)-caged thymidine residues. These oligonucleotides enable the optical control of TLR9 function and thereby provide light-activation of an immune response. We provide a proof-of-concept model by applying a reporter assay in live cells and by quantification of endogenous production of interleukin 6. PMID:26034339

  4. Low-power triggered data acquisition system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champaigne, Kevin (Inventor); Sumners, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-power triggered data acquisition system and method utilizes low-powered circuitry, comparators, and digital logic incorporated into a miniaturized device interfaced with self-generating transducer sensor inputs to detect, identify and assess impact and damage to surfaces and structures wherein, upon the occurrence of a triggering event that produces a signal greater than a set threshold changes the comparator output and causes the system to acquire and store digital data representative of the incoming waveform on at least one triggered channel. The sensors may be disposed in an array to provide triangulation and location of the impact.

  5. Fast Reactor Technology Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2008-01-11

    There is renewed worldwide interest in developing and implementing a new generation of advanced fast reactors. International cooperative efforts are underway such as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Advanced computer modeling and simulation efforts are a key part of these programs. A recognized and validated set of Benchmark Cases are an essential component of such modeling efforts. Testing documentation developed during the operation of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) provide the information necessary to develop a very useful set of Benchmark Cases.

  6. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  7. A highly selective first-level muon trigger with MDT chamber data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, S.; Kroha, H.

    2016-07-01

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC instantaneous luminosity in Run 1. The first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the moderate momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be sufficiently reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6 μs. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the HL-LHC operating conditions at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fast trigger processor.

  8. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  9. Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-05-03

    The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.

  10. Know Your Smoking Triggers | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Triggers are the things that make you want to smoke. Different people have different triggers, like a stressful situation, sipping coffee, going to a party, or smelling cigarette smoke. Most triggers fall into one of these four categories: Emotional Pattern Social Withdrawal Knowing your triggers and understanding the best way to deal with them is your first line of defense.

  11. Integral magnetic ignition pickup trigger

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a trigger system for the ignition system of an internal combustion engine having a crankcase with a rotatable crankshaft therein, and a flywheel on one end of the crankcase connected to an end of the crankshaft. It comprises: a nonferromagnetic disk-shaped hub for connection to the crankshaft and rotatable therewith on the end opposite the flywheel; and a stationary sensor mounted adjacent the hub for detecting impulses from the magnetically responsive elements as the hub rotates and utilizing the impulses to trigger the ignition system.

  12. Trigger chemistries for better industrial formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Chin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Possanza, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, innovations and consumer demands have led to increasingly complex liquid formulations. These growing complexities have provided industrial players and their customers access to new markets through product differentiation, improved performance, and compatibility/stability with other products. One strategy for enabling more complex formulations is the use of active encapsulation. When encapsulation is employed, strategies are required to effect the release of the active at the desired location and time of action. One particular route that has received significant academic research effort is the employment of triggers to induce active release upon a specific stimulus, though little has translated for industrial use to date. To address emerging industrial formulation needs, in this review, we discuss areas of trigger release chemistries and their applications specifically as relevant to industrial use. We focus the discussion on the use of heat, light, shear, and pH triggers as applied in several model polymeric systems for inducing active release. The goal is that through this review trends will emerge for how technologies can be better developed to maximize their value through industrial adaptation. PMID:25768973

  13. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  14. Development of a triggering arrangement for the KALI-30GW MARX generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Kolge, T. S.; Agarwal, Ritu; Saroj, P. C.; Patel, Ankur; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu; Tewari, S. V.; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the design methodology and implementation experiments for a solid-state-based triggering arrangement for the MARX generator of the KALI-30GW (1 MV, 30 kA, 80 ns) pulsed power system. The 15-stage bipolar MARX generator of the KALI-30GW system is triggered using a trigatron-type spark gap. An insulated-gate bipolar-transistor (IGBT)-based trigger supply is used to trigger the first spark gap, and the next two spark gaps are triggered by using internally-generated trigger pulses. Optically-isolated arrangements are provided for a human interface. The entire assembly was tested with a dummy copper sulphate load, and an excellent triggering range of 7-12 kV was achieved. The circuit diagram, analysis and experimental results of the triggering arrangement are presented in the paper.

  15. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  16. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  17. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  18. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  19. Host defenses trigger salmonella's arsenal.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-03-17

    Salmonella survives in macrophages by using a molecular syringe to deliver proteins into the host-cell cytosol where they manipulate phagocyte physiology. Arpaia and colleagues (Arpaia et al., 2011) show that deployment of this virulence factor is triggered by the very responses that are intended to confer host resistance. PMID:21402352

  20. Landslide movement in southwest Colorado triggered by atmospheric tides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, W.H.; Kean, J.W.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    Landslides are among the most hazardous of geological processes, causing thousands of casualties and damage on the order of billions of dollars annually. The movement of most landslides occurs along a discrete shear surface, and is triggered by a reduction in the frictional strength of the surface. Infiltration of water into the landslide from rainfall and snowmelt and ground motion from earthquakes are generally implicated in lowering the frictional strength of this surface. However, solid-Earth and ocean tides have recently been shown to trigger shear sliding in other processes, such as earthquakes and glacial motion. Here we use observations and numerical modelling to show that a similar processatmospheric tidescan trigger movement in an ongoing landslide. The Slumgullion landslide, located in the SanJuan Mountains of Colorado, shows daily movement, primarily during diurnal low tides of the atmosphere. According to our model, the tidal changes in air pressure cause air and water in the sediment pores to flow vertically, altering the frictional stress of the shear surface; upward fluid flow during periods of atmospheric low pressure is most conducive to sliding. We suggest that tidally modulated changes in shear strength may also affect the stability of other landslides, and that the rapid pressure variations associated with some fast-moving storm systems could trigger a similar response. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  2. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  3. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    DOEpatents

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  4. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  5. Interferometric and schlieren characterization of the plasmas and shock wave dynamics during laser-triggered discharge in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen Wu, Jian; Yang, Zefeng; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes our efforts to reveal the underlying physics of laser-triggered discharges in atmospheric air using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and schlieren photography. Unlike the hemispherical shock waves that are produced by laser ablation, bell-like morphologies are observed during laser-triggered discharges. Phase shifts are recovered from the interferograms at a time of 1000 ns by the 2D fast Fourier transform method, and then the values of the refractive index are deduced using the Abel inversion. An abundance of free electrons is expected near the cathode surface. The schlieren photographs visualize the formation of stagnation layers at ∼600 ns in the interaction zones of the laser- and discharge-produced plasmas. Multiple reflected waves are observed at later times with the development of shock wave propagations. Estimations using the Taylor-Sedov self-similar solution indicated that approximately 45.8% and 51.9% of the laser and electrical energies are transferred into the gas flow motions, respectively. Finally, numerical simulations were performed, which successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental observations, and provided valuable insights into the plasma and shock wave dynamics during the laser-triggered discharge.

  6. First images of thunder: Acoustic imaging of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N. D.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trevino, J.; Ramaekers, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lucia, R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    An acoustic camera comprising a linear microphone array is used to image the thunder signature of triggered lightning. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Camp Blanding, FL, during the summer of 2014. The array was positioned in an end-fire orientation thus enabling the peak acoustic reception pattern to be steered vertically with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution. On 14 July 2014, a lightning event with nine return strokes was successfully triggered. We present the first acoustic images of individual return strokes at high frequencies (>1 kHz) and compare the acoustically inferred profile with optical images. We find (i) a strong correlation between the return stroke peak current and the radiated acoustic pressure and (ii) an acoustic signature from an M component current pulse with an unusual fast rise time. These results show that acoustic imaging enables clear identification and quantification of thunder sources as a function of lightning channel altitude.

  7. Readout, first- and second-level triggers of the new Belle silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Bakich, A.; Browder, T.; Chang, M. C.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chidzik, S.; Dalseno, J.; Dowd, R.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Fernholz, R.; Fujii, H.; Gao, Z. W.; Gordon, A.; Guo, Y. N.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Hasuko, K.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heenan, E. M.; Higuchi, T.; Hirai, H.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, K.; Iwaida, S.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Karawatzki, R.; Kasami, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koike, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kurashiro, H.; Kusaka, A.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, W. C.; Marlow, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miyake, H.; Moloney, G. R.; Mori, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakano, Y.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nozaki, S.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohno, F.; Okuno, S.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Peak, L.; Pernicka, M.; Rosen, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Shibata, T.; Stamen, R.; Stanič, S.; Steininger, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Terazaki, H.; Tomura, T.; Trabelsi, K.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Ueno, K.; Ueno, K.; Uozaki, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yanai, H.; Yang, R.; Yasu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Ziegler, T.; Žontar, D.

    2004-12-01

    A major upgrade of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD 2.0) of the Belle experiment at the KEKB factory was installed along with new front-end and back-end electronics systems during the summer shutdown period in 2003 to cope with higher particle rates, improve the track resolution and meet the increasing requirements of radiation tolerance. The SVD 2.0 detector modules are read out by VA1TA chips which provide "fast or" (hit) signals that are combined by the back-end FADCTF modules to coarse, but immediate level 0 track trigger signals at rates of several tens of a kHz. Moreover, the digitized detector signals are compared to threshold lookup tables in the FADCTFs to pass on hit information on a single strip basis to the subsequent level 1.5 trigger system, which reduces the rate below the kHz range. Both FADCTF and level 1.5 electronics make use of parallel real-time processing in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while further data acquisition and event building is done by PC farms running Linux. The new readout system hardware is described and the first results obtained with cosmics are shown.

  8. Triggering Star Formation: From the Pillars of Creation to the Formation of Our Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    We study the evolution of molecular clouds under the influence of ionizing radiation. We propose that the Pipe Nebula is an HII region shell swept up by the B2 IV β Cephei star θ Ophiuchi. After reviewing the recent observations, we perform a series of analytical calculations. We are able to show that the current size, mass and pressure of the region can be explained in this scenario. The Pipe Nebula can be best described by a three phase medium in pressure equilibrium. The pressure support is provided by the ionized gas and mediated by an atomic component to confine the cores at the observed current pressure. We then present simulations on the future evolution as soon as the massive star explodes in a supernova. We show that a surviving core at the border of the HII-region (D = 5 pc) is getting enriched sufficiently with supernova material and is triggered into collapse fast enough to be consistent with the tight constraints put by meteoritic data of e.g.26Al on the formation of our Solar System. We therefore propose that the formation of the Solar System was triggered by the shock wave of a type IIa supernova interacting with surviving cold structures similar to the Pillars of Creation at the border of HII-regions.

  9. Digital self-triggered robust control of nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Benedetto, M. D.; Di Gennaro, S.; D'Innocenzo, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we develop novel results on self-triggered control of nonlinear systems, subject to perturbations, and sensing/computation/actuation delays. First, considering an unperturbed nonlinear system with bounded delays, we provide conditions that guarantee the existence of a self-triggered control strategy stabilizing the closed-loop system. Then, considering parameter uncertainties, disturbances and bounded delays, we provide conditions guaranteeing the existence of a self-triggered strategy that keeps the state arbitrarily close to the equilibrium point. In both cases, we provide a methodology for the computation of the next execution time. We show on an example the relevant benefits obtained with this approach in terms of energy consumption with respect to control algorithms based on a constant sampling with a sensible reduction of the average sampling time.

  10. Externally triggered dual function of complex microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qiangying; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2013-10-22

    By introducing UV-sensitive chemical groups causing different potential response as building blocks, fabricated LbL capsules can be endowed with dual UV-responsive properties in specific layers. One block is responsible for fast capsule sealing and the other for longer term capsule swelling and rupture. Therefore, the multifunction of these capsules could be activated selectively when exposed to external UV light with suitable wavelengths. In this work, dual-functional complex microcapsules (PDADMAC/PAZO)4-(DAR/Nafion)2 containing both diazonium and aozbenzene groups were proposed as clear examples to realize a time-dependent UV response for successive encapsulation and release. Upon exposure to UV light, the DAR/Nafion layers underwent a rapid in situ cross-linking and hence to seal the capsule shells through diazonium-related photolysis. Then further gradual shell swelling was followed by realignment of azobenzene molecules in PDADMAC/PAZO layers. Fluorescent polymers were consequently studied as cargo substances. Results indicated that continuous UV light triggered rapid cargo encapsulation over minutes time scale and gradual release with continuous irradiation over hours. PMID:24083649

  11. A neural network z-vertex trigger for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, S.; Skambraks, S.; Abudinen, F.; Chen, Y.; Feindt, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Heck, M.; Kiesling, C.; Knoll, A.; Paul, S.; Schieck, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the concept of a track trigger for the Belle II experiment, based on a neural network approach, that is able to reconstruct the z (longitudinal) position of the event vertex within the latency of the first level trigger. The trigger will thus be able to suppress a large fraction of the dominating background from events outside of the interaction region. The trigger uses the drift time information of the hits from the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of Belle II within narrow cones in polar and azimuthal angle as well as in transverse momentum (sectors), and estimates the z-vertex without explicit track reconstruction. The preprocessing for the track trigger is based on the track information provided by the standard CDC trigger. It takes input from the 2D (r — φ) track finder, adds information from the stereo wires of the CDC, and finds the appropriate sectors in the CDC for each track in a given event. Within each sector, the z-vertex of the associated track is estimated by a specialized neural network, with a continuous output corresponding to the scaled z-vertex. The input values for the neural network are calculated from the wire hits of the CDC.

  12. Data acquisition system based on fast waveform digitizers for large neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanchenko, G.; Litvinovich, E.

    2016-02-01

    For large volume neutrino and antineutrino detectors it is crucial to have an efficient data acquisition system capable of digitizing data from thousands of detection channels. Here we present a flexible DAQ system architecture consisting of a large number of fast waveform digitizers and configurable FPGA-based trigger logic. The current implementation of the system is functioning in the Borexino neutrino detector providing zero dead time spectroscopy data in the energy range from 1 up to 100 MeV. Acquisition complex in combination with our custom analysis software is successfully being used for registration of geoneutrinos, as well as search for neutrino signal from GRBs, solar netrino spectroscopy and other applications.

  13. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, L.

    2016-01-01

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ~ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (~ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware.

  14. Fast Pulses in a Coaxial Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Levi

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to introduce physics majors to the triggered oscilloscope. The experiment uses an inexpensive, easily constructed generator which sends pulses down a long coaxial cable, thus providing useful waveforms. (DH)

  15. Granuloma annulare: Pathogenesis, disease associations and triggers, and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Piette, Evan W; Rosenbach, Misha

    2016-09-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) represents a cutaneous reaction pattern of unknown cause with a variety of previously described potential disease associations and triggers. This review attempts to synthesize the available data regarding potential etiopathogenesis, reviews the available data on potential GA disease associations and work-up indicated for patients with GA, and discusses potential inciting triggers. In the final part, this article describes the available treatments options and supporting data, and provides a framework for approaching management of patients with GA. The previous accompanying article provided a comprehensive overview of the available information known about the clinical variants, epidemiology, genetics, and histology of GA. PMID:27543210

  16. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, T.; Herold, B.; Shanidze, R.

    2013-10-01

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of 40K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  18. Trigger delay compensation of beam synchronous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Steimel, J.

    1996-05-01

    One of the problems of providing beam feedback in a large accelerator is the lack of beam synchronous trigger signals far from the RF signal source. IF single bucket resolutions are required, a cable extending from the RF source to the other side of the accelerator will not provide a synchronous signal if the RF frequency changes significantly with respect to the cable delay. This paper offers a solution to this problem by locking to the RF, at the remote location, using a digital phase locked loop. Then, the digitized frequency value is used to calculate the phase shift required to remain synchronized to the beam. Results are shown for phase lock to the Fermilab Main Ring RF. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  19. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  20. Star formation and its triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between star formation and gas density appears linear for galaxies on the main sequence, and when the molecular gas is considered. However, the star formation efficiency (SFE) defined as the ratio of SFR to gas surface densities, can be much higher when SF is triggered by a dynamical process such as galaxy interaction or mergers, or even secular evolution and cold gas accretion. I review recent work showing how the SFE can vary as a function of morphological type, environment, or redshift. Physical processes able to explain positive and negative feedback from supernovae or AGN are discussed.

  1. Fast fission phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In these lectures we have described two different phenomena occuring in dissipative heavy ion collisions : neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission. Neutron-proton asymmetry has provided us with an example of a fast collective motion. As a consequence quantum fluctuations can be observed. The observation of quantum or statistical fluctuations is directly connected to the comparison between the phonon energy and the temperature of the intrinsic system. This means that this mode might also provide a good example for the investigation of the transition between quantum and statistical fluctuations which might occur when the bombarding energy is raised above 10 MeV/A. However it is by no means sure that in this energy domain enough excitation energy can be put into the system in order to reach such high temperatures over the all system. The other interest in investigating neutron-proton asymmetry above 10 MeV/A is that the interaction time between the two incident nuclei will decrease. Consequently, if some collective motion should still be observed, it will be one of the last which can be seen. Fast fission corresponds on the contrary to long interaction times. The experimental indications are still rather weak and mainly consist of experimental data which cannot be understood in the framework of standard dissipative models. We have seen that a model which can describe both the entrance and the exit configuration gives this mechanism in a natural way and that the experimental data can, to a good extend, be explained. The nicest thing is probably that our old understanding of dissipative heavy ion collisions is not changed at all except for the problems that can now be understood in terms of fast fission. Nevertheless this area desserve further studies, especially on the experimental side to be sure that the consistent picture which we have on dissipative heavy ion collisions still remain coherent in the future.

  2. [The electrical conductivity of triggered lightning channel].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ming; Yuan, Ping; Su, Mao-gen; Lü, Shi-hua

    2007-10-01

    Spectra of return strokes for artificial triggered lightning were obtained by optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA) in Shandong region. Compared with previous spectra of natural lightning, additional lines of ArI 602.5 nm and ArII 666.5 nm were observed. Under the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium, electronic temperatures of the lightning channel plasma were obtained according to the relative line intensities. Meanwhile, with semi-empirical method the electron density was obtained by Halpha line Stark broadening. In combination with plasma theory, electrical conductivity of the lightning channel has been calculated for the first time, and the characteristic of conductivity for lightning channel was also discussed. The relation between the electrical conductivity of channel and the return stroke current was analyzed, providing reference data for further work on computing return stroke current. Results show that the lightning channel is a good conductor, and electrons are the main carrier of channel current. The brightness of artificial triggered lightning channel is usually higher than that of natural lightning, and its current is smaller than that of the natural lightning. PMID:18306764

  3. Testing atmospheric and tidal earthquake triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Cattania, C.; Wassermann, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity closely related to hydrological impacts has been observed in several locations worldwide; particularly in intraplate areas where tectonic stressing rates are small. The trigger mechanism is usually explained by a poroelastic response of the seismogenic crust to surface water flux, leading to pore pressure changes at depth. To explain the earthquake triggering in response of those small stress changes, however, the crust has to be near a critical state in which other transient processes might be significant such as thermoelastic stress changes induced by the surface temperature variations or tidal stresses. We aim at a systematic comparative testing of these processes for particular case studies by analyzing modeled seismicity rate changes based on rate- and state-dependent frictional nucleation. One of our examples is the Mt. Hochstaufen in SW Germany, where seismicity is known to vary seasonally. A previous analysis showed that the seismicity in 2002 was highly correlated to rainfall-induced seismicity changes based on pore pressure diffusion. We have revisited this case by accounting for additional poroelastic effects, as well as for thermoelastic and tidal stresses and tested whether the model can explain the observations of the subsequent eight years between 2003 and 2010. Our analysis confirms that rainfall is the dominant driving force in this region. The model not only fits the year 2002 activity very well, but provides with the same parameters a reasonable fit to the subsequent period, with a probability gain of about 4 per event in comparison to a time-independent Poisson model.

  4. Triggering on B-jets at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Amerio, Silvia; Casarsa, Massimo; Cortiana, Giorgio; Donini, Julien; Lucchesi, Donatella; Pagan Griso, Simone; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a trigger algorithm able to select online events enriched of b-jets. This feature is of central interest in order to extend the physics reach for standard model and minimal super symmetric model Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks. The algorithm fully exploits the recently upgraded CDFII tracking system and Level 2 CALorimeter cluster finder. These upgrades are necessary to cope with Tevatron increasing luminosity and provide new and refined trigger primitives that are the key elements of our algorithm together with the already existing silicon vertex trigger. A b-hadron can travel some millimeters before decaying and the trigger algorithm exploits this characteristic by searching for tracks displaced with respect to the primary vertex and matched to energetic jets of particles. We discuss the study and the optimization of the algorithm, its technical implementation as well as its performance. The new trigger provides an efficient selection for Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks and runs up to high luminosity with an acceptable occupancy of the available bandwidth.

  5. Methods and Instruments for Fast Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2005-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the performance of a large-area (~0.7 m2) plastic scintillator time-of-flight (TOF) sensor for direct detection of fast neutrons. This type of sensor is a readily area-scalable technology that provides broad-area geometrical coverage at a reasonably low cost. It can yield intrinsic detection efficiencies that compare favorably with moderator-based detection methods. The timing resolution achievable should permit substantially more precise time windowing of return neutron flux than would otherwise be possible with moderated detectors. The energy-deposition threshold imposed on each scintillator contributing to the event-definition trigger in a TOF system can be set to blind the sensor to direct emission from the neutron generator. The primary technical challenge addressed in the project was to understand the capabilities of a neutron TOF sensor in the limit of large scintillator area and small scintillator separation, a size regime in which the neutral particle’s flight path between the two scintillators is not tightly constrained.

  6. Landslides triggered by the earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The May 2 earthquake triggered landslides numbering in the thousands. Most numerous were rockfalls and rockslides that occurred mainly on slopes steeper than 60{degree} within sandstone, siltstone, and shale units of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Soil falls from cutbank slopes along streams were also numerous. Seven slumps in natural slopes were triggered, and minor liquefaction-induced lateral-spread failures occurred along Los Gatos Creek. Rockfalls and rockslides occurred as far as 34 km northwest, 15 km south, and 26 km southwest of the epicenter. There were few slope failures to the east of the epicenter, owing to the absence of steep slopes in that direction. Throughout the area affected, rockfalls and rockslides were concentrated on southwest-facing slopes; the failures on slopes facing in the southwest quadrant accounted for as much as 93% of all failures in some areas. Rockfalls and rockslides from ridge crests were predominantly from sandstone units. Along steeply incised canyons, however, failures in shale and siltstone units were also common. Small rockslides and soil slides occurred from cut slopes above oil-well pump pads in the oil fields; slumps were common in the outer parts of steep fill slopes of the pump pads. The distribution of seismically induced landslides throughout the entire earthquake-affected area was mapped from true-color airphotos taken on May 3, 1985.

  7. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  8. Fasting - the ultimate diet?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, A M

    2007-05-01

    Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term? PMID:17444963

  9. What triggers coronal mass ejections ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large clouds of highly magnetized plasma. They are ac-celerated from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space by the Lorentz force, which is associated to their strong current-carrying magnetic fields. Both theory and observations lead to the inevitable conclusion that the launch of a CME must result from the sudden release of free magnetic energy, which has slowly been accumulated in the corona for a long time before the eruption. Since the incomplete, but seminal, loss-of-equilibrium model was proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), a large variety of analytical and numerical storage-and-release MHD models has been put forward in the past 20 years or so. All these models rely on the slow increase of currents and/or the slow decrease of the restraining magnetic tension preceding the eruption. But they all put the emphazis on different physical mechanisms to achieve this preeruptive evolution, and to suddenly trigger and later drive a CME. Nevertheless, all these models actually share many common features, which all describe many individual observed aspects of solar eruptions. It is therefore not always clear which of all the suggested mecha-nisms do really account for the triggering of observed CMEs in general. Also, these mechanisms should arguably not be as numerous as the models themselves, owing to the common occurence of CMEs. In order to shed some light on this challenging, but unripe, topic, I will attempt to rediscuss the applicability of the models to the Sun, and to rethink the most sensitive ones in a common frame, so as to find their common denominator. I will elaborate on the idea that many of the proposed triggering mechanisms may actually only be considered as different ways to apply a "last push", which puts the system beyond its eruptive threshold. I will argue that, in most cases, the eruptive threshold is determined by the vertical gradient of the magnetic field in the low-β corona, just like the usual

  10. Measuring Fast and Slow Enzyme Kinetics in Stationary Droplets.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Etienne; Bayer, Christopher; Hollfelder, Florian; Baroud, Charles N

    2015-12-01

    We present a new microfluidic platform for the study of enzymtatic reactions using static droplets on demand. This allows us to monitor both fast and slow reactions with the same device and minute amounts of reagents. The droplets are produced and displaced using confinement gradients, which allows the experiments to be performed without having any mean flow of the external phase. Our device is used to produce six different pairs of drops, which are placed side by side in the same microfluidic chamber. A laser pulse is then used to trigger the fusion of each pair, thus initiating a chemcial reaction. Imaging is used to monitor the time evolution of enzymatic reactions. In the case of slow reactions, the reagents are completely mixed before any reaction is detected. This allows us to use standard Michaelis-Menten theory to analyze the time evolution. In the case of fast reactions, the time evolution takes place through a reaction-diffusion process, for which we develop a model that incorporates enzymatic reactions in the reaction terms. The theoretical predictions from this model are then compared to experiments in order to provide measurements of the chemical kinetics. The approach of producing droplets through confinement gradients and analyzing reactions within stationary drops provides an ultralow consumption platform. The physical principles are simple and robust, which suggests that the platform can be automated to reach large throughput analyses of enzymes. PMID:26524082

  11. Triggering of volcanic activity by large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouris, D.; Carn, S. A.; Waite, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Statistical analysis of temporal relationships between large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions suggests seismic waves may trigger eruptions even over great distances, although the causative mechanism is not well constrained. In this study the relationship between large earthquakes and subtle changes in volcanic activity was investigated in order to gain greater insight into the relationship between dynamic stress and volcanic response. Daily measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), onboard the Aura satellite, provide constraints on volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates as a measure of subtle changes in activity. An SO2 timeseries was produced from OMI data for thirteen persistently active volcanoes. Seismic surface-wave amplitudes were modeled from the source mechanisms of moment magnitude (Mw) ≥7 earthquakes, and peak dynamic stress (PDS) was calculated. The SO2 timeseries for each volcano was used to calculate a baseline threshold for comparison with post-earthquake emission. Delay times for an SO2 response following each earthquake at each volcano were analyzed and compared to a random catalog. The delay time analysis was inconclusive. However, an analysis based on the occurrence of large earthquakes showed a response at most volcanoes. Using the PDS calculations as a filtering criterion for the earthquake catalog, the SO2 mass for each volcano was analyzed in 28-day windows centered on the earthquake origin time. If the average SO2 mass after the earthquake was greater than an arbitrary percentage of pre-earthquake mass, we identified the volcano as having a response to the event. This window analysis provided insight on what type of volcanic activity is more susceptible to triggering by dynamic stress. The volcanoes with lava lakes included in this study, Ambrym, Gaua, Villarrica, and Erta Ale, showed a clear response to dynamic stress while the volcanoes with lava domes, Merapi, Semeru, and Bagana showed no response at all. Perhaps

  12. Explosion triggering by an accelerating flame.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, V'yacheslav

    2006-06-01

    The analytical theory of explosion triggering by an accelerating flame is developed. The theory describes the structure of a one-dimensional isentropic compression wave pushed by the flame front. The condition of explosion in the gas mixture ahead of the flame front is derived; the instant of the explosion is determined provided that a mechanism of chemical kinetics is known. As an example, it is demonstrated how the problem is solved in the case of a single reaction of Arrhenius type, controlling combustion both inside the flame front and ahead of the flame. The model of an Arrhenius reaction with a cutoff temperature is also considered. The limitations of the theory due to the shock formation in the compression wave are found. Comparison of the theoretical results to the previous numerical simulations shows good agreement. PMID:16906974

  13. Synchronization trigger control system for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cinematography or holographic interferometry for dynamic flow visualization in an internal combustion engine requires a control device that globally synchronizes camera and light source timing at a predefined shaft encoder angle. The device is capable of 0.35 deg resolution for rotational speeds of up to 73 240 rpm. This was achieved by implementing the shaft encoder signal addressed look-up table (LUT) and appropriate latches. The developed digital signal processing technique achieves 25 nsec of high speed triggering angle detection by using direct parallel bit comparison of the shaft encoder digital code with a simulated angle reference code, instead of using angle value comparison which involves more complicated computation steps. In order to establish synchronization to an AC reference signal whose magnitude is variant with the rotating speed, a dynamic peak followup synchronization technique has been devised. This method scrutinizes the reference signal and provides the right timing within 40 nsec. Two application examples are described.

  14. The trigger system of the JEM-EUSO Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeotti, Piero; Catalan0, Osvaldo; Bertaina, Mario

    JEM-EUSO is a space mission devoted to the investigation of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos (energy above 100 EeV) from the International Space Station (ISS) using the atmosphere as a giant detector, which is also the source of the largest fraction of noise (nightglow background). The trigger system should face different major challenging points: a) manage a large number of pixels (about 200k); b) use a very fast, low power consuming, and radiation hard electronics; c) have a high signal-to-noise performance and flexibility in order to lower as much as possible the energy threshold of the detector, adjust the system to a variable nightglow background, and trigger on different categories of events (air showers and neutrinos, lightnings, meteors); d) cope with the limited down-link transmission rate from the ISS to Earth, by operating a severe on-board and on-time data reduction. The general overview of the trigger system of JEM-EUSO will be presented.

  15. Implementation And Performance of the ATLAS Second Level Jet Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Conde Muino, Patricia; Aracena, I.; Brelier, B.; Cranmer, K.; Delsart, P.A.; Dufour, M.A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ferland, J.; Idarraga, J.; Johns, K.; LeCompte, T.; Potter, C.; Robertson, S.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Segura, E.; Silverstein, D.; Vachon, B.; /McGill U.

    2011-11-09

    ATLAS is one of the four major LHC experiments, designed to cover a wide range of physics topics. In order to cope with a rate of 40MHz and 25 interactions per bunch crossing, the ATLAS trigger system is divided in three different levels. The jet selection starts at first level with dedicated processors that search for high E{sub T} hadronic energy depositions. At the LVL2, the jet signatures are verified with the execution of a dedicated, fast jet reconstruction algorithm, followed by a calibration algorithm. Three possible granularities have been proposed and are being evaluated: cell based (standard), energy sums calculated at each Front-End Board and the use of the LVL1 Trigger Towers. In this presentation, the design and implementation of the jet trigger of ATLAS will be discussed in detail, emphasazing the major difficulties of each selection step. The performance of the jet algorithm, including timing, efficiencies and rates will also be shown, with detailed comparisons of the different unpacking modes.

  16. The Lusi mud eruption was not triggered by an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, M.; Rudolph, M. L.; Tingay, M. R.; Davies, R.; Wang, C.; Shirzaei, M.; Fukushima, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Lusi mud eruption in East Java, Indonesia has displaced tens of thousands of people with economic costs that exceed $4 billion USD to date. Consequently, understanding the cause and future of the eruption are important. There has been considerable debate as to whether the eruption was triggered by the MW 6.3 Yogyakarta earthquake, which struck two days prior to the eruption, or by drilling operations at a gas exploration well (BJP-1) 200 m from the 700 m lineament, along which mud first erupted. A recent letter by Lupi et al. (Nature Geoscience, 2013) argues for an earthquake trigger, invoking the presence of a seismically fast structure that amplifies seismic shaking in the mud source region. The absence of an eruption during larger and closer earthquakes reveals that an earthquake trigger is unlikely. Furthermore, the high seismic velocities, central to the model of Lupi et al. , are impossibly high and are primarily artifacts associated with steel casing installed in the well where the velocities were measured. Finally, the stress changes caused by drilling operations greatly exceeded those produced by the earthquake. Assuming no major changes in plumbing, we conclude by using satellite InSAR to reveal the evolution of surface deformation caused by the eruption and predict a 10 fold decrease in discharge in the next 5 years.

  17. A Potential Link between Environmental Triggers and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have registered an alarming rise worldwide in recent years. Accumulated evidence indicates that the immune system's ability to distinguish self from nonself is negatively impacted by genetic factors and environmental triggers. Genetics is certainly a factor, but since it normally takes a very long time for the human genetic pattern to change enough to register on a worldwide scale, increasingly the attention of studies has been focused on the environmental factors of a rapidly changing and evolving civilization. New technology, new industries, new inventions, new chemicals and drugs, and new foods and diets are constantly and rapidly being introduced in this fast-paced ever-changing world. Toxicants, infections, epitope spreading, dysfunctions of immune homeostasis, and dietary components can all have an impact on the body's delicate immune recognition system. Although the precise etiology and pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases are still unknown, it would appear from the collated studies that there are common mechanisms in the immunopathogenesis of multiple autoimmune reactivities. Of particular interest is the citrullination of host proteins and their conversion to autoantigens by the aforementioned environmental triggers. The identification of these specific triggers of autoimmune reactivity is essential then for the development of new therapies for autoimmune diseases. PMID:24688790

  18. Direct Fast-Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    DC Stromswold; AJ Peurrung; RR Hansen; PL Reeder

    2000-01-18

    Direct fast-neutron detection is the detection of fast neutrons before they are moderated to thermal energy. We have investigated two approaches for using proton-recoil in plastic scintillators to detect fast neutrons and distinguish them from gamma-ray interactions. Both approaches use the difference in travel speed between neutrons and gamma rays as the basis for separating the types of events. In the first method, we examined the pulses generated during scattering in a plastic scintillator to see if they provide a means for distinguishing fast-neutron events from gamma-ray events. The slower speed of neutrons compared to gamma rays results in the production of broader pulses when neutrons scatter several times within a plastic scintillator. In contrast, gamma-ray interactions should produce narrow pulses, even if multiple scattering takes place, because the time between successive scattering is small. Experiments using a fast scintillator confirmed the presence of broader pulses from neutrons than from gamma rays. However, the difference in pulse widths between neutrons and gamma rays using the best commercially available scintillators was not sufficiently large to provide a practical means for distinguishing fast neutrons and gamma rays on a pulse-by-pulse basis. A faster scintillator is needed, and that scintillator might become available in the literature. Results of the pulse-width studies were presented in a previous report (peurrung et al. 1998), and they are only summarized here.

  19. The BTeV pixel detector and trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Kwan

    2002-12-03

    BTeV is an approved forward collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to the precision studies of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The BTeV detector has been designed to achieve these goals. One of the unique features of BTeV is a state-of-the-art pixel detector system, designed to provide accurate measurements of the decay vertices of heavy flavor hadrons that can be used in the first trigger level. The pixel vertex detector and the trigger design are described. Recent results on some of the achievements in the R and D effort are presented.

  20. Fast and thermal neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jay T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Wu, Xizeng

    2005-09-01

    There is a need for high brightness neutron sources that are portable, relatively inexpensive, and capable of neutron radiography in short imaging times. Fast and thermal neutron radiography is as an excellent method to penetrate high-density, high-Z objects, thick objects and image its interior contents, especially hydrogen-based materials. In this paper we model the expected imaging performance characteristics and limitations of fast and thermal radiography systems employing a Rose Model based transfer analysis. For fast neutron detection plastic fiber array scintllators or liquid scintillator filled capillary arrays are employed for fast neutron detection, and 6Li doped ZnS(Cu) phosphors are employed for thermal neutron detection. These simulations can provide guidance in the design, construction, and testing of neutron imaging systems. In particular we determined for a range of slab thickness, the range of thicknesses of embedded cracks (air-filled or filled with material such as water) which can be detected and imaged.

  1. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  2. Is osseointegration inflammation-triggered?

    PubMed

    Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hartl, Dominik; Hannig, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Bioinert endosteal implants cause a foreign body reaction, whereas bioactive ones cause osseointegration. However, the mechanisms responsible for the two modi of host response remain unclear. COX-2(-/-) animal models showed the dependence of osseointegration on prostaglandins. PGE2, a product of COX-2, augments Wnt signalling, a pathway that promotes the regeneration in many types of tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of bioactive implants to recruit neutrophils and to trigger neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are a potent source of PGE2. In bioinert implants no PGE2 release has been ascertained. Collectively, these findings suggest that osseointegration might be the host response to bioactive implants, novel and quite different to the so-called foreign body reaction. PMID:27372846

  3. Acoustic properties of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N.; Ramaekers, J.; Trevino, J.; Rassoul, H.; Lucia, R. J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic signatures from rocket-triggered lightning are measured by a 15m long, one-dimensional microphone array consisting of 16 receivers situated 90 meters from the lightning channel. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, FL during the summer of 2014. The linear array was oriented in an end-fire position so that the peak acoustic reception pattern can be steered vertically along the channel with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution, enabling us to sample the acoustic signatures from different portions along the lightning channel. We report on the characteristics of acoustic signatures associated with several return strokes in 6 measured flashes (total of 29 return strokes). In addition, we study the relationship between the amplitude, peak frequency, and inferred energy input of each stroke acoustic signature and the associated measured lightning parameters. Furthermore, challenges of obtaining acoustic measurements in thunderstorm harsh conditions and their countermeasures will also be discussed.

  4. A Mechanochemically Triggered "Click" Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-16

    "Click" chemistry represents one of the most powerful approaches for linking molecules in chemistry and materials science. Triggering this reaction by mechanical force would enable site- and stress-specific "click" reactions--a hitherto unreported observation. We introduce the design and realization of a homogeneous Cu catalyst able to activate through mechanical force when attached to suitable polymer chains, acting as a lever to transmit the force to the central catalytic system. Activation of the subsequent copper-catalyzed "click" reaction (CuAAC) is achieved either by ultrasonication or mechanical pressing of a polymeric material, using a fluorogenic dye to detect the activation of the catalyst. Based on an N-heterocyclic copper(I) carbene with attached polymeric chains of different flexibility, the force is transmitted to the central catalyst, thereby activating a CuAAC in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26420664

  5. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  6. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  7. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  8. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  9. The LUX experiment - trigger and data acquisition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druszkiewicz, Eryk

    2013-04-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a two-phase xenon time projection chamber designed to detect interactions of dark matter particles with the xenon nuclei. Signals from the detector PMTs are processed by custom-built analog electronics which provide properly shaped signals for the trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) systems. During calibrations, both systems must be able to handle high rates and have large dynamic ranges; during dark matter searches, maximum sensitivity requires low thresholds. The trigger system uses eight-channel 64-MHz digitizers (DDC-8) connected to a Trigger Builder (TB). The FPGA cores on the digitizers perform real-time pulse identification (discriminating between S1 and S2-like signals) and event localization. The TB uses hit patterns, hit maps, and maximum response detection to make trigger decisions, which are reached within few microseconds after the occurrence of an event of interest. The DAQ system is comprised of commercial digitizers with customized firmware. Its real-time baseline suppression allows for a maximum event acquisition rate in excess of 1.5 kHz, which results in virtually no deadtime. The performance of the trigger and DAQ systems during the commissioning runs of LUX will be discussed.

  10. A vertex trigger based on cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Bösiger, K.; Lindfeld, L.; Müller, K.; Robmann, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Steiner, S.; Straumann, U.; Szeker, K.; Truöl, P.; Urban, M.; Vollhardt, A.; Werner, N.; Baumeister, D.; Löchner, S.; Hildebrandt, M.

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the technical implementation and the performance of the z-vertex trigger (CIP2k), which is part of the H1-experiment at HERA. The HERA storage ring and collider was designed to investigate electron (and positron) proton scattering at a center-of-mass energy of 320 GeV. To improve the sensitivity for detecting non-standard model physics and other high momentum transfer phenomena, the HERA ring has been ungraded between 2000 and 2003 to increase the specific luminosity for the experiments. In order to cope with the increased event and background rate the experiments were upgraded, too. The CIP2k trigger system is based on a set of five cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout, and allows to distinguish between events induced by beam background and ep-interactions at the first trigger stage. The trigger decision is calculated dead-time free with a latency of 1.5 μs in parallel to the beam clock at 10.4 MHz. The trigger-logic is realized in large field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) using the hardware description language Verilog. The system is operational since October 2003. It suppresses background events with high efficiency and provides event timing information, as designed.

  11. A slow slip event triggered by teleseismic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, Satoshi; Ando, Ryosuke

    2011-11-01

    In recent years slow slip events (SSE) have been observed to occur at regular intervals on the deep portions of subduction zone interfaces. These are accompanied by seismic tremor that occurs over their duration. It has been observed that tremor activity shows transient modulations in response to earth tides and the passage of seismic waves from distant earthquakes. Here we show, for the first time, geodetic evidence for the triggering of an interplate SSE itself by teleseismic surface waves. This SSE, in southwest Japan, which had an equivalent magnitude Mw 5.3 and duration of 1.5 days, was triggered by the surface waves of a Mw 7.6 earthquake in Tonga. This evidence was captured by a newly deployed sensitive strainmeter network. The triggered SSE occurred on a place on the plate interface where the recurrence time for such events had almost expired, whereas other regions, at up to 90% of the recurrence time, were not triggered. This provides information for the conditions for triggering and generation of SSEs and, perhaps, for regular earthquakes.

  12. A novel calorimeter trigger concept: The jet trigger of the H1 experiment at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Bob; Dubak-Behrendt, Ana; Kiesling, Christian; Reisert, Burkard; Aktas, Adil; Antunovic, Biljana; Bracinik, Juraj; Braquet, Charles; Brettel, Horst; Dulny, Barbara; Fent, Jürgen; Fras, Markus; Fröchtenicht, Walter; Haberer, Werner; Hoffmann, Dirk; Modjesch, Miriam; Placakyte, Ringaile; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas; Wassatsch, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jens

    2011-06-01

    We report on a novel trigger for the liquid argon calorimeter which was installed in the H1 Experiment at HERA. This trigger, called the "Jet Trigger", was running at level 1 and implemented a real-time cluster algorithm. Within only 800 ns, the Jet Trigger algorithm found local energy maxima in the calorimeter, summed their immediate neighbors, sorted the resulting jets by energy, and applied topological conditions for the final level 1 trigger decision. The Jet Trigger was in operation from the year 2006 until the end of the HERA running in the summer of 2007. With the Jet Trigger it was possible to substantially reduce the thresholds for triggering on electrons and jets, giving access to a largely extended phase space for physical observables which could not have been reached in H1 before. The concepts of the Jet Trigger may be an interesting upgrade option for the LHC experiments.

  13. A FASTBUS-based software trigger for the Mark II detector at the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksan, R.; Briggs, D.; Glanzman, T.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Holmgren, S.; Komamiya, S.; Schaad, M.; Tinsman, J.

    1988-05-01

    A new software trigger scheme has been developed to augment and enhance the existing charged and neutral triggers by providing sensitivity to new event topologies and some level of control over accelerator-induced backgrounds. Historically, the Mark II existed with two primary trigger components: a charged track finder based upon the central and vertex drift chambers and the time-of-flight counters; and an electromagnetic trigger based upon the total energy deposited in each of ten calorimeter modules. The trigger component of the new system is based upon the Mark II electromagnetic calorimetry but with significantly increased granularity and the inherent flexibility of software. Trigger processing also benefits from the relatively long period of time (up to 8.3 ms) between SLC beam crossings. The production of long-lived neutral particles provides an example of an event topology which would not have triggered in the old system. By decaying beyond the first few drift chamber layers, such particles avoid the charged particle trigger, yet could produce clear signals in the calorimeters. Another example is the class of events containing a single photon as the visible particle such as occur in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Z{sup 0}{gamma} {yields} {nu}{nu}{gamma}. Sensitivity to this reaction is necessary to measure the number of neutrino generations. One goal of the new trigger is to achieve nearly 100% efficiency for single photons of energy above 750 MeV. Such a trigger necessarily depends upon a very low and well understood accelerator background for success. A minimum ionizing particle trigger will provide good efficiency for Z{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{mu} or {tau}{tau} at the angles covered by the end cap calorimeters which increases the capabilities for measuring the forward-backward asymmetries. And finally, an improved trigger is more sensitive to complete surprises. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution Board for CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jianhui; Dong, Hai; Cuevas, R; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Heyes, William; Jastrzembski, Edward; Kaneta, Scott; Nganga, Nicholas; Moffit, Bryan; Raydo, Benjamin; Timmer, Carl

    2012-10-01

    The design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution (TID) board for the 12 GeV Upgrade at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at TJNAL is described. The TID board distributes a low jitter system clock, synchronized trigger, and synchronized multi-purpose SYNC signal. The TID also initiates data acquisition for the crate. With the TID boards, a multi-crate system can be setup for experiment test and commissioning. The TID board can be selectively populated as a Trigger Interface (TI) board, or a Trigger Distribution (TD) board for the 12 GeV upgrade experiments. When the TID is populated as a TI, it can be located in the VXS crate and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VXS P0 connector; it can also be located in the standard VME64 crate, and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VME P2 connector or front panel. It initiates the data acquisition for the front crate where the TI is positioned in. When the TID is populated as a TD, it fans out the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC from trigger supervisor to the front end crates through optical fibres. The TD monitors the trigger processing on the TIs, and gives feedback to the TS for trigger flow control. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is utilised on TID board to provide programmability. The TID boards were intensively tested on the bench, and various setups.

  15. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  16. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  17. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence

    PubMed Central

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits related to this shorter preoperative fasting include the reduction of postoperative gastrointestinal discomfort and insulin resistance. New formulas containing amino acids such as glutamine and other peptides are being studied and are promising candidates to be used to reduce preoperative fasting time. PMID:21160851

  18. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  19. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, Marc

    2015-04-21

    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  20. Digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector based on the unit in VME standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. Yu; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Naumov, P. P.

    2016-02-01

    The system for forming a trigger for the RED-100 liquid xenon detector has been developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events required to calibrate the detector and data acquisition, including events with one ionization electron. The system has an event detection mechanism where each event is assigned with the timestamp and event type. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The characteristics and implementation of the trigger system that provides high efficiency operation even at low-energy events have been described.

  1. Operation of the upgraded ATLAS Central Trigger Processor during the LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, H.; Carrillo Montoya, G.; Deviveiros, P.-O.; Eifert, T.; Galster, G.; Glatzer, J.; Haas, S.; Marzin, A.; Silva Oliveira, M. V.; Pauly, T.; Schmieden, K.; Spiwoks, R.; Stelzer, J.

    2016-02-01

    The ATLAS Central Trigger Processor (CTP) is responsible for forming the Level-1 trigger decision based on the information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors. In order to cope with the increase of luminosity and physics cross-sections in Run 2, several components of this system have been upgraded. In particular, the number of usable trigger inputs and trigger items have been increased from 160 to 512 and from 256 to 512, respectively. The upgraded CTP also provides extended monitoring capabilities and allows to operate simultaneously up to three independent combinations of sub-detectors with full trigger functionality, which is particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs. The software has also undergone a major upgrade to take advantage of all these new functionalities. An overview of the commissioning and the operation of the upgraded CTP during the LHC Run 2 is given.

  2. Fast-imaging and spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric argon streamers for large gap arc breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachuilo, Michael; Stefani, Francis; Bengtson, Roger; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2014-10-01

    A non-equilibrium plasma source has been developed to assist in the low-voltage arc breakdown of large electrode gaps. The source consists of a dielectric embedded wire helically wound around a confining cylindrical quartz chamber. Annular electrodes cap the ends of the quartz chamber. An argon feed gas is used to provide a uniform environment and exhausts to ambient atmospheric conditions. A negative polarity 50 kV trigger pulse is applied to the embedded trigger wire to initiate the arc breakdown. Application of the trigger pulse produces a localized coronal discharges along the inner surface of the quartz tube. The corona provides seed electrons through which streamers propagate from one of the main discharge electrode along the quartz surface until it reaches the opposite electrode to bridge the gap. Once the gap is bridged a spark over occurs and robust arc discharge is formed in the chamber volume. Fast imaging of the streamer propagation establishes its velocity in the range of ~ 100 km/s. Spectroscopy of the streamer discharge in atmospheric argon has been conducted and electron temperature and number density estimated from a collision radiative model. Argon spectrum is dominated by neutral argon lines in the 650--950 nm range, and singly ionized argon lines are observed in the ultra-violet to near UV (300--400 nm). Research was performed in connection with AFOSR Contract FA9550-11-1-0062.

  3. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  4. UCTM: A user friendly configurable trigger, scaler and delay module for nuclear and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.

    2011-02-01

    A configurable trigger scaler and delay NIM module has been designed to equip nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes. It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. The design, performances and typical applications are presented.

  5. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  6. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  7. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  8. Global Trigger Upgrade firmware architecture for the level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaran, B.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Wittmann, J.; Matsushita, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Global Trigger (GT) is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements the ``menu'' of triggers, which is a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects (such as muons, electrons or jets) to trigger the readout of the detector and serve as basis for further calculations by the High Level Trigger. Operational experience in developing trigger menus from the first LHC run has shown that the requirements increased as the luminosity and pile-up increased. The new GT (μGT) is designed based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs, which combine unsurpassed flexibility with regard to scalability and high robustness. Furthermore, a custom board which receives signals from legacy electronics and basic binary inputs from less complex trigger sources is presented. Additionally, this paper describes the architecture of a distributed testing framework and the Trigger Menu Editor.

  9. HI Intensity Mapping with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Chen, T.; Dickinson, C.; Harper, S.; Maffei, B.; Olivari, L. C.; Wilkinsondagger, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST 19-beam L-band receivers (1.05-1.45 GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters (w0,wa) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is 6000 deg2. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift (0.95-1.35 GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than 2 σ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  10. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; Castet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye's pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms). At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings' orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating), the eye's peak velocity matched the gratings' motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry) that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness. PMID:26339536

  11. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  12. Aspirin-triggered metabolites of EFAs.

    PubMed

    Makriyannis, Alexandros; Nikas, Spyros P

    2011-10-28

    Aspirin triggers the biosynthesis of oxygenated metabolites from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. In a preceding issue, Serhan et al. (2011) describe a novel aspirin-triggered DHA pathway for the biosynthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving molecule. PMID:22035788

  13. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  14. Prompt γ-rays from the Fast Neutron Induced Fission on 235,238U and 232Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebois, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Halipré, P.; Leniau, B.; Matea, I.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Verney, D.

    Preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fast-neutron induced fission of 238U, 232Th and 235U were detected. Thick samples of around 50 g of 238U and 232Th are used for the first part of the experiment. An ionisation chamber containing ∼ 10 mg samples of 238U and 235U to provide a fission trigger is used for the second part of the experiment. Gamma rays have been detected using 17 high efficiency BaF2 detectors and 6 LaBr3 scintillator detectors.

  15. Affirmation of triggered Jovian radio emissions and their attribution to corotating radio lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that the original statistical evidence for the existence of triggered radio emissions and corotating radio lasers on Jupiter remains valid notwithstanding the critique of Desch and Kaiser (1985). The Voyager radio spectrograms used to identify the triggered emissions are analyzed and the results are discussed. It is shown that the critique by Desch and Kaiser is unjustified because it is not based on the original event criteria, i.e., the correlation between the occurrence of Jovian auroral kilometric radiation and fast-drift type III solar bursts in the same frequency.

  16. Development and study of picosecond start and trigger detector for high-energy heavy ion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    Two modular Cherenkov detectors based on MCP-PMTs XP85012 are developed for study Au+Au collisions in future experiments with beams of Nuclotron and collider NICA at JINR, Dubna. The detector arrays register high-energy photons and relativistic charged particles with aim of fast triggering the collisions and generation of start signal with time resolution better then 50 ps for TOF detector. The MC simulation showed the trigger efficiency of 100% for impact parameter range b<10 fm. The best time resolution for single detector channel σt≈21 ps was obtained with DRS4 digitizer in TOF measurements with a deuteron beam.

  17. The First Level Trigger of JEM-EUSO: Concept and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, M.; Caruso, R.; Catalano, O.; Contino, G.; Fenu, F.; Mignone, M.; Mulas, R.

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system of JEM-EUSO is designed to meet specific challenging requirements. These include managing a large number of pixels (~3·105) and using a very fast, low power consuming, and radiation hard electronics. It must achieve a high signal-to-noise performance and flexibility and cope with the limited down-link transmission rate from the International Space Station (ISS) to Earth. The general overview of the First Level Trigger for cosmic ray detection is reviewed; tests that validate its performance are discussed.

  18. A TRD Trigger for the tevatron collider experiment at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Utes, M.; Johnson, M.; Martin, M.

    1991-11-01

    A VME-based module for use as an input to the D0 Detector Level 1.5 Trigger is described. Its main function will be the confirmation of electron candidates flagged by the First Level Calorimeter Trigger using digitized data from the Transition Radiation Detector. Features of the board include the use of fast FIFOs to store incoming track coordinates, dual ported SRAM lookup tables for addressing integrated charge data and forming scalars, multiplier/accumulators for speed of calculation, and a single synchronous finite state machine to control all board operations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Manybeam velocimeter for fast surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Goosman, D.; Avara, G.; Steinmetz, L.; Lai, C.; Perry, S.

    1996-09-01

    For the past 5 years, we have conceived, built and successfully used a new 10 beam laser velocimeter for monitoring velocity vs time histories of fast moving surfaces, and will have a 20 beam capability soon. We conceived a method to multiplex 5 to 10 beams through a single Fabry-Perot interferometer, without losing any light that our equivalently-performing single beam system could use, and with negligible cross- talk. This saves the cost of 16 interferometers, simplifies operation and takes less space than without multiplexing. We devised special efficient light collecting probes, streak cameras that change sweep speed during the course of the record, and a new double cavity interferometer which is better, cheaper and more flexible than our previous versions. With the 10 recorders, we conceived and employ a method of using both a fast and a slow streak camera on each of 5 beams without reducing the light that is available to either camera separately. Five new galvanometrically-driven triggerable CCD streak cameras will be installed soon.

  20. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  1. The H1 neural network trigger project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, C.; Denby, B.; Fent, J.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Garda, P.; Granado, B.; Grindhammer, G.; Haberer, W.; Janauschek, L.; Kobler, T.; Koblitz, B.; Nellen, G.; Prevotet, J.-C.; Schmidt, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.

    2001-08-01

    We present a short overview of neuromorphic hardware and some of the physics projects making use of such devices. As a concrete example we describe an innovative project within the H1-Experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA, instrumenting hardwired neural networks as pattern recognition machines to discriminate between wanted physics and uninteresting background at the trigger level. The decision time of the system is less than 20 microseconds, typical for a modern second level trigger. The neural trigger has been successfully running for the past four years and has turned out new physics results from H1 unobtainable so far with other triggering schemes. We describe the concepts and the technical realization of the neural network trigger system, present the most important physics results, and motivate an upgrade of the system for the future high luminosity running at HERA. The upgrade concentrates on "intelligent preprocessing" of the neural inputs which help to strongly improve the networks' discrimination power.

  2. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  3. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  4. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  5. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  6. Stress/strain changes and triggered seismicity at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Davis, S.

    1996-01-01

    The principal results of this study of remotely triggered seismicity in The Geysers geothermal field are the demonstration that triggering (initiation of earthquake failure) depends on a critical strain threshold and that the threshold level increases with decreasing frequency or equivalently, depends on strain rate. This threshold function derives from (1) analyses of dynamic strains associated with surface waves of the triggering earthquakes, (2) statistically measured aftershock zone dimensions, and (3) analytic functional representations of strains associated with power production and tides. The threshold is also consistent with triggering by static strain changes and implies that both static and dynamic strains may cause aftershocks. The observation that triggered seismicity probably occurs in addition to background activity also provides an important constraint on the triggering process. Assuming the physical processes underlying earthquake nucleation to be the same, Gomberg [this issue] discusses seismicity triggered by the MW 7.3 Landers earthquake, its constraints on the variability of triggering thresholds with site, and the implications of time delays between triggering and triggered earthquakes. Our results enable us to reject the hypothesis that dynamic strains simply nudge prestressed faults over a Coulomb failure threshold sooner than they would have otherwise. We interpret the rate-dependent triggering threshold as evidence of several competing processes with different time constants, the faster one(s) facilitating failure and the other(s) inhibiting it. Such competition is a common feature of theories of slip instability. All these results, not surprisingly, imply that to understand earthquake triggering one must consider not only simple failure criteria requiring exceedence of some constant threshold but also the requirements for generating instabilities.

  7. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  8. Performance and upgrade of the CMS electron and photon trigger for Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online trigger selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. The first level (L1) trigger is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the high-level trigger combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In the near future the LHC will increase its centre of mass energy to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics program under this challenging environment, the CMS trigger and data acquisition system must be consolidated. In particular the calorimeter L1 trigger hardware and architecture will be changed. The aim is to maintain the current thresholds and improve performance. This programme will be achieved using the μTCA architecture with fast optical links and latest generation FPGAs. Sophisticated object reconstruction algorithms, as well as online pile-up corrections, are being developed that will make use of these new hardware capabilities. For electron and photon reconstruction and identification, the first version of the new algorithms has been tested against the current algorithms. It shows a reduction of the trigger rate by a factor of two for isolated objects, an improved energy resolution of about 30%, and a position resolution reduced by more than four.

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Triggered Charge-Reversal Micelles for Cancer-Targeted Drug Delivery and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Kong, Xiuqi; Tang, Yonghe; Lin, Weiying

    2016-06-29

    Currently, the development of polymeric micelles combining diagnosis and targeted therapy is theoretically and practically significant in cancer treatment. In addition, it has been reported that cancer cells can produce large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and their survival depends on the content of H2S. In this study, a series of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-azide-1,8-naphthalimide ended amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (N3-Nap-PHEMA-b-PMMA-N3) micelles were prepared. Around cancer tissues, the N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles exhibited dual characteristics of monitoring H2S and H2S triggered charge reversal with the reduction of the azido group. The surface charge of N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles reversed from negative to positive after monitoring H2S. With H2S triggered charge reversal, the cellular uptake of DOX-loaded N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles was effectively enhanced through electrostatic attraction mediated targeting, and a fast doxorubicin (DOX) release rate was observed. The MTT assay demonstrated that N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles were biocompatible to HeLa cells, and DOX-loaded N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles showed enhanced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells in the presence of H2S. Furthermore, in vivo fluorescence imaging and biodistribution experiments revealed that DOX-loaded N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles could provide good tumor imaging and accumulate in tumor tissue. Therefore, N3-Nap-PHEMA45-b-PMMA42-N3 micelles can be used as a promising platform for tumor diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27280335

  10. High Speed Multichannel Charge Sensitive Data Acquisition System with Self-Triggered Event Timing

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Siegmund, Oswald H.W.; Vallerga, John V.; Raffanti, Rick; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    A number of modern experiments require simultaneous measurement of charges on multiple channels at > MHz event rates with an accuracy of 100-1000 e− rms. One widely used data processing scheme relies on application of specific integrated circuits enabling multichannel analog peak detection asserted by an external trigger followed by a serial/sparsified readout. Although this configuration minimizes the back end electronics, its counting rate capability is limited by the speed of the serial readout. Recent advances in analog to digital converters and FPGA devices enable fully parallel high speed multichannel data processing with digital peak detection enhanced by finite impulse response filtering. Not only can accurate charge values be obtained at high event rates, but the timing of the event on each channel can also be determined with high accuracy. We present the concept and first experimental tests of fully parallel 128-channel charge sensitive data processing electronics capable of measuring charges with accuracy of ~1000 e- rms. Our system does not require an external trigger and, in addition to charge values, it provides the event timing with an accuracy of ~1 ns FWHM. One of the possible applications of this system is high resolution position sensitive event counting detectors with microchannel plates combined with cross strip readout. Implementation of fast data acquisition electronics increases the counting rates of those detectors to multi-MHz level, preserving their unique capability of virtually noiseless detection of both position (with accuracy of ~10 μm FWHM) and timing (~1 ns FWHM) of individual particles, including photons, electrons, ions, neutrals, and neutrons. PMID:20174482

  11. Electromotive Triggering and Single Sweep Analysis of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs).

    PubMed

    Hecker, Dietmar J; Lohscheller, Joerg; Schorn, Bianca; Koch, Klaus Peter; Schick, Bernhard; Dlugaiczyk, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Cervical (c) and ocular (o) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) provide important tools for measuring otolith function. However, two major drawbacks of this method are encountered in clinical practice. First, recording of oVEMPs is compromised by small n10 amplitudes. Second, VEMP analysis is currently based on the averaging technique, resulting in a loss of information compared to single sweep analysis. Here, we: 1) developed a novel electromotive trigger mechanism for evoking VEMPs by bone-conducted vibration to the forehead and 2) established maximum entropy extraction of complex wavelet transforms for calculation of phase synchronization between VEMP single sweeps. Both c- and oVEMPs were recorded for n=10 healthy individuals. The oVEMP n10 amplitude was consistently higher (right: 24.84±9.71 μV; left: 27.40±14.55 μV) than previously described. Stable VEMP signals were reached after a smaller number of head taps (oVEMPs 6; cVEMPs 11) compared to current recommendations. Phase synchronization vectors and phase shift values were successfully determined for simulated and clinically recorded VEMPs, providing information about the impact of noise and phase jitter on the VEMP signal. Thus, the proposed method constitutes an easy-to-use approach for the fast detection and analysis of VEMPs in clinical practice. PMID:23529108

  12. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively. PMID:26198915

  13. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  14. Triggering at a high luminosity hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.; Wagner, R.G.; Abolins, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The extreme interaction rate occurring at the SSC as described in the Reference Design Report poses the principal new challenge for the triggering system compared with detectors at previous accelerators. At SSC we must plan for about 10/sup 8/ interactions per second. If bunch crossings occur each 33 ns, there will be an average of 3 interactions in each bunch crossing. Potential problems for triggering are presented both by the high total rate and by the multiple interactions per bunch crossing, so that triggering events must be selected in the presence of other interactions independent of the inherent speed of either detector elements or triggering electronics. Three principal topics are considered in this report: (1) Practical selections to be made in a first-level trigger to reduce the rate by a factor of 1000. (2) Electronics expected to implement this first-level trigger, and (3) the ultimate trigger selections that must be used to select the approximately 1 Hz that can practically be recorded for detailed analysis. 11 references, 6 figures.

  15. Alternative strategy for Alzheimer's disease: stress response triggers.

    PubMed

    Smith Sonneborn, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Stress resistance capacity is a hallmark of longevity protection and survival throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Latent pathway activation of protective cascades, triggered by environmental challenges to tolerate heat, oxygen deprivation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), diet restriction, and exercise provides tolerance to these stresses. Age-related changes and disease vulnerability mark an increase in damage, like damage induced by environmental challenges. An alternative approach to immunotherapy intervention in Alzheimer's Disease is the use of mimetics of stress to upregulate endogenous protective cascades to repair age damage, shift the balance of apoptosis to regeneration to promote delay of onset, and even progression of Alzheimer's disease memory dysfunction. Mimetics of environmental stress, hormetic agents, and triggers, endogenous or engineered, can "trick" activation of expression patterns of repair and rejuvenation. Examples of known candidate triggers of heat response, endogenous antioxidants, DNA repair, exercise, hibernation, and telomeres are available for AD intervention trials. Telomeres and telomerase emerge as major regulators in crossroads of senescence, cancer, and rejuvenation responsive to mimetics of telomeres. Lessons emerge from transgenic rodent models, the long-lived mole rat, clinical studies, and conserved innate pathways of stress resistance. Cross-reaction of benefits of different triggers promises intervention into seemingly otherwise unrelated diseases. PMID:22655213

  16. The peptide growth factor, phytosulfokine, attenuates pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Tsuda, Kenichi; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2012-07-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Although immune responses may provide good protection of plants from pathogen attack, excessive immune responses have negative impacts on plant growth and development. Thus, a good balance between positive and negative effects on the immune signaling network is important for plant fitness. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in attenuation of PTI. Here, we describe a growth-promoting peptide hormone, phytosulfokine (PSK), as attenuating PTI signaling in Arabidopsis. This research was motivated by the observation that expression of the PSK Receptor 1 (PSKR1) gene was induced by MAMP treatment. Plants homozygous for pskr1 T-DNA insertions showed enhanced defense gene expression and seedling growth inhibition triggered by MAMPs. The pskr1 plants also showed enhanced PTI against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results indicate that the PSKR-mediated signaling attenuates immune responses. Tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase (TPST) is an enzyme required for production of the mature sulfated PSK. Like pskr1 mutants, a tpst T-DNA insertion line exhibited enhanced MAMP-triggered seedling growth inhibition, which was suppressed by exogenous application of PSK. Thus, PSK signaling mediated by PSKR1 attenuates PTI but stimulates growth. PMID:22353039

  17. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  18. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  19. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  20. Fast Censored Linear Regression

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YIJIAN

    2013-01-01

    Weighted log-rank estimating function has become a standard estimation method for the censored linear regression model, or the accelerated failure time model. Well established statistically, the estimator defined as a consistent root has, however, rather poor computational properties because the estimating function is neither continuous nor, in general, monotone. We propose a computationally efficient estimator through an asymptotics-guided Newton algorithm, in which censored quantile regression methods are tailored to yield an initial consistent estimate and a consistent derivative estimate of the limiting estimating function. We also develop fast interval estimation with a new proposal for sandwich variance estimation. The proposed estimator is asymptotically equivalent to the consistent root estimator and barely distinguishable in samples of practical size. However, computation time is typically reduced by two to three orders of magnitude for point estimation alone. Illustrations with clinical applications are provided. PMID:24347802

  1. Should Type 1 diabetics fast in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Azad, Kishwar; Zabeen, Bedowra; Tayyeb, Samin; Baki, Abdul; Nahar, Nazmun

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. This involves abstaining from eating or drinking from early dawn (Suhur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar).Fasting is not meant to create excessive hardships or impart any adverse effect to the Muslim individual. As such, Islam has exempted certain categories of people from fasting including young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly,and pregnant and lactating women. According to expert opinion, people with type 1 diabetes who fast during Ramadan are at very high risk of metabolic deterioration. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that individuals with type 1 diabetes who are otherwise healthy and stable, can fast during Ramadan provided they comply with the Ramadan focused management plan and are under close professional supervision. This article discusses how to assess, counsel, monitor and manage people with type 1 diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan. PMID:26013779

  2. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  3. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  5. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  6. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, I. H.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Connell, P.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jeong, S.; Jung, A.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Nam, J. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Ripa, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Yashin, I.

    2013-02-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small spacecraft observatory. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) that uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than slewing the entire spacecraft to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRBs and transient studies. Its fast response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRBs each year will provide unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRBs as a new standard candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. For the first time we employ a motorized slewing stage in SMT that can point to the event within 1 s after the x-ray trigger provided by the UFFO Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope. These two scientific instruments comprise the UFFO-pathfinder payload, which will be placed onboard the Lomonosov satellite and launched in 2013. The UFFO-pathfinder is the first step of our long-term program of space instruments for rapid-response GRB observations. We describe early photon science, our soon-to-be-launched UFFO-pathfinder hardware and mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.

  7. Experimental investigation on the effect of plasma jet in the triggered discharge process of a gas switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, W.; Liu, S.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-08-01

    The temporal and spatial evolution of a plasma jet generated by a spark discharge was observed. The electron temperature and density were obtained under different time and gas pressures by optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the discharge process of the plasma-jet triggered gas switch was recorded and analyzed at the lowest working coefficient. The results showed that the plasma jet moved forward in a bullet mode, and the advancing velocity increased with the decrease of pressure, and decreased with time growing. At initial time, the maximum velocity of a plasma jet could reach 3.68 × 106 cm/s. The electron temperature decreased from 2.0 eV to 1.3 eV, and the electron density increased from 3.1 × 1015/cm3 to 6.3 × 1015/cm3 at the initial moment as the gas pressure increases from 0.1 MPa to 0.32 MPa. For a two-gap gas switch, the discharge performances were more depended on the second discharge spark gap (gap 2). Because plasma jet promoted the discharge in Gap 2, the gas switch operating in mode II had better triggered discharge characteristics. In the discharge process, the plasma-jet triggering had the effect of non-penetrating inducing, which not only provided initial electrons for reducing statistical lag but also enhanced the local electric field. The discharge was initiated and accelerated from electron avalanche to streamer. Therefore, a fast discharge was occurred in the gas switch.

  8. On the mechanism underlying photosynthetic limitation upon trigger hair irritation in the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis)

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pandolfi, Camilla; Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs on the adaxial surface of the trap of Dionaea muscipula leads to the generation of action potentials and to rapid leaf movement. After rapid closure secures the prey, the struggle against the trigger hairs results in generation of further action potentials which inhibit photosynthesis. A detailed analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics and gas exchange measurements in response to generation of action potentials in irritated D. muscipula traps was used to determine the ‘site effect’ of the electrical signal-induced inhibition of photosynthesis. Irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials resulted in a decrease in the effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and the rate of net photosynthesis (AN). During the first seconds of irritation, increased excitation pressure in photosystem II (PSII) was the major contributor to the decreased ΦPSII. Within ∼1 min, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) released the excitation pressure at PSII. Measurements of the fast chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (O-J-I-P) revealed a direct impact of action potentials on the charge separation–recombination reactions in PSII, although the effect seems to be small rather than substantial. All the data presented here indicate that the main primary target of the electrical signal-induced inhibition of photosynthesis is the dark reaction, whereas the inhibition of electron transport is only a consequence of reduced carboxylation efficiency. In addition, the study also provides valuable data confirming the hypothesis that chlorophyll a fluorescence is under electrochemical control. PMID:21289078

  9. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  10. Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.

  11. FAST User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  12. NATIONAL HEALTH PROVIDER INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health Provider Inventory provides data on services, location, staff, capacity, and other characteristics of selected health care providers in the United States. Information is collected via mail questionnaire with telephone follow up to all providers (100% census) o...

  13. Pulses of Magmatic Activity Through Time: Potential Triggers for Climatic Variations on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Strom, R. G.; Komatsu, G.; Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Associated occurrences of magmatic activity on Mars may represent regional and (or) global resurfacing events similar to those observed for Venus and for Earth and may provide the trigger for climatic perturbations.

  14. Fast infrared response of YBCO thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballentine, P. H.; Kadin, A. M.; Donaldson, W. R.; Scofield, J. H.; Bajuk, L.

    1990-01-01

    The response to short infrared pulses of some epitaxial YBCO films prepared by sputter deposition and by electron-beam evaporation is reported. The response is found to be essentially bolometric on the ns timescale, with some indirect hints of nonequilibrium electron transport on the ps scale. Fast switching could be obtained either by biasing the switch close to the critical current or by cooling the film below about 20 K. These results are encouraging for potential application to a high-current optically-triggered opening switch.

  15. A Proposal of a Single Chip Surface Detector Trigger Based on Altera CycloneTM Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    In May 2003 the new Altera r PLD family CycloneT M appears on the market. The new chip allows significantly simplifying the construction of the surface detector trigger as well as decreasing the total costs and improving parameters. In comparison with currently approved ACEX r chips, Cyclone chips contain much bigger internal memory (a possibility of implementation of slow memory inside the PLD chip or extension of fast buffers). 1.5 V supplies the core (reduction of power consumption). The single chip allows implementing interleaving DMA mode and avoiding problems with chips synchronization. The register performance indicated by compiler is on the level 130 MHz. Such a high internal speed allows increasing the sampling frequency, which could improve a time resolution of the trigger. More resources allow implementing new kind of triggers based up on Power Spectrum Density. MegaCore r library offers DSP routies as FFT, which may be useful to recognize type of events.

  16. A Topological Array Trigger for AGIS, the Advanced Gamma ray Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Krennrich, F.; Anderson, J.; Byrum, K.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Kreps, A.; Smith, A.; Buckley, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Imran, A.; Schroedter, M.

    2008-12-24

    Next generation ground based {gamma}-ray observatories such as AGIS{sup 1} and CTA{sup 2} are expected to cover a 1 km{sup 2} area with 50-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The stereoscopic view ol air showers using multiple view points raises the possibility to use a topological array trigger that adds substantial flexibility, new background suppression capabilities and a reduced energy threshold. In this paper we report on the concept and technical implementation of a fast topological trigger system, that makes use of real time image processing of individual camera patterns and their combination in a stereoscopic array analysis. A prototype system is currently under construction and we discuss the design and hardware of this topological array trigger system.

  17. Triggering cascades and statistical properties of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Davidsen, J.

    2011-12-01

    Applying a recently introduced general statistical procedure for identifying aftershocks based on complex network theory, we investigate the statistical properties of aftershocks for a high-resolution earthquake catalog covering Southern California. In comparison with earlier studies of aftershock sequences, we show that many features depend sensitively on how one defines aftershocks and whether one includes only first-generation of aftershocks or one also takes all indirectly triggered aftershocks into account. This includes the temporal variation in the rate of aftershocks for mainshocks of small magnitude, for example, as well as the variation in the rate of aftershocks for short to intermediate times after a mainshock. Other features are, however, robust indicating that they truly characterize aftershock sequences. These include the p-values in the Omori-Utsu law for large mainshocks, B{aa}th's law and the productivity law with an exponent smaller than the b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter law. We also find that, for large mainshocks, the dependence of the parameters in the Omori-Utsu law on the lower magnitude cut-off are in excellent agreement with a recent proposition based on B{aa}th's law and the Gutenberg-Richter law, giving rise to a generalized Omori-Utsu law. Our analysis also provides evidence that the exponent p in the Omori-Utsu law does not vary significantly with mainshock magnitude.

  18. THE SUPERNOVA TRIGGERED FORMATION AND ENRICHMENT OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gritschneder, M.; Lin, D. N. C.; Murray, S. D.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Gong, M.-N.

    2012-01-20

    We investigate the enrichment of the pre-solar cloud core with short-lived radionuclides, especially {sup 26}Al. The homogeneity and the surprisingly small spread in the ratio {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al observed in the overwhelming majority of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in a vast variety of primitive chondritic meteorites places strong constraints on the formation of the solar system. Freshly synthesized radioactive {sup 26}Al has to be included and well mixed within 20 kyr. After discussing various scenarios including X-winds, asymptotic giant branch stars, and Wolf-Rayet stars, we come to the conclusion that triggering the collapse of a cold cloud core by a nearby supernova (SN) is the most promising scenario. We then narrow down the vast parameter space by considering the pre-explosion survivability of such a clump as well as the cross-section necessary for sufficient enrichment. We employ numerical simulations to address the mixing of the radioactively enriched SN gas with the pre-existing gas and the forced collapse within 20 kyr. We show that a cold clump of 10 M{sub Sun} at a distance of 5 pc can be sufficiently enriched in {sup 26}Al and triggered into collapse fast enough-within 18 kyr after encountering the SN shock-for a range of different metallicities and progenitor masses, even if the enriched material is assumed to be distributed homogeneously in the entire SN bubble. In summary, we envision an environment for the birthplace of the solar system 4.567 Gyr ago similar to the situation of the pillars in M16 nowadays, where molecular cloud cores adjacent to an H II region will be hit by an SN explosion in the future. We show that the triggered collapse and formation of the solar system as well as the required enrichment with radioactive {sup 26}Al are possible in this scenario.

  19. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  1. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  2. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  3. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  4. Trigger System Upgrades for the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Eric; Sno+ Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The SNO+ experiment will explore many topics in neutrino physics including neutrino-less double beta decay, low-energy solar neutrinos, antineutrinos from reactors and natural sources, nucleon decay, and potentially supernova neutrinos. The SNO+ trigger and readout system consists of electronics both inherited from the SNO detector and newly created specifically to address the challenges presented by the addition of scintillation light. Addition of new utilities to the SNO+ trigger system will allow for a flexible calibration interface, more sophisticated use of the existing trigger system, and new, more targeted, background cuts that will improve physics sensitivity. These utilities will largely be orchestrated by a MicroZed System on Chip (SoC), micro-controller. Their range of application includes automatic fault detection, upgrades of SNO utilities, noise reduction, and interfacing between components of the trigger system.

  5. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  6. Ambient air monitoring with Auto-gas chromatography running in trigger mode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Yousheng; Hazlett, Pamela D; Matherne, Valerie

    2007-07-16

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOC), either as ozone precursors or air toxics in the air, are commonly monitored by triggered canister method or continuous ozone precursor analyzer (commonly known as Auto-gas chromatography (GC)) method. In the triggered canister method, a canister sample is collected when a total non-methane organic compound (TNMOC) concentration exceeds a pre-determined trigger level. The canister sample is then analyzed in a lab in a later time. In the Auto-GC method, an online GC runs in a "continuous" mode with a sampling and analysis cycle of 1 h. Within the cycle hour, samples are collected only during the first 40 min. A new approach of Auto-GC running in trigger mode is developed in this study. This new approach uses Auto-GC but operates it in a trigger mode similar to the triggered canister sampling method. Compared to the triggered canister sample method, this system provides near real-time speciated VOC data, which are critical for responding to a high VOC concentration episode. Although the canister system generally costs less, its cost advantage may diminish if trigger events are frequent and the monitoring duration is long. Compared to continuous Auto-GC, triggered GC has its niche--it is better for capturing transient plumes with a small footprint. The continuous GC either misses a transient plume if the plume does not arrive at the sampling site during the sampling cycle or flattens the plume concentration peak by dilution with non-plume air sample. Field experience with this system for fenceline VOC monitoring is presented. The sampling and calibration strategy for trigger mode operation is described. The chromatograph retention time drift issues are discussed. The system performance is evaluated, including the method detection limit, precision and accuracy. The trigger mode configuration for VOC fenceline or near source monitoring in this work proved effective for local and transient plume identification. PMID:17616253

  7. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S. K.; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  8. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S K; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  9. Inventory of landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Jibson, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    The 17 January 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake (M=6.7) triggered more than 11,000 landslides over an area of about 10,000 km?. Most of the landslides were concentrated in a 1,000-km? area that includes the Santa Susana Mountains and the mountains north of the Santa Clara River valley. We mapped landslides triggered by the earthquake in the field and from 1:60,000-scale aerial photography provided by the U.S. Air Force and taken the morning of the earthquake; these were subsequently digitized and plotted in a GIS-based format, as shown on the accompanying maps (which also are accessible via Internet). Most of the triggered landslides were shallow (1-5 m), highly disrupted falls and slides in weakly cemented Tertiary to Pleistocene clastic sediment. Average volumes of these types of landslides were less than 1,000 m?, but many had volumes exceeding 100,000 m?. Many of the larger disrupted slides traveled more than 50 m, and a few moved as far as 200 m from the bases of steep parent slopes. Deeper ( >5 m) rotational slumps and block slides numbered in the hundreds, a few of which exceeded 100,000 m? in volume. The largest triggered landslide was a block slide having a volume of 8X10E06 m?. Triggered landslides damaged or destroyed dozens of homes, blocked roads, and damaged oil-field infrastructure. Analysis of landslide distribution with respect to variations in (1) landslide susceptibility and (2) strong shaking recorded by hundreds of instruments will form the basis of a seismic landslide hazard analysis of the Los Angeles area.

  10. Remotely Triggered Earthquakes in Stable Continental Regions: Beacons of Stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    Remotely triggered earthquakes appear to occur relatively commonly following large (Mw>7) mainshocks in stable continental regions (SCRs). Such events are important for several reasons: 1) they can give rise to locally high ground motions that can be mistaken for mainshock shaking, and thereby inflate isoseismal contours, 2) they can be potentially damaging events in their own right, and 3) they prove that remotely triggered earthquakes occur in diverse tectonic and mechanical settings. We present examples from several large SCR earthquakes including the 1811-1812 New Madrid sequence and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake. We explore the possibility that in low strain-rate regions, remotely triggered earthquakes reflect a prevalence of faults that are close to failure rather than the presence of weak faults or geothermal/hydrothermal fluids. We further illustrate how, in a low strain-rate environment, permanent, non-elastic deformation might account for this prevalence, playing a larger role in stress accumulation than in high strain-rate regions. Using a simple model incorporating both elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust might remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than faults in high strain-rate regions. Our results furthermore reveal that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults tend to be at a critical stress state in only some areas. It is not surprising that triggered earthquakes would serve as beacons that identify regions that are approaching a critical stress state. Their occurrence in regions that have experienced large earthquakes in the recent past (a few hundred years) provides evidence that, once developed, a critically stressed region of intraplate crust will persist for hundreds if not thousands of years and give rise to prolonged

  11. Distinguishing cause from correlation in tokamak experiments to trigger edge-localised plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Anthony J.

    2014-11-15

    The generic question is considered: How can we determine the probability of an otherwise quasi-random event, having been triggered by an external influence? A specific problem is the quantification of the success of techniques to trigger, and hence control, edge-localised plasma instabilities (ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion (MCF) experiments. The development of such techniques is essential to ensure tolerable heat loads on components in large MCF fusion devices, and is necessary for their development into economically successful power plants. Bayesian probability theory is used to rigorously formulate the problem and to provide a formal solution. Accurate but pragmatic methods are developed to estimate triggering probabilities, and are illustrated with experimental data. These allow results from experiments to be quantitatively assessed, and rigorously quantified conclusions to be formed. Example applications include assessing whether triggering of ELMs is a statistical or deterministic process, and the establishment of thresholds to ensure that ELMs are reliably triggered.

  12. Rapid 3D Track Reconstruction with the BaBar Trigger Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, S

    2004-05-24

    As the PEP-II luminosity increases the BaBar trigger and dataflow systems must accommodate the increasing data rate. A significant source of background events at the first trigger level comes from beam particle interactions with the beampipe and synchrotron masks, which are separated from the interaction region by more than 20 cm. The BaBar trigger upgrade will provide 3D tracking capabilities at the first trigger level in order to remove background events by distinguishing the origin of particle tracks. Each new z{sub 0} p{sub T} Discriminator (ZPD) board processes over 1 gigabyte of data per second in order to reconstruct the tracks and make trigger decisions based upon the 3D track parameters.

  13. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  14. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  15. A novel low-jitter plasma-jet triggered gas switch operated at a low working coefficient.

    PubMed

    Tie, Weihao; Liu, Shanhong; Liu, Xuandong; Zhang, Qiaogen; Pang, Lei; Liu, Longchen

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we described the fabrication and testing of a novel plasma-jet triggered gas switch (PJTGS) operated at extremely low working coefficients with excellent triggered jitters. While the structure of the PJTGS is similar to that of a traditional three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, to improve its triggered performance we used a conical micro-plasma-gun with a needle-to-plate spark gap embedded in the trigger electrode. Applying a nanosecond pulse to the trigger electrode caused a spark discharge in the micro-plasma-gun. The electric field drove the discharge plasma to spray into the spark gap of the gas switch, causing fast breakdown. We tested the PJTGS with charging voltages of ±25 kV and a trigger voltage of +80 kV (5 ns rise time and 80 ns full width at half maximum) in two working modes. The PJTGS operated in Mode II had a lower triggered jitter and could be operated over a wider range of working coefficients than in Mode I under the same conditions. At working coefficients higher than 70%, we obtained sub-ns triggered jitters (<0.89 ns) from the PJTGS, at working coefficients lower than 50%, we obtained triggered jitters of 1.6-3.5 ns without no-fires or pre-fires. Even at a working coefficient of 27.4%, the PJTGS could still be triggered reliably with a delay time of 96.1 ns and a triggered jitter of 3.5 ns, respectively. PMID:24593358

  16. Transcriptome profiling of the feeding-to-fasting transition in chicken liver

    PubMed Central

    Désert, Colette; Duclos, Michel J; Blavy, Pierre; Lecerf, Frédéric; Moreews, François; Klopp, Christophe; Aubry, Marc; Herault, Frédéric; Le Roy, Pascale; Berri, Cécile; Douaire, Madeleine; Diot, Christian; Lagarrigue, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Background Starvation triggers a complex array of adaptative metabolic responses including energy-metabolic responses, a process which must imply tissue specific alterations in gene expression and in which the liver plays a central role. The present study aimed to describe the evolution of global gene expression profiles in liver of 4-week-old male chickens during a 48 h fasting period using a chicken 20 K oligoarray. Results A large number of genes were modulated by fasting (3532 genes with a pvalue corrected by Benjamini-Hochberg < 0.01); 2062 showed an amplitude of variation higher than +/- 40% among those, 1162 presented an human ortholog, allowing to collect functional information. Notably more genes were down-regulated than up-regulated, whatever the duration of fasting (16 h or 48 h). The number of genes differentially expressed after 48 h of fasting was 3.5-fold higher than after 16 h of fasting. Four clusters of co-expressed genes were identified by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Gene Ontology, KEGG and Ingenuity databases were then used to identify the metabolic processes associated to each cluster. After 16 h of fasting, genes involved in ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, were up-regulated (cluster-1) whereas genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis were down-regulated (cluster-2). For all genes tested, the microarray data was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Most genes were altered by fasting as already reported in mammals. A notable exception was the HMG-CoA synthase 1 gene, which was up-regulated following 16 and 48 h of fasting while the other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were down-regulated as reported in mammalian studies. We further focused on genes not represented on the microarray and candidates for the regulation of the target genes belonging to cluster-1 and -2 and involved in lipid metabolism. Data are provided concerning PPARa, SREBP1, SREBP2, NR1H3

  17. Upgrade of the trigger system of CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitler, Manfred; CMS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Various parts of the CMS trigger and in particular the Level-1 hardware trigger will be upgraded to cope with increasing luminosity, using more selective trigger conditions at Level 1 and improving the reliability of the system. Many trigger subsystems use FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the electronics and will benefit from developments in this technology, allowing us to place much more logic into a single FPGA chip, thus reducing the number of chips, electronic boards and interconnections and in this way improving reliability. A number of subsystems plan to switch from the old VME bus to the new microTCA crate standard. Using similar approaches, identical modules and common software wherever possible will reduce costs and manpower requirements and improve the serviceability of the whole trigger system. The computer-farm based High-Level Trigger will not only be extended by using increasing numbers of more powerful PCs but there are also concepts for making it more robust and the software easier to maintain, which will result in better efficiency of the whole system.

  18. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Liposomes for Light-Triggered Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Viitala, Lauri; Manna, Moutusi; Cramariuc, Oana; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2016-06-01

    Light-triggered drug delivery systems enable site-specific and time-controlled drug release. In previous work, we have achieved this with liposomes containing gold nanoparticles in the aqueous core. Gold nanoparticles absorb near-infrared light and release the energy as heat that increases the permeability of the liposomal bilayer, thus releasing the contents of the liposome. In this work, we replaced the gold nanoparticles with the clinically approved imaging agent indocyanine green (ICG). The ICG liposomes were stable at storage conditions (4-22 °C) and at body temperature, and fast near-infrared (IR) light-triggered drug release was achieved with optimized phospholipid composition and a 1:50 ICG-to-lipid molar ratio. Encapsulated small molecular calcein and FITC-dextran (up to 20 kDa) were completely released from the liposomes after light exposure for 15 s. Location of ICG in the PEG layer of the liposomes was simulated with molecular dynamics. ICG has important benefits as a light-triggering agent in liposomes: fast content release, improved stability, improved possibility of liposomal size control, regulatory approval to use in humans, and the possibility of imaging the in vivo location of the liposomes based on the fluorescence of ICG. Near-infrared light used as a triggering mechanism has good tissue penetration and safety. Thus, ICG liposomes are an attractive option for light-controlled and efficient delivery of small and large drug molecules. PMID:27097108

  19. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Rodney J.

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  20. Cutoff and reestablishment of current in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, V. A.; Crawford, D. E.; Kodali, V.; Idone, V. P.; Uman, M. A.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Rambo, K. J.

    2003-12-01

    an air-plasma channel that becomes part of the upward positive leader channel when electrical connection to ground is restored. For the third triggered lightning flash, from 1993, similar inferences regarding the processes involved in the replacement of the triggering wire by an air-plasma channel are made from high-speed (streak) photography and from measurements of the current to ground and electric field at 30 m. In this flash, the upward positive leader exhibited very pronounced stepping: step current pulses had peaks, as measured at the ground, that were up to a few kiloamperes, and step charges that were up to 100 mC. Characterization of the attempted interruption and the following reestablishment of current to ground in rocket-triggered lightning may have important implications for the understanding of channel current cutoff in natural lightning flashes and may provide new insights into the formation of strokes observed to occur in the same channel within a millisecond or less.

  1. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  2. Ozone exposure triggers insulin resistance through muscle c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Vella, Roxane E; Pillon, Nicolas J; Zarrouki, Bader; Croze, Marine L; Koppe, Laetitia; Guichardant, Michel; Pesenti, Sandra; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Rieusset, Jennifer; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Ozone, a major photochemical pollutant in urban areas, is negatively associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels, but most aspects of this association remain to be elucidated. Using an environmentally realistic concentration (0.8 parts per million), we demonstrated that exposure of rats to ozone induced whole-body insulin resistance and oxidative stress, with associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and disruption of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ozone-treated rats reproduced this effect in C2C12 myotubes, suggesting that toxic lung mediators were responsible for the phenotype. Pretreatment with the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine alleviated insulin resistance, demonstrating that ozone sequentially triggered oxidative stress, ER stress, and JNK activation to impair insulin signaling in muscle. This study is the first to report that ozone plays a causative role in the development of insulin resistance, suggesting that it could boost the development of diabetes. We therefore provide a potential mechanism linking pollutant exposure and the increased incidence of metabolic diseases. PMID:25277399

  3. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  4. Fasting during Ramadan in adolescents with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Tayyeb, Samin; Benarjee, Biplob; Baki, Abdul; Nahar, Jebun; Mohsin, Fauzia; Nahar, Nazmun; Azad, Kishwar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fasting (Sawm) during Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Some children with diabetes, despite their exemption insist on fasting in Ramadan. We evaluated the safety of fasting among children with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Mathods: A prospective observational study was designed for diabetic children and adolescents who wish to fast during Ramadan 2012. Patients with their caregivers were given intensive education and instructions were provided by diabetic educators, dieticians and physicians on insulin adjustment, home blood glucose monitoring and dietary adjustments prior to Ramadan. Results: A total of 33 children and adolescents were included in this study. Of these, 16 were male and 17 were female. Majority (60.6%) of the patients could complete their fasting during the Ramadan. Patients were divided into two groups, those who completed fasting were considered as Group-I, whereas patients who broke the fast were in Group-ll. Blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c weight, and insulin dose before and after Ramadan in two groups showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Children older than 11 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus with conventional twice-a-day regimen can fast safely during Ramadan provided they have proper education and intensive follow-up during Ramadan. PMID:24701429

  5. Basic concepts and architectural details of the Delphi trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Bocci, V.; Booth, P.S.L.; Bozzo, M. |

    1995-08-01

    Delphi (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is one of the four experiments of the LEP (Large Electron Positron) collider at CERN. The detector is laid out to provide a nearly 4 {pi} coverage for charged particle tracking, electromagnetic, hadronic calorimetry and extended particle identification. The trigger system consists of four levels. The first two are synchronous with the BCO (Beam Cross Over) and rely on hardwired control units, while the last two are performed asynchronously with respect to the BCO and are driven by the Delphi host computers. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive global view of the trigger system architecture, presenting in detail the first two levels, their various hardware components and the latest modifications introduced in order to improve their performance and make more user friendly the whole software user interface.

  6. Bat Triggered Target of Opportunity Observations with RXTE (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We propose to trigger RXTE PCA observations of new galactic sources discovered as part of the Hard X-ray Transient Monitor of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift satellite. BAT can provide an early hard X-ray (15-50 keV) trigger on a moderately bright new source. We need the complementary high sensitivity timing data from RXTE to distinguish between various models for the origin of the new transient. By studying the temporal properties of the source in the early turn-on phase we can distinguish between the early accretion disk flow of a black hole candidate, and the periodic emission from a millisecond pulsar or longer period pulsar. This will allow us to rapidly identify the source class and to publish results from the turn-on phase of newly discovered galactic transients.

  7. Externally Controlled Triggered-Release of Drug from PLGA Micro and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xin; Tan, Shengnan; Bandara, H. M. H. N.; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Siguo; Smyth, Hugh D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm infections are extremely hard to eradicate and controlled, triggered and controlled drug release properties may prolong drug release time. In this study, the ability to externally control drug release from micro and nanoparticles was investigated. We prepared micro/nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin (CIP) and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA. Both micro/nanoparticles were observed to have narrow size distributions. We investigated and compared their passive and externally triggered drug release properties based on their different encapsulation structures for the nano and micro systems. In passive release studies, CIP demonstrated a fast rate of release in first 2 days which then slowed and sustained release for approximately 4 weeks. Significantly, magnetic nanoparticles containing systems all showed ability to have triggered drug release when exposed to an external oscillating magnetic field (OMF). An experiment where the OMF was turned on and off also confirmed the ability to control the drug release in a pulsatile manner. The magnetically triggered release resulted in a 2-fold drug release increase compared with normal passive release. To confirm drug integrity following release, the antibacterial activity of released drug was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. CIP maintained its antimicrobial activity after encapsulation and triggered release. PMID:25479357

  8. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  9. Provide, provide: the economics of aging.

    PubMed

    1998-06-26

    Most older persons face two potentially serious economic problems: (a) declining earning power and (b) declining health that can be partly offset by increased utilization of health care. The decline in earning power is largely attributable to physiological changes and to obsolescence of skills and knowledge. These adverse effects are exacerbated by public and private policies that reduce the incentives of older persons to continue work and increase the cost to employers of employing older workers. The problems of earnings replacement and health care payment are usually discussed separately, but there are several reasons why they should be considered together. First, there are often tradeoffs between the two. Money is money, and for most people there is never enough to go around. This is self-evident where private funds are concerned. Low-income elderly, for instance, frequently must choose between expensive prescription drugs and an adequate diet. For middle-income elderly, the choice may be between saving on medigap insurance or forgoing an airplane trip to a grandchild's graduation. Difficult choices are also inherent in the allocation of public funds. The same tax receipts that could be used to maintain or increase retirement benefits could be used to fund additional care, and vice versa. In discussing these tradeoffs, some analysts assert that people will gladly give up other goods and services for medical care that cures illness, relieves pain, or restores function. Others believe that some people would forgo some health insurance in order to maintain access to other goods and services. A second reason for looking at the two problems together is that they pose similar questions for public policy. How much should each generation provide for its own needs in old age, and how much should be provided by the generations that follow? How much provision should be voluntary, how much compulsory? How much intra-generational redistribution is appropriate after age 65

  10. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  11. Trigger points – ultrasound and thermal findings

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, MC; Cojocaru, IM; Voiculescu, VM; Cojan-Carlea, NA; Dumitru, VL; Berteanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle pain can be elicited by any irritation of the nociceptors in the muscle or central sensitization in the central nervous system. The most frequently described muscle pain syndromes are myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome has a more localized manifestation, the trigger points. Objective: If there is a correlation between the clinical findings, the ultrasound examination and the thermal pattern of trigger points exist. Material and method: The presence of trigger points can be identified by using clinical criteria. An ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the trigger point dimensions. The ultrasound showed an ellipsoidal hypoechogenic area in the muscle. A thermography of the low back region was performed in order to observe the thermal pattern of the area. Results: Trigger points are represented by a higher temperature area surrounded by a cooler area, probably caused by a deficit in the blood flow around those points. Discussion: Infrared thermography could be a great asset for the monitoring of neuromusculoskeletal disorders and their dynamics, as well as an important aid for the initial diagnosis of conditions associated with tissue temperature alterations. PMID:26351532

  12. Design and performance of the upgrade of the CMS L1 muon trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortignon, P.

    2016-07-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) LHC will run at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, providing CMS with proton collisions at an expected luminosity which is almost double the LHC design value of 1034cm-2s-1, and almost three times the peak luminosity reached during Run1 of 7.7 ·1033cm-2s-1. The higher luminosity and center of mass energy of the LHC will raise the Level 1 (L1) muon trigger rate by almost a factor six for a given muon transverse momentum pT threshold. It is therefore necessary to increase the muon (pT) threshold to keep the trigger rate below 100 kHz, the maximum sustainable rate for the CMS detectors. An increase of the L1 trigger thresholds implies a lowering of the efficiency in detecting signals from new physics. The CMS muon trigger is upgraded using custom designed AMC boards, with more powerful FPGAs and larger memories. The upgraded CMS muon trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger boards for muon pT assignment, drastically reducing the trigger rate and improving the trigger efficiency. The upgraded system design exploits the redundancy of the CMS muon detectors at a very early stage merging different muon detector information already at L1. The pileup subtracted information from the upgraded calorimeter trigger allows to require isolated muons already in the L1 algorithms. The upgrade trigger is also designed to include inputs from GEM, the phase 2 muon detector upgrade in the very high pseudorapidity region.

  13. Silence of synaptotagmin I in INS-1 cells inhibits fast exocytosis and fast endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Xiong; Zhou Keming; Wu Zhengxing . E-mail: xutao@ibp.ac.cn; Xu Tao . E-mail: ibbwuzx@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2006-08-18

    Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca{sup 2+} sensor for triggering fast synchronized release of neurotransmitters. However, controversy remains whether Syt I is also obligatory for the exocytosis and endocytosis of larger dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in endocrine cells. In this study, we used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence the expression of Syt I and investigated the roles of Syt I on exocytosis and endocytosis in INS-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of Syt I is remarkably reduced by the Syt I gene targeting shRNA. Using high-time resolution capacitance measurement, we found that the silence of Syt I decreased the calcium sensitivity of fusion of insulin granules and therefore reduced the exocytotic burst triggered by step-like [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub i} elevation. In addition, the occurrence frequency and amplitude of fast endocytosis were remarkably reduced in the silenced cells. We conclude that Syt I not only participates in the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing of LDCV fusion with plasmalemma, but also plays a crucial role in fast endocytosis in INS-1 cells.

  14. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  15. Data acquisition, triggering, and filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 1017 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.

  16. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use. PMID:11696968

  17. Fast and effective?

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2013-12-18

    The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting. PMID:24345130

  18. fastKDE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Travis A.; Kashinath, Karthik

    2015-05-22

    This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.

  19. Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Roller, Ladislav; Zitnanová, Inka; Dai, Li; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Adams, Michael E; Zitnan, Dusan

    2010-03-01

    Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) from endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and BLAST search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology searches, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by the eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of natural and the ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all insects examined, the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. We report for the first time the presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, including the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). The possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservation of ETH-ETHR signaling. PMID:19951734

  20. Nonsense codons trigger an RNA partitioning shift.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Angela D; Gudikote, Jayanthi P; Wang, Jun; Chan, Wai-Kin; Chang, Yao-Fu; Olivas, O Renee; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2009-02-13

    T-cell receptor-beta (TCRbeta) genes naturally acquire premature termination codons (PTCs) as a result of programmed gene rearrangements. PTC-bearing TCRbeta transcripts are dramatically down-regulated to protect T-cells from the deleterious effects of the truncated proteins that would otherwise be produced. Here we provide evidence that two responses collaborate to elicit this dramatic down-regulation. One is rapid mRNA decay triggered by the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) RNA surveillance pathway. We demonstrate that this occurs in highly purified nuclei lacking detectable levels of three different cytoplasmic markers, but containing an outer nuclear membrane marker, suggesting that decay occurs either in the nucleoplasm or at the outer nuclear membrane. The second response is a dramatic partitioning shift in the nuclear fraction-to-cytoplasmic fraction mRNA ratio that results in few TCRbeta transcripts escaping to the cytoplasmic fraction of cells. Analysis of TCRbeta mRNA kinetics after either transcriptional repression or induction suggested that this nonsense codon-induced partitioning shift (NIPS) response is not the result of cytoplasmic NMD but instead reflects retention of PTC(+) TCRbeta mRNA in the nuclear fraction of cells. We identified TCRbeta sequences crucial for NIPS but found that NIPS is not exclusively a property of TCRbeta transcripts, and we identified non-TCRbeta sequences that elicit NIPS. RNA interference experiments indicated that NIPS depends on the NMD factors UPF1 and eIF4AIII but not the NMD factor UPF3B. We propose that NIPS collaborates with NMD to retain and degrade a subset of PTC(+) transcripts at the outer nuclear membrane and/or within the nucleoplasm. PMID:19091751

  1. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  2. RFI Mitigation for FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Nan, Rendong; Gan, Hengqian; Yue, Youling; Wu, Mingchang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Chengjin; Peng, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. The construction was officially commenced in March 2011. The first light of FAST is expected in 2016. Due to the high sensitivity of FAST, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation for the telescope is required to assure the realization of the scientific goals. In order to protect the radio environment of FAST site, the local government has established a radio quiet zone with 30 km radius. Moreover, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) designs and measurements for FAST have also been carried out, and some examples, such as EMC designs for actuator and focus cabin, have been introduced briefly.

  3. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  4. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  5. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  6. Triggering of Aftershocks by Free Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufe, C. G.; Varnes, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    Periodicities observed in aftershock sequences may result from earthquake triggering by free oscillations of the Earth produced by the main shock. Using an algorithm we developed to compute spectra of inter-event times, we examine inter-event intervals of teleseismically recorded aftershock sequences from large (M>7.5) main shocks that occurred during 1980-2001. Observed periodicities may result from triggering at intervals that are multiples of normal mode periods. We have focussed our analysis of inter-event times on identification of triggering by free oscillations at periods in the range 6-60 minutes. In this paper we describe our most commonly observed aftershock inter-event times and the free oscillation modes most likely to be the triggers. Because of their separation, the longer period modes are easiest to identify in the aftershock data (0S2 at 53.9 minutes, 0S3 at 35.6 minutes, 0S4 at 25.8 minutes, and 0T2 at 43.9 minutes). Evidence of triggering by 0S2 and 0T2 was also found in the aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA (M 7) earthquake (Kamal and Mansinha, 1996). Because of the plethora of higher modes, shorter inter-event periods are more difficult to identify with a particular mode. Preliminary analysis of the 2001 Bhuj, India (M 7.7) earthquake sequence tentatively identifies a contribution to triggering of the first four large aftershocks by multiples of 0S12 (8.37 minutes).

  7. Gamma-quanta onboard identification in the GAMMA-400 experiment using the counting and triggers signals formation system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Galper, A. M.; Kheymits, M. D.; Murchenko, A. E.; Yurkin, Y. T.

    2016-02-01

    GAMMA-400 (Gamma Astronomical Multifunctional Modular Apparatus) will be the new generation satellite gamma-observatory. Gamma-telescope GAMMA-400 consists of anticoincidence system (top and lateral sections - ACtop and AClat), the converter-tracker (C), time-of-flight system (2 sections S1 and S2), position-sensitive calorimeter CC1 makes of 2 strips layers and 2 layers of CsI(Tl) detectors, electromagnetic calorimeter CC2 composed of CsI(Tl) crystals, neutron detector ND, scintillation detectors of the calorimeter (S3 and S4) and lateral detectors of the calorimeter (LD). All detector systems ACtop, AClat, S1-S4, LD consist of two BC-408 based sensitive layers of 1 cm thickness each. Three apertures provide events registration both from upper and lateral directions. The main aperture provides the best angular (all strip layers information analysis) and energy (energy deposition in the all detectors studying) resolution. Gamma-telescope GAMMA-400 is optimized for the gamma-quanta and charged particles with energy 100 GeV detection with the best parameters in the main aperture. Triggers in the main aperture will be formed using information about particle direction provided by time of flight system and presence of charged particle or backsplash signal formed according to analysis of energy deposition in combination of both layers anticoincidence systems ACtop and AClat individual detectors. For double-layer ACtop taking into account both amplitude and temporal trigger marker onboard analysis only 2.8% photons will be wrongly recognized as electrons or protons for 100 GeV particles. The part of charged particles mistakenly identified as gammas is ∼10-5 using described algorithms. For E∼3 GeV less than 3% photons will be wrongly recognized as charged particles and fraction of wrongly identified charged particles will be also ∼10-5. In the additional aperture the particles identification is provided by analysis of signals corresponding to energy deposition in the

  8. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  9. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  10. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kolm, I.; Pawlik, E.; Eggmann, N.; Kamarachev, J.; Kerl, K.; French, L.E.; Hofbauer, G.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE) following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance. PMID:24019776

  11. THE HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPLORER TRIGGERING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    E. FENIMORE; M. GALASSI

    2001-05-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer uses a triggering algorithm for gamma-ray bursts that can achieve near the statistical limit by fitting to several background regions to remove trends. Dozens of trigger criteria run simultaneously covering time scales from 80 msec to 10.5 sec or longer. Each criteria is controlled by about 25 constants which gives the flexibility to search wide parameter spaces. On orbit, we have been able to operate at 6{sigma}, a factor of two more sensitive than previous experiments.

  12. Fast ion JET diagnostics: confinement and losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Sharapov, S. E.; Syme, D. B.; Cecconello, M.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Yavorskij, V.; Johnson, T.; Murari, A.; Reich, M.; Gorini, G.; Zoita, V.

    2008-03-12

    A study of magnetically confined fast ions in tokamaks plays an important role in burning plasma research. To reach ignition and steady burning of a reactor plasma an adequate confinement of energetic ions produced by NBI heating, accelerated with ICRF and born in fusion reactions is essential to provide efficient heating of the bulk plasma. Thus, investigation of the fast ion behaviour is an immediate task for present-day large machines, such as JET, in order to understand the main mechanisms of slowing down, redistribution and losses, and to develop optimal plasma scenarios. Today's JET has an enhanced suite of fast ion diagnostics both of confined and lost ions that enable to significantly contribute to this important area of research. Fast ion populations of p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, made with ICRF, NBI, and fusion reactions have been investigated in experiments on JET with sophisticated diagnostics in conventional and shear-reversed plasmas, exploring a wide range of effects. This paper will introduce to the JET fast-ion diagnostic techniques and will give an overview of recent observations. A synergy of the unique diagnostic set was utilised in JET, and studies of the response of fast ions to MHD modes (e.g. tornado modes, sawtooth crashes), fast {sup 3}He-ions behaviour in shear-reversed plasmas are impressive examples of that. Some results on fast ion losses in JET experiments with various levels of the toroidal field ripple will be demonstrated.

  13. Flash floods in the Tatra Mountain streams: frequency and triggers.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Czajka, B; Janecka, K; Lempa, M; Kaczka, R J; Stoffel, M

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods represent a frequently recurring natural phenomenon in the Tatra Mountains. On the northern slopes of the mountain chain, located in Poland, ongoing and expected future changes in climate are thought to further increase the adverse impacts of flash floods. Despite the repeat occurrence of major floods in the densely populated foothills of the Polish Tatras, the headwaters have been characterized by a surprising lack of data, such that any analysis of process variability or hydrometeorological triggers has been largely hampered so far. In this study, dendrogeomorphic techniques have been employed in four poorly-gauged torrential streams of the northern slope of the Tatra Mountains to reconstruct temporal and spatial patterns of past events. Using more than 1100 increment cores of trees injured by past flash floods, we reconstruct 47 events covering the last 148 years and discuss synoptic situations leading to the triggering of flash floods with the existing meteorological and flow gauge data. Tree-ring analyses have allowed highlighting the seasonality of events, providing new insights about potential hydrometeorological triggers as well as a differentiating flash flood activity between catchments. Results of this study could be useful to design future strategies to deal with flash flood risks at the foothills of the Polish Tatras and in the Vistula River catchment. PMID:25594906

  14. A 16 channel discriminator VME board with enhanced triggering capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Menon, G.

    2012-08-01

    Electronics and data acquisition systems used in small and large scale laboratories often have to handle analog signals with varying polarity, amplitude and duration which have to be digitized to be used as trigger signals to validate the acquired data. In the specific case of experiments dealing with ionizing radiation, ancillary particle detectors (for instance plastic scintillators or Resistive Plate Chambers) are used to trigger and select the impinging particles for the experiment. A novel approach using commercial LVDS line receivers as discriminator devices is presented. Such devices, with a proper calibration, can handle positive and negative analog signals in a wide dynamic range (from 20 mV to 800 mV signal amplitude). The clear advantages, with respect to conventional discriminator devices, are reduced costs, high reliability of a mature technology and the possibility of high integration scale. Moreover, commercial discriminator boards with positive input signal and a wide threshold swing are not available on the market. The present paper describes the design and characterization of a VME board capable to handle 16 differential or single-ended input channels. The output digital signals, available independently for each input, can be combined in the board into three independent trigger logic units which provide additional outputs for the end user.

  15. Autonomous stimulus triggered self-healing in smart structural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, C. J.; White, J. A. P.; McCombe, G.; Chatterjee, P.; Bond, I. P.; Trask, R. S.

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the ability of biological systems to sense and autonomously heal damage, this research has successfully demonstrated the first autonomous, stimulus triggered, self-healing system in a structural composite material. Both the sensing and healing mechanisms are reliant on microvascular channels incorporated within a laminated composite material. For the triggering mechanism, a single air filled vessel was pressurized, sealed and monitored. Upon drop weight impact (10 J), delamination and microcrack connectivity between the pressurized vessel and those open to ambient led to a pressure loss which, with the use of a suitable sensor, triggered a pump to deliver a healing agent to the damage zone. Using this autonomous healing approach, near full recovery of post-impact compression strength was achieved (94% on average). A simplified alternative system with healing agent continuously flowing through the vessels, akin to blood flow, was found to offer 100% recovery of the material’s virgin strength. Optical microscopy and ultrasonic C-scanning provided further evidence of large-scale infusion of matrix damage with the healing agent. The successful implementation of this bioinspired technology could substantially enhance the integrity and reliability of aerospace structures, whilst offering benefits through improved performance/weight ratios and extended lifetimes.

  16. Designing light responsive bistable arches for rapid, remotely triggered actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew L.; Shankar, M. Ravi; Backman, Ryan; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E.; Wang, David H.; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J.

    2014-03-01

    Light responsive azobenzene functionalized polymer networks enjoy several advantages as actuator candidates including the ability to be remotely triggered and the capacity for highly tunable control via light intensity, polarization, wavelength and material alignments. One signi cant challenge hindering these materials from being employed in applications is their often relatively slow actuation rates and low power densities, especially in the absence of photo-thermal e ects. One well known strategy employed in nature for increasing actuation rate and power output is the storage and quick release of elastic energy (e.g., the Venus ytrap). Using nature as inspiration we have conducted a series of experiments and developed an equilibrium mechanics model for investigating remotely triggered snap-through of bistable light responsive arches made from glassy azobenzene functionalized polymers. After brie y discussing experimental observations we consider in detail a geometrically exact, planar rod model of photomechanical snap-through. Theoretical energy release characteristics and unique strain eld pro les provide insight toward design strategies for improved actuator performance. The bistable light responsive arches presented here are potentially a powerful option for remotely triggered, rapid motion from apparently passive structures in applications such as binary optical switches and positioners, surfaces with morphing topologies, and impulse locomotion in micro or millimeter scale robotics.

  17. Gangliosides trigger inflammatory responses via TLR4 in brain glia.

    PubMed

    Jou, Ilo; Lee, Jee Hoon; Park, Soo Young; Yoon, Hee Jung; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Eun Jung

    2006-05-01

    Gangliosides participate in various cellular events of the central nervous system and have been closely implicated in many neuronal diseases. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological activity of gangliosides are poorly understood. Here we report that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may mediate the ganglioside-triggered inflammation in glia, brain resident immune cells. Gangliosides rapidly altered the cell surface expression of TLR4 in microglia and astrocytes within 3 hours. Using TLR4-specific siRNA and a dominant-negative TLR4 gene, we clearly demonstrate the functional importance of TLR4 in ganglioside-triggered activation of glia. Inhibition of TLR4 expression by TLR4-siRNA suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-binding activity, NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase activity, and transcription of inflammatory cytokines after exposure to gangliosides. Transient transfection of dominant-negative TLR4 also attenuated NF-kappaB-binding activity and interleukin-6 promoter activity. In contrast, these activities were slightly elevated in cells with wild-type TLR4. In addition, CD14 was required for ganglioside-triggered activation of glia, and lipid raft formation may be associated with ganglioside-stimulated signal propagation. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR4 may provide an explanation for the pathological ability of gangliosides to cause inflammatory conditions in the brain. PMID:16651628

  18. X-ray Images of Rocket-Triggered Lightning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. R.; Schaal, M.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    We report the first, high-time resolution images of the x-ray emissions from lightning, made at the UF/Florida Tech International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT). The images were taken at a rate of 10 million frames per second using a new pinhole-type camera, located 44-m from rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning. The camera, which consists of 30 NaI/photomultiplier tube detectors, was pointed 50 m above the ground over the rocket-launcher used to trigger lightning. The field of view of the camera was ±38° in both the vertical and horizontal directions with an angular resolution of about 14°. During the summer of 2010, several triggered lightning flashes were observed by the x-ray camera. For these flashes, the lightning channels were clearly visible in the x-ray emissions. Furthermore, as the lightning dart leaders propagated downward to ground, as measured by high speed optical cameras, the x-ray sources were also observed to descend at the same speed, demonstrating that the lightning dart leader was the source of the x-ray emission. Overall, these results provide new insight into the production of energetic radiation and the propagation and attachment of lightning, all of which remain poorly understood.

  19. Fast Resistive Bolometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    A bolometer with microsecond scale response time is under construction for the Caltech spheromak experiment to measure radiation from a ˜20 μs duration plasma discharge emitting ˜10^2---10^3 kW/m^2. A gold film several micrometers thick absorbs the radiation, heats up, and the consequent change in resistance can be measured. The film itself is vacuum deposited upon a glass slide. Several geometries for the film are under consideration to optimize the amount of radiation absorbed, the response time and the signal-to-noise ratio. We measure the change in voltage across the film for a known current driven through it; a square pulse (3---30A, ˜20 μs) is used to avoid Joule heating. Results from prototypes tested with a UV flashlamp will be presented. After optimizing the bolometer design, the final vacuum-compatible diagnostic would consist of a plasma-facing bolometer and a reference in a camera obscura. This device could provide a design for fast resistive bolometry.

  20. Use of the ECL-CAMAC trigger processor system for recoil missing mass triggers at the Tagged Photon Spectrometer at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Bracker, S.; Hartner, G.; Appel, J.; Nash, T.

    1981-05-01

    A trigger processor in operation since May 1980 at the Tagged Photon Spectrometer at Fermilab will be described. The processor, based on the Fermilab ECL-CAMAC system, allows fast selection of high mass diffractive events from the total hadronic cross section. Data from a recoil detector, consisting of 3 wire chambers and 4 layers of scintillator concentric about a 1.5 m liquid hydrogen target, is digitized and presented to the processor within 3 sec. From the chamber data are found the vertices and angles of all recoiling tracks.

  1. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  2. Fasting and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, E; Lewis, N L; Garza, C; Shulman, R J

    The effects of short-term fasting (skipping breakfast) on the problem-solving performance of 9 to 11 yr old children were studied under the controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. The behavioral test battery included an assessment of IQ, the Matching Familiar Figure Test and Hagen Central Incidental Test. Glucose and insulin levels were measured in blood. All assessments were made under fasting and non-fasting conditions. Skipping breakfast was found to have adverse effects on the children's late morning problem-solving performance. These findings support observations that the timing and nutrient composition of meals have acute and demonstrable effects on behavior. PMID:6764933

  3. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  4. Triggering on electrons, jets and tau leptons with the CMS upgraded calorimeter trigger for the LHC RUN II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabi, A.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J. B.; Strebler, T.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has implemented a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. During Run II, the LHC will increase its centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition (DAQ) system has been upgraded. A novel concept for the L1 calorimeter trigger is introduced: the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT) . In this design, nine main processors receive each all of the calorimeter data from an entire event provided by 18 preprocessors. This design is not different from that of the CMS DAQ and HLT systems. The advantage of the TMT architecture is that a global view and full granularity of the calorimeters can be exploited by sophisticated algorithms. The goal is to maintain the current thresholds for calorimeter objects and improve the performance for their selection. The performance of these algorithms will be demonstrated, both in terms of efficiency and rate reduction. The callenging aspects of the pile-up mitigation and firmware design will be presented.

  5. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  6. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  7. Thermally triggered degradation of transient electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kaitz, Joshua A; Wie, Dae Seung; Shin, Jiho; Lee, Olivia P; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    Thermally triggered transient electronics using wax-encapsulated acid, which enable rapid device destruction via acidic degradation of the metal electronic components are reported. Using a cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA) substrate affords a more rapid destruction of the device due to acidic depolymerization of cPPA. PMID:25991389

  8. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  9. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  10. Triggered earthquakes and deep well activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, C.; Wesson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Earthquakes can be triggered by any significant perturbation of the hydrologic regime. In areas where potentially active faults are already close to failure, the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injection, or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure in a major earthquake. Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting, nearby faults caused by the increased formation fluid pressure. Earthquakes associated with production appear to respond to more complex mechanisms of subsidence, crustal unloading, and poroelastic changes in response to applied strains induced by the massive withdrawal of subsurface material. As each of these different types of triggered events can occur up to several years after well activities have begun (or even several years after all well activities have stopped), this suggests that the actual triggering process may be a very complex combination of effects, particularly if both fluid extraction and injection have taken place locally. To date, more than thirty cases of earthquakes triggered by well activities can be documented throughout the United States and Canada. Based on these case histories, it is evident that, owing to preexisting stress conditions in the upper crust, certain areas tend to have higher probabilities of exhibiting such induced seismicity. ?? 1992 Birkha??user Verlag.

  11. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  12. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kilb, D; Gomberg, J; Bodin, P

    2000-11-30

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the near-field, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude Mw = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby. PMID:11117741

  13. Laser trigger system for the Jupiter module

    SciTech Connect

    Paiva, R.; Sundvoid, S.; Morelli, G.; Powell, C.; Hamil, R.; Corley, J.; Pankuch, P.; Law, K.; Alexander, J.

    1995-10-01

    A UV laser trigger system has been designed to trigger the eight SF6 filled high voltage switches in the Jupiter module. The system is compact and modular, allowing for approximately thirty lasers to be triggered simultaneously in the full Jupiter design. The laser will be kinematically mounted near the high voltage section to minimize the path length to the high voltage switches and decrease the sensitivity to misalignment. The laser system is specifically built for the purpose of triggering the Jupiter module. It is a 265 nm UV laser system designed to generate eight simultaneous laser pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulsewidth. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser is frequency quadrupled with a two stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy is frequency doubled with a type II KTP crystal to generate 530 nm energy. The 530 nm output is frequency doubled with a type I KD*P crystal to generate 265 nm energy. The 265 nm pulse is split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and a stable energy output level for the system were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged in a rugged, sealed aluminum structure 10 in. {times} 19 in. {times} 2.75 in. The size of the laser electronics unit is 7 in. {times} 8 in. {times} 8 in.

  14. Large Scale Impacts and Triggered Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of impact induced volcanism continues to blossom ([1-3] and other references). However, this appealing idea is seldom supported with an appropriate physical mechanism. The aim of this publication is to critically examine some frequently cited mechanisms of impact energy transformation into a trigger for terrestrial volcanism and magmatism.

  15. A fast meteor detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural, P.

    2016-01-01

    A low latency meteor detection algorithm for use with fast steering mirrors had been previously developed to track and telescopically follow meteors in real-time (Gural, 2007). It has been rewritten as a generic clustering and tracking software module for meteor detection that meets both the demanding throughput requirements of a Raspberry Pi while also maintaining a high probability of detection. The software interface is generalized to work with various forms of front-end video pre-processing approaches and provides a rich product set of parameterized line detection metrics. Discussion will include the Maximum Temporal Pixel (MTP) compression technique as a fast thresholding option for feeding the detection module, the detection algorithm trade for maximum processing throughput, details on the clustering and tracking methodology, processing products, performance metrics, and a general interface description.

  16. Arizona's Application Service Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Darla

    2002-01-01

    Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service provider (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, provides access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home. (EV)

  17. Provider 1997 corporate profiles.

    PubMed

    1997-05-01

    As the long term care industry seeks out new products, new solutions, and new ways of providing quality care, it is important for long term care providers to know more about the companies they do business with. The following corporate profiles showcase information about leading companies in the long term health care industry. Some of the areas highlighted include: mission of company, history, product lines, support services. We hope you will find this information useful when making purchasing decisions, and we're confident you'll keep this issue of Provider as a handy reference guide. The information in the following corporate profiles was supplied by the companies. Neither Provider magazine nor the American Health Care Association endorses the products and services listed in this section. Provider magazine and the American Health Care Association disclaim any and all liability related to or arising from the information contained in the profiles. PMID:10166888

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Trigger Problem in Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egedal, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection releases magnetic energy not only in steady-state, but also in time-dependent and often explosive events requiring a transition from slow reconnection to fast. The question of what causes this transition is known as the ``trigger problem'' and is not well understood. We address the trigger problem using the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) at MIT. We observe spontaneous reconnection events [1] with exponentially growing reconnection rates, and we characterize the 3D dynamics of these events using multiple internal probes. The observed reconnection is asymmetric: it begins at one toroidal location and propagates around in both directions. The spontaneous onset is facilitated by an interaction between the x-line current channel and a global mode in the electrostatic potential. It is this mode which breaks axisymmetry and enables a localized decrease in x-line current. We model the onset using an empirical Ohm's law and current continuity, which is maintained by ion polarization currents associated with the mode. The model reproduces the exponential growth of the reconnection electric field, and the model growth rate agrees well with the experimentally measured growth rate. The onset location is likely determined by small asymmetries in the in-vessel coils. To further investigate this conjecture new coils have been installed, which allow for controlled changes in toroidal asymmetry. The observations are suggestive of solar flare dynamics and are relevant to tokamak research [3]. [1] Egedal, J. et al. Laboratory Observations of Spontaneous Magnetic Reconnection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 015003 (2007). [2] Katz, N. et al. Laboratory Observation of Localized Onset of Magnetic Reconnection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004 (2010). [3] Park, H.K. et al. Self-organized Te redistribution during driven reconnection processes in high-temperature plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 13, 055907 (2006).

  19. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Vodopianov, A V; Golubev, S V; Izotov, I V; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 micros and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10(12) cm(-3), required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T(e) approximately = 20 eV. PMID:20192326

  20. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vodopianov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2010-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 {mu}s and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T{sub e}{approx_equal}20 eV.

  1. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  2. Molecular characterization of the IgE-binding epitopes in the fast ω-gliadins of Triticeae in relation to wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuye; Tang, Heng; Li, Min; Ma, Xin; Yin, Huayan; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiaocun; Qiao, Xuguang; Li, Anfei; Kong, Lingrang

    2016-10-10

    Fast ω-gliadins were minor components of wheat storage proteins but a major antigen triggering allergy to wheat. Sixty-six novel full-length fast ω-gliadin genes with unique characteristics were cloned and sequenced from wheat and its relative species using a PCR-based strategy. Their coding regions ranged from 177bp to 987bp in length and encoded 4.28kDa to 37.56kDa proteins. On the base of first three deduced amino acids at the N-terminal, these genes could be classified into the six subclasses of SRL-, TRQ-, GRL-, NRL-, SRP- and SRM-type ω-gliadin genes. Compared by multiple alignments, these genes were significantly different from each other, due to the insertion or deletion at the repetitive domain. An analysis of the IgE-binding epitopes of the 66 deduced fast ω-gliadins demonstrated that they contained 0-24 IgE-binding epitopes. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the fast ω-gliadins and slow ω-gliadins were separated into two groups and their divergence time was 21.64millionyears ago. Sequence data of the fast ω-gliadin genes assist in the study of the origins and evolutions of the different types of ω-gliadins while also providing a basis for the synthesis of monoclonal antibodies to detect wheat antigen content. PMID:27374148

  3. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  4. International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    Cryospheric Sciences Program "International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow" (PI, C. Lingle) provided partial support for publication of Annals of Glaciology 36 by the International Glaciological Society. Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed journal. Annals 36, which was published in 2003, contains 39 peer-reviewed and edited papers from the International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow, which was held in Yakutat, Alaska, 10-14 June 2002.

  5. Nature plus nurture: the triggering of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body's own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens. PMID:26430854

  6. Trigger events: enviroclimatic coupling of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Wilson, James M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Arthur, Ray; Jahrling, Peter B.; Formenty, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We use spatially continuous satellite data as a correlate of precipitation within tropical Africa and show that the majority of documented Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks were closely associated with sharply drier conditions at the end of the rainy season. We propose that these trigger events may enhance transmission of Ebola virus from its cryptic reservoir to humans. These findings suggest specific directions to help understand the sylvatic cycle of the virus and may provide early warning tools to detect possible future outbreaks of this enigmatic disease.

  7. Energetic radiation produced during rocket-triggered lightning.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R; Uman, Martin A; Rassoul, Hamid K; Al-Dayeh, Maher; Caraway, Lee; Jerauld, Jason; Rakov, Vladimir A; Jordan, Douglas M; Rambo, Keith J; Corbin, Vincent; Wright, Brian

    2003-01-31

    Using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector designed to operate in electrically noisy environments, we observed intense bursts of energetic radiation (> 10 kiloelectron volts) during the dart leader phase of rocket-triggered lightning, just before and possibly at the very start of 31 out of the 37 return strokes measured. The bursts had typical durations of less than 100 microseconds and deposited many tens of megaelectron volts into the detector. These results provide strong evidence that the production of runaway electrons is an important process during lightning. PMID:12560549

  8. Sneezing during Micturition: A Possible Trigger of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, William Derval

    2015-01-01

    A perfectly well 39-year-old man sneezed during micturition and developed classic features of acute bacterial prostatitis corroborated by laboratory evidence of prostatic inflammation/infection. The prostate-specific antigen level at presentation was 9.6 ng/mL and declined to 1.23 ng/mL one month later on levofloxacin. This is the first report in the medical literature of sneezing while voiding being a possible trigger of acute bacterial prostatitis. A biologically plausible mechanism is provided. PMID:26355536

  9. The heads of the measles virus attachment protein move to transmit the fusion-triggering signal

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K; Oezguen, Numan; Rupp, Levi; Kay, Leah; Leonard, Vincent HJ; Braun, Werner; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The measles virus entry system, constituted of attachment (hemagglutinin, H) and fusion proteins, operates based on a variety of natural and targeted receptors. However, the mechanism triggering fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane is not understood. Here we tested a model considering that the two heads of an H-dimer, which are covalently linked at their base, after binding two receptor molecules, move relative to each other to transmit the fusion-triggering signal. Indeed, stabilizing the H-dimer interface by additional inter-molecular disulfide bonds prevented membrane fusion, an effect reversed by a reducing agent. Moreover, a membrane-anchored designated receptor efficiently triggered fusion, provided it engaged the H-dimer at locations proximal to where the natural receptors bind, and distal to the H-dimer interface. We discuss how receptors may force H-heads to switch partners and transmit the fusion-triggering signal. PMID:21217701

  10. Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis: triggering of ceramide generation through sphingomyelin hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrézou, J P; Levade, T; Bettaïeb, A; Andrieu, N; Bezombes, C; Maestre, N; Vermeersch, S; Rousse, A; Laurent, G

    1996-01-01

    The nature of the signaling pathway(s) which initiate drug-triggered apoptosis remains largely unknown and is of fundamental importance in understanding cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Here we show that in the leukemic cell lines U937 and HL-60, daunorubicin, at concentrations which trigger apoptosis, stimulated two distinct cycles of sphingomyelin hydrolysis (approximately 20% decrease at 1 microM) within 4-10 min and 60-75 min with concomitant ceramide generation. We demonstrate that the increase in ceramide levels, which precedes apoptosis, is mediated by a neutral sphingomyelinase and not by ceramide synthase. Indeed, potent ceramide synthase inhibitors such as fumonisin B1 did not affect daunorubicin-triggered sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation or apoptosis. In conclusion, we provide evidence that daunorubicin-triggered apoptosis is mediated by a signaling pathway which is initiated by an early sphingomyelin-derived ceramide production. Images PMID:8665849

  11. The Swift Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients outburst factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Patrizia; Kennea, Jamie; Barthelmy, Scott Douglas; Bozzo, Enrico; Burrows, David N.; Ducci, Lorenzo; Esposito, Paolo; Evans, Phil; Gehrels, Neil; Krimm, Hans A.; Vercellone, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We present the Swift Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients project, which has been exploiting Swift's capabilities in a systematic study of SFXTs and classical supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) since 2007. We performed an efficient long-term monitoring of 16 sources including both SFXTs and classical SGXBs and followed source activity across more than 4 orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity, sampling the light curves on timescales spanning from few hundred seconds to years. We use our measurements of dynamic ranges, duty cycles as a function of luminosity, and luminosity distributions to highlight systematic differences that help discriminate between different theoretical models proposed to explain the differences between the wind accretion processes in SFXTs and classical SGXBs. Our follow-ups of the SFXT outbursts provide a steady advancement in the comprehension of the mechanisms triggering the high X-ray level emission of these sources. In particular, the recent observations of the outburst of the SFXT prototype IGR J17544-2619 on 2014 October 10, when the source reached a peak luminosity of 3x1038 erg s-1, challenged, for the first time, the maximum theoretical luminosity achievable by a wind-fed neutron star high mass X-ray binary. We propose that this giant outburst was due to the formation of a transient accretion disc around the compact object.

  12. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  13. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-08-21

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described.

  14. Fasting Ramadan in diabetic patients: When is fasting not advisable in a person with diabetes?

    PubMed

    Aziz El-Sayed, Adel Abdel; Sabet, Eman Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam, but there is a clear exemption in holy Qur'an for those who are temporarily or permanently ill. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic illnesses globally; it is associated with metabolic risks that might be augmented with fasting. In spite of this risk many Muslims prefer to fast considering not fasting is a great sin and shameful. Defining the situations when fasting is not advisable in a diabetic patient is an important issue which has to be clearly determined on bases of solid evidence whenever possible. The recommendations have to be agreed between experts of physicians and Islamic Religion scientists. The advances in diabetes management necessitate continuous updating of the recommendations to match with Islamic legitimacy. The role of healthcare providers is neither recommending nor preventing a patient from fasting, their role is just to explore risks and provide medical advice for safe fasting. This review summarizes previous trials for risk stratifications and recommendations for fasting in diabetic patients. PMID:26013778

  15. Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Bethke, Gerit; Xu, Yuan; Tsuda, Kenichi; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process for plant innate immunity and development. In plant innate immunity, PCD is believed to prevent the spread of pathogens from the infection site. Although proper control of PCD is important for plant fitness, we have limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating plant PCD. Plant innate immunity triggered by recognition of effectors (effector-triggered immunity, ETI) is often associated with PCD. However pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), which is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), is not. Therefore we hypothesized that PTI might suppress PCD. Here we report that PCD triggered by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) can be suppressed by PTI in Arabidopsis. FB1-triggered cell death was suppressed by treatment with the MAMPs flg22 (a part of bacterial flagellin) or elf18 (a part of the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu) but not chitin (a component of fungal cell walls). Although plant hormone signaling is associated with PCD and PTI, both FB1-triggered cell death and suppression of cell death by flg22 treatment were still observed in mutants deficient in jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. The MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 are transiently activated and inactivated within one hour during PTI. We found that FB1 activated MPK3 and MPK6 about 36–48 hours after treatment. Interestingly, this late activation was attenuated by flg22 treatment. These results suggest that PTI suppression of FB1-triggered cell death may involve suppression of MPK3/MPK6 signaling but does not require JA/ET/SA signaling. PMID:23560104

  16. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  17. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  18. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  19. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  20. Ground motions at the outermost limits of seismically triggered landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.; Harp, Edwin L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, we and our colleagues have conducted field investigations in which we mapped the outermost limits of triggered landslides in four earthquakes: 1987 Whittier Narrows, California (M 5.9), 1987 Superstition Hills, California (M 6.5), 1994 Northridge, California (M 6.7), and 2011 Mineral, Virginia (M 5.8). In an additional two earthquakes, 1976 Guatemala (M 7.5) and 1983 Coalinga, California (M 6.5), we determined limits using high‐resolution aerial‐photographic interpretation in conjunction with more limited ground investigation. Limits in these earthquakes were defined by the locations of the very smallest failures (<1  m3) from the most susceptible slopes that can be identified positively as having been triggered by earthquake shaking. Because we and our colleagues conducted all of these investigations, consistent methodology and criteria were used in determining limits. In the six earthquakes examined, we correlated the outermost landslide limits with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) from ShakeMap models of each earthquake. For the four earthquakes studied by field investigation, the minimum PGA values associated with farthest landslide limits ranged from 0.02g to 0.08g. The range for the two earthquakes investigated using aerial‐photographic interpretations was 0.05–0.11g. Although PGA values at landslide limits depend on several factors, including material strength, topographic amplification, and hydrologic conditions, these values provide an empirically useful lower limiting range of PGA needed to trigger the smallest failures on very susceptible slopes. In a well‐recorded earthquake, this PGA range can be used to identify an outer boundary within which we might expect to find landsliding; in earthquakes that are not well recorded, mapping the outermost landslide limits provides a useful clue about ground‐motion levels at the mapped limits.

  1. Testing Provides Crucial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morial, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    The National Urban League president and CEO Marc H. Morial weighs in on what he sees as the need for continued annual assessments of students, rejecting the course of opting out that has taken hold in some places across America. Assessment data provides students with the opportunity to receive personalized supports and necessary interventions to…

  2. The Provident Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  3. Providers get their due.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J

    1994-11-01

    Providers are getting their due, but only after employing computer software programs to help sort through the complex managed-care contracts they've negotiated. More and more accounting departments are relying on contract management systems to ensure accurate billing. PMID:10138187

  4. FastME 2.0: A Comprehensive, Accurate, and Fast Distance-Based Phylogeny Inference Program.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Vincent; Desper, Richard; Gascuel, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    FastME provides distance algorithms to infer phylogenies. FastME is based on balanced minimum evolution, which is the very principle of Neighbor Joining (NJ). FastME improves over NJ by performing topological moves using fast, sophisticated algorithms. The first version of FastME only included Nearest Neighbor Interchange. The new 2.0 version also includes Subtree Pruning and Regrafting, while remaining as fast as NJ and providing a number of facilities: Distance estimation for DNA and proteins with various models and options, bootstrapping, and parallel computations. FastME is available using several interfaces: Command-line (to be integrated in pipelines), PHYLIP-like, and a Web server (http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/fastme/). PMID:26130081

  5. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  6. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux: a potential asthma trigger.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan M

    2005-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a potential trigger of asthma. Approximately 77% of asthmatics report heartburn. GER is a risk factor for asthma-related hospitalization and oral steroid burst use. Asthmatics may be predisposed to GER development because of a high prevalence of hiatal hernia and autonomic dysregulation and an increased pressure gradient between the abdominal cavity and the thorax, over-riding the lower esophageal sphincter pressure barrier. Asthma medications may potentiate GER. Potential mechanisms of esophageal acid-induced bronchoconstriction include a vagally mediated reflex, local axonal reflexes, heightened bronchial reactivity, and microaspiration, all resulting in neurogenic inflammation. Anti-reflux therapy improves asthma symptoms in approximately 70% of asthmatics with GER. A 3-month empiric trial of twice-daily proton pump inhibitor given 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast and dinner can identify asthmatics who have GER as a trigger of their asthma. PMID:15579368

  8. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  9. Correlated observations of three triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1984-01-01

    Three triggered lightning flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural lightning data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered lightning results to natural lightning phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.

  10. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  11. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  12. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine. PMID:21906054

  13. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  14. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  15. A light-triggered protein secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points. PMID:23671313

  16. Triply triggered doxorubicin release from supramolecular nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; del Barrio, Jesús; Toh, Pearl Pei Chern; Lee, Tung-Chun; Jiao, Dezhi; Rauwald, Urs; Appel, Eric A; Scherman, Oren A

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a supramolecular double hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC) held together by cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) ternary complexation and its subsequent self-assembly into micelles is described. This system is responsive to multiple external triggers including temperature, pH and the addition of a competitive guest. The supramolecular block copolymer assembly consists of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a thermoresponsive block and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as a pH-responsive block. Moreover, encapsulation and controlled drug release was demonstrated with this system using the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). This triple stimuli-responsive DHBC micelle system represents an evolution over conventional double stimuli-responsive covalent diblock copolymer systems and displayed a significant reduction in the viability of HeLa cells upon triggered release of DOX from the supramolecular micellar nanocontainers. PMID:22148638

  17. Event triggered state estimation techniques for power systems with integrated variable energy resources.

    PubMed

    Francy, Reshma C; Farid, Amro M; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-05-01

    For many decades, state estimation (SE) has been a critical technology for energy management systems utilized by power system operators. Over time, it has become a mature technology that provides an accurate representation of system state under fairly stable and well understood system operation. The integration of variable energy resources (VERs) such as wind and solar generation, however, introduces new fast frequency dynamics and uncertainties into the system. Furthermore, such renewable energy is often integrated into the distribution system thus requiring real-time monitoring all the way to the periphery of the power grid topology and not just the (central) transmission system. The conventional solution is two fold: solve the SE problem (1) at a faster rate in accordance with the newly added VER dynamics and (2) for the entire power grid topology including the transmission and distribution systems. Such an approach results in exponentially growing problem sets which need to be solver at faster rates. This work seeks to address these two simultaneous requirements and builds upon two recent SE methods which incorporate event-triggering such that the state estimator is only called in the case of considerable novelty in the evolution of the system state. The first method incorporates only event-triggering while the second adds the concept of tracking. Both SE methods are demonstrated on the standard IEEE 14-bus system and the results are observed for a specific bus for two difference scenarios: (1) a spike in the wind power injection and (2) ramp events with higher variability. Relative to traditional state estimation, the numerical case studies showed that the proposed methods can result in computational time reductions of 90%. These results were supported by a theoretical discussion of the computational complexity of three SE techniques. The work concludes that the proposed SE techniques demonstrate practical improvements to the computational complexity of

  18. I. Specific Nature of Triggering Events.

    PubMed

    Eckert, R

    1965-03-01

    The flash of Noctiluca miliaris occurs only in response to a characteristic all-or-none action potential, the polarity of which is opposite to that of metazoan action potentials, whether recorded internally or externally. Mechanical stimulation evokes a slow, generator-like graded potential which can give rise to the flash-triggering action potential. The flash is all-or-none; it facilitates, summates, and exhibits fatigue, each independently of changes in the amplitude of the action potential. PMID:17790656

  19. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  20. Fire Extinguisher Control System Provides Reliable Cold Weather Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Fast acting, pneumatically and centrally controlled, fire extinguisher /firex/ system is effective in freezing climates. The easy-to-operate system provides a fail-dry function which is activated by an electrical power failure.

  1. HEND Maps of Fast Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a global view of Mars in high-energy, or fast, neutrons. These maps are based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in the gamma ray spectrometer suite. Fast neutrons, like epithermal neutrons, are sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. Unlike epithermal neutrons, however, they are not affected by the presence of carbon dioxide, which at the time of these observations covered the north polar area as 'dry ice' frost. The low flux of fast neutrons (blue and purple colors) in the north polar region suggests an abundance of hydrogen in the soil comparable to that determined in the south from the flux of epithermal neutrons. These observations were acquired during the first two months of mapping operations. Contours of topography are superimposed on these maps for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  3. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  4. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  5. The Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Cancer exosomes trigger fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jason; Steadman, Robert; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the cell-cell communication roles in cancer mediated by secreted vesicles termed exosomes. In this study, we examined whether exosomes produced by cancer cells could transmit information to normal stromal fibroblasts and trigger a cellular response. We found that some cancer-derived exosomes could trigger elevated α-smooth muscle actin expression and other changes consistent with the process of fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts. We show that TGF-β is expressed at the exosome surface in association with the transmembrane proteoglycan betaglycan. Although existing in a latent state, this complex was fully functional in eliciting SMAD-dependent signaling. Inhibiting either signaling or betaglycan expression attenuated differentiation. While the kinetics and overall magnitude of the response were similar to that achieved with soluble TGF-β, we identified important qualitative differences unique to the exosomal route of TGF-β delivery, as exemplified by a significant elevation in fibroblast FGF2 production. This hitherto unknown trigger for instigating cellular differentiation in a distinctive manner has major implications for mechanisms underlying cancer-recruited stroma, fibrotic diseases, and wound-healing responses. PMID:21098712

  7. Oracle Database Y2K Protection Triggers Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cribbs, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    I developed PL/SQL code that generates or modifies PL/SQL �BEFORE EACH ROW� triggers to protect database date columns from Y2K non-compliant date input (from all sources) into the database. A function is imbedded in the triggers that uses the �RR� year formatted date conversion. For each table with at least one date column and with INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE trigger(s), my code inserts date conversion code into the existing trigger(s). For INSERT/UPDATE not in a trigger(s), my code creates a trigger for the absent DML command(s). Designed to be: Transferable to other servers with minimum effort; A uniform and consistent problem solution with easy implementation, testing, and configuration management. No need to manually code and edit SQL trigger files: Modifies existing triggers; Creates needed triggers; Self documented (output comments with code); SQL files configuration management ready. Can customize the: Date conversion function; Code modifications for the trigger; Universal lookup/key; �

  8. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    PubMed

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  9. Software Trigger Algorithms to Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the NO$\

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Dukes, E.; Ehrlich, R.; Frank, M.; Group, C.; Norman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The NOvA far detector, due to its surface proximity, large size, good timing resolution, large energy dynamic range, and continuous readout, is sensitive to the detection of magnetic monopoles over a large range of velocities and masses. In order to record candidate magnetic monopole events with high efficiency we have designed a software-based trigger to make decisions based on the data recorded by the detector. The decisions must be fast, have high efficiency, and a large rejection factor for the over 100,000 cosmic rays that course through the detector every second. In this paper we briefly describe the simulation of magnetic monopoles, including the detector response, and then discuss the algorithms applied to identify magnetic monopole candidates. We also present the results of trigger efficiency and purity tests using simulated samples of magnetic monopoles with overlaid cosmic backgrounds and electronic noise.

  10. The slewing mirror telescope of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, Y. J.; Connell, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jung, A.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, Y. W.; Krasnov, A. S.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Lund, N.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Nam, J. W.; Park, I. H.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Suh, J. E.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.; Ahn, K.-B.

    2012-09-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is a key telescope of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) space project to explore the first sub-minute or sub-seconds early photons from the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) afterglows. As the realization of UFFO, 20kg of UFFO-Pathfinder (UFFO-P) is going to be on board the Russian Lomonosov satellite in November 2012 by Soyuz-2 rocket. Once the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) detects the GRBs, Slewing mirror (SM) will slew to bring new GRB into the SMT’s field of view rather than slewing the entire spacecraft. SMT can give a UV/Optical counterpart position rather moderated 4arcsec accuracy. However it will provide a important understanding of the GRB mechanism by measuring the sub-minute optical photons from GRBs. SMT can respond to the trigger over 35 degree x 35 degree wide field of view within 1 sec by using Slewing Mirror Stage (SMS). SMT is the reflecting telescope with 10cm Ritchey-Chretien type and 256 x 256 pixilated Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD). In this paper, we discuss the overall design of UFFO-P SMT instrument and payloads development status.

  11. Achieving Provider Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  12. Provider panel presentations.

    PubMed

    Buckelew, Larry C; Harvey, Deborah; Mello, Joe

    2003-08-01

    To wrap up the three big items--attracting talent, the professional nurse role, and our structural disadvantages--I would offer the following take-away thoughts: We ought to do what we can to get our disproportionate share of RNs out of the health care system to work in dialysis. If we work together, we have a shot at making that happen. As an industry, we must exploit our strengths. We have to exploit the pride that comes in the services and the care that we provide. We need to create in a very visual way that difference for nurses who are considering which area of specialty to go into and where to create their careers. We, as providers, have a huge opportunity to create the right environment for our nurses. That's something we own. We have to fix it. We have to create a better place to work for nurses than any place else. We must create a more enriching place for nurses than anywhere else. That's up to us. I know a lot of us on the provider side are doing tons of things to make that happen and we need to keep driving that. We need a level playing field. We've proven the fact that we can deliver clinical outcomes with the best. Now we need help from our biggest customer to make sure we can compete for the resources that are necessary to sustain and improve those clinical outcomes on an ongoing basis. PMID:14533522

  13. Why healthcare providers merge.

    PubMed

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities. PMID:26055501

  14. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    PubMed Central

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  15. Fast pulse nonthermal plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2005-06-14

    A fast pulsed nonthermal plasma reactor includes a discharge cell and a charging assembly electrically connected thereto. The charging assembly provides plural high voltage pulses to the discharge cell. Each pulse has a rise time between one and ten nanoseconds and a duration of three to twenty nanoseconds. The pulses create nonthermal plasma discharge within the discharge cell. Accordingly, the nonthermal plasma discharge can be used to remove pollutants from gases or break the gases into smaller molecules so that they can be more efficiently combusted.

  16. Mechanisms for fast flare reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhoven, G.; Deeds, D.; Tachi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Normal collisional-resistivity mechanisms of magnetic reconnection have the drawback that they are too slow to explain the fast rise of solar flares. Two methods are examined which are proposed for the speed-up of the magnetic tearing instability: the anomalous enhancement of resistivity by the injection of MHD turbulence and the increase of Coulomb resistivity by radiative cooling. The results are described for nonlinear numerical simulations of these processes which show that the first does not provide the claimed effects, while the second yields impressive rates of reconnection, but low saturated energy outputs.

  17. Fast-acting valve actuator

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A fast-acting valve actuator utilizes a spring driven pneumatically loaded piston to drive a valve gate. Rapid exhaust of pressurized gas from the pneumatically loaded side of the piston facilitates an extremely rapid piston stroke. A flexible selector diaphragm opens and closes an exhaust port in response to pressure differentials created by energizing and de-energizing a solenoid which controls the pneumatic input to the actuator as well as selectively providing a venting action to one side of the selector diaphragm.

  18. FAST2 Code validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Freeman, L.N.; Walker, S.N.

    1995-09-01

    The FAST2 Code which is capable of determining structural loads of a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data at two wind speeds for the ESI-80 are given. The FAST2 Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade flap, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffness, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST2 Code and test results is good.

  19. Dual channel formation in a laser-triggered spark gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, M. J.; Kimura, W. D.; Ford, D. H.; Byron, S. R.

    1985-12-01

    During self-break in spark-gap switches, multiple streamers can form in close proximity to one another. The rate of expansion of these streamers is sufficiently fast that they can interact during the current pulse. To help understand how these closely spaced, expanding spark columns interact, a laser-triggered spark gap has been studied in which two parallel columns (separation 1.3 mm) are simultaneously preionized, resulting in a pair of nearly identical, axisymmetric spark columns. The spark gap (electrode separation 1.2 cm) switches a 100 ns, 40-60 kV, 12-20 kA, 1.5 Ω waterline. Interferograms of the expanding arc channels are obtained with a laser interferometer having a time and spatial resolution of 5 ns and 10 μm, respectively. Voltage and current were measured with an internal capacitive-voltage divider and a current viewing resistor. The interferograms show that for initially identical axisymmetric columns, the individual channels do not merge into a single larger axisymmetric spark column. Instead, regions of high gas density remain inside the combined column long into the recovery period. The columns also do not remain axisymmetric as they grow, indicating a long-range interaction between the channels. The voltage drop and resistance of the dual channel spark gaps changes by less than 15% from that of a single spark channel. A scaling model is presented to explain the resistance measurements and to predict the change in resistance for multichannel spark gaps.

  20. Photo-triggerable Hydrogel-Nanoparticle Hybrid Scaffolds for Remotely Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shreyas; Sasmal, Pijus K.; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Remotely-triggerable drug delivery systems enable the user to adjust dosing regimens on-demand based on a patient’s physiological response and clinical needs. However, currently reported systems are limited by the non-specific leakage of drugs in the absence of triggering and the lack of repeatability over multiple cycles of release. To this end, we have designed a unique hydrogel-nanoparticle hybrid scaffold that provides a chemically-defined, remotely-triggerable and on-demand release of small molecule drugs. Our hybrid platform consists of three distinct components: 1) a photo-triggerable chemical compound, which serves to release a covalently-bound drug upon photo-irradiation, 2) a nanoparticle, which serves to covalently bind the photo-triggerable compound, and 3) a polymeric hydrogel, which serves to hold the drug-conjugated nanoparticle. Upon photo-irradiation, the activation of the photo-triggerable compound is designed to initiate a series of intramolecular chemical rearrangements, which would cleave the covalently-bound drug and release it from the hydrogel. The combination of these distinct components in a single scaffold proved to be an effective drug delivery system, as demonstrated by the delivery of a model drug to a malignant cancer line. Our hybrid scaffold can be easily tuned for practically any biological application of interest, thus offering immense potential for clinical therapies. PMID:25580246

  1. Direct evidence and generation conditions of triggered slow slip event by teleseismic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, S.; Ando, R.; Takeda, N.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years slow slip events (SSE) have been observed to occur at regular intervals on the deep portions of subduction zone interfaces. There are many evidence of triggered tremor with only transient excitation by the passage of seismic waves from distant earthquakes, however SSEs, which are much larger in sizes and continue longer after the transient excitation, have been yet to be identified. Here we found, for the first time, robust and direct geodetic evidence of an interplate SSE with tremor activity in southwest Japan triggered by an earthquake in strain records from our highly sensitive strainmeter network. This SSE, in southwest Japan, which had an equivalent magnitude Mw 5.3 and duration of 1.5 days, was triggered by the surface waves of a Mw 7.6 earthquake in Tonga. The triggered SSE occurred on a place on the plate interface where the recurrence time for such events had almost expired, whereas other regions, at up to 90% of the recurrence time, were not triggered. Therefore, it is suggested that the overall segment of the triggered SSE had been necessarily very close to the critical stress level due to tectonic loading, and the seismic wave gave only the last push. Our results provide physical constraints to elucidate how earthquakes start and growth not only for the slow earthquakes but also for regular earthquakes.

  2. Compact SCR trigger circuit for ignitron switch operates efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. E.

    1965-01-01

    Trigger circuit with two series-connected SCR triggers an ignitron switch used to discharge high-energy capacitor banks. It does not require a warmup period and operates at relatively high efficiency.

  3. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. PMID:26598305

  4. Effects of perioperative fasting on haemodynamics and intravascular volumes.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Matthias; Chappell, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Maintaining cardiac preload throughout the perioperative period is a generally accepted target. As perioperative fasting is believed to cause intravascular hypovolaemia it traditionally triggers aggressive preemptive intravenous fluid infusion. Physiology suggests that extracellular losses via urinary output and evaporation decrease the extracellular compartment. Representing a relevant part of the latter, the intravascular space is also affected, even without blood loss. Measurements in humans, however, have revealed that even a prolonged fasting period does not decrease absolute blood volume. Beyond that, modern fasting guidelines recommend to refrain from clear liquids only two hours prior to surgery. Nevertheless, an intravenous colloid challenge can increase stroke volume after induction of anaesthesia in the majority of surgical patients. While perioperative stroke volume maximisation in high-risk surgery probably improves outcome, the implication of this observation for the routine patient remains unclear. It appears as though there are two important targets to preserve cardiac preload: normovolaemia and vasotension. PMID:23351229

  5. 3D palmprint data fast acquisition and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a fast 3D (Three-Dimension) palmprint capturing system and develops an efficient 3D palmprint feature extraction and recognition method. In order to fast acquire accurate 3D shape and texture of palmprint, a DLP projector triggers a CCD camera to realize synchronization. By generating and projecting green fringe pattern images onto the measured palm surface, 3D palmprint data are calculated from the fringe pattern images. The periodic feature vector can be derived from the calculated 3D palmprint data, so undistorted 3D biometrics is obtained. Using the obtained 3D palmprint data, feature matching test have been carried out by Gabor filter, competition rules and the mean curvature. Experimental results on capturing 3D palmprint show that the proposed acquisition method can fast get 3D shape information of palmprint. Some initial experiments on recognition show the proposed method is efficient by using 3D palmprint data.

  6. Earthquake triggering at alaskan volcanoes following the 3 November 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; Sanchez, J.J.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake provided an excellent opportunity to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 247-2159 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ???1 hr after the Mw 7.9 arrival time at each network and for significant increases in located earthquakes in the hours after the mainshock. We found compelling evidence for triggering only at the Katmai volcanic cluster (KVC, 720-755 km southwest of the epicenter), where small earthquakes with distinct P and 5 arrivals appeared within the mainshock coda at one station and a small increase in located earthquakes occurred for several hours after the mainshock. Peak dynamic stresses of ???0.1 MPa at Augustine Volcano (560 km southwest of the epicenter) are significantly lower than those recorded in Yellowstone and Utah (>3000 km southeast of the epicenter), suggesting that strong directivity effects were at least partly responsible for the lack of triggering at Alaskan volcanoes. We describe other incidents of earthquake-induced triggering in the KVC, and outline a qualitative magnitude/distance-dependent triggering threshold. We argue that triggering results from the perturbation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the KVC and suggest that the comparative lack of triggering at other Alaskan volcanoes could be a result of differences in the nature of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  7. moco: Fast Motion Correction for Calcium Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dubbs, Alexander; Guevara, James; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Motion correction is the first step in a pipeline of algorithms to analyze calcium imaging videos and extract biologically relevant information, for example the network structure of the neurons therein. Fast motion correction is especially critical for closed-loop activity triggered stimulation experiments, where accurate detection and targeting of specific cells in necessary. We introduce a novel motion-correction algorithm which uses a Fourier-transform approach, and a combination of judicious downsampling and the accelerated computation of many L 2 norms using dynamic programming and two-dimensional, fft-accelerated convolutions, to enhance its efficiency. Its accuracy is comparable to that of established community-used algorithms, and it is more stable to large translational motions. It is programmed in Java and is compatible with ImageJ. PMID:26909035

  8. moco: Fast Motion Correction for Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dubbs, Alexander; Guevara, James; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Motion correction is the first step in a pipeline of algorithms to analyze calcium imaging videos and extract biologically relevant information, for example the network structure of the neurons therein. Fast motion correction is especially critical for closed-loop activity triggered stimulation experiments, where accurate detection and targeting of specific cells in necessary. We introduce a novel motion-correction algorithm which uses a Fourier-transform approach, and a combination of judicious downsampling and the accelerated computation of many L2 norms using dynamic programming and two-dimensional, fft-accelerated convolutions, to enhance its efficiency. Its accuracy is comparable to that of established community-used algorithms, and it is more stable to large translational motions. It is programmed in Java and is compatible with ImageJ. PMID:26909035

  9. The Provident Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, David H.

    1988-09-01

    The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

  10. Dyke and sill injections: what mostly trigger volcano flank collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catry, Thibault; Cayol, Valérie; Michon, Laurent; Famin, Vincent; Romagnoli, Claudia; Chaput, Marie

    2010-05-01

    There is a large number of evidences that the morphostructural evolution of basaltic oceanic volcanoes (e.g. Stromboli, Hawaï and Canary Islands) results of alternating phases of growth and destruction. Among dismantling processes, flank collapses have been largely documented and interpreted as gravitational destabilization triggered by vertical injections of magma (dykes). In most cases, this interpretation has not been sustained by field observations because active volcanoes have poor occurrence of outcropped intrusions. From this point of view, Piton des Neiges volcano (La Réunion Island) represents a case in point because it has been deeply incised by erosion, providing large outcropped surfaces exhibiting the geometrical relationship between intrusions and host volcanic formations. The recent discovery of a highly deformed pile of sills at the interface between a debris avalanche deposit and a fossilized magma chamber brought to light the role of horizontal injections in the triggering of lateral collapses. The validation of this assumption rests on a digital model developed from the Mixed Boundary Element Method of elastic deformation field analysis. In this study, we modelled the intensity and the distribution of deformation and Coulomb stresses perturbation due to the injection of dykes along rift zones and a sill below the flank of a basaltic volcano. We quantified the influence of the intrusions in the mechanical state of the edifice, based on the deformation detected during an intrusion of magma at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. By comparing the deformation generated by sills to that generated by dykes, our modelling approach concludes that the area deformed by a sill injection is much wider than that deformed by a dyke injection. Moreover, we found that sill injection reaches higher intensities of lateral displacements. The combination of field data and our modelling results suggests therefore that repeated sill injection is an underestimated trigger

  11. Saturated fatty acids trigger TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D M; Caldas, A P; Oliveira, L L; Bressan, J; Hermsdorff, H H

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate infection-induced inflammation and sterile inflammation by endogenous molecules. Among the TLR family, TLR4 is the best understood. However, while its downstream signaling pathways have been well defined, not all ligands of TLR4 are currently known. Current evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids (SFA) act as non-microbial TLR4 agonists, and trigger its inflammatory response. Thus, our present review provides a new perspective on the potential mechanism by which SFAs could modulate TLR4-induced inflammatory responses: (1) SFAs can be recognized by CD14-TLR4-MD2 complex and trigger inflammatory pathways, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (2) SFAs lead to modification of gut microbiota with an overproduction of LPS after a high-fat intake, enhancing this natural TLR4 ligand. (3) In addition, this metabolic endotoxemia leads to an oxidative stress thereby producing atherogenic lipids - oxLDL and oxidized phospholipids - which trigger CD36-TLR4-TLR6 inflammatory response. (4) Also, the high SFA consumption increases the lipemia and the mmLDL and oxLDL formation through oxidative modifications of LDL. The mmLDL, unlike oxLDL, is involved in activation of the CD14-TLR4-MD2 inflammatory pathway. Those molecules can induce TLR4 inflammatory response by MyD88-dependent and/or MyD88-independent pathways that, in turn, promotes the expression of proinflammatory transcript factors such as factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB), which plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, or costimulatory molecules) implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. PMID:26687466

  12. The upgraded HADES trigger and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Böhmer, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, G.; Maier, L.; Palka, M.; Stroth, J.; Tarantola, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Yurevich, S.

    2011-12-01

    The HADES experiment is a High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer located at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Recently, its trigger and data acquisition system was upgraded. The main goal was to substantially increase the event rate capability by a factor of up to 20 to reach 100 kHz in light and 20 kHz in heavy ion reaction systems. The total data rate written to storage is about 400 MByte/s in peak. In this context, the complete read-out system was exchanged to FPGA-based platforms using optical communication. For data transport a general-purpose real-time network protocol was developed to meet the strong requirements of the system. In particular, trigger information has to reach all front-end modules with latencies of less than 5 μs through up to 10 intermediate hubs in a star-like network setup. Monitoring and slow control features as well as readout and trigger distribution were joined in a single network protocol made up by three virtual channels with inherent arbitration by priority and a typical switching time of 100 ns. The full DAQ system includes about 550 FPGAs distributed over the complete detector system. For control and monitoring a virtual address space spanning the whole network is provided. Data are merged by the network hubs into data streams and passed on to a server farm using an Ethernet infrastructure. Due to the electromagnetic noise environment, several transmission error detection and correction features were included. In collaboration with groups from experiments of the FAIR accelerator complex, further developments based on the versatile hardware and communication protocol are being pursued.

  13. At-line near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring concentrations in temperature-triggered glutamate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingbo; Zhang, Dalong; Guo, Xuan; Xu, Qingyang; Xie, Xixian; Zhang, Chenglin; Bai, Gang; Xiao, Xue; Chen, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Rapid development in the glutamate fermentation industry has dictated the need for effective fermentation monitoring by rapid and precise methods that provide real-time information for quality control of the end-product. In recent years, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate calibration have been developed as fast, inexpensive, non-destructive and environmentally safe techniques for industrial applications. The purpose of this study was to develop models for monitoring glutamate, glucose, lactate and alanine concentrations in the temperature-triggered process of glutamate fermentation. NIR measurements of eight batches of samples were analyzed by partial least-squares regression with several spectral pre-processing methods. The coefficient of determination (R (2)), model root-mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of the test calibration for the glutamate concentration were 0.997, 3.11 g/L, 2.56 g/L and 19.81, respectively. For the glucose concentration, R (2), RMSEC, RMSEP and RPD were 0.989, 1.37 g/L, 1.29 g/L and 9.72, respectively. For the lactate concentration, R (2), RMSEC, RMSEP and RPD were 0.975, 0.078 g/L, 0.062 g/L and 6.29, respectively. For the alanine concentration, R (2), RMSEC, RMSEP and RPD were 0.964, 0.213 g/L, 0.243 g/L and 5.29, respectively. New batch fermentation as an external validation was used to check the models, and the results suggested that the predictive capacity of the models for the glutamate fermentation process was good. PMID:23649829

  14. The trigger system of the OPAL experiment at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arignon, M.; Ball, A. H.; Bell, K. W.; Bramhall, M.; Braun, A.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Charlton, D. G.; Dittmar, M.; Farthouat, P.; Feyt, J.; Gao, H.; Gary, J. W.; Gillies, J. D.; Greiner, C.; Hammarstroem, R.; Hart, J.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hilse, T.; Humbert, R.; Jaroslawski, S.; Joos, D.; Jovanovic, P.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Le Du, P.; Levinson, L. J.; Loebinger, F. K.; MacBeth, A. A.; Mikenberg, G.; Milborrow, R.; Pawley, S. J.; Penton, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Ricth, G.; Roach, C. M.; Runge, K.; Schaile, O.; Scherer, D.; Schuler, G.; Schwarz, J.; Springer, R. W.; Takeda, H.; Virtue, C. J.; Wagner, A.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, C.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the trigger system of the OPAL detector at the e+e- collider LEP and its performance during the first year of data taking. A high level of redundancy and fine detector segmentation at the trigger level led to a high efficiency for all considered physics reactions while the trigger rates were kept low.

  15. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card: the next generation of high speed algorithmic data processing at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetek, A.; Blake, M.; Cepeda Hermida, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Fobes, R.; Gomber, B.; Gorski, T.; Guo, Z.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.; Woods, N.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Level-1 upgraded calorimeter trigger requires a powerful, flexible and compact processing card. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card (CTP7) uses the Virtex-7 FPGA as its primary data processor and is the first FPGA based processing card in CMS to employ the ZYNQ System-on-Chip (SoC) running embedded Linux to provide TCP/IP communication and board support functions. The CTP7 was built from the ground up to support AXI infrastructure to provide flexible and modular designs with minimal time from project conception to final implementation.

  16. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorter†‡

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chen, Yue; Park, Sung-Yong; Hong, Jason; Teslaa, Tara; Zhong, Jiang F.; Di Carlo, Dino; Teitell, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a high speed and high purity pulsed laser triggered fluorescence activated cell sorter (PLACS) with a sorting throughput up to 20 000 mammalian cells s−1 with 37% sorting purity, 90% cell viability in enrichment mode, and >90% purity in high purity mode at 1500 cells s−1 or 3000 beads s−1. Fast switching (30 μs) and a small perturbation volume (~90 pL) is achieved by a unique sorting mechanism in which explosive vapor bubbles are generated using focused laser pulses in a single layer microfluidic PDMS channel. PMID:22361780

  17. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  18. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  19. A critical evaluation of migraine trigger site deactivation surgery.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    Migraine headache trigger site deactivation surgery is a term that encompasses 4 different surgical procedures that are performed based on headache onset location for the preventative treatment of migraine headaches. Multiple studies have demonstrated some efficacy of these procedures, but closer evaluation of the methodology of these studies reveals major flaws in study design. In this article, the author provides an overview of the procedures and presurgical screening tools, as well as a critical evaluation of 2 of the major studies that have been published. In addition, the author provides his opinion on future study designs that may help to better determine the potential efficacy of these experimental procedures and potential headache subtypes (contact point headache, supraorbital neuralgia, and occipital neuralgia) that may respond to peripheral decompression surgery. PMID:24116941

  20. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate